Sample records for surface seismic stations

  1. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.


    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  2. Joint Inversion of Surface Waves Dispersion and Receiver Function at Cuba Seismic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, O'Leary; Moreno, Bladimir; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.


    Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion and receiver functions have been used to estimate the crust and upper mantle structure at eight seismic stations in Cuba. Receiver functions have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes at epicentral (angular) distances between 30 o and 90 o and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion have been taken from a surface-wave tomography study of the Caribbean area. The thickest crust (around 27 km) is found at Cascorro (CCC), Soroa (SOR), Moa (MOA) and Maisi (MAS) stations while the thinnest crust (around 18 km) is found at stations Rio Carpintero (RCC) and Guantanamo Bay (GTBY), in the southeastern of Cuba; this result is in agreement with the southward gradual thinning of the crust revealed by previous studies. The inversion shows a crystalline crust with S-wave velocity between 2.9 km/s and 3.9 km/s and at the crust-mantle transition zone the shear wave velocity varies from 3.9 km/s and 4.3 km/s. The lithospheric thickness varies from 74 km, in the youngest lithosphere, to 200 km in the middle of the Cuban island. Evidences of a subducted slab possibly belonging to the Caribbean plate are present below the stations Las Mercedes (LMG), RCC and GTBY and a thicker slab is present below the SOR station. (author)

  3. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.


    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  4. Burar seismic station: evaluation of seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela


    A new seismic monitoring system, the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR), has been established since July 2002, in the Northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. The small-aperture array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 vertical short-period and one three-component broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km 2 area. At present, the seismic data are continuously recorded by the BURAR and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center in Bucharest and National Data Center of the USA, in Florida. Based on the BURAR seismic information gathered at the National Data Center, NIEP (ROM N DC), in the August 2002 - December 2004 time interval, analysis and statistical assessments were performed. Following the preliminary processing of the data, several observations on the global performance of the BURAR system were emphasized. Data investigation showed an excellent efficiency of the BURAR system particularly in detecting teleseismic and regional events. Also, a statistical analysis for the BURAR detection capability of the local Vrancea events was performed in terms of depth and magnitude for the year 2004. The high signal detection capability of the BURAR resulted, generally, in improving the location solutions for the Vrancea seismic events. The location solution accuracy is enhanced when adding BURAR recordings, especially in the case of low magnitude events (recorded by few stations). The location accuracy is increased, both in terms of constraining hypocenter depth and epicentral coordinates. Our analysis certifies the importance of the BURAR system in NIEP efforts to elaborate seismic bulletins. Furthermore, the specific procedures for array data processing (beam forming, f-k analysis) increase significantly the signal-to-noise ratio by summing up the coherent signals from the array components, and ensure a better accuracy

  5. S. Pellegrino and Brasimone seismic stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capocecera, P.; Tedeschi, E.; Vitiello, F.


    The paper describes the technical features relative to the S. Pellegrino and Brasimone seismic stations. The stations have been modified in order to realize a central data acquisition system; in this way seismic signals are sent to Brasimone Center through telephone pair and are recorded in continuous form. (author)

  6. A new seismic station in Romania the Bucovina seismic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigore, Adrian; Grecu, Bogdan; Ionescu, Constantin; Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela; Rizescu, Mihaela


    Recently, a new seismic monitoring station, the Bucovina Seismic Array, has been established in the northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania. The array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 short-period and one broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km area. On July 24, 2002 the official Opening Ceremony of Bucovina Seismic Array took place in the area near the city of Campulung Moldovenesc in the presence of Romanian Prime Minister, Adrian Nastase. Starting with this date, the new seismic monitoring system became fully operational by continuous recording and transmitting data in real-time to the National Data Center of Romania, in Bucharest and to the National Data Center of USA, in Florida. Bucovina Seismic Array, added to the present Seismic Network, will provide much better seismic monitoring coverage of Romania's territory, on-scale recording for weak-to-strong events, and will contribute to advanced seismological studies on seismic hazard and risk, local effects and microzonation, seismic source physics, Earth structure. (authors)

  7. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.


    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  8. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA (United States)

    Jeon, Youngsoo


    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  9. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.


    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  10. New Seismic Monitoring Station at Mohawk Ridge, Valles Caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter Morse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Two new broadband digital seismic stations were installed in the Valles Caldera in 2011 and 2012. The first is located on the summit of Cerros del Abrigo (station code CDAB) and the second is located on the flanks of San Antonio Mountain (station code SAMT). Seismic monitoring stations in the caldera serve multiple purposes. These stations augment and expand the current coverage of the Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN), which is operated to support seismic and volcanic hazards studies for LANL and northern New Mexico (Figure 1). They also provide unique continuous seismic data within the caldera that can be used for scientific studies of the caldera’s substructure and detection of very small seismic signals that may indicate changes in the current and evolving state of remnant magma that is known to exist beneath the caldera. Since the installation of CDAB and SAMT, several very small earthquakes have already been detected near San Antonio Mountain just west of SAMT (Figure 2). These are the first events to be seen in that area. Caldera stations also improve the detection and epicenter determination quality for larger local earthquakes on the Pajarito Fault System east of the Preserve and the Nacimiento Uplift to the west. These larger earthquakes are a concern to LANL Seismic Hazards assessments and seismic monitoring of the Los Alamos region, including the VCNP, is a DOE requirement. Currently the next closest seismic stations to the caldera are on Pipeline Road (PPR) just west of Los Alamos, and Peralta Ridge (PER) south of the caldera. There is no station coverage near the resurgent dome, Redondo Peak, in the center of the caldera. Filling this “hole” is the highest priority for the next new LASN station. We propose to install this station in 2018 on Mohawk Ridge just east of Redondito, in the same area already occupied by other scientific installations, such as the MCON flux tower operated by UNM.

  11. Moment magnitude determination of local seismic events recorded at selected Polish seismic stations (United States)

    Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan


    The paper presents the method of local magnitude determination used at Polish seismic stations to report events originating in one of the four regions of induced seismicity in Poland or its immediate vicinity. The method is based on recalculation of the seismic moment into magnitude, whereas the seismic moment is obtained from spectral analysis. The method has been introduced at Polish seismic stations in the late 1990s but as of yet had not been described in full because magnitude discrepancies have been found between the results of the individual stations. The authors have performed statistics of these differences, provide their explanation and calculate station corrections for each station and each event source region. The limitations of the method are also discussed. The method is found to be a good and reliable method of local magnitude determination provided the limitations are observed and station correction applied.

  12. Seismic stations with GSM telemetry for registration of quarry blasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Milan; Číž, Radim; Málek, Jiří; Žanda, Libor


    Roč. 2000, 16 (118) (2000), s. 25-32 ISSN 1211-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : blasting * seismic station * GSM mobile modem Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  13. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dominants in the selected events are events from Meditterranian, East Kazakhstan, India/Burma/China, South and Central America and North Ascension island regions. The limited number of events reporting at the station was due to low operational gain at the station which permitted only events whose magnitudes are ...

  14. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D. [New Brunswick Power Corp., Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada); Lavine, A. [AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment and Infrastructure Americas, Oakland, California (United States); Egan, J. [SAGE Engineers, Oakland, California (United States)


    A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The objective is to provide characterization of the earthquake ground shaking that will be used to evaluate seismic safety. The assessment is based on the current state of knowledge of the informed scientific and engineering community regarding earthquake hazards in the site region, and includes two primary components-a seismic source model and a ground motion model. This paper provides the methodology and results of the PLGS PSHA. The implications of the updated hazard information for site safety are discussed in a separate paper. (author)

  15. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D., E-mail: [New Brunswick Power Corporation, Point Lepreau Generating Station, Point Lepreau, NB (Canada); Lavine, A., E-mail: [AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment & Infrastructure Americas, Oakland, CA (United States); Egan, J., E-mail: [SAGE Engineers, Oakland, CA (United States)


    A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The objective is to provide characterization of the earthquake ground shaking that will be used to evaluate seismic safety. The assessment is based on the current state of knowledge of the informed scientific and engineering community regarding earthquake hazards in the site region, and includes two primary components--a seismic source model and a ground motion model. This paper provides the methodology and results of the PLGS PSHA. The implications of the updated hazard information for site safety are discussed in a separate paper. (author)

  16. Local seismic activity monitored at King Sejong Station, Antarctica


    Lee,Duk Kee; Kim,Yea Dong; Nam,Sang Heon; Jin,Young Keun


    Source location estimation from single station earthquake data collected at King Sejong Station (62°13'3l"N, 58°47'07"W) from 1995 to 1996 provides seismic activity around King Sejong Station. Analysis of local events, less than 1.5°in angular epicentral distance, finds epicenters located near the Shackleton Fracture Zone, the South Shetland Platform, Deception Island, and North Bransfield Basin. Estimated magnitudes range from 2.2 to 4.5 on the Richter scale, averaging 4.0 in North Bransfiel...

  17. Revision of IRIS/IDA Seismic Station Metadata (United States)

    Xu, W.; Davis, P.; Auerbach, D.; Klimczak, E.


    Trustworthy data quality assurance has always been one of the goals of seismic network operators and data management centers. This task is considerably complex and evolving due to the huge quantities as well as the rapidly changing characteristics and complexities of seismic data. Published metadata usually reflect instrument response characteristics and their accuracies, which includes zero frequency sensitivity for both seismometer and data logger as well as other, frequency-dependent elements. In this work, we are mainly focused studying the variation of the seismometer sensitivity with time of IRIS/IDA seismic recording systems with a goal to improve the metadata accuracy for the history of the network. There are several ways to measure the accuracy of seismometer sensitivity for the seismic stations in service. An effective practice recently developed is to collocate a reference seismometer in proximity to verify the in-situ sensors' calibration. For those stations with a secondary broadband seismometer, IRIS' MUSTANG metric computation system introduced a transfer function metric to reflect two sensors' gain ratios in the microseism frequency band. In addition, a simulation approach based on M2 tidal measurements has been proposed and proven to be effective. In this work, we compare and analyze the results from three different methods, and concluded that the collocated-sensor method is most stable and reliable with the minimum uncertainties all the time. However, for epochs without both the collocated sensor and secondary seismometer, we rely on the analysis results from tide method. For the data since 1992 on IDA stations, we computed over 600 revised seismometer sensitivities for all the IRIS/IDA network calibration epochs. Hopefully further revision procedures will help to guarantee that the data is accurately reflected by the metadata of these stations.

  18. Dynamic characteristics of background seismic noise according to records of nuclear monitoring seismic stations in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashova, N.N.; Sinyova, Z.I.; Komarov, I.I.; Mikhailova, N.N.


    The seismic stations of Kazakstan, included into nuclear monitoring network (see fig.1) are equipped with broad hand seismometers; seismic data are recorded in digital format. All this allows to investigate spectral and time characteristics of seismic background noise in very large frequency diapason (more than 3-5 orders), for all three components of oscillation vector. The spectral density of background seismic noise for vertical and both horizontal components (fig.2) was calculated for all of the observation points. The regular features of structure of noise spectra, inherent for all of the studied observation points, as well as some features, specific for studied places were found. The curves of spectral noise density were compared with global noise model, determined by the data of Global Seismological Network (GSN)

  19. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.


    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/ r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  20. A report on upgraded seismic monitoring stations in Myanmar: Station performance and site response (United States)

    Thiam, Hrin Nei; Min Htwe, Yin Myo; Kyaw, Tun Lin; Tun, Pa Pa; Min, Zaw; Htwe, Sun Hninn; Aung, Tin Myo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Aung, Myat Min; De Cristofaro, Jason; Franke, Mathias; Radman, Stefan; Lepiten, Elouie; Wolin, Emily; Hough, Susan E.


    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband and strong‐motion seismic stations and real‐time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station noise characteristics and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. MM stations recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including an M 6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016 and the Mw 6.8 Chauk event on 24 August 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios, which provide a preliminary characterization of site response of the upgraded MM stations.

  1. Seismic noise study for a new seismic station at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Kaka, S. I.


    deployed for twenty eight days (based on the memory available with the recorder) continuously collecting data at all three potential sites. This continuous data collection was done as part of a larger study where microtremor measurements were made to better understand and characterize the origin of various near-surface noises over a non-producing reservoir in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Papoola and Kaka, 2011). The new station at KFUPM will be equipped with a 3-component 120s to 50Hz Trillium120 broad band seismometer, Taurus 24-bit data acquisition system along with a large LCD to display the waveform data in real-time. The KFUPM community will have an opportunity to observe daily seismic activity in real-time and to monitor/record both regional and teleseismic events. Moreover, students will gain the opportunity to identify P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves and learn how to locate an earthquake. The station will also play an important role in providing a source of information about seismic activity for the general public. The new station is expected to be operational in a few months time.

  2. Seismic Station Installation Orientation Errors at ANSS and IRIS/USGS Stations (United States)

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Persfield, K.; Gee, Lind S.


    Many seismological studies depend on the published orientations of sensitive axes of seismic instruments relative to north (e.g., Li et al., 2011). For example, studies of the anisotropic structure of the Earth’s mantle through SKS‐splitting measurements (Long et al., 2009), constraints on core–mantle electromagnetic coupling from torsional normal‐mode measurements (Dumberry and Mound, 2008), and models of three‐dimensional (3D) velocity variations from surface waves (Ekström et al., 1997) rely on accurate sensor orientation. Unfortunately, numerous results indicate that this critical parameter is often subject to significant error (Laske, 1995; Laske and Masters, 1996; Yoshizawa et al., 1999; Schulte‐Pelkum et al., 2001; Larson and Ekström, 2002). For the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS; ANSS Technical Integration Committee, 2002), the Global Seismographic Network (GSN; Butler et al., 2004), and many other networks, sensor orientation is typically determined by a field engineer during installation. Successful emplacement of a seismic instrument requires identifying true north, transferring a reference line, and measuring the orientation of the instrument relative to the reference line. Such an exercise is simple in theory, but there are many complications in practice. There are four commonly used methods for determining true north at the ANSS and GSN stations operated by the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL), including gyroscopic, astronomical, Global Positioning System (GPS), and magnetic field techniques. A particular method is selected based on site conditions (above ground, below ground, availability of astronomical observations, and so on) and in the case of gyroscopic methods, export restrictions. Once a north line has been determined, it must be translated to the sensor location. For installations in mines or deep vaults, this step can include tracking angles through the one or more turns in the access tunnel leading to

  3. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment (United States)


    boreholes at the Boulder Seismic Station for research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) as part of the U.S. Nuclear Treaty monitoring...14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Location of the proposed Boulder Seismic Station, borehole locations and associated buffers...juncture of Spring Creek and Scab Creek Road (Figure 1). Currently, the Boulder Seismic Station has a 13-element array of seismometers on the property

  4. The ANSS Station Information System: A Centralized Station Metadata Repository for Populating, Managing and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata (United States)

    Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Acharya, P.; Jaramillo, J.; Chowdhury, F.


    Maintaining and archiving accurate site metadata is critical for seismic network operations. The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Station Information System (SIS) is a repository of seismic network field equipment, equipment response, and other site information. Currently, there are 187 different sensor models and 114 data-logger models in SIS. SIS has a web-based user interface that allows network operators to enter information about seismic equipment and assign response parameters to it. It allows users to log entries for sites, equipment, and data streams. Users can also track when equipment is installed, updated, and/or removed from sites. When seismic equipment configurations change for a site, SIS computes the overall gain of a data channel by combining the response parameters of the underlying hardware components. Users can then distribute this metadata in standardized formats such as FDSN StationXML or dataless SEED. One powerful advantage of SIS is that existing data in the repository can be leveraged: e.g., new instruments can be assigned response parameters from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Nominal Response Library (NRL), or from a similar instrument already in the inventory, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to determine parameters when new equipment (or models) are introduced into a network. SIS is also useful for managing field equipment that does not produce seismic data (eg power systems, telemetry devices or GPS receivers) and gives the network operator a comprehensive view of site field work. SIS allows users to generate field logs to document activities and inventory at sites. Thus, operators can also use SIS reporting capabilities to improve planning and maintenance of the network. Queries such as how many sensors of a certain model are installed or what pieces of equipment have active problem reports are just a few examples of the type of information that is available to SIS users.

  5. OBS Technologies and permanent seismic Stations at Sea (United States)

    Makris, J.; Nikolova, S. B.


    An off-shore telemetric system was developed during last 2 years. It consists of a buoy unit, OBS with seismic sensor and digitizer at the sea floor and coaxial cable for transferring data from the sea. The buoy unit includes all components for recording and transmitting data to the base station. A solar panel and wind generator are the sources of energy that charge the batteries in the buoy. An Omni directional antenna and a radio modem are used for data transfer. The buoy can be connected also to mobile network or satellite. The Seismic recording unit is SEDIS IV developed in GeoPro GmbH which is a 6 channel data logger equipped with a hard disk of 30 GByte capacity and a flash memory of 0.5 Gbyte which can continuously record at different sampling rate (from 31.25 to 1000sps). The operating system for SEDIS IV is LINUX, with possible data compression, event location and extraction. The data transfer and supply of the power to seismometer and ADC unit in OBS sphere is done through coaxial cable, connecting the buoy unit and OBS. The whole system was tested for a period of one month (October 2002) within frame of Nestor program in Pilos (Greece) and worked successfully.

  6. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio


    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  7. Characterization of site conditions for selected seismic stations in eastern part of Romania (United States)

    Grecu, B.; Zaharia, B.; Diaconescu, M.; Bala, A.; Nastase, E.; Constantinescu, E.; Tataru, D.


    Strong motion data are essential for seismic hazard assessment. To correctly understand and use this kind of data is necessary to have a good knowledge of local site conditions. Romania has one of the largest strong motion networks in Europe with 134 real-time stations. In this work, we aim to do a comprehensive site characterization for eight of these stations located in the eastern part of Romania. We make use of a various seismological dataset and we perform ambient noise and earthquake-based investigations to estimate the background noise level, the resonance frequencies and amplification of each site. We also derive the Vs30 parameter from the surface shear-wave velocity profiles obtained through the inversion of the Rayleigh waves recorded in active seismic measurements. Our analyses indicate similar results for seven stations: high noise levels for frequencies larger than 1 Hz, well defined fundamental resonance at low frequencies (0.15-0.29 Hz), moderate amplification levels (up to 4 units) for frequencies between 0.15 and 5-7 Hz and same soil class (type C) according to the estimated Vs30 and Eurocode 8. In contrast, the eighth station for which the soil class is evaluated of type B exhibits a very good noise level for a wide range of frequencies (0.01-20 Hz), a broader fundamental resonance at high frequencies ( 8 Hz) and a flat amplification curve between 0.1 and 3-4 Hz.

  8. Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.


    Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock topography. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock topography without collecting additional seismic data

  9. Spectral characteristics of seismic noise using data of Kazakhstan monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Komarov, I.I.


    Spectral specifications of seismic noise research for PS23-Makanchi, Karatau, Akbulak, AS057-Borovoye and new three-component station AS059-Aktyubinsk was done. Spectral noise density models were obtained for day and night time and spectral density values variation. Noise close to low-level universal noise model is peculiar for all stations, which provides their high efficiency while seismic monitoring. Noise parameters dependence on seismic receivers installation conditions was investigated separately. Based on three stations (Makanchi, Borovoye, and Aktyubinsk), spectral density change features are shown after borehole equipment installation. (author)

  10. the Preliminary Research Based on Seismic Signals Generated by Hutubi Transmitting Seismic Station with One Large-volume Airgun Array (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Su, J.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, W.; Wang, H.; Wang, B.; Ji, Z.


    For studying the subsurface structure and its subtle changes, we built the Hutubi transmitting seismic station with one large-volume airgun array at one artificial water pool in the northern segment of Tianshan mountain, where earthquakes occurred frequently. The airgun array consists of six airguns with every airgun capacity of 2000in3, and the artificial water pool with the top diameter of 100m, bottom diameter of 20m and the depth of 18m.We started the regular excitation experiment with the large-volume airgun source every week since June, 2013. Using seismic signals geneated by the Hutubi airgun source, we made the preliminary research on the airgun source, waveform characteristics and the subsurface velocity changes in the northern Tiansh mountain. The results are as follows: The seismic signal exited by the airgun source is characteristic of low-frequency ,and the dominant frequency is in the range of 2 6Hz. The Hutubi transmitting seismic station can continuously generate long-distance detectable and highly repeatable signals, and the correlation coefficient of sigals is greater than 0.95; and the longest propagation distance arrives to 380km, in addition, the 5000-shot stacked sigal using the phase weighted stack technique can be identified in the station, which is about 1300km from the Hutubi transmitting seismic station. Hutubi large-volume airgun source is fitted to detect and monitor the regional-scale subsurface stress state. Applying correlation test method, we measured weak subsurface velocity changes in the northern Tianshan mountain, and found that the several stations, which are within 150km from the the Hutubi transmitting seismic station, appeared 0.1 0.2% relative velocity changes before the Hutubi MS6.2 earthquake on Dec.8, 2016.

  11. Could the IMS Infrasound Stations Support a Global Network of Small Aperture Seismic Arrays?


    Kværna, Tormod; Gibbons, Steven; Mykkeltveit, Svein


    The IMS infrasound arrays have up to 15 sites with apertures up to 3 km. They are distributed remarkably uniformly over the globe, providing excellent coverage of South America, Africa, and Antarctica. Therefore, many infrasound arrays are in regions thousands of kilometers from the closest seismic array. Existing 3-component seismic stations, co-located with infrasound arrays, show how typical seismic signals look at these locations. We estimate a theoretical array response assuming a seismo...

  12. Seismic Calibration of Group 1 IMS Stations in Eastern Asia for Improved IDC Event Location

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, J. R; Rodi, W. L; Johnson, M; Sultanov, J. D; Bennett, T. J; Toksoz, M. N; Ovtchinnikov, V; Barker, B. W; Rosca, A. M; Shchukin, Y


    .... In order to establish a robust nuclear test monitoring capability, it is necessary to calibrate the IMS seismic stations used in monitoring, to account for systematic deviations from the nominal travel time curves...

  13. Measurement of seismic moments at the RSTN station RSSD for NTS explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.; Patton, H.J.


    We have estimated the seismic moment for two Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions (Nebbiolo, 6/24/82; Atrisco, 8/5/82) at the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) station in South Dakota (RSSD; distance from NTS approx. 1280 km). The moments are calculated from the vertical component mid-period channel for the Rayleigh waves and the merged mid- and short-period band for the P waves. The moment estimates from surface waves give values of 1.0 x 10 23 and 2.0 x 10 23 dyn-cm for Nebbiolo and Atrisco, respectively. The body-wave moments obtained at 0.5 Hz are approximately five times greater than those from surface waves and give values of 4.8 x 10 23 and 1.0 x 10 24 dyn-cm for Nebbiolo and Atrisco, respectively. The apparent discrepancy between the body and surface-wave moments can be resolved if there is overshoot (of 5:1) in the explosion source spectrum. As a check on the absolute value of the surface-wave moments, we compared them to moment values predicted from empirical moment-yield relationships for different emplacement media at NTS (Patton, 1983). We found that the agreement between observed and predicted values is satisfactory, within the measurement error on the moments at the one sigma level

  14. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.


    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  15. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Hardy, G.S.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Griffin, M.J.


    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants

  16. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra, M. K.; Hardy, G. S.; Hashimoto, P. S.; Griffin, M. J.


    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants.

  17. Real-time detection and characterization of nuclear explosion using broadband analyses of regional seismic stations (United States)

    Prastowo, T.; Madlazim


    This preliminary study aims to propose a new method of real-time detection and characterization of nuclear explosions by analyzing broadband seismic waveforms acquired from a network of regional seismic stations. Signal identification generated by a nuclear test was differentiated from natural sources of either earthquakes or other natural seismo-tectonic events by verifying crucial parameters, namely source depth, type of first motion, and P-wave domination of the broadband seismic wavesunder consideration. We examined and analyzed a recently hypothetical nuclear test performed by the North Koreangovernment that occurred on September 3, 2017 as a vital point to study. From spectral analyses, we found that the source of corresponding signals associated with detonations of the latest underground nuclear test was at a much shallower depth below the surface relatively compared with that of natural earthquakes, the suspected nuclear explosions produced compressional waves with radially directed outward from the source for their first motions, and the waves were only dominated by P-components. The results are then discussed in the context of potential uses of the proposed methodology for human-induced disaster early warning system and/or the need of rapid response purposes for minimizing the disaster risks.

  18. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko


    It has been two years since the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (NCOE) occurred in 2007. The earthquake brought a major disaster for Kashiwazaki, Kariwa, and the neighboring areas. First of all, we would like to give condolences to people in the devastated area and to pray for the immediate recovery. Our Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station located in the same area was naturally caught up in the earthquake. The station was hit by a big tremor more than its intensity assumed to be valid at the station design stage. In spite of unexpected tremor, preventive functions for the station safety worked as expected as it designed. Critical facilities designed as high seismic class were not damaged, though considerable damages were seen in outside-facilities designed as low seismic class. We currently make efforts to inspect and recover damages. While we carefully carry out inspection and assessment to make sure the station integrity, we are also going forward restoration as well as construction for seismic safety enhancement in turn. This report introduces details of the following accounts, these are an outline of guidelines for seismic design evaluation that was revised in 2006, a situation at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station in the aftermath of the earthquake, and efforts toward enhancing seismic safety that the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has made since the seismic disaster, and our approach to evaluation of facility integrity. (author)

  19. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.


    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries.

  20. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.


    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries

  1. Identifying and Correcting Timing Errors at Seismic Stations in and around Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syracuse, Ellen Marie; Phillips, William Scott; Maceira, Monica; Begnaud, Michael Lee


    A fundamental component of seismic research is the use of phase arrival times, which are central to event location, Earth model development, and phase identification, as well as derived products. Hence, the accuracy of arrival times is crucial. However, errors in the timing of seismic waveforms and the arrival times based on them may go unidentified by the end user, particularly when seismic data are shared between different organizations. Here, we present a method used to analyze travel-time residuals for stations in and around Iran to identify time periods that are likely to contain station timing problems. For the 14 stations with the strongest evidence of timing errors lasting one month or longer, timing corrections are proposed to address the problematic time periods. Finally, two additional stations are identified with incorrect locations in the International Registry of Seismograph Stations, and one is found to have erroneously reported arrival times in 2011.

  2. Seismic Correlation and Coupling from Underground, Surface, to the Ionosphere (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Waysand, G.


    , especially for post-earthquake periods with displacements associated with seismic wave arrivals at the ground surfaces. We assess the correlation and coupling among signals measured at depths, on the surface, and in the sky. While the main focus is on electromagnetic signals associated with earthquakes, there are many relevant measurements and analyses among seismic, rock mechanical, hydrochemical, electromagnetic, atmospheric, ionospheric and other processes and phenomena. The correlation of different signals in space and time can elucidate the different coupling and channeling of signals. The demonstrated low noise advantage of underground seismic-magnetic detections of global signals at the Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit de Rustrel-Pays d'Apt should set the example for the establishment of equivalent stations worldwide in other underground research laboratories. We emphasize the adoption of international and inter-disciplinary approaches that can contribute to better understanding of mechanisms among different earthquake and tectonic forces, and lead to improved assessment of earthquake and related natural hazards.

  3. Short-Period Surface Wave Based Seismic Event Relocation (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Cleveland, M.; Nyblade, A.; Kintner, J. A.; Homman, K.; Ammon, C. J.


    Accurate and precise seismic event locations are essential for a broad range of geophysical investigations. Superior location accuracy generally requires calibration with ground truth information, but superb relative location precision is often achievable independently. In explosion seismology, low-yield explosion monitoring relies on near-source observations, which results in a limited number of observations that challenges our ability to estimate any locations. Incorporating more distant observations means relying on data with lower signal-to-noise ratios. For small, shallow events, the short-period (roughly 1/2 to 8 s period) fundamental-mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (including Rg) are often the most stable and visible portion of the waveform at local distances. Cleveland and Ammon [2013] have shown that teleseismic surface waves are valuable observations for constructing precise, relative event relocations. We extend the teleseismic surface wave relocation method, and apply them to near-source distances using Rg observations from the Bighorn Arche Seismic Experiment (BASE) and the Earth Scope USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations. Specifically, we present relocation results using short-period fundamental- and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) in a double-difference relative event relocation for 45 delay-fired mine blasts and 21 borehole chemical explosions. Our preliminary efforts are to explore the sensitivity of the short-period surface waves to local geologic structure, source depth, explosion magnitude (yield), and explosion characteristics (single-shot vs. distributed source, etc.). Our results show that Rg and the first few higher-mode Rayleigh wave observations can be used to constrain the relative locations of shallow low-yield events.

  4. Performance of an island seismic station for recording T-phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J. A., LLNL


    As part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) a worldwide hydroacoustic network consisting of 6 hydrophone and 5 island seismic stations has been planned which will monitor for underwater or low altitude atmospheric explosions. Data from this network is to be integrated with other IMS networks monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. The seismic (T-phase) stations are significantly less sensitive than hydrophones to ocean borne acoustic waves. T-phase signal strength at seismic stations depends on the amplitude of the signal in the water column, the hydroacoustic-seismic conversion efficiency, and loss on the seismic portion of the path through the island. In order to understand how these factors influence the performance of T-phase stations seismic and hydroacoustic data are examined from instruments currently deployed on or around Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. T-phase recordings for the last 3 years have been collected from the GSN seismic station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surrounding the island are 5 hydrophones which are part of the U.S. Air Force Missile Impact Locating System (MILS). Data from this system have been obtained for some of the events observed at ASCN. Four of the hydrophones are located within 30 km of the coast while the fifth instrument is 100 km to the south. Amplitude spectral estimates of the signal-to-noise levels (SNL) are computed and generally peak between 3 and 8 Hz for both the seismometer and hydrophone data. The seismic SNL generally decays to 1 between 10 and 15 Hz while the hydrophone SNL is still large well above 20 Hz. The ratios of the hydrophone-to-seismometer SNL, at their peak in energy, range between 10 and 100 (20-40 dB) unless a hydrophone is partially blocked by the Ascension Island landmass.

  5. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie


    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one met...

  6. Receiver function structure beneath a broad-band seismic station in south Sumatra (United States)

    MacPherson, K. A.; Hidayat, D.; Goh, S.


    We estimated the one-dimensional velocity structure beneath a broad-band station in south Sumatra by the forward modeling and inversion of receiver functions. Station PMBI belongs to the GEOFON seismic network maintained by GFZ-Potsdam, and at a longitude of 104.77° and latitude of -2.93°, sits atop the south Sumatran basin. This station is of interest to researchers at the Earth Observatory of Singapore, as data from it and other stations in Sumatra and Singapore will be incorporated into a regional velocity model for use in seismic hazard analyses. Three-component records from 193 events at teleseismic distances and Mw ≥ 5.0 were examined for this study and 67 records were deemed to have sufficient signal to noise characteristics to be retained for analysis. Observations are primarily from source zones in the Bougainville trench with back-azimuths to the east-south-east, the Japan and Kurile trenches with back-azimuths to the northeast, and a scattering of observations from other azimuths. Due to the level of noise present in even the higher-quality records, the usual frequency-domain deconvolution method of computing receiver functions was ineffective, and a time-domain iterative deconvolution was employed to obtain usable wave forms. Receiver functions with similar back-azimuths were stacked in order to improve their signal to noise ratios. The resulting wave forms are relatively complex, with significant energy being present in the tangential components, indicating heterogeneity in the underlying structure. A dip analysis was undertaken but no clear pattern was observed. However, it is apparent that polarities of the tangential components were generally reversed for records that sample the Sunda trench. Forward modeling of the receiver functions indicates the presence of a near-surface low-velocity layer (Vp≈1.9 km/s) and a Moho depth of ~31 km. Details of the crustal structure were investigated by employing time-domain inversions of the receiver

  7. Validation of seismic soil structure interaction (SSI) methodology for a UK PWR nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llambias, J.M.


    The seismic loading information for use in the seismic design of equipment and minor structures within a nuclear power plant is determined from a dynamic response analysis of the building in which they are located. This dynamic response analysis needs to capture the global response of both the building structure and adjacent soil and is commonly referred to as a soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis. NNC have developed a simple and cost effective methodology for the seismic SSI analysis of buildings in a PWR nuclear power station at a UK soft site. This paper outlines the NNC methodology and describes the approach adopted for its validation

  8. Seismic Tomography of Siyazan - Shabran Oil and Gas Region Of Azerbaijan by Data of The Seismic Stations (United States)

    Yetirmishli, Gurban; Guliyev, Ibrahim; Mammadov, Nazim; Kazimova, Sabina; Ismailova, Saida


    The main purpose of the research was to build a reliable 3D model of the structure of seismic velocities in the earth crust on the territory of Siyazan-Shabran region of Azerbaijan, using the data of seismic telemetry stations spanning Siyazan-Shabran region (Siyazan, Altiagaj, Pirgulu, Guba, Khinalig, Gusar), including 7 mobile telemetry seismic stations. Interest to the problem of research seismic tomography caused by applied environmental objectives, such as the assessment of geological risks, engineering evaluation (stability and safety of wells), the task of exploration and mining operations. In the study region are being actively developed oil fields, and therefore, there is a risk of technogenic earthquakes. It was performed the calculation of first arrival travel times of P and S waves and the corresponding ray paths. Calculate 1D velocity model which is the initial model as a set of horizontal layers (velocity may be constant or changed linearly with depth on each layer, gaps are possible only at the boundaries between the layers). Have been constructed and analyzed the horizontal sections of the three-dimensional velocity model at different depths of the investigated region. By the empirical method was proposed density model of the sedimentary rocks at depths of 0-8 km.

  9. Information on the technical site visit to the primary seismic station in Nairobi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianji, G.; Nyali, H.


    In 1963 the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Station (WWSSN) was installed at the University of Nairobi (UoN) Department of Geology by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Due to increased background seismic noise as a result of expanding infrastructure, the station was moved to Kilimambogo in 1994 and subsequently upgraded to IRIS digital station by the USGS. On the formation of CTBTO this tunnel type station was upgraded to the CTBTO standards. The system components and utilities are described. Comparison of data transmission through radio link at the University of Nairobi and the central station is provided. A map showing the location of the recent Tanzania earthquake incorporating CTBTO data and that of the local station is included

  10. Experiments on seismic metamaterials: molding surface waves. (United States)

    Brûlé, S; Javelaud, E H; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S


    Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.

  11. Use of seismic pulses in surface sources of excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, L.


    A discussion is held of the experimental use of surface plus seismic sources. An examination is made of the technicalgeophysical criteria for using the pulse sources. Results are presented from measurements and tests obtained with the help of an air cushion and dinoseis. A comparison is made of the amplitude spectra of the seismic recordings obtained with the help of blasting, dinoseis and air cushion. Possibilities and limitations for using the surface sources in industrial exploration for oil and gas are discussed. Seismic profile is presented which intersects the Tisu River. It was obtained with the help of a dinoseis which notes a sharp change in the wave pattern.

  12. Development and Performance of the Alaska Transportable Array Posthole Broadband Seismic Station (United States)

    Aderhold, K.; Enders, M.; Miner, J.; Bierma, R. M.; Bloomquist, D.; Theis, J.; Busby, R. W.


    The final stations of the Alaska Transportable Array (ATA) will be constructed in 2017, completing the full footprint of 280 new and existing broadband seismic stations stretching across 19 degrees of latitude from western Alaska to western Canada. Through significant effort in planning, site reconnaissance, permitting and the considerable and concerted effort of field crews, the IRIS Alaska TA team is on schedule to successfully complete the construction of 194 new stations and upgrades at 28 existing stations over four field seasons. The station design and installation method was developed over the course of several years, leveraging the experience of the L48 TA deployments and existing network operators in Alaska as well as incorporating newly engineered components and procedures. A purpose-built lightweight drill was designed and fabricated to facilitate the construction of shallow boreholes to incorporate newly available posthole seismometers. This allowed for the development of a streamlined system of procedures to manufacture uniform seismic stations with minimal crew and minimal time required at each station location. A new station can typically be constructed in a single day with a four-person field crew. The ATA utilizes a hammer-drilled, cased posthole emplacement method adapted to the remote and harsh working environment of Alaska. The same emplacement design is implemented in all ground conditions to preserve uniformity across the array and eliminate the need for specialized mechanical equipment. All components for station construction are ideally suited for transport via helicopter, and can be adapted to utilize more traditional methods of transportation when available. This emplacement design delivers high quality data when embedded in bedrock or permafrost, reaching the low noise levels of benchmark permanent global broadband stations especially at long periods over 70 seconds. The TA will operate the network of real-time stations through at least

  13. A method to establish seismic noise baselines for automated station assessment (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.; Benz, H.M.; Buland, R.P.


    We present a method for quantifying station noise baselines and characterizing the spectral shape of out-of-nominal noise sources. Our intent is to automate this method in order to ensure that only the highest-quality data are used in rapid earthquake products at NEIC. In addition, the station noise baselines provide a valuable tool to support the quality control of GSN and ANSS backbone data and metadata. The procedures addressed here are currently in development at the NEIC, and work is underway to understand how quickly changes from nominal can be observed and used within the NEIC processing framework. The spectral methods and software used to compute station baselines and described herein (PQLX) can be useful to both permanent and portable seismic stations operators. Applications include: general seismic station and data quality control (QC), evaluation of instrument responses, assessment of near real-time communication system performance, characterization of site cultural noise conditions, and evaluation of sensor vault design, as well as assessment of gross network capabilities (McNamara et al. 2005). Future PQLX development plans include incorporating station baselines for automated QC methods and automating station status report generation and notification based on user-defined QC parameters. The PQLX software is available through the USGS (http://earthquake. and IRIS ( pqlx/).

  14. Characterization of a complex near-surface structure using well logging and passive seismic measurements (United States)

    Benjumea, Beatriz; Macau, Albert; Gabàs, Anna; Figueras, Sara


    We combine geophysical well logging and passive seismic measurements to characterize the near-surface geology of an area located in Hontomin, Burgos (Spain). This area has some near-surface challenges for a geophysical study. The irregular topography is characterized by limestone outcrops and unconsolidated sediments areas. Additionally, the near-surface geology includes an upper layer of pure limestones overlying marly limestones and marls (Upper Cretaceous). These materials lie on top of Low Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments (sandstones, clays, gravels). In any case, a layer with reduced velocity is expected. The geophysical data sets used in this study include sonic and gamma-ray logs at two boreholes and passive seismic measurements: three arrays and 224 seismic stations for applying the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V). Well-logging data define two significant changes in the P-wave-velocity log within the Upper Cretaceous layer and one more at the Upper to Lower Cretaceous contact. This technique has also been used for refining the geological interpretation. The passive seismic measurements provide a map of sediment thickness with a maximum of around 40 m and shear-wave velocity profiles from the array technique. A comparison between seismic velocity coming from well logging and array measurements defines the resolution limits of the passive seismic techniques and helps it to be interpreted. This study shows how these low-cost techniques can provide useful information about near-surface complexity that could be used for designing a geophysical field survey or for seismic processing steps such as statics or imaging.

  15. Lessons learned from the seismic reevaluation of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.J.; Shieh, L.C.; Tsai, N.C.; Cheng, T.M.


    A seismic reevaluation program was conducted for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit No. 1 (SONGS 1). SEP was created by the NRC to provide (1) an assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on safety issues and those that existed when a particular plant was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. The Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) seismic review for SONGS 1 was exacerbated by the results of an evaluation of an existing capable fault near the site during the design review for Units 2 and 3, which resulted in a design ground acceleration of 0.67g. Southern California Edison Company (SCE), the licensee for SONGS 1, realized that a uniform application of existing seismic criteria and methods would not be feasible for the upgrading of SONGS 1 to such a high seismic requirement. Instead, SCE elected to supplement existing seismic criteria and analysis methods by developing criteria and methods closer to the state of the art in seismic evaluation techniques

  16. Near-surface 3D reflections seismic survey; Sanjigen senso hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahigashi, H; Mitsui, H; Nakano, O; Kobayashi, T [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Faults are being actively investigated across Japan since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Discussed in this report is the application of the 3D near-surface reflection seismic survey in big cities. Data from trenching and drilling is used for the geological interpretation of the surroundings of a fault, and the reflection seismic survey is used to identify the position, etc., of the fault. In this article, when the results obtained from the experimental field are examined, it is found that the conventional 2D imaging reflection survey betrays the limit of its capability when the geological structure is complicated, that the 3D reflection seismic survey, on the contrary, is capable of high-precision imaging and, when augmented by drilling, etc., becomes capable of a more detailed interpretation, and that it also contributes effectively to the improvement of local disaster prevention in big cities. Using as the model the Tachikawa fault that runs near JR Tachikawa Station, embodiment of the 3D reflection seismic survey is reviewed. For the acquisition of data excellent in quality in a 3D reflection seismic survey conducted utilizing the roads in the sector chosen for experiment in the urban area, the shock generating points and receiving points should be positioned by taking into account the parameters in the bin arranging process so that the mid-points will be regularly distributed on the surface. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A New Moonquake Catalog from Apollo 17 Seismic Data II: Lunar Surface Gravimeter: Implications of Expanding the Passive Seismic Array (United States)

    Phillips, D.; Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.


    Apollo 17's Lunar Surface Gravimeter (LSG) was deployed on the Moon in 1972, and was originally intended to detect gravitational waves as a confirmation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Due to a design problem, the instrument did not function as intended. However, remotely-issued reconfiguration commands permitted the instrument to act effectively as a passive seismometer. LSG recorded continuously until Sept. 1977, when all surface data recording was terminated. Because the instrument did not meet its primary science objective, little effort was made to archive the data. Most of it was eventually lost, with the exception of data spanning the period March 1976 until Sept. 1977, and a recent investigation demonstrated that LSG data do contain moonquake signals (Kawamura et al., 2015). The addition of useable seismic data at the Apollo 17 site has important implications for event location schemes, which improve with increasing data coverage. All previous seismic event location attempts were limited to the four stations deployed at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 sites. Apollo 17 extends the functional aperture of the seismic array significantly to the east, permitting more accurate moonquake locations and improved probing of the lunar interior. Using the standard location technique of linearized arrival time inversion through a known velocity model, Kawamura et al. (2015) used moonquake signals detected in the LSG data to refine location estimates for 49 deep moonquake clusters, and constrained new locations for five previously un-located clusters. Recent efforts of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package Data Recovery Focus Group have recovered some of the previously lost LSG data, spanning the time period April 2, 1975 to June 30, 1975. In this study, we expand Kawamura's analysis to the newly recovered data, which contain over 200 known seismic signals, including deep moonquakes, shallow moonquakes, and meteorite impacts. We have completed initial

  18. Seasonal variation of seismic ambient noise level at King Sejong Station, Antarctica (United States)

    Lee, W.; Sheen, D.; Seo, K.; Yun, S.


    The generation of the secondary- or double-frequency (DF) microseisms with dominant frequencies between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz has been explained by nonlinear second-order pressure perturbations on the ocean bottom due to the interference of two ocean waves of equal wavelengths traveling in opposite directions. Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) has been operating a broadband seismic station (KSJ1) at King George Island (KGI), Antarctica, since 2001. Examining the ambient seismic noise level for the period from 2006 to 2008 at KSJ1, we found a significant seasonal variation in the frequency range 0.1-0.5 Hz. Correlation of the DF peaks with significant ocean wave height and peak wave period models indicates that the oceanic infragravity waves in the Drake Passage is a possible source to excite the DF microseisms at KGI. Location of King Sejong Station, Antarctica Seasonal variations of DF peak, significant wave height, and peak wave period

  19. The surface physics work station: final design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, R.; Kleiman, G.G.; Castro, S.G.C. de; Douglas, R.A.; Nascente, P.A.P.


    Thanks to funding from FAPESP we will be installing in the beginning of 1997 a work station for electron spectroscopy designed for the study of clean solid surfaces and the modification of these surfaces by deposition in situ of ultra thin metallic films. The main analytical tool will be a high resolution hemispherical analyzer made by VSW-Omicrom (EA 125 HR) which is capable of better than 5 meV resolution and high transmission due to its five channeltron multi detection system. The system will also have a Rear View LEED Optics for single crystal studies. The system will be housed in a 16'' cylindrical chamber with mu metal magnetic shielding having two levels for analysis. The upper level will contain instruments for technique which do not require photons such as LEED and sample cleaning. The lower level will have the electron analyzer, conventional X-ray source (Al/Mg), electron gun for Auger, e-beam evaporators for thin film deposition and ports for the future addition of different detectors. We will have a manipulator with 5 degrees of freedom (thre translation and two rotational) and sample heating and LN cooling. Finally we will have a fast entry/preparation chamber. The pumping system will have a combination of turbomolecular and ion pumps for the main chamber and a turbo for the fast entr/prep chamber. The system will be used initially for the study of surface alloys by XPS and Photoelectron Diffraction but as soon as it is properly characterized it will be open for collaborations with other groups interested in using its capabilities. (author)

  20. Detecting earthquakes over a seismic network using single-station similarity measures (United States)

    Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.


    New blind waveform-similarity-based detection methods, such as Fingerprint and Similarity Thresholding (FAST), have shown promise for detecting weak signals in long-duration, continuous waveform data. While blind detectors are capable of identifying similar or repeating waveforms without templates, they can also be susceptible to false detections due to local correlated noise. In this work, we present a set of three new methods that allow us to extend single-station similarity-based detection over a seismic network; event-pair extraction, pairwise pseudo-association, and event resolution complete a post-processing pipeline that combines single-station similarity measures (e.g. FAST sparse similarity matrix) from each station in a network into a list of candidate events. The core technique, pairwise pseudo-association, leverages the pairwise structure of event detections in its network detection model, which allows it to identify events observed at multiple stations in the network without modeling the expected moveout. Though our approach is general, we apply it to extend FAST over a sparse seismic network. We demonstrate that our network-based extension of FAST is both sensitive and maintains a low false detection rate. As a test case, we apply our approach to 2 weeks of continuous waveform data from five stations during the foreshock sequence prior to the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquake. Our method identifies nearly five times as many events as the local seismicity catalogue (including 95 per cent of the catalogue events), and less than 1 per cent of these candidate events are false detections.

  1. The use of multiwavelets for uncertainty estimation in seismic surface wave dispersion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppeliers, Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report describes a new single-station analysis method to estimate the dispersion and uncer- tainty of seismic surface waves using the multiwavelet transform. Typically, when estimating the dispersion of a surface wave using only a single seismic station, the seismogram is decomposed into a series of narrow-band realizations using a bank of narrow-band filters. By then enveloping and normalizing the filtered seismograms and identifying the maximum power as a function of frequency, the group velocity can be estimated if the source-receiver distance is known. However, using the filter bank method, there is no robust way to estimate uncertainty. In this report, I in- troduce a new method of estimating the group velocity that includes an estimate of uncertainty. The method is similar to the conventional filter bank method, but uses a class of functions, called Slepian wavelets, to compute a series of wavelet transforms of the data. Each wavelet transform is mathematically similar to a filter bank, however, the time-frequency tradeoff is optimized. By taking multiple wavelet transforms, I form a population of dispersion estimates from which stan- dard statistical methods can be used to estimate uncertainty. I demonstrate the utility of this new method by applying it to synthetic data as well as ambient-noise surface-wave cross-correlelograms recorded by the University of Nevada Seismic Network.

  2. Analysis of the ULF electromagnetic emission related to seismic activity, Teoloyucan geomagnetic station, 1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kotsarenko


    Full Text Available Results of ULF geomagnetic measurements at station Teoloyucan (Central Mexico, 99.11'35.735''W, 19.44'45.100''N, 2280m height in relation to seismic activity in the period 1998-2001 and their analysis are presented. Variations of spectral densities for horizontal and vertical components, polarization densities and spectrograms of magnetic field, their derivatives are analyzed as a part of traditional analysis in this study. Values of spectral density were calculated for 6 fixed frequencies f=1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300mHz. Fractal characteristics of spectra were analyzed in the conception of SOC (Self-Organized Criticality. 2 nighttime intervals, 0-3 and 3-6h by local time have been used to decrease the noise interference in row data. In order to exclude the intervals with a high geomagnetic activity from analysis we referred to Ap indices, calculated for corresponding time intervals. The contribution of seismic events to geomagnetic emission was estimated by seismic index ks=100.75Ms/10D, where Ms is the amplitude of the earthquake and D is the distance from its epicenter to the station.

  3. Multi-Use seismic stations offer strong deterrent to clandestine nuclear weapons testing (United States)

    Hennet, C. B.; Van der Vink, G. E.; Richards, P. G.; Adushkin, V. V.; Kopnichev, Y. F.; Geary, R.

    As the United States and other nations push for the signing of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, representatives are meeting in Geneva this year to develop an International Seismic Monitoring System to verify compliance with the treaty's restrictions. In addition to the official monitoring system, regional networks developed for earthquake studies and basic research can provide a strong deterrent against clandestine testing. The recent release of information by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) on previously unannounced nuclear tests provides an opportunity to assess the ability of multi-use seismic networks to help monitor nuclear testing across the globe.Here we look at the extent to which the formerly unannounced tests were recorded and identified on the basis of publicly available seismographic data recorded by five seismic networks. The data were recorded by networks in southern Nevada and northern California at stations less than 1500 km from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and two networks in the former Soviet Union at stations farther than 1500 km from the NTS.

  4. Pn seismic wave travel time at the Semipalatinsk Test Site - Borovoe seismic station trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, V.A.; Kaazik, P.B.; Ovchinnikov, V.M.


    This paper preparation involved 160 explosions at the Degelen Site conducted in 1961-1989 and 89 explosions at the Balapan Site conducted in 1968-1989. Pn wave travel time was tied to the sea level in accordance with velocity characteristics of the explosion hypocenter medium; and to average epicentral distance for every site basing on their local travel time curves of Pn wave relative to Borovoe station. Maximum amplitude of mean-year travel times variations is 0.3-0.5 s as at the Nevada Test Site - Borovoe trace and Mirniy (Antarctica). However, the linear trend in contrast to previous traces has negative sign (0.08 s for Degelen and 0.1 s for Balapan). Thus, Pn wave velocity increases with calendar time. (author)

  5. Methods for the seismic effect analysis on the nuclear power station structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanpierre, F.; Livolant, M.


    Seismic activity in France is far from being as great as in other parts of the globe, for instance Japan, California and Peru, in particular, and very few people are shocked at the idea of having to suffer from an earthquake, although periodically, such as at Arette, Oleron, etc., events do occur to remind one that seismic tremors of significant intensity can happen. In the case of nuclear reactors and given the serious secondary effects that uncontrolled destructions could involve, particularly the bursting of containment vessels or the non operation of safety systems such as the automatic drop of rods to halt the chain reaction, the earthquake hazard must be taken into account, in terms of the location of the power station, and the effects of the seism carefully estimated. The purpose of this report is briefly to describe the methods used to this end [fr

  6. Dark Fiber and Distributed Acoustic Sensing: Applications to Monitoring Seismicity and Near-Surface Properties (United States)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Dou, S.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Tracy, C.; Monga, I.


    "Dark Fiber" refers to the large number of fiber-optic lines installed for telecommunication purposes but not currently utilized. With the advent of distributed acoustic sensing (DAS), these unused fibers have the potential to become a seismic sensing network with unparalleled spatial extent and density with applications to monitoring both natural seismicity as well as near-surface soil properties. While the utility of DAS for seismic monitoring has now been conclusively shown on built-for-purpose networks, dark fiber deployments have been challenged by the heterogeneity of fiber installation procedures in telecommunication as well as access limitations. However, the potential of telecom networks to augment existing broadband monitoring stations provides a strong incentive to explore their utilization. We present preliminary results demonstrating the application of DAS to seismic monitoring on a 20 km run of "dark" telecommunications fiber between West Sacramento, CA and Woodland CA, part of the Dark Fiber Testbed maintained by the DOE's ESnet user facility. We show a small catalog of local and regional earthquakes detected by the array and evaluate fiber coupling by using variations in recorded frequency content. Considering the low density of broadband stations across much of the Sacramento Basin, such DAS recordings could provide a crucial data source to constrain small-magnitude local events. We also demonstrate the application of ambient noise interferometry using DAS-recorded waveforms to estimate soil properties under selected sections of the dark fiber transect; the success of this test suggests that the network could be utilized for environmental monitoring at the basin scale. The combination of these two examples demonstrates the exciting potential for combining DAS with ubiquitous dark fiber to greatly extend the reach of existing seismic monitoring networks.

  7. The RING and Seismic Network: Data Acquisition of Co-located Stations (United States)

    Falco, L.; Avallone, A.; Cattaneo, M.; Cecere, G.; Cogliano, R.; D'Agostino, N.; D'Ambrosio, C.; D'Anastasio, E.; Selvaggi, G.


    The plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia represents an interesting geodynamical region characterized by a complex pattern of deformation. First-order scientific problems regarding the existence of rigid blocks within the plate boundary, the present-day activity of the Calabrian subduction zone and the modes of release of seismic deformation are still awaiting for a better understanding. To address these issues, the INGV (Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanlogia) deployed a permanent, integrated and real-time monitoring GPS network (RING) all over Italy. RING is now constituted by about 120 stations. The CGPS sites, acquiring at 1Hz and 30s sampling rate, are integrated either with broad band or very broad band seismometers and accelerometers for an improved definition of the seismically active regions. Most of the sites are connected to the acquisition centre (located in Rome and duplicated in Grottaminarda) through a satellite system (VSAT), while the remaining sites transmit data by Internet and classical phone connections. The satellite data transmission and the integration with seismic instruments makes this network one of the most innovative CGPS networks in Europe. The heterogeneity of the installed instrumentation, the transmission types and the increasing number of stations needed a central monitoring and acquisition system. A central acquisition system has been developed in Grottaminarda in southern Italy. Regarding the seismic monitoring we chose to use the open source system Earthworm, developed by USGS, with which we store waveforms and implement automatic localization of the seismic events occurring in the area. As most of the GPS sites are acquired by means of Nanometrics satellite technology, we developed a specific software (GpsView), written in Java, to monitor the state of health of those CGPS. This software receives GPS data from NaqsServer (Nanometrics acquisition system) and outputs information about the sites (i.e. approx position

  8. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina (United States)

    Cardinell, Alex P.


    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  9. Seismic signal in Olkiluoto. Preliminary comparison of underground and surface recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.


    Seismic hazard studies in Finland relate to nuclear power plant sites on the Earth's surface. The impact of seismic waves is different on structures on the surface than underground. The purpose of this study is to approximate how ground motions recorded in the ONKALO compare with those on the surface above the ONKALO. Broadband seismometers were installed on the surface and at the depth of 400 m inside the ONKALO in November 2013. The operation time of the seismometers was about nine months. The analysed signals included background noise, teleseismic earthquakes, regional earthquake, local explosions and explosions from the ONKALO site. The studies in Olkiluoto demonstrated that, in general, there is a de-amplification of ground motions in the ONKALO relative to those on the surface, or there is no significant difference between the recordings. The result is likely associated with the type of the seismic source and the relatively shallow depth (400 m) of the underground station. Observed relative amplification related only to nearfield events: the recorded velocity amplitudes on the surface were 2 - 10 times larger than underground. One opposite relation was found in the study: the vertical component of the velocity amplitude of a regional earthquake seems to be about three times larger in ONKALO than on the surface between frequencies 50 Hz and 80 Hz. Definite conclusions concerning amplification or de-amplification cannot be based on the result of this study. In practice, any set of recordings cannot give a comprehensive description of the possible variations, like how the wavefield reflected from the surface interacts with the wavefield coming towards the surface. Numerical modeling is suggested for further studies of this subject. (orig.)

  10. IEEE recommended practices for seismic qualification of Class 1E equipment for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The IEEE has developed this document to provide direction for developing programs to seismically qualify Class 1E equipment for nuclear power generating stations. It supplements IEEE Std 323-1974, IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, which describes the basic requirements for equipment qualification. The Class 1E equipment to be qualified by produres or standards established by this document are of many forms, characteristics, and materials; therefore, the document presents many acceptable methods with the intent of permitting the user to make a judicious selection from among the various options. In making such a selection, the user should choose those that best meet a particular equipment's requirements. Further, in using this document as a specification for the purchase of equipment, the many options should also be recognized and the document invoked accordingly. It is recommended that the need for specific standards for the seismic qualifiction of particular kinds of equipment be evaluated by those responsible for such documents and that consideration be given to the application of particular methods from these documents which are most suitable

  11. Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events (United States)


    mechanisms for foreshock , mainshock, and aftershock sequences using Seismic Research Observatory (SRO) data, EOS, 57(12), p. 954, 1976. Bache, T.C., W.L...the event as well as that of the immediate foreshock were 95 located (Allen and Nordquist, 1972) and where the largest surface displacements were...1972). Foreshock , main shock and larger aftershocks of the Borrego Mountain earthquake, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 787, 16-23. Bache

  12. New seismic monitoring observation system and data accessibility at Syowa Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao


    Full Text Available The seismic observation system at Syowa Station, East Antarctica was fully replaced in the wintering season of the 38th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-38 in 1996-1998. The old seismographic vault constructed in 1970 was closed at the end of JARE-38 because of cumulative damage to the inner side of the vault by continuous flowing in of water from walls in summer and its freezing in winter. All the seismometers were moved to a new seismographic hut (69°00′24.0″S, 39°35′06.0″E and 20m above mean sea level in April 1997. Seismic signals of the short-period (HES and broadband (STS-1 seismometers in the new hut are transmitted to the Earth Science Laboratory (ESL via analog cable 600m in length. The new acquisition system was installed in the ESL with 6-channel 24-bit A/D converters for both sensor signals. All digitized data are automatically transmitted from the A/D converter to a workstation via TCP/IP protocol. After parallel observations with the old acquisition system by personal computers and the new system during the wintering season of JARE-38,the main system was changed to the new one, which has some advantages for both the reduction of daily maintenance efforts and the data transport/communication processes via Internet by use of LAN at the station. In this report, details of the new seismographic hut and the recording system are described. Additionally, the seismic data accessibility for public use, including Internet service, is described.

  13. Estimation of background noise level on seismic station using statistical analysis for improved analysis accuracy (United States)

    Han, S. M.; Hahm, I.


    We evaluated the background noise level of seismic stations in order to collect the observation data of high quality and produce accurate seismic information. Determining of the background noise level was used PSD (Power Spectral Density) method by McNamara and Buland (2004) in this study. This method that used long-term data is influenced by not only innate electronic noise of sensor and a pulse wave resulting from stabilizing but also missing data and controlled by the specified frequency which is affected by the irregular signals without site characteristics. It is hard and inefficient to implement process that filters out the abnormal signal within the automated system. To solve these problems, we devised a method for extracting the data which normally distributed with 90 to 99% confidence intervals at each period. The availability of the method was verified using 62-seismic stations with broadband and short-period sensors operated by the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). Evaluation standards were NHNM (New High Noise Model) and NLNM (New Low Noise Model) published by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). It was designed based on the western United States. However, Korean Peninsula surrounded by the ocean on three sides has a complicated geological structure and a high population density. So, we re-designed an appropriate model in Korean peninsula by statistically combined result. The important feature is that secondary-microseism peak appeared at a higher frequency band. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Research for the Meteorological and Earthquake Observation Technology and Its Application" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  14. Surface science station of the infrared beamline at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, M.; Moriwaki, T.; Kimura, H.; Nishida, S.; Nanba, T.


    An experimental station for surface science has been constructed at the infrared beamline (BL43IR) of SPring-8, Japan. The station utilizes synchrotron radiation in the energy range of 100-20000 cm -1 to perform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of surfaces. It consists of an experimental section, a preparation chamber, gas handling equipment and a pair of focusing optics. In situ observation of vibrational spectra is possible using both IRAS and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

  15. Seismic structural fragility investigation for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (Project I); SONGS-1 AFWS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, D.A.; Hashimoto, P.S.


    An evaluation of the seismic capacities of several of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (SONGS-1) structures was conducted to determine input to the overall probabilistic methodology developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Seismic structural fragilities to be used as input consist of median seismic capacities and their variabilities due to randomness and uncertainty. Potential failure modes were identified for each of the SONGS-1 structures included in this study by establishing the seismic load-paths and comparing expected load distributions to available capacities for the elements of each load-path. Particular attention was given to possible weak links and details. The more likely failure modes were screened for more detailed investigation

  16. Application of Rudoe’s Formula in Long Seismic Surface Wave Paths Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. de Souza


    Full Text Available An algorithm to compute accurate distances over grid cells crossed by seismic surface wave paths by Rudoe’s formula is proposed. The intersection coordinates between paths and the geodetic grid are also computed, which data are exhibited in an azimuthal equidistant projection to check the results. GRS-80 is the adopted ellipsoidal Earth model. The algorithm computes the intermediate intersections, from both forward and reciprocal normal sections given by Rudoe’s method, which separation may be greater than the cell size. It was tested on a data set including 3,269 source-station paths, which seismic events were recorded at 23 IRIS stations. The epicentral distances range from 1,634 km to 16,400 km, which the grid spreads over 149°E x 21°W, and 50°N x 90°S. The results show that the estimated intersections accuracy depends on the path azimuth and latitude, which influence may be significative for very long distances as in teleseismic applications, which argues for the algorithm application.

  17. Detection of cracks with low vertical offset in clayey formations from galleries by using seismic methods. Tournemire experimental station. First part: problem analysis and measurement sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretaudeau, Francois; Gelis, Celine; Cabrera, Justo; Leparoux, Donatienne; Cote, Philippe


    Within the frame of the expertise of the ANDRA file on the project of storage of radioactive wastes in clayey formations, the detection of natural cracks which could locally alter the argillite containment properties is a crucial issue. As some previous studies showed that some cracks exhibiting a low vertical offset could not be detected in clayey formations from the surface, this document reports a study which aimed at assessing the possibility of detection of such a crack by means of seismic methods directly implemented from underground works. It reports a detailed analysis of the seismic imagery problem, the characterization of different areas of the investigated environment, the assessment and validation of various hypotheses by using experimental data obtained in an experimental station and numerical simulations. The potential of each envisaged method (migration, tomography, wave form inversion) is assessed, notably with respect to synthetic seismic data obtained by numerical modelling. Preliminary results are used to size a complete seismic measurement campaign aimed at the characterization of the crack area, and at the assessment of detection limitations of the different methods

  18. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France) (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien


    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  19. Surface 3-D reflection seismics - implementation at the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E. [Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to study the possibilities for surface 3-D seismics and to review experiences for design before field work. The physical parameters and geometric properties of the site, as well as efficient survey layout and source arrangements, were considered in this work. Reflection seismics is most used geophysical investigation method in oil exploration and earth studies in sedimentary environment. Recently method has also been applied in crystalline bedrock for ore exploration and nuclear waste disposal site investigations. The advantage of the method is high accuracy combined with large depth of investigation. The principles of seismic 2-D and 3-D soundings are well known and advanced. 3-D sounding is a straightforward expansion of 2-D line based surveying. In investigation of crystalline bedrock, the high frequency wave sources and receivers, their right use in measurements and careful processing procedure (refraction static corrections in particular) are important. Using the site parameters in 2-D numerical modeling, two cases of faulted thin layer at depths of 200, 400 and 600 meters were studied. The first case was a layer with vertical dislocation (a ramp) and the other a layer having limited width of dislocated part. Central frequencies were 100, 200, 400 and 700 Hz. Results indicate that 10 - 20 m dislocation is recognizable, but for depths greater than 600 m, over 20 meters is required. Width of the dislocated part will affect the detectability of vertical displacement. At depths of 200 m and 400 m 10 - 50 m wide parts appear as point-like scatterers, wider areas have more continuity. Dislocations larger than 20 m can be seen. From depth of 600 m over 100 m wide parts are discernible, narrower are visible

  20. Surface 3-D reflection seismics - implementation at the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E.


    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to study the possibilities for surface 3-D seismics and to review experiences for design before field work. The physical parameters and geometric properties of the site, as well as efficient survey layout and source arrangements, were considered in this work. Reflection seismics is most used geophysical investigation method in oil exploration and earth studies in sedimentary environment. Recently method has also been applied in crystalline bedrock for ore exploration and nuclear waste disposal site investigations. The advantage of the method is high accuracy combined with large depth of investigation. The principles of seismic 2-D and 3-D soundings are well known and advanced. 3-D sounding is a straightforward expansion of 2-D line based surveying. In investigation of crystalline bedrock, the high frequency wave sources and receivers, their right use in measurements and careful processing procedure (refraction static corrections in particular) are important. Using the site parameters in 2-D numerical modeling, two cases of faulted thin layer at depths of 200, 400 and 600 meters were studied. The first case was a layer with vertical dislocation (a ramp) and the other a layer having limited width of dislocated part. Central frequencies were 100, 200, 400 and 700 Hz. Results indicate that 10 - 20 m dislocation is recognizable, but for depths greater than 600 m, over 20 meters is required. Width of the dislocated part will affect the detectability of vertical displacement. At depths of 200 m and 400 m 10 - 50 m wide parts appear as point-like scatterers, wider areas have more continuity. Dislocations larger than 20 m can be seen. From depth of 600 m over 100 m wide parts are discernible, narrower are visible

  1. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.


    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  2. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.


    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  3. The use of vertical and horizontal surface displacements at EPOS GNSS stations in Greenland to study ice sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas


    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) includes e.g. seismic and geodetic permanent national monitoring networks on a European scale. The main purpose is to create data platforms for monitoring and study geophysics processes like earthquakes, volcanoes, surface dynamics and tectonics. Here we...... present data from arctic GNSS stations included in the EPOS network. The arctic EPOS GNSS network consists of 16 continuous GPS stations spread across Greenland. This network is able to map the velocity fields associated with, plate motion, postglacial rebound and improve our understanding of tectonic...

  4. A new dataset of Wood Anderson magnitude from the Trieste (Italy) seismic station (United States)

    Sandron, Denis; Gentile, G. Francesco; Gentili, Stefania; Rebez, Alessandro; Santulin, Marco; Slejko, Dario


    The standard torsion Wood Anderson (WA) seismograph owes its fame to the fact that historically it has been used for the definition of the magnitude of an earthquake (Richter, 1935). With the progress of the technology, digital broadband (BB) seismographs replaced it. However, for historical consistency and homogeneity with the old seismic catalogues, it is still important continuing to compute the so called Wood Anderson magnitude. In order to evaluate WA magnitude, the synthetic seismograms WA equivalent are simulated convolving the waveforms recorded by a BB instrument with a suitable transfer function. The value of static magnification that should be applied in order to simulate correctly the WA instrument is debated. The original WA instrument in Trieste operated from 1971 to 1992 and the WA magnitude (MAW) estimates were regularly reported in the seismic station bulletins. The calculation of the local magnitude was performed following the Richter's formula (Richter, 1935), using the table of corrections factor unmodified from those calibrated for California and without station correction applied (Finetti, 1972). However, the WA amplitudes were computed as vector sum rather than arithmetic average of the horizontal components, resulting in a systematic overestimation of approximately 0.25, depending on the azimuth. In this work, we have retrieved the E-W and N-S components of the original recordings and re-computed MAW according to the original Richter (1935) formula. In 1992, the WA recording were stopped, due to the long time required for the daily development of the photographic paper, the costs of the photographic paper and the progress of the technology. After a decade of interruption, the WA was recovered and modernized by replacing the recording on photographic paper with an electronic device and it continues presently to record earthquakes. The E-W and N-S components records were memorized, but not published till now. Since 2004, next to the WA (few

  5. Surface-Source Downhole Seismic Analysis in R (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.


    This report discusses a method for interpreting a layered slowness or velocity model from surface-source downhole seismic data originally presented by Boore (2003). I have implemented this method in the statistical computing language R (R Development Core Team, 2007), so that it is freely and easily available to researchers and practitioners that may find it useful. I originally applied an early version of these routines to seismic cone penetration test data (SCPT) to analyze the horizontal variability of shear-wave velocity within the sediments in the San Francisco Bay area (Thompson et al., 2006). A more recent version of these codes was used to analyze the influence of interface-selection and model assumptions on velocity/slowness estimates and the resulting differences in site amplification (Boore and Thompson, 2007). The R environment has many benefits for scientific and statistical computation; I have chosen R to disseminate these routines because it is versatile enough to program specialized routines, is highly interactive which aids in the analysis of data, and is freely and conveniently available to install on a wide variety of computer platforms. These scripts are useful for the interpretation of layered velocity models from surface-source downhole seismic data such as deep boreholes and SCPT data. The inputs are the travel-time data and the offset of the source at the surface. The travel-time arrivals for the P- and S-waves must already be picked from the original data. An option in the inversion is to include estimates of the standard deviation of the travel-time picks for a weighted inversion of the velocity profile. The standard deviation of each travel-time pick is defined relative to the standard deviation of the best pick in a profile and is based on the accuracy with which the travel-time measurement could be determined from the seismogram. The analysis of the travel-time data consists of two parts: the identification of layer-interfaces, and the

  6. Unwrapped phase inversion for near surface seismic data

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    The Phase-wrapping is one of the main obstacles of waveform inversion. We use an inversion algorithm based on the instantaneous-traveltime that overcomes the phase-wrapping problem. With a high damping factor, the frequency-dependent instantaneous-traveltime inversion provides the stability of refraction tomography, with higher resolution results, and no arrival picking involved. We apply the instantaneous-traveltime inversion to the synthetic data generated by the elastic time-domain modeling. The synthetic data is a representative of the near surface seismic data. Although the inversion algorithm is based on the acoustic wave equation, the numerical examples show that the instantaneous-traveltime inversion generates a convergent velocity model, very similar to what we see from traveltime tomography.

  7. Evaluation of the 3D high resolution seismic method at the Tournemire site around the IPSN experimental station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Nunez, J.


    The IPSN experimental station of Tournemire is localized at a 200 m depth inside an abandoned railway tunnel dug in a Jurassic clayey formation. The a priori knowledge of the existing geologic structures of the clayey formations allows to test the reliability of the 3D high resolution seismic survey technique and its capability to detect these structures and discontinuities. This test study is reported in this technical note. It comprises several steps: a bibliographic synthesis and a state-of-the-art of the 3D seismic survey technique, the construction of a velocity model for the different strata of the site, a simulation of the possible seismic response of these strata with respect to the velocities chosen, the processing of the data and finally their interpretation. (J.S.)

  8. Dynamic analysis of electric equipment for nuclear power stations under seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, K.E.; Bodisco, U. von; Winkler, K.


    The response spectrum method, generally accepted as the most practical method for linear seismic analysis of power station components, is here applied in conjunction with the finite element method to electric components. The fully dynamic analysis based on the superposition of the natural modes as carried out for an electronics cabinet and for transmitter supports is outlined and selected results are presented. Several different methods are in use for the superposition of the contributions of the different modes. Here addition of absolute values, the square-root of the sum of squares, and a mixed method taking account of closely spaced modes is applied. For different structures, the degree of conservativity is thus demonstrated, the largest difference in the stresses computed by the different methods being approximately 30%. For structures whose natural frequencies are in the spectrum range with zero period response, a simplified response analysis using static loads is often carried out. This is demonstrated for the electronics cabinet and transmitter mountings, and the results are compared with the fully dynamic analyses. It is seen that this 'pseudo-dynamic' analysis yields useful approximations for the distributions of stresses. Practical details of the structural models as well as results are presented for several switchgear and electronics cabinets

  9. Surface and snowdrift sublimation at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Thiery


    Full Text Available In the near-coastal regions of Antarctica, a significant fraction of the snow precipitating onto the surface is removed again through sublimation – either directly from the surface or from drifting snow particles. Meteorological observations from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS near the Belgian research station Princess Elisabeth in Dronning Maud Land, East-Antarctica, are used to study surface and snowdrift sublimation and to assess their impacts on both the surface mass balance and the surface energy balance during 2009 and 2010. Comparison to three other AWSs in Dronning Maud Land with 11 to 13 yr of observations shows that sublimation has a significant influence on the surface mass balance at katabatic locations by removing 10–23% of their total precipitation, but at the same time reveals anomalously low surface and snowdrift sublimation rates at Princess Elisabeth (17 mm w.e. yr−1 compared to 42 mm w.e. yr−1 at Svea Cross and 52 mm w.e. yr−1 at Wasa/Aboa. This anomaly is attributed to local topography, which shields the station from strong katabatic influence, and, therefore, on the one hand allows for a strong surface inversion to persist throughout most of the year and on the other hand causes a lower probability of occurrence of intermediately strong winds. This wind speed class turns out to contribute most to the total snowdrift sublimation mass flux, given its ability to lift a high number of particles while still allowing for considerable undersaturation.

  10. Installation of a very broad band borehole seismic station in Ferrara (Emilia)


    Pesaresi, Damiano; Dall'Olio, Lorella; Rovelli, Antonio; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Abu Zeid, Nasser


    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is the Italian agency devoted to monitor in real time the seismicity on the Italian territory. The seismicity in Italy is of course variable in time and space, being also very much dependant on local noise conditions. Specifically, monitoring seismicity in an alluvial basin like the Po one is a challenge, due to consistent site effects induced by soft alluvial deposits and bad coupling with the deep bedrock (Steidl et al., 1996). This...

  11. Seismic stress of plants and equipment in nuclear power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampe, E.; Schwarz, J.


    The applicability of floor spectra for designing components of nuclear power plants taking into account seismic effects is discussed. Methods for the determination of seismic floor excitation and various kinds of floor spectra are presented. As an example the floor spectra method is applied to containment buildings

  12. Investigation of Seismic Waves from Non-Natural Sources: A Case Study for Building Collapse and Surface Explosion (United States)

    Houng, S.; Hong, T.


    The nature and excitation mechanism of incidents or non-natural events have been widely investigated using seismological techniques. With introduction of dense seismic networks, small-sized non-natural events such as building collapse and chemical explosions are well recorded. Two representative non-natural seismic sources are investigated. A 5-story building in South Korea, Sampoong department store, was collapsed in June 25, 1995, causing casualty of 1445. This accident is known to be the second deadliest non-terror-related building collapse in the world. The event was well recorded by a local station in ~ 9 km away. P and S waves were recorded weak, while monotonic Rayleigh waves were observed well. The origin time is determined using surface-wave arrival time. The magnitude of event is determined to be 1.2, which coincides with a theoretical estimate based on the mass and volume of building. Synthetic waveforms are modeled for various combinations of velocity structures and source time functions, which allow us to constrain the process of building collapse. It appears that the building was collapsed once within a couple of seconds. We also investigate a M2.1 chemical explosion at a fertilizer plant in Texas on April 18, 2013. It was reported that more than one hundred people were dead or injured by the explosion. Seismic waveforms for nearby stations are collected from Incorporated Research Institution of Seismology (IRIS). The event was well recorded at stations in ~500 km away from the source. Strong acoustic signals were observed at stations in a certain great-circle direction. This observation suggests preferential propagation of acoustic waves depending on atmospheric environment. Waveform cross-correlation, spectral analysis and waveform modeling are applied to understand the source physics. We discuss the nature of source and source excitation mechanism.

  13. Application of a simplified seismic risk methodology to the La Salle County Station Unit 2 BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappa, D.A.; Wells, J.E.


    It is important to bear in mind that no risk assessment of any U.S. nuclear power plant can be interpreted to be generally representative of more than a handful of other U.S. plants. Variations in factors ranging from plant age and operating experience to NRC licensing requirements and design guidelines have led to a wide diversity of power plants in the United States. Except for a few combinations of plants of comparable design and vintage, the extension of plant-specific results to other nuclear power plants should only be done with considerable trepidation. This situation is worsened for a seismic PRA because of the variability in the seismic hazard from site to site. In the case of this study, it would be a mistake to infer that all BWRs are sufficiently resistant to earthquakes because of the generally low seismic failure probabilities at La Salle. Unless those BWRs had similar site characteristics and were of a similar design and vintage as La Salle, no immediate extension of this study's results would be appropriate. With these thoughts in mind, we turn our attention to one of the questions which the La Salle seismic PRA is supposed to address, namely, the comparable seismic vulnerability of BWRs and PWRs. The La Salle study has provided us with some insight to the seismic risk at a particular BWR. This information may or may not be useful to understanding the seismic vulnerability of other BWRs

  14. Very Fast Estimation of Epicentral Distance and Magnitude from a Single Three Component Seismic Station Using Machine Learning Techniques (United States)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Niño Vasquez, L. F.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.


    To minimize adverse effects originated by high magnitude earthquakes, early warning has become a powerful tool to anticipate a seismic wave arrival to an specific location and lets to bring people and government agencies opportune information to initiate a fast response. To do this, a very fast and accurate characterization of the event must be done but this process is often made using seismograms recorded in at least 4 stations where processing time is usually greater than the wave travel time to the interest area, mainly in coarse networks. A faster process can be done if only one three component seismic station is used that is the closest unsaturated station respect to the epicenter. Here we present a Support Vector Regression algorithm which calculates Magnitude and Epicentral Distance using only 5 seconds of signal since P wave onset. This algorithm was trained with 36 records of historical earthquakes where the input were regression parameters of an exponential function estimated by least squares, corresponding to the waveform envelope and the maximum value of the observed waveform for each component in one single station. A 10 fold Cross Validation was applied for a Normalized Polynomial Kernel obtaining the mean absolute error for different exponents and complexity parameters. Magnitude could be estimated with 0.16 of mean absolute error and the distance with an error of 7.5 km for distances within 60 to 120 km. This kind of algorithm is easy to implement in hardware and can be used directly in the field station to make possible the broadcast of estimations of this values to generate fast decisions at seismological control centers, increasing the possibility to have an effective reactiontribute and Descriptors calculator for SVR model training and test

  15. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Array Stations (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.


    The seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System for the CTBT differ greatly in size and geometry, with apertures ranging from below 1 km to over 60 km. Large and medium aperture arrays with large inter-site spacings complicate the detection and estimation of high frequency phases since signals are often incoherent between sensors. Many such phases, typically from events at regional distances, remain undetected since pipeline algorithms often consider only frequencies low enough to allow coherent array processing. High frequency phases that are detected are frequently attributed qualitatively incorrect backazimuth and slowness estimates and are consequently not associated with the correct event hypotheses. This can lead to missed events both due to a lack of contributing phase detections and by corruption of event hypotheses by spurious detections. Continuous spectral estimation can be used for phase detection and parameter estimation on the largest aperture arrays, with phase arrivals identified as local maxima on beams of transformed spectrograms. The estimation procedure in effect measures group velocity rather than phase velocity and the ability to estimate backazimuth and slowness requires that the spatial extent of the array is large enough to resolve time-delays between envelopes with a period of approximately 4 or 5 seconds. The NOA, AKASG, YKA, WRA, and KURK arrays have apertures in excess of 20 km and spectrogram beamforming on these stations provides high quality slowness estimates for regional phases without additional post-processing. Seven arrays with aperture between 10 and 20 km (MJAR, ESDC, ILAR, KSRS, CMAR, ASAR, and EKA) can provide robust parameter estimates subject to a smoothing of the resulting slowness grids, most effectively achieved by convolving the measured slowness grids with the array response function for a 4 or 5 second period signal. The MJAR array in Japan recorded high SNR Pn signals for both the 2006 and 2009 North Korea

  16. Severity Classification of a Seismic Event based on the Magnitude-Distance Ratio Using Only One Seismological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Ochoa Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Seismic event characterization is often accomplished using algorithms based only on information received at seismological stations located closest to the particular event, while ignoring historical data received at those stations. These historical data are stored and unseen at this stage. This characterization process can delay the emergency response, costing valuable time in the mitigation of the adverse effects on the affected population. Seismological stations have recorded data during many events that have been characterized by classical methods, and these data can be used as previous "knowledge" to train such stations to recognize patterns. This knowledge can be used to make faster characterizations using only one three-component broadband station by applying bio-inspired algorithms or recently developed stochastic methods, such as kernel methods. We trained a Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm with seismograph data recorded by INGEOMINAS's National Seismological Network at a three-component station located near Bogota, Colombia. As input model descriptors, we used the following: (1 the integral of the Fourier transform/power spectrum for each component, divided into 7 windows of 2 seconds and beginning at the P onset time, and (2 the ratio between the calculated logarithm of magnitude (Mb and epicentral distance. We used 986 events with magnitudes greater than 3 recorded from late 2003 to 2008. The algorithm classifies events with magnitude-distance ratios (a measure of the severity of possible damage caused by an earthquake greater than a background value. This value can be used to estimate the magnitude based on a known epicentral distance, which is calculated from the difference between P and S onset times. This rapid (< 20 seconds magnitude estimate can be used for rapid response strategies. The results obtained in this work confirm that many hypocentral parameters and a rapid location of a seismic event can be obtained using a few

  17. A systematic analysis of directional site effects at stations of the Italian Seismic Network to test the role of local topography (United States)

    Pischiutta, Marta; Cianfarra, Paola; Salvini, Francesco; Cara, Fabrizio; Vannoli, Paola


    Directional site effects observed at seismological stations on pronounced relief are analyzed. We investigate the ground motion properties calculating horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and horizontal polarization of both ambient vibrations and earthquake records using broadband seismograms of the Italian Seismic Network. We find that a subset of 47 stations with pronounced relief, results in a significant (>2) directional amplification of the horizontal component, with a well defined, site-specific direction of motion. However, the horizontal spectral response of sites is not uniform, varying from an isolated (resonant) frequency peak to a broadband amplification, interesting frequency bands as large as 1-10 Hz in many cases. Using the 47 selected stations, we have tried to establish a relation between directional amplification and topography geometry in a 2D-vision, when applicable, through a morphological analysis of the Digital Elevation Model using Geographic Information Systems. The procedure computes the parameters that characterize the geometry of topographic irregularities (size and slope), in combination with a principal component analysis that automatically yields the orientation of the elongated ridges. In seeking a relation between directional amplification and the surface morphology, we have found that it is impossible to fit the variety of observations with a resonant topography model as well as to identify common features in the ground motion behavior for stations with similar topography typologies. We conclude that, rather than the shape of the topography, local structural complexities and details of the near-surface structure must play a predominant role in controlling ground motion properties at sites with pronounced relief.

  18. Fast Estimation of Epicentral Distance and Magnitude from a Single Three Component Seismic Station Using Machine Learning Techniques (United States)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Niño, L. F.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.


    To minimize adverse effects originated by high magnitude earthquakes, early warning has become a powerful tool to anticipate a seismic wave arrival to an specific location, bringing opportune information to people and government agencies to initiate a fast response. To do this, a very fast and accurate characterization of the event must be done but this process is often made using seismograms recorded in at least four stations where processing time is usually greater than the wave arrival time to the interest area, mainly in seismological coarse networks. A faster process can be done if only one three component seismic station, the closest unsaturated station with respect to the epicenter, is used. Here, we present a Support Vector Regression algorithm which calculates Magnitude and Epicentral Distance using only five seconds of signal since P wave onset. This algorithm was trained with 36 records of historical earthquakes, where the input included regression parameters of an exponential function estimated by least squares, of the waveform envelope and the maximum value of the observed waveform for each component in a single station. A ten-fold Cross Validation was applied for a Normalized Polynomial Kernel obtaining the mean absolute error for different exponents and complexity parameters. The Magnitude could be estimated with 0.16 units of mean absolute error and the distance with an error of 7.5 km for distances within 60 to 120 km. This kind of algorithm is easy to implement in hardware and can be used directly in the field seismological sensor to make the broadcast of estimations of these values possible to generate fast decisions at seismological control centers, increasing the possibility of having an effective reaction.

  19. Heysham II/Torness power stations: Seismic qualification of core structures and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.J.


    For the advanced gas cooled reactors at Heysham II and Torness the seismic qualification of the core and support structures and boilers posed special problems. In each case the response was highly non-linear due to impacting. Within the core itself there are many thousands of degrees of freedom each dominated by impacting during the seismic event and these impact forces are transmitted to the support structure. The boilers, although supported and located in the design case by linear systems, have their motion during the seismic event controlled by seismic restraints and other components which introduce substantial impacting during seismic excitation. For both these important components a substantial programme of testing was carried out to validate an analysis approach. This testing and correlation with analysis is described in detail for both components. In the case of the core the qualification was based upon a non-linear code AGRCORE which was specifically developed to handle the large number of impact degrees of freedom for this component. The implementation of this code is also described together with a brief summary of results. The boiler analysis was ultimately carried out using conventional finite difference codes and the implementation of these together with a summary of results is also presented. (author). 13 figs, 1 tab

  20. Seismic data enhancement with Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykulov, M.; Brink, H.J.; Gajewski, D.; Yoon, Mi-Kyung [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik


    We present the results of partial stacking of prestack seismic reflection data based on the kinematic wavefield attributes computed during the automatic CRS stack. The resulting CRS supergathers are more regularised and have better signal to noise ratio compared to original CMP gathers. The improved data can be used in any conventional processing tool instead of the original data, providing enhanced images of better quality. The CRS supergather method is especially suited for low fold seismic reflection data. Application of the new method to synthetic and real low fold data shows a clear improvement of seismograms as well as time and depth-migrated sections. (orig.)

  1. Near real-time noise removal for the Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) seismic station data (United States)

    Guinois, M.; Zheng, Z.; Taira, T.; Romanowicz, B. A.


    The Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) observatory, located 40 km offshore central California, at a water depth of 1000 m, provides important complementary coverage of the San Andreas Fualt system to the land-based network. First installed in 2002, it is arguably the longest lived ocean bottom broadband seismic station. It includes a three-component broadband Guralp CMG-1T seismometer and a collocated differential pressure gauge (DPG) to measure the local water pressure continuously, as well as a current meter. After 7 years of autonomous operation, in February 2009, MOBB was successfully connected to the MARS cable (, and the data have been available in real time at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (Romanowicz et al., 2009). However, the usage of MOBB data has been limited because of the noisy character of the data, in particular at periods of interest for regional moment tensor studies (20-100 sec), due to the ocean infragravity waves. Crawford and Webb (2000) demonstrated that there is a strong correlation between the water pressure and the vertical component of seafloor ground velocity in the infragravity wave band. Applying this to MOBB vertical component data, a transfer function (TF) was determined and utilized to successfully deconvolve the pressure-correlated noise from the vertical component of MOBB seismograms (Dolenc et al., 2007) in the period band 20-200 sec. Romanowicz et al. (2003, 2009) presented examples of how the cleaned MOBB data contribute to the determination of source parameters and regional structure. These past efforts, however, have been mostly case studies for illustration purpose. In this study, we systematically process all the available MOBB data since 2009 (because the cable was trawled, about a year of data is missing from February 2010 to June 2011). We calculate the TF over time and find that it is generally very stable, except for one change in 2010 due to an instrument replacement. Two

  2. Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica (United States)

    Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.


    The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

  3. Seismic Performance of CAP1400 Nuclear Power Station considering Foundation Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Peng


    Full Text Available Under earthquake action, the reinforced concrete structure at the edge of the CAP1400 nuclear power plant foundation slab will be uplifted. In order to determine the seismic performance of this structure, a 1 : 12 scale shaking table test model was fabricated using gypsum as simulated concrete in order to meet scaled design requirements. By testing this model, the seismic response of the structure with consideration of the foundation uplift was obtained. Numerical analyses of the test model and the prototype structure were conducted to gain a better understanding of the structural seismic performance. When subjected to earthquakes, the foundation slab of the nuclear power plant experiences a slight degree of uplift but remains in the elastic stage due to the weight of the structure above, which provides an antioverturning moment. The numerical simulation is in general agreement with the test results, suggesting numerical simulations could be accurately employed in place of physical tests. The superstructure displacement response was found not to affect the safety of adjacent structures, and the seismic performance of the structure was shown to meet the relevant design requirements, demonstrating that this approach to modelling can serve as a design basis for the CAP1400 nuclear power demonstration project.

  4. Data transmission from seismic stations via network AGNES using GSM-GPRS technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knejzlík, Jaromír


    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2004), s. 73-76 ISSN 1211-1910. [Mining and Environmental geophysics/29./. Sedmihorky, 00.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/0480 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : seismic data transmission * GMS * GPRS Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  5. Simulating Seismic Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media with an Irregular Free Surface (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyi; Zhao, Zhencong; Lan, Haiqiang; Liu, Fuping


    In seismic numerical simulations of wave propagation, it is very important for us to consider surface topography and attenuation, which both have large effects (e.g., wave diffractions, conversion, amplitude/phase change) on seismic imaging and inversion. An irregular free surface provides significant information for interpreting the characteristics of seismic wave propagation in areas with rugged or rapidly varying topography, and viscoelastic media are a better representation of the earth's properties than acoustic/elastic media. In this study, we develop an approach for seismic wavefield simulation in 2D viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface. Based on the boundary-conforming grid method, the 2D time-domain second-order viscoelastic isotropic equations and irregular free surface boundary conditions are transferred from a Cartesian coordinate system to a curvilinear coordinate system. Finite difference operators with second-order accuracy are applied to discretize the viscoelastic wave equations and the irregular free surface in the curvilinear coordinate system. In addition, we select the convolutional perfectly matched layer boundary condition in order to effectively suppress artificial reflections from the edges of the model. The snapshot and seismogram results from numerical tests show that our algorithm successfully simulates seismic wavefields (e.g., P-wave, Rayleigh wave and converted waves) in viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface.

  6. Shear wave profiles from surface wave inversion: the impact of uncertainty on seismic site response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaga, J; Vignoli, G; Cassiani, G


    Inversion is a critical step in all geophysical techniques, and is generally fraught with ill-posedness. In the case of seismic surface wave studies, the inverse problem can lead to different equivalent subsoil models and consequently to different local seismic response analyses. This can have a large impact on an earthquake engineering design. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of non-uniqueness of surface wave inversion on seismic responses, with both numerical and experimental data. Our goal is to evaluate the consequences on common seismic response analysis in the case of different impedance contrast conditions. We verify the implications of inversion uncertainty, and consequently of data information content, on realistic local site responses. A stochastic process is used to generate a set of 1D shear wave velocity profiles from several specific subsurface models. All these profiles are characterized as being equivalent, i.e. their responses, in terms of a dispersion curve, are compatible with the uncertainty in the same surface wave data. The generated 1D shear velocity models are then subjected to a conventional one-dimensional seismic ground response analysis using a realistic input motion. While recent analyses claim that the consequences of surface wave inversion uncertainties are very limited, our test points out that a relationship exists between inversion confidence and seismic responses in different subsoils. In the case of regular and relatively smooth increase of shear wave velocities with depth, as is usual in sedimentary plains, our results show that the choice of a specific model among equivalent solutions strongly influences the seismic response. On the other hand, when the shallow subsoil is characterized by a strong impedance contrast (thus revealing a characteristic soil resonance period), as is common in the presence of a shallow bedrock, equivalent solutions provide practically the same seismic amplification, especially in the

  7. Determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity using single-station and array-based processing of ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Workman, Eli Joseph

    We present a single-station method for the determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V) using Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis (FDPA). This procedure uses singular value decomposition of 3-by-3 spectral covariance matrices over 1-hr time windows to determine properties of the ambient seismic noise field such as particle motion and dominant wave-type. In FPDA, if the noise is mostly dominated by a primary singular value and the phase difference is roughly 90° between the major horizontal axis and the vertical axis of the corresponding singular vector, we infer that Rayleigh waves are dominant and measure an H/V ratio for that hour and frequency bin. We perform this analysis for all available data from the Earthscope Transportable Array between 2004 and 2014. We compare the observed Rayleigh wave H/V ratios with those previously measured by multicomponent, multistation noise cross-correlation (NCC), as well as classical noise spectrum H/V ratio analysis (NSHV). At 8 sec the results from all three methods agree, suggesting that the ambient seismic noise field is Rayleigh wave dominated. Between 10 and 30 sec, while the general pattern agrees well, the results from FDPA and NSHV are persistently slightly higher ( 2%) and significantly higher (>20%), respectively, than results from the array-based NCC. This is likely caused by contamination from other wave types (i.e., Love waves, body waves, and tilt noise) in the single station methods, but it could also reflect a small, persistent error in NCC. Additionally, we find that the single station method has difficulty retrieving robust Rayleigh wave H/V ratios within major sedimentary basins, such as the Williston Basin and Mississippi Embayment, where the noise field is likely dominated by reverberating Love waves.

  8. Data processing of natural and induced events recorded at the seismic station Ostrava-Kr¨¢sn¨¦ Pole (OKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nov¨¢k Josef


    Full Text Available The operation of the seismic station Ostrava-Kr¨¢sn¨¦ Pole (OKC (¦Õ = 49.8352¡ãN; ¦Ë = 18.1422¡ãE which is situated at present in an experimental gallery nearby the Ostrava planetarium started in the year 1983 being equiped initially by analogue instrumentation. Modernization of instrumentation at the station was aimed at the installation of a new digital data acquisition system and the respective software packages for data interpretation and transmission.Data acquisition system VISTEC is based on PC which enables continuous recording of three- component short-period and medium-period systems with the sampling frequency of 20 Hz. The basic advantage of the OS Linux adopted allows remote access (telnet and the possibility of the recorded data transmission (ftp. Possible troubles in the seismic station operation can be quickly detected (even automatically and all recorded data are with minimum delay on disposal. The use of the remote access makes possible also to change the parameters of measuring set-up. The standard form of output data allows the application of standard software packages for visualisation and evaluation. There are on disposal following formates: GSE2/CM6, GSE2/INT and MiniSEED. The output data sets can be compressed by a special procedure. For interactive interpretation od digital seismic data, software package EVENT developed in the Geophysical Institute AS CR and package WAVE developed in the Institute of Geonics AS CR are used.Experimental operation of digital seismographs at the station OKC confirmed justification of its incorporation into the seismic stations of the Czech national seismological network (CNSN. Based on the preliminary analysis of digital data it proved that following groups of seismic events are recorded: earthquakes, induced seismic events from Polish copper and coal mines, induced seismic events from the Ostrava-Karvin¨¢ Coal Basin, quarry blasts and weak regional seismic events of the

  9. Improved surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi?dimensional deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Draganov, D.S.


    The methodology of surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface?wave Green's function. A point?spread function, derived from the

  10. Finite-Frequency Seismic Tomography of Body Waves and Surface Waves from Ambient Seismic Noise: Crustal and Mantle Structure Beneath Eastern Eurasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ren, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Ting; Shen, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping


    To improve seismic calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring, we use 3D sensitivity kernels of finite-frequency body and surface waves to develop models of the crustal and mantle structures beneath eastern Eurasia...

  11. Measurement of the Parameter Kappa, and Reevaluation of Kappa for Small to Moderate Earthquakes at Seismic Stations in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasi, Glenn; Anderson, John G


    ground motions analyses used in PSHA, it contributes to the extreme values of peak ground acceleration that the PSHA predicts. Also, in some areas precarious rock evidence indicates that no such accelerations have occurred. (2) The disagreement among analyses in the value of kappa. Previous reports indicate that smallest earthquakes yield kappa estimate 12-20 msec larger than average values from M3 to M4.5 aftershocks of Little Skull Mountain earthquake. (3) The source of kappa. Classically and in engineering usage, kappa is attributed largely to the upper tens or hundreds of meters at the recording site. However, borehole recordings imply that a significant contribution to kappa originates below several hundred meters depth. Also, when earthquakes are considered from a small source region, a true site effect should be common to all recordings. In fact kappa observations of LSM aftershocks to stations on Yucca Mountain and at network stations appear to vary greatly, as though much of kappa actually derives from near the seismic source. (4) The repository overburden contribution to kappa. PSHA estimated ground motions to a free surface at 300 meters depth with properties of confined rock at that depth. Rock mechanical and borehole estimates suggest that several milliseconds of the total kappa accrue between 300 meters to the surface. If estimates of kappa are small at the surface, little is left to reduce incident ground accelerations from the seismic source to the repository level. (5) The variability of kappa. In most cases parametric estimates of kappa have some range of values that fit the data equally well in a statistical sense, so errors in kappa estimates must be addressed. As noted above, kappa at a station also varies significantly for events from the same source area. (6) Are kappa values from small to moderate magnitude earthquakes appropriately applied to the larger, potentially damaging earthquakes of engineering concern? Put another way, is there a

  12. Measurement of the Parameter Kappa, and Reevaluation of Kappa for Small to Moderate Earthquakes at Seismic Stations in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, Glenn; Anderson, John G


    motions analyses used in PSHA, it contributes to the extreme values of peak ground acceleration that the PSHA predicts. Also, in some areas precarious rock evidence indicates that no such accelerations have occurred. 2. The disagreement among analyses in the value of kappa. Previous reports indicate that smallest earthquakes yield kappa estimate 12-20 msec larger than average values from M3 to M4.5 aftershocks of Little Skull Mountain earthquake. 3. The source of kappa. Classically and in engineering usage, kappa is attributed largely to the upper tens or hundreds of meters at the recording site. However, borehole recordings imply that a significant contribution to kappa originates below several hundred meters depth. Also, when earthquakes are considered from a small source region, a true site effect should be common to all recordings. In fact kappa observations of LSM aftershocks to stations on Yucca Mountain and at network stations appear to vary greatly, as though much of kappa actually derives from near the seismic source. 4. The repository overburden contribution to kappa. PSHA estimated ground motions to a free surface at 300 meters depth with properties of confined rock at that depth. Rock mechanical and borehole estimates suggest that several milliseconds of the total kappa accrue between 300 meters to the surface. If estimates of kappa are small at the surface, little is left to reduce incident ground accelerations from the seismic source to the repository level. 5. The variability of kappa. In most cases parametric estimates of kappa have some range of values that fit the data equally well in a statistical sense, so errors in kappa estimates must be addressed. As noted above, kappa at a station also varies significantly for events from the same source area. 6. Are kappa values from small to moderate magnitude earthquakes appropriately applied to the larger, potentially damaging earthquakes of engineering concern? Put another way, is there a significant magnitude

  13. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko


    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, 8212MW, was struck by M6.8 quakes in July 2007. TEPCO has steadily been conducting restoration and post-earthquake equipment integrity assessment, aiming to make it a disaster-resistant power station. 2 units among 7 resumed commercial operation by June 2010. This earthquake has provided a great deal of knowledge and information useful for nuclear safety improvement. It has also served as a valuable reference for the IAEA in developing earthquake-related guidelines. TEPCO would like to share the knowledge and information thereby contributing to improving the safety of nuclear power generation. We will introduce some of our activities.

  14. Crustal seismicity associated to rpid surface uplift at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (United States)

    Cardona, Carlos; Tassara, Andrés; Gil-Cruz, Fernando; Lara, Luis; Morales, Sergio; Kohler, Paulina; Franco, Luis


    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex (LMVC, Southern Andes of Chile) has been experiencing large rates (ca. 30 cm/yr) of surface uplift as detected since 2008 by satellite geodetic measurements. Previous works have modeled the source of this deformation as an inflating rectangular sub-horizontal sill underlying LMVC at 5 km depth, which is supposedly related to an active process of magmatic replenishment of a shallow silicic reservoir. However little is known about the tectonic context on which this activity is taking place, particularly its relation with crustal seismicity that could help understanding and monitoring the current deformation process. Here we present the first detailed characterization of the seismic activity taking place at LMVC and integrate it with structural data acquired in the field in order to illuminate the possible connection between the ongoing process of surface uplift and the activation of crustal faults. Our main finding is the recognition of repetitive volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic swarms that occur periodically between 2011 and 2014 near the SW corner of the sill modeled by InSAR studies. A cross-correlation analysis of the waveforms recorded for these VT events allows identifying three different seismic families. Families F1 and F3 share some common features in the stacked waveform and its locations, which markedly differ from those of family F2. Swarms belonging to this later family are more energetic and its energy was increasing since 2011 to a peak in January 2013, which coincide with maximum vertical velocities detected by local GPS stations. This points to a common process relating both phenomena. The location of VT seismic swarms roughly coincides with the intersection of a NE-SW lineament with a WNW-ESE lineament. The former shows clear field evidences of dextral strike-slip that are fully consistent with one nodal plane of focal mechanism for well-recorded F2 events. The conjugate nodal plane of these focal mechanisms could

  15. Seismic qualification of safety-related instrumentation cabinets for nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Bell, R.P.; Cuttler, J.M.


    The problem of seismically qualifying different electrical instruments mounted in cabinets of a standard design is discussed and the following economical approach is described in detail. An analytical model of the cabinet structure is developed and validated by comparison with the results of shake table tests on a prototype cabinet. Modal analysis is then used to calculate the input spectra for shake table tests to qualify the individual instruments that are mounted at the required elevations in the cabinet. The worst input spectrum, appropriate to qualify each instrument, is then specified to the suppliers. This approach avoids the need to test each cabinet configuration in an assembled state in order to qualify it. (auth)

  16. Passive monitoring for near surface void detection using traffic as a seismic source (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Kuzma, H. A.; Rector, J.; Nazari, S.


    In this poster we present preliminary results based on our several field experiments in which we study seismic detection of voids using a passive array of surface geophones. The source of seismic excitation is vehicle traffic on nearby roads, which we model as a continuous line source of seismic energy. Our passive seismic technique is based on cross-correlation of surface wave fields and studying the resulting power spectra, looking for "shadows" caused by the scattering effect of a void. High frequency noise masks this effect in the time domain, so it is difficult to see on conventional traces. Our technique does not rely on phase distortions caused by small voids because they are generally too tiny to measure. Unlike traditional impulsive seismic sources which generate highly coherent broadband signals, perfect for resolving phase but too weak for resolving amplitude, vehicle traffic affords a high power signal a frequency range which is optimal for finding shallow structures. Our technique results in clear detections of an abandoned railroad tunnel and a septic tank. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a technology for the simultaneous imaging of shallow underground structures and traffic monitoring near these structures.

  17. Seismic surface wave tomography of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.L.


    'The objective of the Seismic Surface Wave Tomography of Waste Sites is to develop a robust technique for field acquisition and analysis of surface wave data for the interpretation of shallow structures, such as those associated with the burial of wastes. The analysis technique is to be developed and tested on an existing set of seismic data covering the K-901 burial site at the East Tennessee Technology Park. Also, a portable prototype for a field acquisition system will be designed and developed to obtain additional data for analysis and testing of the technique. The K-901 data have been examined and a preliminary Single Valued Decomposition inversion has been obtained. The preliminary data indicates a need for additional seismic data to ground-truth the inversion. The originally proposed gravity data acquisition has been dropped because sufficient gravity data are now available for a preliminary analysis and because the seismic data are considered more critical to the interpretation. The proposed prototype for the portable acquisition and analysis system was developed during the first year and will be used in part of the acquisition of additional seismic data.'

  18. Near-surface characterization for seismic exploration based on gravity and resistivity data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    (2016), č. článku 41892. [Middle East Geoscience Conference and Exhibition /12./. Manama, 07.03.2016-10.03.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : gravity and resistivity surveys * near-surface formations * seismic velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  19. The Investigation of a Sinkhole Area in Germany by Near-Surface Active Seismic Tomography (United States)

    Tschache, S.; Becker, D.; Wadas, S. H.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.


    In November 2010, a 30 m wide and 17 m deep sinkhole occurred in a residential area of Schmalkalden, Germany, which fortunately did not harm humans, but led to damage of buildings and property. Subsequent geoscientific investigations showed that the collapse was naturally caused by the subrosion of sulfates in a depth of about 80 m. In 2012, an early warning system was established including 3C borehole geophones deployed in 50 m depth around the backfilled sinkhole. During the acquisition of two shallow 2D shear wave seismic profiles, the signals generated by a micro-vibrator at the surface were additionally recorded by the four borehole geophones of the early warning system and a VSP probe in a fifth borehole. The travel time analysis of the direct arrivals enhanced the understanding of wave propagation in the area. Seismic velocity anomalies were detected and related to structural seismic images of the 2D profiles. Due to the promising first results, the experiment was further extended by distributing vibration points throughout the whole area around the sinkhole. This time, micro-vibrators for P- and S-wave generation were used. The signals were recorded by the borehole geophones and temporary installed seismometers at surface positions close to the boreholes. The travel times and signal attenuations are evaluated to detect potential instable zones. Furthermore, array analyses are performed. The first results reveal features in the active tomography datasets consistent with structures observed in the 2D seismic images. The advantages of the presented method are the low effort and good repeatability due to the permanently installed borehole geophones. It has the potential to determine P-wave and S-wave velocities in 3D. It supports the interpretation of established investigation methods as 2D surface seismics and VSP. In our further research we propose to evaluate the suitability of the method for the time lapse monitoring of changes in the seismic wave

  20. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, S.S.; Gold, D.P.; Gardner, T.W.; Slingerland, R.L.; Thornton, C.P.


    For the Lancaster, PA seismic zone a multifaceted investigation revealed several manifestations of near-surface, neotectonic deformation. Remote sensing data together with surface geological and geophysical observations, and recent seismicity reveal that the neotectonic deformation is concentrated in a NS-trending fault zone some 50 km in length and 10--20 km in width. Anomalies associated with this zone include distinctive lineament and surface erosional patterns; geologically recent uplift evidenced by elevations of stream terraces along the Susquehanna River; and localized contemporary travertine deposits in streams down-drainage from the inferred active fault zone. In the Moodus seismic zone the frequency of tectonically-controlled lineaments was observed to increase in the Moodus quadrangle compared to adjacent areas and dominant lineament directions were observed that are perpendicular and parallel to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction (N80-85E) recently determined from in-situ stress measurements in a 1.5 km-deep borehole in the seismic zone and from well-constrained earthquake focal mechanisms. 284 refs., 33 figs

  1. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, S.S.; Gold, D.P.; Gardner, T.W.; Slingerland, R.L.; Thornton, C.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Geosciences)


    For the Lancaster, PA seismic zone a multifaceted investigation revealed several manifestations of near-surface, neotectonic deformation. Remote sensing data together with surface geological and geophysical observations, and recent seismicity reveal that the neotectonic deformation is concentrated in a NS-trending fault zone some 50 km in length and 10--20 km in width. Anomalies associated with this zone include distinctive lineament and surface erosional patterns; geologically recent uplift evidenced by elevations of stream terraces along the Susquehanna River; and localized contemporary travertine deposits in streams down-drainage from the inferred active fault zone. In the Moodus seismic zone the frequency of tectonically-controlled lineaments was observed to increase in the Moodus quadrangle compared to adjacent areas and dominant lineament directions were observed that are perpendicular and parallel to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction (N80-85E) recently determined from in-situ stress measurements in a 1.5 km-deep borehole in the seismic zone and from well-constrained earthquake focal mechanisms. 284 refs., 33 figs.

  2. Combined analysis of surface reflection imaging and vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.; Karageorgi, E.


    This report presents results from surface and borehole seismic profiling performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on Yucca Mountain. This work was performed as part of the site characterization effort for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Their objective was to provide seismic imaging from the near surface (200 to 300 ft. depth) to the repository horizon and below, if possible. Among the issues addressed by this seismic imaging work are location and depth of fracturing and faulting, geologic identification of reflecting horizons, and spatial continuity of reflecting horizons. The authors believe their results are generally positive, with tome specific successes. This was the first attempt at this scale using modem seismic imaging techniques to determine geologic features on Yucca Mountain. The principle purpose of this report is to present the interpretation of the seismic reflection section in a geologic context. Three surface reflection profiles were acquired and processed as part of this study. Because of environmental concerns, all three lines were on preexisting roads. Line 1 crossed the mapped surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault and it was intended to study the dip and depth extent of the fault system. Line 2 was acquired along Drill Hole wash and was intended to help the ESF north ramp design activities. Line 3 was acquired along Yucca Crest and was designed to image geologic horizons which were thought to be less faulted along the ridge. Unfortunately, line 3 proved to have poor data quality, in part because of winds, poor field conditions and limited time. Their processing and interpretation efforts were focused on lines 1 and 2 and their associated VSP studies

  3. High-resolution surface wave tomography of the European crust and uppermost mantle from ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Stehly, Laurent; Paul, Anne; AlpArray Working Group


    Taking advantage of the large number of seismic stations installed in Europe, in particular in the greater Alpine region with the AlpArray experiment, we derive a new high-resolution 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the European crust and uppermost mantle from ambient noise tomography. The correlation of up to four years of continuous vertical-component seismic recordings from 1293 broadband stations (10° W-35° E, 30° N-75° N) provides Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion data in the period band 5-150 s at more than 0.8 million virtual source-receiver pairs. Two-dimensional Rayleigh wave group velocity maps are estimated using adaptive parameterization to accommodate the strong heterogeneity of path coverage. A probabilistic 3-D shear-wave velocity model, including probability densities for the depth of layer boundaries and S-wave velocity values, is obtained by non-linear Bayesian inversion. A weighted average of the probabilistic model is then used as starting model for the linear inversion step, providing the final Vs model. The resulting S-wave velocity model and Moho depth are validated by comparison with previous geophysical studies. Although surface-wave tomography is weakly sensitive to layer boundaries, vertical cross-sections through our Vs model and the associated probability of presence of interfaces display striking similarities with reference controlled-source (CSS) and receiver-function sections across the Alpine belt. Our model even provides new structural information such as a ˜8 km Moho jump along the CSS ECORS-CROP profile that was not imaged by reflection data due to poor penetration across a heterogeneous upper crust. Our probabilistic and final shear wave velocity models have the potential to become new reference models of the European crust, both for crustal structure probing and geophysical studies including waveform modeling or full waveform inversion.

  4. Near-Surface Seismic Velocity Data: A Computer Program For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (NESURVELANA) has been developed in Visual Basic Computer programming language to carry out a near surface velocity analysis. The method of analysis used includes: Algorithms design and Visual Basic codes generation for plotting arrival time (ms) against geophone depth (m) employing the ...

  5. Cultural noise and the night-day asymmetry of the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian Station (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano


    Mazzarella and Scafetta (2016) showed that the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian station from 1999 to 2014 suggests a higher nocturnal seismic activity. However, this station is located at about 50 m from the main road to the volcano's crater and since 2009 its seismograms also record a significant diurnal cultural noise due mostly to tourist tours to Mt. Vesuvius. Herein, we investigate whether the different seismic frequency between day and night times could be an artifact of the peculiar cultural noise that affects this station mostly from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm from spring to fall. This time-distributed cultural noise should evidently reduce the possibility to detect low magnitude earthquakes during those hours but not high magnitude events. Using hourly distributions referring to different magnitude thresholds from M = 0.2 to M = 2.0, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency diagram applied to the day and night-time sub-catalogs and Montecarlo statistical modeling, we demonstrate that the day-night asymmetry persists despite an evident disruption induced by cultural noise during day-hours. In particular, for the period 1999-2017, and for earthquakes with M ≥ 2 we found a Gutenberg-Richter exponent b = 1.66 ± 0.07 for the night-time events and b = 2.06 ± 0.07 for day-time events. Moreover, we repeat the analysis also for an older BKE catalog covering the period from 1992 to 2000 when cultural noise was not present. The analysis confirms a higher seismic nocturnal activity that is also characterized by a smaller Gutenberg-Richter exponent b for M ≥ 2 earthquakes relative to the day-time activity. Thus, the found night-day seismic asymmetric behavior is likely due to a real physical feature affecting Mt. Vesuvius.

  6. The influence of climatically-driven surface loading variations on continental strain and seismicity (United States)

    Craig, Tim; Calais, Eric; Fleitout, Luce; Bollinger, Laurent; Scotti, Oona


    In slowly deforming regions of plate interiors, secondary sources of stress and strain can result in transient deformation rates comparable to, or greater than, the background tectonic rates. Highly variable in space and time, these transients have the potential to influence the spatio-temporal distribution of seismicity, interfering with any background tectonic effects to either promote or inhibit the failure of pre-existing faults, and potentially leading to a clustered, or 'pulse-like', seismic history. Here, we investigate the ways in which the large-scale deformation field resulting from climatically-controlled changes in surface ice mass over the Pleistocene and Holocene may have influenced not only the seismicity of glaciated regions, but also the wider seismicity around the ice periphery. We first use a set of geodynamic models to demonstrate that a major pulse of seismic activity occurring in Fennoscandia, coincident with the time of end-glaciation, occurred in a setting where the contemporaneous horizontal strain-rate resulting from the changing ice mass, was extensional - opposite to the reverse sense of coseismic displacement accommodated on these faults. Therefore, faulting did not release extensional elastic strain that was building up at the time of failure, but compressional elastic strain that had accumulated in the lithosphere on timescales longer than the glacial cycle, illustrating the potential for a non-tectonic trigger to tap in to the background tectonic stress-state. We then move on to investigate the more distal influence that changing ice (and ocean) volumes may have had on the evolving strain field across intraplate Europe, how this is reflected in the seismicity across intraplate Europe, and what impact this might have on the paleoseismic record.

  7. Data processing of natural and induced events recorded at the seismic station Ostrava-Kr¨¢sn¨¦ Pole (OKC)


    Nov¨¢k Josef; Rušajov¨¢ Jana; Holub Karel; Kejzl¨ªk Jarom¨ªr


    The operation of the seismic station Ostrava-Kr¨¢sn¨¦ Pole (OKC) (¦Õ = 49.8352¡ãN; ¦Ë = 18.1422¡ãE) which is situated at present in an experimental gallery nearby the Ostrava planetarium started in the year 1983 being equiped initially by analogue instrumentation. Modernization of instrumentation at the station was aimed at the installation of a new digital data acquisition system and the respective software packages for data interpretation and transmission.Data acquisition system VISTEC is b...

  8. Experimental measurement at the seismic station Ostrava-Krásné Pole (OKC): preliminary results and remarks on site effect at the studied locality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Rušajová, Jana


    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 137-147 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA ČR GP13-07027P Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : seismic station OKC * spectral ratio * site effect Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  9. Caveats in modal inversion of seismic surface wavefields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levshin, A.L.; Panza, G.F.


    We consider several examples demonstrating that the formal modal representation of surface wavefields often does not describe adequately observable wave parameters, such as the phase and group velocity dispersion of higher modes. The main reason for this is the existence in the medium of several waveguides or weakly coupled wavefields in the same waveguide. In such cases the separation of neighboring higher modes may be impossible, and observed dispersion curves may significantly differ from the ones predicted by the theory. From the example related to the studies of the crustal and upper mantle structure we found that the difficulty in the separation of first and second crustal higher modes can be overcome by applying a special inversion procedure. This procedure ignores the existence of a low velocity layer in the upper mantle when fitting the observable higher mode dispersion curve to the one predicted by the model. (author)

  10. Seismic Structure of Perth Basin (Australia) and surroundings from Passive Seismic Deployments (United States)

    Issa, N.; Saygin, E.; Lumley, D. E.; Hoskin, T. E.


    We image the subsurface structure of Perth Basin, Western Australia and surroundings by using ambient seismic noise data from 14 seismic stations recently deployed by University of Western Australia (UWA) and other available permanent stations from Geoscience Australia seismic network and the Australian Seismometers in Schools program. Each of these 14 UWA seismic stations comprises a broadband sensor and a high fidelity 3-component 10 Hz geophone, recording in tandem at 250 Hz and 1000 Hz. The other stations used in this study are equipped with short period and broadband sensors. In addition, one shallow borehole station is operated with eight 3 component geophones at depths of between 2 and 44 m. The network is deployed to characterize natural seismicity in the basin and to try and identify any microseismic activity across Darling Fault Zone (DFZ), bounding the basin to the east. The DFZ stretches to approximately 1000 km north-south in Western Australia, and is one of the longest fault zones on the earth with a limited number of detected earthquakes. We use seismic noise cross- and auto-correlation methods to map seismic velocity perturbations across the basin and the transition from DFZ to the basin. Retrieved Green's functions are stable and show clear dispersed waveforms. Travel times of the surface wave Green's functions from noise cross-correlations are inverted with a two-step probabilistic framework to map the absolute shear wave velocities as a function of depth. The single station auto-correlations from the seismic noise yields P wave reflectivity under each station, marking the major discontinuities. Resulting images show the shear velocity perturbations across the region. We also quantify the variation of ambient seismic noise at different depths in the near surface using the geophones in the shallow borehole array.

  11. Geomechanics for interpreting SAGD monitoring using micro-seismicity and surface tiltmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, H.; De Koning, J.; Maxwell, S.; Walters, D.


    This paper described a procedures for history matching surface movements resulting from the warm-up phases of a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project in Saskatchewan. Surface movements were measured using tilt meters that covered the area influenced by the steam injection processes. A thermal reservoir model was then coupled to a geo-mechanical model in order to calculate the surface movements. Surface heave was computed by matching a minimum curvature surface to the tilt vectors. Surface heave data were extracted in order to facilitate comparisons between observed and simulated heave. Injection constraints were defined from measured injection rates in order to match pressure histories. The study showed that the coupled model accurately interpreted monitoring data. Seismic signatures indicated strike slip and potential overthrust fault slippage or casing failures. Uplift was largest at the heel of the well. Results were explained by reservoir heterogeneities. Surface heave was accurately measured using the tiltmeters. Micro-seismic data were used to constrain failure mechanisms and provide information needed to identify conformance and potential cap rock breaches. It was concluded that the model can be used effectively to optimize injection conformance and recovery. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 28 figs

  12. Geomechanics for interpreting SAGD monitoring using micro-seismicity and surface tiltmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pater, H.; De Koning, J.; Maxwell, S. [Pinnacle Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada); Walters, D. [Taurus Reservoir Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper described a procedures for history matching surface movements resulting from the warm-up phases of a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project in Saskatchewan. Surface movements were measured using tilt meters that covered the area influenced by the steam injection processes. A thermal reservoir model was then coupled to a geo-mechanical model in order to calculate the surface movements. Surface heave was computed by matching a minimum curvature surface to the tilt vectors. Surface heave data were extracted in order to facilitate comparisons between observed and simulated heave. Injection constraints were defined from measured injection rates in order to match pressure histories. The study showed that the coupled model accurately interpreted monitoring data. Seismic signatures indicated strike slip and potential overthrust fault slippage or casing failures. Uplift was largest at the heel of the well. Results were explained by reservoir heterogeneities. Surface heave was accurately measured using the tiltmeters. Micro-seismic data were used to constrain failure mechanisms and provide information needed to identify conformance and potential cap rock breaches. It was concluded that the model can be used effectively to optimize injection conformance and recovery. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 28 figs.

  13. Research Note: The sensitivity of surface seismic P-wave data in transversely isotropic media to reflector depth

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    The leading component of the high-frequency asymptotic description of the wavefield, given by the travel time, is governed by the eikonal equation. In anisotropic media, traveltime measurements from seismic experiments conducted along one surface

  14. A new moonquake catalog from Apollo 17 seismic data I: Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment: Thermal moonquakes and implications for surface processes (United States)

    Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Phillips, D.; Molaro, J.; Schmerr, N. C.


    Apollo 17's Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment's (LSPE) primary objective was to constrain the near-surface velocity structure at the landing site using active sources detected by a 100 m-wide triangular geophone array. The experiment was later operated in "listening mode," and early studies of these data revealed the presence of thermal moonquakes - short-duration seismic events associated with terminator crossings. However, the full data set has never been systematically analyzed for natural seismic signal content. In this study, we analyze 8 months of continuous LSPE data using an automated event detection technique that has previously successfully been applied to the Apollo 16 Passive Seismic Experiment data. We detected 50,000 thermal moonquakes from three distinct event templates, representing impulsive, intermediate, and emergent onset of seismic energy, which we interpret as reflecting their relative distance from the array. Impulsive events occur largely at sunrise, possibly representing the thermal "pinging" of the nearby lunar lander, while emergent events occur at sunset, possibly representing cracking or slumping in more distant surface rocks and regolith. Preliminary application of an iterative event location algorithm to a subset of the impulsive waveforms supports this interpretation. We also perform 3D modeling of the lunar surface to explore the relative contribution of the lander, known rocks and surrounding topography to the thermal state of the regolith in the vicinity of the Apollo 17 landing site over the course of the lunar diurnal cycle. Further development of both this model and the event location algorithm may permit definitive discrimination between different types of local diurnal events e.g. lander noise, thermally-induced rock breakdown, or fault creep on the nearby Lee-Lincoln scarp. These results could place important constraints on both the contribution of seismicity to regolith production, and the age of young lobate scarps.

  15. Making the most of CZ seismics: Improving shallow critical zone characterization using surface-wave analysis (United States)

    Pasquet, S.; Wang, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Bodet, L.; Carr, B.; Flinchum, B. A.


    Estimating porosity and saturation in the shallow subsurface over large lateral scales is vitally important for understanding the development and evolution of the Critical Zone (CZ). Because elastic properties (P- and S-wave velocities) are particularly sensitive to porosity and saturation, seismic methods (in combination with petrophysical models) are effective tools for mapping CZ architecture and processes. While many studies employ P-wave refraction methods, fewer use the surface waves that are typically also recorded in those same surveys. Here we show the value of exploiting surface waves to extract supplementary shear-wave velocity (Vs) information in the CZ. We use a new, user-friendly, open-source MATLAB-based package (SWIP) to invert surface-wave data and estimate lateral variations of Vs in the CZ. Results from synthetics show that this approach enables the resolution of physical property variations in the upper 10-15 m below the surface with lateral scales of about 5 m - a vast improvement compared to P-wave tomography alone. A field example at a Yellowstone hydrothermal system also demonstrates the benefits of including Vs in the petrophysical models to estimate not only porosity but also saturation, thus highlighting subsurface gas pathways. In light of these results, we strongly suggest that surface-wave analysis should become a standard approach in CZ seismic surveys.

  16. Diurnal variability of surface fluxes at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.

    Diurnal variability of the surface fluxes and ocean heat content was studied using the time-series data on marine surface meteorological parameters and upper ocean temperature collected at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal during 1st to 8th...

  17. The relationship of seismic velocity structure and surface fracture characteristics of basalt outcrops to rippability estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, S.E.; Dougherty, M.E.; Pelton, J.R.


    Seismic velocity has been shown in previous engineering studies to be related to the fracture characteristics and rippability of rock outcrops. However, common methods of measuring seismic velocity in outcrops do not take into account the many possible travel paths for wave propagation and the fact that velocity zones may exist within an outcrop. Presented here are the results of using raytracing inversion of first-arrival travel-time data to map P-velocity structure in basalt outcrops, and also the investigation of the relationship of the mapped velocities to observed surface fractures and hand-sample P-velocities. It is shown that basalt outcrops commonly consist of an irregular near-surface low-velocity zone underlain by higher velocity material; that velocity gradients can exist in outcrops; that hand-sample velocity measurements are typically higher than outcrop-scale measurements; and that the characteristics of surface fractures are empirically related to near-surface P-velocity. All of these findings are relevant to the estimated rippability of rock in geotechnical engineering. The data for this study are derived from eleven sites on basalt outcrops of the Troodos Ophiolite in Cyprus. The basalt types include pillow basalts, massive flows, and a pillow breccia. A commonly available raytracing inversion program (RAYINVR) was used to produce a velocity profile of each outcrop. Different velocity zones were detailed by inverting observed travel times to produce a model of outcrop velocity structure which produces rippability profiles for each outcrop. 16 refs., 9 figs

  18. Near-station terrain corrections for gravity data by a surface-integral technique (United States)

    Gettings, M.E.


    A new method of computing gravity terrain corrections by use of a digitizer and digital computer can result in substantial savings in the time and manual labor required to perform such corrections by conventional manual ring-chart techniques. The method is typically applied to estimate terrain effects for topography near the station, for example within 3 km of the station, although it has been used successfully to a radius of 15 km to estimate corrections in areas where topographic mapping is poor. Points (about 20) that define topographic maxima, minima, and changes in the slope gradient are picked on the topographic map, within the desired radius of correction about the station. Particular attention must be paid to the area immediately surrounding the station to ensure a good topographic representation. The horizontal and vertical coordinates of these points are entered into the computer, usually by means of a digitizer. The computer then fits a multiquadric surface to the input points to form an analytic representation of the surface. By means of the divergence theorem, the gravity effect of an interior closed solid can be expressed as a surface integral, and the terrain correction is calculated by numerical evaluation of the integral over the surfaces of a cylinder, The vertical sides of which are at the correction radius about the station, the flat bottom surface at the topographic minimum, and the upper surface given by the multiquadric equation. The method has been tested with favorable results against models for which an exact result is available and against manually computed field-station locations in areas of rugged topography. By increasing the number of points defining the topographic surface, any desired degree of accuracy can be obtained. The method is more objective than manual ring-chart techniques because no average compartment elevations need be estimated ?

  19. Simulation of Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints with Nurbs Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhosseini R. Tabatabaei


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach based on NURBS (non-uniform rational B-splines to achieve a seismic response surface (SRS from a group of points obtained by using an analytical model of RC joints. NURBS based on the genetic algorithm is an important mathematical tool and consists of generalizations of Bezier curves and surfaces and B-splines. Generally, the accuracy of the design process of joints depends on the number of control points that are captured in the results of experimental research on real specimens. The values obtained from the specimens are the best tools to use in seismic analysis, though more expensive when compared to values simulated by SRSs. The SRS proposed in this paper can be applied to obtain surfaces that show site effect results on destructions of beam-column joint, taking into account different site conditions for a specific earthquake. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated by the retrieval of simulated-versus-analytical results.

  20. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon


    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  1. Near-source surface seismic measurements for the NPE, NPE Calibration, Hunter`s Trophy, and Mineral Quarry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, R.E.; Leverette, J.A. [Field Command Defense Nuclear Agency, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others


    An extensive seismic network was deployed on the surface of Rainier Mesa for both the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) Calibration shot as well as the full scale NPE event. This network was very similar to previous deployments for the nuclear events MISTY ECHO, MINERAL QUARRY, and HUNTERS TROPHY. For the full scale NPE event three-component accelerometers and seismometers were fielded at 32 sites across the mesa. A slightly smaller network with 28 stations was in operation for the 300 pound NPE calibration event. The mesa top array included both accelerometers and seismometers. The accelerometers were used to obtain data from the main NPE event while the seismometers with their higher sensitivity were used to record the 300 pound cal shot and several hundred after events from the NPE. Large spatial variations in ground motion are evident in both the full mesa data set as well as a small (80 m on a side) aperture, 9-element triangular array. This paper summarizes the data and discusses wave propagation effects. A companion paper presents a comparative source analysis.

  2. Improved surface-wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi-dimensional deconvolution (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; Ruigrok, Elmer; van der Neut, Joost; Draganov, Deyan


    The methodology of surface-wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface-wave Green's function. A point-spread function, derived from the same ambient noise field, quantifies the smearing in space and time of the virtual source of the Green's function. By multidimensionally deconvolving the retrieved Green's function by the point-spread function, the virtual source becomes better focussed in space and time and hence the accuracy of the retrieved surface-wave Green's function may improve significantly. We illustrate this at the hand of a numerical example and discuss the advantages and limitations of this new methodology.

  3. Antarctic ice sheet thickness estimation using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method with single-station seismic ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yan


    Full Text Available We report on a successful application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H / V method, generally used to investigate the subsurface velocity structures of the shallow crust, to estimate the Antarctic ice sheet thickness for the first time. Using three-component, five-day long, seismic ambient noise records gathered from more than 60 temporary seismic stations located on the Antarctic ice sheet, the ice thickness measured at each station has comparable accuracy to the Bedmap2 database. Preliminary analysis revealed that 60 out of 65 seismic stations on the ice sheet obtained clear peak frequencies (f0 related to the ice sheet thickness in the H / V spectrum. Thus, assuming that the isotropic ice layer lies atop a high velocity half-space bedrock, the ice sheet thickness can be calculated by a simple approximation formula. About half of the calculated ice sheet thicknesses were consistent with the Bedmap2 ice thickness values. To further improve the reliability of ice thickness measurements, two-type models were built to fit the observed H / V spectrum through non-linear inversion. The two-type models represent the isotropic structures of single- and two-layer ice sheets, and the latter depicts the non-uniform, layered characteristics of the ice sheet widely distributed in Antarctica. The inversion results suggest that the ice thicknesses derived from the two-layer ice models were in good concurrence with the Bedmap2 ice thickness database, and that ice thickness differences between the two were within 300 m at almost all stations. Our results support previous finding that the Antarctic ice sheet is stratified. Extensive data processing indicates that the time length of seismic ambient noise records can be shortened to two hours for reliable ice sheet thickness estimation using the H / V method. This study extends the application fields of the H / V method and provides an effective and independent way to measure

  4. Mirror-like slip surfaces in dolostone: natural and experimental constraints on a potential seismic marker (United States)

    Fondriest, M.; Smith, S. A.; Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.


    The lack of clear geological markers of seismic faulting represents a major limitation in our current comprehension of earthquake physics. At present pseudotachylytes (i.e. friction-induced melts) are the only unambiguously identified indicator of ancient seismicity in exhumed fault zones, but pseudotachylytes are not found in many rock types, including carbonates. We report the occurrence of small-displacement, mirror-like slip surfaces from a fault zone cutting dolostones. A combination of field observations and rotary shear friction experiments suggests that such slip surfaces: 1) are formed only at seismic slip rates, and 2) could potentially be used to estimate power dissipation during individual slip events. The Foiana Line (FL) is a major NNE-SSW-trending sinistral transpressive fault in the Italian Southern Alps. The outcropping fault zone consists of a rotary-shear experiments using SHIVA (INGV, Rome) were performed on 3 mm thick layers of dolomite gouge (grain size friction coefficient (μ) from a peak value of ~0.7 to a steady-state value of ~0.25. The gouge starts to weaken above a threshold velocity in the range 0.19-0.49 m/s following a transient phase of strengthening. During the tests the instantaneous power density (shear stress*slip rate) dissipated on the sample reaches values of 6-10 MW/m2 over distances of 0.02-1 m, comparable to those of natural earthquakes. At 26 MPa normal stress a mirror-like slip surface is formed after only 0.03 m of slip. At intermediate slip rates (0.113 m/s) only moderate reductions in μ are observed. Instantaneous power density is ~1 MW/m2 and the mirror-like slip surface starts to develop after 0.1 m of slip. At sub-seismic slip rates (0.0001-0.0013 m/s) μ remains ~0.7, instantaneous power density is ~0.02 MW/m2, and no mirror-like slip surface develops. Microstructural observations suggest that the natural and experimental slip zones are comparable: both have a compacted layer up to 20 μm thick immediately below

  5. Joint Geodetic and Seismic Analysis of the effects of Englacial and Subglacial Hydraulics on Surface Crevassing near a Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake on Gornergletscher, Switzerland (United States)

    Garcia, L.; Luttrell, K. M.; Kilb, D. L.; Walter, F.


    Glacial outburst floods are difficult to predict and threaten human life and property near glaciated regions. These events are characterized by rapid draining of glacier-dammed lakes via the sub/englacial hydraulic network to the proglacial stream. The glacier-dammed lake on Gornergletscher in Switzerland, which fills and drains each summer, provides an opportunity to study this hazard. For three drainages (2004, 2006, and 2007), we track icequakes (IQ) and on-ice GPS movement. Our seasonal seismic networks had 8 - 24 three component stations and apertures of about 300 - 400 m on the glacier surface. The seasonal GPS arrays contained 4 - 8 GPS antennae on the glacier surface. Using Rayleigh wave coherence surface IQ location, we located 2924, 7822 and 3782 IQs, in 2004, 2006 and 2007, respectively. The GPS data were smoothed using a nonparametric protocol, with average station velocities of 10 - 90 mm/day. In 2006, strains were calculated using five stations within 500 m of the lake, co-located with the seismic network. IQ productivity increased substantially during lake drainage only in 2004, which was the only year when the lake drainage was rapid ( 6 days) and primarily subglacial. In 2006, there was no obvious increase in GPS speeds with slow ( 21 days), supraglacial lake drainage. However, when drainage was subglacial as in 2004 and 2007 (sub/englacial over 11 days), GPS speed increased up to 160%. This speed increase is evidence for basal sliding induced by subglacial drainage. In general, we find that when the strain increase on the principle extension axis aligns with the crevasse opening direction, IQ are more prolific. We also observe a diurnal signal in both IQ occurrence and surface strain, with peak strain occurring in the mid- to late-afternoon (15:00 - 19:00 local) across the study area in 2006. We interpret this time-shift in strain and spatiotemporal dependence of IQs to be caused by diurnal variations in melt-induced sliding. Our analysis sheds

  6. Seismic behavior of NPP structures subjected to realistic 3D, inclined seismic motions, in variable layered soil/rock, on surface or embedded foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremić, B.; Tafazzoli, N.; Ancheta, T.; Orbović, N.; Blahoianu, A.


    Highlights: • Full 3D, inclined, incoherent seismic motions used for modeling SSI of an NPP. • Analyzed effects of variable and uniform soil/rock layering profiles on SSI. • Surface and embedded foundations were modeled and differences analyzed. - Abstract: Presented here is an investigation of the seismic response of a massive NPP structures due to full 3D, inclined, un-correlated input motions for different soil and rock profiles. Of particular interest are the effects of soil and rock layering on the response and the changes of input motions (frequency characteristics) due to such layering. In addition to rock/soil layering effects, investigated are also effects of foundation embedment on dynamic response. Significant differences were observed in dynamic response of containment and internal structure founded on surface and on embedded foundations. These differences were observed for both rock and soil profiles. Select results are used to present most interesting findings

  7. Seismic Ecology (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power

  8. Surface-seismic imaging for nehrp soil profile classifications and earthquake hazards in urban areas (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.


    We acquired high-resolution seismic-refraction data on the ground surface in selected areas of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) to help explain the earthquake damage patterns and the variation in ground motion caused by the 17 January 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake. We used these data to determine the compressional- and shear-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) at 20 aftershock recording sites to 30-m depth ( V??s30, and V??p30). Two other sites, located next to boreholes with downhole Vp and Vs data, show that we imaged very similar seismic-vefocity structures in the upper 40 m. Overall, high site response appears to be associated with tow Vs in the near surface, but there can be a wide rangepf site amplifications for a given NEHRP soil type. The data suggest that for the SFV, if the V??s30 is known, we can determine whether the earthquake ground motion will be amplified above a factor of 2 relative to a local rock site.

  9. NCSRR digital seismic network in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldea, A.; Albota, E.; Demetriu, S.; Poiata, N.; Kashima, T.


    Digital seismic instrumentation donated by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to the National Center for Seismic Risk Reduction (NCSRR, Romania) allowed the installation in 2003 of a new Romanian seismic network. In 2005-2006 the network was developed by investments from NCSRR within the budget ensured by Ministry of Transports, Construction and Tourism (MTCT). The NCSRR seismic network contains three types of instrumentation: (i) free-field stations - outside the capital city Bucharest (8 accelerometers), (ii) instrumented buildings - in Bucharest (5 buildings), and (iii) stations with free-field and borehole sensors - in Bucharest (8 sites with ground surface sensor and sensors in 15 boreholes with depths up to 153 m). Since its installation, the NCSRR network recorded more than 170 seismic motions from 26 earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from 3.2 to 6.0. The seismic instrumentation was accompanied by investigations of ground conditions and site response: PS logging tests, single-station and array microtremor measurements. The development of seismic monitoring in Romania is a major contribution of JICA Project, creating the premises for a better understanding and modelling of earthquake ground motion, site effects and building response. (authors)

  10. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A


    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  11. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, E-mail: [Graduate Research on Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT), Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia); Hananto, Nugroho D.; Handayani, Lina [Research Centre for Geotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Sangkuriang (Kompleks LIPI) Bandung 40135 (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi [Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering ITB, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Anggono, Titi [Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia)


    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  12. Dynamic weakening of serpentinite gouges and bare surfaces at seismic slip rates (United States)

    Proctor, B. P.; Mitchell, T. M.; Hirth, G.; Goldsby, D.; Zorzi, F.; Platt, J. D.; Di Toro, G.


    To investigate differences in the frictional behavior between initially bare rock surfaces of serpentinite and powdered serpentinite ("gouge") at subseismic to seismic slip rates, we conducted single-velocity step and multiple-velocity step friction experiments on an antigorite-rich and lizardite-rich serpentinite at slip rates (V) from 0.003 m/s to 6.5 m/s, sliding displacements up to 1.6 m, and normal stresses (σn) up to 22 MPa for gouge and 97 MPa for bare surfaces. Nominal steady state friction values (μnss) in gouge at V = 1 m/s are larger than in bare surfaces for all σn tested and demonstrate a strong σn dependence; μnss decreased from 0.51 at 4.0 MPa to 0.39 at 22.4 MPa. Conversely, μnss values for bare surfaces remained ~0.1 with increasing σn and V. Additionally, the velocity at the onset of frictional weakening and the amount of slip prior to weakening were orders of magnitude larger in gouge than in bare surfaces. Extrapolation of the normal stress dependence for μnss suggests that the behavior of antigorite gouge approaches that of bare surfaces at σn ≥ 60 MPa. X-ray diffraction revealed dehydration reaction products in samples that frictionally weakened. Microstructural analysis revealed highly localized slip zones with melt-like textures in some cases gouge experiments and in all bare surfaces experiments for V ≥ 1 m/s. One-dimensional thermal modeling indicates that flash heating causes frictional weakening in both bare surfaces and gouge. Friction values for gouge decrease at higher velocities and after longer displacements than bare surfaces because strain is more distributed.

  13. Near-surface elastic changes in the Ross Ice Shelf arising from transient storm and melt forcing observed with high-frequency ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Baker, M. G.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Nyblade, A.; Stephen, R. A.; Wiens, D.


    Ice shelf collapse can herald subsequent grounded ice instability. However, robust understanding of external mechanisms capable of triggering rapid changes remains elusive. Improved understanding therefore requires improved remote and in-situ measurements of ice shelf properties. Using nearly three years of continuous data from a recently deployed 34-station broadband seismic array on the Ross Ice Shelf, we analyze persistent temporally varying, anisotropic near-surface resonant wave modes at frequencies above 1 Hz that are highly sensitive to small changes in elastic shelf properties to depths of tens of m. We further find that these modes exhibit both progressive (on the scale of months) and rapid (on the scale of hours) changes in frequency content. The largest and most rapid excursions are associated with forcing from local storms, and with a large regional ice shelf melt event in January 2016. We hypothesize that temporally variable behavior of the resonance features arises from wind slab formation during storms and/or to porosity changes, and to the formation of percolation-related refrozen layers and thinning in the case of surface melting. These resonance variations can be reproduced and inverted for structural changes using numerical wave propagation models, and thus present an opportunity for 4-D structural monitoring of shallow ice shelf elasticity and structure using long-duration seismic recordings.

  14. Seismic Noise Analysis and Reduction through Utilization of Collocated Seismic and Atmospheric Sensors at the GRO Chile Seismic Network (United States)

    Farrell, M. E.; Russo, R. M.


    The installation of Earthscope Transportable Array-style geophysical observatories in Chile expands open data seismic recording capabilities in the southern hemisphere by nearly 30%, and has nearly tripled the number of seismic stations providing freely-available data in southern South America. Through the use of collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at these stations we are able to analyze how local atmospheric conditions generate seismic noise, which can degrade data in seismic frequency bands at stations in the ';roaring forties' (S latitudes). Seismic vaults that are climate-controlled and insulated from the local environment are now employed throughout the world in an attempt to isolate seismometers from as many noise sources as possible. However, this is an expensive solution that is neither practical nor possible for all seismic deployments; and also, the increasing number and scope of temporary seismic deployments has resulted in the collection and archiving of terabytes of seismic data that is affected to some degree by natural seismic noise sources such as wind and atmospheric pressure changes. Changing air pressure can result in a depression and subsequent rebound of Earth's surface - which generates low frequency noise in seismic frequency bands - and even moderate winds can apply enough force to ground-coupled structures or to the surface above the seismometers themselves, resulting in significant noise. The 10 stations of the permanent Geophysical Reporting Observatories (GRO Chile), jointly installed during 2011-12 by IRIS and the Chilean Servicio Sismológico, include instrumentation in addition to the standard three seismic components. These stations, spaced approximately 300 km apart along the length of the country, continuously record a variety of atmospheric data including infrasound, air pressure, wind speed, and wind direction. The collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at each station allow us to analyze both datasets together, to

  15. Seismic surface-wave tomography of waste sites. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.L.


    'The objective of the Seismic Surface Wave Tomography of Waste Sites is to develop a robust technique for field acquisition and analysis of surface wave data for the interpretation of shallow structures, such as those associated with the burial of wastes. The analysis technique is to be developed and tested on an existing set of seismic data covering the K-901 burial site at the East Tennessee Technology Park. Also, a portable prototype for a field acquisition system will be designed and developed to obtain additional data for analysis and testing of the technique. The portable analysis system will display an image representing the shear-wave velocity structure. The image would be developed in the field from successive data samples. As of May 1998, the author established compatibility with computer programs at Georgia Tech and computed a preliminary singular value decomposition solution for the K-901 data. The analysis included modeling of surface wave dispersion and analysis of velocity structure. The analysis demonstrated that the authors needed additional field data to verify the conclusions and provide independent confirmation of velocity structure. The K-901 site data were obtained with 8 Hz geophones. The frequencies below 8 Hz are strongly attenuated in such recording instruments and are difficult to analyze. In particular, group velocities can have multiple answers for a given frequency. Consequently, without a record of the low-frequency energy, the authors found it difficult to identify the portion of the dispersion curve responsible for the seismogram. In particular, it was difficult to determine if the reverse dispersion observed in the frequencies above 8 Hz was caused by a low velocity layer or caused by observing only the frequencies above the group velocity minimum. In either model, synthetic seismograms can be made to match the observed data for the higher frequencies. The contract for the proposed work was completed in December. The field work was

  16. Seasonal variations of seismicity and geodetic strain in the Himalaya induced by surface hydrology


    Bettinelli, Pierre; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Flouzat, Mireille; Bollinger, Laurent; Ramillien, Guillaume; Rajaure, Sudhir; Sapkota, Som


    One way to probe earthquake nucleation processes and the relation between stress buildup and seismicity is to analyze the sensitivity of seismicity to stress perturbations. Here, we report evidence for seasonal strain and stress (~ 2–4 kPa) variations in the Nepal Himalaya, induced by water storage variations which correlate with seasonal variations of seismicity. The seismicity rate is twice as high in the winter as in the summer, and correlates with stress rate variations. We infer ~ 10–20 ...

  17. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL

  18. Probing the internal structure of the asteriod Didymoon with a passive seismic investigation (United States)

    Murdoch, N.; Hempel, S.; Pou, L.; Cadu, A.; Garcia, R. F.; Mimoun, D.; Margerin, L.; Karatekin, O.


    Understanding the internal structure of an asteroid has important implications for interpreting its evolutionary history, for understanding its continuing geological evolution, and also for asteroid deflection and in-situ space resource utilisation. Given the strong evidence that asteroids are seismically active, an in-situ passive seismic experiment could provide information about the asteroid surface and interior properties. Here, we discuss the natural seismic activity that may be present on Didymoon, the secondary component of asteroid (65803) Didymos. Our analysis of the tidal stresses in Didymoon shows that tidal quakes are likely to occur if the secondary has an eccentric orbit. Failure occurs most easily at the asteroid poles and close to the surface for both homogeneous and layered internal structures. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in Didymoon show that the seismic moment of even small meteoroid impacts can generate clearly observable body and surface waves if the asteroid's internal structure is homogeneous. The presence of a regolith layer over a consolidated core can result in the seismic energy becoming trapped in the regolith due to the strong impedance contrast at the regolith-core boundary. The inclusion of macro-porosity (voids) further complexifies the wavefield due to increased scattering. The most prominent seismic waves are always found to be those traveling along the surface of the asteroid and those focusing in the antipodal point of the seismic source. We find also that the waveforms and ground acceleration spectra allow discrimination between the different internal structure models. Although the science return of a passive seismic experiment would be enhanced by having multiple seismic stations, one single seismic station can already vastly improve our knowledge about the seismic environment and sub-surface structure of an asteroid. We describe several seismic measurement techniques that could be applied in order to study the

  19. Detection of induced seismicity effects on ground surface using data from Sentinel 1A/1B satellites (United States)

    Milczarek, W.


    Induced seismicity is the result of human activity and manifests itself in the form of shock and vibration of the ground surface. One of the most common factors causing the occurrence of induced shocks is underground mining activity. Sufficiently strong high-energy shocks may cause displacements of the ground surface. This type of shocks can have a significant impact on buildings and infrastructure. Assessment of the size and influence of induced seismicity on the ground surface is one of the major problems associated with mining activity. In Poland (Central Eastern Europe) induced seismicity occurs in the area of hard coal mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and in the area of the Legnica - Głogów Copper Basin.The study presents an assessment of the use of satellite radar data (SAR) for the detection influence of induced seismicity in mining regions. Selected induced shocks from the period 2015- 2017 which occurred in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and the Legnica - Głogów Copper Basin areas have been analyzed. In the calculations SAR data from the Sentinel 1A and Sentinel 1B satellites have been used. The results indicate the possibility of quickly and accurate detection of ground surface displacements after an induced shock. The results of SAR data processing were compared with the results from geodetic measurements. It has been shown that SAR data can be used to detect ground surface displacements on the relative small regions.

  20. Multi-parameter Full-waveform Inversion for Acoustic VTI Medium with Surface Seismic Data (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Jiao, K.; Sun, D.; Huang, W.; Vigh, D.


    Full-waveform Inversion (FWI) attracts wide attention recently in oil and gas industry as a new promising tool for high resolution subsurface velocity model building. While the traditional common image point gather based tomography method aims to focus post-migrated data in depth domain, FWI aims to directly fit the observed seismic waveform in either time or frequency domain. The inversion is performed iteratively by updating the velocity fields to reduce the difference between the observed and the simulated data. It has been shown the inversion is very sensitive to the starting velocity fields, and data with long offsets and low frequencies is crucial for the success of FWI to overcome this sensitivity. Considering the importance of data with long offsets and low frequencies, in most geologic environment, anisotropy is an unavoidable topic for FWI especially at long offsets, since anisotropy tends to have more pronounced effects on waves traveled for a great distance. In VTI medium, this means more horizontal velocity will be registered in middle-to-long offset data, while more vertical velocity will be registered in near-to-middle offset data. Up to date, most of real world applications of FWI still remain in isotropic medium, and only a few studies have been shown to account for anisotropy. And most of those studies only account for anisotropy in waveform simulation, but not invert for those anisotropy fields. Multi-parameter inversion for anisotropy fields, even in VTI medium, remains as a hot topic in the field. In this study, we develop a strategy for multi-parameter FWI for acoustic VTI medium with surface seismic data. Because surface seismic data is insensitivity to the delta fields, we decide to hold the delta fields unchanged during our inversion, and invert only for vertical velocity and epsilon fields. Through parameterization analysis and synthetic tests, we find that it is more feasible to invert for the parameterization as vertical and horizontal

  1. Ascertaining Grain Scale Effects Of Seismic Or Aseismic Stimulation Upon Strength Of Near Surface Geological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hassan


    Full Text Available Certain peculiarities of inelastic nonlinearity of unconsolidated near surface periodically stressed granular media contributed at micro- scale are investigated to ascertain possible anomalous time dependent strength behavior macro-effects with geotechnicalgeo-environmental implications. Comparative examination of ultrasonic P- and S-wave repeatable displacement response wave-forms in time records and spectra of pulse stimulated both confined dry and fully saturated ceramic grains analogue endorsable by pertinent theory is performed. Examination is primarily aimed at both understanding connectivity of louder response generated by seemingly unobtrusive quieter seismic and aseismic events in granular sediments. Secondarily results impart an enhanced conceptual substantiation of some previously disseminated andor published results. The results hint certain persistive time and frequency restricted occurrences vouching vital insights. It could be unambiguously clarified that subtle acoustic emission andor stick-slip type micro events in stimulated i.e. seismic or aseismic unconsolidated granular sediments do occur. When spread over time andor space their cumulated effect may be capable of altering granular material macro strength behavior. It is clearly deducible from resonant type spectral results that material fragmentation or force chain formation type phenomenon occurs possibly due to macro-scale friction mobilization by grain-scale events. It is further speculated that invisible high frequency events may irreversibly alter grain-scale surface properties andor intergranular friction as pseudo enhanced elasticity type effect more elusive with saturation. An assessment of an examined temporal distribution of grain-scale stick-slip type events when stimulated by P- and S-wave modes is posited to be non-identical. The former as if is retardation associated while the latter relaxation type in a characteristic sense. Presented result forms combined not

  2. Reassessment of urbanization effect on surface air temperature trends at an urban station of North China (United States)

    Bian, Tao; Ren, Guoyu


    Based on a homogenized data set of monthly mean temperature, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature at Shijiazhuang City Meteorological Station (Shijiazhuang station) and four rural meteorological stations selected applying a more sophisticated methodology, we reanalyzed the urbanization effects on annual, seasonal, and monthly mean surface air temperature (SAT) trends for updated time period 1960-2012 at the typical urban station in North China. The results showed that (1) urbanization effects on the long-term trends of annual mean SAT, minimum SAT, and diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the last 53 years reached 0.25, 0.47, and - 0.50 °C/decade, respectively, all statistically significant at the 0.001 confidence level, with the contributions from urbanization effects to the overall long-term trends reaching 67.8, 78.6, and 100%, respectively; (2) the urbanization effects on the trends of seasonal mean SAT, minimum SAT, and DTR were also large and statistically highly significant. Except for November and December, the urbanization effects on monthly mean SAT, minimum SAT, and DTR were also all statistically significant at the 0.05 confidence level; and (3) the annual, seasonal, and monthly mean maximum SAT series at the urban station registered a generally weaker and non-significant urbanization effect. The updated analysis evidenced that our previous work for this same urban station had underestimated the urbanization effect and its contribution to the overall changes in the SAT series. Many similar urban stations were being included in the current national and regional SAT data sets, and the results of this paper further indicated the importance and urgency for paying more attention to the urbanization bias in the monitoring and detection of global and regional SAT change based on the data sets.

  3. Refinements to the method of epicentral location based on surface waves from ambient seismic noise: introducing Love waves (United States)

    Levshin, Anatoli L.; Barmin, Mikhail P.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mendoza, Carlos; Ritzwoller, Michael H.


    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a modification to a previous method of regional seismic event location based on Empirical Green’s Functions (EGFs) produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long ambient noise time-series recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh- and Love-wave energy on the vertical and transverse components, respectively, and we utilize these signals between about 5 and 12 s period. The previous method, based exclusively on Rayleigh waves, may yield biased epicentral locations for certain event types with hypocentral depths between 2 and 5 km. Here we present theoretical arguments that show how Love waves can be introduced to reduce or potentially eliminate the bias. We also present applications of Rayleigh- and Love-wave EGFs to locate 10 reference events in the western United States. The separate Rayleigh and Love epicentral locations and the joint locations using a combination of the two waves agree to within 1 km distance, on average, but confidence ellipses are smallest when both types of waves are used.

  4. Study of Site Effect at Seismic Station Located in Undermined Area of Karviná Region (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk


    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2016), s. 1715-1730 ISSN 1895-7455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-07027P Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Karviná region * site effect * SSR * HVSR * mining induced seismicity Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2016

  5. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Öncel


    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  6. Seismic-resistant design of nuclear power stations in Japan, earthquake country. Lessons learned from Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irikura, Kojiro


    The new assessment (back-check) of earthquake-proof safety was being conducted at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plants, Tokyo Electric Co. in response to a request based on the guideline for reactor evaluation for seismic-resistant design code, revised in 2006, when the 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake occurred and brought about an unexpectedly huge tremor in this area, although the magnitude of the earthquake was only 6.8 but the intensity of earthquake motion exceeded 2.5-fold more than supposed. This paper introduces how and why the guideline for seismic-resistant design of nuclear facilities was revised in 2006, the outline of the Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, and preliminary findings and lessons learned from the Earthquake. The paper specifically discusses on (1) how we may specify in advance geologic active faults as has been overlooked this time, (2) how we can make adequate models for seismic origin from which we can extract its characteristics, and (3) how the estimation of strong ground motion simulation may be possible for ground vibration level of a possibly overlooked fault. (S. Ohno)

  7. Determination of NEHRP Site Class of Seismic Recording Stations in the Northwest Himalayas and Its Adjoining Area Using HVSR Method (United States)

    Harinarayan, N. H.; Kumar, Abhishek


    Local site characteristics play an important role in controlling the damage pattern during earthquakes (EQs). These site characteristics may vary from simple to complex and can be estimated by various field tests. In addition, extended Nakamura's method, which uses horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) based on available EQ records also available for site class (SC) determination. In this study, SCs for 90 recording stations which are maintained by Program for Excellence in Strong Motion Studies (PESMOS), located in the northwestern Himalayas and the adjoining areas are determined using extended Nakamura's technique. Average HVSR curves obtained at majority of the recording stations are found matching with the existing literature. Predominant frequency ( f peak) from average HVSR curve at each recording station is then used for the determination of SC. Original SC given by PESMOS is purely based on geology and not based on comprehensive soil investigation exercise. In this study, the SC, which is based on the average HVSR curves is found matching with SC given by PESMOS for a majority of recording stations. However, for considerable number of recording stations, a mismatch is also found which is consistent with the existing literature. In addition, SC based on National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) scheme is proposed based on f peak for all the 90 recording stations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Allen H. Weber, A


    Recently it has been suggested that global warming and a decrease in mean wind speeds over most land masses are related. Decreases in near surface wind speeds have been reported by previous investigators looking at records with time spans of 15 to 30 years. This study focuses on United States (US) surface stations that have little or no location change since the late 1940s or the 1950s--a time range of up to 58 years. Data were selected from 62 stations (24 of which had not changed location) and separated into ten groups for analysis. The group's annual averages of temperature, wind speed, and percentage of Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability categories were fitted with linear least squares regression lines. The results showed that the temperatures have increased for eight of the ten groups as expected. Wind speeds have decreased for nine of the ten groups. The mean slope of the wind speed trend lines for stations within the coterminous US was -0.77 m s{sup -1} per century. The percentage frequency of occurrence for the neutral (D) PG stability category decreased, while that for the unstable (B) and the stable (F) categories increased in almost all cases except for the group of stations located in Alaska.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Structure and Event Location Using Body and Surface Wave Measurements at a Single Station: Preparation for Mars Data from the InSight Mission (United States)

    Panning, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.; Beucler, E.; Blanchette-Guertin, J. F.; Boese, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Drilleau, M.; James, S. R.; Kawamura, T.; Khan, A.; Lognonne, P. H.; Mocquet, A.; van Driel, M.


    An important challenge for the upcoming InSight mission to Mars, which will deliver a broadband seismic station to Mars along with other geophysical instruments in 2016, is to accurately determine event locations with the use of a single station. Locations are critical for the primary objective of the mission, determining the internal structure of Mars, as well as a secondary objective of measuring the activity of distribution of seismic events. As part of the mission planning process, a variety of techniques have been explored for location of marsquakes and inversion of structure, and preliminary procedures and software are already under development as part of the InSight Mars Quake and Mars Structure Services. One proposed method, involving the use of recordings of multiple-orbit surface waves, has already been tested with synthetic data and Earth recordings. This method has the strength of not requiring an a priori velocity model of Mars for quake location, but will only be practical for larger events. For smaller events where only first orbit surface waves and body waves are observable, other methods are required. In this study, we implement a transdimensional Bayesian inversion approach to simultaneously invert for basic velocity structure and location parameters (epicentral distance and origin time) using only measurements of body wave arrival times and dispersion of first orbit surface waves. The method is tested with synthetic data with expected Mars noise and Earth data for single events and groups of events and evaluated for errors in both location and structural determination, as well as tradeoffs between resolvable parameters and the effect of 3D crustal variations.

  10. Amplification Factors for Spectral Acceleration Using Borehole Seismic Array in Taiwan (United States)

    Lai, T. S.; Yih-Min, W.; Chao, W. A.; Chang, C. H.


    In order to reduce the noise from surface to get the high-quality seismic recordings, there are 54 borehole seismic arrays have been installed in Taiwan deployed by Central Weather Bureau (CWB) until the end of 2016. Each array includes two force balance accelerometers, one at the surface and other inside the borehole, as well as one broadband seismometer inside the borehole. The downhole instruments are placed at a depth between 120 and 400 m. The background noise level are lower at the borehole stations, but the amplitudes recorded by borehole stations are smaller than surface stations for the same earthquake due to the different geology conditions. Therefore, the earthquake magnitude estimated by borehole station is smaller than surface station. So far, CWB only use the surface stations in the magnitude determination due to this situation. In this study, we investigate the site effects between surface and downhole for borehole seismic arrays. Using the spectral ratio derived by the two-station spectral method as the transfer function, simulated the waveform recorded by borehole stations to the surface stations. In the future, through the transfer function, the borehole stations will be included in the estimation of earthquake magnitude and the results of amplification factors can provide the information of near-surface site effects for the ground motion simulation applications.

  11. Yield Estimation for Semipalatinsk Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Seismic Surface-wave Observations at Near-regional Distances (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    - A statistical procedure is described for estimating the yields of underground nuclear tests at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site using the peak amplitudes of short-period surface waves observed at near-regional distances (Δ Semipalatinsk explosions, including the Soviet JVE explosion of September 14, 1988, and it is demonstrated that it provides seismic estimates of explosion yield which are typically within 20% of the yields determined for these same explosions using more accurate, non-seismic techniques based on near-source observations.

  12. Evaluation of near-surface attenuation of S-waves based on PS logging and vertical array seismic observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Genyu


    As a result of the lessons learned from the experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP due to the 2007 Niigata Chuetsu Oki Earthquake, it has become clear that a rational method of near-surface attenuation characteristics covering a depth range from engineering bedrock to seismic bedrock urgently needs to be established. JNES performed PS logging and vertical array seismic ground motion observation at a soil ground site (SODB 1. site), sedimentary rock site, and an igneous rock site (SODB 2. site), and proposed an evaluation method of attenuation characteristics (site characteristics) for the deep underground. (author)

  13. Station-keeping control of an unmanned surface vehicle exposed to current and wind disturbances


    Sarda, Edoardo I.; Qu, Huajin; Bertaska, Ivan R.; von Ellenrieder, Karl D.


    Field trials of a 4 meter long, 180 kilogram, unmanned surface vehicle (USV) have been conducted to evaluate the performance of station-keeping heading and position controllers in an outdoor marine environment disturbed by wind and current. The USV has a twin hull configuration and a custom-designed propulsion system, which consists of two azimuthing thrusters, one for each hull. Nonlinear proportional derivative, backstepping and sliding mode feedback controllers were tested in winds of abou...

  14. Detection capability of the IMS seismic network based on ambient seismic noise measurements (United States)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Ceranna, Lars


    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection threshold can be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  15. The Ongoing Addition of Infrasound Sensors and the Flexette Wind-Noise Reducing System to Global Seismic Network Stations Operated by Project IDA (United States)

    Ebeling, C. W.; Coon, C.


    Infrasound sensors are now being installed at Global Seismic Network (GSN) stations meeting certain infrastructure criteria. Manufactured by Hyperion Technology Group, Inc., these instruments (model IFS-3312) have a nominal sensitivity of 140 mV/Pa (at 1 Hz), a full-scale range of ±100 Pa, and a dynamic range of 120 dB. Low power consumption (750 mW at 12 VDC) and small size (153 mm x 178 mm) ease incorporation into the mix of existing GSN instrumentation. The accompanying flexible rosette ("Flexette") acoustic wind-noise reducing system, designed by Project IDA (International Deployment of Accelerometers-IDA), optimally includes 24 inlets, 4 secondary manifolds, and a single primary manifold. Each secondary manifold is connected to 6 inlets and to the primary manifold by 10-ft air hoses, thus eliminating stresses and the greater potential for leaks associated with the use of pipe. While the main design goal was to maximize the reduction of acoustic wind-noise over the widest range of wind speeds possible, consideration of additional criteria resulted in a Flexette base design easily tailored to meet individual station constraints and restrictions, made up of inexpensive (total cost Marshall Islands), in August 2017. During the next 6 months infrasound capability will be extended to IDA GSN stations BORG (Borganes, Iceland), EFI (Mount Kent, East Falkland Islands), and SACV (Santiago Island, Cape Verde).As with other data from GSN stations, real-time infrasound data are freely available from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology-Data Management Center (IRIS-DMC).

  16. Geologic interpretation of seismic data relocation Route 2, Littleton Road grade separation stations 243-252 in Harvard, Mass. (United States)

    May, James E.; Linehan, Rev. Daniel


    During parts of June and July 1949 nine seismic traverses were made at this site. Upon preliminary office development, the velocity data for some of these traverses were though to be inadequate and it was recommended that these lines be re-surveyed. Later surveys (March 1950), however, of nearby sites indicated that the original data were reliable and that a re-survey was unnecessary. The work was done as part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the United States Geological Survey.

  17. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo


    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  18. Near‐surface void detection using a seismic landstreamer and horizontal velocity and attenuation tomography (United States)

    Buckley, Sean F.; Lane, John W.


    The detection and characterization of subsurface voids plays an important role in the study of karst formations and clandestine tunnels. Horizontal velocity and attenuation tomography (HVAT) using offset‐fan shooting and a towed seismic land streamer is a simple, rapid, minimally invasive method that shows promise for detecting near‐surface voids and providing information on the orientation of linear voids. HVAT surveys were conducted over a known subsurface steam tunnel on the University of Connecticut Depot Campus, Storrs, Connecticut. First‐arrival travel‐time and amplitude data were used to produce two‐dimensional (2D) horizontal (map view) velocity and attenuation tomograms. In addition, attenuation tomograms were produced based on normalized total trace energy (TTE). Both the velocity and TTE attenuation tomograms depict an anomaly consistent with the location and orientation of the known tunnel; the TTE method, however, requires significantly less processing time, and therefore may provide a path forward to semi‐automated, near real‐time detection of near‐surface voids. Further study is needed to assess the utility of the HVAT method to detect deeper voids and the effects of a more complex geology on HVAT results.

  19. Seismic surface-wave prospecting methods for sinkhole hazard assessment along the Dead Sea shoreline (United States)

    Ezersky, M.; Bodet, L.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Dhemaied, A.; Galibert, P.-Y.; Keydar, S.


    waves generation and picking issues in shear-wave refraction seismic methods. As an alternative, indirect estimation of Vs can then be proposed thanks to surface-wave dispersion measurements and inversion, an emerging seismic prospecting method for near-surface engineering and environment applications. Surface-wave prospecting methods have thus been proposed to address the sinkholes development processes along the Dead Sea shorelines. Two approaches have been used: (1) Vs mapping has been performed to discriminate soft and hard zones within salt layers, after calibration of inverted Vs near boreholes. Preliminarily, soft zones, associated with karstified salt, were characterized by Vs values lower than 1000 m/s, whereas hard zones presented values greater than 1400 m/s (will be specified during following studies); (2) roll along acquisition and dispersion stacking has been performed to achieve multi-modal dispersion measurements along linear profiles. Inverted pseudo-2D Vs sections presented low Vs anomalies in the vicinity of existing sinkholes and made it possible to detect loose sediment associated with potential sinkholes occurrences. Acknowledgements This publication was made possible through support provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and MERC Program under terms of Award No M27-050.

  20. Mapping Deep Low Velocity Zones in Alaskan Arctic Coastal Permafrost using Seismic Surface Waves (United States)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Dreger, D. S.


    Permafrost degradation may be an important amplifier of climate change; Thawing of near-surface sediments holds the potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to microbial decomposition of preserved organic carbon. Recently, the characterization of "deep" carbon pools (several meters below the surface) in circumpolar frozen ground has increased the estimated amount of soil carbon to three times higher than what was previously thought. It is therefore potentially important to include the characteristics and processes of deeper permafrost strata (on the orders of a few to tens of meters below surface) in climate models for improving future predictions of accessible carbon and climate feedbacks. This extension is particularly relevant if deeper formations are not completely frozen and may harbor on-going microbial activity despite sub-zero temperatures. Unfortunately, the characterization of deep permafrost systems is non-trivial; logistics and drilling constraints often limit direct characterization to relatively shallow units. Geophysical measurements, either surface or airborne, are often the most effective tools for evaluating these regions. Of the available geophysical techniques, the analysis of seismic surface waves (e.g. MASW) has several unique advantages, mainly the ability to provide field-scale information with good depth resolution as well as penetration (10s to 100s of m with small portable sources). Surface wave methods are also able to resolve low velocity regions, a class of features that is difficult to characterize using traditional P-wave refraction methods. As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project, we conducted a three-day seismic field survey (May 12 - 14, 2012) at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, which is located within the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Even though permafrost at the study site is continuous, ice-rich and thick (>= 350m), our Multichannel Analysis of

  1. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.


    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  2. Complex source mechanisms of mining-induced seismic events - implications for surface effects (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Cesca, S.; Lasocki, S.; Rudzinski, L.; Lizurek, L.; Wiejacz, P.; Urban, P.; kozlowska, M.


    The seismicity of Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGCD) is induced by mining activities in three mines: Lubin, Rudna and Polkowice-Sieroszowice. Ground motion caused by strong tremors might affect local infrastructure. "Żelazny Most" tailings pond, the biggest structure of this type in Europe, is here under special concern. Due to surface objects protection, Rudna Mine has been running ground motion monitoring for several years. From June 2010 to June 2011 unusually strong and extensive surface impact has been observed for 6 mining tremors induced in one of Rudna mining sections. The observed peak ground acceleration (PGA) for both horizontal and vertical component were in or even beyond 99% confidence interval for prediction. The aim of this paper is analyze the reason of such unusual ground motion. On the basis of registrations from Rudna Mine mining seismological network and records from Polish Seismological Network held by the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAN), the source mechanisms of these 6 tremors were calculated using a time domain moment tensor inversion. Furthermore, a kinematic analysis of the seismic source was performed, in order to determine the rupture planes orientations and rupture directions. These results showed that in case of the investigated tremors, point source models and shear fault mechanisms, which are most often assumed in mining seismology, are invalid. All analyzed events indicate extended sources with non-shear mechanism. The rapture planes have small dip angles and the rupture starts at the tremors hypocenter and propagates in the direction opposite to the plane dip. The tensional component plays here also big role. These source mechanisms well explain such observed strong ground motion, and calculated synthetic PGA values well correlates with observed ones. The relationship between mining tremors were also under investigation. All subsequent tremors occurred in the area of increased stress due to

  3. Radiochemical analyses of surface water from U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic bench-mark stations (United States)

    Janzer, V.J.; Saindon, L.G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey's program for collecting and analyzing surface-water samples for radiochemical constituents at hydrologic bench-mark stations is described. Analytical methods used during the study are described briefly and data obtained from 55 of the network stations in the United States during the period from 1967 to 1971 are given in tabular form.Concentration values are reported for dissolved uranium, radium, gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity. Values are also given for suspended gross alpha radioactivity in terms of natural uranium. Suspended gross beta radioactivity is expressed both as the equilibrium mixture of strontium-90/yttrium-90 and as cesium-137.Other physical parameters reported which describe the samples include the concentrations of dissolved and suspended solids, the water temperature and stream discharge at the time of the sample collection.

  4. Development of near surface seismic methods for urban and mining applications (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Brodic, Bojan; Place, Joachim; Juhlin, Christopher; Bastani, Mehrdad


    There is a great need to improve our understanding of the geological conditions in the shallow subsurface. Direct observations of the subsurface are cumbersome and expensive, and sometimes impossible. Urban and mining areas are especially challenging due to various sources of noise such as from traffic, buildings, cars, city trains, trams, bridges and high-voltage power-lines. Access is also restricted both in time and space, which requires the equipment to be versatile, fast to set up and pack, and produces the least disruptions. However, if properly designed and implemented, geophysical methods are capable of imaging detailed subsurface structures and can successfully be used to provide crucial information for site characterizations, infrastructure planning, brown- and near-field exploration, and mine planning. To address some of these issues Uppsala University, in collaboration with a number of public authorities, research organizations and industry partners, has recently developed a prototype broadband (0-800 Hz based on digital sensors) multi-component seismic landstreamer system. The current configuration consists of three segments with twenty 3C-sensors each 2 m apart and an additional segment with twenty 3C-sensors each 4 m apart, giving a total streamer length of 200 m. These four segments can be towed in parallel or in series, which in combination with synchronized wireless and cabled sensors can address a variety of complex near surface problems. The system is especially geared for noisy environments and areas where high-resolution images of the subsurface are needed. The system has little sensitivity to electrical noise and measures sensor tilt, important in rough terrains, so it can immediately be corrected for during the acquisition. Thanks to the digital sensors, the system can also be used for waveform tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Both these methods require low frequencies and these are often sacrificed in

  5. Combination of surface and borehole seismic data for robust target-oriented imaging (United States)

    Liu, Yi; van der Neut, Joost; Arntsen, Børge; Wapenaar, Kees


    A novel application of seismic interferometry (SI) and Marchenko imaging using both surface and borehole data is presented. A series of redatuming schemes is proposed to combine both data sets for robust deep local imaging in the presence of velocity uncertainties. The redatuming schemes create a virtual acquisition geometry where both sources and receivers lie at the horizontal borehole level, thus only a local velocity model near the borehole is needed for imaging, and erroneous velocities in the shallow area have no effect on imaging around the borehole level. By joining the advantages of SI and Marchenko imaging, a macrovelocity model is no longer required and the proposed schemes use only single-component data. Furthermore, the schemes result in a set of virtual data that have fewer spurious events and internal multiples than previous virtual source redatuming methods. Two numerical examples are shown to illustrate the workflow and to demonstrate the benefits of the method. One is a synthetic model and the other is a realistic model of a field in the North Sea. In both tests, improved local images near the boreholes are obtained using the redatumed data without accurate velocities, because the redatumed data are close to the target.

  6. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.


    microzonation map based on generalized velocity profiles, where the amplifications were computed using Shake (Schnable and others, 1972), along with an assumed input ground motion. The velocities were constrained by only a few local measurements associated with the Central Artery/Tunnel project. The additional VS measurements presented in this report provide a number of benefits. First, these measurements provide improved spatial coverage. Second, the larger sample size provides better constraints on the mean and variance of the VS distribution for each layer, which may be paired with a three-dimensional (3D) model of the stratigraphy to generate one-dimensional (1D) profiles for use in a standard site-response analysis (for example, Britton, 2003). Third, the velocity profiles may also be used, along with a 3D model of the stratigraphy, as input into a 3D simulation of the ground motion to investigate the effects of basin-generated surface waves and the potential focusing of seismic waves.This report begins with a short review of the geology of the study area and the field methods that we used to estimate the velocity profiles. The raw data, processed data, and the interpreted VS profiles are given in appendix 1. Photographs and descriptions of the sites are provided in appendix 2.

  7. Data Collected in 1959 by English Research Vessels at Serial and Surface Hydrographic Stations (NODC Accession 6900852) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present volume contains data collected in 1959 by English research vessels at serial and surface hydrographic stations. The data list are preceded by a number of...

  8. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and shallow mantle of the Central and Eastern United States by seismic surface wave imaging (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred; Mooney, Walter D.


    Seismic surface waves from the Transportable Array of EarthScope's USArray are used to estimate phase velocity structure of 18 to 125 s Rayleigh waves, then inverted to obtain three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure of the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) down to ∼200 km. The obtained lithosphere structure confirms previously imaged CEUS features, e.g., the low seismic-velocity signature of the Cambrian Reelfoot Rift and the very low velocity at >150 km depth below an Eocene volcanic center in northwestern Virginia. New features include high-velocity mantle stretching from the Archean Superior Craton well into the Proterozoic terranes and deep low-velocity zones in central Texas (associated with the late Cretaceous Travis and Uvalde volcanic fields) and beneath the South Georgia Rift (which contains Jurassic basalts). Hot spot tracks may be associated with several imaged low-velocity zones, particularly those close to the former rifted Laurentia margin.

  9. Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces (United States)

    Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit


    Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further

  10. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project (United States)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin


    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  11. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel


    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  12. Resistivity and Seismic Surface Wave Tomography Results for the Nevşehir Kale Region: Cappadocia, Turkey (United States)

    Coşkun, Nart; Çakır, Özcan; Erduran, Murat; Arif Kutlu, Yusuf


    The Nevşehir Kale region located in the middle of Cappadocia with approximately cone shape is investigated for existence of an underground city using the geophysical methods of electrical resistivity and seismic surface wave tomography together. Underground cities are generally known to exist in Cappadocia. The current study has obtained important clues that there may be another one under the Nevşehir Kale region. Two-dimensional resistivity and seismic profiles approximately 4-km long surrounding the Nevşehir Kale are measured to determine the distribution of electrical resistivities and seismic velocities under the profiles. Several high resistivity anomalies with a depth range 8-20 m are discovered to associate with a systematic void structure beneath the region. Because of the high resolution resistivity measurement system currently employed we were able to isolate the void structure from the embedding structure. Low seismic velocity zones associated with the high resistivity depths are also discovered. Using three-dimensional visualization techniques we show the extension of the void structure under the measured profiles.

  13. Assessment of infrasound signals recorded on seismic stations and infrasound arrays in the western United States using ground truth sources (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Hayward, Chris; Stump, Brian W.


    Ground truth sources in Utah during 2003-2013 are used to assess the contribution of temporal atmospheric conditions to infrasound detection and the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models. Ground truth sources consist of 28 long duration static rocket motor burn tests and 28 impulsive rocket body demolitions. Automated infrasound detections from a hybrid of regional seismometers and infrasound arrays use a combination of short-term time average/long-term time average ratios and spectral analyses. These detections are grouped into station triads using a Delaunay triangulation network and then associated to estimate phase velocity and azimuth to filter signals associated with a particular source location. The resulting range and azimuth distribution from sources to detecting stations varies seasonally and is consistent with predictions based on seasonal atmospheric models. Impulsive signals from rocket body detonations are observed at greater distances (>700 km) than the extended duration signals generated by the rocket burn test (up to 600 km). Infrasound energy attenuation associated with the two source types is quantified as a function of range and azimuth from infrasound amplitude measurements. Ray-tracing results using Ground-to-Space atmospheric specifications are compared to these observations and illustrate the degree to which the time variations in characteristics of the observations can be predicted over a multiple year time period.

  14. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology


    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  15. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  16. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface observations and profiles over a single station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Zhaoxia [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    Most routine measurements from climate study facilities, such as the Department of Energy’s ARM SGP site, come from individual sites over a long period of time. While single-station data are very useful for many studies, it is challenging to obtain 3-dimensional spatial structures of atmospheric boundary layers that include prominent signatures of deep convection from these data. The principal objective of this project is to create realistic estimates of high-resolution (~ 1km × 1km horizontal grids) atmospheric boundary layer structure and the characteristics of precipitating convection. These characteristics include updraft and downdraft cumulus mass fluxes and cold pool properties over a region the size of a GCM grid column from analyses that assimilate surface mesonet observations of wind, temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio and available profiling data from single or multiple surface stations. The ultimate goal of the project is to enhance our understanding of the properties of mesoscale convective systems and also to improve their representation in analysis and numerical simulations. During the proposed period (09/15/2011–09/14/2014) and the no-cost extension period (09/15/2014–09/14/2015), significant accomplishments have been achieved relating to the stated goals. Efforts have been extended to various research and applications. Results have been published in professional journals and presented in related science team meetings and conferences. These are summarized in the report.

  17. Automated phase picker and source location algorithm for local distances using a single three component seismic station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.


    The paper describes procedures for automatic location of local events by using single-site, three-component (3c) seismogram records. Epicentral distance is determined from the time difference between P- and S-onsets. For onset time estimates a special phase picker algorithm is introduced. Onset detection is accomplished by comparing short-term average with long-term average after multiplication of north, east and vertical components of recording. For epicentral distances up to 100 km, errors seldom exceed 5 km. The slowness vector, essentially the azimuth, is estimated independently by using the Christoffersson et al. (1988) 'polarization' technique, although a priori knowledge of the P-onset time gives the best results. Differences between 'true' and observed azimuths are generally less than 12 deg C. Practical examples are given by demonstrating the viability of the procedures for automated 3c seismogram analysis. The results obtained compare favourably with those achieved by a miniarray of three stations. (orig.)

  18. Complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams in seismic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negmatullaev, S.Kh.; Yasunov, P.A.


    This article is devoted to complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams (Nurec hydroelectric power station) in seismic region. Geological, seismological, model, and engineering investigations are discussed in this work. At construction of Nurec hydroelectric power station the rich experience is accumulated. This experience can be used in analogous seismically active regions at construction similar hydroelectric power stations.

  19. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.


    The principal tools for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, are seismic networks and surveillance satellites. On-site inspections might also be required to resolve ambiguous events. The critical element of the monitoring system is the network of seismic stations, and in particular the in-country station. Internal stations provide much more useful data than do stations outside the borders of testing nations. For large events that are not eliminated by depth or location, one of the most useful discriminants is based on the ratio of surface-wave to body-wave magnitudes (M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ ). If an explosion and an earthquake have the same body-wave magnitude, the surface-wave magnitude for the earthquake is generally larger. It has yet to be proven that M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ is useful at low magnitudes, expecially when explosions are set off in long tunnels or odd-shaped cavities. A number of other promising regional discriminants have been suggested. Evasion opportunities and cavity decoupling are discussed

  20. Seismic excitation by space shuttles (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.


    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  1. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.


    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  2. Characterization of the Vajont landslide (North-Eastern Italy) by means of reflection and surface wave seismics (United States)

    Petronio, Lorenzo; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio


    The mechanisms of the disastrous Vajont rockslide (North-Eastern Italy, October 9, 1963) have been studied in great detail over the past five decades. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the rockslide dynamics still presents several uncertainties, including those related to the accurate estimation of the actual landslide mass. This work presents the results of a geophysical characterization of the Vajont landslide body in terms of material properties and buried geometry. Both aspects add new information to the existing dataset and will help a better understanding of the rockslide failure mechanisms and dynamics. In addition, some general considerations concerning the intricacies of landslide characterization can be drawn, with due attention to potential pitfalls. The employed techniques are: (i) high resolution P-wave reflection, (ii) high resolution SH-wave reflection, (iii) controlled source surface wave analysis. We adopted as a seismic source a vibrator both for P waves and SH waves, using vertical and horizontal geophones respectively. For the surface wave seismic survey we used a heavy drop-weight source and low frequency receivers. Despite the high noise level caused by the fractured conditions of the large rock body, a common situation in landslide studies, we managed to achieve a satisfying imaging quality of the landslide structure thanks to the large number of active channels, the short receiver interval and the test of appropriate seismic sources. The joint use of different seismic techniques help focus the investigation on the rock mass mechanical properties. Results are in good agreement with the available borehole data, the geological sections and the mechanical properties of the rockmass estimated by other studies. In general the proposed approach is likely to be applicable successfully to similar situations where scattering and other noise sources are a typical bottleneck to geophysical data acquisition on landslide bodies.

  3. Interpretation of Microseismicity Observed From Surface and Borehole Seismic Arrays During Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale - Bedding Plane Slip Model (United States)

    Stanek, F.; Jechumtalova, Z.; Eisner, L.


    We present a geomechanical model explaining microseismicity induced by hydraulic fracturing in shales developed from many datasets acquired with two most common types of seismic monitoring arrays, surface and dual-borehole arrays. The geomechanical model explains the observed source mechanisms and locations of induced events from two stimulated shale reservoirs. We observe shear dip-slip source mechanisms with nodal planes aligned with location trends. We show that such seismicity can be explained as a shearing along bedding planes caused by aseismic opening of vertical hydraulic fractures. The source mechanism inversion was applied only to selected high-quality events with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. We inverted P- and P- and S-wave arrival amplitudes to full-moment tensor and decomposed it to shear, volumetric and compensated linear vector dipole components. We also tested an effect of noise presented in the data to evaluate reliability of non-shear components. The observed seismicity from both surface and downhole monitoring of shale stimulations is very similar. The locations of induced microseismic events are limited to narrow depth intervals and propagate along distinct trend(s) showing fracture propagation in direction of maximum horizontal stress from injection well(s). The source mechanisms have a small non-shear component which can be partly explained as an effect of noise in the data, i.e. events represent shearing on faults. We observe predominantly dip-slip events with a strike of the steeper (almost vertical) nodal plane parallel to the fracture propagation. Therefore the other possible nodal plane is almost horizontal. The rake angles of the observed mechanisms divide these dip-slips into two groups with opposite polarities. It means that we observe opposite movements on the nearly identically oriented faults. Realizing a typical structural weakness of shale in horizontal planes, we interpret observed microseismicity as a result of shearing

  4. Geophysical imaging of near-surface structure using electromagnetic and seismic waves (United States)

    Chen, Yongping

    This thesis includes three different studies of geophysical imaging: (1) inference of plume moments from tomograms with cross-hole radar; (2) simulated annealing inversion for near-surface shear-wave velocity structure with microtremor measurements; and (3) time-lapse GPR imaging of water movement in the vadose zone. Although these studies involve different geophysical approaches, they are linked by a common theme---using geophysical imaging to understand hydrologic phenomena or subsurface structure. My first study in this thesis is concerned with the identification of plume moments from geophysical tomograms. Previously geophysical imaging has been applied to characterize contaminant plume migration in groundwater, and to determine plume mass, extent, velocity, and shape. Although tomograms have been used for quantitative inference of plume moments, the reliability of these inferred moments is poorly understood. In general, tomograms represent blurry and blunted images of subsurface properties, as a consequence of limited data acquisition geometry, measurement error, and the effects of regularization. In this thesis, I investigated the effect of tomographic resolution on the inference of plume moments from tomograms. I presented a new approach to quantify the resolution of inferred moments, drawing on concepts from conventional geophysical image appraisal, and also image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. This new approach is demonstrated by synthetic examples in radar tomography. My results indicated that moments calculated from tomograms are subject to substantial error and bias. For example, for many practical survey geometries, crosshole radar tomography (1) is incapable of resolving the lateral center of mass, and (2) severely underpredicts total mass. The degree of bias and error varies spatially over the tomogram, in a complicated manner, as a result of spatially variable resolution. These findings have important implications for the quantitative use

  5. The Global Detection Capability of the IMS Seismic Network in 2013 Inferred from Ambient Seismic Noise Measurements (United States)

    Gaebler, P. J.; Ceranna, L.


    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection thresholdcan be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  6. Effect of the surface roughness on the seismic signal generated by a single rock impact: insight from laboratory experiments (United States)

    Bachelet, Vincent; Mangeney, Anne; de Rosny, Julien; Toussaint, Renaud


    The seismic signal generated by rockfalls, landslides or avalanches is a unique tool to detect, characterize and monitor gravitational flow activity, with strong implication in terms of natural hazard monitoring. Indeed, as natural flows travel down the slope, they apply stresses on the ground, generating seismic waves in a wide frequency band. Our ultimate objective is to relate the granular flow properties to the generated signals that result from the different physical processes involved. We investigate here the more simple process: the impact of a single bead on a rough surface. Farin et al. [2015] have already shown theoretically and experimentally the existence of a link between the properties of an impacting bead (mass and velocity) on smooth surfaces, and the emitted signal (radiated elastic energy and mean frequency). This demonstrates that the single impactor properties can be deduced from the form of the emitted signal. We extend this work here by investigating the impact of single beads and gravels on rough and erodible surfaces. Experimentally, we drop glass and steel beads of diameters from 2 mm to 10 mm on a PMMA plate. The roughness of this last is obtained by gluing 3mm-diameter glass beads on one of its face. Free beads have been also added to get erodible beds. We track the dropped impactor motion, times between impacts and the generated acoustic waves using two fast cameras and 8 accelerometers. Cameras are used in addition to estimate the impactor rotation. We investigate the energy balance during the impact process, especially how the energy restitution varies as a function of the energy lost through acoustic waves. From these experiments, we clearly observe that even if more dissipative processes are involved (friction, grain reorganization, etc.), the single bead scaling laws obtained on smooth surfaces remain valid. A main result of this work is to quantify the fluctuations of the characteristic quantities such as the bounce angle, the

  7. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang


    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  8. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  9. Shallow lunar structure determined from the passive seismic experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Dorman, J.; Duennebier, F.; Lammlein, D.; Latham, G.


    Data relevant to the shallow structure of the Moon obtained at the Apollo seismic stations are compared with previously published results of the active seismic experiments. It is concluded that the lunar surface is covered by a layer of low seismic velocity (Vsub(p) approximately equal to 100 ms -1 ), which appears to be equivalent to the lunar regolith defined previously by geological observations. This layer is underlain by a zone of distinctly higher seismic velocity at all of the Apollo landing sites. The regolith thicknesses at the Apollo 11, 12, and 15 sites are estimated from the shear-wave resonance to be 4.4, 3.7, and 4.4m, respectively. These thicknesses and those determined at the other Apollo sites by the active seismic experiments appear to be correlated with the age determinations and the abundances of extra-lunar components at the sites. (Auth.)

  10. Application of the surface reflection seismic method to shallow coal exploration in the plains of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyatsky, H.V.; Lawton, D.C. (University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)


    A study was done to make a quantitative interpretation of reflection seismic data from the Highvale-Whitewood shallow coal deposit in central Alberta. Results showed that the data is useful in demonstrating coal thickness and stratigraphy as well as structural formation. Reflection character is affected by nature of the strata surrounding the coal deposit. 22 refs., 1 tab., 23 figs.

  11. Impact of seismicity on surface in mining affected areas: general description

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk


    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2004), s. 35-39 ISSN 1211-1910. [Mining and Environmental geophysics/29./. Sedmihorky, 00.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/03/0078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : seismicity * mining affected areas Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  12. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Texas-Gulf of Mexico margin from joint inversion of Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Pulliam, J.; Sen, M. K.


    The seismic structure beneath Texas Gulf Coast Plain (GCP) is determined via velocity analysis of stacked common conversion point (CCP) Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion. The GCP is a portion of a ocean-continental transition zone, or 'passive margin', where seismic imaging of lithospheric Earth structure via passive seismic techniques has been rare. Seismic data from a temporary array of 22 broadband stations, spaced 16-20 km apart, on a ~380-km-long profile from Matagorda Island, a barrier island in the Gulf of Mexico, to Johnson City, Texas were employed to construct a coherent image of the crust and uppermost mantle. CCP stacking was applied to data from teleseismic earthquakes to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of converted phases, such as Ps phases. An inaccurate velocity model, used for time-to-depth conversion in CCP stacking, may produce higher errors, especially in a region of substantial lateral velocity variations. An accurate velocity model is therefore essential to constructing high quality depth-domain images. To find accurate velocity P- and S-wave models, we applied a joint modeling approach that searches for best-fitting models via simulated annealing. This joint inversion approach, which we call 'multi objective optimization in seismology' (MOOS), simultaneously models Ps receiver functions, Sp receiver functions and group velocity surface wave dispersion curves after assigning relative weights for each objective function. Weights are computed from the standard deviations of the data. Statistical tools such as the posterior parameter correlation matrix and posterior probability density (PPD) function are used to evaluate the constraints that each data type places on model parameters. They allow us to identify portions of the model that are well or poorly constrained.

  13. Near-surface, marine seismic-reflection data defines potential hydrogeologic confinement bypass in a tertiary carbonate aquifer, southeastern Florida (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Walker, Cameron; Westcott, Richard L.


    Approximately 210 km of near-surface, high-frequency, marine seismic-reflection data were acquired on the southeastern part of the Florida Platform between 2007 and 2011. Many high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles, interpretable to a depth of about 730 m, were collected on the shallow-marine shelf of southeastern Florida in water as shallow as 1 m. Landward of the present-day shelf-margin slope, these data image middle Eocene to Pleistocene strata and Paleocene to Pleistocene strata on the Miami Terrace. This high-resolution data set provides an opportunity to evaluate geologic structures that cut across confining units of the Paleocene to Oligocene-age carbonate rocks that form the Floridan aquifer system.Seismic profiles image two structural systems, tectonic faults and karst collapse structures, which breach confining beds in the Floridan aquifer system. Both structural systems may serve as pathways for vertical groundwater flow across relatively low-permeability carbonate strata that separate zones of regionally extensive high-permeability rocks in the Floridan aquifer system. The tectonic faults occur as normal and reverse faults, and collapse-related faults have normal throw. The most common fault occurrence delineated on the reflection profiles is associated with karst collapse structures. These high-frequency seismic data are providing high quality structural analogs to unprecedented depths on the southeastern Florida Platform. The analogs can be used for assessment of confinement of other carbonate aquifers and the sealing potential of deeper carbonate rocks associated with reservoirs around the world.

  14. Selection of the reference concept for the surface examination stations in the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, G.B.; Nash, C.R.


    The prototype surface examination station for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will use closed circuit television (CCTV) for routine modes of operation along with a nuclear periscope for special examination needs. The CCTV and the nuclear periscope were evaluated against prescribed station requirements and compared in a side-by-side demonstration. A quantitative evaluation of their outputs showed that both systems were capable of meeting surface anomaly detection requirements. The CCTV system was superior in its ability to collect, suppress and present data into a more useful form for the experimenters

  15. Turbulence characteristics of surface boundary layer over the Kalpakkam tropical coastal station, India (United States)

    Prasad, K. B. R. R. Hari; Srinivas, C. V.; Singh, A. Bagavth; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.


    In this study turbulent fluxes and their intensity features are studied in different seasons at the tropical Indian coastal station, Kalpakkam. Measurements from Ultrasonic anemometer at 10 m agl over 30-day period of four seasons (winter 1-30 January; summer/spring 1-30 April; SW monsoon 1-30 July; NE monsoon 1-30 October) in 2013 and 2014 are used for this work. Various surface layer parameters viz, friction velocity (u *), Obukhov length (L), momentum flux (M), turbulent heat flux (H), turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) are computed using eddy correlation method. Results indicate that the study region is highly turbulent in summer followed by NE monsoon, winter and SW monsoon seasons. Derived parameters indicate that shear is the main contributing mechanism for TKE generation during SW monsoon and both shear and buoyancy contributed for the generation of TKE in other seasons. Site specific turbulent intensity relationships were developed by analyzing second order moments of 3D wind components as a function of stability parameter (z/L). The turbulent components of wind followed 1/3 power law in the unstable regime and - 1 power law in the stable regime. Comparisons with previous studies indicate that the turbulent intensity for horizontal winds at the coastal station is relatively less especially in the unstable conditions. The derived relationships are found to be unique and vary seasonally and suggest their application for improved modeling of atmospheric dispersion in the study domain. Rate of dissipation of TKE (ϕ ɛ) for stable and unstable conditions at the observation site is different from the earlier proposed relationships in the literature. Thus, a new relationship is proposed for the better fit of the data at this site.

  16. Shear-wave seismic reflection imaging and impedance inversion for a near-surface point-bar (United States)

    Benton, N. W.; Morrison, M.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Odom, B.; Clift, P. D.; Olson, E.; Gostic, A.


    Imaging and inversion of SH-waves are useful to detect, map, and quantitatively characterize near-surface point-bar strata. We conduct a horizontally-polarized (SH) reflection survey across and along a near-surface (9 - 40 m) downstream point-bar. We invert for shear-impedance profiles and correlate our interpretation to electrical conductivity (EC) logs in adjacent wells to study the internal architecture and lithology of point-bars. We acquire two common-midpoint (CMP) SH-wave seismic reflection lines at False River (Point Coupee Parish, Louisiana). A 104 m long seismic line (L1) is oriented orthogonal (NW - SE) to point-bar strike. A second line (L2) is 48 m long and set parallel to point-bar strike (NE - SW). Two EC wells lie 33 m apart. Both wells are parallel with respect to the L1 survey and offset from it by 15 m. EC log measurements range from 1 - 25 m depth. Interference of Love-waves prevents seismic imaging at depths less than 9 m. The L1 and L2 data sets are inverted for shear-impedance using a model-based band-limited impedance (BLIMP) algorithm that incorporates a low-frequency velocity model. This model is also used for the depthing processing. The L1 cross-section shows coherent dipping reflection events ( 4 - 7º) from 0.15 - 0.35 s (10 - 40 m). The corresponding shear-impedance profile also reveals coherent and dipping impedance contrasts that grow in magnitude with increasing depth. The L2 cross-section shows comparatively less dip ( 1º) as well as sharper and shallower continuity of reflection events (0.1 - 0.28 s TWT or 9 - 25 m). Depth-converted (TVD) seismic amplitudes and impedance values correlate to near-surface point-bar geology via superposition of log data. The first well (W5) shows distinct EC local maxima (+50 - 70 mS/m) at 14.5 and 15.5 m depth that correlate well with the seismic amplitudes and impedance values from both L1 and L2 data sets. The second well (W7) shows comparatively lower local maxima (+40 - 60 mS/m) but at greater

  17. Diurnal and seasonal variations in surface methane at a tropical coastal station: Role of mesoscale meteorology. (United States)

    Kavitha, M; Nair, Prabha R; Girach, I A; Aneesh, S; Sijikumar, S; Renju, R


    In view of the large uncertainties in the methane (CH 4 ) emission estimates and the large spatial gaps in its measurements, studies on near-surface CH 4 on regional basis become highly relevant. This paper presents the first time observational results of a study on the impacts of mesoscale meteorology on the temporal variations of near-surface CH 4 at a tropical coastal station, in India. It is based on the in-situ measurements conducted during January 2014 to August 2016, using an on-line CH 4 analyzer working on the principle of gas chromatography. The diurnal variation shows a daytime low (1898-1925ppbv) and nighttime high (1936-2022ppbv) extending till early morning hours. These changes are closely associated with the mesoscale circulations, namely Sea Breeze (SB) and Land Breeze (LB), as obtained through the meteorological observations, WRF simulations of the circulations and the diurnal variation of boundary layer height as observed by the Microwave Radiometer Profiler. The diurnal enhancement always coincides with the onset of LB. Several cases of different onset timings of LB were examined and results presented. The CH 4 mixing ratio also exhibits significant seasonal patterns being maximum in winter and minimum in pre-monsoon/monsoon with significant inter-annual variations, which is also reflected in diurnal patterns, and are associated with changing synoptic meteorology. This paper also presents an analysis of in-situ measured near-surface CH 4 , column averaged and upper tropospheric CH 4 retrieved by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Earth Observing System (EOS)/Aqua which gives insight into the vertical distribution of the CH 4 over the location. An attempt is also made to estimate the instantaneous radiative forcing for the measured CH 4 mixing ratio. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Natural Fractures from Observed Surface Seismic Data Based on a Linear-Slip Model (United States)

    Chen, Huaizhen; Zhang, Guangzhi


    Natural fractures play an important role in migration of hydrocarbon fluids. Based on a rock physics effective model, the linear-slip model, which defines fracture parameters (fracture compliances) for quantitatively characterizing the effects of fractures on rock total compliance, we propose a method to detect natural fractures from observed seismic data via inversion for the fracture compliances. We first derive an approximate PP-wave reflection coefficient in terms of fracture compliances. Using the approximate reflection coefficient, we derive azimuthal elastic impedance as a function of fracture compliances. An inversion method to estimate fracture compliances from seismic data is presented based on a Bayesian framework and azimuthal elastic impedance, which is implemented in a two-step procedure: a least-squares inversion for azimuthal elastic impedance and an iterative inversion for fracture compliances. We apply the inversion method to synthetic and real data to verify its stability and reasonability. Synthetic tests confirm that the method can make a stable estimation of fracture compliances in the case of seismic data containing a moderate signal-to-noise ratio for Gaussian noise, and the test on real data reveals that reasonable fracture compliances are obtained using the proposed method.

  19. System and method for generating 3D images of non-linear properties of rock formation using surface seismic or surface to borehole seismic or both (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt Toshimi; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.


    A system and method of characterizing properties of a medium from a non-linear interaction are include generating, by first and second acoustic sources disposed on a surface of the medium on a first line, first and second acoustic waves. The first and second acoustic sources are controllable such that trajectories of the first and second acoustic waves intersect in a mixing zone within the medium. The method further includes receiving, by a receiver positioned in a plane containing the first and second acoustic sources, a third acoustic wave generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic waves in the mixing zone; and creating a first two-dimensional image of non-linear properties or a first ratio of compressional velocity and shear velocity, or both, of the medium in a first plane generally perpendicular to the surface and containing the first line, based on the received third acoustic wave.

  20. Seismic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Quittmeyer


    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground

  1. Seismic Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Quittmeyer


    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  2. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004 (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.


    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  3. Temporal Change of Seismic Earth's Inner Core Phases: Inner Core Differential Rotation Or Temporal Change of Inner Core Surface? (United States)

    Yao, J.; Tian, D.; Sun, L.; Wen, L.


    Since Song and Richards [1996] first reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKIKP wave (a compressional wave refracted in the inner core) and proposed inner core differential rotation as its explanation, it has generated enormous interests in the scientific community and the public, and has motivated many studies on the implications of the inner core differential rotation. However, since Wen [2006] reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKiKP wave (a compressional wave reflected from the inner core boundary) that requires temporal change of inner core surface, both interpretations for the temporal change of inner core phases have existed, i.e., inner core rotation and temporal change of inner core surface. In this study, we discuss the issue of the interpretation of the observed temporal changes of those inner core phases and conclude that inner core differential rotation is not only not required but also in contradiction with three lines of seismic evidence from global repeating earthquakes. Firstly, inner core differential rotation provides an implausible explanation for a disappearing inner core scatterer between a doublet in South Sandwich Islands (SSI), which is located to be beneath northern Brazil based on PKIKP and PKiKP coda waves of the earlier event of the doublet. Secondly, temporal change of PKIKP and its coda waves among a cluster in SSI is inconsistent with the interpretation of inner core differential rotation, with one set of the data requiring inner core rotation and the other requiring non-rotation. Thirdly, it's not reasonable to invoke inner core differential rotation to explain travel time change of PKiKP waves in a very small time scale (several months), which is observed for repeating earthquakes in Middle America subduction zone. On the other hand, temporal change of inner core surface could provide a consistent explanation for all the observed temporal changes of PKIKP and PKiKP and their coda waves. We conclude that

  4. Seismic and hydroacoustic analysis relevant to MH370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The vicinity of the Indian Ocean is searched for open and readily available seismic and/or hydroacoustic stations that might have recorded a possible impact of MH370 with the ocean surface. Only three stations are identified: the IMS hydrophone arrays H01 and H08, and the Geoscope seismic station AIS. Analysis of the data from these stations shows an interesting arrival on H01 that has some interference from an Antarctic ice event, large amplitude repeating signals at H08 that obscure any possible arrivals, and large amplitude chaotic noise at AIS precludes any analysis at higher frequencies of interest. The results are therefore rather inconclusive but may point to a more southerly impact location within the overall Indian Ocean search region. The results would be more useful if they can be combined with any other data that are not readily available.

  5. Seismic and Geodetic Monitoring of the Nicoya, Costa Rica, Seismic Gap (United States)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.; Schwartz, S.; Dixon, T.; Kato, T.; Kaneda, Y.; Simila, G.; Sampson, D.


    The Nicoya segment of the Middle America Trench has been recognized as a mature seismic gap with potential to generate a large earthquake in the near future (it ruptured with large earthquakes in 1853, 1900 and 1950). Low level of background seismicity and fast crustal deformation of the forearc are indicatives of strong coupling along the plate interface. Given its high seismic potential, the available data and especially the fact that the Nicoya peninsula extends over large part of the rupture area, this gap was selected as one of the two sites for a MARGINS-SEIZE experiment. With the goal of documenting the evolution of loading and stress release along this seismic gap, an international effort involving several institutions from Costa Rica, the United States and Japan is being carried out for over a decade in the region. This effort involves the installation of temporary and permanent seismic and geodetic networks. The seismic network includes short period, broad band and strong motion instruments. The seismic monitoring has provided valuable information on the geometry and characteristics of the plate interface. The geodetic network includes temporary and permanent GPS stations as well as surface and borehole tiltmeters. The geodetic networks have helped quantify the extend and degree of coupling. A continuously recording, three- station GPS network on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, recorded what we believe is the first slow slip event observed along the plate interface of the Costa Rica subduction zone. We will present results from these monitoring networks. Collaborative international efforts are focused on expanding these seismic and geodetic networks to provide improved resolution of future creep events, to enhanced understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Nicoya subduction segment of the Middle American Trench and possibly capture the next large earthquake and its potential precursor deformation.

  6. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre


    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  7. Seismic Interferometry of Gulf of Mexico Basin Opening (GUMBO) Data: Extraction of Body and Surface Waves with a Mixed-Mode Array (United States)

    Thangraj, J. S.; Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.


    The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a relative small oceanic basin that formed by rifting between the continental blocks of North America and Yucatan in the Middle to Late Jurassic. Following the breakup, seafloor spreading continued until the Early Cretaceous. Since then, subsidence and sedimentation have shaped the GoM margin that we see today. To better understand the opening of the GoM, a long-offset (307 km) seismic refraction line was acquired in 2010. The transect was located on the northwest GoM margin, and consisted of several types of instruments. This mixed-mode array combined 31 ocean bottom seismographs (OBS), 412 high-frequency instruments (4.5 Hz geophones with RefTek 125A "Texan" digitizers) and 12 broadband stations. The R/V Iron Cat provided the airgun source used in the refraction experiment. The airgun generated 2028 shots in a period of 2.5 days which were recorded by the entire array. The airgun-generated seismic energy was clearly visible on the OBS recordings, however its amplitude was too low to be discerned on most of the onshore stations. In fact, this energy was only visible on Texan stations 1-50 (station 1 is located at the coast), extending 18 km inland, limiting the extend of the velocity model that can be obtained. Here, we apply seismic interferometry techniques to the 2.5 days of continuous data recorded by the Texan array with the goal of extending the spatial range for which the airgun-generated seismic energy can be observed. Preliminary results show that by treating the 2.5 days of continuously recorded airgun data as ambient noise, and applying time-domain cross-correlation, we can observe energy propagating 50 to 70 km inland with apparent velocities of 1800 - 2200 ms-1. These velocities agree with the compressional seismic velocity for the top 5 km of sediments under the GoM obtained from the OBS records, suggesting that we are observing compressional energy in the virtual source gathers (VSG). We also observe arrivals in the VSG

  8. Shear wave velocities in the upper mantle of the Western Alps: new constraints using array analysis of seismic surface waves (United States)

    Lyu, Chao; Pedersen, Helle A.; Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Solarino, Stefano


    It remains challenging to obtain absolute shear wave velocities of heterogeneities of small lateral extension in the uppermost mantle. This study presents a cross-section of Vs across the strongly heterogeneous 3-D structure of the western European Alps, based on array analysis of data from 92 broad-band seismic stations from the CIFALPS experiment and from permanent networks in France and Italy. Half of the stations were located along a dense sublinear array. Using a combination of these stations and off-profile stations, fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were calculated using a combined frequency-time beamforming approach. We calculated dispersion curves for seven arrays of approximately 100 km aperture and 14 arrays of approximately 50 km aperture, the latter with the aim of obtaining a 2-D vertical cross-section of Vs beneath the western Alps. The dispersion curves were inverted for Vs(z), with crustal interfaces imposed from a previous receiver function study. The array approach proved feasible, as Vs(z) from independent arrays vary smoothly across the profile length. Results from the seven large arrays show that the shear velocity of the upper mantle beneath the European plate is overall low compared to AK135 with the lowest velocities in the internal part of the western Alps, and higher velocities east of the Alps beneath the Po plain. The 2-D Vs model is coherent with (i) a ∼100 km thick eastward-dipping European lithosphere west of the Alps, (ii) very high velocities beneath the Po plain, coherent with the presence of the Alpine (European) slab and (iii) a narrow low-velocity anomaly beneath the core of the western Alps (from the Briançonnais to the Dora Maira massif), and approximately colocated with a similar anomaly observed in a recent teleseismic P-wave tomography. This intriguing anomaly is also supported by traveltime variations of subvertically propagating body waves from two teleseismic events that are approximately located on

  9. Mine alarm stations for mine haulage systems in coal surface mines. Stantsiya pozharnoi signalizatsii dlya gorno-transportnogo oborudovaniya ugol'nykh razrezov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terebilo, N.I.; Bukhanets, B.N.; Rozhkov, V.L.; Martynenko, V.D. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornospasatel' nogo Dela, Donetsk (USSR))


    Describes design and operation of the STs fire alarm station developed by the Spetsavtomatika plant in Minsk and successfully tested in the Borodino surface coal mine. The station consists of 14 measuring circuits with the measuring cycle not longer than 4 s. The station detects fires at earthmoving and haulage equipment, cuts off energy supply to fire zones and activates fire extinguishing equipment. The station will be manufactured on a commercial scale. 2 refs.

  10. Bacterial DNA of Ocean and Land on the Surface of the International Space Station. (United States)

    Grebennikova, Tatiana

    A.V. Syroeshkin2, T.V. Grebennikova1, E.V. Shubralova3, V.A. Shuvalov3, O.S. Tsygankov4, V.B. Lapshin2 1D. I. Ivanovsky Virology Institute, Moscow, Russia 2 Academician E. K. Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow, Russia 3S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation «Energia» Korolev, Russia 4Central Research Institute of Machine Building, Korolev, Russia Existence of biological molecules as markers of microorganisms in the space environment has always attracted attention of researchers. There is great attention to the search for extraterrestrial life forms [Nicholson W.L. 2009, Kawaguchi Y. et al 2013], and as well as the coping mechanisms of living organisms in the interplanetary space [Hotchin J. et al 1965, Baranov V.M. 2009, Horneck G. et al 2010]. Experiments on American and Japanese segments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the different nature of resistance during prolonged stay in space were conducted [Scalzi G et al 2012, Wassmann M. et al 2012]. As a result of these experiments confirmed the possibility of preserving the viability of organisms in an open space for a long time. Consequence, became interested in the transfer of living matter from the stratosphere to near-Earth space [Smith D.J. 2013]. We hypothesized that viable forms, or at least, intact DNA can be transferred to the orbit of the ISS with the ascending branch of the global electric circuit. Samples of cosmic dust collected from the surface of the window of the ISS during the exit of an astronaut in space. Samples (washes with material of tampons and tampons) which were in vacuo, were analyzed for the presence of bacterial DNA by nested PCR using primers specific DNA genus Mycobacterium, the DNA of the strain of the genus Bacillus anthracis and DNA encoding the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA after transportation of the samples to Earth. The results of amplification, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed the presence in samples of cosmic dust DNA

  11. Correlation Between Electromagnetic Signals and Seismic Events on Central Colombia Region to Establish Seismic Precursors Existence (United States)

    Caneva, A.; Vargas Jiménez, C. A.; Solano Fino, J. M.


    It was already shown by several authors around the world some kinds of correlation between electric and magnetic signals and seismic events looking for precursors to the last ones emitted from the seismic source. This investigation tends to establish a correlation between electro-magnetic (EM) signals on the ground surface and seismic events on the Colombian lithospheric system. The events correlation was made with data from the Seismological Network of the Sabana de Bogotá (RSSB for its acronym in Spanish), a temporal seismological network on Chichimene (Acacías, Meta, Colombia) and the National Seismological Network of Colombia (RSNC, for its acronym in Spanish). The project involved the design, construction and preliminary tests for the necessary instruments added to the RSSB as multi-parameter stations with seismic broadband, electric polarizing and non-polarizing dipoles and Earth's magnetic field sensors. Correlations were made considering time, frequency and `natural time' domains with filtering and preprocessing algorithms. Among the main results are the almost complete lack of electric disturbances known as Seismic Electric Signals (SES) and very few of the magnetic kind. However, another kind of long period magnetic disturbances for some stations and events where found. More instruments have to be deployed in order to get a better understanding of these disturbances and develop a robust model.

  12. Studies of infrasound propagation using the USArray seismic network (Invited) (United States)

    Hedlin, M. A.; Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Walker, K. T.


    Although there are currently ~ 100 infrasound arrays worldwide, more than ever before, the station density is still insufficient to provide validation for detailed propagation modeling. Much structure in the atmosphere is short-lived and occurs at spatial scales much smaller than the average distance between infrasound stations. Relatively large infrasound signals can be observed on seismic channels due to coupling at the Earth's surface. Recent research, using data from the 70-km spaced 400-station USArray and other seismic network deployments, has shown the value of dense seismic network data for filling in the gaps between infrasound arrays. The dense sampling of the infrasound wavefield has allowed us to observe complete travel-time branches of infrasound signals and shed more light on the nature of infrasound propagation. We present early results from our studies of impulsive atmospheric sources, such as series of UTTR rocket motor detonations in Utah. The Utah blasts have been well recorded by USArray seismic stations and infrasound arrays in Nevada and Washington State. Recordings of seismic signals from a series of six events in 2007 are used to pinpoint the shot times to < 1 second. Variations in the acoustic branches and signal arrival times at the arrays are used to probe variations in atmospheric structure. Although we currently use coupled signals we anticipate studying dense acoustic network recordings as the USArray is currently being upgraded with infrasound microphones. These new sensors will allow us to make semi-continental scale network recordings of infrasound signals free of concerns about how the signals observed on seismic channels were modified when being coupled to seismic.

  13. Contribution of the Surface and Down-Hole Seismic Networks to the Location of Earthquakes at the Soultz-sous-Forêts Geothermal Site (France) (United States)

    Kinnaert, X.; Gaucher, E.; Kohl, T.; Achauer, U.


    Seismicity induced in geo-reservoirs can be a valuable observation to image fractured reservoirs, to characterize hydrological properties, or to mitigate seismic hazard. However, this requires accurate location of the seismicity, which is nowadays an important seismological task in reservoir engineering. The earthquake location (determination of the hypocentres) depends on the model used to represent the medium in which the seismic waves propagate and on the seismic monitoring network. In this work, location uncertainties and location inaccuracies are modeled to investigate the impact of several parameters on the determination of the hypocentres: the picking uncertainty, the numerical precision of picked arrival times, a velocity perturbation and the seismic network configuration. The method is applied to the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forêts, which is located in the Upper Rhine Graben (France) and which was subject to detailed scientific investigations. We focus on a massive water injection performed in the year 2000 to enhance the productivity of the well GPK2 in the granitic basement, at approximately 5 km depth, and which induced more than 7000 earthquakes recorded by down-hole and surface seismic networks. We compare the location errors obtained from the joint or the separate use of the down-hole and surface networks. Besides the quantification of location uncertainties caused by picking uncertainties, the impact of the numerical precision of the picked arrival times as provided in a reference catalogue is investigated. The velocity model is also modified to mimic possible effects of a massive water injection and to evaluate its impact on earthquake hypocentres. It is shown that the use of the down-hole network in addition to the surface network provides smaller location uncertainties but can also lead to larger inaccuracies. Hence, location uncertainties would not be well representative of the location errors and interpretation of the seismicity

  14. Frictional behavior and BET surface-area changes of SAFOD gouge at intermediate to seismic slip rates (United States)

    Sawai, Michiyo; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Mitchell, Thomas; Kitajima, Hiroko; Hirose, Takehiro


    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) Drilling site is located near the southern end of the creeping section of the San Andreas fault. Experimental studies on the frictional properties of fault gouge from SAFOD drill cores may provide valuable information on the cause of diverse fault motion. We conducted friction experiments on gouge from the southwest deformation zone (SDZ, Phase III core; Hole G-Run 2-Section 8) where creep is confirmed by ongoing borehole casing deformation, at intermediate to high slip rates (10-5 to 1.3 m/s), at a normal stress of about 1 MPa, and under both dry (room humidity) and wet (25 wt% of H2O added, drained tests) conditions. Experiments were performed with two rotary-shear friction apparatuses. One gram of gouge was placed between specimens of Belfast gabbro 25 mm in diameter surrounded by a Teflon sleeve to confine the gouge. Slip rate was first decreased and then increased in a step-wise manner to obtain the steady-state friction at intermediate slip rates. The friction coefficient increases from about 0.13 to 0.37 as the slip rate increases from 0.8 x 10-5 to 9.7 x 10-3 m/s. Our results agree with frictional strength measured at higher effective normal stress (100 MPa) by the Brown University group in the same material. Data shows pronounced velocity strengthening at intermediate slip rates, which is unfavorable for rupture nucleation and may be a reason for having creep behavior. On the other hand, the steady-state friction markedly decreases at high velocity, and such weakening may allow earthquake rupture to propagate into the creeping section, once the intermediate strength barrier is overcome. Gouge temperature, measured at the edge of the stationary sample during seismic fault motion, increased to around 175oC under dry conditions, but increased up to 100oC under wet conditions. We measured BET surface area of gouge before and after deformation to determine the energy used for grain crushing. The initial

  15. Man-caused seismicity of Kuzbass (United States)

    Emanov, Alexandr; Emanov, Alexey; Leskova, Ekaterina; Fateyev, Alexandr


    A natural seismicity of Kuznetsk Basin is confined in the main to mountain frame of Kuznetsk hollow. In this paper materials of experimental work with local station networks within sediment basin are presented. Two types of seismicity display within Kuznetsk hollow have been understood: first, man-caused seismic processes, confined to mine working and concentrated on depths up to one and a half of km; secondly, seismic activations on depths of 2-56 km, not coordinated in plan with coal mines. Every of studied seismic activations consists of large quantity of earthquakes of small powers (Ms=1-3). From one to first tens of earthquakes were recorded in a day. The earthquakes near mine working shift in space along with mine working, and seismic process become stronger at the instant a coal-plough machine is operated, and slacken at the instant the preventive works are executed. The seismic processes near three lavas in Kuznetsk Basin have been studied in detail. Uplift is the most typical focal mechanism. Activated zone near mine working reach in diameter 1-1,5 km. Seismic activations not linked with mine working testify that the subsoil of Kuznetsk hollow remain in stress state in whole. The most probable causes of man-caused action on hollow are processes, coupled with change of physical state of rocks at loss of methane from large volume or change by mine working of rock watering in large volume. In this case condensed rocks, lost gas and water, can press out upwards, realizing the reverse fault mechanism of earthquakes. A combination of stress state of hollow with man-caused action at deep mining may account for incipient activations in Kuznetsk Basin. Today earthquakes happen mainly under mine workings, though damages of workings themselves do not happen, but intensive shaking on surface calls for intent study of so dangerous phenomena. In 2009 replicates of the experiment on research of seismic activations in area of before investigated lavas have been conducted

  16. Data-based diffraction kernels for surface waves from convolution and correlation processes through active seismic interferometry (United States)

    Chmiel, Malgorzata; Roux, Philippe; Herrmann, Philippe; Rondeleux, Baptiste; Wathelet, Marc


    We investigated the construction of diffraction kernels for surface waves using two-point convolution and/or correlation from land active seismic data recorded in the context of exploration geophysics. The high density of controlled sources and receivers, combined with the application of the reciprocity principle, allows us to retrieve two-dimensional phase-oscillation diffraction kernels (DKs) of surface waves between any two source or receiver points in the medium at each frequency (up to 15 Hz, at least). These DKs are purely data-based as no model calculations and no synthetic data are needed. They naturally emerge from the interference patterns of the recorded wavefields projected on the dense array of sources and/or receivers. The DKs are used to obtain multi-mode dispersion relations of Rayleigh waves, from which near-surface shear velocity can be extracted. Using convolution versus correlation with a grid of active sources is an important step in understanding the physics of the retrieval of surface wave Green's functions. This provides the foundation for future studies based on noise sources or active sources with a sparse spatial distribution.

  17. Research Note: The sensitivity of surface seismic P-wave data in transversely isotropic media to reflector depth

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    The leading component of the high-frequency asymptotic description of the wavefield, given by the travel time, is governed by the eikonal equation. In anisotropic media, traveltime measurements from seismic experiments conducted along one surface cannot constrain the long-wavelength attribute of the medium along the orthogonal-to-the-surface direction, as anisotropy introduces an independent parameter controlling wave propagation in the orthogonal direction. Since travel times measured on the Earth\\'s surface in transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis are mainly insensitive to the absolute value of the anisotropic parameter responsible for relating these observations to depth δ, the travel time was perturbed laterally to investigate the traveltime sensitivity to lateral variations in δ. This formulation can be used to develop inversion strategies for lateral variations in δ in acoustic transversely isotropic media, as the surface-recorded data are sensitive to it even if the model is described by the normal moveout velocity and horizontal velocity, or the anellipticity parameter η. Numerical tests demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity of our data when the model is parameterised with a lateral change in δ.

  18. Confirmatory Survey Results for the Reactor Building Dome Upper Structural Surfaces, Rancho Saco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade C. Adams


    Results from a confirmatory survey of the upper structural surfaces of the Reactor Building Dome at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station (RSNGS) performed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the NRC. Also includes results of interlaboratory comparison analyses on several archived soil samples that would be provided by RSNGS personnel. The confirmatory surveys were performed on June 7 and 8, 2006

  19. Hanford annual second quarter seismic report, fiscal year 1998: Seismicity on and near the Hanford Site, Pasco, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.


    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. The staff also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of an earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (ENN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the second quarter of FY98 for stations in the HSN was 99.92%. The operational rate for the second quarter of FY98 for stations of the EWRN was 99.46%. For the second quarter of FY98, the acquisition computer triggered 159 times. Of these triggers 14 were local earthquakes: 7 (50%) in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 3 (21%) in the pre-basalt sediments, and 4 (29%) in the crystalline basement. The geologic and tectonic environments where these earthquakes occurred are discussed in this report. The most significant seismic event for the second quarter was on March 23, 1998 when a 1.9 Mc occurred near Eltopia, WA and was felt by local residents. Although this was a small event, it was felt at the surface and is an indication of the potential impact on Hanford of seismic events that are common to the Site.

  20. Excitation of seismic waves by a tornado (United States)

    Valovcin, A.; Tanimoto, T.; Twardzik, C.


    Tornadoes are among the most common natural disasters to occur in the United States. Various methods are currently used in tornado forecasting, including surface weather stations, weather balloons and satellite and Doppler radar. These methods work for detecting possible locations of tornadoes and funnel clouds, but knowing when a tornado has touched down still strongly relies on reports from spotters. Studying tornadoes seismically offers an opportunity to know when a tornado has touched down without requiring an eyewitness report. With the installation of Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA), there have been an increased number of tornadoes that have come within close range of seismometers. We have identified seismic signals corresponding to three tornadoes that occurred in 2011 in the central US. These signals were recorded by the TA station closest to each of the tornado tracks. For each tornado, the amplitudes of the seismic signals increase when the storm is in contact with the ground, and continue until the tornado lifts off some time later. This occurs at both high and low frequencies. In this study we will model the seismic signal generated by a tornado at low frequencies (below 0.1 Hz). We will begin by modeling the signal from the Joplin tornado, an EF5 rated tornado which occurred in Missouri on May 22, 2011. By approximating the tornado as a vertical force, we model the generated signal as the tornado moves along its track and changes in strength. By modeling the seismic waveform generated by a tornado, we can better understand the seismic-excitation process. It could also provide a way to quantitatively compare tornadoes. Additional tornadoes to model include the Calumet-El Reno-Piedmont-Guthrie (CEPG) and Chickasa-Blanchard-Newcastle (CBN) tornadoes, both of which occurred on May 24, 2011 in Oklahoma.

  1. Surface wave retrieval in layered media using seismic interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, K.N.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Halliday, D.F.


    Virtual-source surface wave responses can be retrieved using the crosscorrelation (CC) of wavefields observed at two receivers. Higher mode surface waves cannot be properly retrieved when there is a lack of subsurface sources that excite these wavefields, as is often the case. In this paper, we

  2. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen


    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  3. The Detection of Vertical Cracks in Asphalt Using Seismic Surface Wave Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodice, M; Muggleton, J; Rustighi, E


    Assessment of the location and of the extension of cracking in road surfaces is important for determining the potential level of deterioration in the road overall and the infrastructure buried beneath it. Damage in a pavement structure is usually initiated in the tarmac layers, making the Rayleigh wave ideally suited for the detection of shallow surface defects. This paper presents an investigation of two surface wave methods to detect and locate top-down cracks in asphalt layers. The aim of the study is to compare the results from the well- established Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and the more recent Multiple Impact of Surface Waves (MISW) in the presence of a discontinuity and to suggest the best surface wave technique for evaluating the presence and the extension of vertical cracks in roads. The study is conducted through numerical simulations alongside experimental investigations and it considers the cases for which the cracking is internal and external to the deployment of sensors. MISW is found to enhance the visibility of the reflected waves in the frequency wavenumber ( f-k ) spectrum, helping with the detection of the discontinuity. In some cases, by looking at the f-k spectrum obtained with MISW it is possible to extract information regarding the location and the depth of the cracking. (paper)

  4. Spatial-temporal dynamics of chemical composition of surface snow in East Antarctica along the Progress station-Vostok station transect (United States)

    Khodzher, T. V.; Golobokova, L. P.; Osipov, E. Yu.; Shibaev, Yu. A.; Lipenkov, V. Ya.; Osipova, O. P.; Petit, J. R.


    In January of 2008, during the 53rd Russian Antarctic Expedition, surface snow samples were taken from 13 shallow (0.7 to 1.5 m depth) snow pits along the first tractor traverse from Progress to Vostok stations, East Antarctica. Sub-surface snow/firn layers are dated from 2.1 to 18 yr. The total length of the coast to inland traverse is more than 1280 km. Here we analysed spatial variability of concentrations of sulphate ions and elements and their fluxes in the snow deposited within the 2006-2008 time interval. Anions were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the determination of selected metals, including Na, K, Mg, Ca and Al, was carried out by mass spectroscopy with atomization by induced coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Surface snow concentration records were examined for trends versus distance inland, elevation, accumulation rate and slope gradient. Na shows a significant positive correlation with accumulation rate, which decreases as distance from the sea and altitude increase. K, Ca and Mg concentrations do not show any significant relationship either with distance inland or with elevation. Maximal concentrations of these elements with a prominent Al peak are revealed in the middle part of the traverse (500-600 km from the coast). Analysis of element correlations and atmospheric circulation patterns allow us to suggest their terrestrial origin (e.g. aluminosilicates carried as a continental dust) from the Antarctic nunatak areas. Sulphate concentrations show no significant relationship with distance inland, elevation, slope gradient and accumulation rate. Non-sea salt secondary sulphate is the most important contribution to the total sulphate budget along the traverse. Sulphate of volcanic origin attributed to the Pinatubo eruption (1991) was revealed in the snow pit at 1276 km (depth 120-130 cm).

  5. Influence of cloud fraction and snow cover to the variation of surface UV radiation at King Sejong station, Antarctica (United States)

    Lee, Yun Gon; Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon


    This study investigated how cloud fraction and snow cover affect the variation of surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation by using surface Erythemal UV (EUV) and Near UV (NUV) observed at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica. First the Radiative Amplification Factor (RAF), the relative change of surface EUV according to the total-column ozone amount, is compared for different cloud fractions and solar zenith angles (SZAs). Generally, all cloudy conditions show that the increase of RAF as SZA becomes larger, showing the larger effects of vertical columnar ozone. For given SZA cases, the EUV transmission through mean cloud layer gradually decreases as cloud fraction increases, but sometimes the maximum of surface EUV appears under partly cloudy conditions. The high surface EUV transmittance under broken cloud conditions seems due to the re-radiation of scattered EUV by cloud particles. NUV transmission through mean cloud layer also decreases as cloud amount increases but the sensitivity to the cloud fraction is larger than EUV. Both EUV and NUV radiations at the surface are also enhanced by the snow cover, and their enhancement becomes higher as SZA increases implying the diurnal variation of surface albedo. This effect of snow cover seems large under the overcast sky because of the stronger interaction between snow surface and cloudy sky.

  6. Salton Trough Post-seismic Afterslip, Viscoelastic Response, and Contribution to Regional Hazard (United States)

    Parker, J. W.; Donnellan, A.; Lyzenga, G. A.


    The El Mayor-Cucapah M7.2 April 4 2010 earthquake in Baja California may have affected accumulated hazard to Southern California cities due to loading of regional faults including the Elsinore, San Jacinto and southern San Andreas, faults which already have over a century of tectonic loading. We examine changes observed via multiple seismic and geodetic techniques, including micro seismicity and proposed seismicity-based indicators of hazard, high-quality fault models, the Plate Boundary Observatory GNSS array (with 174 stations showing post-seismic transients with greater than 1 mm amplitude), and interferometric radar maps from UAVSAR (aircraft) flights, showing a network of aseismic fault slip events at distances up to 60 km from the end of the surface rupture. Finite element modeling is used to compute the expected coseismic motions at GPS stations with general agreement, including coseismic uplift at sites ~200 km north of the rupture. Postseismic response is also compared, with GNSS and also with the CIG software "RELAX." An initial examination of hazard is made comparing micro seismicity-based metrics, fault models, and changes to coulomb stress on nearby faults using the finite element model. Comparison of seismicity with interferograms and historic earthquakes show aseismic slip occurs on fault segments that have had earthquakes in the last 70 years, while other segments show no slip at the surface but do show high triggered seismicity. UAVSAR-based estimates of fault slip can be incorporated into the finite element model to correct Coloumb stress change.

  7. Depositional patterns of the Mississippi Fan surface: Evidence from GLORIA II and high-resolution seismic profiles (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Parson, Lindsay M.; McGregor, Bonnie A.


    GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar imagery and 3.5-kHz seismic-reflection profiles depict a series of nine elongate deposits with generally high-backscatter surfaces covering most of the latest fanlobe sequence of the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The youngest deposit is a “slump” that covers a 250 by 100 km area of the middle and upper fan. The remaining mapped deposits, termed depositional lobes, are long (as much as 200 km) and relatively thin (less than 35 m thick) bodies. Small channels and lineations on the surface of many of these depositional lobes radiate from a single, larger main channel that is the conduit through which sediment has been supplied to these surficial deposits on the fan. The 3.5-kHz profiles show that adjacent depositional lobes overlap one another rather than interfingering, indicating that only one lobe was an active site of deposition at a time. Shifting of the depositional sites appears to be caused by both aggradation and avulsion. The chronology developed from the overlapping relations indicates the oldest of the mapped depositional lobes are on the lowermost fan, and the youngest are further up the fan. Depositional lobes on the lower fan consist of a series of smaller, elongate features with high-backscatter surfaces (540 km in length) located at the ends of previously unrecognized small channels (turbidity currents and/or debris flows, sand flows, or mud flows appear to be the dominant transport process constructing these depositional lobes. Channelized flow is an important mechanism for transporting sediment away from the main channel on this fan and the resulting facies created by these small flows are laterally discontinuous.

  8. Seismic Input Motion Determined from a Surface-Downhole Pair of Sensors: A Constrained Deconvolution Approach


    Dino Bindi; Stefano Parolai; M. Picozzi; A. Ansal


    We apply a deconvolution approach to the problem of determining the input motion at the base of an instrumented borehole using only a pair of recordings, one at the borehole surface and the other at its bottom. To stabilize the bottom-tosurface spectral ratio, we apply an iterative regularization algorithm that allows us to constrain the solution to be positively defined and to have a finite time duration. Through the analysis of synthetic data, we show that the method is capab...

  9. Blind test of methods for obtaining 2-D near-surface seismic velocity models from first-arrival traveltimes (United States)

    Zelt, Colin A.; Haines, Seth; Powers, Michael H.; Sheehan, Jacob; Rohdewald, Siegfried; Link, Curtis; Hayashi, Koichi; Zhao, Don; Zhou, Hua-wei; Burton, Bethany L.; Petersen, Uni K.; Bonal, Nedra D.; Doll, William E.


    Seismic refraction methods are used in environmental and engineering studies to image the shallow subsurface. We present a blind test of inversion and tomographic refraction analysis methods using a synthetic first-arrival-time dataset that was made available to the community in 2010. The data are realistic in terms of the near-surface velocity model, shot-receiver geometry and the data's frequency and added noise. Fourteen estimated models were determined by ten participants using eight different inversion algorithms, with the true model unknown to the participants until it was revealed at a session at the 2011 SAGEEP meeting. The estimated models are generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general, and the eight inversion algorithms in particular. When compared to the true model, all of the estimated models contain a smooth expression of its two main features: a large offset in the bedrock and the top of a steeply dipping low-velocity fault zone. The estimated models do not contain a subtle low-velocity zone and other fine-scale features, in accord with conventional wisdom. Together, the results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of modern refraction inversion and tomographic methods.





    Surface solar ultraviolet irradiance has been measured at Bakkhali (21.8ºN, 87.8ºE), a tropical rural station on the coast of Bay of Bengal, India in West Bengal. The measurements show a remarkable variation in UV-B load exists with a peak value at noon. The blockage of direct UV radiation in mangrove forest of costal site appears low when compared with UV load beneath the multiple trees of Mangifera indica in an inland site of Kalyani (22058' N, 88028' E), West Bengal. Mangrove forests have ...

  11. Empirical Requirements Analysis for Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Lee, Pascal; Sierhuis, Maarten; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Living and working on Mars will require model-based computer systems for maintaining and controlling complex life support, communication, transportation, and power systems. This technology must work properly on the first three-year mission, augmenting human autonomy, without adding-yet more complexity to be diagnosed and repaired. One design method is to work with scientists in analog (mars-like) setting to understand how they prefer to work, what constrains will be imposed by the Mars environment, and how to ameliorate difficulties. We describe how we are using empirical requirements analysis to prototype model-based tools at a research station in the High Canadian Arctic.

  12. Application of the nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm for forecasting surface wind of point station in the South China Sea with scatterometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jian; Dong Gang; Sun Yimei; Zhang Zhaoyang; Wu Yuqin


    The present work reports the development of nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm (GA) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for forecasting the surface wind of a point station in the South China Sea (SCS) with scatterometer observations. Before the nonlinear technique GA is used for forecasting the time series of surface wind, the SSA is applied to reduce the noise. The surface wind speed and surface wind components from scatterometer observations at three locations in the SCS have been used to develop and test the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts in terms of root mean square error. The predicted surface wind with GA and SSA made up to four days (longer for some point station) in advance have been found to be significantly superior to those made by persistence model. This method can serve as a cost-effective alternate prediction technique for forecasting surface wind of a point station in the SCS basin. (paper)

  13. Seismic potential of weak, near-surface faults revealed at plate tectonic slip rates. (United States)

    Ikari, Matt J; Kopf, Achim J


    The near-surface areas of major faults commonly contain weak, phyllosilicate minerals, which, based on laboratory friction measurements, are assumed to creep stably. However, it is now known that shallow faults can experience tens of meters of earthquake slip and also host slow and transient slip events. Laboratory experiments are generally performed at least two orders of magnitude faster than plate tectonic speeds, which are the natural driving conditions for major faults; the absence of experimental data for natural driving rates represents a critical knowledge gap. We use laboratory friction experiments on natural fault zone samples at driving rates of centimeters per year to demonstrate that there is abundant evidence of unstable slip behavior that was not previously predicted. Specifically, weak clay-rich fault samples generate slow slip events (SSEs) and have frictional properties favorable for earthquake rupture. Our work explains growing field observations of shallow SSE and surface-breaking earthquake slip, and predicts that such phenomena should be more widely expected.

  14. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function.

  15. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack


    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function

  16. Estimation of mean time to failure of a near surface radioactive waste repository for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Lais A. de; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.; Alvim, Antonio C.M.


    This work aims at estimating the mean time to failure (MTTF) of each barrier of a near surface radioactive waste repository. It is assumed that surface water infiltrates through the barriers, reaching the matrix where radionuclides are contained, releasing them to the environment. Radioactive wastes considered in this work are low and medium level wastes (produced during operation of a PWR nuclear power station) fixed on cement. The repository consists of 6 saturated porous media barriers (top cover, upper layer, packages, basis, repository walls and geosphere). It has been verified that the mean time to failure (MTTF) of each barrier increases for radionuclides having higher retardation factor (Fr) and also that the MTTF for concrete is larger for Nickel , while for the geosphere, Plutonium gives the largest MTTF. (author)

  17. “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting station of Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprise and its surface waste water purification (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Teplykh, Svetlana; Gorshkalev, Pavel; Bystranova, Anastasia


    Surface water disposal is one of the most relevant problems for Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprises. Waste water must be quickly removed with special drainage devices and water drainage facilities (culverts, slope drains, pipes, ditches, etc.). During “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting watse water is aggregated on railroad tracks. It leads to track bed structure sagging, roadbed washaway and damages to point switches. In this paper the authors describe a concrete system of waste water disposal from railway service enterprises. This system is realized through culverts readjusted at the foot of ballast section. Thereafter, the collected water is pumped into a water collector and to local sewage waste-disposal plants. For railway stations with three or more tracks surface runoff diversion scheme depends on topography, railway tracks types, flow discharge and is compiled individually for each object. This paper examines “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting station of Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprise. It presents a technology scheme and equipment consisting of Sand catcher LOS-P, Oil catcher LOS-N, pressure-tight flotation unit; drain feed pump; solution-consuming tank of the coagulant, the solution-consuming tank of flocculant. The proposed technology has been introduced into the project practice.

  18. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Laß


    Full Text Available The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE, southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance alone. We speculate that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds is responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  19. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea) (United States)

    Laß, K.; Bange, H. W.; Friedrichs, G.


    The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE), southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material) during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance alone. We speculate that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds is responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  20. A Stabilizing Feedback Between Cloud Radiative Effects and Greenland Surface Melt: Verification From Multi-year Automatic Weather Station Measurements (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Wang, W.; van As, D.


    Clouds have strong impacts on Greenland's surface melt through the interaction with the dry atmosphere and reflective surfaces. However, their effects are uncertain due to the lack of in situ observations. To better quantify cloud radiative effects (CRE) in Greenland, we analyze and interpret multi-year radiation measurements from 30 automatic weather stations encompassing a broad range of climatological and topographical conditions. During melt season, clouds warm surface over most of Greenland, meaning the longwave greenhouse effect outweighs the shortwave shading effect; on the other hand, the spatial variability of net (longwave and shortwave) CRE is dominated by shortwave CRE and in turn by surface albedo, which controls the potential absorption of solar radiation when clouds are absent. The net warming effect decreases with shortwave CRE from high to low altitudes and from north to south (Fig. 1). The spatial correlation between albedo and net CRE is strong (r=0.93, palbedo determines the net CRE seasonal trend, which decreases from May to July and increases afterwards. On an hourly timescale, we find two distinct radiative states in Greenland (Fig. 2). The clear state is characterized by clear-sky conditions or thin clouds, when albedo and solar zenith angle (SZA) weakly correlates with CRE. The cloudy state is characterized by opaque clouds, when the combination of albedo and SZA strongly correlates with CRE (r=0.85, palbedo and solar zenith angle, explains the majority of the CRE variation in spatial distribution, seasonal trend in the ablation zone, and in hourly variability in the cloudy radiative state. Clouds warm the brighter and colder surfaces of Greenland, enhance snow melt, and tend to lower the albedo. Clouds cool the darker and warmer surfaces, inhibiting snow melt, which increases albedo, and thus stabilizes surface melt. This stabilizing mechanism may also occur over sea ice, helping to forestall surface melt as the Arctic becomes dimmer.

  1. Seismic Readings from the Deepest Borehole in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolery, Edward W [KY Geological Survey, Univ of KY; Wang, Zhenming [KY Geological Survey, Univ of KY; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago


    Since the 1980s, the research associated with the UK network has been primarily strong-motion seismology of engineering interest. Currently the University of Kentucky operates a strong-motion network of nine stations in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. A unique feature of the network is the inclusions of vertical strong-motion arrays, each with one or two downhole accelerometers. The deepest borehole array is 260 m below the surfaces at station VASA in Fulton County, Kentucky. A preliminary surface seismic refraction survey was conducted at the site before drilling the hole at VSAS (Woolery and Wang, 2002). The depth to the Paleozoic bedrock at the site was estimated to be approximately 595 m, and the depth to the first very stiff layer (i.e. Porters Creek Clay) was found to be about 260 m. These depths and stratigraphic interpretation correlated well with a proprietary seismic reflection line and the Ken-Ten Oil Exploration No. 1 Sanger hole (Schwalb, 1969), as well as our experience in the area (Street et al., 1995; Woolery et al., 1999).

  2. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.


    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area

  3. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.


    -treatment processes, and effective regulations. Phosphorus data for most of the study stations could not be analyzed because of the data limitations for trend tests. The only station with a significant negative trend in total phosphorus concentration is the Clinton River at Mount Clemens. However, scatter-plot analyses of phosphorus data indicate decreasing concentrations with time for most of the study stations. Positive trends in concentration of nitrogen compounds were detected at the Kalamazoo River near Saugatuck and Muskegon River near Bridgeton. Positive trends in both fecal coliform and total fecal coliform were detected at the Tahquamenon River near Paradise. Various different point and nonpoint sources could produce such positive trends, but most commonly the increase in concentrations of nitrogen compounds and fecal coliform bacteria are associated with agricultural practices and sewage-plant discharges. The constituent with the most numerous and geographically widespread significant trend is pH. The pH levels increased at six out of nine stations on all the major rivers in Michigan, with no negative trend at any station. The cause of pH increase is difficult to determine, as it could be related to a combination of anthropogenic activities and natural processes occurring simultaneously in the environment. Trends in concentration of major ions, such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, chloride, and potassium, were detected at eight out of nine stations. A negative trend was detected only in sulfate and fluoride concentrations; a positive trend was detected only in calcium concentration. The major ions with the most widespread significant trends are sodium and chloride; three positive and two negative trends were detected for sodium, and three negative and two positive trends were detected for chloride. The negative trends in chloride concentrations outnumbered the positive trends. This result indicates a slight improvement in surface-water quality because

  4. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.


    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  5. Diversity of bacterioplankton in the surface seawaters of Drake Passage near the Chinese Antarctic station. (United States)

    Xing, Mengxin; Li, Zhao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Mi


    The determination of relative abundances and distribution of different bacterial groups is a critical step toward understanding the functions of various bacteria and its surrounding environment. Few studies focus on the taxonomic composition and functional diversity of microbial communities in Drake Passage. In this study, marine bacterioplankton communities from surface seawaters at five locations in Drake Passage were examined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The results indicated that psychrophilic bacteria were the most abundant group in Drake Passage, and mainly made up of Bacillus, Aeromonas, Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas and Halomonas. Diversity analysis showed that surface seawater communities had no significant correlation with latitudinal gradient. Additionally, a clear difference among five surface seawater communities was evident, with 1.8% OTUs (only two) belonged to Bacillus consistent across five locations and 71% OTUs (80) existed in only one location. However, the few cosmopolitans had the largest population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that the dominant bacterial groups appear to be analogous between geographical sites, but significant differences may be detected among rare bacterial groups. The microbial diversity of surface seawaters would be liable to be affected by environmental factors. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Multi-station synthesis of early twentieth century surface atmospheric electricity measurements for upper tropospheric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Harrison


    Full Text Available The vertical columnar current density in the global atmospheric electrical circuit depends on the local columnar resistance. A simple model for the columnar resistance is suggested, which separates the local boundary layer component from the upper troposphere cosmic ray component, and calculates the boundary layer component from a surface measurement of air conductivity. This theory is shown to provide reasonable agreement with observations. One application of the simple columnar model theory is to provide a basis for the synthesis of surface atmospheric electrical measurements made simultaneously at several European sites. Assuming the ionospheric potential to be common above all the sites, the theoretical air-earth current density present in the absence of a boundary layer columnar resistance can be found by extrapolation. This is denoted the free troposphere limit air-earth current density, J0. Using early surface data from 1909 when no ionospheric potential data are available for corroboration, J0 is found to be ~6 pA m−2, although this is subject to uncertainties in the data and limitations in the theory. Later (1966–1971 European balloon and surface data give J0=2.4 pA m−2.

  7. Variations of surface temparature with solar activity at two stations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... A consistent and persistent diurnal variation in surface air temperature exists which shows an almost constant level in the early morning hours (0000 0600 hours LT.); a rise at sunrise till about 1500 hr LT., a subsequent fall to the constant level by about 1900 hr LT. at sunset.

  8. Ray-tracing traveltime tomography versus wave-equation traveltime inversion for near-surface seismic land data

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei


    Full-waveform inversion of land seismic data tends to get stuck in a local minimum associated with the waveform misfit function. This problem can be partly mitigated by using an initial velocity model that is close to the true velocity model. This initial starting model can be obtained by inverting traveltimes with ray-tracing traveltime tomography (RT) or wave-equation traveltime (WT) inversion. We have found that WT can provide a more accurate tomogram than RT by inverting the first-arrival traveltimes, and empirical tests suggest that RT is more sensitive to the additive noise in the input data than WT. We present two examples of applying WT and RT to land seismic data acquired in western Saudi Arabia. One of the seismic experiments investigated the water-table depth, and the other one attempted to detect the location of a buried fault. The seismic land data were inverted by WT and RT to generate the P-velocity tomograms, from which we can clearly identify the water table depth along the seismic survey line in the first example and the fault location in the second example.

  9. Petrologically-constrained thermo-chemical modelling of cratonic upper mantle consistent with elevation, geoid, surface heat flow, seismic surface waves and MT data (United States)

    Jones, A. G.; Afonso, J. C.


    The Earth comprises a single physio-chemical system that we interrogate from its surface and/or from space making observations related to various physical and chemical parameters. A change in one of those parameters affects many of the others; for example a change in velocity is almost always indicative of a concomitant change in density, which results in changes to elevation, gravity and geoid observations. Similarly, a change in oxide chemistry affects almost all physical parameters to a greater or lesser extent. We have now developed sophisticated tools to model/invert data in our individual disciplines to such an extent that we are obtaining high resolution, robust models from our datasets. However, in the vast majority of cases the different datasets are modelled/inverted independently of each other, and often even without considering other data in a qualitative sense. The LitMod framework of Afonso and colleagues presents integrated inversion of geoscientific data to yield thermo-chemical models that are petrologically consistent and constrained. Input data can comprise any combination of elevation, geoid, surface heat flow, seismic surface wave (Rayleigh and Love) data and receiver function data, and MT data. The basis of LitMod is characterization of the upper mantle in terms of five oxides in the CFMAS system and a thermal structure that is conductive to the LAB and convective along the adiabat below the LAB to the 410 km discontinuity. Candidate solutions are chosen from prior distributions of the oxides. For the crust, candidate solutions are chosen from distributions of crustal layering, velocity and density parameters. Those candidate solutions that fit the data within prescribed error limits are kept, and are used to establish broad posterior distributions from which new candidate solutions are chosen. Examples will be shown of application of this approach fitting data from the Kaapvaal Craton in South Africa and the Rae Craton in northern Canada. I

  10. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS) (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.


    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  11. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.


    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  12. Seismic Energy Generation and Partitioning into Various Regional Phases from Different Seismic Sources in the Middle East Region (United States)


    a), a 3C SP seismic station (b) and a sensor BlastMateIII, Oron quarry (c)............................... 9 Figure 7. Seismic Array MMAI (AS49) of... seismic stations of Jordan network at distance range 22-285 km (a), and at IMS array MMAI (AS49) at 350 km, BP filtered 2-8 Hz (b...sites and portable stations, inserts show detailed location of the tripartite array elements (st.6) and configuration of the explosion boreholes and

  13. Detecting Seismic Infrasound Signals on Balloon Platforms (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. L.


    The determination of the interior structure of a planet requires detailed seismic investigations - a process that entails the detection and characterization of seismic waves due to geological activities (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.). For decades, this task has primarily been performed on Earth by an ever-expanding network of terrestrial seismic stations. However, on planets such as Venus, where the surface pressure and temperature can reach as high as 90 atmospheres and 450 degrees Celsius respectively, placing seismometers on the planet's surface poses a vexing technological challenge. However, the upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere are more benign and capable of hosting geophysical payloads for longer mission lifetimes. In order to achieve the aim of performing geophysical experiments from an atmospheric platform, JPL and its partners (ISAE-SUPAERO and California Institute of Technology) are in the process of developing technologies for detection of infrasonic waves generated by earthquakes from a balloon. The coupling of seismic energy into the atmosphere critically depends on the density differential between the surface of the planet and the atmosphere. Therefore, the successful demonstration of this technique on Earth would provide ample reason to expect success on Venus, where the atmospheric impedance is approximately 60 times that of Earth. In this presentation, we will share results from the first set of Earth-based balloon experiments performed in Pahrump, Nevada in June 2017. These tests involved the generation of artificial sources of known intensity using a seismic hammer and their detection using a complex network of sensors, including highly sensitive micro-barometers suspended from balloons, GPS receivers, geophones, microphones, and seismometers. This experiment was the first of its kind and was successful in detecting infrasonic waves from the earthquakes generated by the seismic hammer. We will present the first comprehensive analysis

  14. Using Seismic Interferometry to Investigate Seismic Swarms (United States)

    Matzel, E.; Morency, C.; Templeton, D. C.


    Seismicity provides a direct means of measuring the physical characteristics of active tectonic features such as fault zones. Hundreds of small earthquakes often occur along a fault during a seismic swarm. This seismicity helps define the tectonically active region. When processed using novel geophysical techniques, we can isolate the energy sensitive to the fault, itself. Here we focus on two methods of seismic interferometry, ambient noise correlation (ANC) and the virtual seismometer method (VSM). ANC is based on the observation that the Earth's background noise includes coherent energy, which can be recovered by observing over long time periods and allowing the incoherent energy to cancel out. The cross correlation of ambient noise between a pair of stations results in a waveform that is identical to the seismogram that would result if an impulsive source located at one of the stations was recorded at the other, the Green function (GF). The calculation of the GF is often stable after a few weeks of continuous data correlation, any perturbations to the GF after that point are directly related to changes in the subsurface and can be used for 4D monitoring.VSM is a style of seismic interferometry that provides fast, precise, high frequency estimates of the Green's function (GF) between earthquakes. VSM illuminates the subsurface precisely where the pressures are changing and has the potential to image the evolution of seismicity over time, including changes in the style of faulting. With hundreds of earthquakes, we can calculate thousands of waveforms. At the same time, VSM collapses the computational domain, often by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This allows us to do high frequency 3D modeling in the fault region. Using data from a swarm of earthquakes near the Salton Sea, we demonstrate the power of these techniques, illustrating our ability to scale from the far field, where sources are well separated, to the near field where their locations fall within each other

  15. The seismic signatures of the 2009 Shiaolin landslide in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Feng


    Full Text Available The Shiaolin landslide occurred on 9 August 2009 after Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan, claiming over 400 lives. The seismic signals produced by the landslide were recorded by broadband seismic stations in Taiwan. The time-frequency spectra for these signals were obtained by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT and were analyzed to obtain the seismic characteristics of the landslide. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD was applied to differentiate weak surface-wave signals from noise and to estimate the surface-wave velocities in the region. The surface-wave velocities were estimated using the fifth intrinsic mode function (IMF 5 obtained from the EMD. The spectra of the earthquake data were compared. The main frequency content of the seismic waves caused by the Shiaolin landslide were in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 Hz. This frequency range is smaller than the frequency ranges of other earthquakes. The spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW method is suggested for characterizing the shear-wave velocities of the strata in the region.

  16. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Malbasic


    it is possible to define the allowed explosive quantities or minimum allowed distances in any area of the surface pit from the aspect of seismic safety. In the indicated case, and based on the analysis results, it is shown that in some areas of mining works in the case of the “Buvač”, Omarska open pit, projected explosive quantities cannot be used. In some cases, it is even necessary to divide the explosive charge in blasting holes with additional delayers.

  17. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    Seismic exploration utilizes controlled sources, which emit seismic waves that propagate through the earth subsurface and get reflected off subsurface interfaces and scatterers. The reflected and scattered waves are recorded by recording stations installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single-scattering assumption, where only energy that bounces once off a subsurface scatterer and recorded by a receiver is projected back to its subsurface position. The internally multiply scattered seismic energy is considered as unwanted noise and is usually suppressed or removed from the recorded data. Conventional seismic imaging techniques yield subsurface images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and acquisition fingerprint due to the limited acquisition aperture, number of sources and receivers, and bandwidth of the source wavelet. Hydrocarbon traps are becoming more challenging and considerable reserves are trapped in stratigraphic and pinch-out traps, which require highly resolved seismic images to delineate them. This thesis focuses on developing and implementing new advanced cost-effective seismic imaging techniques aiming at enhancing the resolution of the migrated images by exploiting the sparseness of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and utilizing the multiples that are usually neglected when imaging seismic data. I first formulate the seismic imaging problem as a Basis pursuit denoise problem, which I solve using an L1-minimization algorithm to obtain the sparsest migrated image corresponding to the recorded data. Imaging multiples may illuminate subsurface zones, which are not easily illuminated by conventional seismic imaging using primary reflections only. I then develop an L2-norm (i.e. least-squares) inversion technique to image

  18. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD


    Full Text Available are allowed to flood. Such flooding-induced seismicity can have significant environmental, social and economic consequences, and may endanger neighbouring mines and surface communities. While fluid-induced seismicity has been observed in other settings (e...

  19. Monitoring surface-water quality in Arizona: the fixed-station network (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid


    Arizona is an arid State in which economic development is influenced largely by the quantity and quality of water and the location of adequate water supplies. In 1995, surface water supplied about 58 percent of total withdrawals in Arizona. Of the total amount of surface water used in 1995, about 89 percent was for agriculture, 10 percent for public supply, and 1 percent for industrial supply (including mining and thermoelectric; Solley and others, 1998). As a result of rapid population growth in Arizona, historic agricultural lands in the Phoenix (Maricopa County) and Tucson (Pima County) areas are now being developed for residential and commercial use; thus, the amount of water used for public supply is increasing. The Clean Water Act was established by U.S. Congress (1972) in response to public concern about water-pollution control. The act defines a process by which the United States Congress and the citizens are informed of the Nation’s progress in restoring and maintaining the quality of our waters. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is the State-designated agency for this process and, as a result, has developed a monitoring program to assess water quality in Arizona. The ADEQ is required to submit a water-quality assessment report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) every 2 years. The USEPA summarizes the reports from each State and submits a report to the Congress characterizing water quality in the United States. These reports serve to inform Congress and the public of the Nation’s progress toward the restoration and maintenance of water quality in the United States (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 1998).

  20. Shear wave velocity model beneath CBJI station West Java, Indonesia from joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion (United States)

    Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto


    Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.

  1. Romanian seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Rizescu, Mihaela; Popa, Mihaela; Grigore, Adrian


    The research in the field of seismology in Romania is mainly carried out by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP). The NIEP activities are mainly concerned with the fundamental research financed by research contracts from public sources and the maintenance and operation of the Romanian seismic network. A three stage seismic network is now operating under NIEP, designed mainly to monitor the Vrancea seismic region in a magnitude range from microearthquakes to strong events: - network of 18 short-period seismometers (S13); - Teledyne Geotech Instruments (Texas); - network of 7 stations with local digital recording (PCM-5000) on magnetic tape, made up of, S13 geophone (T=2 s) on vertical component and SH1 geophone (T=5 s) on horizontal components; - network of 28 SMA-1 accelerometers and 30 digital accelerometers (Kinemetrics - K2) installed in the free field conditions in the framework of the joint German-Romanian cooperation program (CRC); the K2 instruments cover a magnitude range from 1.4 to 8.0. Since 1994, MLR (Muntele Rosu) station has become part of the GEOFON network and was provided with high performance broad band instruments. At Bucharest and Timisoara data centers, an automated and networked seismological system performs the on-line digital acquisition and processing of the telemetered data. Automatic processing includes discrimination between local and distant seismic events, earthquake location and magnitude computation, and source parameter determination for local earthquakes. The results are rapidly distributed via Internet, to several seismological services in Europe and USA, to be used in the association/confirmation procedures. Plans for new developments of the network include the upgrade from analog to digital telemetry and new stations for monitoring local seismicity. (authors)

  2. Operations plan for the Regional Seismic Test Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Regional Seismic Test Network program was established to provide a capability for detection of extremely sensitive earth movements. Seismic signals from both natural and man-made earth motions will be analyzed with the ultimate objective of accurately locating underground nuclear explosions. The Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has designed an unattended seismic station capable of recording seismic information received at the location of the seismometers installed as part of that specific station. A network of stations is required to increase the capability of determining the source of the seismic signal and the location of the source. Current plans are to establish a five-station seismic network in the United States and Canada. The Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, has been assigned the responsibility for deploying, installing, and operating these remote stations. This Operation Plan provides the basic information and tasking to accomplish this assignment

  3. Triggered Seismicity in Utah from the November 3, 2002, Denali Fault Earthquake (United States)

    Pankow, K. L.; Nava, S. J.; Pechmann, J. C.; Arabasz, W. J.


    Coincident with the arrival of the surface waves from the November 3, 2002, Mw 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska earthquake (DFE), the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional seismic network detected a marked increase in seismicity along the Intermountain Seismic Belt (ISB) in central and north-central Utah. The number of earthquakes per day in Utah located automatically by the UUSS's Earthworm system in the week following the DFE was approximately double the long-term average during the preceding nine months. From these preliminary data, the increased seismicity appears to be characterized by small magnitude events (M = 3.2) and concentrated in five distinct spatial clusters within the ISB between 38.75°and 42.0° N. The first of these earthquakes was an M 2.2 event located ~20 km east of Salt Lake City, Utah, which occurred during the arrival of the Love waves from the DFE. The increase in Utah earthquake activity at the time of the arrival of the surface waves from the DFE suggests that these surface waves triggered earthquakes in Utah at distances of more than 3,000 km from the source. We estimated the peak dynamic shear stress caused by these surface waves from measurements of their peak vector velocities at 43 recording sites: 37 strong-motion stations of the Advanced National Seismic System and six broadband stations. (The records from six other broadband instruments in the region of interest were clipped.) The estimated peak stresses ranged from 1.2 bars to 3.5 bars with a mean of 2.3 bars, and generally occurred during the arrival of Love waves of ~15 sec period. These peak dynamic shear stress estimates are comparable to those obtained from recordings of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake in regions where the Landers earthquake triggered increased seismicity. We plan to present more complete analyses of UUSS seismic network data, further testing our hypothesis that the DFE remotely triggered seismicity in Utah. This hypothesis is

  4. Improvements to a Response Surface Thermal Model for Orion Mated to the International Space Station (United States)

    Miller, StephenW.; Walker, William Q.


    This study is an extension of previous work to evaluate the applicability of Design of Experiments (DOE)/Response Surface Methodology to on-orbit thermal analysis. The goal was to determine if the methodology could produce a Response Surface Equation (RSE) that predicted the thermal model temperature results within +/-10 F. An RSE is a polynomial expression that can then be used to predict temperatures for a defined range of factor combinations. Based on suggestions received from the previous work, this study used a model with simpler geometry, considered polynomials up to fifth order, and evaluated orbital temperature variations to establish a minimum and maximum temperature for each component. A simplified Outer Mold Line (OML) thermal model of the Orion spacecraft was used in this study. The factors chosen were the vehicle's Yaw, Pitch, and Roll (defining the on-orbit attitude), the Beta angle (restricted to positive beta angles from 0 to 75), and the environmental constants (varying from cold to hot). All factors were normalized from their native ranges to a non-dimensional range from -1.0 to 1.0. Twenty-three components from the OML were chosen and the minimum and maximum orbital temperatures were calculated for each to produce forty-six responses for the DOE model. A customized DOE case matrix of 145 analysis cases was developed which used analysis points at the factor corners, mid-points, and center. From this data set, RSE s were developed which consisted of cubic, quartic, and fifth order polynomials. The results presented are for the fifth order RSE. The RSE results were then evaluated for agreement with the analytical model predictions to produce a +/-3(sigma) error band. Forty of the 46 responses had a +/-3(sigma) value of 10 F or less. Encouraged by this initial success, two additional sets of verification cases were selected. One contained 20 cases, the other 50 cases. These cases were evaluated both with the fifth order RSE and with the analytical

  5. Studies Of Infrasonic Propagation Using Dense Seismic Networks (United States)

    Hedlin, M. A.; deGroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Drob, D. P.


    Although there are approximately 100 infrasonic arrays worldwide, more than ever before, the station density is still insufficient to provide validation for detailed propagation modeling. Relatively large infrasonic signals can be observed on seismic channels due to coupling at the Earth's surface. Recent research, using data from the 70-km spaced 400-station USArray and other seismic network deployments, has shown the value of dense seismic network data for filling in the gaps between infrasonic arrays. The dense sampling of the infrasonic wavefield has allowed us to observe complete travel-time branches of infrasound and address important research problems in infrasonic propagation. We present our analysis of infrasound created by a series of rocket motor detonations that occurred at the UTTR facility in Utah in 2007. These data were well recorded by the USArray seismometers. We use the precisely located blasts to assess the utility of G2S mesoscale models and methods to synthesize infrasonic propagation. We model the travel times of the branches using a ray-based approach and the complete wavefield using a FDTD algorithm. Although results from both rays and FDTD approaches predict the travel times to within several seconds, only about 40% of signals are predicted using rays largely due to penetration of sound into shadow zones. FDTD predicts some sound penetration into the shadow zone, but the observed shadow zones, as defined by the seismic data, have considerably narrower spatial extent than either method predicts, perhaps due to un-modeled small-scale structure in the atmosphere.

  6. Recent Progress of Seismic Observation Networks in Japan (United States)

    Okada, Y.


    Before the occurrence of disastrous Kobe earthquake in 1995, the number of high sensitivity seismograph stations operated in Japan was nearly 550 and was concentrated in the Kanto and Tokai districts, central Japan. In the wake of the Kobe earthquake, Japanese government has newly established the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion and started the reconstruction of seismic networks to evenly cover the whole Japan. The basic network is composed of three seismographs, i.e. high sensitivity seismograph (Hi-net), broadband seismograph (F-net), and strong motion seismograph (K-NET). A large majority of Hi-net stations are also equipped with a pair of strong motion sensors at the bottom of borehole and the ground surface (KiK-net). A plenty of high quality data obtained from these networks are circulated at once and is producing several new seismological findings as well as providing the basis for the Earthquake Early Warning system. In March 11, 2011, "Off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake" was generated with magnitude 9.0, which records the largest in the history of seismic observation in Japan. The greatest disaster on record was brought by huge tsunami with nearly 20 thousand killed or missing people. We are again noticed that seismic observation system is quite poor in the oceanic region compared to the richness of it in the inland region. In 2012, NIED has started the construction of ocean bottom seismic and tsunami observation network along the Japan Trench. It is planned to layout 154 stations with an average spacing of 30km, each of which is equipped with an accelerometer for seismic observation and a water pressure gauge for tsunami observation. We are expecting that more rapid and accurate warning of earthquake and tsunami becomes possible by this observing network.

  7. Recent Progress of Seismic Observation Networks in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Y


    Before the occurrence of disastrous Kobe earthquake in 1995, the number of high sensitivity seismograph stations operated in Japan was nearly 550 and was concentrated in the Kanto and Tokai districts, central Japan. In the wake of the Kobe earthquake, Japanese government has newly established the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion and started the reconstruction of seismic networks to evenly cover the whole Japan. The basic network is composed of three seismographs, i.e. high sensitivity seismograph (Hi-net), broadband seismograph (F-net), and strong motion seismograph (K-NET). A large majority of Hi-net stations are also equipped with a pair of strong motion sensors at the bottom of borehole and the ground surface (KiK-net). A plenty of high quality data obtained from these networks are circulated at once and is producing several new seismological findings as well as providing the basis for the Earthquake Early Warning system. In March 11, 2011, 'Off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake' was generated with magnitude 9.0, which records the largest in the history of seismic observation in Japan. The greatest disaster on record was brought by huge tsunami with nearly 20 thousand killed or missing people. We are again noticed that seismic observation system is quite poor in the oceanic region compared to the richness of it in the inland region. In 2012, NIED has started the construction of ocean bottom seismic and tsunami observation network along the Japan Trench. It is planned to layout 154 stations with an average spacing of 30km, each of which is equipped with an accelerometer for seismic observation and a water pressure gauge for tsunami observation. We are expecting that more rapid and accurate warning of earthquake and tsunami becomes possible by this observing network.

  8. Pickering seismic safety margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.; Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.


    A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has sufficient seismic safety margin over its design basis to assure plant safety. In this review process, it is possible to identify the weak links which might limit the seismic performance of critical structures, systems and components. The proposed methodology is a modification the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) approach. The methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path, and the determination of the seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of using historical records and the regional seismo-tectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection, analysis or testing. An implementation plan for the application of the methodology to the Pickering A NGS is prepared

  9. Seismic-design questions typify nuclear obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, S.D.


    The trade-off between safe design of nuclear power plants and cost is considered. As an example, seismic protection problems at the Beaver Valley station of Duquesne Light Co. and their resolution by Stone and Webster Engineering are discussed

  10. Joint inversion of teleseismic P waveforms and surface-wave group velocities from ambient seismic noise in the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav


    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 107-140 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : receiver function * seismic noise * joint inversion * Bohemian Massif * velocity structure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2012

  11. Seismic characterization of geothermal reservoirs by application of the common-reflection-surface stack method and attribute analysis


    Marcin Pussak


    An important contribution of geosciences to the renewable energy production portfolio is the exploration and utilization of geothermal resources. For the development of a geothermal project at great depths a detailed geological and geophysical exploration program is required in the first phase. With the help of active seismic methods high-resolution images of the geothermal reservoir can be delivered. This allows potential transport routes for fluids to be identified as well as regions with h...

  12. Discriminating Induced-Microearthquakes Using New Seismic Features (United States)

    Mousavi, S. M.; Horton, S.


    We studied characteristics of induced-microearthquakes on the basis of the waveforms recorded on a limited number of surface receivers using machine-learning techniques. Forty features in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains were measured on each waveform, and several techniques such as correlation-based feature selection, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Logistic Regression (LR) and X-mean were used as research tools to explore the relationship between these seismic features and source parameters. The results show that spectral features have the highest correlation to source depth. Two new measurements developed as seismic features for this study, spectral centroids and 2D cross-correlations in the time-frequency domain, performed better than the common seismic measurements. These features can be used by machine learning techniques for efficient automatic classification of low energy signals recorded at one or more seismic stations. We applied the technique to 440 microearthquakes-1.7Reference: Mousavi, S.M., S.P. Horton, C. A. Langston, B. Samei, (2016) Seismic features and automatic discrimination of deep and shallow induced-microearthquakes using neural network and logistic regression, Geophys. J. Int. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw258.

  13. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G


    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  14. Source-Type Identification Analysis Using Regional Seismic Moment Tensors (United States)

    Chiang, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.


    Waveform inversion to determine the seismic moment tensor is a standard approach in determining the source mechanism of natural and manmade seismicity, and may be used to identify, or discriminate different types of seismic sources. The successful applications of the regional moment tensor method at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the 2006 and 2009 North Korean nuclear tests (Ford et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2010) show that the method is robust and capable for source-type discrimination at regional distances. The well-separated populations of explosions, earthquakes and collapses on a Hudson et al., (1989) source-type diagram enables source-type discrimination; however the question remains whether or not the separation of events is universal in other regions, where we have limited station coverage and knowledge of Earth structure. Ford et al., (2012) have shown that combining regional waveform data and P-wave first motions removes the CLVD-isotropic tradeoff and uniquely discriminating the 2009 North Korean test as an explosion. Therefore, including additional constraints from regional and teleseismic P-wave first motions enables source-type discrimination at regions with limited station coverage. We present moment tensor analysis of earthquakes and explosions (M6) from Lop Nor and Semipalatinsk test sites for station paths crossing Kazakhstan and Western China. We also present analyses of smaller events from industrial sites. In these sparse coverage situations we combine regional long-period waveforms, and high-frequency P-wave polarity from the same stations, as well as from teleseismic arrays to constrain the source type. Discrimination capability with respect to velocity model and station coverage is examined, and additionally we investigate the velocity model dependence of vanishing free-surface traction effects on seismic moment tensor inversion of shallow sources and recovery of explosive scalar moment. Our synthetic data tests indicate that biases in scalar

  15. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Aleksander


    Full Text Available The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.

  16. The Banat seismic network: Evolution and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oros, E.


    In the Banat Seismic Region, with its important seismogenic zones (Banat and Danube), operates today the Banat Seismic Network. This network has four short period seismic stations telemetered at the Timisoara Seismological Observatory (since 1995): Siria, Banloc, Buzias and Timisoara. The stations are equipped with short-period S13 seismometers (1 second). The data recorded by the short-period stations are telemetered to Timisoara where they are digitized at 50 samples per second, with 16 bit resolution. At Timisoara works SAPS, an automated system for data acquisition and processing, which performs real-time event detection (based on Allen algorithm), discrimination between local and teleseismic events, automatic P and S waves picking, location and magnitude determination for local events and teleseisms, 'feeding' of an Automatic Data Request Manager with phases, locations and waveforms, sending of earthquake information (as phases and location), by e-mail to Bucharest. The beginning of the seismological observations in Banat is in the 1880's (Timisoara Meteorological Observatory). The first seismograph was installed in Timisoara in 1901, and its systematic observations began in 1902. The World War I interrupted its work. In 1942 Prof. I. Curea founded the Seismic Station Timisoara, and since 1967 until today this station worked into a special building. After 1972 two stations with high amplification were installed in Retezat Mts (Gura Zlata) and on Nera Valey (Susara), as a consequence of the research results. Since 1982 Buzias station began to work completing the Banat Seismic Network. Therefore, the network could detect and locate any local seismic event with M > 2.2. Moreover, up to 20 km distance from each station any seismic event could be detected over M = 0.5. The paper also presents the quality of the locations versus different local seismic sources. (author)

  17. Directivity of seismic radiation from a series of line charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Thomas J [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)


    A series of two-dimensional calculations describing the stress wave propagation from a row of line explosive sources, detonated sequentially at a supersonic phase velocity on the surface of various layered (half-space) crustal models, was carried out. Spectral ratios of the resulting free-surface velocities at a series of hypothetical seismic stations were used to calculate directivity functions. As in the case considered earlier by Ben-Menahem (where the source moved subsonically), strong enhancement of certain frequencies in the spectrum of the horizontal component of velocity was obtained. Directivity is especially prominent when the explosion-induced signals are generated in a medium in which the longitudinal elastic wave velocity is comparable to the detonation phase velocity and when the seismic signal being analyzed has been refracted from a higher-velocity, underlying layer. (author)

  18. Quasi-periodic oscillations of aerosol backscatter profiles and surface meteorological parameters during winter nights over a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Manoj


    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves, which are a manifestation of the fluctuations in buoyancy of the air parcels, are well known for their direct influence on concentration of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols, and also on oscillations of meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, visibility and so on. The present paper reports quasi-periodic oscillations in the lidar backscatter signal strength due to aerosol fluctuations in the nocturnal boundary layer, studied with a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro pulse lidar and concurrent meteorological parameters over a tropical station in India. The results of the spectral analysis of the data, archived on some typical clear-sky conditions during winter months of 2008 and 2009, exhibit a prominent periodicity of 20–40 min in lidar-observed aerosol variability and show close association with those observed in the near-surface temperature and wind at 5% statistical significance. Moreover, the lidar aerosol backscatter signal strength variations at different altitudes, which have been generated from the height-time series of the one-minute interval profiles at 2.4 m vertical resolution, indicate vertical propagation of these waves, exchanging energy between lower and higher height levels. Such oscillations are favoured by the stable atmospheric background condition and peculiar topography of the experimental site. Accurate representation of these buoyancy waves is essential in predicting the sporadic fluctuations of weather in the tropics.

  19. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W


    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  20. Seismic risk assessment of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.E.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Lappa, D.A.; Chuang, T.Y.; Murray, R.C.; Johnson, J.J.


    The simplified seismic risk methodology developed in the USNRC Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was demonstrated by its application to the Zion nuclear power plant (PWR). The simplified seismic risk methodology was developed to reduce the costs associated with a seismic risk analysis while providing adequate results. A detailed model of Zion, including systems analysis models (initiating events, event trees, and fault trees), SSI and structure models, and piping models, was developed and used in assessing the seismic risk of the Zion nuclear power plant (FSAR). The simplified seismic risk methodology was applied to the LaSalle County Station nuclear power plant, a BWR; to further demonstrate its applicability, and if possible, to provide a basis for comparing the seismic risk from PWRs and BWRs. (orig./HP)

  1. Multicomponent seismic applications in coalbed methane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.; Trend, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics


    Seismic applications for coalbed methane (CBM) development are used to address the following challenges: lateral continuity of coal zones; vertical continuity of coal seams; permeability of cleats and fractures; coal quality and gas content; wet versus dry coal zones; and, monitoring storage of greenhouse gases. This paper presented a brief description of existing seismic programs, including 2-D and 3-D surface seismic surveys; multicomponent seismic surveys; vertical seismic profiles; cross-well seismic surveys; and, time-lapse seismic surveys. A comparative evaluation of their use in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and the Ardley Formation was presented. The study showed that variations in reservoir properties resulting from gas production and dewatering can be effectively imaged using seismic surveys. Seismic surveys are useful in reservoir management, monitoring sweep efficiency during enhanced natural gas from coal (NGC) production, monitoring disposal of produced water and verifying storage of carbon dioxide for carbon credits. tabs., figs.

  2. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.


    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  3. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.


    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  4. seismic refraction investigation of the subsurface structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    employed for exploration include magnetic, electrical and gravitational methods, which depends on the earth's natural fields. Others are seismic and electromagnetic methods, which depends on the introduction of artificial energy in thereof. The seismic refraction method uses the seismic energy that returns to the surface of ...

  5. Seismic risk control of nuclear power plants using seismic protection systems in stable continental regions: The UK case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medel-Vera, Carlos, E-mail:; Ji, Tianjian, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Strategies to reduce seismic risk for nuclear power stations in the UK are analysed. • Efficiency of devices to reduce risk: viscous-based higher than hysteretic-based. • Scenario-based incremental dynamic analysis is introduced for use in nuclear stations. • Surfaces of seismic unacceptable performance for nuclear stations are proposed. - Abstract: This article analyses three different strategies on the use of seismic protection systems (SPS) for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the UK. Such strategies are based on the experience reported elsewhere of seismically protected nuclear reactor buildings in other stable continental regions. Analyses are conducted using an example of application based on a 1000 MW Pressurised Water Reactor building located in a representative UK nuclear site. The efficiency of the SPS is probabilistically assessed to achieve possible risk reduction for both rock and soil sites in comparison with conventionally constructed NPPs. Further analyses are conducted to study how the reduction of risk changes when all controlling scenarios of the site are included. This is done by introducing a scenario-based incremental dynamic analysis aimed at the generation of surfaces for unacceptable performance of NPPs as a function of earthquake magnitude (M{sub w}) and distance-to-site (R{sub epi}). General guidelines are proposed to potentially use SPS in future NPPs in the UK. Such recommendations can be used by the British nuclear industry in the future development of 12 new reactors to be built in the next two decades to generate 16 GWe of new nuclear capacity.

  6. Properties of Repetitive Long-Period Seismicity at Villarrica Volcano, Chile (United States)

    Richardson, J.; Waite, G. P.; Palma, J.; Johnson, J. B.


    Villarrica Volcano, Chile hosts a persistent lava lake and is characterized by degassing and long-period seismicity. In order to better understand the relationship between outgassing and seismicity, we recorded broadband seismic and acoustic data along with high-rate SO2 emission data. We used both a densely-spaced linear array deployed on the northern flank of Villarrica, during the austral summer of 2011, and a wider aperture array of stations distributed around the volcano that was active in the austral summer of 2010. Both deployments consisted of three-component broadband stations and were augmented with broadband infrasound sensors. Of particular interests are repetitive, ~1 Hz seismic and coincident infrasound signals that occurred approximately every 2 minutes. Because these events are typically very low amplitude, we used a matched filter approach to identify them. We windowed several high-amplitude records of these events from broadband seismic stations near the vent. The record section of each event served as a template to compare with the entire dataset by cross-correlation. This approach identified ~20,000 nearly identical events during the ~7 day deployment of the linear array, which were otherwise difficult to identify in the raw records. Assuming that all of the events that we identified have identical source mechanisms and depths, we stack the large suite of events to produce low-noise records and particle motions at receivers farther than 5 km from the vent. We find that the records from stations near the edifice are dominated by tangential particle motion, suggesting the influence of near-field components. Correlation of these data with broadband acoustic data collected at the summit suggest that these repeatable seismic processes are linked to acoustic emissions, probably due to gas bubbles bursting at the magma free surface, as no eruptive products besides gas were being emitted by the volcano during the instrument deployment. The acoustic

  7. The AlpArray Seismic Network: A Large-Scale European Experiment to Image the Alpine Orogen (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Bokelmann, Götz; Bondár, István; Crawford, Wayne C.; Dessa, Jean-Xavier; Doubre, Cécile; Friederich, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Florian; Giardini, Domenico; Gráczer, Zoltán; Handy, Mark R.; Herak, Marijan; Jia, Yan; Kissling, Edi; Kopp, Heidrun; Korn, Michael; Margheriti, Lucia; Meier, Thomas; Mucciarelli, Marco; Paul, Anne; Pesaresi, Damiano; Piromallo, Claudia; Plenefisch, Thomas; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Ritter, Joachim; Rümpker, Georg; Šipka, Vesna; Spallarossa, Daniele; Thomas, Christine; Tilmann, Frederik; Wassermann, Joachim; Weber, Michael; Wéber, Zoltán; Wesztergom, Viktor; Živčić, Mladen


    The AlpArray programme is a multinational, European consortium to advance our understanding of orogenesis and its relationship to mantle dynamics, plate reorganizations, surface processes and seismic hazard in the Alps-Apennines-Carpathians-Dinarides orogenic system. The AlpArray Seismic Network has been deployed with contributions from 36 institutions from 11 countries to map physical properties of the lithosphere and asthenosphere in 3D and thus to obtain new, high-resolution geophysical images of structures from the surface down to the base of the mantle transition zone. With over 600 broadband stations operated for 2 years, this seismic experiment is one of the largest simultaneously operated seismological networks in the academic domain, employing hexagonal coverage with station spacing at less than 52 km. This dense and regularly spaced experiment is made possible by the coordinated coeval deployment of temporary stations from numerous national pools, including ocean-bottom seismometers, which were funded by different national agencies. They combine with permanent networks, which also required the cooperation of many different operators. Together these stations ultimately fill coverage gaps. Following a short overview of previous large-scale seismological experiments in the Alpine region, we here present the goals, construction, deployment, characteristics and data management of the AlpArray Seismic Network, which will provide data that is expected to be unprecedented in quality to image the complex Alpine mountains at depth.

  8. Seismicity and seismic hazard in Sabah, East Malaysia from earthquake and geodetic data (United States)

    Gilligan, A.; Rawlinson, N.; Tongkul, F.; Stephenson, R.


    While the levels of seismicity are low in most of Malaysia, the state of Sabah in northern Borneo has moderate levels of seismicity. Notable earthquakes in the region include the 1976 M6.2 Lahad Datu earthquake and the 2015 M6 Ranau earthquake. The recent Ranau earthquake resulted in the deaths of 18 people on Mt Kinabalu, an estimated 100 million RM ( US$23 million) damage to buildings, roads, and infrastructure from shaking, and flooding, reduced water quality, and damage to farms from landslides. Over the last 40 years the population of Sabah has increased to over four times what it was in 1976, yet seismic hazard in Sabah remains poorly understood. Using seismic and geodetic data we hope to better quantify the hazards posed by earthquakes in Sabah, and thus help to minimize risk. In order to do this we need to know about the locations of earthquakes, types of earthquakes that occur, and faults that are generating them. We use data from 15 MetMalaysia seismic stations currently operating in Sabah to develop a region-specific velocity model from receiver functions and a pre-existing surface wave model. We use this new velocity model to (re)locate earthquakes that occurred in Sabah from 2005-2016, including a large number of aftershocks from the 2015 Ranau earthquake. We use a probabilistic nonlinear earthquake location program to locate the earthquakes and then refine their relative locations using a double difference method. The recorded waveforms are further used to obtain moment tensor solutions for these earthquakes. Earthquake locations and moment tensor solutions are then compared with the locations of faults throughout Sabah. Faults are identified from high-resolution IFSAR images and subsequent fieldwork, with a particular focus on the Lahad Datau and Ranau areas. Used together, these seismic and geodetic data can help us to develop a new seismic hazard model for Sabah, as well as aiding in the delivery of outreach activities regarding seismic hazard

  9. The natural seismic hazard and induced seismicity of the european HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal energy project at Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France); Alea sismique naturel et sismicite induite du projet geothermique europeen RCS (roche chaude seche) de Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, J A


    Development of the Soultz-sous-Forets HDR (Hot Dry Rock) geothermal energy project will involve important fluid injections which will induce micro-seismic events. This thesis discusses the natural seismicity of the region and induced seismicity associated with fluid injections. A catalogue of all historical and instrument seismicity of the Soultz-sous-Forets (SSF) region has been compiled. This seismicity does not correspond to movements along the major tectonic features of the region. The area around SSF has been identified as being one where high heat flow corresponds to low seismicity. The largest well documented seismic event in the region which took place in 1952 had an epicentral intensity of VI. All important data pertaining to the series of seismic events which took place in the region from August to October 1952 have been collected and are presented. This work details the installation and operation of a permanent 3 station network of accelerometers and seismometers around the HDR site. Also the installation and operation of a mobile network of vertical seismometers during fluid injections. 167 micro-seismic events were recorded on the surface network, with magnitudes from -0.5 to 1.9. The preferential alignment of the micro-seismic cloud is N160 deg. Individual focal mechanisms of the larger seismic events correspond to an extensional tectonic regime. Stress inversion of P wave polarities indicates that the maximum stress is vertical and the intermediate and minimum stress axes horizontal. The largest of the horizontal stresses is orientated N124 deg and the smallest N34 deg. Induced seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing fractures controlled by the in situ stress seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing tectonic fractures controlled by the in situ stress field, and the largest of the induced events had a magnitude 1.9. This level of seismicity does not pose any environmental hazard to the region around Soultz-sous-Forets. (author) 151


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang


    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  11. Seismic risk evaluation for high voltage air insulated substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camensig, Carlo; Bresesti, Luca; Clementel, Stefano; Salvetti, Maurizio


    This paper describes the results of the analytical and experimental activities performed by ISMES for the evaluation of the structural reliability of electrical substations with respect to seismic events. In the following, the reference station is described along with the methods used to define the site seismic input, the analytical and experimental evaluation of the components' fragility curves and the whole station seismic risk evaluation

  12. Near-surface ozone content at the Molodezhnaia and Mirnyi Antarctic stations, according to measurements made during spring 1987 to autumn 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Elokhov, A.S. (Rossiiskaia Akademiia Nauk, Institut Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow (Russian Federation))


    Results are presented of near-surface ozone measurements at the Molodezhnaia and Mirnyi Antarctic stations, conducted from the spring of 1987 to the autumn of 1988, as well as of measurements by an aircraft flying along the Mirnyi-Vostok-Mirnyi path (one flight). Mechanisms of diurnal, day-to-day, and annual ozone variability are examined. It is found that, during synoptically active periods, the near-surface ozone correlates positively with the temperature above the atmosphere-land boundary layer, while during the synoptically quiet period the ozone concentrations correlate with the direction of the surface katabatic wind. 29 refs.

  13. Seismic efficiency of meteor airbursts (United States)

    Svetsov, V. V.; Artemieva, N. A.; Shuvalov, V. V.


    We present the results of numerical simulation for impacts of relatively small asteroids and ice bodies of 30-100 m in size, decelerated in the atmosphere and exploding before they reach the surface, but still producing seismic effects due to the impact wave reaching the surface. The calculated magnitudes fall within the range of 4 to 6, and average seismic efficiency of these events is 2.5 × 10-5. The results obtained allow the seismic hazard from impacts of cosmic bodies to be estimated.

  14. Lateral variations in upper-mantle seismic anisotropy in the Pacific from inversion of a surface-wave dispersion dataset (United States)

    Eddy, C. L.; Ekstrom, G.; Nettles, M.; Gaherty, J. B.


    We present a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic velocity structure of the Pacific lithosphere and asthenosphere. The presence of seismic anisotropy in the oceanic upper mantle provides information about the geometry of flow in the mantle, the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the possible presence of partial melt in the asthenosphere. Our dataset consists of fundamental-mode dispersion for Rayleigh and Love waves measured between 25-250 s with paths crossing the Pacific Ocean. We invert the phase anomaly measurements directly for three-dimensional anisotropic velocity structure. Our models are radially anisotropic and include the full set of elastic parameters that describe azimuthal variations in velocity (e.g. Gc, Gs). We investigate the age dependence of seismic velocity and radial anisotropy and find that there are significant deviations from the velocities predicted by a simple oceanic plate cooling model. We observe strong radial anisotropy with vsh > vsv in the asthenosphere of the central Pacific. We investigate the radial anisotropy in the shallow lithosphere, where previous models have reported conflicting results. There is a contrast in both upper-mantle isotropic velocities and radial anisotropy between the Pacific and Nazca plates, across the East Pacific Rise. We also investigate lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy throughout the Pacific upper mantle and find that there are large areas over which the anisotropy fast axis does not align with absolute plate motion, suggesting the presence of small-scale convection or pressure-driven flow beneath the base of the oceanic plate.

  15. Near surface structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone near 30°E from Rayleigh and Love wave tomography using ambient seismic noise. (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G. A.; Hillers, G.


    By utilising short period surface waves present in the noise field, we can construct images of shallow structure in the Earth's upper crust: a depth-range that is usually poorly resolved in earthquake tomography. Here, we use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the source region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends 1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We obtain maps of group velocity variation using surface wave tomography applied to short period (1- 6 s) Rayleigh and Love waves to construct high-resolution images of SV and SH-wave velocity in the upper 5 km of a 70 km x 35 km region centred on the eastern end of the fault segment that ruptured in the 1999 Izmit earthquake. The average Rayleigh wave group velocities in the region vary between 1.8 km/s at 1.5 s period, to 2.2 km/s at 6 s period. The NAFZ bifurcates into northern and southern strands in this region; both are active but only the northern strand ruptured in the 1999 event. The signatures of both the northern and southern branches of the NAFZ are clearly associated with strong gradients in seismic velocity that also denote the boundaries of major tectonic units. This observation implies that the fault zone exploits the pre-existing structure of the Intra-Pontide suture zone. To the north of the NAFZ, we observe low S-wave velocities ( 2.0 km/s) associated with the unconsolidated sediments of the Adapazari basin, and blocks of weathered terrigenous clastic sediments. To the south of the northern branch of the NAFZ in the Armutlu block, we detect higher velocities ( 2.9 km/s) associated with a shallow crystalline basement, in particular a block of metamorphosed schists and marbles that bound the northern branch of the NAFZ.

  16. Mineralogical compositions of fault rocks from surface ruptures of Wenchuan earthquake and implication of mineral transformation during the seismic cycle along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, Sichuan Province, China (United States)

    Dang, Jiaxiang; Zhou, Yongsheng; He, Changrong; Ma, Shengli


    There are two co-seismic bedrock surface ruptures from the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the northern and central parts of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault, Sichuan Province, southwest China. In this study, we report on the macrostructure of the fault rocks and results from X-ray powder diffraction analysis of minerals from rocks in the fault zone. The most recent fault gouge (the gouge produced by the most recent co-seismic fault movement) in all the studied outcrops is dark or grayish-black, totally unconsolidated and ultrafine-grained. Older fault gouges in the same outcrops are grayish or yellowish and weakly consolidated. X-ray powder diffraction analysis results show that mineral assemblages in both the old fault gouge and the new fault gouge are more complicated than the mineral assemblages in the bedrock as the fault gouge is rich in clay minerals. The fault gouge inherited its major rock-forming minerals from the parent rocks, but the clay minerals in the fault gouge were generated in the fault zone and are therefore authigenic and synkinematic. In profiles across the fault, clay mineral abundances increase as one traverses from the bedrock to the breccia to the old gouge and from the old gouge to the new gouge. Quartz and illite are found in all collected gouge samples. The dominant clay minerals in the new fault gouge are illite and smectite along the northern part of the surface rupture and illite/smectite mixed-layer clay in the middle part of the rupture. Illite/smectite mixed-layer clay found in the middle part of the rupture indicates that fault slip was accompanied by K-rich fluid circulation. The existence of siderite, anhydrite, and barite in the northern part of the rupture suggests that fault slip at this locality was accompanied by acidic fluids containing ions of Fe, Ca, and Ba.

  17. Innovative Approaches for Seismic Studies of Mars (Invited) (United States)

    Banerdt, B.


    In addition to its intrinsic interest, Mars is particularly well-suited for studying the full range of processes and phenomena related to early terrestrial planet evolution, from initial differentiation to the start of plate tectonics. It is large and complex enough to have undergone most of the processes that affected early Earth but, unlike the Earth, has apparently not undergone extensive plate tectonics or other major reworking that erased the imprint of early events (as evidenced by the presence of cratered surfaces older than 4 Ga). The martian mantle should have Earth-like polymorphic phase transitions and may even support a perovskite layer near the core (depending on the actual core radius), a characteristic that would have major implications for core cooling and mantle convection. Thus even the most basic measurements of planetary structure, such as crustal thickness, core radius and state (solid/liquid), and gross mantle velocity structure would provide invaluable constraints on models of early planetary evolution. Despite this strong scientific motivation (and several failed attempts), Mars remains terra incognita from a seismic standpoint. This is due to an unfortunate convergence of circumstances, prominent among which are our uncertainty in the level of seismic activity and the relatively high cost of landing multiple long-lived spacecraft on Mars to comprise a seismic network for body-wave travel-time analysis; typically four to ten stations are considered necessary for this type of experiment. In this presentation I will address both of these issues. In order to overcome the concern about a possible lack of marsquakes with which to work, it is useful to identify alternative methods for using seismic techniques to probe the interior. Seismology without quakes can be accomplished in a number of ways. “Unconventional” sources of seismic energy include meteorites (which strike the surface of Mars at a relatively high rate), artificial projectiles

  18. High-resolution seismic reflection surveying with a land streamer (United States)

    Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Mustafa; Cankurtaranlar, Ali; Ergintav, Semih; Kurt, Levent


    In this study, newly designed seismic reflection data acquisition array (land streamer) is utilized to image the shallow subsurface. Our acquisition system consist of 24 geophones screwed on iron plates with 2 m spacing, moving on the surface of the earth which are connected with fire hose. Completely original, 4.5 Kg weight iron plates provides satisfactory coupling. This land-streamer system enables rapid and cost effective acquisition of seismic reflection data due to its operational facilities. First test studies were performed using various seismic sources such as a mini-vibro truck, buffalo-gun and hammer. The final fieldwork was performed on a landslide area which was studied before. Data acquisition was carried out on the line that was previously measured by the seismic survey using 5 m geophone and shot spacing. This line was chosen in order to re-image known reflection patterns obtained from the previous field study. Taking penetration depth into consideration, a six-cartridge buffalo-gun was selected as a seismic source to achieve high vertical resolution. Each shot-point drilled 50 cm for gunshots to obtain high resolution source signature. In order to avoid surface waves, the offset distance between the source and the first channel was chosen to be 50 m and the shot spacing was 2 m. These acquisition parameters provided 12 folds at each CDP points. Spatial sampling interval was 1 m at the surface. The processing steps included standard stages such as gain recovery, editing, frequency filtering, CDP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. Furthermore, surface consistent residual static corrections were applied recursively to improve image quality. 2D F-K filter application was performed to suppress air and surface waves at relatively deep part of the seismic section. Results show that, this newly designed, high-resolution land seismic data acquisition equipment (land-streamer) can be successfully used to image subsurface. Likewise

  19. Passive seismic experiment in the Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli region (Ngorongoro Conservation Area), Northern Tanzania. (United States)

    Parisi, Laura; Lombardo, Luigi; Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin


    The Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli basins, located within the Ngorogoro Conservation Area (NCA), are a cornerstone for understanding the evolution of early humans and are two paleo-antropological excavation sites of global importance. NCA is located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift (EAR), in the vicinity of Ngorongoro Crater and other major volcanic edifices. Thus, understanding the geology and tectonics of the NCA may shed light onto the question why early Hominins settled in this region. Environmental and geological conditions in the Olduvai and Laetoli region that promoted human settlement and development are still debated by geologists and paleo-anthropologists. Paleo-geographical reconstructions of the study area of the last 2 million years may take advantage of modern passive seismology. Therefore, we installed a dense seismic network covering a surface of approximately 30 x 40 km within the NCA to map the depth extent of known faults, and to identify seismically active faults that have no surface expression. Our ten seismic stations, equipped with Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, started to operate in June 2016 and will continue for a total of 2 years. At the end of the first year, other 5 stations will densify our network. Here we analyse data quality of the first four months of continuous recordings. Our network provides good quality 3-C waveforms in the frequency range of 0.7-50 Hz. Vertical component seismograms record frequencies reliably down to 8 mHz. Preliminary results of the seismicity obtained with standard location procedures show that NCA is characterised by frequent tectonic seismicity (not volcano-related) with Ml between 0.5 and 2.0. Seismic activity is more frequent in the South (Laetoli region) where major fault systems have not been recognised at the surface yet.

  20. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  1. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  2. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea (United States)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.


    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  3. Seismic protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, R.


    To ensure that a nuclear reactor or other damage-susceptible installation is, so far as possible, tripped and already shut down before the arrival of an earthquake shock at its location, a ring of monitoring seismic sensors is provided around it, each sensor being spaced from it by a distance (possibly several kilometres) such that (taking into account the seismic-shock propagation velocity through the intervening ground) a shock monitored by the sensor and then advancing to the installation site will arrive there later than a warning signal emitted by the sensor and received at the installation, by an interval sufficient to allow the installation to trip and shut down, or otherwise assume an optimum anti-seismic mode, in response to the warning signal. Extra sensors located in boreholes may define effectively a three-dimensional (hemispherical) sensing boundary rather than a mere two-dimensional ring. (author)

  4. Induced Seismicity (United States)

    Keranen, Katie M.; Weingarten, Matthew


    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years related to fluid injection in petroleum fields. Study of these earthquakes has resulted in insights into physical processes and has identified knowledge gaps and future research directions. Induced earthquakes are challenging to identify using seismological methods, and faults and reefs strongly modulate spatial and temporal patterns of induced seismicity. However, the similarity of induced and natural seismicity provides an effective tool for studying earthquake processes. With continuing development of energy resources, increased interest in carbon sequestration, and construction of large dams, induced seismicity will continue to pose a hazard in coming years.

  5. A study of local site effects in Benevento(Southern Italy by the analysis of seismic records of explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mirabile


    Full Text Available In this paper we evalllate the seismic amplification effects in the town of Benevento llsing records of an explo- sion of 500 kg fired at abollt 7 km. Seismic records were obtained at 43 selected sites in the city by digital three-component stations. A data selection performed on the signal-to-noise ratio reduced the available data to 26 stations. We used the spectral ratio techniques to evaluate the amplification effects of each recording site compared both to the average spectrum calculated over 26 stations and to a reference seismic station. The shapes of the spectral ratios were classified according to the geological characteristics of the site. A characteristic shape of the spectral ratio was observed to be related to the specific structure of the subsoil. In particular, the sites on basin sediments (Lagonegro Unit and Middle Pleistocene conglomerates failed to show amplification effects; the sites on thick alluvial deposits showed amplification in the 5-9 Hz range; finally, sites on alluvial-lacustrine deposits amplified the seismic signal at frequencies depending on the characteristics and the thickness of the deposit. In addition, damage distribution caused by the 1688 earthquake in Benevento was related to the thickness of the surface layers in the ancient built-up area of the town. The study of the spectral ra- tios showed that these deposits amplify ground motion at frequencies between 9 and 12 Hz, i.e. frequencies close to the natural period of the most widespread buildings at that time in Benevento. Geological and seismic data were jointly used to carry out a zonation of the urban area of Benevento on the basis of homogeneous seismic responses. The validity of this analysis is limited to the main frequency band and amplitude of ground motion produced by the explosions.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory seismic yield determination for the NPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recorded seismic signals from the Non-Proliferation experiment at the Nevada Test Site on September 22, 1993, at seismic stations near Mina, Nevada; Kanab Utah; Landers, California; and Elko, Nevada. Yields were calculated from these recorded seismic amplitudes at the stations using statistical amplitude- yield regression curves from earlier nuclear experiments performed near the Non-Proliferation experiment. The weighted seismic yield average using these amplitudes is 1.9 kt with a standard deviation of 19%. The calibrating experiments were nuclear, so this yield is equivalent to a 1.9-kt nuclear experiment.

  7. Seismic site characterization of an urban dedimentary basin, Livermore Valley, California: Site tesponse, basin-edge-induced surface waves, and 3D simulations (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Leeds, Alena L.; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Allen, James P.; Schmitt, Robert G.


    Thirty‐two accelerometers were deployed in the Livermore Valley, California, for approximately one year to study sedimentary basin effects. Many local and near‐regional earthquakes were recorded, including the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa, California, earthquake. The resulting ground‐motion data set is used to quantify the seismic response of the Livermore basin, a major structural depression in the California Coast Range Province bounded by active faults. Site response is calculated by two methods: the reference‐site spectral ratio method and a source‐site spectral inversion method. Longer‐period (≥1  s) amplification factors follow the same general pattern as Bouguer gravity anomaly contours. Site response spectra are inverted for shallow shear‐wave velocity profiles, which are consistent with independent information. Frequency–wavenumber analysis is used to analyze plane‐wave propagation across the Livermore Valley and to identify basin‐edge‐induced surface waves with back azimuths different from the source back azimuth. Finite‐element simulations in a 3D velocity model of the region illustrate the generation of basin‐edge‐induced surface waves and point out strips of elevated ground velocities along the margins of the basin.

  8. 6C polarization analysis - seismic direction finding in coherent noise, automated event identification, and wavefield separation (United States)

    Schmelzbach, C.; Sollberger, D.; Greenhalgh, S.; Van Renterghem, C.; Robertsson, J. O. A.


    Polarization analysis of standard three-component (3C) seismic data is an established tool to determine the propagation directions of seismic waves recorded by a single station. A major limitation of seismic direction finding methods using 3C recordings, however, is that a correct propagation-direction determination is only possible if the wave mode is known. Furthermore, 3C polarization analysis techniques break down in the presence of coherent noise (i.e., when more than one event is present in the analysis time window). Recent advances in sensor technology (e.g., fibre-optical, magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensors, and ring laser gyroscopes) have made it possible to accurately measure all three components of rotational ground motion exhibited by seismic waves, in addition to the conventionally recorded three components of translational motion. Here, we present an extension of the theory of single station 3C polarization analysis to six-component (6C) recordings of collocated translational and rotational ground motions. We demonstrate that the information contained in rotation measurements can help to overcome some of the main limitations of standard 3C seismic direction finding, such as handling multiple arrivals simultaneously. We show that the 6C polarisation of elastic waves measured at the Earth's free surface does not only depend on the seismic wave type and propagation direction, but also on the local P- and S-wave velocities just beneath the recording station. Using an adaptation of the multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC), we demonstrate how seismic events can univocally be identified and characterized in terms of their wave type. Furthermore, we show how the local velocities can be inferred from single-station 6C data, in addition to the direction angles (inclination and azimuth) of seismic arrivals. A major benefit of our proposed 6C method is that it also allows the accurate recovery of the wave type, propagation directions, and phase

  9. Reflection seismic imaging of the upper crystalline crust for characterization of potential repository sites: Fine tuning the seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Palm, H.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    SKB is currently carrying out studies to determine which seismic techniques, and how, they will be used for investigations prior to and during the building of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Active seismic methods included in these studies are refraction seismics, reflection seismics, and vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The main goal of the active seismic methods is to locate fracture zones in the crystalline bedrock. Plans are to use longer reflection seismic profiles (3.4 km) in the initial stages of the site investigations. The target depth for these seismic profiles is 100-1500 m. Prior to carrying out the seismic surveys over actual candidate waste repository sites it has been necessary to carry out a number of tests to determine the optimum acquisition parameters. This report constitutes a summary of the tests carried out by Uppsala University. In addition, recommended acquisition and processing parameters are presented at the end of the report. A major goal in the testing has been to develop a methodology for acquiring high-resolution reflection seismic data over crystalline rock in as a cost effective manner as possible. Since the seismic source is generally a major cost in any survey, significant attention has been given to reducing the cost of the source. It was agreed upon early in the study that explosives were the best source from a data quality perspective and, therefore, only explosive source methods have been considered in this study. The charge size and shot hole dimension required to image the upper 1-1.5 km of bedrock is dependent upon the conditions at the surface. In this study two types of shot hole drilling methods have been employed depending upon whether the thickness of the loose sediments at the surface is greater or less than 0.5 m. The charge sizes and shot hole dimensions required are: Loose sediment thickness less than 0.5 m: 15 g in 90 cm deep 12 mm wide uncased shot holes. Loose sediment thickness greater than 0.5 m: 75 g

  10. Studies of the seismic coda using an earthquake cluster as a deeply buried seismograph array (United States)

    Spudich, Paul; Bostwick, Todd


    Loosely speaking, the principle of Green's function reciprocity means that the source and receiver positions in a seismic experiment can be exchanged without affecting the observed seismograms. Consequently, the seismograms observed at a single observation location o and caused by a cluster of microearthquakes at locations {ei} are identical to the time series that would be measured by an array of stress meters emplaced at positions {ei}, recording waves generated by a source acting at o. By applying array analysis techniques like slant stacking and frequency-wave number analysis to these seismograms, we can determine the directions and velocities of the component waves as they travel in the earthquake focal region rather than at the surface. We have developed a computationally rapid plane-wave decomposition which we have applied to single-station recordings of aftershocks of the 1984 Morgan Hill, California, earthquake. The analysis is applied to data from three seismic stations having considerably different site geologies. One is a relatively hard rock station situated on Franciscan metamorphics, one is within the Calaveras fault zone, and one is on semiconsolidated sand and gravels. We define the early coda to be the part of the coda initiating immediately after the direct S wave and ending at twice the S wave lapse time. The character of the S wave and early coda varies from being impulsive at the first station to highly reverberative at the last. We examine waves in sequential time windows starting at the S wave and continuing through the early part of the coda. At all seismic stations the early coda is dominated by a persistent signal that must be caused by multiple scattering, probably within 2 km of each seismic station. Despite clear station-to-station differences in the character of the early coda, coda Q values measured in the late coda (greater than twice the S lapse time) agree well among stations, implying that the mechanisms causing the varying

  11. Multichannel long period seismic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.


    This paper discusses the specifications and performance of an eight channel long period seismic digital data acquisition system, which is developed and installed at Seismic Array Station, Gauribidanur, Karnataka State. The paper describes how these data in an unedited form are recorded on a single track of magnetic tape inter-mittantly, which has resulted in recording of 50 days data on a single tapespool. A time indexing technique which enables quick access to any desired portion of a recorded tape is also discussed. Typical examples of long period seismic event signals recorded by this system are also illustrated. Various advantages, the system provides over the analog multichannel instrumentation tape recording system, operating at Seismic Array Station for th e last two decades, are also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  12. Seismic tomography of Basse-Terre volcanic island, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, using earthquake travel times and noise correlations (United States)

    Barnoud, Anne; Coutant, Olivier; Bouligand, Claire; Massin, Frédérick; Stehly, Laurent


    We image the volcanic island of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, using both earthquake travel times and noise correlations. (1) A new earthquake catalog was recently compiled for the Lesser Antilles by the CDSA/OVSG/IPGP (Massin et al., EGU General Assembly 2014) and allows us to perform classical travel time tomography to obtain smooth 3D body wave velocity models. The geometrical configuration of the volcanic arc controls the resolution of the model in our zone of interest. (2) Surface wave tomography using noise correlations was successfully applied to volcanoes (Brenguier et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 2007). We use seismic noise recorded at 16 broad-band stations and 9 short-period stations from Basse-Terre over a period of six years (2007-2012). For each station pair, we extract a dispersion curve from the noise correlation to get surface wave velocity models. The inversion of the dispersion curves produces a 3D S-wave velocity model of the island. The spatial distribution of seismic stations accross the island is highly heterogeneous, leading to higher resolution near the dome of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano. Resulting velocity models are compared with densities obtained by 3D inversion of gravimetric data (Barnoud et al., AGU Fall Meeting 2013). Further work should include simultaneous inversion of seismic and gravimetric datasets to overcome resolution limitations.

  13. The Apollo passive seismic experiment (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.


    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  14. Seismic Symphonies (United States)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano


    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  15. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single

  16. A robust economic technique for crosswell seismic profiling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.


    The objective of this research program was to investigate a novel way to acquire crosswell tomographic data, that being to use a standard surface-positioned seismic energy source stationed inline with two wells that have downhole receiver arrays. This field technique differs from the traditional way that crosswell tomography is done, which requires that a downhole receiver array be in one well and that a downhole seismic source be in a second well. The purpose of the research effort was to evaluate the relative merits of the potential advantages and pitfalls of surface-source crosswell tomography, which some also refer to as twin-receiver-well crosswell tomography. The principal findings were: (1) surface-source crosswell tomography is a viable technology and can be used in appropriate reservoir conditions, (2) raypath modeling should be done to determine if the targeted interwell space is properly illuminated by surface-generated wavefields before proceeding to collect surface-source tomographic data, (3) crosswell data generated by a surface-based source are subject to a greater range of traveltime errors than are data generated by a downhole source, primarily due to shot statics caused by variable weathered layers, and (4) the accuracy and reliability of the interwell tomogram increase as more independent velocity information (sonic logs, velocity checkshots, vertical seismic profiles, downhole-source crosswell data) is available to constrain the inversion. The surface-source approach to crosswell tomography was evaluated by recording twin-receiver well data at the Texaco Borehole Test Site in Humble, Texas.

  17. Baseline seismic survey for the 2nd offshore methane hydrate production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough (United States)

    Teranishi, Y.; Inamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Takahashi, H.; Kobayashi, F.


    JOGMEC carries out seismic monitoring surveys before and after the 2nd offshore methane hydrate (MH) production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough and evaluates MH dissociation behavior from the time-lapse seismic response. In 2016, JOGMEC deployed Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) system provided by OCC in the Daini Atsumi Knoll with water depths of 900-1100 m. The main challenge of the seismic survey was to optimize the cable layout for ensuring an effective time-lapse seismic detectability while overcoming the following two issues: 1. OBC receiver lines were limited to only two lines. It was predicted that the imaging of shallow reflectors would suffer from lack of continuity and resolution due to this limitation of receiver lines. 2. The seafloor and shallow sedimentary layers including monitoring target are dipping to the Northwest direction. It was predicted that the refection points would laterally shift to up-dip direction (Southeast direction). In order to understand the impact of the issues above, the seismic survey was designed with elastic wave field simulation. The reflection seismic survey for baseline data was conducted in August 2016. A total of 70 receiver stations distributed along one cable were deployed successfully and a total of 9952 shots were fired. After the baseline seismic survey, the hydrophone and geophone vertical component datasets were processed as outlined below: designaturing, denoising, surface consistent deconvolution and surface consistent amplitude correction. High-frequency imaging with Reverse Time Migration (RTM) was introduced to these data sets. Improvements in imaging from the RTM are remarkable compared to the Kirchhoff migration and the existing Pre-stack time migration with 3D marine surface seismic data obtained and processed in 2002, especially in the following parts. The MH concentrated zone which has complex structures. Below the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) which is present as a impedance-contrast boundary

  18. UAV Remote Sensing Can Reveal the Effects of Low-Impact Seismic Lines on Surface Morphology, Hydrology, and Methane (CH4) Release in a Boreal Treed Bog (United States)

    Lovitt, J.; Rahman, M. M.; Saraswati, S.; McDermid, G. J.; Strack, M.; Xu, B.


    Peatlands are globally significant stores of soil carbon, where local methane (CH4) emissions are strongly linked to water table position and microtopography. Historically, these factors have been difficult to measure in the field, constraining our capacity to observe local patterns of variability. In this paper, we show how remote sensing surveys conducted from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms can be used to map microtopography and depth to water over large areas with good accuracy, paving the way for spatially explicit estimates of CH4 emissions. This approach enabled us to observe—for the first time—the effects of low-impact seismic lines (LIS; petroleum exploration corridors) on surface morphology and CH4 emissions in a treed-bog ecosystem in northern Alberta, Canada. Through compaction, LIS lines were found to flatten the observed range in microtopographic elevation by 46 cm and decrease mean depth to water by 15.4 cm, compared to surrounding undisturbed conditions. These alterations are projected to increase CH4 emissions by 20-120% relative to undisturbed areas in our study area, which translates to a total rise of 0.011-0.027 kg CH4 day-1 per linear kilometer of LIS ( 2 m wide). The 16 km of LIS present at our 61 ha study site were predicted to boost CH4 emissions by 20-70 kg between May and September 2016.

  19. High Resolution Vertical Seismic Profile from the Chicxulub IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Borehole: Wave Speeds and Seismic Reflectivity. (United States)

    Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lofi, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Morgan, J. V.


    We acquired a closely-spaced vertical seismic profile (VSP) in the Chicxulub K-Pg Impact Crater drilling program borehole to calibrate the existing surface seismic profiles and provide complementary measurements of in situ seismic wave speeds. Downhole seismic records were obtained at spacings ranging from 1.25 m to 5 m along the borehole from 47.5 m to 1325 mwsf (meters wireline below sea floor) (Fig 1a) using a Sercel SlimwaveTM geophone chain (University of Alberta). The seismic source was a 30/30ci Sercel Mini GI airgun (University of Texas), fired a minimum of 5 times per station. Seismic data processing used a combination of a commercial processing package (Schlumberger's VISTA) and MatlabTM codes. The VSP displays detailed reflectivity (Fig. 1a) with the strongest reflection seen at 600 mwsf (280 ms one-way time), geologically corresponding to the sharp contact between the post-impact sediments and the target peak ring rock, thus confirming the pre-drilling interpretations of the seismic profiles. A two-way time trace extracted from the separated up-going wavefield matches the major reflection both in travel time and character. In the granitic rocks that form the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater, we observe P-wave velocities of 4000-4500 m/s which are significantly less than the expected values of granitoids ( 6000 m/s) (Fig. 1b). The VSP measured wave speeds are confirmed against downhole sonic logging and in laboratory velocimetry measurements; these data provide additional evidence that the crustal material displaced by the impact experienced a significant amount of damage. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was jointly funded by ECORD, ICDP, and IODP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and UNAM. The downhole seismic chain and wireline system is funded by grants to DRS from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and

  20. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station]. (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying


    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  1. Seismic sensitivity to sub-surface solar activity from 18 yr of GOLF/SoHO observations (United States)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Turck-Chièze, S.


    Solar activity has significantly changed over the last two Schwabe cycles. After a long and deep minimum at the end of Cycle 23, the weaker activity of Cycle 24 contrasts with the previous cycles. In this work, the response of the solar acoustic oscillations to solar activity is used in order to provide insights into the structural and magnetic changes in the sub-surface layers of the Sun during this on-going unusual period of low activity. We analyze 18 yr of continuous observations of the solar acoustic oscillations collected by the Sun-as-a-star GOLF instrument on board the SoHO spacecraft. From the fitted mode frequencies, the temporal variability of the frequency shifts of the radial, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes are studied for different frequency ranges that are sensitive to different layers in the solar sub-surface interior. The low-frequency modes show nearly unchanged frequency shifts between Cycles 23 and 24, with a time evolving signature of the quasi-biennial oscillation, which is particularly visible for the quadrupole component revealing the presence of a complex magnetic structure. The modes at higher frequencies show frequency shifts that are 30% smaller during Cycle 24, which is in agreement with the decrease observed in the surface activity between Cycles 23 and 24. The analysis of 18 yr of GOLF oscillations indicates that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for the frequency shifts remained comparable between Cycle 23 and Cycle 24 in the deeper sub-surface layers below 1400 km as revealed by the low-frequency modes. The frequency shifts of the higher-frequency modes, sensitive to shallower regions, show that Cycle 24 is magnetically weaker in the upper layers of Sun. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe following 68 GOLF frequency tables are available and Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc

  2. Concordia, Antarctica, seismic experiment for the International Polar Year (CASE-IPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Maggi


    Full Text Available The CASE-IPY project, part of the larger POLENET initiative of geophysical observations for the International Polar Year, was built on our extensive experience of running seismological stations in Antarctica, both on rock sites (Dumont d’Urville station, and directly on the ice plateau (Concordia station. For CASE-IPY, we deployed 8 temporary seismic stations on the Antarctic plateau: 3 situated near Concordia itself (starting 2008, and the other 5 regularly spaced between Concordia and Vostok (2010-2012, following the maximum in ice topography. The technical problems we have encountered in our field deployments were essentially due to a combination of extreme environmental conditions and isolation of deployment sites. The 3 stations near Concordia were used as test sites to experiment different solutions, and to converge on a design for the 5 main stations. Results from the nearest stations, which transmit data regularly to Concordia, are very promising. The data recorded by our stations will be distributed widely in the scientific community. We expect them to be exploited essentially for structural studies involving Antarctica itself (its ice-cap, crust and lithosphere via receiver functions, noise correlation, and surface-wave tomography, but also for studies of the Earth’s core.

  3. Fire Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  4. ) Increasing Seismic Resolution in a River Delta Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akubelem, E.C.; De Bruin, J. A.


    Increasing the seismic frequency band on the high frequency side during field seismic data acquisition has always been an important, but difficult goal. An increase in frequency band will improve the resolution and accuracy of the data and have a significant impact on our success in finding and significant impact on our success in finding and developing oil and gas reservoirs. It will for example make it easier to resolve thin beds within a reservoir, therein giving a better handle on volumetrics, and enable better well positioning.An experiment was recently carried out by the SPDC with the aim to extending the seismic frequency band on the high frequency side. If the experiment was successful, it was hoped that seismic acquisition in most of the company's acreage in the Niger Delta and in similar terrain elsewhere on the globe would then adopt the approach. As is well known, the surface layer in the field is generally unconsolidated and has the effect of filtering out high frequencies. In this experiment; the seismic sources and receivers were buried below the thin weathered surface layer, thus avoiding this filtering effect. In this way it was possible to retain higher frequencies and thereby obtain a higher resolution image of the subsurface.There were also some other additional advantages of the approach. Only one geophone was used per station, instead of eighteen, as is traditionally the case in routine work. Recording using the new set-up could continue uninterruptedly during rain, which in big operations will result in a considerable reduction of downtime. Additionally, buried geophones can either be retrieved and used again, or left behind for the purpose of 4D data acquisition in the future.The present experiment has provided some very encouraging results. In the first 2.5 seconds, a better resolution was indeed obtained as was hoped. At deeper levels however, the data quality was found to deteriorate. This aspect of the result now needs to be investigated

  5. Results of the application of seismic-reflection and electromagnetic techniques for near-surface hydrogeologic and environmental investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Fine, J.M.


    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Facilities Investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, selected geophysical techniques were evaluated for their usefulness as assessment tools for determining subsurface geology, delineating the areal extent of potentially contaminated landfill sites, and locating buried objects and debris of potential environmental concern. Two shallow seismic-reflection techniques (compression and shear wave) and two electromagnetic techniques (ground-penetrating radar and terrain conductivity) were evaluated at several sites at the U.S. Army Base. The electromagnetic techniques also were tested for tolerance to cultural noise, such as nearby fences, vehicles, and power lines. For the terrain conductivity tests, two instruments were used--the EM31 and EM34, which have variable depths of exploration. The shallowest reflection event was 70 feet below land surface observed in common-depth point, stacked compression-wave data from 24- and 12-fold shallow-seismic-reflection surveys. Several reflection events consistent with clay-sand interfaces between 70 and 120 feet below land surface, along with basement-saprolite surfaces, were imaged in the 24-fold, common- depth-point stacked data. 12-fold, common-depth-point stacked data set contained considerably more noise than the 24-fold, common-depth-point data, due to reduced shot-to-receiver redundancy. Coherent stacked reflection events were not observed in the 24-fold, common-depth-point stacked shear-wave data because of the partial decoupling of the shear- wave generator from the ground. At one site, ground-penetrating radar effectively delineated a shallow, 2- to 5-foot thick sand unit bounded by thin (less than 1 foot) clay layers. The radar signal was completely attenuated where the overlying and underlying clay units thickened and the sand unit thinned. The pene- tration depth of the radar signal was less than 10 feet below land surface. A slight

  6. Seismic investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrows, L.J.


    Evaporite rocks in the Delaware Basin in southeastern New Mexico are being investigated as a possible site for nuclear waste disposal. Seismic studies have been conducted to establish seismic design criteria and to investigate relations between seismicity and geologic structures. In the initial phase of this study, historical and available seismic data were interpreted with respect to geology. Local instrumentation became available in 1974 when New Mexico Tech installed and began operating a seismic station in the area. Data and interpretation for 1974 through 1979 have been published. In 1980 seismic monitoring of the Northern Delaware Basin was extended to include a six station network of self-contained radio-telemetered seismometers. 9 references, 13 figures

  7. Quantifying the Benefits of Shallow Posthole Installation for the Future French Permanent Broadband Stations (United States)

    Vergne, J.; Charade, O.; Bonaime, S.; Louis-Xavier, T.; Arnold, B.


    In the framework of the RESIF (réseau sismologique et géodésique français) infrastructure, more than one hundred new permanent broadband stations have to be deployed in metropolitan France within the forthcoming years. This requires a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost, especially for the 60 percent of stations that we expect to be settled in open environments. During the last two years we tested various types of sensor's hosting infrastructures with a strong focus on recently released posthole sensors that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes. Tests were performed at 3 different sites (two GEOSCOPE stations and a dedicated open-field prototype site) with geological conditions spanning from hard rocks to very soft soils. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed at different depths, from the surface to a maximum of 20m deep, and in different types of casing. Moreover, a reference sensor, either installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault, has been operated continuously. We present a comprehensive comparison of the seismic noise level measured in the different hosting infrastructures and for several frequency bands corresponding to various sources of noise. At high and low frequencies, seismic noise level in some boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. Between 0.005 and 0.05Hz, we observe a strong decrease of seismic noise level on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and is mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved clearly depends on the local geology. All these tests, together with estimated installation costs, point toward the deployment of sensors in shallow boreholes at the future French broadband stations located in open environments.

  8. Structure of Suasselkä Postglacial Fault in northern Finland obtained by analysis of ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Afonin, Nikita; Kozlovskaya, Elena


    Understanding inner structure of seismogenic faults and their ability to reactivate is particularly important in investigating the continental intraplate seismicity regime. In our study we address this problem using analysis of ambient seismic noise recorded by the temporary DAFNE array in northern Fennoscandian Shield. The main purpose of the DAFNE/FINLAND passive seismic array experiment was to characterize the present-day seismicity of the Suasselkä post-glacial fault (SPGF) that was proposed as one potential target for the DAFNE (Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe) project. The DAFNE/FINLAND array comprised the area of about 20 to 100 km and consisted of 8 short-period and 4 broad-band 3-component autonomous seismic stations installed in the close vicinity of the fault area. The array recorded continuous seismic data during September, 2011-May, 2013. Recordings of the array have being analyzed in order to identify and locate natural earthquakes from the fault area and to discriminate them from the blasts in the Kittilä Gold Mine. As a result, we found several dozens of natural seismic events originating from the fault area, which proves that the fault is still seismically active. In order to study the inner structure of the SPGF we use cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise recorded by the array. Analysis of azimuthal distribution of noise sources demonstrated that that during the time interval under consideration the distribution of noise sources is close to the uniform one. The continuous data were processed in several steps including single station data analysis, instrument response removal and time-domain stacking. The data were used to estimate empirical Green's functions between pairs of stations in the frequency band of 0.1-1 Hz and to calculate correspondent surface wave dispersion curves. After that S-wave velocity models were obtained as a result of dispersion curves inversion using Geopsy software. The results suggest that the area of

  9. A dense microseismic monitoring network in Korea for uncovering relationship between seismic activity and neotectonic features (United States)

    Kang, T.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, W.; Jo, B. G.; Chung, T.; Choi, S.


    A few tens of surface traces indicating movements in Quaternary were found in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. Following both the geological and engineering definitions, those features are classified into "active", in geology, or "capable", in engineering, faults. On the other hand, the present-day seismicity of the region over a couple of thousand years is indistinguishable on the whole with the rest of the Korean Peninsula. It is therefore of great interest whether the present seismic activity is related to the neotectonic features or not. Either of conclusions is not intuitive in terms of the present state of seismic monitoring network in the region. Thus much interest in monitoring seismicity to provide an improved observation resolution and to lower the event-detection threshold has increased with many observations of the Quaternary faults. We installed a remote, wireless seismograph network which is composed of 20 stations with an average spacing of 10 km. Each station is equipped with a three-component Trillium Compact seismometer and Taurus digitizer. Instrumentation and analysis advancements are now offering better tools for this monitoring. This network is scheduled to be in operation over about one and a half year. In spite of the relatively short observation period, we expect that the high density of the network enables us to monitor seismic events with much lower magnitude threshold compared to the preexisting seismic network in the region. Following the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, the number of events with low magnitude is logarithmically larger than that with high magnitude. Following this rule, we can expect that many of microseismic events may reveal behavior of their causative faults, if any. We report the results of observation which has been performed over a year up to now.

  10. Ambient seismic noise interferometry in Hawai'i reveals long-range observability of volcanic tremor (United States)

    Ballmer, Silke; Wolfe, Cecily; Okubo, Paul G.; Haney, Matt; Thurber, Clifford H.


    The use of seismic noise interferometry to retrieve Green's functions and the analysis of volcanic tremor are both useful in studying volcano dynamics. Whereas seismic noise interferometry allows long-range extraction of interpretable signals from a relatively weak noise wavefield, the characterization of volcanic tremor often requires a dense seismic array close to the source. We here show that standard processing of seismic noise interferometry yields volcanic tremor signals observable over large distances exceeding 50 km. Our study comprises 2.5 yr of data from the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory short period seismic network. Examining more than 700 station pairs, we find anomalous and temporally coherent signals that obscure the Green's functions. The time windows and frequency bands of these anomalous signals correspond well with the characteristics of previously studied volcanic tremor sources at Pu'u 'Ō'ō and Halema'uma'u craters. We use the derived noise cross-correlation functions to perform a grid-search for source location, confirming that these signals are surface waves originating from the known tremor sources. A grid-search with only distant stations verifies that useful tremor signals can indeed be recovered far from the source. Our results suggest that the specific data processing in seismic noise interferometry—typically used for Green's function retrieval—can aid in the study of both the wavefield and source location of volcanic tremor over large distances. In view of using the derived Green's functions to image heterogeneity and study temporal velocity changes at volcanic regions, however, our results illustrate how care should be taken when contamination by tremor may be present.

  11. Seismic Discrimination (United States)


    were presumed nuclear explosions announced by ERDA. Of the last, 11 were at the Semipalatinsk test site , 2 at the Western Kazakh test site , 2 in Novaya...which will fulfill U.S. ob- ligations that may be incurred under a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. This report includes 9 contributions...which could assume U.S. seismic-data-management responsibilities in the event that international agreement is reached on a Comprehensive Test Ban

  12. Martian seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goins, N.R.; Lazarewicz, A.R.


    During the Viking mission to Mars, the seismometer on Lander II collected approximately 0.24 Earth years of observations data, excluding periods of time dominated by wind-induced Lander vibration. The ''quiet-time'' data set contains no confirmed seismic events. A proper assessment of the significance of this fact requires quantitative estimates of the expected detection rate of the Viking seismometer. The first step is to calculate the minimum magnitude event detectable at a given distance, including the effects of geometric spreading, anelastic attenuation, seismic signal duration, seismometer frequency response, and possible poor ground coupling. Assuming various numerical quantities and a Martian seismic activity comparable to that of intraplate earthquakes, the appropriate integral gives an expected annual detection rate of 10 events, nearly all of which are local. Thus only two to three events would be expected in the observational period presently on hand and the lack of observed events is not in gross contradiction to reasonable expectations. Given the same assumptions, a seismometer 20 times more sensitive than the present instrument would be expected to detect about 120 events annually

  13. A seismic network to investigate the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal Lusi system (United States)

    Javad Fallahi, Mohammad; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Obermann, Anne; Karyono, Karyono


    The 29th of May 2006 marked the beginning of the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal Lusi system. During the last 10 years we witnessed numerous alterations of the Lusi system behavior that coincide with the frequent seismic and volcanic activity occurring in the region. In order to monitor the effect that the seismicity and the activity of the volcanic arc have on Lusi, we deployed a ad hoc seismic network. This temporary network consist of 10 broadband and 21 short period stations and is currently operating around the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, along the Watukosek fault system and around Lusi, in the East Java basin since January 2015. We exploit this dataset to investigate surface wave and shear wave velocity structure of the upper-crust beneath the Arjuno-Welirang-Lusi complex in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126). Rayleigh and Love waves travelling between each station-pair are extracted by cross-correlating long time series of ambient noise data recorded at the stations. Group and phase velocity dispersion curves are obtained by time-frequency analysis of cross-correlation functions, and are tomographically inverted to provide 2D velocity maps corresponding to different sampling depths. 3D shear wave velocity structure is then acquired by inverting the group velocity maps.

  14. Sources of Error and the Statistical Formulation of M S: m b Seismic Event Screening Analysis (United States)

    Anderson, D. N.; Patton, H. J.; Taylor, S. R.; Bonner, J. L.; Selby, N. D.


    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a global ban on nuclear explosions, is currently in a ratification phase. Under the CTBT, an International Monitoring System (IMS) of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasonic and radionuclide sensors is operational, and the data from the IMS is analysed by the International Data Centre (IDC). The IDC provides CTBT signatories basic seismic event parameters and a screening analysis indicating whether an event exhibits explosion characteristics (for example, shallow depth). An important component of the screening analysis is a statistical test of the null hypothesis H 0: explosion characteristics using empirical measurements of seismic energy (magnitudes). The established magnitude used for event size is the body-wave magnitude (denoted m b) computed from the initial segment of a seismic waveform. IDC screening analysis is applied to events with m b greater than 3.5. The Rayleigh wave magnitude (denoted M S) is a measure of later arriving surface wave energy. Magnitudes are measurements of seismic energy that include adjustments (physical correction model) for path and distance effects between event and station. Relative to m b, earthquakes generally have a larger M S magnitude than explosions. This article proposes a hypothesis test (screening analysis) using M S and m b that expressly accounts for physical correction model inadequacy in the standard error of the test statistic. With this hypothesis test formulation, the 2009 Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea announced nuclear weapon test fails to reject the null hypothesis H 0: explosion characteristics.

  15. The Application of Seismic Attributes and Wheeler Transformations for the Geomorphological Interpretation of Stratigraphic Surfaces: A Case Study of the F3 Block, Dutch Offshore Sector, North Sea


    Mohammad Afifi Ishak; Md. Aminul Islam; Mohamed Ragab Shalaby; Nurul Hasan


    This study was carried out in the Pliocene interval of the southern North Sea F3 Block in the Netherlands. This research paper demonstrates how an integrated interpretation of geological information using seismic attributes, sequence stratigraphic interpretation and Wheeler transformation methods allow for the accurate interpretation of the depositional environment of a basin, as well as locating seismic geomorphological features. The methodology adopted here is to generate a 3D dip-steered H...

  16. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.


    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  17. Patterns in Seismicity at Mt St Helens and Mt Unzen (United States)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallee, Yan


    Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Previous work on Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico) revealed broad-scale similarities in behaviour implying the potential to develop general physical models of sub-surface processes [1]. Using volcano-seismic data from Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Unzen (Japan) this study explores parallels in long-term behaviour of seismicity at two dome-forming systems. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes. Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1.5km from the 2004-2008 vent at Mt St Helens. A total of 714 826 individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October 2004 to 28 February 2006 (average 60.2 events per hour) using a short-term/long-term average algorithm. An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the 1991-1995 eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity. Preliminary analysis of seismicity from Mt St Helens suggests cyclic behaviour of subannual timescale, similar to that described at Volcán de Colima and Soufrière Hills volcano [1]. Frequency Index and waveform correlation tools will be implemented to analyse changes in the frequency content of the seismicity and to explore their relations to different phases of activity at the volcano. A single station approach is used to gain a fine-scale view of variations in

  18. Multichannel analysis of surface-waves and integration of downhole acoustic televiewer imaging, ultrasonic Vs and Vp, and vertical seismic profiling in an NEHRP-standard classification, South of Concordia, Kansas, USA (United States)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Gad, Sabreen; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey


    Seismic site characteristics, as pertaining to earthquake hazard reduction, are a function of the subsurface elastic moduli and the geologic structures. This study explores how multiscale (surface, downhole, and laboratory) datasets can be utilized to improve "constrained" average Vs30 (shear-wave velocity to a 30-meter depth). We integrate borehole, surface and laboratory measurements for a seismic site classification based on the standards of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). The seismic shear-wave velocity (Vs30) was derived from a geophysical inversion workflow that utilized multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW) and downhole acoustic televiewer imaging (DATI). P-wave and S-wave velocities, based on laboratory measurements of arrival times of ultrasonic-frequency signals, supported the workflow by enabling us to calculate Poisson's ratio, which was incorporated in building an initial model for the geophysical inversion of MASW. Extraction of core samples from two boreholes provided lithology and thickness calibration of the amplitudes of the acoustic televiewer imaging for each layer. The MASW inversion, for calculating Vs sections, was constrained with both ultrasonic laboratory measurements (from first arrivals of Vs and Vp waveforms at simulated in situ overburden stress conditions) and the downhole acoustic televiewer (DATV) amplitude logs. The Vs30 calculations enabled categorizing the studied site as NEHRP-class "C" - very dense soil and soft rock. Unlike shallow fractured carbonates in the studied area, S-wave and P-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequency for the deeper intact shale core-samples from two boreholes were in better agreement with the corresponding velocities from both a zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocity dispersion curves.

  19. First results of cross-correlation analysis of ambient seismic noise from the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panou, Areti; Paulssen, Hanneke; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis


    In this study we present phase velocity maps that were obtained from the cross-correlation analysis of ambient seismic noise recorded in the region of Greece.We used one year (2013) of ambient seismic data obtained from the vertical component of 64 broadband permanent seismological stations that are

  20. Preliminary consideration on the seismic actions recorded during the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico S.; Iacovino, Chiara


    After the Mw 6.0 mainshock of August 24, 2016 at 03.36 a.m. (local time), with the epicenter located between the towns of Accumoli (province of Rieti), Amatrice (province of Rieti) and Arquata del Tronto (province of Ascoli Piceno), several activities were started in order to perform some preliminary evaluations on the characteristics of the recent seismic sequence in the areas affected by the earthquake. Ambient vibration acquisitions have been performed using two three-directional velocimetric synchronized stations, with a natural frequency equal to 0.5Hz and a digitizer resolution of equal to 24bit. The activities are continuing after the events of the seismic sequence of October 26 and October 30, 2016. In this paper, in order to compare recorded and code provision values in terms of peak (PGA, PGV and PGD), spectral and integral (Housner Intensity) seismic parameters, several preliminary analyses have been performed on accelerometric time-histories acquired by three near fault station of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network): Amatrice station (station code AMT), Norcia station (station code NRC) and Castelsantangelo sul Nera station (station code CNE). Several comparisons between the elastic response spectra derived from accelerometric recordings and the elastic demand spectra provided by the Italian seismic code (NTC 2008) have been performed. Preliminary results retrieved from these analyses highlight several apparent difference between experimental data and conventional code provision. Then, the ongoing seismic sequence appears compatible with the historical seismicity in terms of integral parameters, but not in terms of peak and spectral values. It seems appropriate to reconsider the necessity to revise the simplified design approach based on the conventional spectral values. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and

  1. Seismic safety of building structures of NPP Kozloduy III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varbanov, G.I.; Kostov, M.K.; Stefanov, D.D.; Kaneva, A.D.


    In the proposed paper is presented a general summary of the analyses carried out to evaluate the dynamic behavior and to assess the seismic safety of some safety related building structures of NPP Kozloduy. The design seismic loads for the site of Kozloduy NPP has been reevaluated and increased during and after the construction of investigated Units 5 and 6. Deterministic and probabilistic approaches are applied to assess the seismic vulnerability of the investigated structures, taking into account the newly defined seismic excitations. The presented results show sufficient seismic safety for the studied critical structures and good efficiency of the seismic upgrading. The applicability of the investigated structures at sites with some higher seismic activities is discussed. The presented study is dealing mainly with the civil structures of the Reactor building, Turbine hall, Diesel Generator Station and Water Intake Structure. (authors)

  2. Variations of surface ozone at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea and the influence of Asian outflows (United States)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.


    Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a minimum in August (37 ppbv) and two peaks in April and October (62 ppbv), and was largely affected by the seasonal wind pattern over east Asia. At IORS, six types of air masses were distinguished with different levels of O3 concentrations by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air masses from the Pacific Ocean represent a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32 ppbv, which was most frequently observed in summer (July-August). In spring (March-April) and winter (December-February), the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 62 and 49 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS and its extent was dependent on meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.

  3. Seismic and Infrasound Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Begnaud, Michael L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This presentation includes slides on Signal Propagation Through the Earth/Atmosphere Varies at Different Scales; 3D Seismic Models: RSTT; Ray Coverage (Pn); Source-Specific Station Corrections (SSSCs); RSTT Conclusions; SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) Global 3D Earth Model for Travel Time; Comparison of IDC SSSCs to RSTT Predictions; SALSA3D; Validation and Model Comparison; DSS Lines in the Siberian Platform; DSS Line CRA-4 Comparison; Travel Time Δak135; Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty; SALSA3D Conclusions; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Location; How does BISL work?; BISL: Application to the 2013 DPRK Test; and BISL: Ongoing Research.

  4. Seismic Imager Space Telescope (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; hide


    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  5. Seismic and thermal structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Antarctica from inversion of multiple seismic datasets (United States)

    Wiens, D.; Shen, W.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Dalziel, I.; Hansen, S. E.; Heeszel, D.; Huerta, A. D.; Nyblade, A.; Stephen, R. A.; Wilson, T. J.; Winberry, J. P.; Stern, T. A.


    Since the last decade of the 20th century, over 200 broadband seismic stations have been deployed across Antarctica (e.g., temporary networks such as TAMSEIS, AGAP/GAMSEIS, POLENET/ANET, TAMNNET and RIS/DRIS by U.S. geoscientists as well as stations deployed by Japan, Britain, China, Norway, and other countries). In this presentation, we discuss our recent efforts to build reference crustal and uppermost mantle shear velocity (Vs) and thermal models for continental Antarctica based on those seismic arrays. By combing the high resolution Rayleigh wave dispersion maps derived from both ambient noise and teleseismic earthquakes, together with P receiver function waveforms, we develop a 3-D Vs model for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Central and West Antarctica to a depth of 200 km. Additionally, using this 3-D seismic model to constrain the crustal structure, we re-invert for the upper mantle thermal structure using the surface wave data within a thermodynamic framework and construct a 3-D thermal model for the Antarctic lithosphere. The final product, a high resolution thermal model together with associated uncertainty estimates from the Monte Carlo inversion, allows us to derive lithospheric thickness and surface heat flux maps for much of the continent. West Antarctica shows a much thinner lithosphere ( 50-90 km) than East Antarctica ( 130-230 km), with a sharp transition along the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). A variety of geological features, including a slower/hotter but highly heterogeneous West Antarctica and a much faster/colder East Antarctic craton, are present in the 3-D seismic/thermal models. Notably, slow seismic velocities observed in the uppermost mantle beneath the southern TAM are interpreted as a signature of lithospheric foundering and replacement with hot asthenosphere. The high resolution image of these features from the 3-D models helps further investigation of the dynamic state of Antarctica's lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere

  6. Adding seismic broadband analysis to characterize Andean backarc seismicity in Argentina (United States)

    Alvarado, P.; Giuliano, A.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.


    Characterization of the highly seismically active Andean backarc is crucial for assessment of earthquake hazards in western Argentina. Moderate-to-large crustal earthquakes have caused several deaths, damage and drastic economic consequences in Argentinean history. We have studied the Andean backarc crust between 30°S and 36°S using seismic broadband data available from a previous ("the CHARGE") IRIS-PASSCAL experiment. We collected more than 12 terabytes of continuous seismic data from 22 broadband instruments deployed across Chile and Argentina during 1.5 years. Using free software we modeled full regional broadband waveforms and obtained seismic moment tensor inversions of crustal earthquakes testing for the best focal depth for each event. We also mapped differences in the Andean backarc crustal structure and found a clear correlation with different types of crustal seismicity (i.e. focal depths, focal mechanisms, magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence) and previously mapped terrane boundaries. We now plan to use the same methodology to study other regions in Argentina using near-real time broadband data available from the national seismic (INPRES) network and global seismic networks operating in the region. We will re-design the national seismic network to optimize short-period and broadband seismic station coverage for different network purposes. This work is an international effort that involves researchers and students from universities and national government agencies with the goal of providing more information about earthquake hazards in western Argentina.

  7. The data quality analyzer: a quality control program for seismic data (United States)

    Ringler, Adam; Hagerty, M.T.; Holland, James F.; Gonzales, A.; Gee, Lind S.; Edwards, J.D.; Wilson, David; Baker, Adam


    The U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) has several initiatives underway to enhance and track the quality of data produced from ASL seismic stations and to improve communication about data problems to the user community. The Data Quality Analyzer (DQA) is one such development and is designed to characterize seismic station data quality in a quantitative and automated manner.

  8. Amtrak Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  9. Seasonal changes in peatland surface elevation recorded at GPS stations in the Red Lake Peatlands, northern Minnesota, USA (United States)

    Reeve, A.S.; Glaser, P.H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Northern peatlands appear to hold large volumes of free-phase gas (e.g., CH4 and CO2), which has been detected by surface deformations, pore pressure profiles, and electromagnetic surveys. Determining the gas content and its impact in peat is challenging because gas storage depends on both the elastic properties of the peat matrix and the buoyant forces exerted by pore fluids. We therefore used a viscoelastic deformation model to estimate these variables by adjusting model runs to reproduce observed changes in peat surface elevation within a 1300 km2 peatland. A local GPS network documented significant changes in surface elevations throughout the year with the greatest vertical displacements associated with rapid changes in peat water content and unloadings due to melting of the winter snowpack. These changes were coherent with changes in water table elevation and also abnormal pore pressure changes measured by nests of instrumented piezometers. The deformation model reproduced these changes when the gas content was adjusted to 10% of peat volume, and Young's modulus was varied between 5 and 100 kPa as the peat profile shifted from tension to compression. In contrast, the model predicted little peat deformation when the gas content was 3% or lower. These model simulations are consistent with previous estimates of gas volume in northern peatlands and suggest an upper limit of gas storage controlled by the elastic moduli of the peat fabric.

  10. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi


    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  11. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  12. Implications of Seismically Active Fault Structures in Ankay and Alaotra Regions of Northern and Central Madagascar (United States)

    Malloy, S.; Stamps, D. S.


    The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the seismically active fault structures in central and northern Madagascar. We study the Ankay and Lake Alaotra regions of Madagascar, which are segmented by multiple faults that strike N-S. In general, normal seismic events occur on faults bounding the Alaotra-Ankay rift basin where Quaternary alluvium is present. Due to this pattern and moderate amounts of low magnitude seismic activity along these faults, it is hypothesized the region currently undergoes E-W extension. In this work we test how variations in fault strength and net slip changes influence expected crustal movement in the region. Using the Coulomb stress failure point as a test of strength we are able to model the Alaotra-Ankay region using MATLAB Coulomb 3.3.01. This program allows us to define realistic Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of mapped rock compositions in the region, i.e. paragneiss and orthogneiss, create 3D fault geometries, and calculate static stress changes with coinciding surface displacements. We impose slip along multiple faults and calculate seismic moment that we balance by the 3 observed earthquake magnitudes available in the USGS CMT database. Our calculations of surface displacements indicate 1-3 millimeters could be observed across the Alaotra-Ankay rift. These values are within the observable range of precision GNSS observations, therefore our results will guide future research into the area and direct potential GNSS station installation.

  13. Tools for educational access to seismic data (United States)

    Taber, J. J.; Welti, R.; Bravo, T. K.; Hubenthal, M.; Frechette, K.


    Student engagement can be increased both by providing easy access to real data, and by addressing newsworthy events such as recent large earthquakes. IRIS EPO has a suite of access and visualization tools that can be used for such engagement, including a set of three tools that allow students to explore global seismicity, use seismic data to determine Earth structure, and view and analyze near-real-time ground motion data in the classroom. These tools are linked to online lessons that are designed for use in middle school through introductory undergraduate classes. The IRIS Earthquake Browser allows discovery of key aspects of plate tectonics, earthquake locations (in pseudo 3D) and seismicity rates and patterns. IEB quickly displays up to 20,000 seismic events over up to 30 years, making it one of the most responsive, practical ways to visualize historical seismicity in a browser. Maps are bookmarkable and preserve state, meaning IEB map links can be shared or worked into a lesson plan. The Global Seismogram Plotter automatically creates visually clear seismic record sections from selected large earthquakes that are tablet-friendly and can also to be printed for use in a classroom without computers. The plots are designed to be appropriate for use with no parameters to set, but users can also modify the plots, such as including a recording station near a chosen location. A guided exercise is provided where students use the record section to discover the diameter of Earth's outer core. Students can pick and compare phase arrival times onscreen which is key to performing the exercise. A companion station map shows station locations and further information and is linked to the record section. jAmaSeis displays seismic data in real-time from either a local instrument and/or from remote seismic stations that stream data using standard seismic data protocols, and can be used in the classroom or as a public display. Users can filter data, fit a seismogram to travel time

  14. Developing occupational chronologies for surface archaeological deposits from heat retainer hearths on Pine Point and Langwell stations, Far Western New South Wales, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiner, J.


    The archaeological record of arid Australia is dominated by deflated distributions of stone artefacts and heat retainer hearths covering many thousands of square metres. These deposits have often been over-looked by archaeologists in preference for stratified deposits, which are regarded as more appropriate for investigating temporal issues. In recent years this situation had slowly begun to change with the large-scale dating of heat retainer hearths from surface contexts. The work of of Fanning and Holdaway (2001) and Holdaway et al. (2002) in Far Western New South Wales has demonstrated that through the dating of large numbers of hearths it is possible to develop occupational chronologies for surface deposits. At a wider landscape scale these chronologies reflect the timing and tempo of the occupation of different places. A major component of my doctoral fieldwork on Pine Point and Langwell stations, 50 km south of Broken Hill in Western New South Wales, aimed to establish occupational chronologies from hearths for surface archaeological distributions. This paper reports on radiocarbon results from this investigation. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Seismicity and seismotectonics of the Western Lake Ontario Region -relocation of the seismic events phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, A.A.


    Earthquake hazard analysis in Canada relies mainly on recorded earthquake data. The ability to record earthquakes of a given magnitude has varied considerably over time as has the accuracy of location determinations. Recomputation of earthquake locations has been suggested as a possible means of improving the existing data base for better definition of seismic sources. In this study, the locations of more than 50 small to moderate magnitude earthquakes (M≤5), in the western Lake Ontario region, were examined. Available seismograph records in the Record Centre of the National Archives of Canada were examined for events that occurred prior to 1978. The events recorded after this date showed increasing accuracy in their location determinations due to initiation and improvements of the Eastern Canada Telemetry Network (ECTN). Data compiled from the study are based on the relocated and/or selected events with the minimum travel time residuals at the Canadian and American stations. Except for a few scattered events in the south-central part of the Lake Ontario region, microearthquakes (M<3.5) cluster along or at the intersection of prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, within the Toronto-Hamilton Seismic Zone. This is indicative of certain seismotectonic relationships in this region. The depth distribution or the better located events show that a range of 5 to 20 km is dominant and, therefore, they are not near-surface stress relief phenomena. However, details of the structural manifestation of inferred seismogenic features need further ground truthing, backed by long term seismic monitoring. (author) 66 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  16. Examination of Surface Residuals Obtained During Re-Lubrication of the International Space Station (ISS) Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Golden, J. L.


    The starboard SARJ mechanism on the ISS suffered a premature lubrication failure, resulting in widespread loss of the nitride case layer on its 10.3 meter circumference, 15-5PH steel race ring [1, 2]. To restore functionality, vacuum-stable grease was applied on-orbit, first to the port SARJ mechanism to save it from the damage suffered by the starboard mechanism. After 3 years of greased operation, telemetry indicated that the port mechanism required relubrication, so part of that process included sampling each of the three race ring surfaces to evaluate any wear debris recovered and the state of the originally applied grease. Extensive microscopic examination was conducted, which directed subsequent microanalysis of particulate. Since the SARJ mechanism operates in the vacuum of space, a sampling method and tool had to be developed for use by astronauts while working in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). The sampling tool developed was a cotton terry-cloth mitt for the EMU glove, with samples taken by swiping each of the three port SARJ race-ring surfaces. The sample mitts for each surface were folded inward after sampling to preserve sample integrity, for return and ground analysis. The sample mitt for what is termed the outer canted surface of the SARJ race-ring is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 also demonstrates how increasing levels of magnification were used to survey the contamination removed in sampling, specifically looking for signs of wear debris or other features which could be further evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. The most surprising overall result at this point in the analysis was the relatively small amounts of grease recovered during sampling. It is clear that the mechanism was not operating with surplus lubricant. Obviously, evidence of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a major component in the grease applied, was prevalent in the analysis conducted. But a small amount of mechanism wear debris was observed. Figure 2

  17. Analysis of Bracket Assembly for Portable Leak Detector Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZIADA, H.H.


    This Supporting Document Presents Structural and Stress Analysis of a Portable Leak Detector Station for Tank Farms. The results show that the bracket assembly meets the requirements for dead load and natural phenomena hazards loads (seismic and wind)

  18. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knox, Hunter Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); James, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Rebekah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cole, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  19. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  20. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  1. Aseismic design of the Heysham II Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.W.


    A brief description of the seismic criteria established for use with the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SCHWR) and taken for the Heysham II Project is given. The qualification strategy adopted for Heysham II is described, and a brief overview is given of some of the more important design changes required for seismic purposes on that station

  2. Seismic Tomography and the Development of a State Velocity Profile (United States)

    Marsh, S. J.; Nakata, N.


    Earthquakes have been a growing concern in the State of Oklahoma in the last few years and as a result, accurate earthquake location is of utmost importance. This means using a high resolution velocity model with both lateral and vertical variations. Velocity data is determined using ambient noise seismic interferometry and tomography. Passive seismic data was acquired from multiple IRIS networks over the span of eight years (2009-2016) and filtered for earthquake removal to obtain the background ambient noise profile for the state. Seismic Interferometry is applied to simulate ray paths between stations, this is done with each possible station pair for highest resolution. Finally the method of seismic tomography is used to extract the velocity data and develop the state velocity map. The final velocity profile will be a compilation of different network analyses due to changing station availability from year to year. North-Central Oklahoma has a dense seismic network and has been operating for the past few years. The seismic stations are located here because this is the most seismically active region. Other parts of the state have not had consistent coverage from year to year, and as such a reliable and high resolution velocity profile cannot be determined from this network. However, the Transportable Array (TA) passed through Oklahoma in 2014 and provided a much wider and evenly spaced coverage. The goal of this study is to ultimately combine these two arrays over time, and provide a high quality velocity profile for the State of Oklahoma.

  3. Acoustic signature of thunder from seismic records (United States)

    Kappus, Mary E.; Vernon, Frank L.


    Thunder, the sound wave through the air associated with lightning, transfers sufficient energy to the ground to trigger seismometers set to record regional earthquakes. The acoustic signature recorded on seismometers, in the form of ground velocity as a function of time, contains the same type features as pressure variations recorded with microphones in air. At a seismic station in Kislovodsk, USSR, a nearly direct lightning strike caused electronic failure of borehole instruments while leaving a brief impulsive acoustic signature on the surface instruments. The peak frequency of 25-55 Hz is consistent with previously published values for cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, but spectra from this station are contaminated by very strong wind noise in this band. A thunderstorm near a similar station in Karasu triggered more than a dozen records of individual lightning strikes during a 2-hour period. The spectra for these events are fairly broadband, with peaks at low frequencies, varying from 6 to 13 Hz. The spectra were all computed by multitaper analysis, which deals appropriately with the nonstationary thunder signal. These independent measurements of low-frequency peaks corroborate the occasional occurrences in traditional microphone records, but a theory concerning the physical mechanism to account for them is still in question. Examined separately, the individual claps in each record have similar frequency distributions, discounting a need for multiple mechanisms to explain different phases of the thunder sequence. Particle motion, determined from polarization analysis of the three-component records, is predominantly vertical downward, with smaller horizontal components indicative of the direction to the lightning bolt. In three of the records the azimuth to the lightning bolt changes with time, confirming a significant horizontal component to the lightning channel itself.

  4. Seismic wave attenuation from borehole and surface records in the top 2.5 km beneath the city of Basel, Switzerland

    KAUST Repository

    Bethmann, Falko


    We investigate attenuation (Q−1) of sediments of 2.5–3.5km thickness underneath the city of Basel, Switzerland. We use recordings of 195 induced events that were obtained during and after the stimulation of a reservoir for a Deep Heat Mining Project in 2006 and 2007. The data set is ideally suited to estimate Q as all events are confined to a small source volume and were recorded by a dense surface network as well as six borehole sensors at various depths. The deepest borehole sensor is positioned at a depth of 2.7km inside the crystalline basement at a mean hypocentral distance of 1.8km. This allows us to measure Q for frequencies between 10 and 130 Hz. We apply two different methods to estimate Q. First, we use a standard spectral ratio technique to obtain Q, and as a second measure we estimate Q in the time domain, by convolving signals recorded by the deepest sensor with a Q operator and then comparing the convolved signals to recordings at the shallower stations. Both methods deliver comparable values for Q. We also observe similar attenuation for P- and S- waves (QP∼QS). As expected, Q increases with depth, but with values around 30–50, it is low even for the consolidated Permian and Mesozoic sediments between 500 and 2700 m.

  5. Seismic qualification of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.


    This report describes the results of an investigation into the seismic qualification of equipment located in CANDU nuclear power plants. It is particularly concerned with the evaluation of current seismic qualification requirements, the development of a suitable methodology for the seismic qualification of safety systems, and the evaluation of seismic qualification analysis and testing procedures

  6. A Dense Small-Scale Seismic Network in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Northern Tanzania) (United States)

    Parisi, L.; Lombardo, L.; Rodriguez-Mustafa, M.; Mai, P. M.


    A temporary deployment consisting of sixteen broadband seismic stations is conducted for the first time in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA, Northern Tanzania), located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift. A deep knowledge of the faulting systems and tectonics of the area is needed to better understand the contribution of the synsedimentary faults to the deposition of the Olduvai and surrounding basins affecting the landscapes of the Homo Habilis first settlements. Complex fault systems have been mapped in the field but their connection, especially at depth, is not well known. A first batch of ten instruments was installed in June 2016. In June 2017 two stations were dismissed and a second batch of six stations was installed in new locations. The current network of fourteen stations will record until May 2018. Stations are equipped with Nanometrics Trillium Compact Posthole 120 s sensor and Centaur digitiser recording continuously at 200 Hz. The whole network covers 1400 km2 and station interspace ranges from 8 to 15 km. We analyse probabilistic power spectra densities of the seismic noise to obtain insights of its origin and test the performances of the stations. Although factories do not exist in the area and most of the stations are far from roads, ambient noise in the range 0.01 - 1 s is relatively high (between -120 dB and -100dB at 0.1 s) probably because of the abundance of livestock living in the NCA. Ambient noise in the period range 1 - 10 s (secondary microseisms) decreases from east to west. Although the main source of the microseisms is located in the Indian Ocean (east of the study area), a contribution from the low period tremors coming from the nearby active volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai (north-east of the study area) is expected. Whereas the longer period noise (10 - 100 s) is very low in the vertical component seismograms, it is higher than the high noise model in the horizontal components for most of the stations

  7. Real-time monitoring of seismic data using satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merucci


    Full Text Available This article describes the ARGO Satellite Seismic Network (ARGO SSN as a reliable system for monitoring, collection, visualisation and analysis of seismic and geophysical low-frequency data, The satellite digital telemetry system is composed of peripheral geophysical stations, a centraI communications node (master sta- tion located in CentraI Italy, and a data collection and processing centre located at ING (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Rome. The task of the peripheral stations is to digitalise and send via satellite the geophysical data collected by the various sensors to the master station. The master station receives the data and forwards them via satellite to the ING in Rome; it also performs alI the monitoring functions of satellite communications. At the data collection and processing centre of ING, the data are received and analysed in real time, the seismic events are identified and recorded, the low-frequency geophysical data are stored. In addition, the generaI sta- tus of the satellite network and of each peripheral station connected, is monitored. The procedure for analysjs of acquired seismic signals allows the automatic calculation of local magnitude and duration magnitude The communication and data exchange between the seismic networks of Greece, Spain and Italy is the fruit of a recent development in the field of technology of satellite transmission of ARGO SSN (project of European Community "Southern Europe Network for Analysis of Seismic Data"

  8. Shallow velocity model in the area of Pozzo Pitarrone, Mt. Etna, from single station, array methods and borehole data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Zuccarello


    Full Text Available Seismic noise recorded by a temporary array installed around Pozzo Pitarrone, NE flank of Mt. Etna, have been analysed with several techniques. Single station HVSR method and SPAC array method have been applied to stationary seismic noise to investigate the local shallow structure. The inversion of dispersion curves produced a shear wave velocity model of the area reliable down to depth of about 130 m. A comparison of such model with the stratigraphic information available for the investigated area shows a good qualitative agreement. Taking advantage of a borehole station installed at 130 m depth, we could estimate also the P-wave velocity by comparing the borehole recordings of local earthquakes with the same event recorded at surface. Further insight on the P-wave velocity in the upper 130 m layer comes from the surface reflected wave observable in some cases at the borehole station. From this analysis we obtained an average P-wave velocity of about 1.2 km/s, compatible with the shear wave velocity found from the analysis of seismic noise.

  9. Improving Station Performance by Building Isolation Walls in the Tunnel (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Horn, Nikolaus; Leohardt, Roman


    Conrad Observatory is situated far away from roads and industrial areas on the Trafelberg in Lower Austria. At the end of the seismic tunnel, the main seismic instrument of the Observatory with a station code CONA is located. This station is one of the most important seismic stations in the Austrian Seismic Network (network code OE). The seismic observatory consists of a 145m long gallery and an underground laboratory building with several working areas. About 25 meters away from the station CONA, six temporary seismic stations were implemented for research purposes. Two of them were installed with the same equipment as CONA, while the remaining four stations were set up with digitizers having lower noise and higher resolution (Q330HR) and sensors with the same type (STS-2). In order to prevent possible disturbances by air pressure and temperature fluctuation, three walls were built inside of the tunnel. The first wall is located ca 63 meters from the tunnel entrance, while a set of double walls with a distance of 1.5 meters is placed about 53 meters from the first isolation wall but between the station CONA and the six temporary stations. To assess impact of the isolation walls on noise reduction and detection performance, investigations are conducted in two steps. The first study is carried out by comparing the noise level and detection performance between the station CONA behind the double walls and the stations in front of the double walls for verifying the noise isolation by the double walls. To evaluate the effect of the single wall, station noise level and detection performance were studied by comparing the results before and after the installation of the wall. Results and discussions will be presented. Additional experiment is conducted by filling insulation material inside of the aluminium boxes of the sensors (above and around the sensors). This should help us to determine an optimal insulation of the sensors with respect to pressure and temperature

  10. Localization of short-range acoustic and seismic wideband sources: Algorithms and experiments (United States)

    Stafsudd, J. Z.; Asgari, S.; Hudson, R.; Yao, K.; Taciroglu, E.


    We consider the determination of the location (source localization) of a disturbance source which emits acoustic and/or seismic signals. We devise an enhanced approximate maximum-likelihood (AML) algorithm to process data collected at acoustic sensors (microphones) belonging to an array of, non-collocated but otherwise identical, sensors. The approximate maximum-likelihood algorithm exploits the time-delay-of-arrival of acoustic signals at different sensors, and yields the source location. For processing the seismic signals, we investigate two distinct algorithms, both of which process data collected at a single measurement station comprising a triaxial accelerometer, to determine direction-of-arrival. The direction-of-arrivals determined at each sensor station are then combined using a weighted least-squares approach for source localization. The first of the direction-of-arrival estimation algorithms is based on the spectral decomposition of the covariance matrix, while the second is based on surface wave analysis. Both of the seismic source localization algorithms have their roots in seismology; and covariance matrix analysis had been successfully employed in applications where the source and the sensors (array) are typically separated by planetary distances (i.e., hundreds to thousands of kilometers). Here, we focus on very-short distances (e.g., less than one hundred meters) instead, with an outlook to applications in multi-modal surveillance, including target detection, tracking, and zone intrusion. We demonstrate the utility of the aforementioned algorithms through a series of open-field tests wherein we successfully localize wideband acoustic and/or seismic sources. We also investigate a basic strategy for fusion of results yielded by acoustic and seismic arrays.

  11. Lunar seismicity, structure, and tectonics (United States)

    Lammlein, D. R.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Ewing, M.


    Natural seismic events have been detected by the long-period seismometers at Apollo stations 16, 14, 15, and 12 at annual rates of 3300, 1700, 800, and 700, respectively, with peak activity at 13- to 14-day intervals. The data are used to describe magnitudes, source characteristics, and periodic features of lunar seismicity. In a present model, the rigid lithosphere overlies an asthenosphere of reduced rigidity in which present-day partial melting is probable. Tidal deformation presumably leads to critical stress concentrations at the base of the lithosphere, where moonquakes are found to occur. The striking tidal periodicities in the pattern of moonquake occurrence and energy release suggest that tidal energy is the dominant source of energy released as moonquakes. Thus, tidal energy is dissipated by moonquakes in the lithosphere and probably by inelastic processes in the asthenosphere.

  12. Seismic Holography of Solar Activity (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles


    The basic goal of the project was to extend holographic seismic imaging techniques developed under a previous NASA contract, and to incorporate phase diagnostics. Phase-sensitive imaging gives us a powerful probe of local thermal and Doppler perturbations in active region subphotospheres, allowing us to map thermal structure and flows associated with "acoustic moats" and "acoustic glories". These remarkable features were discovered during our work, by applying simple acoustic power holography to active regions. Included in the original project statement was an effort to obtain the first seismic images of active regions on the Sun's far surface.

  13. Detection and interpretation of seismoacoustic events at German infrasound stations (United States)

    Pilger, Christoph; Koch, Karl; Ceranna, Lars


    Three infrasound arrays with collocated or nearby installed seismometers are operated by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) as the German National Data Center (NDC) for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Infrasound generated by seismoacoustic events is routinely detected at these infrasound arrays, but air-to-ground coupled acoustic waves occasionally show up in seismometer recordings as well. Different natural and artificial sources like meteoroids as well as industrial and mining activity generate infrasonic signatures that are simultaneously detected at microbarometers and seismometers. Furthermore, many near-surface sources like earthquakes and explosions generate both seismic and infrasonic waves that can be detected successively with both technologies. The combined interpretation of seismic and acoustic signatures provides additional information about the origin time and location of remote infrasound events or about the characterization of seismic events distinguishing man-made and natural origins. Furthermore, seismoacoustic studies help to improve the modelling of infrasound propagation and ducting in the atmosphere and allow quantifying the portion of energy coupled into ground and into air by seismoacoustic sources. An overview of different seismoacoustic sources and their detection by German infrasound stations as well as some conclusions on the benefit of a combined seismoacoustic analysis are presented within this study.

  14. German seismic regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, Ruediger


    Rules and regulations for seismic design in Germany cover the following: seismic design of conventional buildings; and seismic design of nuclear facilities. Safety criteria for NPPs, accident guidelines, and guidelines for PWRs as well as safety standards are cited. Safety standards concerned with NPPs seismic design include basic principles, soil analysis, design of building structures, design of mechanical and electrical components, seismic instrumentation, and measures to be undertaken after the earthquake

  15. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xiong


    Full Text Available Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  16. Propagation of Regional Seismic Phases in Western Europe (United States)


    and Southeastern France recorded at short period stations of the LDG (Laboratoire de Detection Geophysique , France) and IGG (Istituto Geofisico were provided by the L.D.G. (Laboratoire de Geophysique ). The french seismic network consists of 27 stations with the same features : the

  17. Seismic and geodetic signatures of fault slip at the Slumgullion Landslide Natural Laboratory (United States)

    Gomberg, J.; Schulz, W.; Bodin, P.; Kean, J.


    We tested the hypothesis that the Slumgullion landslide is a useful natural laboratory for observing fault slip, specifically that slip along its basal surface and side-bounding strike-slip faults occurs with comparable richness of aseismic and seismic modes as along crustal- and plate-scale boundaries. Our study provides new constraints on models governing landslide motion. We monitored landslide deformation with temporary deployments of a 29-element prism array surveyed by a robotic theodolite and an 88-station seismic network that complemented permanent extensometers and environmental instrumentation. Aseismic deformation observations show that large blocks of the landslide move steadily at approximately centimeters per day, possibly punctuated by variations of a few millimeters, while localized transient slip episodes of blocks less than a few tens of meters across occur frequently. We recorded a rich variety of seismic signals, nearly all of which originated outside the monitoring network boundaries or from the side-bounding strike-slip faults. The landslide basal surface beneath our seismic network likely slipped almost completely aseismically. Our results provide independent corroboration of previous inferences that dilatant strengthening along sections of the side-bounding strike-slip faults controls the overall landslide motion, acting as seismically radiating brakes that limit acceleration of the aseismically slipping basal surface. Dilatant strengthening has also been invoked in recent models of transient slip and tremor sources along crustal- and plate-scale faults suggesting that the landslide may indeed be a useful natural laboratory for testing predictions of specific mechanisms that control fault slip at all scales.

  18. Assimilation of MODIS Ice Surface Temperature and Albedo into the Snow and Ice Model CROCUS Over the Greenland Ice Sheet Along the K-transect Stations (United States)

    Navari, M.; Margulis, S. A.; Bateni, S. M.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.


    Estimating the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) is an important component of current and future projections of sea level rise. In situ measurement provides direct estimates of the SMB, but are inherently limited by their spatial extent and representativeness. Given this limitation, physically based regional climate models (RCMs) are critical for understanding GrIS physical processes and estimating of the GrIS SMB. However, the uncertainty in estimates of SMB from RCMs is still high. Surface remote sensing (RS) has been used as a complimentary tool to characterize various aspects related to the SMB. The difficulty of using these data streams is that the links between them and the SMB terms are most often indirect and implicit. Given the lack of in situ information, imperfect models, and under-utilized RS data it is critical to merge the available data in a systematic way to better characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the GrIS SMB. This work proposes a data assimilation (DA) framework that yields temporally-continuous and physically consistent SMB estimates that benefit from state-of-the-art models and relevant remote sensing data streams. Ice surface temperature (IST) is the most important factor that regulates partitioning of the net radiation into the subsurface snow/ice, sensible and latent heat fluxes and plays a key role in runoff generation. Therefore it can be expected that a better estimate of surface temperature from a data assimilation system would contribute to a better estimate of surface mass fluxes. Albedo plays an important role in the surface energy balance of the GrIS. However, even advanced albedo modules are not adequate to simulate albedo over the GrIS. Therefore, merging remotely sensed albedo product into a physically based model has a potential to improve the estimates of the GrIS SMB. In this work a MODIS-derived IST and a 16-day albedo product are independently assimilated into the snow and ice model CROCUS

  19. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Tang, Jie; Huang, Jianqing; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaochun


    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, climate, human and vegetation health can be impacted by the increase of the ozone level. Therefore, long-term determination of trends of baseline ozone is highly needed information for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies on the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China and many other developing countries. Measurements of surface ozone were carried out at a baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt Waliguan, 36°17' N, 100°54' E, 3816 m a.s.l.) for the period of 1994 to 2013. To uncover the variation characteristics, long-term trends and influencing factors of surface ozone at this remote site in western China, a two-part study has been carried out, with this part focusing on the overall characteristics of diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations and the trends of surface ozone. To obtain reliable ozone trends, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis on the ozone data. Our results confirm that the mountain-valley breeze plays an important role in the diurnal cycle of surface ozone at Waliguan, resulting in higher ozone values during the night and lower ones during the day, as was previously reported. Systematic diurnal and seasonal variations were found in mountain-valley breezes at the site, which were used in defining season-dependent daytime and nighttime periods for trend calculations. Significant positive trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (0.24 ± 0.16 ppbv year-1) and nighttime (0.28 ± 0.17 ppbv year-1). The largest nighttime increasing rate occurred in autumn (0.29 ± 0.11 ppbv year-1), followed by spring (0.24 ± 0.12 ppbv year-1), summer (0.22 ± 0

  20. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt. Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics (United States)

    Xu, W. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Xu, X. B.; Tang, J.; Huang, J. Q.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. C.


    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The level of tropospheric ozone, particularly in the surface layer, is impacted by emissions of precursors and is subjected to meteorological conditions. Due its importance, the long-term variation trend of baseline ozone is highly needed for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies about the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China, a country with rapid economic growth for recent decades, and many other developing countries. To uncover the long-term characteristics and trends of baseline surface ozone, concentration in western China, measurements at a global baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt. Waliguan) for the period of 1994 to 2013 were analysed in this study, using a modified Mann-Kendall test and the Hilbert-Huang Transform analysis for the trend and periodicity analysis, respectively. Results reveal higher surface ozone during the night and lower during the day at Waliguan, due to mountain-valley breezes. A seasonal maximum in summer was found, which was probably caused by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange events and/or by tropospheric photochemistry. Analysis suggests that there is a season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds on top of Mt. Waliguan. Season-dependent daytime and nighttime ranges of 6 h were determined based on the season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds and were used to sort subsets of ozone data for trend analysis. Significant increasing trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (1.5-2.7 ppbv 10 a-1) and nighttime (1.3-2.9 ppbv 10 a-1). Autumn and spring revealed the largest increase rates, while summer and winter showed relatively weaker increases. The HHT spectral analysis confirmed the increasing

  1. Structure of the Suasselkä postglacial fault in northern Finland obtained by analysis of local events and ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Afonin, Nikita; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Dafne/Finland Working Group


    Understanding the inner structure of seismogenic faults and their ability to reactivate is particularly important in investigating the continental intraplate seismicity regime. In our study we address this problem using analysis of local seismic events and ambient seismic noise recorded by the temporary DAFNE array in the northern Fennoscandian Shield. The main purpose of the DAFNE/FINLAND passive seismic array experiment was to characterize the present-day seismicity of the Suasselkä postglacial fault (SPGF), which was proposed as one potential target for the DAFNE (Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe) project. The DAFNE/FINLAND array comprised an area of about 20 to 100 km and consisted of eight short-period and four broadband three-component autonomous seismic stations installed in the close vicinity of the fault area. The array recorded continuous seismic data during September 2011-May 2013. Recordings of the array have being analysed in order to identify and locate natural earthquakes from the fault area and to discriminate them from the blasts in the Kittilä gold mine. As a result, we found a number of natural seismic events originating from the fault area, which proves that the fault is still seismically active. In order to study the inner structure of the SPGF we use cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise recorded by the array. Analysis of azimuthal distribution of noise sources demonstrated that during the time interval under consideration the distribution of noise sources is close to the uniform one. The continuous data were processed in several steps including single-station data analysis, instrument response removal and time-domain stacking. The data were used to estimate empirical Green's functions between pairs of stations in the frequency band of 0.1-1 Hz and to calculate corresponding surface wave dispersion curves. The S-wave velocity models were obtained as a result of dispersion curve inversion. The results suggest that the area of

  2. Analysis of induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field, California (United States)

    Emolo, A.; Maercklin, N.; Matrullo, E.; Orefice, A.; Amoroso, O.; Convertito, V.; Sharma, N.; Zollo, A.


    Fluid injection, steam extraction, and reservoir stimulation in geothermal systems lead to induced seismicity. While in rare cases induced events may be large enough to pose a hazard, on the other hand the microseismicity provides information on the extent and the space-time varying properties of the reservoir. Therefore, microseismic monitoring is important, both for mitigation of unwanted effects of industrial operations and for continuous assessment of reservoir conditions. Here we analyze induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field in California, a vapor-dominated field with the top of the main steam reservoir some 1-3 km below the surface. Commercial exploitation began in the 1960s, and the seismicity increased with increasing field development. We focus our analyses on induced seismicity recorded between August 2007 and October 2011. Our calibrated waveform database contains some 15000 events with magnitudes between 1.0 and 4.5 and recorded by the LBNL Geysers/Calpine surface seismic network. We associated all data with events from the NCEDC earthquake catalog and re-picked first arrival times. Using selected events with at least 20 high-quality P-wave picks, we determined a minimum 1-D velocity model using VELEST. A well-constrained P-velocity model shows a sharp velocity increase at 1-2 km depth (from 3 to 5 km/s) and then a gradient-like trend down to about 5 km depth, where velocities reach values of 6-7 km/s. The station corrections show coherent, relatively high, positive travel time delays in the NW zone, thus indicating a strong lateral variation of the P-wave velocities. We determined an average Vp-to-Vs ratio of 1.67, which is consistent with estimates from other authors for the same time period. The events have been relocated in the new model using a non-linear probabilistic methods. The seismicity appears spatially diffused in a 15x10 km2 area elongated in NW-SE direction, and earthquake depths range between 0 and 6 km. As in previous

  3. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose


    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  4. New Crustal Thickness for Djibouti, Afar, Using Seismic Techniques (United States)

    Dugda, Mulugeta; Bililign, Solomon


    Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for the seismic station ATD in Djibouti, Afar, has been investigated using two seismic techniques (H-κ stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities). Both techniques give consistent results of crustal thickness 23±1.5 km and Poisson's ratio 0.31±0.02. We also determined a mean P-wave velocity (Vp) of ˜6.2 km/s but ˜6.9-7.0 km/s below a 2 - 5 km thick low velocity layer at the surface. Previous studies of crustal structure for Djibouti reported that the crust is 6 to 11 km thick while our study shows that the crust beneath Djibouti is between 20 and 25 km. This study argues that the crustal thickness values reported for Djibouti for the last 3 decades were not consistent with the reports for the other neighboring region in central and eastern Afar. Our results for ATD in Djibouti, however, are consistent with the reports of crustal thickness in many other parts of central and eastern Afar. We attribute this difference to how the Moho (the crust-mantle discontinuity) is defined (an increase of Vp to 7.4 km/s in this study vs. 6.9 km/s in previous studies).

  5. A seismic refraction experiment in 2000 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica (JARE-41 -Outline of observations-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Miyamachi


    Full Text Available A seismic refraction experiment was successfully conducted along the S17-Z20 profile on the Mizuho route, in East Antarctica, in the austral summer season of 1999-2000 (JARE-41. One hundred sixty seismic stations were temporarily installed along the profile about 180km long and five large shots with dynamite of about 600kg were fired. In addition, two shots with charge sizes of 250kg and 25kg were arranged along the profile. The obtained seismic records show the clear onsets of the first arrivals in a distance range of less than 100km from each large shot. In particular, seismic waves traveling through the ice sheet and the dispersed surface waves are distinctly observed. Some later phases are also detected. The first travel time data obtained show that a P-wave velocity in the ice sheet is 3.6-3.8km/s and an apparent velocity in the rock basement just beneath the ice sheet is almost 6.2km/s. This report describes the basic outline of the experiment and the seismic data obtained.

  6. Volcano dome dynamics at Mount St. Helens: Deformation and intermittent subsidence monitored by seismicity and camera imagery pixel offsets (United States)

    Salzer, Jacqueline T.; Thelen, Weston A.; James, Mike R.; Walter, Thomas R.; Moran, Seth C.; Denlinger, Roger P.


    The surface deformation field measured at volcanic domes provides insights into the effects of magmatic processes, gravity- and gas-driven processes, and the development and distribution of internal dome structures. Here we study short-term dome deformation associated with earthquakes at Mount St. Helens, recorded by a permanent optical camera and seismic monitoring network. We use Digital Image Correlation (DIC) to compute the displacement field between successive images and compare the results to the occurrence and characteristics of seismic events during a 6 week period of dome growth in 2006. The results reveal that dome growth at Mount St. Helens was repeatedly interrupted by short-term meter-scale downward displacements at the dome surface, which were associated in time with low-frequency, large-magnitude seismic events followed by a tremor-like signal. The tremor was only recorded by the seismic stations closest to the dome. We find a correlation between the magnitudes of the camera-derived displacements and the spectral amplitudes of the associated tremor. We use the DIC results from two cameras and a high-resolution topographic model to derive full 3-D displacement maps, which reveals internal dome structures and the effect of the seismic activity on daily surface velocities. We postulate that the tremor is recording the gravity-driven response of the upper dome due to mechanical collapse or depressurization and fault-controlled slumping. Our results highlight the different scales and structural expressions during growth and disintegration of lava domes and the relationships between seismic and deformation signals.

  7. Is the Local Seismicity in Haiti Capable of Imaging the Northern Caribbean Subduction? (United States)

    Corbeau, J.; Clouard, V.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S. D.; de Lepinay, B. M.


    The boundary between the Caribbean (CA) and North American (NAM) plates in the Hispaniola region is the western prolongation of the NAM plate subduction evolving from a frontal subduction in the Lesser Antilles to an oblique collision against the Bahamas platform in Cuba. We analyze P-waveforms arriving at 27 broadband seismic temporary stations deployed along a 200 km-long N-S transect across Haiti, during the Trans-Haiti project. We compute teleseismic receiver functions using the ETMTRF method, and determine crustal thickness and bulk composition (Vp/Vs) using the H-k stacking method. Three distinctive crustal domains are imaged. We relate these domains to crustal terranes that have been accreted along the plate boundary during the northeastwards displacement of the CA plate. We propose a N-S crustal profile across Haiti accounting for the surface geology, shallow structural history and these new seismological constraints. Local seismicity recorded by the temporary network from April 2013 to June 2014 is used to relocate the seismicity. A total of 593 events were identified with magnitudes ranging from 1.6 to 4.5. This local seismicity, predominantly shallow (accommodation of an important part of convergence in this area.

  8. Micro-seismic earthquakes characteristics at natural and exploited hydrothermal systems in West Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Jousset, P. G.; Jaya, M. S.; Sule, R.; Diningrat, W.; Gassner, A.; Akbar, F.; Ryannugroho, R.; Hendryana, A.; Kusnadi, Y.; Syahbana, D.; Nugraha, A. D.; Umar, M.; Indrinanto, Y.; Erbas, K.


    The assessment of geothermal resources requires the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs. We deployed a multidisciplinary geophysical network around geothermal areas in the south of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The first deployment included a network of 30 broadband and 4 short-period seismic stations with Güralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz) since October 2012. In a second step, we extended the network in June 2013 with 16 short-period (1 Hz) seismometers. We describe the set-up of the seismic networks and discuss first observations and results. The co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. Preliminary location of earthquakes is performed using a non-linear algorithm, which allows us to define at least 3 seismic clusters. We discuss this seismic pattern within the geothermal fields.

  9. A seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection exploration in 2002 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica-Outline of observations (JARE-43-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Miyamachi


    Full Text Available A seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection exploration was successfully conducted along a profile crossing the JARE-41 seismic profile on the Mizuho Plateau, in East Antarctica, in the austral summer season of 2001-2002 (JARE-43. One hundred sixty-one seismic stations were temporarily installed along a profile about 151 km long and seven large shots with about 700 kg of dynamite were fired. In addition, one shot with charge size of 20 kg was also arranged along the profile. The obtained seismic records show the clear onsets of the first arrivals at distances of less than 100 km from each large shot. In particular, seismic waves traveling through the ice sheet and dispersed surface waves were clearly observed. Some later reflection phases were also detected. The obtained first travel time data show that the ice sheet is a two-layered structure consisting of an upper layer with a P wave velocity of 2.7-2.9 km/s and a lower layer of 3.7-3.9 km/s. The thickness of the upper layer is estimated to be about 36-45 m. The apparent velocity in the basement rock just beneath the ice sheet is 6.1-6.2 km/s in the central and southern parts of the profile and almost 5.9 km/s in the northern part. This report describes basic outlines of the exploration and the obtained seismic data.

  10. Statistical Seismology and Induced Seismicity (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Kazemian, J.


    While seismicity triggered or induced by natural resources production such as mining or water impoundment in large dams has long been recognized, the recent increase in the unconventional production of oil and gas has been linked to rapid rise in seismicity in many places, including central North America (Ellsworth et al., 2012; Ellsworth, 2013). Worldwide, induced events of M~5 have occurred and, although rare, have resulted in both damage and public concern (Horton, 2012; Keranen et al., 2013). In addition, over the past twenty years, the increase in both number and coverage of seismic stations has resulted in an unprecedented ability to precisely record the magnitude and location of large numbers of small magnitude events. The increase in the number and type of seismic sequences available for detailed study has revealed differences in their statistics that previously difficult to quantify. For example, seismic swarms that produce significant numbers of foreshocks as well as aftershocks have been observed in different tectonic settings, including California, Iceland, and the East Pacific Rise (McGuire et al., 2005; Shearer, 2012; Kazemian et al., 2014). Similarly, smaller events have been observed prior to larger induced events in several occurrences from energy production. The field of statistical seismology has long focused on the question of triggering and the mechanisms responsible (Stein et al., 1992; Hill et al., 1993; Steacy et al., 2005; Parsons, 2005; Main et al., 2006). For example, in most cases the associated stress perturbations are much smaller than the earthquake stress drop, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to relatively small stress changes (Nalbant et al., 2005). Induced seismicity provides the opportunity to investigate triggering and, in particular, the differences between long- and short-range triggering. Here we investigate the statistics of induced seismicity sequences from around the world, including central North America and Spain, and

  11. Fluid injection and induced seismicity (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James


    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  12. Slab dehydration in Cascadia and its relationship to volcanism, seismicity, and non-volcanic tremor (United States)

    Delph, J. R.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.


    The characteristics of subduction beneath the Pacific Northwest (Cascadia) are variable along strike, leading to the segmentation of Cascadia into 3 general zones: Klamath, Siletzia, and Wrangelia. These zones show marked differences in tremor density, earthquake density, seismicity rates, and the locus and amount of volcanism in the subduction-related volcanic arc. To better understand what controls these variations, we have constructed a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the upper 80 km along the Cascadia margin from the joint inversion of CCP-derived receiver functions and ambient noise surface wave data using 900 temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations. With this model, we can investigate variations in the seismic structure of the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and overlying mantle wedge, the character of the crust-mantle transition beneath the volcanic arc, and local to regional variations in crustal structure. From these results, we infer the presence and distribution of fluids released from the subducting slab and how they affect the seismic structure of the overriding lithosphere. In the Klamath and Wrangelia zones, high seismicity rates in the subducting plate and high tremor density correlate with low shear velocities in the overriding plate's forearc and relatively little arc volcanism. While the cause of tremor is debated, intermediate depth earthquakes are generally thought to be due to metamorphic dehydration reactions resulting from the dewatering of the downgoing slab. Thus, the seismic characteristics of these zones combined with rather sparse arc volcanism may indicate that the slab has largely dewatered by the time it reaches sub-arc depths. Some of the water released during earthquakes (and possibly tremor) may percolate into the overriding plate, leading to slow seismic velocities in the forearc. In contrast, Siletzia shows relatively low seismicity rates and tremor density, with relatively higher shear velocities in the forearc

  13. Innovations in seismic tomography, their applications and induced seismic events in carbon sequestration (United States)

    Li, Peng

    algorithm with the inclusion of full topography that is integrated from the Digital Elevation Model data. We present both synthetic and real data tests based on the compressional (P) wave arrival time data for Kilauea volcano in Hawai'i. A total of 33,768 events with 515,711 P-picks recorded by 35 stations at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory are used in these tests. The comparison between the new and traditional methods based on the synthetic test shows that our new algorithm significantly improves the accuracy of the velocity model, especially at shallow depths. In the real data test, the P-wave velocity model of Kilauea shows some intriguing features. Velocity decrease from the surface to 2 km depth beneath Kilauea caldera indicates a state change of the basalt. Low velocity zones beneath Pu'u'O'o, Heiheiahulu and the Hilina fault system between 5 and 12 km are possible partial melting zones. High velocity anomalies are resolved below 6 km depth beneath the summit caldera, which may suggest the presence of consolidated gabbro-ultramafic cumulates. In the third work, we installed three broadband seismic stations (Test1, Test2 and Test3) in an Enhanced Oil Recovery field to monitor the potential seismic events associated with CO 2 injection. In the two years of continuous seismic data between October 2011 and October 2013, we observed a type of long duration (LD) events instead of typical micro earthquakes, with an average daily rate of 12. The LD events have the following characteristics: (1) their duration varies from ˜30 to ˜300 sec; (2) the amplitude changes smoothly from the beginning to the end of the LD event window; (3) they are local seismic events and were not recorded by regional seismic stations (e.g., ˜200 km away); (4) the waveforms are very different from those of typical earthquakes, but similar to volcanic tremors; (5) the frequency content is mainly concentrated between 0.5 and 6 Hz, which is similar to the frequency band of volcanic tremors; and (6

  14. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit


    Vladimir Malbasic; Lazar Stojanovic


    Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protecte...

  15. Extraction of Pn seismic signals from air-gun shots recorded by the Cascadia Amphibious seismic experiment (United States)

    Rathnayaka, S.; Gao, H.


    The goal of this study is to extract Pn (head wave) seismic waveforms recorded by both offshore and onshore (broadband and short period) seismic stations and evaluate the data quality. Two offshore active-source seismic experiments, MGL 1211 and MGL 1212, were conducted from 13th June to 24th July 2012, during the first year deployment of the Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Array. In total, we choose 110 ocean bottom seismometers and 209 inland stations that are located along the entire Cascadia subduction zone. We first remove the instrument response, and then explore the potential frequency ranges and the diurnal effect. We make the common receiver gathering for each seismic station and filter the seismic waveforms at multiple frequency bands, ranging from 3-5 Hz, 5-10 Hz, 10-20 Hz, to 20-40 Hz, respectively. To quantitatively evaluate the data quality, we calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the waveforms for usable stations that record clear Pn arrivals at multiple frequency bands. Our results show that most offshore stations located at deep water (>1.5 km) record clear air-gun shot signals at frequencies higher than 3 Hz and up to 550 km away from the source. For most stations located on the shallow continental shelf, the seismic recordings appear much noisier at all the frequencies compared to stations at deep water. Three general trends are observed for the SNR distribution; First, the SNR ratio increases from lower to higher frequency bands; Second, the ratio decreases with the increasing source-to-receiver distance; And third, the ratio increases from shallow to deep water. We also observe a rough negative relationship of the signal-to-noise ratio with the thickness of the marine sediment. Only 5 inland stations record clear air-gun shot arrivals up to 200 km away from the source. More detailed data quality analysis with more results will also be present.

  16. Seismic and source characteristics of large chemical explosions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kostuchenko, V.N.; Pernik, L.M.; Sultanov, D.D.; Zcikanovsky, V.I.


    From the very beginning of its arrangement in 1947, the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres RAS (former Special Sector of the Institute for physics of the Earth, RAS) was providing scientific observations of effects of nuclear explosions, as well as large-scale detonations of HE, on environment. This report presents principal results of instrumental observations obtained from various large-scale chemical explosions conducted in the Former-Soviet Union in the period of time from 1957 to 1989. Considering principal aim of the work, tamped and equivalent chemical explosions have been selected with total weights from several hundreds to several thousands ton. In particular, the selected explosions were aimed to study scaling law from excavation explosions, seismic effect of tamped explosions, and for dam construction for hydropower stations and soil melioration. Instrumental data on surface explosions of total weight in the same range aimed to test military technics and special objects are not included.

  17. Rayleigh waves from correlation of seismic noise in Great Island of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: Constraints on upper crustal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Buffoni


    Full Text Available In this study, the ambient seismic noise cross-correlation technique is applied to estimate the upper structure of the crust beneath Great Island of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, Argentina, by the analysis of short-period Rayleigh wave group velocities. The island, situated in the southernmost South America, is a key area of investigation among the interaction between the South American and Scotia plates and is considered as a very seismically active one. Through cross-correlating the vertical components of ambient seismic noise registered at four broadband stations in TdF, we were able to extract Rayleigh waves which were used to estimate group velocities in the period band of 2.5–16 s using a time-frequency analysis. Although ambient noise sources are distributed inhomogeneously, robust empirical Green's functions could be recovered from the cross-correlation of 12 months of ambient noise. The observed group velocities were inverted considering a non-linear iterative damped least-squares inversion procedure and several 1-D shear wave velocity models of the upper crust were obtained. According to the inversion results, the S-wave velocity ranges between 1.75 and 3.7 km/s in the first 10 km of crust, depending on the pair of stations considered. These results are in agreement to the major known surface and sub-surface geological and tectonic features known in the area. This study represents the first ambient seismic noise analysis in TdF in order to constraint the upper crust beneath this region. It can also be considered as a successful feasibility study for future analyses with a denser station deployment for a more detailed imaging of structure.

  18. Characterizing the Seismic Ocean Bottom Environment of the Bransfield Strait (United States)

    Washington, B.; Lekic, V.; Schmerr, N. C.


    Ocean bottom seismometers record ground motions that result from earthquakes, anthropogenic sound sources (e.g. propellers, air gun sources, etc.), ocean waves and currents, biological activity, as well as surface processes on the sea and coastal land. Over a two-week span in April, 2001 - the Austral late fall -ten stations arranged in eleven lines were deployed beneath the Bransfield Strait along the Antarctica Peninsula to passively record data before and after an active source seismic survey. The goal of this study is to understand ocean bottom seismicity, identify centers of seismic activity and characterize possible glaciological mechanisms of icequakes and tremors. The instruments were sampled at 200Hz, allowing signals of ice-quakes, small earthquakes, and other high frequency sources to be detected and located. By visualizing the data as spectrograms, we identify and document ground vibrations excited by local earthquakes, whale songs, and those potentially due to surface processes, such as the cracking and movement of icebergs or ice shelves, including possible harmonic tremors from the ice or the volcanic arc nearby. Using relative timing of P-wave arrivals, we locate the hypocenters of nearby earthquakes and icequakes, and present frequency-dependent polarization analysis of their waveforms. Marine mammal sounds were detected in a substantial part of the overall acoustic environment-late March and Early April are the best months to hear whales such as humpback, sperm and orca communicating amongst each other because they are drawn to the cold, nutrient-rich Antarctic waters. We detect whales communicating for several hours in the dataset. Other extensively recorded sources resemble harmonic tremors, and we also identify signals possibly associated with waves set up on the notoriously stormy seas.

  19. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  20. Seismic monitoring of the Yucca Mountain facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbin, H.D.; Herrington, P.B.; Kromer, R.P.


    Questions have arisen regarding the applicability of seismic sensors to detect mining (re-entry) with a tunnel boring machine (TBM). Unlike cut and blast techniques of mining which produce impulsive seismic signals, the TBM produces seismic signals which are of long duration. (There are well established techniques available for detecting and locating the sources of the impulsive signals.) The Yucca Mountain repository offered an opportunity to perform field evaluations of the capabilities of seismic sensors because during much of 1996, mining there was progressing with the use of a TBM. During the mining of the repository's southern branch, an effort was designed to evaluate whether the TBM could be detected, identified and located using seismic sensors. Three data acquisition stations were established in the Yucca Mountain area to monitor the TBM activity. A ratio of short term average to long term average algorithm was developed for use in signal detection based on the characteristics shown in the time series. For location of the source of detected signals, FK analysis was used on the array data to estimate back azimuths. The back azimuth from the 3 component system was estimated from the horizontal components. Unique features in the timing of the seismic signal were used to identify the source as the TBM

  1. Co-Seismic Effect of the 2011 Japan Earthquake on the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomin Yang


    Full Text Available Great earthquakes introduce measurable co-seismic displacements over regions of hundreds and thousands of kilometers in width, which, if not accounted for, may significantly bias the long-term surface velocity field constrained by GPS observations performed during a period encompassing that event. Here, we first present an estimation of the far-field co-seismic off-sets associated with the 2011 Japan Mw 9.0 earthquake using GPS measurements from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC in North China. The uncertainties of co-seismic off-set, either at cGPS stations or at campaign sites, are better than 5 - 6 mm on average. We compare three methods to constrain the co-seismic off-sets at the campaign sites in northeastern China 1 interpolating cGPS coseismic offsets, 2 estimating in terms of sparsely sampled time-series, and 3 predicting by using a well-constrained slip model. We show that the interpolation of cGPS co-seismic off-sets onto the campaign sites yield the best co-seismic off-set solution for these sites. The source model gives a consistent prediction based on finite dislocation in a layered spherical Earth, which agrees with the best prediction with discrepancies of 2 - 10 mm for 32 campaign sites. Thus, the co-seismic off-set model prediction is still a reasonable choice if a good coverage cGPS network is not available for a very active region like the Tibetan Plateau in which numerous campaign GPS sites were displaced by the recent large earthquakes.

  2. Seismic activity in northeastern Brazill-new perspectives (United States)

    Ferreira, J. M.; Do Nascimento, A. F.; Vilar, C. S.; Bezerra, F. H.; Assumpcao, M.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R. A.


    Northeastern Brazil is the most seismic active region in the country. Some earthquakes with magnitude above 5.0 and intensity VII MM associated with swam-like seismic activity lasting for many years are a serious social concern. Since the 1980's macroseismic and instrumental surveys have been carried out in this region and they are an important data archive which allows the composition of a reliable catalogue of seismic activity for this region. Among the many scientific results it was possible to identify the main seismogenic areas, obtain reliable hypocentres and focal mechanisms. As a consequence, it was possible also to analyse the relationship between seismicity and geological features. It was also possible to determined maximum horizontal stress direction for the region. An important induced seismic activity case has also been reported in the area as being a classical example of pore pressure diffusion triggering mechanism. The majority of the results were obtained using analogic data. Recently, a new research project is being conducted and will allow us to provide a regional scale monitoring with 6 broad-band stations and a new portable six station digital seismic network equipped with short- period sensors. Thus, with the continuous seismic activity in the area we trust that the results of this project will increase the present knowledge of seismic activity in northeastern Brazil.

  3. Seismic Search Engine: A distributed database for mining large scale seismic data (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Vaidya, S.; Kuzma, H. A.


    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO collects terabytes worth of seismic measurements from many receiver stations situated around the earth with the goal of detecting underground nuclear testing events and distinguishing them from other benign, but more common events such as earthquakes and mine blasts. The International Data Center (IDC) processes and analyzes these measurements, as they are collected by the IMS, to summarize event detections in daily bulletins. Thereafter, the data measurements are archived into a large format database. Our proposed Seismic Search Engine (SSE) will facilitate a framework for data exploration of the seismic database as well as the development of seismic data mining algorithms. Analogous to GenBank, the annotated genetic sequence database maintained by NIH, through SSE, we intend to provide public access to seismic data and a set of processing and analysis tools, along with community-generated annotations and statistical models to help interpret the data. SSE will implement queries as user-defined functions composed from standard tools and models. Each query is compiled and executed over the database internally before reporting results back to the user. Since queries are expressed with standard tools and models, users can easily reproduce published results within this framework for peer-review and making metric comparisons. As an illustration, an example query is “what are the best receiver stations in East Asia for detecting events in the Middle East?” Evaluating this query involves listing all receiver stations in East Asia, characterizing known seismic events in that region, and constructing a profile for each receiver station to determine how effective its measurements are at predicting each event. The results of this query can be used to help prioritize how data is collected, identify defective instruments, and guide future sensor placements.

  4. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.


    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  5. Erosion influences the seismicity of active thrust faults. (United States)

    Steer, Philippe; Simoes, Martine; Cattin, Rodolphe; Shyu, J Bruce H


    Assessing seismic hazards remains one of the most challenging scientific issues in Earth sciences. Deep tectonic processes are classically considered as the only persistent mechanism driving the stress loading of active faults over a seismic cycle. Here we show via a mechanical model that erosion also significantly influences the stress loading of thrust faults at the timescale of a seismic cycle. Indeed, erosion rates of about ~0.1-20 mm yr(-1), as documented in Taiwan and in other active compressional orogens, can raise the Coulomb stress by ~0.1-10 bar on the nearby thrust faults over the inter-seismic phase. Mass transfers induced by surface processes in general, during continuous or short-lived and intense events, represent a prominent mechanism for inter-seismic stress loading of faults near the surface. Such stresses are probably sufficient to trigger shallow seismicity or promote the rupture of deep continental earthquakes up to the surface.

  6. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands (United States)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.


    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  7. Seismic evidence for multiple-stage exhumation of high/ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt (United States)

    Luo, Yinhe; Zhao, Kaifeng; Tang, Chi-Chia; Xu, Yixian


    The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in China contains one of the largest exposures of high and ultrahigh pressure (HP and UHP) metamorphic rocks in the world. The origin of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks and their exhumation to the surface in this belt have attracted great interest in the geologic community because the study of exhumation history of HP/UHP rocks helps to understand the process of continental-continental collision and the tectonic evolution of post-collision. However, the exhumation mechanism of the HP-UHP rocks to the surface is still contentious. In this study, by deploying 28 broadband seismic stations in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt and combining seismic data from 40 stations of the China National Seismic Network (CNSN), we image the high-resolution crustal isotropic shear velocity and radial anisotropy structure using ambient noise tomography. Our high-resolution 3D models provide new information about the exhumation mechanism of HP/UHP rocks and the origin of two dome structures.

  8. Seismic intrusion detector system (United States)

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.


    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  9. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece) (United States)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal


    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  10. Quantitative Seismic Amplitude Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, A.K.


    The Seismic Value Chain quantifies the cyclic interaction between seismic acquisition, imaging and reservoir characterization. Modern seismic innovation to address the global imbalance in hydrocarbon supply and demand requires such cyclic interaction of both feed-forward and feed-back processes.

  11. Intraplate seismicity across the Cape Verde swell (United States)

    Vales, Dina; Matias, Luís.; Haberland, Christian; Silveira, Graça.; Weber, Michael; Carrilho, Fernando; Dias, Nuno


    The Cape Verde Archipelago ((15-17°N, 23-26°W) is located within the African plate, about 500km west of Senegal, in the African coast. The islands are located astride the Cape Verde mid-plate topographic swell, one of the largest features of its type in the world's ocean basins. The origin of this Cape Verde swell is still in debate. Previous determinations of the elastic thickness (Te) reveal a normal Te and a modest heat flow anomaly which suggest that the swell cannot be fully explained by uplift due to thermal reheating of the lithosphere by an underlying ‘‘hot spot'' and that other, deep-seated, mantle processes must be involved. The CV-PLUME (An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume) project intends to shape the geometry and deep origin of the Cape Verde mantle plume, via a combined study of seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and geochemical observations. Through this study we intend to characterize the structure beneath the archipelago from the surface down to the deep mantle. The core of this 3-year project was a temporary deployment of 39 Very Broad Band seismometers, across all the inhabited islands, to recorder local and teleseismic earthquakes. These instruments were operational from November 2007 to September 2008. In this work we report on the preliminary results obtained from the CV-PLUME network on the characterization of the local and regional seismicity. To detect the small magnitude seismic events the continuous data stream was screened using spectrograms. This proved to be a very robust technique in the face of the high short-period noise recorded by many of the stations, particularly during day time. The 10 month observation time showed that the background seismic activity in the Archipelago and surrounding area is low, with only a very few events recorded by the complete network. However, two clusters of earthquakes were detected close to the Brava Island, one to the NW and a second one, more active

  12. Full Waveform Adjoint Seismic Tomography of the Antarctic Plate (United States)

    Lloyd, A. J.; Wiens, D.; Zhu, H.; Tromp, J.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T. J.; Dalziel, I. W. D.; Hansen, S. E.; Shore, P.


    Recent studies investigating the response and influence of the solid Earth on the evolution of the cryosphere demonstrate the need to account for 3D rheological structure to better predict ice sheet dynamics, stability, and future sea level impact, as well as to improve glacial isostatic adjustment models and more accurately measure ice mass loss. Critical rheological properties like mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness may be estimated from shear wave velocity models that, for Antarctica, would ideally possess regional-scale resolution extending down to at least the base of the transition zone (i.e. 670 km depth). However, current global- and continental-scale seismic velocity models are unable to obtain both the resolution and spatial coverage necessary, do not take advantage of the full set of available Antarctic data, and, in most instance, employ traditional seismic imaging techniques that utilize limited seismogram information. We utilize 3-component earthquake waveforms from almost 300 Antarctic broadband seismic stations and 26 southern mid-latitude stations from 270 earthquakes (5.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.0) between 2001-2003 and 2007-2016 to conduct a full-waveform adjoint inversion for Antarctica and surrounding regions of the Antarctic plate. Necessary forward and adjoint wavefield simulations are performed utilizing SPECFEM3D_GLOBE with the aid of the Texas Advanced Computing Center. We utilize phase observations from seismogram segments containing P, S, Rayleigh, and Love waves, including reflections and overtones, which are autonomously identified using FLEXWIN. The FLEXWIN analysis is carried out over a short (15-50 s) and long (initially 50-150 s) period band that target body waves, or body and surface waves, respectively. As our model is iteratively refined, the short-period corner of the long period band is gradually reduced to 25 s as the model converges over 20 linearized inversion iterations. We will briefly present this new high

  13. Global Seismic Imaging Based on Adjoint Tomography (United States)

    Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Peter, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Zhu, H.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.


    Our aim is to perform adjoint tomography at the scale of globe to image the entire planet. We have started elastic inversions with a global data set of 253 CMT earthquakes with moment magnitudes in the range 5.8 ≤ Mw ≤ 7 and used GSN stations as well as some local networks such as USArray, European stations, etc. Using an iterative pre-conditioned conjugate gradient scheme, we initially set the aim to obtain a global crustal and mantle model with confined transverse isotropy in the upper mantle. Global adjoint tomography has so far remained a challenge mainly due to computational limitations. Recent improvements in our 3D solvers (e.g., a GPU version) and access to high-performance computational centers (e.g., ORNL's Cray XK7 "Titan" system) now enable us to perform iterations with higher-resolution (T > 9 s) and longer-duration (200 min) simulations to accommodate high-frequency body waves and major-arc surface waves, respectively, which help improve data coverage. The remaining challenge is the heavy I/O traffic caused by the numerous files generated during the forward/adjoint simulations and the pre- and post-processing stages of our workflow. We improve the global adjoint tomography workflow by adopting the ADIOS file format for our seismic data as well as models, kernels, etc., to improve efficiency on high-performance clusters. Our ultimate aim is to use data from all available networks and earthquakes within the magnitude range of our interest (5.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7) which requires a solid framework to manage big data in our global adjoint tomography workflow. We discuss the current status and future of global adjoint tomography based on our initial results as well as practical issues such as handling big data in inversions and on high-performance computing systems.

  14. The persistent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise

    KAUST Repository

    Gualtieri, Lucia; Camargo, Suzana J.; Pascale, Salvatore; Pons, Flavio M.E.; Ekströ m, Gö ran


    The spectrum of ambient seismic noise shows strong signals associated with tropical cyclones, yet a detailed understanding of these signals and the relationship between them and the storms is currently lacking. Through the analysis of more than a decade of seismic data recorded at several stations located in and adjacent to the northwest Pacific Ocean, here we show that there is a persistent and frequency-dependent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise that depends on characteristics of the storm and on the detailed location of the station relative to the storm. An adaptive statistical model shows that the spectral amplitude of ambient seismic noise, and notably of the short-period secondary microseisms, has a strong relationship with tropical cyclone intensity and can be employed to extract information on the tropical cyclones.

  15. The persistent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise

    KAUST Repository

    Gualtieri, Lucia


    The spectrum of ambient seismic noise shows strong signals associated with tropical cyclones, yet a detailed understanding of these signals and the relationship between them and the storms is currently lacking. Through the analysis of more than a decade of seismic data recorded at several stations located in and adjacent to the northwest Pacific Ocean, here we show that there is a persistent and frequency-dependent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise that depends on characteristics of the storm and on the detailed location of the station relative to the storm. An adaptive statistical model shows that the spectral amplitude of ambient seismic noise, and notably of the short-period secondary microseisms, has a strong relationship with tropical cyclone intensity and can be employed to extract information on the tropical cyclones.

  16. Salt Repository Project input to seismic design: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Salt Repository Program (SRP) Input to Seismic Design (ISD) documents the assumptions, rationale, approaches, judgments, and analyses that support the development of seismic-specific data and information to be used for shaft design in accordance with the SRP Shaft Design Guide (SDG). The contents of this document are divided into four subject areas: (1) seismic assessment, (2) stratigraphy and material properties for seismic design, (3) development of seismic design parameters, and (4) host media stability. These four subject areas have been developed considering expected conditions at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The ISD should be used only in conjunction with seismic design of the exploratory and repository shafts. Seismic design considerations relating to surface facilities are not addressed in this document. 54 refs., 55 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Seismics - Yesterday and today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, W.


    This article published in the Swiss Bulletin for Applied Geology takes a look at technical developments in the field of seismological exploration over the past 25 years. In particular, developments in the information technology area are discussed. Increased data-storage capacities and miniaturization of data-capture systems and sensors are examined. In spite of such developments, the quality of the seismological data acquired is quoted as not showing significantly increased quality. Alternatives to vibration-based seismic exploration are discussed. The challenges faced by near-surface seismology are looked at. Computer-based statistical correction of data and improved resolution are discussed, as is hybrid seismology. Examples are quoted and graphically illustrated. A list of relevant literature completes the article

  18. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.


    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  19. Seismic changes industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.


    This paper discusses the growth in the seismic industry as a result of the recent increases in the foreign market. With the decline of communism and the opening of Latin America to exploration, seismic teams have moved out into these areas in support of the oil and gas industry. The paper goes on to discuss the improved technology available for seismic resolution and the subsequent use of computers to field-proof the data while the seismic team is still on-site. It also discusses the effects of new computer technology on reducing the amount of support staff that is required to both conduct and interpret seismic information

  20. ANZA Seismic Network- From Monitoring to Science (United States)

    Vernon, F.; Eakin, J.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R.; Offield, G.; Hindley, A.; Astiz, L.


    The ANZA Seismic Network ( utilizes broadband and strong motion sensors with 24-bit dataloggers combined with real-time telemetry to monitor local and regional seismicity in southernmost California. The ANZA network provides real-time data to the IRIS DMC, California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN), other regional networks, and the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), in addition to providing near real-time information and monitoring to the greater San Diego community. Twelve high dynamic range broadband and strong motion sensors adjacent to the San Jacinto Fault zone contribute data for earthquake source studies and continue the monitoring of the seismic activity of the San Jacinto fault initiated 24 years ago. Five additional stations are located in the San Diego region with one more station on San Clemente Island. The ANZA network uses the advance wireless networking capabilities of the NSF High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network ( to provide the communication infrastructure for the real-time telemetry of Anza seismic stations. The ANZA network uses the Antelope data acquisition software. The combination of high quality hardware, communications, and software allow for an annual network uptime in excess of 99.5% with a median annual station real-time data return rate of 99.3%. Approximately 90,000 events, dominantly local sources but including regional and teleseismic events, comprise the ANZA network waveform database. All waveform data and event data are managed using the Datascope relational database. The ANZA network data has been used in a variety of scientific research including detailed structure of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, earthquake source physics, spatial and temporal studies of aftershocks, array studies of teleseismic body waves, and array studies on the source of microseisms. To augment the location, detection, and high frequency observations of the seismic source spectrum from local

  1. Assessment of four methods to estimate surface UV radiation using satellite data, by comparison with ground measurements from four stations in Europe (United States)

    Arola, Antti; Kalliskota, S.; den Outer, P. N.; Edvardsen, K.; Hansen, G.; Koskela, T.; Martin, T. J.; Matthijsen, J.; Meerkoetter, R.; Peeters, P.; Seckmeyer, G.; Simon, P. C.; Slaper, H.; Taalas, P.; Verdebout, J.


    Four different satellite-UV mapping methods are assessed by comparing them against ground-based measurements. The study includes most of the variability found in geographical, meteorological and atmospheric conditions. Three of the methods did not show any significant systematic bias, except during snow cover. The mean difference (bias) in daily doses for the Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) and Joint Research Centre (JRC) methods was found to be less than 10% with a RMS difference of the order of 30%. The Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) method was assessed for a few selected months, and the accuracy was similar to the RIVM and JRC methods. It was additionally used to demonstrate how spatial averaging of high-resolution cloud data improves the estimation of UV daily doses. For the Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique (IASB) method the differences were somewhat higher, because of their original cloud algorithm. The mean difference in daily doses for IASB was about 30% or more, depending on the station, while the RMS difference was about 60%. The cloud algorithm of IASB has been replaced recently, and as a result the accuracy of the IASB method has improved. Evidence is found that further research and development should focus on the improvement of the cloud parameterization. Estimation of daily exposures is likely to be improved if additional time-resolved cloudiness information is available for the satellite-based methods. It is also demonstrated that further development work should be carried out on the treatment of albedo of snow-covered surfaces.

  2. Broadband analysis of landslides seismic signal : example of the Oso-Steelhead landslide and other recent events (United States)

    Hibert, C.; Stark, C. P.; Ekstrom, G.


    Landslide failures on the scale of mountains are spectacular, dangerous, and spontaneous, making direct observations hard to obtain. Measurement of their dynamic properties during runout is a high research priority, but a logistical and technical challenge. Seismology has begun to help in several important ways. Taking advantage of broadband seismic stations, recent advances now allow: (i) the seismic detection and location of large landslides in near-real-time, even for events in very remote areas that may have remain undetected, such as the 2014 Mt La Perouse supraglacial failure in Alaska; (ii) inversion of long-period waves generated by large landslides to yield an estimate of the forces imparted by the bulk accelerating mass; (iii) inference of the landslide mass, its center-of-mass velocity over time, and its trajectory.Key questions persist, such as: What can the short-period seismic data tell us about the high-frequency impacts taking place within the granular flow and along its boundaries with the underlying bedrock? And how does this seismicity relate to the bulk acceleration of the landslide and the long-period seismicity generated by it?Our recent work on the joint analysis of short- and long-period seismic signals generated by past and recent events, such as the Bingham Canyon Mine and the Oso-Steelhead landslides, provides new insights to tackle these issues. Qualitative comparison between short-period signal features and kinematic parameters inferred from long-period surface wave inversion helps to refine interpretation of the source dynamics and to understand the different mechanisms for the origin of the short-period wave radiation. Our new results also suggest that quantitative relationships can be derived from this joint analysis, in particular between the short-period seismic signal envelope and the inferred momentum of the center-of-mass. In the future, these quantitative relationships may help to constrain and calibrate parameters used in

  3. Micromachined silicon seismic accelerometer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S. [and others


    Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of seismic monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily deployable sensor arrays. Our ultimate goal is to fabricate seismic sensors with sensitivity and noise performance comparable to short-period seismometers in common use. We expect several phases of development will be required to accomplish that level of performance. Traditional silicon micromachining techniques are not ideally suited to the simultaneous fabrication of a large proof mass and soft suspension, such as one needs to achieve the extreme sensitivities required for seismic measurements. We have therefore developed a novel {open_quotes}mold{close_quotes} micromachining technology that promises to make larger proof masses (in the 1-10 mg range) possible. We have successfully integrated this micromolding capability with our surface-micromachining process, which enables the formation of soft suspension springs. Our calculations indicate that devices made in this new integrated technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach the 10{sup -10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin


    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  5. Dynamics of the Oso-Steelhead landslide from broadband seismic analysis (United States)

    Hibert, C.; Stark, C. P.; Ekström, G.


    We carry out a combined analysis of the short- and long-period seismic signals generated by the devastating Oso-Steelhead landslide that occurred on 22 March 2014. The seismic records show that the Oso-Steelhead landslide was not a single slope failure, but a succession of multiple failures distinguished by two major collapses that occurred approximately 3 min apart. The first generated long-period surface waves that were recorded at several proximal stations. We invert these long-period signals for the forces acting at the source, and obtain estimates of the first failure runout and kinematics, as well as its mass after calibration against the mass-centre displacement estimated from remote-sensing imagery. Short-period analysis of both events suggests that the source dynamics of the second event is more complex than the first. No distinct long-period surface waves were recorded for the second failure, which prevents inversion for its source parameters. However, by comparing the seismic energy of the short-period waves generated by both events we are able to estimate the volume of the second. Our analysis suggests that the volume of the second failure is about 15-30% of the total landslide volume, giving a total volume mobilized by the two events between 7 × 106 and 10 × 106 m3, in agreement with estimates from ground observations and lidar mapping.

  6. Evaluation of Fourier integral. Spectral analysis of seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitaru, Cristian; Enescu, Dumitru


    Spectral analysis of seismic events represents a method for great earthquake prediction. The seismic signal is not a sinusoidal signal; for this, it is necessary to find a method for best approximation of real signal with a sinusoidal signal. The 'Quanterra' broadband station allows the data access in numerical and/or graphical forms. With the numerical form we can easily make a computer program (MSOFFICE-EXCEL) for spectral analysis. (authors)

  7. Seismic alarm system for Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, M.; Griesser, L.; Austin, G.E.; Tiurin, S.; Kuendig, C.


    A seismic alarm system will be installed at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. There are two reactors, both RMBK 1500 MW units. Each reactor is a water cooled, graphite moderated, channel type reactor. INPP has the most advanced version of the RMBK reactor design series. The first and second units of INPP went into service at the end of 1983 and in August 1987 respectively. Their design lifetime is approx. 30 years. The various buildings and plant have been designed for two earthquake levels, that is the design earthquake and the maximum possible earthquake with peak ground accelerations ranging from 1.2% to 10% of the acceleration due to gravity. Certain parts of the buildings and some of the equipment of the first and second units do not comply with Western seismic standards. As seismic strengthening of the existing buildings and equipment is not feasible economically, a reactor protection system based on an earthquake early warning system was recommended. This system essentially consists of six seismic stations encircling INPP at a radial distance of approx. 30 km and a seventh station at INPP. Each station includes three seismic substations each 500 m apart. The ground motion at each station is measured continuously by three accelerometers and one seismometer. Data is transmitted via telemetry to the control centre at INPP. Early warning alarms are generated if a seismic threshold is exceeded. This paper discusses the characteristics of INPP, the seismic alarm system presently under construction and the experience with other early warning and seismic alarm systems. (author)

  8. Improving the Detectability of the Catalan Seismic Network for Local Seismic Activity Monitoring (United States)

    Jara, Jose Antonio; Frontera, Tànit; Batlló, Josep; Goula, Xavier


    The seismic survey of the territory of Catalonia is mainly performed by the regional seismic network operated by the Cartographic and Geologic Institute of Catalonia (ICGC). After successive deployments and upgrades, the current network consists of 16 permanent stations equipped with 3 component broadband seismometers (STS2, STS2.5, CMG3ESP and CMG3T), 24 bits digitizers (Nanometrics Trident) and VSAT telemetry. Data are continuously sent in real-time via Hispasat 1D satellite to the ICGC datacenter in Barcelona. Additionally, data from other 10 stations of neighboring areas (Spain, France and Andorra) are continuously received since 2011 via Internet or VSAT, contributing both to detect and to locate events affecting the region. More than 300 local events with Ml ≥ 0.7 have been yearly detected and located in the region. Nevertheless, small magnitude earthquakes, especially those located in the south and south-west of Catalonia may still go undetected by the automatic detection system (DAS), based on Earthworm (USGS). Thus, in order to improve the detection and characterization of these missed events, one or two new stations should be installed. Before making the decision about where to install these new stations, the performance of each existing station is evaluated taking into account the fraction of detected events using the station records, compared to the total number of events in the catalogue, occurred during the station operation time from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014. These evaluations allow us to build an Event Detection Probability Map (EDPM), a required tool to simulate EDPMs resulting from different network topology scenarios depending on where these new stations are sited, and becoming essential for the decision-making process to increase and optimize the event detection probability of the seismic network.

  9. Towards a Systematic Search for Triggered Seismic Events in the USA (United States)

    Tang, V.; Chao, K.; Van der Lee, S.


    Dynamic triggering of small earthquakes and tectonic tremor by small stress variations associated with passing surface waves from large-magnitude teleseismic earthquakes have been observed in seismically active regions in the western US. Local stress variations as small as 5 10 kPa can suffice to advance slip on local faults. Observations of such triggered events share certain distinct characteristics. With an eye towards an eventual application of machine learning, we began a systematic search for dynamically triggered seismic events in the USA that have these characteristics. Such a systematic survey has the potential to help us to better understand the fundamental process of dynamic triggering and hazards implied by it. Using visual inspection on top of timing and frequency based selection criteria for these seismic phenomena, our search yielded numerous false positives, indicating the challenge posed by moving from ad-hoc observations of dynamic triggering to a systematic search that also includes a catalog of non-triggering, even when sufficient stress variations are supplied. Our search includes a dozen large earthquakes that occurred during the tenure of USArray. One of these earthquakes (11 April 2012 Mw8.6 Sumatra), for example, was observed by USArray-TA stations in the Midwest and other station networks (such as PB and UW), and yielded candidate-triggered events at 413 stations. We kept 79 of these observations after closer visual inspection of the observed events suggested distinct P and S arrivals from a local earthquake, or a tremor modulation with the same period as the surface wave, among other criteria. We confirmed triggered seismic events in 63 stations along the western plate boundary where triggered events have previously been observed. We also newly found triggered tremor sources in eastern Oregon and Yellowstone, and candidate-triggered earthquake sources in New Mexico and Minnesota. Learning whether 14 of remaining candidates are confirmed

  10. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.


    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  11. Seismic Imaging of the West Napa Fault in Napa, California (United States)

    Goldman, M.; Catchings, R.; Chan, J. H.; Sickler, R. R.; Nevitt, J. M.; Criley, C.


    In October 2016, we acquired high-resolution P- and S-wave seismic data along a 120-m-long, SW-NE-trending profile in Napa, California. Our seismic survey was designed to image a strand of the West Napa Fault Zone (WNFZ), which ruptured during the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa Earthquake. We separately acquired P- and S-wave data at every station using multiple hammer hits, which were edited and stacked into individual shot gathers in the lab. Each shot was co-located with and recorded by 118 P-wave (40-Hz) geophones, spaced at 1 m, and by 180 S-wave (4.5-Hz) geophones, spaced at 1 m. We developed both P- and S-wave tomographic velocity models, as well as Poisson's ratio and a Vp/Vs ratio models. We observed a well-defined zone of elevated Vp/Vs ratios below about 10 m depth, centered beneath the observed surface rupture. P-wave reflection images show that the fault forms a flower-structure in the upper few tens of meters. This method has been shown to delineate fault structures even in areas of rough terrain.

  12. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhrhammer


    Full Text Available We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB in Monterey Bay, California (USA, 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL. The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate boundary fault system. In addition to a 3-component CMG-1T seismometer package, the station comprises a current meter and Differential Pressure Gauge, both sampled at high-enough frequency (1 Hz to allow the study of relations between background noise on the seismometers and ocean waves and currents. The proximity of several land-based broadband seismic stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network allows insightful comparisons of land/ocean background seismic noise at periods relevant to regional and teleseismic studies. The station is currently autonomous. Recording and battery packages are exchanged every 3 months during scheduled one day dives. Ultimately, this station