Sample records for surface seismic stations

  1. Surface Wave Tomography of South China Sea from Ambient Seismic Noise and Two-station Measurements (United States)

    Liang, W.-T.; Gung, Y.-C.


    We have taken the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise technique as well as the two-station method to analyze the velocity structure in the South China Sea region. The dataset used in this study includes broadband waveforms recorded at the Taiwan BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology), Japan OHP (Ocean Hemisphere Project), Malaysia and Vietnam seismic networks. We remove the instrument response from daily data and filter the waveform with various frequency bands according to the length of each station-pair. Then we apply the commonly used 1-bit normalization to minimize the effect of earthquakes, instrumental irregularities, and non-stationary noise sources near to the stations. With the derived daily cross correlation function (CCF), we are able to examine the timing quality for each station-pair. We then obtain the surface Rayleigh wave dispersion curves from the stacked CCF for each station-pair. To cover the longer period band in the dispersion curves, we adopt the two-station method to compute both the group and phase velocities of surface waves. A new surface wave tomography based on ambient seismic noise study and traditional two-station technique has been achieved in this study. Raypaths that travel through the Central basin present higher velocity, which is in agreement with the idea of thin crust. On the other hand, the slower velocity between Taiwan and Northern Luzon, Philippine is mainly due to a thick accretionary prism above the Manila trench.

  2. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.


    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  3. Digitized seismic station for colliery use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.M.; Blyakhman, A.S.


    Seismic tests used to investigate the stress conditions in rock and conducted in different deposits throughout the USSR, have made it possible to determine the optimum variants for the application of such tests. The VNIMI Institute has developed a seismic station for mines which features a 7-channel numerical control and undertakes measurements via three operating systems: determination of the propagation speed of artifically-emitted seismic waves; measurement of the co-ordinates for the seismic-wave emission sources; and recording the number of natural seismic signals in a given area of solid rock. The Institute a plan of the station together with operational data. The feed voltage is 5 V and the power consumption 500 mA. (In Russian)

  4. 张江台地表与深井地震观测对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Zhangjiang Station Surface and Deep Seismic Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓; 尹继尧; 杨庭春


    张江深井综合地震观测站是上海市规则建设的深井地震综合观测系统中首先建成并投入运行的站点,深井中安装了地磁仪、应变仪、倾斜仪、测震仪、孔隙压仪、地温仪、水温仪和水位仪,地表还安装了强震仪和GPS,总计十种测项,同时地表还配备气压计和气温计等辅助观测手段.张江台在2006年就建立了地表台,本文将地表台和新建的深井台数据进行了分析对比,从而得出土层背景噪声的干扰情况;同时参照上海台网其他深井的资料分析综合深井系统对测震单分项系统是否有干扰.结果显示,深井台的背景噪声RMS数值比地表台小个数量级,可以更精确的记录到地脉动数据;深井台的有效动态范围比地表台超出30%;深井台不仅在低频,在高频段25 Hz附近也有噪声影响;深井台比地表台受环境噪声影响要小很多,特别是在低频段优势更明显.同时,对比张江综合深井台的地噪声、动态范围和上海台网其他深井台资料,认为综合深井测震分项数据未受到整体综合系统的噪音影响.%Twenty-seven deep seismic observation stations are planned for construction in the administrative area of Shanghai to provide a comprehensive observation system of deep earthquakes,and two deep seismic observation stations will be constructed in Zhangjiang,Pudong district,and the Yangtze River farm,Chongming district,in accordance with China's Eleventh Five-Year Plan.The deep well station in Zhangjiang has been completed and has passed the acceptance stage.Ten test items have been installed including a magnetometer; strain gauge; inclinometer;seismometers; pore pressure,temperature,and water temperature instruments; a water meter installation site in a deep well,a surface-installed strong motion seismograph,and a global positioning system(GPS).In addition,the surface is equipped with a pressure gauge,a temperature gauge,and other auxiliary observation

  5. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA (United States)

    Jeon, Youngsoo


    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  6. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.


    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  7. Seismic interferometry with antipodal station pairs (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Chi; Tsai, Victor C.


    In this study, we analyze continuous data from all Global Seismographic Network stations between year 2000 and 2009 and demonstrate that several body wave phases (e.g., PP, PcPPKP, SKSP, and PPS) propagating between nearly antipodal station pairs can be clearly observed without array stacking using the noise/coda cross-correlation method. Based on temporal correlations with global seismicity, we show that the observed body waves are clearly earthquake related. Moreover, based on single-earthquake analysis, we show that the earthquake coda energy observed between ~10,000 and 30,000 s after a large earthquake contributes the majority of the signal. We refine our method based on these observations and show that the signal can be significantly improved by selecting only earthquake coda times. With our improved processing, the PKIKP phase, which does not benefit from the focusing effect near the antipode, can now also clearly be observed for long-distance station pairs.

  8. Citizen Science Seismic Stations for Monitoring Regional and Local Events (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.; Myers, S.; Srikrishna, D.


    The earth has tens of thousands of seismometers installed on its surface or in boreholes that are operated by many organizations for many purposes including the study of earthquakes, volcanos, and nuclear explosions. Although global networks such as the Global Seismic Network and the International Monitoring System do an excellent job of monitoring nuclear test explosions and other seismic events, their thresholds could be lowered with the addition of more stations. In recent years there has been interest in citizen-science approaches to augment government-sponsored monitoring networks (see, for example, Stubbs and Drell, 2013). A modestly-priced seismic station that could be purchased by citizen scientists could enhance regional and local coverage of the GSN, IMS, and other networks if those stations are of high enough quality and distributed optimally. In this paper we present a minimum set of hardware and software specifications that a citizen seismograph station would need in order to add value to global networks. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. The New Very Broadband Seismic Station TROLL, Antarctica (United States)

    Kvaerna, Tormod; Schweitzer, Johannes; Pirli, Myrto; Roth, Michael


    Troll is the name of the Norwegian permanent research station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The research base is located inside the continent, at an elevation of about 1300 m and at a distance of about 230 km from the shelf ice border. In the first week of February 2012, a new very broadband seismic station was installed at TROLL. Contrary to many other seismic stations inside the Antarctic continent, the new seismic sensor could be installed on bedrock (migmatite), on a hill at about 300 m distance from the main buildings of the Troll research base. A bedrock installation has the advantage that seismic signals are not disturbed by multiples due to the thick Antarctic ice sheet. The equipment consists of a Streckeisen STS-2.5 broadband sensor and a Quanterra Q330HR 26 bit digitizer. All data are transferred in real time via a satellite link to NORSAR for analysis and further distribution. During the first year, the new seismic station and corresponding data transmission has been running very stably. Initial analysis of the station's event detection capability shows that the performance is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the best performing three-component stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). We will present examples of diurnal and seasonal variations in the background noise level of the station, the observed global, regional and local seismicity, and the very exciting monitoring capabilities of icebergs drifting along the coast of Dronning Maud Land.

  10. Sensor Emplacement Techniques and Seismic Noise Analysis for USArray Transportable Array Seismic Stations (United States)

    Frassetto, A.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Woodward, R.; Sauter, A.


    In preparation for the upcoming deployment of EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has supported exploratory work on seismic station design, sensor emplacement, and communication concepts appropriate for this challenging high-latitude environment. IRIS has installed several experimental stations to evaluate different sensor emplacement schemes both in Alaska and in the lower-48 of the U.S. The goal of these tests is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint and the weight of the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design and the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where there are few roads, cellular communications are scarce, most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, and permafrost underlies much of the state. We will review the methods used for directly emplacing broadband seismometers in comparison to the current methods used for the lower-48 TA. These new methods primarily focus on using a portable drill to make a bored hole three to five meters, beneath the active layer of the permafrost, or by coring 1-2 meters deep into surface bedrock. Both methods are logistically effective in preliminary trials. Subsequent station performance has been assessed quantitatively using probability density functions summed from power spectral density estimates. These are calculated for the continuous time series of seismic data recorded for each channel of the seismometer. There are five test stations currently operating in Alaska. One was deployed in August 2011 and the remaining four in October 2012. Our results show that the performance of seismometers in Alaska with auger-hole or core-hole installations can sometimes exceed that of the quietest TA stations in the lower-48, particularly horizontal components at long periods. A

  11. Multi-Use Seismic Stations for Earthquake Early Warning (United States)

    Parker, T.; Townsend, B.; Moores, A. O.; Bainbridge, G. S.; Easton, D.


    Earthquake Early Warning network performance improves with the number and density of sensing stations, quality of the sites, quality of strong-motion instrumentation, degree of coverage near at-risk populated areas and potential fault zones, and minimizing latency of signal processing and transmission. Seismic research tends to emphasize competing requirements: low-noise sites, high-performance broadband seismic instrumentation, and high-quality signal processing without regard for latency. Recent advances in instrumentation and processing techniques have made feasible the concept of a multi-use seismic station in which strong-motion and weak-motion seismometry are both cost-effectively served without compromising the performance demands of either. We present a concept for a multi-use seismic station that cost-effectively meets the needs of both earthquake early warning and high-quality seismic research. One significant enabler is a 6-channel dual-sensor instrument that combines a 120s broadband seismometer and a class A accelerometer in a single ultra-compact sonde suitable for direct burial. Combining two sensors into one effectively adds broadband capability to a station without increasing the already optimized site footprint, preparation and management costs associated with shallow direct-burial installations. The combined sensors also complement each other, simplifying and speeding installation (for example, the accelerometer provides real-time tilt readings useful to leveling the seismometer). Integration simplifies alignment to North, as there is only one instrument to orient. A dual-use 6-channel digitizer simultaneously provides two sets of independently processed streams from both sensors, one set optimized for low-latency earthquake warning, and the other set for high quality seismic research purposes. Such a dual-use seismic station can serve both seismic research and civil warning infrastructure objectives without adding significantly to the cost of a

  12. Seismic Location Station for Detection of Unobserved Moving Military Machineries


    Bayramov, Azad; Hashimov, Elshan


    The main purpose of this paper is to develop a seismic location station that can detect unobserved, moving military objects, and heavy military machineries behind a forest or a mountain at a distance of 1-2 kilometers from the determined location. Seismic location station includes specific 3D seismic detectors based on the very sensible piezoelectric sensors. The proposed piezoelectric detectors are based on the PVDF+BaTiO3+PZT polymer hybrid composite fabricated based on nano sized BaTiO3 (o...

  13. Extracting the Group Velocity of Rayleigh Waves from the Cross Correlation of the Ambient Seismic Noise Between Two Seismic Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xing; Li Jun; Lin Shu; Zhou Zhengrong; Kang Lanchi; Ou Yiping


    This paper uses the 8 broad-band stations' microseism data recorded by the Seismic Monitoring Network of Fujian Province to calculate the vertical correlation coefficient between two stationsat intervals of 5 minutes. According to the time intervals technique we obtain the different coefficients and then add the correlative coefficients. Depending on this, we extract the group velocity of Rayleigh waves from the cross correlation of the ambient seismic noise between two seismic stations and figure out the group velocity' spatial distribution. The results show that the signal noise ratio (SNR) increases proportionally to the superposition times, but the results from different days are similar to one another. Synchronously, the arrival-time is also stable and there is no obvious change when coming across typhoons. It is found the velocity of the surface wave is 2.9~3. 1km/s in Fujian Province, which is close to the observationally attained value.

  14. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D. [New Brunswick Power Corp., Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada); Lavine, A. [AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment and Infrastructure Americas, Oakland, California (United States); Egan, J. [SAGE Engineers, Oakland, California (United States)


    A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The objective is to provide characterization of the earthquake ground shaking that will be used to evaluate seismic safety. The assessment is based on the current state of knowledge of the informed scientific and engineering community regarding earthquake hazards in the site region, and includes two primary components-a seismic source model and a ground motion model. This paper provides the methodology and results of the PLGS PSHA. The implications of the updated hazard information for site safety are discussed in a separate paper. (author)

  15. Single-station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise (United States)

    De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Francis, Olivier


    Seismic ambient noise cross correlation is increasingly used to monitor volcanic activity. However, this method is usually limited to volcanoes equipped with large and dense networks of broadband stations. The single-station approach may provide a powerful and reliable alternative to the classical "cross-station" approach when measuring variation of seismic velocities. We implemented it on the Piton de la Fournaise in Reunion Island, a very active volcano with a remarkable multidisciplinary continuous monitoring. Over the past decade, this volcano has been increasingly studied using the traditional cross-correlation technique and therefore represents a unique laboratory to validate our approach. Our results, tested on stations located up to 3.5 km from the eruptive site, performed as well as the classical approach to detect the volcanic eruption in the 1-2 Hz frequency band. This opens new perspectives to successfully forecast volcanic activity at volcanoes equipped with a single three-component seismometer.


    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B. A.


    Ocean-bottom broadband seismic stations (OBSs) are installed at the interface of the solid earth and the ocean. As such, they are sensitive to the processes that originate in the solid earth (e.g., earthquakes), ocean (e.g., tsunamis), and even atmosphere (e.g., cyclones). Observations of ground motions at the OBSs can therefore be used to study and monitor processes that contribute to hazards in the coastal zones. These processes include earthquakes, underwater landslides, underwater volcanoes, and tsunamis. Numerous offshore faults are located too far from the shore for their background seismicity to be studied by land seismic stations alone, yet they are capable of generating large earthquakes that can threaten coastal communities. OBSs can record offshore seismicity that would be missed by relying only on the land stations. OBS data can also significantly improve locations and source mechanism determination for stronger offshore events that are observed on the land stations as they can significantly improve azimuthal coverage. As such, OBSs are essential for identifying seismic hazard from offshore faults. In addition, nearshore OBSs can improve studies of earthquakes on the land faults, in particular when the faults are located close to the ocean, resulting in limited azimuthal coverage provided by land stations alone. OBSs can also provide information about the offshore subsurface velocity structure, which can significantly affect the amount of shaking in the coastal regions. Velocity structure can be determined by compliance analysis that takes advantage of the seafloor deformation due to infragravity waves (long-period ocean surface waves). Reliable offshore velocity models are needed for modeling seismic wave propagation and for subsequent modeling of the amount of shaking expected in the coastal regions due to strong local and regional offshore earthquakes. We will present examples from the permanent ocean-bottom broadband seismic station MOBB located at

  17. Surface-wave array tomography in SE Tibet from ambient seismic noise and two-station analysis: I - Phase velocity maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, H.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Hoop, M.V. de


    Empirical Green’s functions (EGFs) between pairs of seismographs can be estimated from the time derivative of the long-time cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise. These EGFs reveal velocity dispersion at relatively short periods, which can be used to resolve structures in the crust and uppermos

  18. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results (United States)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei


    The seismic activity in Romania is dominated by the intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in Vrancea region, although weak to moderate crustal earthquakes are produced regularly in different areas of the country. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) built in the last years an impressive infrastructure for monitoring this activity, known as the Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). At present, RSN consists of 122 seismic stations, of which 70 have broadband velocity sensors and 42 short period sensors. One hundred and eleven stations out of 122 have accelerometer sensors collocated with velocity sensors and only 10 stations have only accelerometers. All the stations record continuously the ground motion and the data are transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center (RoNDC), in Magurele. Last year, NIEP has started a national project that addresses the characterization of all real-time seismic stations that constitute the RSN. We present here the steps that were undertaken and the preliminary results obtained since the beginning the project. The first two activities consisted of collecting all the existent technical and geological data, with emphasize on the latter. Then, we performed station noise investigations and analyses in order to characterize the noise level and estimate the resonances of the sites. The computed H/V ratios showed clear resonant peaks at different frequencies which correlate relatively well with the thickness of the sedimentary package beneath the stations. The polarization analysis of the H/V ratios indicates for some stations a strong directivity of the resonance peak which suggests possible topographic effects at the stations. At the same time, special attention was given to the estimation of the site amplification from earthquake data. The spectral ratios obtained from the analysis of more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) larger than 4.1 are characterized by similar resonance peaks as those obtained from

  19. Seismic response analysis of NAGRA-Net stations using advanced geophysical techniques (United States)

    Poggi, Valerio; Edwards, Benjamin; Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Keller, Lorenz; Fäh, Donat


    In cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently completed the installation of ten new seismological observation stations, three of them including a co-located borehole sensor. The ultimate goal of the project is to densify the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network (SDSNet) in northern Switzerland, in order to improve the detection of very-low magnitude events and to improve the accuracy of future location solutions. This is strategic for unbiased monitoring of micro seismicity at the locations of proposed nuclear waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the recordings, a seismic characterization of the area surrounding the installation area was performed at each site. The investigation consisted of a preliminary geological and geotechnical study, followed by a seismic site response analysis by means of state-of-the-art geophysical techniques. For the borehole stations, in particular, the characterization was performed by combining different types of active seismic methods (P-S refraction tomography, surface wave analysis, Vertical Seismic Profiling - VSP) with ambient vibration based approaches (wavelet decomposition, H/V spectral ratio, polarization analysis, three-component f-k analysis). The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a mean velocity profile for the site, which was later used for the computation of engineering parameters (travel time average velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and the analytical SH-wave transfer function. Empirical site-amplification functions are automatically determined for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. They are determined based on building statistical models of systematic site-specific effects in recordings of small earthquakes when compared to the Swiss stochastic ground-motion model. Computed site response is validated through comparison with these empirical

  20. Estimating station noise thresholds for seismic magnitude bias elimination (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila


    To eliminate the upward bias of seismic magnitude caused by censoring of signal hidden by noise, noise level at each station in a network must be estimated. Where noise levels are not measured directly, the method of Kelly and Lacoss (1969) has been used to infer them from bulletin data (Lilwall and Douglas 1984). To verify this estimate of noise level, noise thresholds of International Monitoring System (IMS) stations inferred from the International Data Centre (IDC) Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Kelly and Lacoss method for 2005-2013 are compared with direct measurements on (i) noise preceding first arrivals in filtered (0.8-4.5 Hz) IMS seismic data, and (ii) noise preceding the expected time of arrival of signals from events, where signal was not actually seen (values gathered by the IDC for maximum-likelihood magnitude calculation). For most stations the direct pre-signal noise measurements are ~0.25 units of log A/T lower than the Kelly&Lacoss thresholds; because the IDC automatic system declares a detection only when the short-term-average-to-long-term-average ratio threshold, which varies with station and frequency band between ~3-6, is exceeded. The noise values at expected times of non-observed signal arrival are ~0.15 units lower than the Kelly and Lacoss thresholds. Exceptions are caused by faulty channels being used for the direct noise or body-wave magnitude (mb) measurements or, for station ARCES and possibly FINES, SPITS and HFS, the wider filter used for signal amplitude than for signal detection admitting noise that swamped the signal. Abrupt changes in thresholds might show mis-documented sensor sensitivity changes at individual stations.

  1. Crustal thickness in central Europe from single-station seismic noise autocorrelation analysis (United States)

    Becker, Gesa; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte


    The InSight mission to Mars will place a single three-component seismometer on the planet's surface, requiring the application of single-station methods. In addition, seismicity on Mars is likely less abundant than on Earth, making it important to also use the available seismic noise. For these reasons different approaches of seismic noise autocorrelation have been tested with broadband three-component datasets from 12 stations across central Europe. These stations cover varying Moho depths of ca. 25-50 km depth. With the help of the autocorrelations, reflected body waves are extracted in order to estimate the crustal thickness at each station. This is of special relevance for Mars, where average crustal thickness is uncertain by a factor of two. The different approaches used are waterlevel normalized autocorrelation, with and without application of a short-term and long-term average filter to the spectrum of the data prior to autocorrelation, and phase autocorrelation. These approaches are compared and analyzed. Estimates for the Moho depths are made from the lag times of the reflected P-waves and compared to available Moho depth values at the stations. Due to the availability of three-component data these estimates can be cross-validated and in some cases not only P-wave reflections, but also possible S-wave and multiple reflections can be identified. The estimates compare well with the general trend of Moho depth expected for these stations. The consistency of results is further investigated by comparing different stations of the GERES array (aperture 2 km), which also allows to examine results for closely located broad-band and short-period stations side by side.

  2. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.


    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  3. Seismic Station Installation Orientation Errors at ANSS and IRIS/USGS Stations (United States)

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Persfield, K.; Gee, Lind S.


    Many seismological studies depend on the published orientations of sensitive axes of seismic instruments relative to north (e.g., Li et al., 2011). For example, studies of the anisotropic structure of the Earth’s mantle through SKS‐splitting measurements (Long et al., 2009), constraints on core–mantle electromagnetic coupling from torsional normal‐mode measurements (Dumberry and Mound, 2008), and models of three‐dimensional (3D) velocity variations from surface waves (Ekström et al., 1997) rely on accurate sensor orientation. Unfortunately, numerous results indicate that this critical parameter is often subject to significant error (Laske, 1995; Laske and Masters, 1996; Yoshizawa et al., 1999; Schulte‐Pelkum et al., 2001; Larson and Ekström, 2002). For the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS; ANSS Technical Integration Committee, 2002), the Global Seismographic Network (GSN; Butler et al., 2004), and many other networks, sensor orientation is typically determined by a field engineer during installation. Successful emplacement of a seismic instrument requires identifying true north, transferring a reference line, and measuring the orientation of the instrument relative to the reference line. Such an exercise is simple in theory, but there are many complications in practice. There are four commonly used methods for determining true north at the ANSS and GSN stations operated by the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL), including gyroscopic, astronomical, Global Positioning System (GPS), and magnetic field techniques. A particular method is selected based on site conditions (above ground, below ground, availability of astronomical observations, and so on) and in the case of gyroscopic methods, export restrictions. Once a north line has been determined, it must be translated to the sensor location. For installations in mines or deep vaults, this step can include tracking angles through the one or more turns in the access tunnel leading to

  4. Autonomous, continuously recording broadband seismic stations at high-latitude (United States)

    Beaudoin, B.; Parker, T.; Bonnett, B.; Tytgat, G.; Anderson, K.; Fowler, J.


    IRIS PASSCAL is in the third year of an NSF funded development and acquisition effort to establish a pool of cold-hardened seismic stations specifically for high-latitude broadband deployments. We have two complete years of field trials and have successfully recorded continuous seismic data during both years with data recovery rates of ~90%. Our design is premised on a 2W autonomous system recording to local media, capable of lasting two years without service. The system is composed of four new design elements: a heavily insulated station enclosure; a state-of-health (SOH) Iridium modem; a light weight, easily deployed solar panel mount; and a power system that includes power switching between primary (Lithium Thionyl Chloride) and secondary batteries. The station enclosures have proved most critical in keeping our data acquisition systems operating within manufacturer specifications and primary batteries within a 50-70% efficiency range. Enclosures with 2.5cm-thick vacuum panels and 5cm of foam insulation have kept interior enclosure temperatures 25-30°C above background (typically below -50°C). This austral summer we are deploying version three of our enclosures. Significant changes in the design include thicker vacuum panels (5cm), more robust construction, and simplified cable routing. An important aspect of our station design is easy installation and minimal weight. To simplify installation our station enclosures are packed with datalogger, SOH communications and batteries in the lab or base camp, so that access to the internal components is not necessary at the remote site. Bulkhead connectors allow a user to fully interact with the system without ever having to open the enclosure. Solar panel mounts are also fully constructed prior to deployment. Once on site, digging two large holes (one for the enclosure and one for the broadband seismometer) and constructing the site takes roughly 2 hours. A station designed to record continuously for 12-14 months is

  5. Seismic noise study for a new seismic station at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Kaka, S. I.


    deployed for twenty eight days (based on the memory available with the recorder) continuously collecting data at all three potential sites. This continuous data collection was done as part of a larger study where microtremor measurements were made to better understand and characterize the origin of various near-surface noises over a non-producing reservoir in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Papoola and Kaka, 2011). The new station at KFUPM will be equipped with a 3-component 120s to 50Hz Trillium120 broad band seismometer, Taurus 24-bit data acquisition system along with a large LCD to display the waveform data in real-time. The KFUPM community will have an opportunity to observe daily seismic activity in real-time and to monitor/record both regional and teleseismic events. Moreover, students will gain the opportunity to identify P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves and learn how to locate an earthquake. The station will also play an important role in providing a source of information about seismic activity for the general public. The new station is expected to be operational in a few months time.

  6. The ANSS Station Information System: A Centralized Station Metadata Repository for Populating, Managing and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata (United States)

    Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Acharya, P.; Jaramillo, J.; Chowdhury, F.


    Maintaining and archiving accurate site metadata is critical for seismic network operations. The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Station Information System (SIS) is a repository of seismic network field equipment, equipment response, and other site information. Currently, there are 187 different sensor models and 114 data-logger models in SIS. SIS has a web-based user interface that allows network operators to enter information about seismic equipment and assign response parameters to it. It allows users to log entries for sites, equipment, and data streams. Users can also track when equipment is installed, updated, and/or removed from sites. When seismic equipment configurations change for a site, SIS computes the overall gain of a data channel by combining the response parameters of the underlying hardware components. Users can then distribute this metadata in standardized formats such as FDSN StationXML or dataless SEED. One powerful advantage of SIS is that existing data in the repository can be leveraged: e.g., new instruments can be assigned response parameters from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Nominal Response Library (NRL), or from a similar instrument already in the inventory, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to determine parameters when new equipment (or models) are introduced into a network. SIS is also useful for managing field equipment that does not produce seismic data (eg power systems, telemetry devices or GPS receivers) and gives the network operator a comprehensive view of site field work. SIS allows users to generate field logs to document activities and inventory at sites. Thus, operators can also use SIS reporting capabilities to improve planning and maintenance of the network. Queries such as how many sensors of a certain model are installed or what pieces of equipment have active problem reports are just a few examples of the type of information that is available to SIS users.

  7. A probabilistic framework for single-station location of seismicity on Earth and Mars (United States)

    Böse, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Ceylan, S.; Euchner, F.; van Driel, M.; Khan, A.; Giardini, D.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.


    Locating the source of seismic energy from a single three-component seismic station is associated with large uncertainties, originating from challenges in identifying seismic phases, as well as inevitable pick and model uncertainties. The challenge is even higher for planets such as Mars, where interior structure is a priori largely unknown. In this study, we address the single-station location problem by developing a probabilistic framework that combines location estimates from multiple algorithms to estimate the probability density function (PDF) for epicentral distance, back azimuth, and origin time. Each algorithm uses independent and complementary information in the seismic signals. Together, the algorithms allow locating seismicity ranging from local to teleseismic quakes. Distances and origin times of large regional and teleseismic events (M > 5.5) are estimated from observed and theoretical body- and multi-orbit surface-wave travel times. The latter are picked from the maxima in the waveform envelopes in various frequency bands. For smaller events at local and regional distances, only first arrival picks of body waves are used, possibly in combination with fundamental Rayleigh R1 waveform maxima where detectable; depth phases, such as pP or PmP, help constrain source depth and improve distance estimates. Back azimuth is determined from the polarization of the Rayleigh- and/or P-wave phases. When seismic signals are good enough for multiple approaches to be used, estimates from the various methods are combined through the product of their PDFs, resulting in an improved event location and reduced uncertainty range estimate compared to the results obtained from each algorithm independently. To verify our approach, we use both earthquake recordings from existing Earth stations and synthetic Martian seismograms. The Mars synthetics are generated with a full-waveform scheme (AxiSEM) using spherically-symmetric seismic velocity, density and attenuation models of

  8. Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda (United States)

    Zeng, Y.


    One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.

  9. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio


    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  10. Calculating Skempton constant of aquifer from volume strain and water level response to seismic waves at Changping seismic station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rui; CHEN Yong; GAO Fu-wang; HUANG Fu-qiong


    Based on linear poroelastic theory of ideal poroelastic media, we apply the mathematic expression between pore pressure and volume strain for well-aquifer system to analyzing the observed data of water level and volume strain changes aroused by Sumatra Ms8.7 (determined by China Seismic Networks Center) seismic waves at Changping, Beijing, station on December 26, 2004 from both time and frequency domain. The response coefficients of water level fluctuation to volume strain are also calculated when seismic waves were passing through confined aquifer. A method for estimating Skempton constant B is put forward, which provide an approach for understanding of the characteristics of aquifer.

  11. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra, M. K.; Hardy, G. S.; Hashimoto, P. S.; Griffin, M. J.


    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants.

  12. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.


    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  13. Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves



    Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by bu...

  14. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station (United States)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro


    different configurations to fit different needs: From horizontal geophones, to the use of accelerometers to substitute the geophone and miniaturize even less the size of the seismic station. Also, the data can be gathered only by an Arduino board, but then it needs a card reader/writer and a real-time clock (RTC) circuit in order to correctly timestamp the data. In the first semester of 2016, we plan to build several units and deploy them in the field over the Bajo Segura Fault (Spain) and test them over different conditions to better assess the quality of the data.

  15. Five Years of Data at the Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband Seismic Station (MOBB) (United States)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Uhrhammer, R.


    We present an overview of the results obtained at MOBB in the past 5.5 years of its continuous operation. In particular we focus on the observations of the long-period ocean surface gravity waves (infragravity waves; 0.002 to 0.05 Hz) and different methods to remove the long-period background and signal-generated noise from the seismic observations. MOBB was installed 40 km offshore in the Monterey Bay at a water depth of 1000 m in April 2002 in collaboration between Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). It is located west of the San Gregorio Fault and represents the first step towards extending the onshore broadband seismic network in northern California westward of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. MOBB comprises a three- component broadband seismometer Guralp CMG-1T, sensitive over a wide frequency range, from 50 Hz to 2.8 mHz (360 s), a water current meter measuring current speed and direction, and a differential pressure gauge. At present, the station is autonomous and the data are on average retrieved every 4 months using MBARI's remotely operated vehicle Ventana. Work is under way to connect it to the MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable so that it will contribute continuous real time data to the northern California earthquake monitoring system. Lessons learned from the MOBB deployment as well as noise removal techniques that are specific to the ocean bottom installation will provide us reference for future installations of broadband seismic stations in the oceans. When compared to the quiet land stations, ocean bottom seismic station MOBB shows increased background noise in the band pass of interest for the study of regional and teleseismic signals. This is mainly due to deformation of the seafloor under the pressure forcing by infragravity waves. Also observed is additional signal- generated noise which is due to the reverberations in the shallow sedimentary layers as well as in the

  16. Swiss-AlpArray temporary broadband seismic stations deployment and noise characterization (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi; Hetényi, György; Giardini, Domenico; Stipčević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Herak, Marijan; Šipka, Vesna; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Solarino, Stefano; Swiss-AlpArray Field Team; AlpArray Working Group


    AlpArray is a large collaborative seismological project in Europe that includes more than 50 research institutes and seismological observatories. At the heart of the project is the collection of top-quality seismological data from a dense network of broadband temporary seismic stations, in compliment to the existing permanent networks, that ensures a homogeneous station coverage of the greater Alpine region. This Alp Array Seismic Network (AASN) began operation in January 2016 and will have a duration of at least 2 years. In this work we report the Swiss contribution to the AASN, we concentrate on the site selection process, our methods for stations installation, data quality and data management. We deployed 27 temporary broadband stations equipped with STS-2 and Trillium Compact 120 s sensors. The deployment and maintenance of the temporary stations across 5 countries is managed by ETH Zurich and it is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five institutes in Europe.

  17. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie


    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one met...

  18. Application of seismic isolation technology to computer system in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunyasu, Kenzou; Takamatsu, Naotaka; Fujimoto, Shigeru; Fukui, Hidehiro (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))


    In the current aseismatic design, the rigid structures that withstand earthquakes by own strength have been adopted. However recently, seismically isolated structures were devised, and begin to be applied to buildings and others. It is characterized by that the basic structures as the object of seismic isolation are not changed, and by using special seismic isolators, the structures are made flexible to avoid the resonance with the eminent period of earthquakes and reduce the earthquake force acting on the structures. As the concrete example of seismic isolation, in Japan, seismically isolated floors have been introduced for the computer centers of banks. Also in nuclear power stations, the application of seismic isolation to computer systems has been considered. The function, constitution, structure and the method of increasing the aseismatic capability of computer system are explained. The function required for seismic isolation floors, the seismic isolation structure of rolling type composed of coil springs, dampers and ball bearings, its principle of action, and the vibration test on the seismic isolation floor are reported. (K.I.).

  19. Some Signals of Seismic Origin Received at Pacific Sofar Stations. (United States)


    none have ever approached this one in duration. dough compi~tation.indicate that the sound energy in the 20—500 cpa frequency bane released to the water...the sour cesof theni are still undcterr~iined since it has not been possible to correlate them ~4th any reported seismic or explosive disturbances. It

  20. River dykes investigation using seismic surface waves (United States)

    Bitri, Adnand; Jousset, Philippe; Samyn, Kévin; Naylor, Adam


    Natural underground caves such as karsts are quite common in the region "Centre", France. These subsurface perturbations can be found underneath the protection dykes around "the Loire" River and the damage caused can create routes for floods. Geophysical methods such as Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) can be used for locating voids or karsts systems, but its efficiency on surface with strong topography such as dykes is not certain. Three dimensional Rayleigh wave modelling was used to understand the role of topography in the propagation of surface waves and with the aim of determining the best way for MASW investigations of surfaces with strong topography such as river dykes. Numerical modelling shows that surface waves propagation is not strongly affected by topography for an array parallel to the dyke. For homogeneous models with topography, a diminution of surface waves amplitude is observed while higher propagation modes are amplified in the dispersion curves in the case of heterogeneous models with topography. For an array perpendicular to the dyke, numerical modeling shows that Rayleigh waves' velocity is lower. MASW investigations can then be applied if lateral variations of the topography are not too strong along the seismic line. Diffraction hyperbolas created by a full of water cavity were identified in numerical modelling with topography. According to these elements, a MASW survey has been performed on the dykes of "the Loire" river close to a collapsed cavity and potential karstic systems were discovered.

  1. Seismic Tomography of Siyazan - Shabran Oil and Gas Region Of Azerbaijan by Data of The Seismic Stations (United States)

    Yetirmishli, Gurban; Guliyev, Ibrahim; Mammadov, Nazim; Kazimova, Sabina; Ismailova, Saida


    The main purpose of the research was to build a reliable 3D model of the structure of seismic velocities in the earth crust on the territory of Siyazan-Shabran region of Azerbaijan, using the data of seismic telemetry stations spanning Siyazan-Shabran region (Siyazan, Altiagaj, Pirgulu, Guba, Khinalig, Gusar), including 7 mobile telemetry seismic stations. Interest to the problem of research seismic tomography caused by applied environmental objectives, such as the assessment of geological risks, engineering evaluation (stability and safety of wells), the task of exploration and mining operations. In the study region are being actively developed oil fields, and therefore, there is a risk of technogenic earthquakes. It was performed the calculation of first arrival travel times of P and S waves and the corresponding ray paths. Calculate 1D velocity model which is the initial model as a set of horizontal layers (velocity may be constant or changed linearly with depth on each layer, gaps are possible only at the boundaries between the layers). Have been constructed and analyzed the horizontal sections of the three-dimensional velocity model at different depths of the investigated region. By the empirical method was proposed density model of the sedimentary rocks at depths of 0-8 km.

  2. Electromagnetic Abnormity Observed at Sujiatun Seismic Station and Its Relation to Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei; Cheng Wenhai; Hou Wankai; Yin Shipeng


    The Sujiatun seismic station is a local professional seismic observation station in the city of Shenyang, Liaoning province. Electromagnetic radiations observation apparatus, of the type EMAOS-L, are used there. In this paper, four years observation data and observed earthquakes with Ms ≥ 4.0 were collected in the Sujiatun observation station. The characteristics of electromagnetic radiation abnormities and earthquakes are analyzed from such aspects as capabilities of the apparatus used, tectonic structure, origins of electromagnetic radiations and so on. By analysis, precursor abnormities observed at this observation station are remarkable. The electric and magnetic abnormities are with good synchronism and the abnormities can respond better to the earthquakes with the epicenter distance being less than 20km and taking place in the upper crust. At the same time, for earthquakes with large magnitudes, the variation of precursor abnormities shows a periodic diurnal variation.

  3. Discussion on the Relationship between Different Earthquake Magnitude Scales and the Effect of Seismic Station Sites on Magnitude Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongzhi; Diao Guiling; Zhao Mingchun; Wang Qincai; Zhang Xiao; Huang Yuan


    Based on the earthquake catalog reported by the Chinese digital seismic network in recent years, we select the earthquakes with both surface wave magnitude and local magnitude and fit them into a relationship between the two magnitudes. The systematic difference is found from the formula which has been used for 30 years. Because of a large dynamic range and wide frequency range of the current digital observation system, in addition to a larger number of stations and earthquakes being used compared to before, the relation obtained in this paper seems more reliable. Our calculation shows that there is no significant difference before and after magnitude conversion so we suggest the abandonment of magnitude conversion. The site response of a station consists of amplification at different frequencies. The amplification is equal to about 1 and changes little with frequency at stations located on basement rock, and it is greater than 1 at low frequency ranges and less than 1 at high frequency ranges at stations located on sediment layers. The difference between magnitudes from single station located on sediment layer and the average magnitude from the whole network increases from negative to positive with period. It seems that there is no fixed station correction factor and the station correction method does not work to improve the accuracy and magnitude estimates.

  4. Prediction of the seismic behavior of an underground railway station and a tunnel in Napoli (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fabozzi


    Overall, the results of the study demonstrated that the seismic increments of internal forces in the diaphragm walls of the station and in the segmented lining of the tunnel were quite significant. The case study encourages improving the reliability of simplified methods based on the more advanced dynamic approaches.

  5. Vertical dipoles to detect self potential signals in a seismic area of southern Italy: Tito station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Colangelo


    Full Text Available Since 2000 the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (National Council of Research, Tito, Italy installed a geophysical monitoring network able to detect geoelectric, geochemic and seismometric parameters in seismic areas of southern Italy. During this period a very large data-base of geophysical time series has been organized and it is actually available to assess robust statistical methodologies to identify geophysical anomalous patterns linked with local seismicity. To better understand the influence of rain and cultural noise on geoelectrical signals (Self Potential, during May 2004 we drilled in Tito station a 20 m-depth hole to measure the SP vertical component. The array is characterized by five Pb-PbCl2 electrodes put at different depths. The common electrode is fixed at 20 m. In this work we present some electrical anomalies probably correlated with local seismic activity on vertical dipoles recorded in Tito station.  

  6. Optimizing Multi-Station Template Matching to Identify and Characterize Induced Seismicity in Ohio (United States)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Skoumal, R.; Currie, B. S.


    As oil and gas well completions utilizing multi-stage hydraulic fracturing have become more commonplace, the potential for seismicity induced by the deep disposal of frac-related flowback waters and the hydraulic fracturing process itself has become increasingly important. While it is rare for these processes to induce felt seismicity, the recent increase in the number of deep injection wells and volumes injected have been suspected to have contributed to a substantial increase of events = M 3 in the continental U.S. over the past decade. Earthquake template matching using multi-station waveform cross-correlation is an adept tool for investigating potentially induced sequences due to its proficiency at identifying similar/repeating seismic events. We have sought to refine this approach by investigating a variety of seismic sequences and determining the optimal parameters (station combinations, template lengths and offsets, filter frequencies, data access method, etc.) for identifying induced seismicity. When applied to a sequence near a wastewater injection well in Youngstown, Ohio, our optimized template matching routine yielded 566 events while other template matching studies found ~100-200 events. We also identified 77 events on 4-12 March 2014 that are temporally and spatially correlated with active hydraulic fracturing in Poland Township, Ohio. We find similar improvement in characterizing sequences in Washington and Harrison Counties, which appear to be related to wastewater injection and hydraulic fracturing, respectively. In the Youngstown and Poland Township cases, focal mechanisms and double difference relocation using the cross-correlation matrix finds left-lateral faults striking roughly east-west near the top of the basement. We have also used template matching to determine isolated earthquakes near several other wastewater injection wells are unlikely to be induced based on a lack of similar/repeating sequences. Optimized template matching utilizes

  7. Real-time forecast of aftershocks from a single seismic station signal (United States)

    Lippiello, E.; Cirillo, A.; Godano, G.; Papadimitriou, E.; Karakostas, V.


    The evaluation of seismic hazard in the hours following large earthquakes is strongly affected by biases due to difficulties in determining earthquake location. This leads to the huge incompleteness of instrumental catalogs. Here we show that if, on the one hand, the overlap of aftershock coda waves hides many small events, on the other hand, it leads to a well-determined empirical law controlling the decay of the amplitude of the seismic signal at a given site. The fitting parameters of this law can be related to those controlling the temporal decay of the aftershock number, and it is then possible to obtain short-term postseismic occurrence probability from a single recorded seismic signal. We therefore present a novel procedure which, without requiring earthquake location, produces more accurate and almost real-time forecast, in a site of interest, directly from the signal of a seismic station installed at that site.

  8. Observations of Infragravity Waves at the Ocean-Bottom Broadband Seismic Stations Endeavour (KEBB) and Explorer (KXBB) (United States)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; McGill, P.; Wilcock, W.


    The long-period background noise observed at ocean-bottom seismic stations is mainly due to deformation of the seafloor under the pressure forcing by long-period ocean surface gravity waves (infragravity waves; 0.002 to 0.05 Hz). Understanding the nature and characteristics of the coupling between the infragravity waves and the solid earth is important for the study of the infragravity wave generation and dissipation as well as for the study of the earth's hum and structure using non-seismic sources. Ocean-bottom broadband stations KEBB and KXBB were deployed as part of a three-year multidisciplinary experiment funded by the W. M. Keck foundation to monitor the linkages between seismic deformation and hydrothermal fluxes on the northern Juan de Fuca plate. The seismic component of the project was a collaboration between the University of Washington, the University of Oregon, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Station KEBB was installed 247 km west of Vancouver Island (VI) at a water depth of 2376 m in August 2003. A year later station KXBB was installed 105 km offshore VI at a water depth of 2370 m. Each station comprised a Guralp CMG-1T three-component broadband seismometer, sensitive over a wide frequency range from 50 Hz to 2.8 mHz (360 sec), connected to a recording and battery package. Both seismometers were completely buried in the ocean floor sediments. The two stations recorded data continuously and stored them locally until retrieval once per year. Infragravity waves can be observed at KEBB and KXBB on stormy as well as quiet days in the period band from 30 to 400 sec. When compared to the energy of short-period ocean waves recorded at local buoys, the low- frequency seismic noise is found to be mainly generated when the short-period ocean waves reach the coast, and not when the storm passes directly above the stations. Two types of modulation of the infragravity signal are observed. First, a longer-period modulation of the infragravity

  9. Engineering for Autonomous Seismic Stations at the IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Carpenter, P.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Parker, T.; Hebert, J.; Childs, D.; Chung, P.; Reusch, A. M.


    The NSF funded Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) through New Mexico Tech operates the PASSCAL Instrument Center (PIC) in Socorro New Mexico. The engineering effort at the PIC seeks to optimize seismic station operations for all portable experiments, include those in extremely remote and harsh polar environments. Recent advances have resulted in improved station design, allowing improved operational efficiencies, data quality return and reduction in station logistics associated with installation, maintenance and decommissioning of stations. These include: Battery and power system designs. Incorporating primary Lithium Thionyl Chloride (LTC) technology with rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries allows systems to operate in areas with long-term solar autonomy (high latitudes). Development includes charge controller systems to switch between primary and secondary technologies efficiently. Enclosures: Engineered solutions to efficiently manage waste heat, maintain operational environment and provide light-weight and durable housing for seismic instrumentation. Communications: In collaboration with Xeos Technologies Inc., we deliver Iridium-based SOH/Command and Control telemetry as well as full bandwidth seismic data communications in high latitude environments at low power requirements. Smaller-lighter-instrumentation: Through the GEOICE MRI, we are working with Nanometrics on next generation "all-in-one" seismic systems that can be deployed in polar environments - easing logistics, minimizing installation time and improving data quality return for these expensive deployments. All autonomous station designs are openly and freely available at the IRIS PASSCAL webpage ( More information on GEOICE and data quality from various seismometer emplacements will be presented in other posters at this AGU meeting.

  10. Significant technical advances in broadband seismic stations in the Lesser Antilles (United States)

    Anglade, A.; Lemarchand, A.; Saurel, J.-M.; Clouard, V.; Bouin, M.-P.; De Chabalier, J.-B.; Tait, S.; Brunet, C.; Nercessian, A.; Beauducel, F.; Robertson, R.; Lynch, L.; Higgins, M.; Latchman, J.


    In the last few years, French West Indies observatories from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), in collaboration with The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC, University of West Indies), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 15 new, permanent stations have been installed that strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 20 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer. To enhance the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to improve the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120s corner period). Tests were conducted for several months, involving different types of countermeasures, to achieve the highest performance level of the seismometers. GPS data, realtime and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available from the IPGP data centre ( This upgraded network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanic processes in the Lesser Antilles arc.

  11. The seismic station and data of GEOSCOPE%GEOSCOPE地震台站与数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Following the investigation on the seismic network in the United States,Ger-many and other countries with high level quality on the seismic network construction that we should learn,this paper introduces the French global broadband seismic network construc-tion of stations and seismic data.It could give us the experience on the construction of the global seismic network in China,and improve the level of earthquake monitoring.%随着对美国、德国等国家地震台网的调查研究,本文就法国全球宽频带地震台网的台站建设及数据资料进行相关介绍。吸取国外全球台网建设的经验,致力于建设我国全球地震台网,进一步提高地震监测水平。

  12. Characterization of a complex near-surface structure using well logging and passive seismic measurements (United States)

    Benjumea, Beatriz; Macau, Albert; Gabàs, Anna; Figueras, Sara


    We combine geophysical well logging and passive seismic measurements to characterize the near-surface geology of an area located in Hontomin, Burgos (Spain). This area has some near-surface challenges for a geophysical study. The irregular topography is characterized by limestone outcrops and unconsolidated sediments areas. Additionally, the near-surface geology includes an upper layer of pure limestones overlying marly limestones and marls (Upper Cretaceous). These materials lie on top of Low Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments (sandstones, clays, gravels). In any case, a layer with reduced velocity is expected. The geophysical data sets used in this study include sonic and gamma-ray logs at two boreholes and passive seismic measurements: three arrays and 224 seismic stations for applying the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V). Well-logging data define two significant changes in the P-wave-velocity log within the Upper Cretaceous layer and one more at the Upper to Lower Cretaceous contact. This technique has also been used for refining the geological interpretation. The passive seismic measurements provide a map of sediment thickness with a maximum of around 40 m and shear-wave velocity profiles from the array technique. A comparison between seismic velocity coming from well logging and array measurements defines the resolution limits of the passive seismic techniques and helps it to be interpreted. This study shows how these low-cost techniques can provide useful information about near-surface complexity that could be used for designing a geophysical field survey or for seismic processing steps such as statics or imaging.

  13. Retrieving Drill Bit Seismic Signals Using Surface Seismometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linfei Wang; Huaishan Liu; Siyou Tong; Yanxin Yin; Lei Xing; Zhihui Zou; Xiugang Xu


    Seismic while drilling (SWD) is an emerging borehole seismic imaging technique that uses the downhole drill-bit vibrations as seismic source. Without interrupting drilling, SWD technique can make near-real-time images of the rock formations ahead of the bit and optimize drilling operation, with reduction of costs and the risk of drilling. However, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of surface SWD-data is severely low for the surface acquisition of SWD data. Here, we propose a new method to retrieve the drill-bit signal from the surface data recorded by an array of broadband seismometers. Taking advantages of wavefield analysis, different types of noises are identified and removed from the surface SWD-data, resulting in the significant improvement of SNR. We also optimally synthesize seis-mic response of the bit source, using a statistical cross-coherence analysis to further improve the SNR and retrieve both the drill-bit direct arrivals and reflections which are then used to establish a reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) data set for the continuous drilling depth. The subsurface images de-rived from these data compare well with the corresponding images of the three-dimension surface seis-mic survey cross the well.

  14. Engineering challenges of operating year-round portable seismic stations at high-latitude (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce; Carpenter, Paul; Hebert, Jason; Childs, Dean; Anderson, Kent


    Remote portable seismic stations are, in most cases, constrained by logistics and cost. High latitude operations introduce environmental, technical and logistical challenges that require substantially more engineering work to ensure robust, high quality data return. Since 2006, IRIS PASSCAL has been funded by NSF to develop, deploy, and maintain a pool of polar specific seismic stations. Here, we describe our latest advancements to mitigate the challenges of high-latitude, year-round station operation. The IRIS PASSCAL program has supported high-latitude deployments since the late 1980s. These early deployments were largely controlled source, summer only experiments. In early 2000 PASSCAL users began proposing year-round deployments of broadband stations in some of the harshest environments on the planet. These early year-round deployments were stand-alone (no telemetry) stations largely designed to operate during summer months and then run as long as possible during the winter with hopes the stations would revive come following summer. In 2006 and in collaboration with UNAVCO, we began developing communications, power systems, and enclosures to extend recording to year-round. Since this initial effort, PASSCAL continued refinement to power systems, enclosure design and manufacturability, and real-time data communications. Several sensor and data logger manufacturers have made advances in cold weather performance and delivered newly designed instruments that have furthered our ability to successfully run portable stations at high-latitude with minimal logistics - reducing size and weight of instruments and infrastructure. All PASSCAL polar engineering work is openly shared through our website:

  15. Site response and station performance of the newly-upgraded Myanmar National Seismic Network (United States)

    Wolin, E.; Thiam, H. N.; MIN Htwe, Y. M.; Kyaw, T. L.; Tun, P. P.; Min, Z.; Htwe, S. H.; Aung, T. M.; Lin, K. K.; Aung, M. M.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Franke, M.; Hough, S. E.


    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Faults accommodating the oblique motion between India and Southeast Asia pose a hazard to the population of Myanmar, with few Mw>7 events in recent decades, but a number of Mw7-8 events documented in the historical record. A primary concern is the right-lateral Sagaing fault stretching more than 1000 km through the center of Myanmar in proximity to large cities such as Yangon, Mandalay, and the capital Nay Pyi Taw. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January of 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband/strong-motion seismic stations and real-time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station performance and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. With data from the upgraded stations, the MNSN is able to lower the event detection threshold relative to the threshold provided by the global network, improving the ability of the MNSN to report on locally felt events, and improving significantly the monitoring of ground motions within the country. MM stations have recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including a M6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and evaluate the site response of MM

  16. Surface Dynamic Deformation Estimates From Seismicity Near the Itoiz Reservoir, Northern Spain

    CERN Document Server

    Santoyo, Miguel A; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco


    We analyzed the ground motion time histories due to the local seismicity near the Itoiz reservoir, in order to estimate the surface 3D displacement-gradients and dynamic deformations. The seismic data were obtained by a semi-permanent broadband and accelerometric network installed by the University of Almeria during 2008 and 2009. Seismic sensors were located on surface and at underground sites in the vicinity of the dam. The dynamic deformation field was calculated by two different methods. On one hand, by the Seismo-Geodetic method using the data from a three-station micro-array. On the other hand, by Single-Station estimates of displacement gradients, assuming the incidence of body wave fields propagating through the recording site. The dynamic deformations obtained from both methods were compared and analyzed in the context of the local effects near the dam. The shallow 1D velocity structure was estimated from seismic data by modeling the body-wave travel times. After the comparison of the dynamic displac...

  17. Seismic Site Survey for New Regional Seismic Array Station in Morocco (United States)


    Moroccan seismic array followed this process. I Morocco Noise Survey Report Pre-Survey Studies The initial step in selecting candidate sites was to gather...32’W 5ŗU’W rn 4 Figre13 Hghresluio tporapicma o sme re, it crcl a te ppoxiat lcaioof~~~~ th0rooe ary Mooco oseSuve eprt1 5൰’W 5•35’W 5൦’W ,d...cooperative from the main Moroccan power grid, and that the power was reliable. 21 Morocco Noise Survey Report Land Owner. The land is state-owned. i’ý5oIW 5 45

  18. Surface wave tomography of Europe from ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Stehly, Laurent; Paul, Anne


    We present a European scale high-resolution 3-D shear wave velocity model derived from ambient seismic noise tomography. In this study, we collect 4 years of continuous seismic recordings from 1293 stations across much of the European region (10˚W-35˚E, 30˚N-75˚N), which yields more than 0.8 million virtual station pairs. This data set compiles records from 67 seismic networks, both permanent and temporary from the EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive). Rayleigh wave group velocity are measured at each station pair using the multiple-filter analysis technique. Group velocity maps are estimated through a linearized tomographic inversion algorithm at period from 5s to 100s. Adaptive parameterization is used to accommodate heterogeneity in data coverage. We then apply a two-step data-driven inversion method to obtain the shear wave velocity model. The two steps refer to a Monte Carlo inversion to build the starting model, followed by a linearized inversion for further improvement. Finally, Moho depth (and its uncertainty) are determined over most of our study region by identifying and analysing sharp velocity discontinuities (and sharpness). The resulting velocity model shows good agreement with main geological features and previous geophyical studies. Moho depth coincides well with that obtained from active seismic experiments. A focus on the Greater Alpine region (covered by the AlpArray seismic network) displays a clear crustal thinning that follows the arcuate shape of the Alps from the southern French Massif Central to southern Germany.

  19. Near-surface 3D reflections seismic survey; Sanjigen senso hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahigashi, H.; Mitsui, H.; Nakano, O.; Kobayashi, T. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Faults are being actively investigated across Japan since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Discussed in this report is the application of the 3D near-surface reflection seismic survey in big cities. Data from trenching and drilling is used for the geological interpretation of the surroundings of a fault, and the reflection seismic survey is used to identify the position, etc., of the fault. In this article, when the results obtained from the experimental field are examined, it is found that the conventional 2D imaging reflection survey betrays the limit of its capability when the geological structure is complicated, that the 3D reflection seismic survey, on the contrary, is capable of high-precision imaging and, when augmented by drilling, etc., becomes capable of a more detailed interpretation, and that it also contributes effectively to the improvement of local disaster prevention in big cities. Using as the model the Tachikawa fault that runs near JR Tachikawa Station, embodiment of the 3D reflection seismic survey is reviewed. For the acquisition of data excellent in quality in a 3D reflection seismic survey conducted utilizing the roads in the sector chosen for experiment in the urban area, the shock generating points and receiving points should be positioned by taking into account the parameters in the bin arranging process so that the mid-points will be regularly distributed on the surface. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Seasonal changes in H/V spectral ratio at high-latitude seismic stations (United States)

    Lee, R. F.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Pancha, A.


    We present results demonstrating seasonal variations in the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) at high-latitude seismic stations. We analyze data from two sites at Poker Flat Research Range, near Fairbanks, Alaska. From the first site, we analyze 3 stations installed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in a valley with marshy summer conditions. We also analyze the PASSCAL Instrument Center station PIC2, which is installed on rock approximately 3.2 km from the SNL stations. These stations continuously record data at 125 (SNL) and 200 (PIC2) samples per second. Seasonal changes in HVSR at high frequencies (> 20 Hz) appear to be caused by impedance contrasts between frozen and thawed ground. Thawed active layers are known to have slower shear-wave velocities than frozen layers or bedrock. An estimate of active layer thickness at each station is obtained from the quarter-wavelength approximation. We verify the accuracy of this technique by obtaining ground-truth measurements at the sites for both thickness and shear-wave velocity. We use physical probing for the thickness measurements and active-source Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) surveys for the shear-wave velocities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  1. Analysis of the ULF electromagnetic emission related to seismic activity, Teoloyucan geomagnetic station, 1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kotsarenko


    Full Text Available Results of ULF geomagnetic measurements at station Teoloyucan (Central Mexico, 99.11'35.735''W, 19.44'45.100''N, 2280m height in relation to seismic activity in the period 1998-2001 and their analysis are presented. Variations of spectral densities for horizontal and vertical components, polarization densities and spectrograms of magnetic field, their derivatives are analyzed as a part of traditional analysis in this study. Values of spectral density were calculated for 6 fixed frequencies f=1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300mHz. Fractal characteristics of spectra were analyzed in the conception of SOC (Self-Organized Criticality. 2 nighttime intervals, 0-3 and 3-6h by local time have been used to decrease the noise interference in row data. In order to exclude the intervals with a high geomagnetic activity from analysis we referred to Ap indices, calculated for corresponding time intervals. The contribution of seismic events to geomagnetic emission was estimated by seismic index ks=100.75Ms/10D, where Ms is the amplitude of the earthquake and D is the distance from its epicenter to the station.

  2. Weather-related Ground Motions Recorded by Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network Stations (United States)

    Yang, C. F.; Chi, W. C.; Lai, Y. J.


    Broadband seismometers record ground motions, which can be induced by weather-related processes. Analyzing such signals might help to better understand those natural processes. Here, we used continuous seismic data, meteorological data and stream data to analyze the weather-related ground motions during typhoon cases and rainy season case in Taiwan. We detected some long period seismic signals at the station Mahsi (MASB) during three meteorological cases (Typhoon Kalmaegi in 2008, Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and the East Asian rainy season in 2012). The amplitude of the seismic waveform correlated with the amount of the precipitation and the derivative of water level and discharge in the nearby river. According to the relationships of waveforms in main and minor rainfall events, we derived apparent source time functions (ASTFs) and used the ASTFs to estimate and quantify the precipitation of main rainfall events in the cases. The estimated precipitation has high correlation coefficients (> 0.82) with the observation. It shows that the long period seismic data may be applied to rainfall monitoring.

  3. Micro-earthquakes"Justunderneath"Seismic Stations as Ground Truth Events1 Application to the 2008 Wenchuan Aftershock Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chun; Wu Zhongliang; Jiang Changsheng


    Analyzing the aftershock sequence of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake,we considered 26 microearthquakes"just underneath"seismic stations.Making use of such special station-event configurations to determine the depth of these micro-earthquakes provided accurate relocation of aftershocks with a reference set of"ground truth (GT) events".

  4. Exploiting Lateral Resolution of Near-Surface Seismic Refraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derecke Palmer


    The 1D τ-p inversion algorithm is widely employed to generate starting models with most computer programs that implement refraction tomography. However, this algorithm emphasizes the vertical resolution of many layers, and as a result, it frequently fails to detect even large lateral variations in seismic velocities, such as the decreases that are indicative of shear zones. This study presents a case that demonstrates the failure of the 1D τ-p inversion algorithm to define or even detect a major shear zone that is 50 m or ten stations wide. Furthermore, the majority of refraction tomography programs parameterize the seismic velocities within each layer with vertical velocity gradients. By contrast, the 2D generalized reciprocal method (GRM) inversion algorithms emphasize the lateral resolution of individual layers. This study demonstrates the successful detection and definition of the 50-m wide shear zone with the GRM inversion algorithms. The existence of the shear zone is corroborated by a 2D analysis of the head wave amplitudes and by numerous closely spaced orthogonal seismic profiles carried out as part of a later 3D refraction investigation. Furthermore, a 1D analysis of the head wave amplitudes indicates that a reversal in the seismic velocities, rather than vertical velocity gradients, occurs in the weathered layers. While all seismic refraction operations should aim to provide as accurate depth estimates as is practical, the major conclusion reached in this study is that refraction Inversion algorithms that emphasize the lateral resolution of individual layers generate more useful results for geotechnical and environmental applications. The advantages of the Improved lateral resolution are obtained with 2D profiles in which the structural features can be recognized from the magnitudes of the variations in the seismic velocities. Furthermore, the spatial patterns obtained with 3D investigations facilitate the recognition of structural features that do not

  5. Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves (United States)

    Palermo, Antonio; Krödel, Sebastian; Marzani, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara


    Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface. Each resonant structure consists of a cylindrical mass suspended by elastomeric springs within a concrete case and can be tuned to the resonance frequency of interest. The design allows controlling seismic waves with wavelengths from 10-to-100 m with meter-sized resonant structures. We develop an analytical model based on effective medium theory able to capture the mode conversion mechanism. The model is used to guide the design of metabarriers for varying soil conditions and validated using finite-element simulations. We investigate the shielding performance of a metabarrier in a scaled experimental model and demonstrate that surface ground motion can be reduced up to 50% in frequency regions below 10 Hz, relevant for the protection of buildings and civil infrastructures.

  6. Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves. (United States)

    Palermo, Antonio; Krödel, Sebastian; Marzani, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara


    Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface. Each resonant structure consists of a cylindrical mass suspended by elastomeric springs within a concrete case and can be tuned to the resonance frequency of interest. The design allows controlling seismic waves with wavelengths from 10-to-100 m with meter-sized resonant structures. We develop an analytical model based on effective medium theory able to capture the mode conversion mechanism. The model is used to guide the design of metabarriers for varying soil conditions and validated using finite-element simulations. We investigate the shielding performance of a metabarrier in a scaled experimental model and demonstrate that surface ground motion can be reduced up to 50% in frequency regions below 10 Hz, relevant for the protection of buildings and civil infrastructures.

  7. Improving the Accuracy of Automatic Detections at Seismic Stations via Machine Learning (United States)

    Riggelsen, Carsten; Ohrnberger, Matthias


    We present a Machine Learning approach aiming for improving the accuracy of automatic detections of noise and signal at 3-component seismic stations. Using supervised learning in conjunction with the multivariate framework of Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) we make use of historical data obtained from the LEB bulletin to train a classifier to capture the intrinsic characteristics of signal and noise patterns appearing in seismic data streams. On a per station basis this yields generative statistical models that essentially summarize and generalize the information implicitly contained in the LEB allowing for classifying future an previously unseen seismic data of the same kind. Also, the system provides a numerical value reflecting the classification confidence potentially aiding the analyst is correcting or identifying events that are non-typical. The system has the potential for being implemented in real time: both feature computation/extraction as well as classification work on data segments/windows and seismic patterns of varying length, e.g., 12 sec. Various features are considered including spectral features, polarization information and statistical moments and moment ratios. All features are derived from a time-frequency-(amplitude) decomposition of the raw waveform data for each component, taking the 6 frequency bands currently in use at IDC into account. These different feature sets give rise to different DBN structures (model-feature scenarios) that probabilistically relate the features to each other depending on empirical observations and physical knowledge available. 1 week of waveform data is considered for training both the signal and noise classes. The performance of the classifier is measured on a separate test set from the same week of data but also on a 1-month data set, where 4 weeks of data is distributed over a one year period. In the system evaluation both a static approach as well as a sliding-window approach is taken. Binary classification

  8. A deployment of broadband seismic stations in two deep gold mines, South Africa (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.; Boettcher, Margaret S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Durrheim, R.; Spottiswoode, S.; Milev, A.


    In-mine seismic networks throughout the TauTona and Mponeng gold mines provide precise locations and seismic source parameters of earthquakes. They also support small-scale experimental projects, including NELSAM (Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines), which is intended to record, at close hand, seismic rupture of a geologic fault that traverses the project region near the deepest part of TauTona. To resolve some questions regarding the in-mine and NELSAM networks, we deployed four portable broadband seismic stations at deep sites within TauTona and Mponeng for one week during September 2007 and recorded ground acceleration. Moderately large earthquakes within our temporary network were recorded with sufficiently high signal-to-noise that we were able to integrate the acceleration to ground velocity and displacement, from which moment tensors could be determined. We resolved the questions concerning the NELSAM and in-mine networks by using these moment tensors to calculate synthetic seismograms at various network recording sites for comparison with the ground motion recorded at the same locations. We also used the peak velocity of the S wave pulse, corrected for attenuation with distance, to estimate the maximum slip within the rupture zone of an earthquake. We then combined the maximum slip and seismic moment with results from laboratory friction experiments to estimate maximum slip rates within the same high-slip patches of the rupture zone. For the four largest earthquakes recorded within our network, all with magnitudes near 2, these inferred maximum slips range from 4 to 27 mm and the corresponding maximum slip rates range from 1 to 6 m/s. These results, in conjunction with information from previous ground motion studies, indicate that underground support should be capable of withstanding peak ground velocities of at least 5 m/s.

  9. A new passive seismic method based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Xu, Zongbo; Pan, Yudi


    We proposed a new passive seismic method (PSM) based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz). We utilize seismic interferometry to sort common virtual source gathers (CVSGs) from ambient noise and analyze obtained CVSGs to construct 2D shear-wave velocity (Vs) map using the MASW. Standard ambient noise processing procedures were applied to the computation of cross-correlations. To enhance signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the empirical Green's functions, a new weighted stacking method was implemented. In addition, we proposed a bidirectional shot mode based on the virtual source method to sort CVSGs repeatedly. The PSM was applied to two field data examples. For the test along Han River levee, the results of PSM were compared with the improved roadside passive MASW and spatial autocorrelation method (SPAC). For test in the Western Junggar Basin, PSM was applied to a 70 km long linear survey array with a prominent directional urban noise source and a 60 km-long Vs profile with 1.5 km in depth was mapped. Further, a comparison about the dispersion measurements was made between PSM and frequency-time analysis (FTAN) technique to assess the accuracy of PSM. These examples and comparisons demonstrated that this new method is efficient, flexible, and capable to study near-surface velocity structures based on seismic ambient noise.

  10. Estimation of background noise level on seismic station using statistical analysis for improved analysis accuracy (United States)

    Han, S. M.; Hahm, I.


    We evaluated the background noise level of seismic stations in order to collect the observation data of high quality and produce accurate seismic information. Determining of the background noise level was used PSD (Power Spectral Density) method by McNamara and Buland (2004) in this study. This method that used long-term data is influenced by not only innate electronic noise of sensor and a pulse wave resulting from stabilizing but also missing data and controlled by the specified frequency which is affected by the irregular signals without site characteristics. It is hard and inefficient to implement process that filters out the abnormal signal within the automated system. To solve these problems, we devised a method for extracting the data which normally distributed with 90 to 99% confidence intervals at each period. The availability of the method was verified using 62-seismic stations with broadband and short-period sensors operated by the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). Evaluation standards were NHNM (New High Noise Model) and NLNM (New Low Noise Model) published by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). It was designed based on the western United States. However, Korean Peninsula surrounded by the ocean on three sides has a complicated geological structure and a high population density. So, we re-designed an appropriate model in Korean peninsula by statistically combined result. The important feature is that secondary-microseism peak appeared at a higher frequency band. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Research for the Meteorological and Earthquake Observation Technology and Its Application" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  11. Systematic Site Characterization at Seismic Stations combined with Empirical Spectral Modeling: critical data for local hazard analysis (United States)

    Michel, Clotaire; Hobiger, Manuel; Edwards, Benjamin; Poggi, Valerio; Burjanek, Jan; Cauzzi, Carlo; Kästli, Philipp; Fäh, Donat


    The Swiss Seismological Service operates one of the densest national seismic networks in the world, still rapidly expanding (see Since 2009, every newly instrumented site is characterized following an established procedure to derive realistic 1D VS velocity profiles. In addition, empirical Fourier spectral modeling is performed on the whole network for each recorded event with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Besides the source characteristics of the earthquakes, statistical real time analyses of the residuals of the spectral modeling provide a seamlessly updated amplification function w.r. to Swiss rock conditions at every station. Our site characterization procedure is mainly based on the analysis of surface waves from passive experiments and includes cross-checks of the derived amplification functions with those obtained through spectral modeling. The systematic use of three component surface-wave analysis, allowing the derivation of both Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves, also contributes to the improved quality of the retrieved profiles. The results of site characterisation activities at recently installed strong-motion stations depict the large variety of possible effects of surface geology on ground motion in the Alpine context. Such effects range from de-amplification at hard-rock sites to amplification up to a factor of 15 in lacustrine sediments with respect to the Swiss reference rock velocity model. The derived velocity profiles are shown to reproduce observed amplification functions from empirical spectral modeling. Although many sites are found to exhibit 1D behavior, our procedure allows the detection and qualification of 2D and 3D effects. All data collected during the site characterization procedures in the last 20 years are gathered in a database, implementing a data model proposed for community use at the European scale through NERA and EPOS ( A web stationbook derived from it


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ruzhich


    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out using TRIBO, a specially designed testing stand including a concrete plate that can be moved at different rates. In our experiment, the plate served as an artificial allochtonous wing placed at the uneven surface of the segment of the Angarsky fault in Pribaikalie. Tribological effects of contact interaction of the uneven surfaces in the zone of sliding movements of the plate were recorded by strain gauges, linear displacement gauges and four Baikal-7HR seismic stations; such stations are commonly used for earthquake recording. The effect of shocks in initiation of seismic oscillation sources was studied with changes of the regimes of destruction of the uneven surfaces (underneath the base of the plate which differ in size and strength. The study was focused on stages in the process of friction at preparation to transition from quasi-regular decelerated sliding movement of the plate to its breakaway and occurrence of a high-energy seismic impulse.The applied method of large-scale modelling at natural objects in field provides new data that may prove useful for stu­dies of mechanisms causing seismicity, identification of stages in occurrence of earthquakes in fault zones and interpretation of seismic monitoring data. Results of such physical tests can contribute to the development of methods aimed at forecasting of rock shocks and earthquakes and also for the development of new physical models showing formation of earthquake foci of various scales in tectonic faults.

  13. Basin-scale Green's functions from the ambient seismic field recorded by MeSO-net stations (United States)

    Viens, Loïc.; Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki


    Seismic waves propagating through the Earth can be significantly affected by velocity structures such as sedimentary basins. We investigate the propagation characteristics of seismic waves across the Kanto basin, Japan, using Green's functions extracted from the ambient seismic field. We use two stations situated on the eastern and southern edges of the basin as virtual sources, and approximately 420 stations, which are mainly a part of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), as receivers. Using seismometers aligned along two straight lines with the virtual sources, we find that several types of waves can be recovered, each with different sensitivities to the layers that compose the basin. We also show that after amplitude calibration, the extracted Green's functions can accurately simulate the seismic waves of two moderate Mw 4-5 shallow earthquakes that occurred close to the virtual sources. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of the 5% damped pseudovelocity response at a period of 6 s computed from the records of each event and the Green's function waveforms have similar amplification patterns. This study supports the fact that dense networks recording continuously the ambient seismic field in metropolitan areas can be used to accurately assess seismic hazard at high spatial resolution.

  14. Seismic Tomography of the Near Solar Surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. Gizon; T. L. Duvall Jr; R. M. Larsen


    Surface gravity waves have been used to probe flows in the two megameters beneath the photosphere using the techniques of time-distance helioseismology. The results suggest that supergranule velocities are smaller than at the surface. The outward flow outside a sunspot penumbra (the moat) is observed, as is an inward flow in the region beyond the moat.

  15. Surface science station of the infrared beamline at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, M; Kimura, H; Nishida, S; Nanba, T


    An experimental station for surface science has been constructed at the infrared beamline (BL43IR) of SPring-8, Japan. The station utilizes synchrotron radiation in the energy range of 100-20000 cm sup - sup 1 to perform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of surfaces. It consists of an experimental section, a preparation chamber, gas handling equipment and a pair of focusing optics. In situ observation of vibrational spectra is possible using both IRAS and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

  16. Chances and limits of single-station seismic event clustering by unsupervised pattern recognition (United States)

    Sick, Benjamin; Guggenmos, Matthias; Joswig, Manfred


    Automatic classification of local seismic events which are only recorded at single stations poses great challenges because of weak hypocentre constraints. This study investigates how single-station event clusters relate to geographic hypocentre regions and common source processes. Typical applications arise in local seismic networks where reliable ground truth by a dense temporal network precedes or follows a sparse (permanent) installation. The seismic signals for this study comprise a 3-month subset from a field campaign to map subduction below northern Chile (PISCO '94). Due to favourable ground noise conditions in the Atacama desert, the data set contains an abundance of shallow and deeper earthquakes, and many quarry explosions. Often event signatures overlap, posing a challenge to any signal processing scheme. Pattern recognition must work on reduced seismograms to restrict parameter dimensionality. Continuous parameter extraction based on noise-adapted spectrograms was chosen instead of discrete representation by, for example, amplitudes, onset times or spectral ratios to ensure consideration of potentially hidden features. Visualization of the derived feature vectors for human inspection and template matching algorithms was hereby possible. Because event classes shall comprise earthquake regions regardless of magnitude, clustering based on amplitudes is prevented by proper normalization of feature vectors. Principal component analysis is applied to further reduce the number of features used to train a self-organizing map (SOM). The SOM will topologically arrange prototypes of each event class in a 2-D map. Overcoming the restrictions of this black-box approach, the arranged prototypes could be transformed back to spectrograms to allow for visualization and interpretation of event classes. The final step relates prototypes to ground-truth information, confirming the potential of automated, coarse-grain hypocentre clustering based on single-station

  17. Analysis of the displacement of geodetic stations during the Emilia seismic sequence of May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Caporali


    Full Text Available The two events of Mw 6.11 and 5.96 [EMERGEO Working Group 2012, this volume] that took place on May 20 and 29, 2012, respectively, in the Po Plain, and the associated seismic sequence, represent the response of the brittle upper crust (hypocentral depth ca. 10 km to the compressive stress in the outer Apennine Arc. Kinematically, the motion of the Apennines that has led to a compressional regime in the Po Plain can be represented as a counterclockwise rotation, as demonstrated by the shortening of the transalpine baselines, with a rate that decreases going west [Caporali and Martin 2000]. The compressive stress field is known from borehole breakout data [Pierdominici and Heidbach 2012] and it agrees with the principal directions of the strain rate derived from global positioning system (GPS data. The geodetic strain rate for seismic zone 912 (Dorsale Ferrarese, according to Meletti et al. [2008] is 92.86 ±0.04 nstrain/yr, which is a relatively high value [Caporali et al. 2011]. On a more local scale, the Mirandola fault is described in the Database of Individual Seismic Sources (DISS; under the ID ITIS107 as a possible individual source, and it has a position, strike, dip, size and expected maximum magnitude [Burrato et al. 2003, Carminati et al. 2010, Scrocca et al. 2007] that are very close to the main events of the 2012 sequence. Several permanent GPS stations were in activity in the area. Using ultrarapid international Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS Service (IGS orbits and the Bernese BSW 5.0 software [Dach et al. 2007] at our computing facility, a fast solution for the coseismic displacement was published on the May 21, 2012, and on the May 30, 2012, for the events of May 20 and 29, 2012, respectively. The largest signal was about 2 cm in the North direction at the station SGIP (San Giovanni in Persiceto, which was relatively consistent with the fault-plane solution [Devoti 2012, this volume]. In this

  18. Analysis of the Seismicity Associated to the Subduction of the Rivera Plate using OBS and Onland Stations. (United States)

    Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Danobeitia, J.; Bandy, W. L.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Marquez-Ramirez, V. H.; Ambros, M.; Gomez, A.; Sandoval, J. M.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.


    The second stage of TsuJal Project includes the study of passive seismic activity in the region of the plate Rivera and Jalisco block by anchoring OBS and densifying the network of seismic stations on land for at least four months. This stage began in April 2016 with the deployment of 25 Obsidian stations with sensor Le-3D MkIII from the northern part of Nayarit state to the south of Colima state, including the Marias Islands. This temporal seismic network complements the Jalisco Seismic Network (RESAJ) for a total of 50 stations. Offshore, ten OBS type LCHEAPO 2000 with 4 channel (3 seismic short period and 1 pressure) were deployed, in the period from 19 to 30 April 2016 using the BO El Puma from UNAM. The OBS were deployed in an array from the Marias Islands to offcoast of the border of Colima and Michoacan states. On May 4, an earthquake with Ml = 4.2 took place in the contact area of the Rivera Plate, Cocos Plate and the Middle America Trench, subsequently occurred a seismic swarm with over 200 earthquakes until May 16, including an earthquake with Ml = 5.0 on May 7. A second swarm took place between May 28 and Jun 4 including an earthquake with Ml = 4.8 on Jun 1. An analysis of the quality of different location methods is presented: automatic preliminary RESAJ location using Antelope; location with revised RESAJ phases in Antelope; relocation of RESAJ data with hypo and a regional velocity model; relocation of RESAJ data with hypo adding data from the temporal seismic network stations; and finally the relocation adding the data from the OBS network. Moreover, the tectonic implications of these earthquakes are discussed.

  19. Seismic reflection exploration of geothermal reservoir at Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada (United States)

    Alay G., Gebregiorgis

    The Primary objective of this study is to increase geologic and tectonic understanding of the geothermal resources at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada. The seismic reflection method is employed to study faults, fractures and other tectonic structures in the subsurface in order to identify geothermal drill targets. The efficiency of geothermal systems is strongly dependent on water circulation. Discrete faults may be permeable and provide pathways for water flow depending on the fracture density. It is therefore desirable to detect and map faults and fracture zones and characterize their physical properties when evaluating a geothermal prospect. The seismic data for this project were provided by the NAS environmental research program in Ridgecrest, CA. However, the data collection information was not available so the work includes determining the line geometry and mapping shot points to field files in order to process the data. ProMAX 2D(TM) is the software used to determine the geometry and to process the data. Data processing includes eliminating noise, datum and refraction statics, trace muting, bandpass filter, automatic gain control, amplitude recovery, CMP sorting, velocity analysis and NMO correction, stacking and migration. The results of this study indicate the presence of thick basin fill including Tertiary and Quaternary sediments underlain by Tertiary basalts which are interpreted to be capping rocks for the geothermal reservoirs. This seismic reflection study also reveals the presence of strongly fractured pre-Tertiary basement complex with their top at about 1500m on the north and west and about 900 m on the eastern and southern part of the study area.

  20. Geologic interpretations of seismic data Route 128 (Northern Circumferential Highway) cut, and Hopkins Street grade separation stations 1-18 in Wakefield, Mass. (United States)

    May, James E.; Lineham, Rev. Daniel


    The completion of a segment of the Northern Circumferential Highway, Route 126, in Wakefield, Mass., requires an underpass bridge at Hopkins Street, Station 5+50. The plan of the project shows approximately 1800 feet if approach cuts between stations 1 and 18. In October 1945 a preliminary seismic study was made of a segment of this cut between stations 6+50 and 13+30. Four profiles were made at this time and a report was submitted by Newton E. Chute and Rev. Daniel Linhan (file report of January 15). This work showed a relatively shallow (in general, 6 to 12 feet in depth) somewhat irregular bedrock surface between stations 6+50 and 13+50. That data indicated that much of this segment of the cut will be in bedrock. In order to obtain more complete data for the preparation of detailed estimates on the amount of bedrock to be excavated for this segment of the cut, and also to obtain sufficient data for the unexplored segment of the cut, 21 additional seismic traverses were made in September 1949. The present report contains only the results obtained from this later work. The work was performed as a part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the United States Geological Survey.

  1. Scattering of high-frequency seismic waves caused by irregular surface topography and small-scale velocity inhomogeneity (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Furumura, Takashi; Maeda, Takuto


    Based on 3-D finite difference method simulations of seismic wave propagation, we examined the processes by which the complex, scattered high-frequency (f > 1 Hz) seismic wavefield during crustal earthquakes is developed due to heterogeneous structure, which includes small-scale velocity inhomogeneity in subsurface structure and irregular surface topography on the surface, and compared with observations from dense seismic networks in southwestern Japan. The simulations showed the process by which seismic wave scattering in the heterogeneous structure develops long-duration coda waves and distorts the P-wave polarization and apparent S-wave radiation pattern. The simulations revealed that scattering due to irregular topography is significant only near the station and thus the topographic scattering effects do not accumulate as seismic waves propagate over long distances. On the other hand, scattering due to velocity inhomogeneity in the subsurface structure distorts the seismic wavefield gradually as seismic waves propagate. The composite model, including both irregular topography and velocity inhomogeneity, showed the combined effects. Furthermore, by introducing irregular topography, the effects of seismic wave scattering on both body and coda waves were stronger than in the model with velocity inhomogeneity alone. Therefore, to model the high-frequency seismic wavefield, both topography and velocity inhomogeneity in the subsurface structure should be taken into account in the simulation model. By comparing observations with the simulations including topography, we determined that the most preferable small-scale velocity heterogeneity model for southwestern Japan is characterized by the von Kármán power spectral density function with correlation distance a = 5 km, rms value of fluctuation ɛ = 0.07 and decay order κ = 0.5. We also demonstrated that the relative contribution of scattering due to the topography of southwestern Japan is approximately 12 per cent.

  2. Seismic structural fragility investigation for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (Project I); SONGS-1 AFWS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, D.A.; Hashimoto, P.S.


    An evaluation of the seismic capacities of several of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (SONGS-1) structures was conducted to determine input to the overall probabilistic methodology developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Seismic structural fragilities to be used as input consist of median seismic capacities and their variabilities due to randomness and uncertainty. Potential failure modes were identified for each of the SONGS-1 structures included in this study by establishing the seismic load-paths and comparing expected load distributions to available capacities for the elements of each load-path. Particular attention was given to possible weak links and details. The more likely failure modes were screened for more detailed investigation.

  3. Surface and snowdrift sublimation at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiery, W.; Gorodetskaya, I.V.; Bintanja, R.; van Lipzig, N.P.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Reijmer, C.H.; Kuipers Munneke, P.


    In the near-coastal regions of Antarctica, a significant fraction of the snow precipitating onto the surface is removed again through sublimation – either directly from the surface or from drifting snow particles. Meteorological observations from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) near the Belgian r

  4. Study of the TEC data obtained from the DORIS stations in relation to seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot


    Full Text Available Ionospheric data obtained from the DORIS system are used in this paper. The DORIS system is composed of several ground-based beacons which emit at two frequencies (400 MHz and 2 GHz and of receivers on board several satellites (currently SPOT2, SPOT4, SPOT5, Topex-Poseidon, Jason1 and Envisat. Thanks to the density of its network coverage (?50 stations, DORIS provides information on the ionosphere. The TEC (Total Electron Content parameter which is the electron density integrated over the vertical could be obtained from DORIS measurements. In a first step, the paper describes the way to obtain the TEC data from the DORIS ionospheric measurements, and comparisons of the results are done with the IRI2001 model. In a second step, TEC values are used to search for correlation between ionospheric perturbations and seismic activity. Earthquakes of magnitude larger than 5 are chosen close to the ground-based DORIS stations. Among other results, the statistics show that, during the night time and at geomagnetic latitude close to the equator (<10°, TEC amplitude fluctuates at the time of the earthquakes as it is expected, but also 2 days and 5 days before.

  5. Milliwatt radioisotope power supply for the PASCAL Mars surface stations (United States)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Murbach, Marcus S.


    A milliwatt power supply is being developed based on the 1 watt Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU), which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft. In the past year the power supply has been integrated into the design of the proposed PASCAL Mars Network Mission, which is intended to place 24 surface climate monitoring stations on Mars. The PASCAL Mars mission calls for the individual surface stations to be transported together in one spacecraft on a trajectory direct from launch to orbit around Mars. From orbit around Mars each surface station will be deployed on a SCRAMP (slotted compression ramp) probe and, after aerodynamic and parachute deceleration, land at a preselected location on the planet. During descent sounding data and still images will be accumulated, and, once on the surface, the station will take measurements of pressure, temperature and overhead atmospheric optical depth for a period of 10 Mars years (18.8 Earth years). Power for periodic data acquisition and transmission to orbital then to Earth relay will come from a bank of ultracapacitors which will be continuously recharged by the radioisotope power supply. This electronic system has been designed and a breadboard built. In the ultimate design the electronics will be arrayed on the exterior surface of the radioisotope power supply in order to take advantage of the reject heat. This assembly in turn is packaged within the SCRAMP, and that assembly comprises the surface station. An electrically heated but otherwise prototypical power supply was operated in combination with the surface station breadboard system, which included the ultracapacitors. Other issues addressed in this work have been the capability of the generator to withstand the mechanical shock of the landing on Mars and the effectiveness of the generator's multi-foil vacuum thermal insulation. .

  6. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France) (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien


    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  7. Joint Geophysical Imaging of the Utah Area Using Seismic Body Waves, Surface Waves and Gravity Data (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Maceira, M.; Toksoz, M. N.; Burlacu, R.; Yang, Y.


    We present a joint geophysical imaging method that makes use of seismic body wave arrival times, surface wave dispersion measurements, and gravity data to determine three-dimensional (3D) Vp and Vs models. An empirical relationship mapping densities to Vp and Vs for earth materials is used to link them together. The joint inversion method takes advantage of strengths of individual data sets and is able to better constrain the velocity models from shallower to greater depths. Combining three different data sets to jointly invert for the velocity structure is equivalent to a multiple-objective optimization problem. Because it is unlikely that the different “objectives” (data types) would be optimized by the same parameter choices, some trade-off between the objectives is needed. The optimum weighting scheme for different data types is based on relative uncertainties of individual observations and their sensitivities to model parameters. We will apply this joint inversion method to determine 3D Vp and Vs models of the Utah area. The seismic body wave arrival times are assembled from waveform data recorded by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional network for the past 7 years. The surface wave dispersion measurements are obtained from the ambient noise tomography study by the University of Colorado group using EarthScope/USArray stations. The gravity data for the Utah area is extracted from the North American Gravity Database managed by the University of Texas at El Paso. The preliminary study using the seismic body wave arrival times indicates strong low velocity anomalies in middle crust beneath some known geothermal sites in Utah. The joint inversion is expected to produce a reasonably well-constrained velocity structure of the Utah area, which is helpful for characterizing and exploring existing and potential geothermal reservoirs.

  8. Surface and snowdrift sublimation at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Thiery


    Full Text Available In the near-coastal regions of Antarctica, a significant fraction of the snow precipitating onto the surface is removed again through sublimation – either directly from the surface or from drifting snow particles. Meteorological observations from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS near the Belgian research station Princess Elisabeth in Dronning Maud Land, East-Antarctica, are used to study surface and snowdrift sublimation and to assess their impacts on both the surface mass balance and the surface energy balance. Comparison to three other AWSs in Dronning Maud Land shows that sublimation has a significant influence on the surface mass balance at katabatic locations by removing 10–23 % of their total precipitation, but at the same time reveals anomalously low surface and snowdrift sublimation rates at Princess Elisabeth (18 mm w.e. yr–1 compared to 42 mm w.e. yr–1 at Svea Cross and 52 mm w.e. yr–1 at Wasa/Aboa. This anomaly is attributed to local topography, which shields the station from strong katabatic influence, and therefore on the one hand allows for a strong surface inversion to persist throughout most of the year and on the other hand causes a lower probability of occurrence of intermediately strong winds. These wind speed classes turn out to contribute most to the total snowdrift sublimation mass flux, given their ability to lift a high number of particles while still allowing for considerable undersaturation.

  9. Induced surface deformation and seismicity during 2011-2012 at the Húsmúli reinjection site, Iceland (United States)

    Juncu, Daniel; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Geirsson, Halldór; Guðmundsson, Gunnar; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Hooper, Andy; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Michalczewska, Karolina


    While induced seismicity related to fluid injection is a common occurrence, deformation due to injection is rarely observed. At the Hellisheidi power plant in SW Iceland we detect both induced seismicity and deformation during the initial phase of geothermal wastewater reinjection. The largest seismic events in the sequence were two earthquakes of M3.8 and M4.0 on 15 October 2011, after reinjection was started in September 2011 with a flow rate of around 550 l/s. After the intense induced seismicity started, a few GNSS sites in the area were operated semi-continuously, as there was no continuous station nearby. The GNSS data reveal a transient signal which indicates that most of the deformation occured in the first months after the injection started. Surface deformation is also evident in SAR interferograms in the time interval of June 2011 to May 2012. We use an inverse modeling approach and simulate the geodetic data (InSAR and GNSS) to find the most plausible source for the deformation signal. We test whether the deformation was caused by co-seismic motion on N-S right-lateral strike slip faults due to the largest events in October 2011. We also examine other source models that may explain the deformation. Finally, we estimate Coulomb stress changes in the area to test what processes could have activated slip on pre-existing faults to examine the causal relationship between the deformation and the induced seismicity.

  10. A new dataset of Wood Anderson magnitude from the Trieste (Italy) seismic station (United States)

    Sandron, Denis; Gentile, G. Francesco; Gentili, Stefania; Rebez, Alessandro; Santulin, Marco; Slejko, Dario


    The standard torsion Wood Anderson (WA) seismograph owes its fame to the fact that historically it has been used for the definition of the magnitude of an earthquake (Richter, 1935). With the progress of the technology, digital broadband (BB) seismographs replaced it. However, for historical consistency and homogeneity with the old seismic catalogues, it is still important continuing to compute the so called Wood Anderson magnitude. In order to evaluate WA magnitude, the synthetic seismograms WA equivalent are simulated convolving the waveforms recorded by a BB instrument with a suitable transfer function. The value of static magnification that should be applied in order to simulate correctly the WA instrument is debated. The original WA instrument in Trieste operated from 1971 to 1992 and the WA magnitude (MAW) estimates were regularly reported in the seismic station bulletins. The calculation of the local magnitude was performed following the Richter's formula (Richter, 1935), using the table of corrections factor unmodified from those calibrated for California and without station correction applied (Finetti, 1972). However, the WA amplitudes were computed as vector sum rather than arithmetic average of the horizontal components, resulting in a systematic overestimation of approximately 0.25, depending on the azimuth. In this work, we have retrieved the E-W and N-S components of the original recordings and re-computed MAW according to the original Richter (1935) formula. In 1992, the WA recording were stopped, due to the long time required for the daily development of the photographic paper, the costs of the photographic paper and the progress of the technology. After a decade of interruption, the WA was recovered and modernized by replacing the recording on photographic paper with an electronic device and it continues presently to record earthquakes. The E-W and N-S components records were memorized, but not published till now. Since 2004, next to the WA (few

  11. Variable-period surface-wave magnitudes: A rapid and robust estimator of seismic moments (United States)

    Bonner, J.; Herrmann, R.; Benz, H.


    We demonstrate that surface-wave magnitudes (Ms), measured at local, regional, and teleseismic distances, can be used as a rapid and robust estimator of seismic moment magnitude (Mw). We used the Russell (2006) variable-period surface-wave magnitude formula, henceforth called Ms(VMAX), to estimate the Ms for 165 North American events with 3.2 scatter of the Mw[Ms(VMAX)] with respect to Mw[Waveform Modeling] was approximately ??0.2 magnitude units (m.u). The residuals between Mw [Ms(VMAX)] and Mw [Waveform Modeling] show a significant focal mechanism effect, especially when strike-slip events are compared with other mechanisms. Validation testing of this method suggests that Ms(VMAX)-predicted Mw's can be estimated within minutes after the origin of an event and are typically within ??0.2 m.u. of the final Mw[Waveform Modeling]. While Mw estimated from Ms(VMAX) has a slightly higher variance than waveform modeling results, it can be measured on the first short-period surface-wave observed at a local or near-regional distance seismic station after a preliminary epicentral location has been formed. Therefore, it may be used to make rapid measurements of Mw, which are needed by government agencies for early warning systems.

  12. Spectrum analysis of seismic surface waves and its applications in seismic landmine detection. (United States)

    Alam, Mubashir; McClellan, James H; Scott, Waymond R


    In geophysics, spectrum analysis of surface waves (SASW) refers to a noninvasive method for soil characterization. However, the term spectrum analysis can be used in a wider sense to mean a method for determining and identifying various modes of seismic surface waves and their properties such as velocity, polarization, etc. Surface waves travel along the free boundary of a medium and can be easily detected with a transducer placed on the free surface of the boundary. A new method based on vector processing of space-time data obtained from an array of triaxial sensors is proposed to produce high-resolution, multimodal spectra from surface waves. Then individual modes can be identified in the spectrum and reconstructed in the space-time domain; also, reflected waves can be separated easily from forward waves in the spectrum domain. This new SASW method can be used for detecting and locating landmines by analyzing the reflected waves for resonance. Processing examples are presented for numerically generated data, experimental data collected in a laboratory setting, and field data.

  13. Surface and snowdrift sublimation at Princess Elisabeth station, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Thiery


    Full Text Available In the near-coastal regions of Antarctica, a significant fraction of the snow precipitating onto the surface is removed again through sublimation – either directly from the surface or from drifting snow particles. Meteorological observations from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS near the Belgian research station Princess Elisabeth in Dronning Maud Land, East-Antarctica, are used to study surface and snowdrift sublimation and to assess their impacts on both the surface mass balance and the surface energy balance during 2009 and 2010. Comparison to three other AWSs in Dronning Maud Land with 11 to 13 yr of observations shows that sublimation has a significant influence on the surface mass balance at katabatic locations by removing 10–23% of their total precipitation, but at the same time reveals anomalously low surface and snowdrift sublimation rates at Princess Elisabeth (17 mm w.e. yr−1 compared to 42 mm w.e. yr−1 at Svea Cross and 52 mm w.e. yr−1 at Wasa/Aboa. This anomaly is attributed to local topography, which shields the station from strong katabatic influence, and, therefore, on the one hand allows for a strong surface inversion to persist throughout most of the year and on the other hand causes a lower probability of occurrence of intermediately strong winds. This wind speed class turns out to contribute most to the total snowdrift sublimation mass flux, given its ability to lift a high number of particles while still allowing for considerable undersaturation.

  14. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.


    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  15. Index of surface-water stations in Texas, January 1988 (United States)

    Rawson, Jack; Carrillo, E.R.; Buckner, H.D.


    As of January 1, 1988, the surface-water data-collection network in Texas included 368 continuous streamflow, 12 continuous or daily reservoir-content, 38 gage height, 15 crest-stage partia 1-record, 4 periodic discharge through range, 32 floodhydrocjraph partial-record, 9 flood-profile partial-record, 36 low-flow partial-record 45 daily chemical-quality, 19 continuous-recording water-quality, 83 periodic biological, 19 lake surveys, 160 periodic organic and (or) nutrient, 3 periodic insecticide, 33 periodic pesticide, 20 automatic sampler, 137 periodic minor elements, 125 periodic chemical-quality, 74 periodic physica1-organic, 24 continuous-recording three- or four-parameter water-quality, 34 periodic sediment, 21 continuous-recording temperature, and 30 national stream-quality accounting network stations. Plate 1 shows the location of surface-water streamflow or reservoir-content and chemicalquality or sediment stations in Texas. Plate 2 shows the location of partial-record surface-water stations.

  16. Identification of surface wave higher modes using a methodology based on seismic noise and coda waves (United States)

    Rivet, Diane; Campillo, Michel; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco; Shapiro, Nikolaï M.; Singh, Shri Krishna


    Dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves is performed to assess the velocity of complex structures such as sedimentary basins. At short periods several modes of the Rayleigh waves are often exited. To perform a reliable inversion of the velocity structure an identification of these modes is thus required. We propose a novel method to identify the modes of surface waves. We use the spectral ratio of the ground velocity for the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V) measured on seismic coda. We then compare the observed values with the theoretical H/V ratio for velocity models deduced from surface wave dispersion when assuming a particular mode. We first invert the Rayleigh wave measurements retrieved from ambient noise cross-correlation with the assumptions that (1) the fundamental mode and (2) the first overtone are excited. Then we use these different velocity models to predict theoretical spectral ratios of the ground velocity for the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V). These H/V ratios are computed under the hypothesis of equipartition of a diffuse field in a layered medium. Finally we discriminate between fundamental and higher modes by comparing the theoretical H/V ratio with the H/V ratio measured on seismic coda. In an application, we reconstruct Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at seven broad-band stations in the Valley of Mexico. For paths within the soft quaternary sediments basin, the maximum energy is observed at velocities higher than expected for the fundamental mode. We identify that the dominant mode is the first higher mode, which suggests the importance of higher modes as the main vectors of energy in such complex structures.

  17. Unwrapped phase inversion for near surface seismic data

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    The Phase-wrapping is one of the main obstacles of waveform inversion. We use an inversion algorithm based on the instantaneous-traveltime that overcomes the phase-wrapping problem. With a high damping factor, the frequency-dependent instantaneous-traveltime inversion provides the stability of refraction tomography, with higher resolution results, and no arrival picking involved. We apply the instantaneous-traveltime inversion to the synthetic data generated by the elastic time-domain modeling. The synthetic data is a representative of the near surface seismic data. Although the inversion algorithm is based on the acoustic wave equation, the numerical examples show that the instantaneous-traveltime inversion generates a convergent velocity model, very similar to what we see from traveltime tomography.

  18. Surface-contacting vibrometers for seismic landmine detection (United States)

    Martin, James S.; Larson, Gregg D.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.


    A technique has been developed that exploits remote seismic sources and local measurement of the surface displacement of the ground for the detection of buried landmines. Most of the previously reported investigation of this technique has focused on non-contact displacement sensors in order to ensure the safety of the operators of both handheld and vehicle-based systems. This is not inherently a constraint that requires a non-contact sensor, but rather one requiring a sensor that is non-intrusive (i.e. its presence does not alter the measured quantity). Current research is directed toward the development of autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems based on this technique. Here both unit cost and power consumption are issues of comparable importance to the survival of the sensor platform. Non-intrusive surface-contacting vibrometers are therefore a reasonable alternative. Several configurations have been studied for suitable vibrometers. The configuration that has shown the most promise is based on a commercial accelerometer coupled to the ground with a small normal force and isolated from the backing structure that is used to reposition it between measurements. It is a relatively simple matter to detect seismic motion with an accelerometer. The major issue in an effective implementation of the technique is to combine reproducibility with fidelity in the measurement. These are competing goals in that reproducibility is easily achieved with large normal forces, but fidelity requires that these be small. Sufficient reproducibility for imaging purposes has been achieved with normal forces that pose no danger of landmine detonation. Unlike reproducibility, fidelity is linked to both the nature of the imposed force and to its magnitude through the nonlinearity of the soil"s elasticity. Both continuous and incremental motions of the sensor platform have been studied, although incremental movement shows the most promise for the intended application.

  19. Index of surface-water stations in Texas, January 1987 (United States)

    Rawson, Jack; Carrillo, E.R.; Buckner, H.D.


    As of January 1, 1987, the surface-water data-collection network in Texas included 376 continuous streamflow, 76 continuous or daily reservoir-content, 34 gage height, 16 crest-stage partial-record, 8 periodic discharge through range, 33 floodhydrograph partial-record, 9 flood-profile partial-record, 36 low-flow partial-record, 46 daily chemical-quality, 19 continuous-recording water-quality, 84 periodic biological, 17 lake surveys, 162 periodic organic and (or) nutrient, 3 periodic insecticide, 42 periodic pesticide, 19 automatic sampler, 141 periodic minor elements, 130 periodic chemical-quality, 78 periodic physical-organic, 22 continuous-recording three- or four-parameter water-quality, 34 periodic sediment, 22 continuous-recording temperature, and 30 national stream-quality accounting network stations. Plate 1 shows the location of surface-water streamflow or reservoir-content and chemical-quality or sediment'stations in Texas. Plate 2 shows the location of partial-record surfacewater stations.

  20. Seismic detection of meteorite impacts on Mars


    Teanby, N.A.; Wookey, J.


    Abstract Meteorite impacts provide a potentially important seismic source for probing Mars? interior. It has recently been shown that new craters can be detected from orbit using high resolution imaging, which means the location of any impact-related seismic event could be accurately determined thus improving the constraints that could be placed on internal structure using a single seismic station. This is not true of other seismic sources on Mars such as sub-surface faulting, whic...

  1. Near-Surface & High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Bennett Thrust Fault in the Indio Mountains of West Texas (United States)

    Vennemann, A.; Karplus, M. S.; Kaip, G.; Harder, S. H.


    We investigate the crustal structure of the Indio Mountains in southwest Texas, 34 km southwest of Van Horn at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) field station using newly acquired active-source seismic data. These new data are the first active-source seismic data acquired at the UTEP field station. The dominant regional lithologies in this area comprise a transgressive sequence nearly 2 km in total stratigraphic thickness, formed by extensional processes. The area is highly faulted with multiple fault generations. I will show images of the Bennett Thrust Fault, a northwest-striking, northeast-dipping fault associated with the Laramide Orogeny and discuss the near-surface geometries of this fault and adjacent rock units. This region is a pre-salt analog for similar areas that are ideal for petroleum reservoirs, such are reservoirs off the coasts of Brazil and Angola. While there are no petroleum plays in the Indio Mountains region, imaging and understanding subsurface structural and lithological geometries and how that geometry directs potential fluid flow has implications for other regions with petroleum plays. I will present processed data and interpretation of a 1 km 2-D near-surface, high-resolution seismic reflection line. Along the 1 km line, we collected a lower frequency dataset using 100 third-pound explosions and a higher frequency dataset produced from 500 sledge-hammer blows at the same 100 source points (5 blows will be stacked at each source point). The lower frequency data set will be the focus of this presentation. The data will be processed using standard seismic reflection practices using ProMAX. This image will be imported into Petrel to create a model of the faults' geometries and the sedimentary layers. My research will identify near-surface structures, fault geometries and lithologies.

  2. Seismic tomography of Yunnan region using short-period surface wave phase velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正勤; 苏伟; 叶太兰


    The data of short-period (1~18 s) surface waves recorded by 23 stations belonging to the digital seismic network of Yunnan Province of China are used in this paper. From these data, the dispersion curves of phase velocities of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave along 209 paths are determined by using the two-station narrowband filtering cross-correlation method.Adopting tomography method, the distribution maps of phase velocities at various periods in Yunnan region are inverted. The maps of phase velocities on profiles along 24°N, 25°N, 26°N, 27°N and 100.5°E and the distribution maps of phase velocities at 3 periods in the study region are given. The results show that the phase velocity distribution in Yunnan region has strong variations in horizontal direction, and the phase velocity distribution in short-period range is closely related to the thickness of sedimentary layers in the shallow crust. The phase velocity in southern part of the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block encircled by the Honghe fault and Xiaojiang fault is obviously lower than that in surrounding areas. The epicentral locations of strong earthquakes in Yunnan region are mainly distributed in transitional zones between low and high phase velocities.

  3. Ionosperic anomaly due to seismic activities – Part 1: Calibration of the VLF signal of VTX 18.2 KHz station from Kolkata and deviation during seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sasmal


    Full Text Available VLF signals are long thought to give away important information about the lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. In order to establish co-relations, if any, between the ionospheric activities and the earthquakes, we need to understand what the reference signals are, throughout the year. The best opportunity to do this is during the period of solar minimum where the number of flares and sunspots are negligible and the data would be primarily affected by the sun and variation would be due to normal sunset and sunrise effects. In this paper, we present the result of the sunrise and sunset terminators as a function of the day of the year for a period of four years, viz, 2005–2008 when the solar activity was very low. The terminators are for the 18.2 KHz VTX signal of the Indian Navy as observed from Indian Centre for Space Physics receiving station located in Kolkata. A total of 624 days of data have been used to obtain the mean plot. Any deviation of observations from this so-called the standardized calibration curve would point to influences by terrestrial (such as earthquakes and extra-terrestrial events (such as solar activities. We present examples of deviations which occur in a period of 16 months and show that the correlation with seismic events is significant and typically the highest deviation takes place up to a couple of days prior to the seismic event. Simultaneous observations of such deviations from more than one station could improve the predictability of earthquakes.

  4. Ionosperic anomaly due to seismic activities - Part 1: Calibration of the VLF signal of VTX 18.2 KHz station from Kolkata and deviation during seismic events (United States)

    Sasmal, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.


    VLF signals are long thought to give away important information about the lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. In order to establish co-relations, if any, between the ionospheric activities and the earthquakes, we need to understand what the reference signals are, throughout the year. The best opportunity to do this is during the period of solar minimum where the number of flares and sunspots are negligible and the data would be primarily affected by the sun and variation would be due to normal sunset and sunrise effects. In this paper, we present the result of the sunrise and sunset terminators as a function of the day of the year for a period of four years, viz, 2005-2008 when the solar activity was very low. The terminators are for the 18.2 KHz VTX signal of the Indian Navy as observed from Indian Centre for Space Physics receiving station located in Kolkata. A total of 624 days of data have been used to obtain the mean plot. Any deviation of observations from this so-called the standardized calibration curve would point to influences by terrestrial (such as earthquakes) and extra-terrestrial events (such as solar activities). We present examples of deviations which occur in a period of 16 months and show that the correlation with seismic events is significant and typically the highest deviation takes place up to a couple of days prior to the seismic event. Simultaneous observations of such deviations from more than one station could improve the predictability of earthquakes.

  5. Surface-focused Seismic Holography of Sunspots: I. Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, D C


    We present a comprehensive set of observations of the interaction of p-mode oscillations with sunspots using surface-focused seismic holography. Maps of travel-time shifts, relative to quiet-Sun travel times, are shown for incoming and outgoing p modes as well as their mean and difference. We compare results using phase-speed filters with results obtained with filters that isolate single p-mode ridges, and further divide the data into multiple temporal frequency bandpasses. The f mode is removed from the data. The variations of the resulting travel-time shifts with magnetic-field strength and with the filter parameters are explored. We find that spatial averages of these shifts within sunspot umbrae, penumbrae, and surrounding plage often show strong frequency variations at fixed phase speed. In addition, we find that positive values of the mean and difference travel-time shifts appear exclusively in waves observed with phase-speed filters that are dominated by power in the low-frequency wing of the p1 ridge....

  6. Homogenization of seismic surface wave profiling in highly heterogeneous improved ground (United States)

    Lin, C.; Chien, C.


    Seismic surface wave profiling is gaining popularity in engineering practice for determining shear-wave velocity profile since the two-station SASW (Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave) was introduced. Recent developments in the multi-station approach (Multi-station Analysis of Surface Wave, MASW) result in several convenient commercial tools. Unlike other geophysical tomography methods, the surface wave method is essentially a 1-D method assuming horizontally-layered medium. Nevertheless, MASW is increasingly used to map lateral variation of S-wave velocity by multiple surveys overlooking the effect of lateral heterogeneity. MASW typically requires long receiver spread in order to have enough depth coverage. The accuracy and lateral resolution of 2-D S-wave velocity imaging by surface wave is not clear. Many geotechnical applications involves lateral variation in a scale smaller than the geophone spread and wave length. For example, soft ground is often improved to increase strength and stiffness by methods such as jet grouting and stone column which result in heterogeneous ground with improved columns. Experimental methods (Standard Penetration Test, sampling and laboratory testing, etc.) used to assess such ground improvement are subjected to several limitations such as small sampling volume, time-consuming, and cost ineffectiveness. It's difficult to assess the average property of the improved ground and the actual replacement ratio of ground improvement. The use of seismic surface wave method for such a purpose seems to be a good alternative. But what MASW measures in such highly heterogeneous improved ground remains to be investigated. This study evaluated the feasibility of MASW in highly heterogeneous ground with improved columns and investigated the homogenization of shear wave velocity measured by MASW. Field experiments show that MASW testing in such a composite ground behaves similar to testing in horizontally layered medium. It seems to measure some sort

  7. Preliminary Study of m(b) Bias at Selected Soviet Seismic Stations. (United States)


    8217-R66 395 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF M(B) BIRS AT SELECTED SOVIET 1/1 SEISMIC STRTIONS(U) SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP ARLINGTON VR A S RYRLL...earthquakes in each source region was not given in the ,.t 1980 paper, but in the earlier work it ranged from 35 events for Asia and the Mediter - ranean to

  8. Estimating the Location of Scatterers by Seismic Interferometry of Scattered Surface Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmankaya, U.; Kaslilar, A.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.


    In this study, non-physical (ghost) scattered surface waves are used to obtain the location of a near surface scatterer. The ghost is obtained from application of seismic interferometry to only one source at the surface. Different locations for virtual sources are chosen and ghost scattered surface

  9. Estimating the Location of Scatterers by Seismic Interferometry of Scattered Surface Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmankaya, U.; Kaslilar, A.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.


    In this study, non-physical (ghost) scattered surface waves are used to obtain the location of a near surface scatterer. The ghost is obtained from application of seismic interferometry to only one source at the surface. Different locations for virtual sources are chosen and ghost scattered surface

  10. Station-based Surface Data Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Q. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Xie, S. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) station-based surface data (ARMBESTNS) value-added product. It is a twin data product of the ARMBE 2-Dimensional gridded (ARMBE2DGRID) data set. Unlike the ARMBE2DGRID data set, ARMBESTNS data are reported at the original site locations and show the original information (except for the interpolation over time). Therefore, the users have the flexibility to process the data with the approach more suitable for their applications. This document provides information about the input data, quality control (QC) method, and output format of this data set. As much of the information is identical to that of the ARMBE2DGRID data, this document will emphasize more on the different aspects of these two data sets.

  11. 1D Seismic reflection technique to increase depth information in surface seismic investigations (United States)

    Camilletti, Stefano; Fiera, Francesco; Umberto Pacini, Lando; Perini, Massimiliano; Prosperi, Andrea


    1D seismic methods, such as MASW Re.Mi. and HVSR, have been extensively used in engineering investigations, bedrock research, Vs profile and to some extent for hydrologic applications, during the past 20 years. Recent advances in equipment, sound sources and computer interpretation techniques, make 1D seismic methods highly effective in shallow subsoil modeling. Classical 1D seismic surveys allows economical collection of subsurface data however they fail to return accurate information for depths greater than 50 meters. Using a particular acquisition technique it is possible to collect data that can be quickly processed through reflection technique in order to obtain more accurate velocity information in depth. Furthermore, data processing returns a narrow stratigraphic section, alongside the 1D velocity model, where lithological boundaries are represented. This work will show how collect a single-CMP to determine: (1) depth of bedrock; (2) gravel layers in clayey domains; (3) accurate Vs profile. Seismic traces was processed by means a new software developed in collaboration with SARA electronics instruments S.r.l company, Perugia - ITALY. This software has the great advantage of being able to be used directly in the field in order to reduce the times elapsing between acquisition and processing.

  12. Surface wave tomography of central and northern Europe from automated inter-station dispersion measurements (United States)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Lebedev, S.; Cristiano, L.; Meier, T. M.


    With the rapid growth in the no. of seismic stations globally, manual data processing for routine analysis as well as determination of seismic observables becomes more and more impractical. Therefore, automated schemes are inevitable to handle these large data volumes. For surface wave tomography, phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. We measure inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves through cross correlation of vertical component (Rayleigh wave) and transverse component (Love wave) seismograms. We have developed a scheme to automate this well established inter-station method, which automatically selects the smooth parts of observed phase velocity dispersion curves, and thus obtain path average phase velocity dispersion curve of each inter-station path. After testing various parameters for automation of the procedure we finally confined the method to three parameters only, namely (1) difference of the measured phase velocity curve from a background model, (2) a smoothness constraint and (3) a length criterion. We performed rigorous tests to optimize the parameters and obtained optimal values of these three parameters. We successfully applied the method to more than one hundred thousand inter station paths in central and northern Europe which involved more than one million cross correlations on 20 years of the data of the permanent networks. The method was also tested on temporary deployments e.g. TOR, PASSEQ, SVEKALPKO etc, across Europe. After inversion of the fundamental mode phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves, we obtain high resolution anisotropic phase velocity maps for periods between 10 and 250 seconds with a lateral resolution between about 50 to 100 kilometers. Well known features of upper mantle structure in central Europe are well resolved in our phase velocity maps. Distinct differences

  13. Pembina Cardium CO2-EOR monitoring project: Integrated surface seismic and VSP time-lapse seismic analysis (United States)

    Alshuhail, A. A.


    In the Pembina field in west-central Alberta, Canada, approximately 40,000 tons of supercritical CO2 was injected into the 1650 m deep, 20 m thick upper-Cretaceous Cardium Fm. between March 2005 and 2007. A time-lapse seismic program was designed and incorporated into the overall measurement, monitoring and verification program. The objectives were to track the CO2 plume within the reservoir, and to evaluate the integrity of storage. Fluid replacement modeling predicts a decrease in the P-wave velocity and bulk density in the reservoir by about 4% and 1%, respectively. Synthetic seismograms show subtle reflectivity changes at the Cardium Fm. and a traveltime delay at the later high-amplitude Viking event of less than 1 ms. The time-lapse datasets, however, show no significant anomalies in the P-wave seismic data that can be attributed to supercritical CO2 injected into the Cardium Fm. (Figure 1). The converted-wave (P-S) data, on the other hand, showed small traveltime anomalies. The most coherent results were those obtained by the fixed-array VSP dataset (Figure 2) due to higher frequency bandwidth and high signal to noise ratio. The amplitude and traveltime changes observed in the VSP dataset are small but are consistent in magnitude with those predicted from rock physics modeling. The analysis suggests that the inability to clearly detect the CO2 plume in surface seismic data is likely due to the CO2 being contained in thin permeable sandstone members of the Cardium Formation. The seismic signature of the Cardium Fm. in this area may also be degraded by multiples and strong attenuation involving the shallow Ardley coals. However, the lack of a 4D seismic changes above the reservoir indicates that the injected CO2 is not migrating through the caprock into shallower formations.

  14. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun


    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DIn

  15. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko


    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, 8212MW, was struck by M6.8 quakes in July 2007. TEPCO has steadily been conducting restoration and post-earthquake equipment integrity assessment, aiming to make it a disaster-resistant power station. 2 units among 7 resumed commercial operation by June 2010. This earthquake has provided a great deal of knowledge and information useful for nuclear safety improvement. It has also served as a valuable reference for the IAEA in developing earthquake-related guidelines. TEPCO would like to share the knowledge and information thereby contributing to improving the safety of nuclear power generation. We will introduce some of our activities.

  16. Measurement of the Parameter Kappa, and Reevaluation of Kappa for Small to Moderate Earthquakes at Seismic Stations in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, Glenn; Anderson, John G


    motions analyses used in PSHA, it contributes to the extreme values of peak ground acceleration that the PSHA predicts. Also, in some areas precarious rock evidence indicates that no such accelerations have occurred. 2. The disagreement among analyses in the value of kappa. Previous reports indicate that smallest earthquakes yield kappa estimate 12-20 msec larger than average values from M3 to M4.5 aftershocks of Little Skull Mountain earthquake. 3. The source of kappa. Classically and in engineering usage, kappa is attributed largely to the upper tens or hundreds of meters at the recording site. However, borehole recordings imply that a significant contribution to kappa originates below several hundred meters depth. Also, when earthquakes are considered from a small source region, a true site effect should be common to all recordings. In fact kappa observations of LSM aftershocks to stations on Yucca Mountain and at network stations appear to vary greatly, as though much of kappa actually derives from near the seismic source. 4. The repository overburden contribution to kappa. PSHA estimated ground motions to a free surface at 300 meters depth with properties of confined rock at that depth. Rock mechanical and borehole estimates suggest that several milliseconds of the total kappa accrue between 300 meters to the surface. If estimates of kappa are small at the surface, little is left to reduce incident ground accelerations from the seismic source to the repository level. 5. The variability of kappa. In most cases parametric estimates of kappa have some range of values that fit the data equally well in a statistical sense, so errors in kappa estimates must be addressed. As noted above, kappa at a station also varies significantly for events from the same source area. 6. Are kappa values from small to moderate magnitude earthquakes appropriately applied to the larger, potentially damaging earthquakes of engineering concern? Put another way, is there a significant magnitude

  17. New Approach to Investigating Near-Surface Structures for Complex Seismic Topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangWenbo; HeZhanxiang; LiuHong


    Addressed in this article is a new approach to investigating the near-surface structures through the use of the electromagnetic sounding. The advantages of the electro-magnetic sounding method and the problems of the nearssurface investigation and their solutions are described. Actual examples from the southwestern Takelamagan, western Qaidam and northern Xinjiang are taken to demonstrate the results and the capability of this approach in solving the nearsurface problems. It is also pointed out that the new approach could become both the basis for designing seismic acquisition parameters and determining the seismic shot locations,as well as supplying near-surface velocity models for seismic data processing so as to improve the quality of seismic sections.

  18. Effects of Injected Fluids on Pre-existing Faults observed from Surface and Downhole Seismic Arrays (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Niu, F.; Chen, H.; Zuo, Q.


    Hydraulic fracturing is the key stimulation technology to improve unconventional hydrocarbon recovery. It involves pumping high-pressure fluid into reservoir rocks to force the opening of cracks, which could allow oil and gas to flow freely. The effects of injected fluids and associated stress changes on pre-existing faults must be monitored carefully to avoid undesirable ruptures. We deployed a small-scale seismic array consisting of 22 broadband seismographs at the surface and 20 downhole seismographs to study the dynamic processes involved in hydraulic fracturing. The simultaneous monitoring of surface and downhole seismic array could increase the detectability of microseismic events and enhance location accuracy. The downhole seismic array detected a total of 7270 microseismic events and 961 events were recorded by surface seismic array with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). We found that induced seismicity occurred during and after the fluid injection with large spatial variations. This is also true to the inverted focal mechanisms. We noticed that several clusters of events are located >1 km away from the perforation shots such that their occurrence seems to have no direct involvement of the inject fluid. More likely they seem to be triggered slips on pre-existing faults. The pre-existing faults were reactivated by the injection of the early stages, and the triggered seismicity continued during the later operation regardless whether there is inflow of the fluid injected by the later stages. Overall, the "dry" triggered remote seismicity seems to have a higher average magnitude and a lower b-value in comparison with the "wet" inducted seismicity around the perforation shots.

  19. Surface ozone observation at Syowa Station, Antarctica from February 1982 to January 1983


    Shigeru, Chubachi


    This paper presents the result of surface ozone measurement at Syowa Station from February 1982 to January 1983 with a Dasibi ozone meter. In order to improve the reliability, the instrument was calibrated in Japan before and after the observation. The surface ozone mixing ratio at Syowa Station shows the annual change with a winter maximum and a summer minimum, being quite similar to that at Amundsen-Scott (South Pole) Station.

  20. Topographic Influence on Near-Surface Seismic Velocity in southern California (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Moon, S.; Meng, L.; Davis, P. M.


    Near-surface seismic velocity is commonly used to determine subsurface rock structure, properties, and ground-motion amplification. The spatial distribution of Vs30 (shear-wave seismic velocity in the top 30 m of Earth's crust) has been inferred based on the correlations of measured Vs30 with rock types and topographic slopes. Inference of Vs30 based on topographic slopes relies on the assumption that mechanically strong rocks tend to have steep slopes. The topographic slopes can thus be used to infer bedrock strength and seismic velocity. However, due to limited accessibility and logistical difficulties, there are few Vs30 measurements in sites of crystalline rocks that have measurable topographic variations. Thus, the variability of Vs30 with topographic slope for crystalline rocks has not been addressed systematically. In order to examine the local variabilities in near-surface seismic velocity in southern California, we measured the spatial distributions of near-surface seismic velocity at two sites: one in the San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) and one in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM). Both sites are composed of predominantly crystalline rocks with topographic slopes that range from 0.2 to 0.5. We conducted seismic refraction surveys using sledgehammer-induced impacts on a steel plate along seismic lines that were oriented roughly N-S, 240 m in length with a spacing of 5 m, and with topographic variation including both a local hilltop and valley. Using first P-wave arrivals, we constructed a P-wave seismic tomography down to 50 m. Our results show that P-wave seismic velocity in the SGM site varies significantly within hillslopes and does not linearly correlate with slope, while P-wave seismic velocity in the SBM site shows little variation in the hillslope. In the SGM site, the Vs30 beneath the valley is 25% faster than the Vs30 beneath the hillslope. These results suggest that the local variability of seismic velocity depends on differences in sediment

  1. Pre-instrumental seismicity in Central Africa using felt seisms recorded mainly at the meteorological stations of DRC, Rwanda and Burundi during the colonial period (United States)

    Mulumba, J.-L.; Delvaux, D.


    Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation of catastrophes are primarily based on the identification and characterization of seismically active zones. These tasks still rely heavily on the existing knowledge of the seismic activity over the longest possible time period. The first seismic network in Equatorial Africa (IRSAC network) was operated from the Lwiro scientific base on the western shores of Lake Kivu between 1953 and 1963. Before this installation, the historical record of seismic activity in Central Africa is sparse. Even for the relatively short period concerned, spanning only 50-60 years, the historical record is far from being complete. A first attempt has been made by Herrinckx (1959) who compiled a list 960 felt seisms recorded at the meteorological stations between 1915 and 1954 in Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. They were used to draw a density map of felt seisms per square degree. We completed this data base by exploiting the meteorological archives and any available historical report to enlarge the database which now reaches 1513 entries between 1900 and 1959. These entries have been exanimate in order to identify possible historical seismic events. Those are defined by 3 or more quasi-simultaneous records observed over a relatively short distance (a few degrees of latitude/longitude) within a short time difference (few hours). A preliminary list of 115 possible historical seisms has been obtained, identified by 3 to 15 different stations. The proposed location is taken as the average latitude and longitude of the stations where the felt seisms were recorded. Some of the most important ones are associated to aftershocks that have been felt at some stations after the main shocks. The most recent felt seisms have been also recorded instrumentally, which helps to validate the procedure followed. The main difficulties are the magnitude estimation and the possible spatial incompleteness of the recording of felt seism evidence at the margin of the observation

  2. Laboratory Scale Seismic Surface Wave Testing for the Determination of Soil Elastic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziman Madun


    Full Text Available Seismic surface wave testing is well-adapted to the study of elastic parameters and, hence, the elastic profile of soils in the field.  Knowledge of a ground’s stiffness profile enables the prediction of ground movement and, thus, the quality of the foundation.  The stiffness parameter obtained in this research corresponds to the measurement of the seismic surface wave phase velocity of materials, which relates to the very small strain shear modulus.  This paper describes a methodology for performing surface wave testing in the laboratory.  In comparison with field tests, a laboratory-scale experiment offers the advantage of allowing the process of data collection to be calibrated, and analytical studies can be carried out as the properties of the material under test are controllable and known a priori.  In addition, a laboratory scale experiment offers insight into the interaction between the seismic surface wave, the soil, the boundary and, hence, the constraints associated with the seismic surface wave technique.  Two simplified models of different sizes were developed using homogeneous remoulded Oxford Clay (from Midlands region of the UK.  The laboratory experimental methodology demonstrated that the seismic surface wave equipment used in the laboratory was directly influenced by the clay properties as well as the size of the test model.  The methodology also showed that the arrangement of the seismic source and the receivers had an impact on the range of reliable frequencies and wavelengths obtained.

  3. Seismicity around the source areas of the 1946 Nankai and the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes detected from data recorded at DONET stations (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Kamiya, S.; Takahashi, N.


    The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) installed DONET (Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) off the Kii Peninsula, southwest of Japan, to monitor earthquakes and tsunamis. Stations of DONET1, which are distributed in Kumano-nada, and DONET2, which are distributed off Muroto, were installed by August 2011 and April 2016, respectively. After the installation of all of the 51 stations, DONET was transferred to National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED). NIED and JAMSTEC have now corroborated in the operation of DONET since April 2016. To investigate the seismicity around the source areas of the 1946 Nankai and the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes, we detected earthquakes from the records of the broadband seismometers installed to DONET. Because DONET stations are apart from land stations, we can detect smaller earthquakes than by using only land stations. It is important for understanding the stress state and seismogenic mechanism to monitoring the spatial-temporal seismicity change. In this study we purpose to evaluate to the seismicity around the source areas of the Nankai and the Tonankai earthquakes by using our earthquake catalogue. The frequency-magnitude relationships of earthquakes in the areas of DONET1&2 had an almost constant slope of about -1 for earthquakes of ML larger than 1.5 and 2.5, satisfying the Gutenberg-Richter law, and the slope of smaller earthquakes approached 0, reflecting the detection limits. While the most of the earthquakes occurred in the aftershock area of the 2004 off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes, very limited activity was detected in the source region of the Nankai and Tonankai earthquake except for the large earthquake (MJMA = 6.5) on 1st April 2016 and its aftershocks. We will evaluate the detection limit of the earthquake in more detail and investigate the spatial-temporal seismicity change with waiting the data store.

  4. Tomographic inversion of near-surface Q factor by combining surface and cross-hole seismic surveys (United States)

    Li, Guo-Fa; Zheng, Hao; Zhu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Ming-Chao; Zhai, Tong-Li


    The estimation of the quality factor Q plays a fundamental role in enhancing seismic resolution via absorption compensation in the near-surface layer. We present a new geometry that can be used to acquire field data by combining surface and cross-hole surveys to decrease the effect of geophone coupling on Q estimation. In this study, we drilled number of receiver holes around the source hole, each hole has different depth and each geophone is placed geophones into the bottom of each receiver hole to avoid the effect of geophone coupling with the borehole wall on Q estimation in conventional cross-hole seismic surveys. We also propose a novel tomographic inversion of the Q factor without the effect of the source signature, and examine its stability and reliability using synthetic data. We estimate the Q factors of the near-surface layer in two different frequency bands using field data acquired in the Dagang Oilfield. The results show that seismic absorption in the near-surface layer is much greater than that in the subsurface strata. Thus, it is of critical practical importance to enhance the seismic solution by compensating for near-surface absorption. In addition, we derive different Q factors from two frequency bands, which can be treated, to some extent, as evidence of a frequency-dependent Q.

  5. Surface energy balance, melt and sublimation at Neumayer Station, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; König-Langlo, G.; Picard, G.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.


    A surface energy balance model is forced by 13 years of high-quality hourly observations from the Antarctic coastal station Neumayer. The model accurately reproduces observed surface temperatures. Surface sublimation is significant in summer, when absorbed solar radiation heats the surface. Includin

  6. Changes in satellite-derived impervious surface area at US historical climatology network stations (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin; Xian, George


    The difference between 30 m gridded impervious surface area (ISA) between 2001 and 2011 was evaluated within 100 and 1000 m radii of the locations of climate stations that comprise the US Historical Climatology Network. The amount of area associated with observed increases in ISA above specific thresholds was documented for the climate stations. Over 32% of the USHCN stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% between 2001 and 2011 for at least 1% of the grid cells within a 100 m radius of the station. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased from ⩾1% to ⩾10%, the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 113 (9% of stations). When the 1000 m radius associated with each station was examined, over 52% (over 600) of the stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% within at least 1% of the grid cells within that radius. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased to ⩾10% the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 35 (less than 3% of the stations). The gridded ISA data provides an opportunity to characterize the environment around climate stations with a consistently measured indicator of a surface feature. Periodic evaluations of changes in the ISA near the USHCN and other networks of stations are recommended to assure the local environment around the stations has not significantly changed such that observations at the stations may be impacted.

  7. Passive monitoring for near surface void detection using traffic as a seismic source (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Kuzma, H. A.; Rector, J.; Nazari, S.


    In this poster we present preliminary results based on our several field experiments in which we study seismic detection of voids using a passive array of surface geophones. The source of seismic excitation is vehicle traffic on nearby roads, which we model as a continuous line source of seismic energy. Our passive seismic technique is based on cross-correlation of surface wave fields and studying the resulting power spectra, looking for "shadows" caused by the scattering effect of a void. High frequency noise masks this effect in the time domain, so it is difficult to see on conventional traces. Our technique does not rely on phase distortions caused by small voids because they are generally too tiny to measure. Unlike traditional impulsive seismic sources which generate highly coherent broadband signals, perfect for resolving phase but too weak for resolving amplitude, vehicle traffic affords a high power signal a frequency range which is optimal for finding shallow structures. Our technique results in clear detections of an abandoned railroad tunnel and a septic tank. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a technology for the simultaneous imaging of shallow underground structures and traffic monitoring near these structures.

  8. 基于单片机的地震台站远程监控%Remote monitor and control system for seismic station based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军; 李冬圣; 毛国良; 常亮


    针对当前地震台站的特点,提出一种基于TCP/IP通信的远程监控系统,介绍该装置的设计与实现方法,给出系统构成图、主要硬件电路及程序代码.通过样机试制与反复试验,该系统可以完成对地震台站设备工作环境的监测并能远程对数采等设备实现断电和重启等操作,可以为地震专业设备的可靠运行和及时维护提供保障和依据.%In allusion to the characteristic of the seismic station, this paper proposes a remote monitor and control system based on the TCP/IP communication protocol, and introduces the design and implementation of the system. It gives out system structure diagram, main hardware circuit and program code. It has been proved that this system can monitor the status of seismic-station working environment and can reset the seismic data processing system etc. remotely through trial-produce model machine and repeated testing. This system can guarantee the seismic-equipments reliable running and gives a good reference for the maintenance by continuous improvement.

  9. Ceboruco Volcano Seismicity Study using a 3D Single Digital Station (United States)

    Rodriguez-Uribe, M. C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.


    The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacític composition lava flows along the southeast side. We use data recorded from March 2003 to July 2008 at the CEBN triaxial short period digital station located at the southwest side of the volcano. Our final data set consist of 139 volcanic earthquakes. We classified them according waveform characteristics of the east-west horizontal component. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, the hypocenters are below the volcanic building within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. The epicenters show similar directions as the tectonic structures of the area (Tepic-Zacoalco Graben and regional faults). Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the risk that represent to the surrounding communities and economic activities.

  10. Seismic structure of the North American lithosphere and upper mantle imaged using Surface and S waveform tomography (United States)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.


    The evolution, stability, and dynamics of continental lithosphere remain a central focus of Earth Science research. The continued deployment of the US Array is producing a massive new dataset that samples North America at scales from tectonic units to continent-wide domains and enables resolution of structure and deformation of the lithosphere previously possible only at regional scales. With this resolving power come new challenges relating to efficient management and processing of such large data volumes. In this study, we have assembled a dataset comprising over 3.5 million three-component broadband seismic waveforms from more than 3000 stations. We augment available US Array stations with ~600 additional North American stations of the GSN and affiliates, Canadian National Seismograph Network, regional arrays, past PASSCAL experiments, and other stations from Iceland, Greenland, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and several Mid-Atlantic Islands. We exploit the resolving power of this unprecedentedly large dataset using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface- and S-wave forms. The waveforms are inverted for path-averaged linear constraints on elastic structure along the source-receiver paths. The linear equations are then simultaneously solved for a high-resolution 3D upper mantle shear velocity model of the continent. We present a model of the North American continent's and the surrounding Ocean's (Pacific, Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico) upper mantle structure down to the 660 km discontinuity. Clearly identifiable boundaries between different tectonic features such as basins and relic mountain ranges are readily observable. For example, a strong correlation between the Hudson Bay geoid anomaly can be identified with an underlying domain of particularily cold cratonic lithosphere. Our model also includes the 3D distribution of azimuthal anisotropy within these structures, which provides new insight into past and present dynamics of the lithosphere and

  11. Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography using fat rays: application to near-surface seismic imaging (United States)

    Jordi, Claudio; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Greenhalgh, Stewart


    Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography does not rely on the high frequency assumption made in classical ray-based tomography. By incorporating the effects of velocity structures in the first Fresnel volume around the central ray, it offers a more realistic and accurate representation of the actual physics of seismic wave propagation and thus, enhanced imaging of near-surface structures is expected. The objective of this work was to apply frequency-dependent first arrival traveltime tomography to surface seismic data that were acquired for exploration scale and near-surface seismic imaging. We adapted a fat ray tomography algorithm from global-earth seismology that calculates the Fresnel volumes based on source and receiver (adjoint source) traveltime fields. The fat ray tomography algorithm was tested on synthetic model data that mimics the dimensions of two field data sets. The field data sets are presented as two case studies where fat ray tomography was applied for near-surface seismic imaging. The data set of the first case study was recorded for high-resolution near-surface imaging of a Quaternary valley (profile length 10 km). All results of fat ray tomography are compared against the results of classical ray-based tomography. We show that fat ray tomography can provide enhanced tomograms and that it is possible to recover more information on the subsurface when compared to ray tomography. However, model assessment based on the column sum of the Jacobian matrix revealed that especially the deep parts of the structure in the fat ray tomograms might not be adequately covered by fat rays. Furthermore, the performance of the fat ray tomography depends on the chosen input frequency in relation to the scale of the seismic survey. Synthetic data testing revealed that the best results were obtained when the frequency was chosen to correspond to an approximate wavelength-to-target depth ratio of 0.1.

  12. Estimation of sea surface temperature (SST) using marine seismic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sinha, S.K.; Dewangan, P.; Sain, K.

    .g. Wu et al. [1999]). However, due to the skin effect, sea surface temperatures as measured by satellites can be very different from temperatures a few centimeters below the sea surface (i.e. in-situ temperatures) [Emery et al., 1994]. Therefore...

  13. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, S.S.; Gold, D.P.; Gardner, T.W.; Slingerland, R.L.; Thornton, C.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Geosciences)


    For the Lancaster, PA seismic zone a multifaceted investigation revealed several manifestations of near-surface, neotectonic deformation. Remote sensing data together with surface geological and geophysical observations, and recent seismicity reveal that the neotectonic deformation is concentrated in a NS-trending fault zone some 50 km in length and 10--20 km in width. Anomalies associated with this zone include distinctive lineament and surface erosional patterns; geologically recent uplift evidenced by elevations of stream terraces along the Susquehanna River; and localized contemporary travertine deposits in streams down-drainage from the inferred active fault zone. In the Moodus seismic zone the frequency of tectonically-controlled lineaments was observed to increase in the Moodus quadrangle compared to adjacent areas and dominant lineament directions were observed that are perpendicular and parallel to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction (N80-85E) recently determined from in-situ stress measurements in a 1.5 km-deep borehole in the seismic zone and from well-constrained earthquake focal mechanisms. 284 refs., 33 figs.

  14. Combined analysis of surface reflection imaging and vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.; Karageorgi, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.


    This report presents results from surface and borehole seismic profiling performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on Yucca Mountain. This work was performed as part of the site characterization effort for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Their objective was to provide seismic imaging from the near surface (200 to 300 ft. depth) to the repository horizon and below, if possible. Among the issues addressed by this seismic imaging work are location and depth of fracturing and faulting, geologic identification of reflecting horizons, and spatial continuity of reflecting horizons. The authors believe their results are generally positive, with tome specific successes. This was the first attempt at this scale using modem seismic imaging techniques to determine geologic features on Yucca Mountain. The principle purpose of this report is to present the interpretation of the seismic reflection section in a geologic context. Three surface reflection profiles were acquired and processed as part of this study. Because of environmental concerns, all three lines were on preexisting roads. Line 1 crossed the mapped surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault and it was intended to study the dip and depth extent of the fault system. Line 2 was acquired along Drill Hole wash and was intended to help the ESF north ramp design activities. Line 3 was acquired along Yucca Crest and was designed to image geologic horizons which were thought to be less faulted along the ridge. Unfortunately, line 3 proved to have poor data quality, in part because of winds, poor field conditions and limited time. Their processing and interpretation efforts were focused on lines 1 and 2 and their associated VSP studies.

  15. Inversion of the Chelyabinsk seismic surface waves and comparative constraints on the generation of seismic waves by atmospheric Impacts on Earth and Mars (United States)

    Karakostas, F. G.; Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.


    Meteor impacts are a very important seismic source for planetary seismology, since their locations and, in some cases, their occurence times can be accurately known from orbiters, tracking or optical observations. Their importance becomes greater in the case of a seismic experiment with one seismometer, as the SEIS (Seismic Experiment of Interior Structure) of the future Martian mission "InSight", as the known location allows a direct inversion of differential travel times and wave forms in terms of structure. Meteor impacts generate body and surface seismic waves when they reach the surface of a planet. But when they explode into the atmosphere, due to ablation, they generate shock waves, which are converted into linear, seismic waves in the solid part and acoustic waves in the atmosphere. This effect can be modeled when the amplitude of Rayleigh and other Spheroidal normal modes is made with the atmospheric/ground coupling effects. In this study, meteor impacts are modeled as seismic sources in a comparative analysis for the cases of Earth and Mars. Using the computed seismograms, calculated by the summation of the normal modes of the full planet (e.g. with atmosphere) the properties of the seismic source can be obtained. Its duration is typically associated to the radiation duration of shock waves until they reach the linear regime of propagation. These transition times are comparatively analyzed, for providing constraints on the seismic source duration on Earth and Mars. In the case of Earth, we test our approach with the Chelyabinsk superbolide. The computed seismograms are used in order to perform the inversion of the source, by comparison with the data of the Global Seismographic Network. The results are interpreted and compared with other observations. In the case of Mars, equivalent sources are similarly modeled in different atmospheric, impact size and lithospheric conditions.

  16. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Zhu


    Full Text Available The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction, with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground. Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more

  17. The influence of climatically-driven surface loading variations on continental strain and seismicity (United States)

    Craig, Tim; Calais, Eric; Fleitout, Luce; Bollinger, Laurent; Scotti, Oona


    In slowly deforming regions of plate interiors, secondary sources of stress and strain can result in transient deformation rates comparable to, or greater than, the background tectonic rates. Highly variable in space and time, these transients have the potential to influence the spatio-temporal distribution of seismicity, interfering with any background tectonic effects to either promote or inhibit the failure of pre-existing faults, and potentially leading to a clustered, or 'pulse-like', seismic history. Here, we investigate the ways in which the large-scale deformation field resulting from climatically-controlled changes in surface ice mass over the Pleistocene and Holocene may have influenced not only the seismicity of glaciated regions, but also the wider seismicity around the ice periphery. We first use a set of geodynamic models to demonstrate that a major pulse of seismic activity occurring in Fennoscandia, coincident with the time of end-glaciation, occurred in a setting where the contemporaneous horizontal strain-rate resulting from the changing ice mass, was extensional - opposite to the reverse sense of coseismic displacement accommodated on these faults. Therefore, faulting did not release extensional elastic strain that was building up at the time of failure, but compressional elastic strain that had accumulated in the lithosphere on timescales longer than the glacial cycle, illustrating the potential for a non-tectonic trigger to tap in to the background tectonic stress-state. We then move on to investigate the more distal influence that changing ice (and ocean) volumes may have had on the evolving strain field across intraplate Europe, how this is reflected in the seismicity across intraplate Europe, and what impact this might have on the paleoseismic record.

  18. 鹤岗地震台地震观测干扰分析%The analysis of observation interference at Hegang Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜博; 常金龙; 胡宝慧; 李大伟; 张震; 张浩


    The surrounding environment of Hegang Seismic Station is analyzed. The sources of interference are determined and their frequency ranges are determined with fast Fourier transforms. Depending on the frequencies of blasting, noise and earthquakes, using Matlab language, the appropriate high-pass and low-pass filter are designed for interference signal filtering process and the real information of seismic wave extraction. Thereby, the veracity of seismic theoretical study and seismic data analysis is improved.%对鹤岗地震台周边环境进行分析,确定干扰源,进行快速傅里叶变换,确定其频率范围.根据爆破、噪声干扰和地震频率的不同,运用 Matlab语言,设计相应高通和低通滤波器,对干扰信号进行滤波处理,得出地震波的真实信息,从而提高台站地震资料分析和地震波基础理论研究的准确性.

  19. Stresses and strains developed by the reflection of seismic waves at a free surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banister, J.R.; Ellett, D.M.; Mehl, C.R.; Dean, F.F.


    Exact and approximate equations have been derived for the stresses and strains beneath a free surface when an incoming longitudinal wave and an incoming shear wave reflect from the surface. Results of the approximate solution for depths much less than the wave length of the incoming wave are given in tabular form and are graphed for Poisson's ratios of 0.25, 0.3, and 0.333. The results should be of use in categorizing the magnitude of near-surface stresses and strains resulting from seismic waves produced by deeply buried explosives or earthquakes.

  20. Near-Surface Attenuation and Velocity Structures in Taiwan from Wellhead and Borehole Recordings Comparisons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu-Ju; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Wu, Shao-Kai; Hsu, Hsuan-Jui; Hsiao, Wen-Chi


    By analyzing the data from 28 seismic borehole stations deployed by the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network throughout Taiwan from 2007 to 2014, we estimated the near-surface velocity (Vp and Vs) and attenuation (Qp and Qs...

  1. Asymptotic Expressions for Changes in the Surface Co-Seismic Strain on a Homogeneous Sphere (United States)

    Tang, He; Sun, Wenke


    SUMMARYIn the dislocation theory for a spherical Earth model, the computation of surface co-seismic deformations using straightforward numerical methods is time-consuming and may encounter a series of convergence problems, especially for the near-field deformations due to shallow earthquakes. This study proposes an asymptotic method to approximate changes in the co-seismic surface strain that are caused by an arbitrary point dislocation in a homogeneous sphere. The corresponding expressions are in analytical form and can overcome these difficulties without the numerical integration of differential equations and summations of infinite associated Legendre series in practical applications. Importantly, in contrast with the classical solution for a half-space Earth model, the asymptotic solution can reflect the effect of the Earth's curvature.

  2. Surface uplift and time-dependent seismic hazard due to fluid-injection in eastern Texas (United States)

    Shirzaei, M.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Manga, M.


    US states such as Texas and Oklahoma that produce high-volumes of unconventional oil and gas, are facing a sharp increase in seismicity. Observations of the associated surface deformation and accompanying physical models that unequivocally link the seismicity and waste water injection are scarce. Here, we find that the waste water injection in eastern Texas causes uplift, detectable using radar interferometric data. Combining the uplift and injection data through a poroelastic model allows for the resolution of a complex crustal distribution of hydraulic conductivity and pore pressure. We find that the ~5 years pore pressure increase is capable of triggering the 17 May 2012, Mw 4.8 earthquake, the largest event recorded in east Texas. This study shows that surface deformation data are vital in order to constrain the spatiotemporal variations of the stress field in the vicinity of injection sites.

  3. The 2007 eruptions and caldera collapse of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island) from tilt analysis at a single very broadband seismic station (United States)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Roult, Geneviève; Michon, Laurent; Barruol, Guilhem; Muro, Andrea Di


    Seismic records from La Réunion Island very broadband Geoscope station are investigated to constrain the link between the 2007 eruptive sequence and the related caldera collapse of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. Tilt estimated from seismic records reveals that the three 2007 eruptions belong to a single inflation-deflation cycle. Tilt trend indicates that the small-volume summit eruption of 18 February occurred during a phase of continuous inflation that started in January 2007. Inflation decelerated 24 days before a second short-lived, small-volume eruption on 30 March, almost simultaneous with a sudden, large-scale deflation of the volcano. Deflation rate, which had stabilized at relatively low level, increased anew on 1 April while no magma was erupted, followed on 2 April by a major distal eruption and on 5 April by a summit caldera collapse. Long-term tilt variation suggests that the 2007 eruptive succession was triggered by a deep magma input.

  4. Diurnal variability of surface fluxes at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.

    Diurnal variability of the surface fluxes and ocean heat content was studied using the time-series data on marine surface meteorological parameters and upper ocean temperature collected at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal during 1st to 8th...

  5. Seismic Surface-Wave Tomography of Waste Sites - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Timothy L.


    The objective of this study was to develop analysis programs for surface-wave group-velocity tomography, and apply these to three test areas. We succeeded by obtaining data covering two square areas that were 30 meters on a side, and a third area that was 16 meters on a side, in addition to a collaborative effort wherein we processed data from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory site. At all sites, usable group velocities were obtained for frequencies from 16 to 50 Hz using a sledgehammer source. The resulting tomographic images and velocity anomalies were sufficient to delineate suspected burial trenches (one 4-meters deep) and anomalous velocity structure related to rocks and disturbed soil. The success was not uniform because in portions of one area the inversion for shear-wave structure became unstable. More research is needed to establish a more robust inversion technique.

  6. Inherited structures impact on co-seismic surface deformation pattern during the 2013 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake (United States)

    Vallage, Amaury; Klinger, Yann; Grandin, Raphael; Delorme, Arthur; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc


    The understanding of earthquake processes and the interaction of earthquake rupture with Earth's free surface relies on the resolution of the observations. Recent and detailed post-earthquake measurements bring new insights on shallow mechanical behavior of rupture processes as it becomes possible to measure and locate surficial deformation distribution. The 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, offers a nice opportunity to comprehend where and why surficial deformation might differs from at-depth localized slip. This earthquake ruptured the Hoshab fault over 200 km; the motion was mainly left lateral with a small and discontinuous vertical component in the southern part of the rupture. Using images with the finest resolution currently available, we measured the surface displacement amplitude and its orientation at the ground surface (including the numerous tensile cracks). We combined these measurements with the 1:500 scale ground rupture map to focus on the behavior of the frontal rupture in the area where deformation distributes. Comparison with orientations of inherited tectonic structures, visible in older rocks formation surrounding the actual 2013 rupture, shows the control exercised by such structures on co-seismic rupture distribution. Such observation raises the question on how pre-existing tectonic structures in a medium, mapped in several seismically active places around the globe; can control the co-seismic distribution of the deformation during earthquakes.

  7. Geomechanics for interpreting SAGD monitoring using micro-seismicity and surface tiltmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pater, H.; De Koning, J.; Maxwell, S. [Pinnacle Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada); Walters, D. [Taurus Reservoir Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper described a procedures for history matching surface movements resulting from the warm-up phases of a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project in Saskatchewan. Surface movements were measured using tilt meters that covered the area influenced by the steam injection processes. A thermal reservoir model was then coupled to a geo-mechanical model in order to calculate the surface movements. Surface heave was computed by matching a minimum curvature surface to the tilt vectors. Surface heave data were extracted in order to facilitate comparisons between observed and simulated heave. Injection constraints were defined from measured injection rates in order to match pressure histories. The study showed that the coupled model accurately interpreted monitoring data. Seismic signatures indicated strike slip and potential overthrust fault slippage or casing failures. Uplift was largest at the heel of the well. Results were explained by reservoir heterogeneities. Surface heave was accurately measured using the tiltmeters. Micro-seismic data were used to constrain failure mechanisms and provide information needed to identify conformance and potential cap rock breaches. It was concluded that the model can be used effectively to optimize injection conformance and recovery. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 28 figs.

  8. A Vs30-derived Near-surface Seismic Velocity Model (United States)

    Ely, G. P.; Jordan, T. H.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.


    Shallow material properties, S-wave velocity in particular, strongly influence ground motions, so must be accurately characterized for ground-motion simulations. Available near-surface velocity information generally exceeds that which is accommodated by crustal velocity models, such as current versions of the SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM-S4) or the Harvard model (CVM-H6). The elevation-referenced CVM-H voxel model introduces rasterization artifacts in the near-surface due to course sample spacing, and sample depth dependence on local topographic elevation. To address these issues, we propose a method to supplement crustal velocity models, in the upper few hundred meters, with a model derived from available maps of Vs30 (the average S-wave velocity down to 30 meters). The method is universally applicable to regions without direct measures of Vs30 by using Vs30 estimates from topographic slope (Wald, et al. 2007). In our current implementation for Southern California, the geology-based Vs30 map of Wills and Clahan (2006) is used within California, and topography-estimated Vs30 is used outside of California. Various formulations for S-wave velocity depth dependence, such as linear spline and polynomial interpolation, are evaluated against the following priorities: (a) capability to represent a wide range of soil and rock velocity profile types; (b) smooth transition to the crustal velocity model; (c) ability to reasonably handle poor spatial correlation of Vs30 and crustal velocity data; (d) simplicity and minimal parameterization; and (e) computational efficiency. The favored model includes cubic and square-root depth dependence, with the model extending to a depth of 350 meters. Model parameters are fit to Boore and Joyner's (1997) generic rock profile as well as CVM-4 soil profiles for the NEHRP soil classification types. P-wave velocity and density are derived from S-wave velocity by the scaling laws of Brocher (2005). Preliminary assessment of the new model

  9. Near-surface seismic surveys at Rifle, Colorado for shallow groundwater contamination risk assessment (United States)

    Chen, J.; Zelt, C. A.; Levander, A.


    In August 2012, we carried out a series of seismic surveys at a site located approximately 0.3 mile east of the city of Rifle in Garfield County, Colorado. The ground water beneath this site was contaminated by former vanadium and uranium ore-processing operations from 1924 through 1958. The site is on an alluvial terrace created by a flood-plain meander of the Colorado River. On the south side, the terrace is bounded by a steep descending slope to the Colorado River; on the other sides, it is bounded by ascending slopes of the more resistant sedimentary rocks of the Wasatch Formation. Although remedial actions have been taken to remove the contaminated surface materials, there are still potential risks from residual materials and redistribution of the contaminated water harming human health. This seismic project, funded by The U.S. Department of Energy, was designed to provide hydrogeologic information through sub-surface velocity model building and imaging of the water aquifer. A 3D compressional wave seismic survey covers an area that is 96 m in the N-S direction by 60 m in the E-W direction. An orthogonal, symmetric receiver and source template was used with 24 receiver lines, 96 channels per receiver line, and 2.5 m between lines. The inline shot and receiver spacing is 2 m and 1 m, respectively. The source was an accelerated weight drop striking a metal plate. The source has a dominant frequency at ~60 Hz, and is down by 20 db at 20 Hz and 150 Hz, providing data suitable for seismic tomography and seismic migration methods. Besides this 3D survey, three other seismic experiments were performed: (1) a 2D multi-component source and receiver survey, (2) a 3D surface wave experiment using 4.5 Hz geophones, and (3) an ambient noise experiment using 4.5 Hz geophones to record passing vehicles and trains. Preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented.

  10. Design and application of wind-solar hybrid power system for unattended seismic stations in Shandong Province%风光发电系统在无人值守地震台站的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲利; 董晓娜; 胡旭辉; 李永红; 蔡伟光


    风光互补发电技术在边防、通信、公路等已得到广泛应用,能否将这一绿色、清洁、可再生能源应用于地震无人值守台站,山东省在龙口地震台已做先期试点,通过一年试运行,风光互补发电系统能够满足地震无人值守台站的工作要求.%The wind-solar hybrid power technology is gradually matured in China. It is now widely used in military border post, telecommunications relay stations, roads and railway signal stations, geological exploration and field inspection stations and other remote areas. How to use this green, clean, renewable energy in unmanned seismic stations is a new problem. In Shandong Province, we took Longkou Seismic Station as an example first. Through running test of one year, it is found that the wind-solar hybrid power wind system can be fully applied in unmanned seismic stations. In this article, the application of the wind-solar hybrid power wind system in Longkou Seismic Station, where is far away from the city and lack of electricity supply systemi is introduced. This application achieved very good results.

  11. Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network (United States)

    Vidrih, R.; Godec, M.; Gosar, A.; Sincic, P.; Tasic, I.; Zivcic, M.


    The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, the Seismology Office is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in the area of Slovenia and nearby. In the year 2000 the project Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network started. The purpose of a modernized seismic network is to enable fast and accurate automatic location of earthquakes, to determine earthquake parameters and to collect data of local, regional and global earthquakes. The modernized network will be finished in the year 2004 and will consist of 25 Q730 remote broadband data loggers based seismic station subsystems transmitting in real-time data to the Data Center in Ljubljana, where the Seismology Office is located. The remote broadband station subsystems include 16 surface broadband seismometers CMG-40T, 5 broadband seismometers CMG-40T with strong motion accelerographs EpiSensor, 4 borehole broadband seismometers CMG-40T, all with accurate timing provided by GPS receivers. The seismic network will cover the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2. The network is planned in this way; more seismic stations will be around bigger urban centres and in regions with greater vulnerability (NW Slovenia, Krsko Brezice region). By the end of the year 2002, three old seismic stations were modernized and ten new seismic stations were built. All seismic stations transmit data to UNIX-based computers running Antelope system software. The data is transmitted in real time using TCP/IP protocols over the Goverment Wide Area Network . Real-time data is also exchanged with seismic networks in the neighbouring countries, where the data are collected from the seismic stations, close to the Slovenian border. A typical seismic station consists of the seismic shaft with the sensor and the data acquisition system and, the service shaft with communication equipment (modem, router) and power supply with a battery box. which provides energy in case

  12. A stratification model of surface snow at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica



    A stratification model of surface snow on the ice sheet, which includes snow density evolution, is proposed. Using the temperature profile in the surface snow layer obtained at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica, snow density evolution under various accumulation conditions was simulated. It is demonstrated that water vapor diffusion is very important for the snow density evolution, and temperature and accumulation at the snow surface are the most important factors that determine the future snow de...

  13. A stratification model of surface snow at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica



    A stratification model of surface snow on the ice sheet, which includes snow density evolution, is proposed. Using the temperature profile in the surface snow layer obtained at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica, snow density evolution under various accumulation conditions was simulated.It is demonstrated that water vapor diffusion is very important for the snow density evolution, and temperature and accumulation at the snow surface are the most important factors that determine the future snow den...

  14. Probabilistic assessment of surface level seismic hazard in India using topographic gradient as a proxy for site condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.G. Sitharam; Sreevalsa Kolathayar; Naveen James


    This paper presents spatial variation of seismic hazard at the surface level for India, covering 6e38? N and 68e98? E. The most recent knowledge on seismic activity in the region has been used to evaluate the hazard incorporating uncertainties associated with the seismicity parameters using different modeling methodologies. Three types of seismic source models, viz. linear sources, gridded seismicity model and areal sources, were considered to model the seismic sources and different sets of ground motion pre-diction equations were used for different tectonic provinces to characterize the attenuation properties. The hazard estimation at bedrock level has been carried out using probabilistic approach and the results obtained from various methodologies were combined in a logic tree framework. The seismic site char-acterization of India was done using topographic slope map derived from Digital Elevation Model data. This paper presents estimation of the hazard at surface level, using appropriate site amplification factors corresponding to various site classes based on VS30 values derived from the topographic gradient. Spatial variation of surface level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) for return periods of 475 years and 2475 years are presented as contour maps.

  15. Probabilistic assessment of surface level seismic hazard in India using topographic gradient as a proxy for site condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G. Sitharam


    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial variation of seismic hazard at the surface level for India, covering 6–38° N and 68–98° E. The most recent knowledge on seismic activity in the region has been used to evaluate the hazard incorporating uncertainties associated with the seismicity parameters using different modeling methodologies. Three types of seismic source models, viz. linear sources, gridded seismicity model and areal sources, were considered to model the seismic sources and different sets of ground motion prediction equations were used for different tectonic provinces to characterize the attenuation properties. The hazard estimation at bedrock level has been carried out using probabilistic approach and the results obtained from various methodologies were combined in a logic tree framework. The seismic site characterization of India was done using topographic slope map derived from Digital Elevation Model data. This paper presents estimation of the hazard at surface level, using appropriate site amplification factors corresponding to various site classes based on VS30 values derived from the topographic gradient. Spatial variation of surface level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA for return periods of 475 years and 2475 years are presented as contour maps.

  16. Source estimation with surface-related multiples—fast ambiguity-resolved seismic imaging (United States)

    Tu, Ning; Aravkin, Aleksandr; van Leeuwen, Tristan; Lin, Tim; Herrmann, Felix J.


    We address the problem of obtaining a reliable seismic image without prior knowledge of the source wavelet, especially from data that contain strong surface-related multiples. Conventional reverse-time migration requires prior knowledge of the source wavelet, which is either technically or computationally challenging to accurately determine; inaccurate estimates of the source wavelet can result in seriously degraded reverse-time migrated images, and therefore wrong geological interpretations. To solve this problem, we present a `wavelet-free' imaging procedure that simultaneously inverts for the source wavelet and the seismic image, by tightly integrating source estimation into a fast least-squares imaging framework, namely compressive imaging, given a reasonably accurate background velocity model. However, this joint inversion problem is difficult to solve as it is plagued with local minima and the ambiguity with respect to amplitude scalings because of the multiplicative, and therefore nonlinear, appearance of the source wavelet in the otherwise linear formalism. We have found a way to solve this nonlinear joint-inversion problem using a technique called variable projection, and a way to overcome the scaling ambiguity by including surface-related multiples in our imaging procedure following recent developments in surface-related multiple prediction by sparse inversion. As a result, we obtain without prior knowledge of the source wavelet high-resolution seismic images, comparable in quality to images obtained assuming the true source wavelet is known. By leveraging the computationally efficient compressive-imaging methodology, these results are obtained at affordable computational costs compared with conventional processing work flows that include surface-related multiple removal and reverse-time migration.

  17. 新丰江中心地震台日常数据处理软件%Daily Data Processing Software of Xinfengjiang Center Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬; 郭德顺; 赖细华; 李志军


    According to the needs of the Xinfengjiang center seismic practical work, in the Visual C++6.0 platform, by using ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) technology, the client / server (C/S) mode to access MySQL database table, and based on MFC (Microsoft basic class library, Microsoft Foundation Classes) OLE(object linking and embedding, Object Linking and Embedding) programming method of EXcellreport file,the author developed a set of seismic data processing software, which can complete station data entry, query,modify, conversion and report output work, realize the seismic station, the paperless network office, and improve work efficiency.%根据新丰江中心地震台实际业务工作的需要,在Visual C++6.0平台上,使用ActiveX Data Objects(ADO)技术,通过客户/服务器(C/S)模式访问MySQL数据库表,并基于MFC(微软基本类库,Microsoft Foundation Classes)的OLE(对象链接嵌入,Object Linking and Embedding)编程方法操作EXCEL报表文件,开发出一套地震数据处理软件,完成台站日常数据的录入、查询、修改、转换和报表输出等工作,实现地震台站的无纸化、网络化办公,提高工作效率。

  18. Surface and downhole shear wave seismic methods for thick soil site investigations (United States)

    Hunter, J.A.; Benjumea, B.; Harris, J.B.; Miller, R.D.; Pullan, S.E.; Burns, R.A.; Good, R.L.


    Shear wave velocity-depth information is required for predicting the ground motion response to earthquakes in areas where significant soil cover exists over firm bedrock. Rather than estimating this critical parameter, it can be reliably measured using a suite of surface (non-invasive) and downhole (invasive) seismic methods. Shear wave velocities from surface measurements can be obtained using SH refraction techniques. Array lengths as large as 1000 m and depth of penetration to 250 m have been achieved in some areas. High resolution shear wave reflection techniques utilizing the common midpoint method can delineate the overburden-bedrock surface as well as reflecting boundaries within the overburden. Reflection data can also be used to obtain direct estimates of fundamental site periods from shear wave reflections without the requirement of measuring average shear wave velocity and total thickness of unconsolidated overburden above the bedrock surface. Accurate measurements of vertical shear wave velocities can be obtained using a seismic cone penetrometer in soft sediments, or with a well-locked geophone array in a borehole. Examples from thick soil sites in Canada demonstrate the type of shear wave velocity information that can be obtained with these geophysical techniques, and show how these data can be used to provide a first look at predicted ground motion response for thick soil sites. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, E-mail: [Graduate Research on Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT), Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia); Hananto, Nugroho D.; Handayani, Lina [Research Centre for Geotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Sangkuriang (Kompleks LIPI) Bandung 40135 (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi [Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering ITB, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Anggono, Titi [Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia)


    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  20. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Syuhada, Hananto, Nugroho D.; Puspito, Nanang T.; Anggono, Titi; Handayani, Lina; Yudistira, Tedi


    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  1. Energy balance of a glacier surface: analysis of Automatic Weather Station data from the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Klok, E.J.


    We describe and analyze a complete 1-yr data set from an automatic weather station (AWS) located on the snout of the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. The AWS stands freely on the glacier surface and measures pressure, windspeed, wind direction, air temperature and humidity, incoming and reflected


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge O. Parra; C.L. Hackert; L. Wilson; H.A. Collier; J. Todd Thomas


    The goal of this project was to develop a method to exploit viscoelastic rock and fluid properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic measurements to the presence of hydrocarbon saturation. To reach the objective, Southwest Research Institute scientists used well log, lithology, production, and 3D seismic data from an oil reservoir located on the Waggoner Ranch in north central Texas. The project was organized in three phases. In the first phase, we applied modeling techniques to investigate seismic- and acoustic-frequency wave attenuation and its effect on observable wave attributes. We also gathered existing data and acquired new data from the Waggoner Ranch field, so that all needed information was in place for the second phase. During the second phase, we developed methods to extract attenuation from borehole acoustic and surface seismic data. These methods were tested on synthetic data constructed from realistic models and real data. In the third and final phase of the project, we applied this technology to a full data set from the Waggoner site. The results presented in this Final Report show that geological conditions at the site did not allow us to obtain interpretable results from the Q processing algorithm for 3D seismic data. However, the Q-log processing algorithm was successfully applied to full waveform sonic data from the Waggoner site. A significant part of this project was technology transfer. We have published several papers and conducted presentations at professional conferences. In particular, we presented the Q-log algorithm and applications at the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) Development and Production Forum in Austin, Texas, in May 2005. The presentation attracted significant interest from the attendees and, at the request of the SEG delegates, it was placed on the Southwest Research Institute Internet site. The presentation can be obtained from the following link:

  3. Determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity across the Earthscope Transportable Array using single-station and array-based processing of ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Workman, Eli; Lin, Fan-Chi; Koper, Keith D.


    We present a single station method for the determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V) using Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis (FDPA). This procedure uses singular value decomposition of 3-by-3 spectral covariance matrices over 1-hr time windows to determine properties of the ambient seismic noise field such as particle motion and dominant wave-type. In FPDA, if the noise is mostly dominated by a primary singular value and the phase difference is roughly 90° between the major horizontal axis and the vertical axis of the corresponding singular vector, we infer that Rayleigh waves are dominant and measure an H/V ratio for that hour and frequency bin. We perform this analysis for all available data from the Earthscope Transportable Array between 2004 and 2014. We compare the observed Rayleigh wave H/V ratios with those previously measured by multicomponent, multistation noise cross-correlation (NCC), as well as classical noise spectrum H/V ratio analysis (NSHV). At 8 s the results from all three methods agree, suggesting that the ambient seismic noise field is Rayleigh wave dominated. Between 10 and 30 s, while the general pattern agrees well, the results from FDPA and NSHV are persistently slightly higher (˜2 per cent) and significantly higher (>20 per cent), respectively, than results from the array-based NCC. This is likely caused by contamination from other wave types (i.e. Love waves, body waves, and tilt noise) in the single station methods, but it could also reflect a small, persistent error in NCC. Additionally, we find that the single station method has difficulty retrieving robust Rayleigh wave H/V ratios within major sedimentary basins, such as the Williston Basin and Mississippi Embayment, where the noise field is likely dominated by reverberating Love waves and tilt noise.

  4. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon


    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  5. Near-surface seismic velocity changes in a salt-dominated environment due to shaking and thermal stressing (United States)

    Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Kind, Rainer; Asch, Günter


    We report on results from a seismic station of the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) showing a superior sensitivity of seismic velocity changes in the surrounding medium to shaking and temperature. 5 years of daily autocorrelations of the IPOC network are analyzed with passive image interferometry. Due to the particular geological conditions we observe a high sensitivity of the medium around the station near Patache (PATCX) resulting in annual periodic velocity variations and temporary velocity reductions induced by ground shaking. We observe a linear relationship between the amplitude of the velocity reductions and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of nearby earthquakes at station PATCX. Although velocity reductions are also observed at other stations of the IPOC array for the Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake a clear relationship between the PGA of this earthquake and the induced velocity reductions at the different stations is not visible. Furthermore, we observe velocity variations with an annual and daily period. We present different arguments that these periodic changes are caused by variations of the atmospheric temperature. In this context we construct a model that starts at observed temperature variations and evaluates thermal stresses induced by the temperature gradients. Using radiative transfer based sensitivity kernels and third order elastic constants we relate the distribution of thermal stress in the subsurface to observable time shifts of coda waves. The model is able to reproduce the major features confirming that stress changes in the subsurface can be detected with noise based monitoring.

  6. Contrasts between deformation accommodated by induced seismic and aseismic processes revealed by combined monitoring of seismicity and surface deformations: Brady Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Ali, S. T.; Mellors, R. J.; Foxall, W.; Wang, H. F.; Feigl, K. L.; Drakos, P. S.; Zemach, E.


    Fluid pressure change accompanying pumping in the Brady Geothermal Field is associated with two easily measureable deformation responses: (1) surface deformations and 2) seismic slip. Surface deformation can be imaged by InSAR and appears to correspond to volume change at depth. Seismic slip on fractures is likely induced by either changes in effective normal stress or solid stress with minimal impact to volume. Both responses have potential impact on permeability structure due to dilation or compaction along natural fractures. We present an integrated data set that compares pumping records with these deformation responses to investigate their coupling and to constrain the geometry and rheology of the reservoir and surrounding crust. We also seek to clarify the relationship between induced seismicity and pumping. Currently, the dominant pumping signal is pressure reduction resulting from on-going production since 1992. Surface subsidence extends over a region of approximately 5 km by 2 km with the long axis along the strike of the major normal faults associated with the reservoir. Smaller approximately 1 km length-scale regions of intense subsidence are associated bends or intersections among individual normal fault segments. Modeling of the deformation source indicates that the broader subsidence pattern is consistent with the majority of fluid extraction from a reservoir at a depth of approximately 1 km and extending along the entire length of the mapped Brady normal fault. The more intense subsidence is consistent with fluid extraction along steep conduits from shallower depths that extend to the main reservoir. These results indicate a reservoir much larger than would be expected from the footprint of the production wells. In contrast, seismicity is primarily concentrated along a narrow path between injecting and producing wells, but outside the regions of most intense subsidence. Overall, seismicity represents only a small fraction of the strain energy

  7. Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.


    A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS

  8. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Öncel


    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  9. Electric Signals on and under the Ground Surface Induced by Seismic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Takeuchi


    Full Text Available We constructed three observation sites in northeastern Japan (Honjo, Kyowa, and Sennan with condenser-type large plate electrodes (4 × 4 m2 as sensors supported 4 m above the ground and with pairs of reference electrodes buried vertically at 0.5 m and 2.5 m depth (with a ground velocity sensor at Sennan only. Electrical signals of an earthquake (M6.3 in northeastern Japan were detected simultaneously with seismic waves. Their waveforms were damped oscillations, with greatly differing signal amplitudes among sites. Good positive correlation was found between the amplitudes of signals detected by all electrodes. We propose a signal generation model: seismic acceleration vertically shook pore water in the topsoil, generating the vertical streaming potential between the upper unsaturated water zone and the lower saturated water zone. Maximum electric earth potential difference was observed when one electrode was in the saturated water zone, and the other was within the unsaturated water zone, but not when the electrodes were in the saturated water zone. The streaming potential formed a charge on the ground surface, generating a vertical atmospheric electric field. The large plate electrode detected electric signals related to electric potential differences between the electrode and the ground surface.

  10. Shear wave velocity estimation of the near-surface materials of Chittagong City, Bangladesh for seismic site characterization (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Zillur; Siddiqua, Sumi; Kamal, A. S. M. Maksud


    The average shear wave velocity of the near-surface materials down to a depth of 30 m (Vs30) is essential for seismic site characterization to estimate the local amplification factor of the seismic waves during an earthquake. Chittagong City is one of the highest risk cities of Bangladesh for its seismic vulnerability. In the present study, the Vs30 is estimated for Chittagong City using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), small scale microtremor measurement (SSMM), downhole seismic (DS), and correlation between the shear wave velocity (Vs) and standard penetration test blow count (SPT-N). The Vs30 of the near-surface materials of the city varies from 123 m/s to 420 m/s. A Vs30 map is prepared from the Vs30 of each 30 m grid using the relationship between the Holocene soil thickness and the Vs30. Based on the Vs30, the near-surface materials of Chittagong City are classified as site classes C, D, and E according to the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), USA and as site classes B, C, and D according to the Eurocode 8. The Vs30 map can be used for seismic microzonation, future planning, and development of the city to improve the earthquake resiliency of the city.

  11. Probing the internal structure of the asteriod Didymoon with a passive seismic investigation (United States)

    Murdoch, N.; Hempel, S.; Pou, L.; Cadu, A.; Garcia, R. F.; Mimoun, D.; Margerin, L.; Karatekin, O.


    Understanding the internal structure of an asteroid has important implications for interpreting its evolutionary history, for understanding its continuing geological evolution, and also for asteroid deflection and in-situ space resource utilisation. Given the strong evidence that asteroids are seismically active, an in-situ passive seismic experiment could provide information about the asteroid surface and interior properties. Here, we discuss the natural seismic activity that may be present on Didymoon, the secondary component of asteroid (65803) Didymos. Our analysis of the tidal stresses in Didymoon shows that tidal quakes are likely to occur if the secondary has an eccentric orbit. Failure occurs most easily at the asteroid poles and close to the surface for both homogeneous and layered internal structures. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in Didymoon show that the seismic moment of even small meteoroid impacts can generate clearly observable body and surface waves if the asteroid's internal structure is homogeneous. The presence of a regolith layer over a consolidated core can result in the seismic energy becoming trapped in the regolith due to the strong impedance contrast at the regolith-core boundary. The inclusion of macro-porosity (voids) further complexifies the wavefield due to increased scattering. The most prominent seismic waves are always found to be those traveling along the surface of the asteroid and those focusing in the antipodal point of the seismic source. We find also that the waveforms and ground acceleration spectra allow discrimination between the different internal structure models. Although the science return of a passive seismic experiment would be enhanced by having multiple seismic stations, one single seismic station can already vastly improve our knowledge about the seismic environment and sub-surface structure of an asteroid. We describe several seismic measurement techniques that could be applied in order to study the

  12. On the value of frequency-dependent traveltime tomography for surface-seismic data (United States)

    Jordi, Claudio; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Greenhalgh, Stewart


    Frequency-dependent traveltime tomography does not rely on the high-frequency assumption made in classical (asymptotic ray-theory based) tomography. By incorporating the influence of velocity structures in a nearby region (called the first Fresnel volume) around the central ray, it offers a more realistic and accurate representation of the actual physics of seismic wave propagation and thus, improved imaging of the subsurface is expected. Improvements in seismic imaging include the recovery of additional information on the subsurface model, enhanced (model) resolution and better detection and delineation of low velocity zones. It has been argued that finite-frequency effects on traveltimes may be more pronounced in near-surface imaging considering the typical seismic wavelengths and dimensions of heterogeneities compared to global-scale traveltime tomography. To account for the finite frequency characteristics of seismic data, a so-called fat-ray tomography algorithm was developed. The algorithm forms the sum of source and receiver (adjoint) traveltime fields, calculated by finite-difference modeling of the eikonal equation, to determine the necessary Fresnel volumes and sensitivity kernels for the tomographic inversion. Using different scale surface-seismic synthetic data examples, the imaging capabilities of the fat-ray tomography algorithm were investigated and compared to the results of classical ray tomography. The velocity fields used to generate the synthetic data were chosen to emulate two real field data sets, to which the fat-ray tomography was also applied. The first real data example is a large-scale data set (profile length > 10 km) acquired for hydrocarbon search; the second data set was recorded for high-resolution near-surface imaging of a Quaternary valley (profile length < 1 km). Resolution of the tomograms was assessed on the basis of checkerboard tests and a column sum of the sensitivity matrix. For the synthetic data examples as well as for the

  13. 地铁地下车站抗震性能分析方法%Analysis Method of Seismic Behavior for Metro Underground Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周灿朗; 龙喜安


    以佛山地铁三号线荔村站实际工程为背景,讨论了反应位移法和时程分析法两种地下车站结构抗震性能分析方法。反应位移法以一维土层地震反应计算为前提,以结构周围土体在地震作用下的变形值为基础,建立了地铁车站二维结构模型,利用变形值计算出等效地震作用力,以静荷载的形式加载于结构模型中,并将地震响应结果与静力法计算结果进行了对比,总结了地铁车站在地震作用下的内力变化规律。时程分析法以动力有限元理论为基础,从半无限空间选取有限土体,采用了粘弹性人工边界,对选用的地震波记录值进行了合理调整,采用了计算方便、节约内存且其计算精度较高的瑞利振型阻尼,基于Midas GTS NX软件,建立了结构和周围土层作为整体计算模型,通过模态分析求解了结构体系各阶的自振频率和各阶振型,模拟了地下结构在地震荷载下的动态特性,揭示了地铁车站在地震作用下的位移时程反应及变形规律;最终通过两种抗震性能分析方法为地铁车站结构的抗震设计提供了依据。%The two analysis methods of structural seismic (response displacement method and time history analysis method) are discussed in this paper for the underground station based on the actual project of Li Cun Station in Metro line No.3 in Foshan. The response displacement method is on the premise of seismic response calculation of one-dimensional soil layer, and is on the basis of deformation value of the surrounding soils under earthquake action. Two-dimensional structure model is established for the subway station and the equivalent earthquake force is calculated by using the deformation value, which is loaded in the structural model in static form. The re-sults of seismic response and static method are compared and the change law of internal force is summarized. Be-sides, the time history

  14. Optimizing measurement geometry for seismic near-surface full waveform inversion (United States)

    Nuber, André; Manukyan, Edgar; Maurer, Hansruedi


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is an increasingly popular tool for analysing seismic data. Current practise is to record seismic data sets that are suitable for reflection processing, that is, a very dense spatial sampling and a high fold are required. Using tools from optimized experimental design (ED), we demonstrate that such a dense sampling is not necessary for FWI purposes. With a simple noise-free acoustic example, we show that only a few suitably selected source positions are required for computing high-quality images. A second, more extensive study includes elastic FWI with noise-contaminated data and free-surface boundary conditions on a typical near-surface setup, where surface waves play a crucial role. The study reveals that it is sufficient to employ a receiver spacing in the order of the minimum shear wavelength expected. Furthermore, we show that horizontally oriented sources and multicomponent receivers are the preferred option for 2-D elastic FWI, and we found that with a small amount of carefully selected source positions, similarly good results can be achieved, as if as many sources as receivers would have been employed. For the sake of simplicity, we assume in our simulations that the full data information content is available, but data pre-processing and the presence of coloured noise may impose restrictions. Our ED procedure requires an a priori subsurface model as input, but tests indicate that a relatively crude approximation to the true model is adequate. A further pre-requisite of our ED algorithm is that a suitable inversion strategy exists that accounts for the non-linearity of the FWI problem. Here, we assume that such a strategy is available. For the sake of simplicity, we consider only 2-D FWI experiments in this study, but our ED algorithm is sufficiently general and flexible, such that it can be adapted to other configurations, such as crosshole, vertical seismic profiling or 3-D surface setups, also including larger scale

  15. Study on Removal Distance of a Crushing Station in Buzhaoba Surface Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A semi-continuous technology combines the merits of discontinuous and continuous technologies. Compared with the discontinuous technology, the semi-continuous technology can be used to decrease haulage costs in mines because of the use of a belt conveyor instead of trucks. The method may improve efficiency by using shovels instead of BWE. This paper discusses the removal distance of a crushing station based on the Buzhaoba surface mine.

  16. Surface flow observations from a gauge-cam station on the Tiber river (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Petroselli, Andrea; Grimaldi, Salvatore


    Understanding the kinematic organization of natural water bodies is central to hydrology and environmental engineering practice. Reliable and continuous flow observations are essential to comprehend flood generation and propagation mechanisms, erosion dynamics, sediment transport, and drainage network evolution. In engineering practice, flood warning systems largely rely on real-time discharge measurements, and flow velocity monitoring is important for the design and management of hydraulic structures, such as reservoirs and hydropower plants. Traditionally, gauging stations have been equipped with water level meters, and stage-discharge relationships (rating curves) have been established through few direct discharge measurements. Only in rare instances, monitoring stations have integrated radar technology for local measurement of surface flow velocity. Establishing accurate rating curves depends on the availability of a comprehensive range of discharge values, including measurements recorded during extreme events. However, discharge values during high-flow events are often difficult or even impossible to obtain, thereby hampering the reliability of discharge predictions. Fully remote observations have been enabled in the past ten years through optics-based velocimetry techniques. Such methodologies enable the estimation of the surface flow velocity field over extended regions from the motion of naturally occurring debris or floaters dragged by the current. Resting on the potential demonstrated by such approaches, here, we present a novel permanent gauge-cam station for the observation of the flow velocity field in the Tiber river. This new station captures one-minute videos every 10 minutes over an area of up to 20.6 × 15.5m2. In a feasibility study, we demonstrate that experimental images analyzed via particle tracking velocimetry and particle image velocimetry can be used to obtain accurate surface flow velocity estimations in close agreement with radar records

  17. S-wave velocities down to 1 km below the Peteroa volcano, Argentina, obtained from surface waves retrieved by means of ambient-noise seismic interferometry (United States)

    Lepore, Simone; Gomez, Martin; Draganov, Deyan


    The main force driving the tectonics in South America is the subduction of the Nazca Plate below the South American plate. The subduction process generated numerous volcanoes in both Chile and Argentina, of which the majority is concentrated along the Chilean Argentine border. The recent explosive eruptions of some volcanoescaused concern of the population in both countries. At the beginning of 2012, a large temporary array was installed in the Malargüe region, Mendoza, Argentina, with the purpose of imaging the subsurface and monitoring the tectonic activity. The array was deployed until the end of 2012 to record continuously ambient noise and the local, regional, and global seismicity. It consisted of 38 seismic stations divided in two sub arrays, namely the PV array of six stations located on the east flank of the Peteroa volcano, and the T array of thirty two stations spread out on a plateau just north east of the town of Malargüe. Here,the focus will be on the PV array, which has a patch-like shape. Due to the intra-station distances, we chose to use for surface-wave retrieval the bands 0.8 Hz ÷ 4.0 Hz, 10 Hz ÷ 25 Hz. At the investigated area, most of the year there is little anthropogenic noise, which normally dominates frequencies above 1 Hz, meaning that the selected frequency bands can be used for surface-wave retrieval from noise. Using beamforming, we showed that for these bands, the noise is illuminating the stations from the west. This means that a correct surface-wave arrivals can be retrieved for station pairs oriented in that direction. Because of this, we used for retrieval only such station pairs. We cross-correlated the recordings on the vertical components and retrieved Rayleigh waves. By manual picking, we estimated for both bands velocity dispersion curves from the retrieved surface-wave arrivals. The curves were then inverted to obtain the velocity structure under the stations. The obtained S wave velocity depth profiles for the 10 Hz

  18. Dynamics of the 2007 Eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and the Related Caldera Collapse from a Single Very Broad-band Seismic Station (United States)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Roult, Geneviève; Michon, Laurent; Barruol, Guilhem; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Di Muro, Andrea; Reymond, Dominique; Peltier, Aline; Staudacher, Thomas


    Seismic records from the RER very broad-band seismic station (La Réunion Island) belonging to the GEOSCOPE network are investigated to understand the eruptive succession (February to May) of Piton de la Fournaise and the caldera collapse episode of April 2007. Data first indicate that the short-lived, small volume, summit eruption of February 18 occurred during a phase of continuous inflation initiated in January 2007. Inflation decelerated around 2 weeks before a second short-lived small volume eruption on March 30-31 on the SE flank, almost simultaneous with a sudden, large deflation of the edifice. Deflation rate, which had stabilized at a relatively low level, increased anew on April 1 while no magma was emitted, followed on April 2 by a more distant and one of the most voluminous eruptions of the last two centuries at La Réunion Island. The RER station shows that very long period (VLP) and ultra long period (ULP) events developed during this period. Seven ULP events preceded the caldera collapse and 48 ones occurred during the caldera collapse over 9 days, most of which during the first 30 hours. A thorough examination of the seismic signals corrected for tide effects shows that each collapse event was coeval with VLP and ULP signals. Each individual collapse showed similar ULP and VLP signals characterized by periods of ~ 500 s and ~ 7 s, respectively. The back-azimuth of most ULP signals related to the caldera collapse points clearly toward the Dolomieu caldera. The strikingly constant duration of the VLP signals (around 20 s) related to the collapse events and their occurrence before the collapse initiation suggest a physical control of the volcanic edifice. Waveforms and spectrograms of the various caldera collapse events show very homogeneous patterns, suggesting a similar and repeating volcano-tectonic process for the formation of the VLP signals events. Although tilt may be responsible of part of the ULP signals observed during the collapse events, we

  19. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo


    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  20. Radiation exposure to the orbiting lunar station and lunar surface related to reusable nuclear shuttle operations (United States)

    Hutchinson, P. I.


    The radiation environment created by the Reusable Nuclear Vehicle (RNS) in performing its normal mission functions while in the lunar vicinity and the impact of that environment on the Orbiting Lunar Station (OLS) and/or the lunar surface are examined. Lunar surface exposures from the operating reactor were evaluated for both the arrival and departure burns and while there is little probability that manned bases would lie along the paths in which measurable exposures would be recorded, the analyses do indicate the need to consider this possibility in planning such operations. Conclusions supported by the analyses and recommended operational constraints for the RNS are presented.

  1. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL.

  2. Refinements to the method of epicentral location based on surface waves from ambient seismic noise: introducing Love waves (United States)

    Levshin, Anatoli L.; Barmin, Mikhail P.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mendoza, Carlos; Ritzwoller, Michael H.


    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a modification to a previous method of regional seismic event location based on Empirical Green’s Functions (EGFs) produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long ambient noise time-series recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh- and Love-wave energy on the vertical and transverse components, respectively, and we utilize these signals between about 5 and 12 s period. The previous method, based exclusively on Rayleigh waves, may yield biased epicentral locations for certain event types with hypocentral depths between 2 and 5 km. Here we present theoretical arguments that show how Love waves can be introduced to reduce or potentially eliminate the bias. We also present applications of Rayleigh- and Love-wave EGFs to locate 10 reference events in the western United States. The separate Rayleigh and Love epicentral locations and the joint locations using a combination of the two waves agree to within 1 km distance, on average, but confidence ellipses are smallest when both types of waves are used.

  3. Multi-parameter Full-waveform Inversion for Acoustic VTI Medium with Surface Seismic Data (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Jiao, K.; Sun, D.; Huang, W.; Vigh, D.


    Full-waveform Inversion (FWI) attracts wide attention recently in oil and gas industry as a new promising tool for high resolution subsurface velocity model building. While the traditional common image point gather based tomography method aims to focus post-migrated data in depth domain, FWI aims to directly fit the observed seismic waveform in either time or frequency domain. The inversion is performed iteratively by updating the velocity fields to reduce the difference between the observed and the simulated data. It has been shown the inversion is very sensitive to the starting velocity fields, and data with long offsets and low frequencies is crucial for the success of FWI to overcome this sensitivity. Considering the importance of data with long offsets and low frequencies, in most geologic environment, anisotropy is an unavoidable topic for FWI especially at long offsets, since anisotropy tends to have more pronounced effects on waves traveled for a great distance. In VTI medium, this means more horizontal velocity will be registered in middle-to-long offset data, while more vertical velocity will be registered in near-to-middle offset data. Up to date, most of real world applications of FWI still remain in isotropic medium, and only a few studies have been shown to account for anisotropy. And most of those studies only account for anisotropy in waveform simulation, but not invert for those anisotropy fields. Multi-parameter inversion for anisotropy fields, even in VTI medium, remains as a hot topic in the field. In this study, we develop a strategy for multi-parameter FWI for acoustic VTI medium with surface seismic data. Because surface seismic data is insensitivity to the delta fields, we decide to hold the delta fields unchanged during our inversion, and invert only for vertical velocity and epsilon fields. Through parameterization analysis and synthetic tests, we find that it is more feasible to invert for the parameterization as vertical and horizontal

  4. Radiochemical analyses of surface water from U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic bench-mark stations (United States)

    Janzer, V.J.; Saindon, L.G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey's program for collecting and analyzing surface-water samples for radiochemical constituents at hydrologic bench-mark stations is described. Analytical methods used during the study are described briefly and data obtained from 55 of the network stations in the United States during the period from 1967 to 1971 are given in tabular form.Concentration values are reported for dissolved uranium, radium, gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity. Values are also given for suspended gross alpha radioactivity in terms of natural uranium. Suspended gross beta radioactivity is expressed both as the equilibrium mixture of strontium-90/yttrium-90 and as cesium-137.Other physical parameters reported which describe the samples include the concentrations of dissolved and suspended solids, the water temperature and stream discharge at the time of the sample collection.

  5. A novel permanent gauge-cam station for surface-flow observations on the Tiber River (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Petroselli, Andrea; Porfiri, Maurizio; Giandomenico, Lorenzo; Bernardi, Guido; Mele, Francesco; Spina, Domenico; Grimaldi, Salvatore


    Flow monitoring of riverine environments is crucial for hydrology and hydraulic engineering practice. Besides few experimental implementations, flow gauging relies on local water level and surface-flow velocity measurements through ultrasonic meters and radars. In this paper, we describe a novel permanent gauge-cam station for large-scale and continuous observation of surface flows, based on remote acquisition and calibration of video data. Located on the Tiber River, in the center of Rome, Italy, the station captures 1 min videos every 10 min over an area oriented along the river cross section of up to 20.6 × 15.5 m2. In a feasibility study, we demonstrate that accurate surface-flow velocity estimations can be obtained by analyzing experimental images via particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). In medium illumination conditions (70-75 lux), PTV leads to velocity estimations in close agreement with radar records and is less affected by uneven lighting than large-scale particle image velocimetry. Future efforts will be devoted to the development of a comprehensive test bed infrastructure for investigating the potential of multiple optics-based approaches for surface hydrology.

  6. 武汉九峰地震台超导重力仪观测分析研究%Observation of superconducting gravimeter at Jiufeng seismic station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦进; 李辉; 刘子维; 康开轩; 郝洪涛


    The relationship between the mass transfer beneath the earth surface and the vertical deformation could be studied using continuous relative gravimetry and continuous GPS observation. Compared to mobile relative gravimetry and absolute gravimetry, continuous relative gravimetry could be used to monitor the whole process of gravity changes and mass transfer, avoiding low measurement precision and temporal resolution. In this paper, more than 13000 hours gravity data recorded at Jiufeng seismic station using superconducting gravimetry (SGC053) are analyzed along with co-located absolute gravimetry data, air pressure, vertical displacement of surrounding GPS stations, WUHN IGS site and WHJF site, GRACE monthly time-variable gravity and two global continental water storage models (GLDAS, CPC). Gravity variations induced by solid earth tide, air pressure, pole tide and continental water loading are corrected using harmonic analysis method, atmospheric pressure admittance model, pole tide model and the correlation analysis with GRACE results and/or water storage models, then instrument drift is also corrected using co-located absolute gravity measurements. Based on the above processing, the relationship between the residual gravity time series and GPS vertical deformation is addressed. The harmonic analysis result for SGC053 gravity records, spanning about one and half years, shows that the white noise is about 1. 14~1. 40 × 10~8m· s-z and the tidal factor errors of dominant tidal groups reach about 0. l%o. Compared to ocean tide loading (3×10-8m·s-2) , the gravity due to air pressure (12×10-8m·s-2) and pole tide (10×lCT8m·s-2) is much larger. The drift of SGC053, about 2. 18X l(T8(m ?s"2)/a, is estimated using 4 absolute gravity co-located records of FG5-232. The result shows that the residual gravity caused by continental water loading in summer and autumn is about (6~8)×10~8m·s~2, by comparing residual gravity variations with both GARCE result and global

  7. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.


    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  8. Data Collected in 1959 by English Research Vessels at Serial and Surface Hydrographic Stations (NODC Accession 6900852) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present volume contains data collected in 1959 by English research vessels at serial and surface hydrographic stations. The data list are preceded by a number of...

  9. Imaging Geological Structures Up to the Acquisition Surface Using a Hybrid Refraction-Reflection Seismic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes M.


    Full Text Available The aim of seismic imaging is to reconstruct the reflectivity associated with subsurface structures. In standard imaging techniques, the reflectivity model usually starts a few meters below the surface, the actual depth being dependent on data acquisition parameters and the mute used to remove stretching of first arrivals after normal moveout correction. In this paper, we describe a method to image the reflectivity of near-surface structures starting from the acquisition surface. This is achieved by processing both the first arrivals and the reflected phases present in data collected for refraction surveys. The proposed imaging procedure works in three steps. First, we obtain a velocity model for the shallow region by combining the Plus-Minus method of refraction interpretation with tomographic inversion of first arrival times. Second, by processing reflection events present in the refraction data, we obtain a standard reflectivity section for the deeper region. Finally, we compute reflectivity for the shallow region using the velocity model estimated from first arrival information in step 1. This velocity model is used both to compute reflectivity and to convert it in time. The reflectivity obtained for the shallow region is associated with velocity contrasts. In order to merge it with the reflectivity section for the deeper region a scaling factor between the two sets of reflectivity sections must be computed and applied. The novelty of this contribution is the use the tomographic velocity model in evaluating reflectivity for the upper part of the section. This improves the continuity of information about all near-surface structures in comparison with previous works that were limited to reflection data. Three field examples illustrate the proposed procedure showing continuous information about reflectivity of structures starting from the acquisition surface.

  10. Seismic data enhancement and regularization using finite offset Common Diffraction Surface (CDS) stack (United States)

    Garabito, German; Cruz, João Carlos Ribeiro; Oliva, Pedro Andrés Chira; Söllner, Walter


    The Common Reflection Surface stack is a robust method for simulating zero-offset and common-offset sections with high accuracy from multi-coverage seismic data. For simulating common-offset sections, the Common-Reflection-Surface stack method uses a hyperbolic traveltime approximation that depends on five kinematic parameters for each selected sample point of the common-offset section to be simulated. The main challenge of this method is to find a computationally efficient data-driven optimization strategy for accurately determining the five kinematic stacking parameters on which each sample of the stacked common-offset section depends. Several authors have applied multi-step strategies to obtain the optimal parameters by combining different pre-stack data configurations. Recently, other authors used one-step data-driven strategies based on a global optimization for estimating simultaneously the five parameters from multi-midpoint and multi-offset gathers. In order to increase the computational efficiency of the global optimization process, we use in this paper a reduced form of the Common-Reflection-Surface traveltime approximation that depends on only four parameters, the so-called Common Diffraction Surface traveltime approximation. By analyzing the convergence of both objective functions and the data enhancement effect after applying the two traveltime approximations to the Marmousi synthetic dataset and a real land dataset, we conclude that the Common-Diffraction-Surface approximation is more efficient within certain aperture limits and preserves at the same time a high image accuracy. The preserved image quality is also observed in a direct comparison after applying both approximations for simulating common-offset sections on noisy pre-stack data.

  11. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.


    microzonation map based on generalized velocity profiles, where the amplifications were computed using Shake (Schnable and others, 1972), along with an assumed input ground motion. The velocities were constrained by only a few local measurements associated with the Central Artery/Tunnel project. The additional VS measurements presented in this report provide a number of benefits. First, these measurements provide improved spatial coverage. Second, the larger sample size provides better constraints on the mean and variance of the VS distribution for each layer, which may be paired with a three-dimensional (3D) model of the stratigraphy to generate one-dimensional (1D) profiles for use in a standard site-response analysis (for example, Britton, 2003). Third, the velocity profiles may also be used, along with a 3D model of the stratigraphy, as input into a 3D simulation of the ground motion to investigate the effects of basin-generated surface waves and the potential focusing of seismic waves.This report begins with a short review of the geology of the study area and the field methods that we used to estimate the velocity profiles. The raw data, processed data, and the interpreted VS profiles are given in appendix 1. Photographs and descriptions of the sites are provided in appendix 2.

  12. Comparison of P- and S-wave velocity profiles obtained from surface seismic refraction/reflection and downhole data (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.


    High-resolution seismic-reflection/refraction data were acquired on the ground surface at six locations to compare with near-surface seismic-velocity downhole measurements. Measurement sites were in Seattle, WA, the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, and the San Fernando Valley, CA. We quantitatively compared the data in terms of the average shear-wave velocity to 30-m depth (Vs30), and by the ratio of the relative site amplification produced by the velocity profiles of each data type over a specified set of quarter-wavelength frequencies. In terms of Vs30, similar values were determined from the two methods. There is reflections and first-arrival phase delays are essential for identifying velocity inversions. The results suggest that seismic reflection/refraction data are a fast, non-invasive, and less expensive alternative to downhole data for determining Vs30. In addition, we emphasize that some P- and S-wave reflection travel times can directly indicate the frequencies of potentially damaging earthquake site resonances. A strong correlation between the simple S-wave first-arrival travel time/apparent velocity on the ground surface at 100 m offset from the seismic source and the Vs30 value for that site is an additional unique feature of the reflection/refraction data that could greatly simplify Vs30 determinations. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface deformation due to the M6.5 Lefkada earthquake (17 November 2015) exploiting SENTINEL-1 and GNSS observations. Implications for seismic hazard. (United States)

    Elias, Panagiotis; Ganas, Athanassios; Briole, Pierre; Parcharidis, Isaak; Avallone, Antonio; Roukounakis, Nikos; Argyrakis, Panagiotis; Roger, Marine; Cheloni, Daniele; Tolomei, Cristiano; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Moraitini, Evelyn; Papanikolaou, Marios; Papastergios, Asterios


    The 17 November 2015 M=6.5 Lefkada earthquake in the Ionian sea, Greece, produced tens of centimetres of co-seismic motion in both Lefkada and Cephalonia islands. We present the full picture of the co-seismic displacements as mapped by space geodetic techniques, Sentinel 1A INSAR and permanent GNSS stations. We use this data together with the constraints from seismology to invert for fault localisation , size and slip distribution. We observed post-seismic displacements throughout most of southern Lefkada and northern Cephalonia islands recorded at the two NOA GNSS stations of PONT and SPAN and four additional permanent and six campaign GNSS stations established after the earthquake. Those displacements range from a few centimetres near the epicentre to a few millimetres far from the fault. We model the post-seismic displacements as due to uniform slip on the same fault plane that ruptured during the main event. The model shows a right-lateral afterslip along the fault but with slightly larger extension in comparison to the co-seismic slip, less shallow and deeper. This transient strain followed the main event during a short period of 80 days as modelled with an exponential law. Currently, the post-seismic deformation is being investigated by exploiting multi-temporal Sentinel 1A/B InSAR processed among others with ESA's Geohazards Exploitation Platform and SNAP software. The first challenging issue is the coherence which is not high in the area due to the vegetation cover. The second one is the correction of the tropospheric component. We estimate it using the tropospheric delay at the permanent GNSS stations and by using an meteorological model based on the WRF refined at the spatial resolution of 1 km. The earthquakes occurred in the Central Ionian area since 1983, studied both by seismology and space geodesy imply a seismic gap offshore NW Cephalonia that needs to be monitored.

  14. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel


    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  15. Detecting climate rationality and homogeneities of sea surface temperature data in Longkou marine station using surface air temperature (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Huan; Wang, Qingyuan; Wang, Guosong; Fan, Wenjing


    This study presents a systematic evaluation of the climate rationality and homogeneity of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) in Longkou marine station from 1960 to 2011. The reference series are developed using adjacent surface air temperature (SAT) on a monthly timescale. The results suggest SAT as a viable option for use in evaluating climate rationality and homogeneity in the SST data on the coastal China Seas. According to the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and SAT of the adjacent meteorological stations, we confirm that there is no climate shift in 1972/1973 and then the climate shift in 1972/1973 is corrected. Besides, the SST time series has serious problems of inhomogeneity. Three documented break points have been checked using penalized maximum T (PMT) test and metadata. The changes in observation instruments and observation system are the main causes of the break points. For the monthly SST time series, the negative adjustments may be greatly due to the SST decreasing after automation. It is found that the increasing trend of annual mean SST after adjustment is higher than before, about 0.24 °C/10 yr.

  16. Layering of surface snow and firn at Kohnen Station, Antarctica: Noise or seasonal signal? (United States)

    Laepple, Thomas; Hörhold, Maria; Münch, Thomas; Freitag, Johannes; Wegner, Anna; Kipfstuhl, Sepp


    The density of firn is an important property for monitoring and modeling the ice sheets as well as to model the pore close-off and thus to interpret ice core-based greenhouse gas records. One feature, which is still in debate, is the potential existence of an annual cycle of firn density in low-accumulation regions. Several studies describe or assume seasonally successive density layers, horizontally evenly distributed, as seen in radar data. On the other hand, high-resolution density measurements on firn cores in Antarctica and Greenland show no clear seasonal cycle in the top few meters. A major caveat of most existing snow-pit and firn-core-based studies is that they represent one vertical profile from a laterally heterogeneous density field. To overcome this, we created an extensive data set of horizontal and vertical density data at Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, on the East Antarctic Plateau. We drilled and analyzed three 90 m long firn cores as well as 143 one-meter-long vertical profiles from two elongated snow trenches to obtain a two-dimensional view of the density variations. The analysis of the 45 m wide and 1 m deep density fields reveals a seasonal cycle in density. However, the seasonality is overprinted by strong stratigraphic noise, making it invisible when analyzing single firn cores. Our density data set extends the view from the local ice core perspective to a hundred meter scale and thus supports linking spatially integrating methods such as radar and seismic studies to ice and firn cores.

  17. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface observations and profiles over a single station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Zhaoxia [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    Most routine measurements from climate study facilities, such as the Department of Energy’s ARM SGP site, come from individual sites over a long period of time. While single-station data are very useful for many studies, it is challenging to obtain 3-dimensional spatial structures of atmospheric boundary layers that include prominent signatures of deep convection from these data. The principal objective of this project is to create realistic estimates of high-resolution (~ 1km × 1km horizontal grids) atmospheric boundary layer structure and the characteristics of precipitating convection. These characteristics include updraft and downdraft cumulus mass fluxes and cold pool properties over a region the size of a GCM grid column from analyses that assimilate surface mesonet observations of wind, temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio and available profiling data from single or multiple surface stations. The ultimate goal of the project is to enhance our understanding of the properties of mesoscale convective systems and also to improve their representation in analysis and numerical simulations. During the proposed period (09/15/2011–09/14/2014) and the no-cost extension period (09/15/2014–09/14/2015), significant accomplishments have been achieved relating to the stated goals. Efforts have been extended to various research and applications. Results have been published in professional journals and presented in related science team meetings and conferences. These are summarized in the report.

  18. Imaging Near-Surface Controls on Hot Spring Expression Using Shallow Seismic Refraction in Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Price, A. N.; Lindsey, C.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.


    We used shallow seismic refraction to image near-surface materials in the vicinity of a small group of hot springs, located in the Morning Mist Springs area of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Seismic velocities in the area surveyed range from a low of 0.3 km/s to a high of approximately 2.5 km/s. The survey results indicate an irregular surface topography overlain by silty sediments. The observed seismic velocities are consistent with a subsurface model in which sorted sands and gravels, probably outwash materials from the Pinedale glaciation, are overlain by silts and fine sands deposited in the flat-lying areas of the Morning Springs area. These findings are supported by published geologic maps of the area and well logs from a nearby borehole. The near-surface materials appear to be saturated with discharging hydrothermal fluids of varying temperature, and interbedded with semi-lithified geothermal deposits (sinter). We hypothesize that the relatively low-conductivity deposits of fines at the surface may serve to confine a shallow, relatively low-temperature (sub-boiling) hydrothermal aquifer, and that the distribution of sinter in the shallow subsurface plays an important role in determining the geometry of hydrothermal discharge (hot springs) at the land surface. Few studies of the shallow controls on hot spring expression exist for the Yellowstone caldera, and the present study therefore offers a unique glimpse into near-subsurface fluid flow controls.

  19. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project (United States)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin


    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  20. Development of near surface seismic methods for urban and mining applications (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Brodic, Bojan; Place, Joachim; Juhlin, Christopher; Bastani, Mehrdad


    There is a great need to improve our understanding of the geological conditions in the shallow subsurface. Direct observations of the subsurface are cumbersome and expensive, and sometimes impossible. Urban and mining areas are especially challenging due to various sources of noise such as from traffic, buildings, cars, city trains, trams, bridges and high-voltage power-lines. Access is also restricted both in time and space, which requires the equipment to be versatile, fast to set up and pack, and produces the least disruptions. However, if properly designed and implemented, geophysical methods are capable of imaging detailed subsurface structures and can successfully be used to provide crucial information for site characterizations, infrastructure planning, brown- and near-field exploration, and mine planning. To address some of these issues Uppsala University, in collaboration with a number of public authorities, research organizations and industry partners, has recently developed a prototype broadband (0-800 Hz based on digital sensors) multi-component seismic landstreamer system. The current configuration consists of three segments with twenty 3C-sensors each 2 m apart and an additional segment with twenty 3C-sensors each 4 m apart, giving a total streamer length of 200 m. These four segments can be towed in parallel or in series, which in combination with synchronized wireless and cabled sensors can address a variety of complex near surface problems. The system is especially geared for noisy environments and areas where high-resolution images of the subsurface are needed. The system has little sensitivity to electrical noise and measures sensor tilt, important in rough terrains, so it can immediately be corrected for during the acquisition. Thanks to the digital sensors, the system can also be used for waveform tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Both these methods require low frequencies and these are often sacrificed in

  1. High-resolution seismic profiling: development of acquisition, processing, and interpretation for the practical implementation of the method in shallow sub-surface exploration and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.


    In the last few years there has been a general increase in the activities in the field of high-resolution seismic profiling. A growing interest in shallow sub-surface exploration probably underlies this development. Major attention is paid to the adaptation of highresolution seismic profiling for en

  2. High-resolution seismic profiling : development of acquisition, processing, and interpretation for the practical implementation of the method in shallow sub-surface exploration and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.


    In the last few years there has been a general increase in the activities in the field of high-resolution seismic profiling. A growing interest in shallow sub-surface exploration probably underlies this development. Major attention is paid to the adaptation of highresolution seismic profiling for en



    Hollender, F.; Cornou, C; Dechamp, A; Renalier, F.; Thomassin, S; Bard, P.-Y.


    International audience; Data provided by accelerometric networks are important for seismic hazard assessment. They are key to derive Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The correct use of accelerometric signal is also linked to the station site metadata that include reliable information about site class (VS30), velocity profiles, and other relevant information that can help to quantify the site effect associated to stations. In France, the permanent accelerometric network consists of ...

  4. Ground Truth Location of Earthquakes by Use of Ambient Seismic Noise From a Sparse Seismic Network: A Case Study in Western Australia (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Xie, Jun; Ni, Sidao


    The estimated Green's function (EGF) extracted from the ambient seismic noise cross-correlation function (NCF) enables valuable calibration of surface wave propagation along the path connecting seismic stations. Such calibration is adopted in a new method for ground truth location of earthquakes, achieved from the location relative to a seismic station. The surface wave group travel times were obtained from the NCFs between a station near the earthquake and remote stations. The differential travel times from the NCFs and the surface wave of the earthquake were used in a relative location procedure. When this method was applied to earthquake location with only six seismic stations in western Australia, the location of the Mw 4.1 Kalannie (September 21, 2005) earthquake was found to be accurate to within 2 km compared with the ground truth location with InSAR for which azimuth coverage of seismic stations is preferable. Synthetic tests suggest that the group travel time is slightly affected by focal mechanism and focal depth, thus unknown earthquake source parameters did not introduce substantial bias to earthquake location with the group travel time method.

  5. Seismic spatial wavefield gradient and rotational rate measurements as new observables in land seismic exploration (United States)

    Schmelzbach, Cedric; Sollberger, David; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Häusler, Mauro; Robertsson, Johan; Greenhalgh, Stewart


    Traditionally, land-seismic data acquisition is conducted using vertical-component sensors. A more complete representation of the seismic wavefield can be obtained by employing multicomponent sensors recording the full vector wavefield. If groups of multicomponent sensors are deployed, then spatial seismic wavefield gradients and rotational rates can be estimated by differencing the outputs of closely spaced sensors. Such data capture all six degrees of freedom of a rigid body (three components of translation and three components of rotation), and hence allow an even more complete representation of the seismic wavefield compared to single station triaxial data. Seismic gradient and rotation data open up new possibilities to process land-seismic data. Potential benefits and applications of wavefield gradient data include local slowness estimation, improved arrival identification, wavefield separation and noise suppression. Using synthetic and field data, we explored the reliability and sensitivity of various multicomponent sensor layouts to estimate seismic wavefield gradients and rotational rates. Due to the wavelength and incidence-angle dependence of sensor-group reception patterns as a function of the number of sensors, station spacing and layout, one has to counterbalance the impacts of truncation errors, random noise attenuation, and sensitivity to perturbations such as amplitude variations and positioning errors when searching for optimum receiver configurations. Field experiments with special rotational rate sensors were used to verify array-based rotational-rate estimates. Seismic wavefield gradient estimates and inferred wavefield attributes such as instantaneous slowness enable improved arrival identification, e.g. wave type and path. Under favorable conditions, seismic-wavefield gradient attributes can be extracted from conventional vertical-component data and used to, for example, enhance the identification of shear waves. A further promising

  6. 物联网技术在浙江省地震台站设备管理中的应用%Application of the internet of things technology in the equipment management of the seismic stations in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉锋; 陈军辉; 张帆


    According to the status that seismic stations have increased while the shortage is existed in equipment management, we designed an intelligent management system, which was based on the technology of radio frequency identifi cation (RFID) and modern communication technology, to achieve the real-time monitoring and inventory of seismic equipment. Compared with the traditional management situation,this system can ensure the equipment management accurate and effi cient operation of seismic stations, at the same time, it helps to provide evidence for the analysis of the seismic equipment failure.%针对目前浙江省地震监测台站不断增多,地震设备管理存在严重不足的现状,设计一种基于射频识别(RFID)技术及现代通信技术的地震设备物联网化智能管理系统,实现对台站设备从采购、仓储、安装、维修、报废等整个生命周期的实时监控与盘点。与传统资产管理模式相比,该系统能确保地震台站设备管理精确和高效运行,并可为地震台站设备故障原因分析提供依据。

  7. Estimation of surface-wave phase velocity from microtremor observation using an array with a reference station (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kato, Kei; Chimoto, Kosuke; Tsuno, Seiji


    A procedure for estimation of Rayleigh wave phase velocities from microtremor observations, using an array with a reference station, is investigated in this study. Simultaneous observation of microtremors at a reference station and at a strong motion observation array in the Kanto Basin, Japan, was carried out. We first calculated cross correlations between records at the reference station and those at stations in the array using a seismic interferometric processing method on a 4300-h data series. After identifying dispersive Rayleigh waves from results of multiple filtering analysis of the cross correlations, semblance analysis of the cross correlations for different segments was carried out to estimate phase velocities for fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waves. The phase velocities from the proposed method are more appropriate than those from conventional methods at long periods as they avoid contamination by higher mode Rayleigh waves. The fundamental Rayleigh wave phase velocities were inverted to an S-wave velocity profile for deep sedimentary layers. We also examined the variations in the phase velocity with decreasing data duration. The phase velocities at periods less than 3 s from 6-h records are similar to those from 4300-h records, suggesting that our method is possibly applicable in microtremor exploration.

  8. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and shallow mantle of the Central and Eastern United States by seismic surface wave imaging (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred; Mooney, Walter D.


    Seismic surface waves from the Transportable Array of EarthScope's USArray are used to estimate phase velocity structure of 18 to 125 s Rayleigh waves, then inverted to obtain three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure of the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) down to ∼200 km. The obtained lithosphere structure confirms previously imaged CEUS features, e.g., the low seismic-velocity signature of the Cambrian Reelfoot Rift and the very low velocity at >150 km depth below an Eocene volcanic center in northwestern Virginia. New features include high-velocity mantle stretching from the Archean Superior Craton well into the Proterozoic terranes and deep low-velocity zones in central Texas (associated with the late Cretaceous Travis and Uvalde volcanic fields) and beneath the South Georgia Rift (which contains Jurassic basalts). Hot spot tracks may be associated with several imaged low-velocity zones, particularly those close to the former rifted Laurentia margin.

  9. Joint inversion of apparent resistivity and seismic surface and body wave data (United States)

    Garofalo, Flora; Sauvin, Guillaume; Valentina Socco, Laura; Lecomte, Isabelle


    A novel inversion algorithm has been implemented to jointly invert apparent resistivity curves from vertical electric soundings, surface wave dispersion curves, and P-wave travel times. The algorithm works in the case of laterally varying layered sites. Surface wave dispersion curves and P-wave travel times can be extracted from the same seismic dataset and apparent resistivity curves can be obtained from continuous vertical electric sounding acquisition. The inversion scheme is based on a series of local 1D layered models whose unknown parameters are thickness h, S-wave velocity Vs, P-wave velocity Vp, and Resistivity R of each layer. 1D models are linked to surface-wave dispersion curves and apparent resistivity curves through classical 1D forward modelling, while a 2D model is created by interpolating the 1D models and is linked to refracted P-wave hodograms. A priori information can be included in the inversion and a spatial regularization is introduced as a set of constraints between model parameters of adjacent models and layers. Both a priori information and regularization are weighted by covariance matrixes. We show the comparison of individual inversions and joint inversion for a synthetic dataset that presents smooth lateral variations. Performing individual inversions, the poor sensitivity to some model parameters leads to estimation errors up to 62.5 %, whereas for joint inversion the cooperation of different techniques reduces most of the model estimation errors below 5% with few exceptions up to 39 %, with an overall improvement. Even though the final model retrieved by joint inversion is internally consistent and more reliable, the analysis of the results evidences unacceptable values of Vp/Vs ratio for some layers, thus providing negative Poisson's ratio values. To further improve the inversion performances, an additional constraint is added imposing Poisson's ratio in the range 0-0.5. The final results are globally improved by the introduction of

  10. The study of single station inverting the sea surface current by HF ground wave radar based on adjoint assimilation technology (United States)

    Han, Shuzong; Yang, Hua; Xue, Wenhu; Wang, Xingchi


    This paper introduces the assimilation technology in an ocean dynamics model and discusses the feasibility of inverting the sea surface current in the detection zone by assimilating the sea current radial velocity detected by single station HF ground wave radar in ocean dynamics model. Based on the adjoint assimilation and POM model, the paper successfully inverts the sea surface current through single station HF ground wave radar in the Zhoushan sea area. The single station HF radar inversion results are also compared with the bistatic HF radar composite results and the fixed point measured results by Annderaa current meter. The error analysis shows that acquisition of flow velocity and flow direction data from the single station HF radar based on adjoint assimilation and POM model is viable and the data obtained have a high correlation and consistency with the flow field observed by HF radar.

  11. Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces (United States)

    Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit


    Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further

  12. Cyclic spattering, seismic tremor, and surface fluctuation within a perched lava channel, Kīlauea Volcano (United States)

    Patrick, M.R.; Orr, T.; Wilson, D.; Dow, D.; Freeman, R.


    In late 2007, a perched lava channel, built up to 45 m above the preexisting surface, developed during the ongoing eruption near Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone on Kīlauea Volcano’s east rift zone. The lava channel was segmented into four pools extending over a total of 1.4 km. From late October to mid-December, a cyclic behavior, consisting of steady lava level rise terminated by vigorous spattering and an abrupt drop in lava level, was commonly observed in pool 1. We use geologic observations, video, time-lapse camera images, and seismicity to characterize and understand this cyclic behavior. Spattering episodes occurred at intervals of 40–100 min during peak activity and involved small (5–10-m-high) fountains limited to the margins of the pool. Most spattering episodes had fountains which migrated downchannel. Each spattering episode was associated with a rapid lava level drop of about 1 m, which was concurrent with a conspicuous cigar-shaped tremor burst with peak frequencies of 4–5 Hz. We interpret this cyclic behavior to be gas pistoning, and this is the first documented instance of gas pistoning in lava well away from the deeper conduit. Our observations and data indicate that the gas pistoning was driven by gas accumulation beneath the visco-elastic component of the surface crust, contrary to other studies which attribute similar behavior to the periodic rise of gas slugs. The gas piston events typically had a gas mass of about 2,500 kg (similar to the explosions at Stromboli), with gas accumulation and release rates of about 1.1 and 5.7 kg s−1, respectively. The time-averaged gas output rate of the gas pistoning events accounted for about 1–2% of the total gas output rate of the east rift zone eruption.

  13. Vertical midscale ionospheric disturbances caused by surface seismic waves based on Irkutsk chirp ionosonde data in 2011-2016

    CERN Document Server

    Berngardt, O I; Podlesnyi, A V; Kurkin, V I; Zherebtsov, G A


    Based on the Irkutsk fast monostatic chirp ionosonde data we made a statistical analysis of ionospheric effects for 28 earthquakes which appeared in 2011-2016 years. These effects are related with surface (Rayleigh) seismic waves far from epicenter. The analysis has shown that nine of these earthquakes were accompanied by vertical midscale ionospheric irregularities (multicusp). To estimate the ionospheric efficiency of the seismic waves we proposed new index $K_{W}$. The index estimates the maximal amplitude of the acoustic shock wave generated by given spatial distribution of seismic vibrations and related with maximal spectral power of seismic oscillations. Based on the analysis of experimental data we have shown that earthquake-related multicusp is observed mostly at daytime [07:00-17:00]LST for $K_{W}\\ge4.7$. The observations of intrinsic gravity waves by GPS technique in the epicenter vicinity do not show such a daytime dependence. Based on 24/05/2013 Okhotsk Sea earthquake example, we demonstrated that...

  14. Resistivity and Seismic Surface Wave Tomography Results for the Nevşehir Kale Region: Cappadocia, Turkey (United States)

    Coşkun, Nart; Çakır, Özcan; Erduran, Murat; Arif Kutlu, Yusuf


    The Nevşehir Kale region located in the middle of Cappadocia with approximately cone shape is investigated for existence of an underground city using the geophysical methods of electrical resistivity and seismic surface wave tomography together. Underground cities are generally known to exist in Cappadocia. The current study has obtained important clues that there may be another one under the Nevşehir Kale region. Two-dimensional resistivity and seismic profiles approximately 4-km long surrounding the Nevşehir Kale are measured to determine the distribution of electrical resistivities and seismic velocities under the profiles. Several high resistivity anomalies with a depth range 8-20 m are discovered to associate with a systematic void structure beneath the region. Because of the high resolution resistivity measurement system currently employed we were able to isolate the void structure from the embedding structure. Low seismic velocity zones associated with the high resistivity depths are also discovered. Using three-dimensional visualization techniques we show the extension of the void structure under the measured profiles.

  15. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang


    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  16. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology


    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  17. Land Surface-atmosphere Exchange In The Natural Landscapes(on The Cabauw Station) (United States)

    Panin, G.; Kohsiek, W.; Nasonov, A.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    In line with earlier observations the Cabauw data (17568 half hour fluxes) show imbal- ances of the energy budget 50-200 W/m2 during daytime conditions. Measurements of all components of the balance equation of heat, averaged over half hour periods, show that, within the framework of the used measuring techniques, the heat balance is not closed. The sum of fluxes of heat LE+H which is going into the atmosphere is less than Rn-G. The main cause of this systematic imbalance is not the experimental methodol- ogy but a conceptual deficiency. It is related to the fact that the energy-mass exchange between the complex (horizontally inhomogeneous) land surface and the atmosphere is determined by applying theories that are based on the hypothesis of stationary and horizontal homogeneity (SHH). Using the experimental results of the Cabauw station, it was detected that the underestimation of the turbulent fluxes is related to the ter- rain inhomogeneity. To systematize the correction for this effect a parameterization is suggested which empirically makes use of the involved inhomogenity scale in the environment of a site. This parameterization incorporates seasonal and wind direction effects. For parameterization of the energy imbalance the coefficient Kf is proposed. This coefficient can be interpreted as a measure of inhomogeneity and supposedly compromises the low frequency range of the covariance spectrum and possibly other coherent fluxes escaping covariance flux measurements, and serves as an expression of inhomogeneity and nonstationarity (INH). The average value Kf of the Cabauw station is in line with the data of FIFE, KUREX TARTEX and SADE. The paper aims to serve as a contribution to the ongoing discussion on how to account for different types and scales of land surface inhomogeneities inside cells of models such as global climate models, as well as mesoscale models.

  18. Reconstruction of a 2D seismic wavefield by seismic gradiometry (United States)

    Maeda, Takuto; Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota; Obara, Kazushige


    We reconstructed a 2D seismic wavefield and obtained its propagation properties by using the seismic gradiometry method together with dense observations of the Hi-net seismograph network in Japan. The seismic gradiometry method estimates the wave amplitude and its spatial derivative coefficients at any location from a discrete station record by using a Taylor series approximation. From the spatial derivatives in horizontal directions, the properties of a propagating wave packet, including the arrival direction, slowness, geometrical spreading, and radiation pattern can be obtained. In addition, by using spatial derivatives together with free-surface boundary conditions, the 2D vector elastic wavefield can be decomposed into divergence and rotation components. First, as a feasibility test, we performed an analysis with a synthetic seismogram dataset computed by a numerical simulation for a realistic 3D medium and the actual Hi-net station layout. We confirmed that the wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives were very well-reproduced for period bands longer than 25 s. Applications to a real large earthquake showed that the amplitude and phase of the wavefield were well reconstructed, along with slowness vector. The slowness of the reconstructed wavefield showed a clear contrast between body and surface waves and regional non-great-circle-path wave propagation, possibly owing to scattering. Slowness vectors together with divergence and rotation decomposition are expected to be useful for determining constituents of observed wavefields in inhomogeneous media.

  19. Seismic Research and High School Physics (United States)

    Sayers, J.


    Through a series of summer workshops, seismologists at Indiana University have trained secondary physics and earth science teachers in fundamentals of seismology and basic concepts in seismic research. Teachers and students then gain hands on experience in science research through operation of a research quality seismic station sited at the local schools. Physics and earth science students have operated the Northview High School Seismic Station since 1998. Data from the Northview seismometer are stored locally and also transmitted over the Internet to a database at Indiana University. Students have access to local data as well as seismic databases accessible through the Internet to use for research projects. In this presentation, I will describe how these projects have been incorporated into the physics and earth science programs at Northview High School. I will discuss how our teachers and students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on collaborative scientific research under the guidance of university faculty. In particular, I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software, and students' experiences in a university-based student research symposium. I reflect on the some of the successes, such as increased student and community interest, resulting from our work with the seismic station. I comment on some of the barriers, such as time constraints and unintended interference from school personnel, to high-school teachers' and students' involvement in scientific research programs. I conclude with a discussion of a successful student seismology project, an examination of blasts from local surface coal mines, that was a finalist in the 2003 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair

  20. Studies on seismic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海明; 陈晓非


    The development of seismic wave study in China in the past four years is reviewed. The discussion is divided into several aspects, including seismic wave propagation in laterally homogeneous media, laterally heterogeneous media, anisotropic and porous media, surface wave and seismic wave inversion, and seismic wave study in prospecting and logging problems. Important projects in the current studies on seismic wave is suggested as the development of high efficient numerical methods, and applying them to the studies of excitation and propagation of seismic waves in complex media and strong ground motion, which will form a foundation for refined earthquake hazard analysis and prediction.

  1. 泰安地震台伸缩仪运行分析%Operation status analysis of extensometer at Taian Fiducial Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢双苓; 林秀娜; 邢伟伟; 于庆民; 王强; 钟普浴; 郝军丽


    A quality assess of continuity, stability, error and relative noise level of tide factor and so on was carried on to the data of SS-Y extensometer during 2009-2010 at Taian Fiducial Seismic Station(TFSS). After the comparison of the fore mentioned data and data from 2000 to 2008, the following three aspects was concluded. 1) Basically, the continuity and stability of the observation data stratify the deformation observation standard; 2) The mean-square difference of factor of M2 wave which represent the inner quality of solid tide and the noise level M1 of the observation data satisfy the deformation observation standard, the precision (Weighted average) is 0. 0098; 3) The diurnal change, annual change and disturbance is analyzed. Certain problems appears during the operation process is discovered and solved.%对泰安地震台2009-2010年伸缩仪运行现状进行分析,对运行故障进行排查.从资料连续率、稳定性、潮汐因子中误差和相对噪声水平等方面进行评定,与2000-2008年“九五”数据进行对比和分析.结果表明:①观测资料的连续性和稳定性基本满足形变观测要求;②表征固体潮内在质量的M2波潮汐因子均方差及观测资料噪声水平M1完全满足形变规范要求,精度(加权平均)达到0.0098;③对资料的日变、年变、干扰等进行分析.

  2. Effect of Surface Geology on Ground Motions: The Case of Station TAP056 - Chutzuhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Wen


    Full Text Available In the Tatun mountain area of northern Taiwan are two strong motion stations approximately 2.5 km apart, TAP056 and TAP066 of the TSMIP network. The accelerometer at station TAP056 is often triggered by earthquakes, but that at TAP066 station is not. Comparisons of vertical and horizontal peak ground accelerations reveal PGA in the vertical, east-west, and north-south components at TAP056 station to be 3.89, 7.57, and 5.45 times those at station TAP066, respectively. The PGA ratio does not seem to be related to earthquake source or path. Fourier spectra of earthquake records at station TAP056 always have approximately the same dominant frequency; however, those at station TAP066 are different due to different sources and paths of different events. This shows that spectra at TAP056 station are mainly controlled by local site effects. The spectral ratios of TAP056/TAP066 show the S-wave is amplified at around 8 ~ 10 Hz. The horizontal/vertical spectral ratios of station TAP056 also show a dominant frequency at about 6 and 8 ~ 10 Hz. After dense microtremor surveying and the addition of one accelerometer just 20 meters away from the original observation station, we can confirm that the top soft soil layer upon which the observation station is constructed generates the local site response at station TAP056.

  3. 嘉山台地电阻率各类变化的判定与分析%Analysis of the Authenticity of the Data of Geo-electric Resistivity at Jiashan Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鑫; 何康; 赵桂宝; 王远; 洪德全; 于磊


    本文以嘉山台地电阻率数字化改造后的观测资料为基础,在台址条件、资料质量、干扰因素等方面进行了较为系统的整理,总结了地电阻率观测中的非震现象、典型干扰的变化及影响观测精度的因素,对干扰机制也进行了必要的判断,同时对嘉山台地电阻率的映震效能进行了尝试性的分析,为同类型地电台有效地识别和排除干扰提供参考和借鉴。%Based on the geo-electric resistivity observation data collected after the digitalization of Jiashan Seismic Station, this paper systematically discusses aspects such as the geological situation of the station, quality of the collected data, interference factor, etc. It also summarizes the non-seismic phenomena in the geo-electric resistivity observation, changes of typical interferences and factors that may affect the observation accuracy, makes some necessary criticism of the interference mechanism, and attempts to analyze the earthquake reflecting ability of Jiashan Seismic Station's geo-electric resistivity, which can be taken as reference by similar seismic stations to effectively detect and suppress interference.

  4. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.


    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  5. Geostatistical improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information using satellite land surface and weather stations data (United States)

    de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; Vianello, Rubens Leite; Sediyama, Gilberto C.; de Oliveira, Marcelo Silva; de Sá Junior, Arionaldo


    The objective of the present study was to use the simple cokriging methodology to characterize the spatial variability of Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration and Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration methods based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer (MODIS) global evapotranspiration products and high-resolution surfaces of WordClim temperature and precipitation data. The climatic element data referred to 39 National Institute of Meteorology climatic stations located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil and surrounding states. The use of geostatistics and simple cokriging technique enabled the characterization of the spatial variability of the evapotranspiration providing uncertainty information on the spatial prediction pattern. Evapotranspiration and precipitation surfaces were implemented for the climatic classification in Minas Gerais. Multivariate geostatistical determined improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information. The regions in the south of Minas Gerais derived from the moisture index estimated with the MODIS evapotranspiration (2000-2010), presented divergence of humid conditions when compared to the moisture index derived from the simple kriged and cokriged evapotranspiration (1961-1990), indicating climate change in this region. There was stronger pattern of crossed covariance between evapotranspiration and precipitation rather than temperature, indicating that trends in precipitation could be one of the main external drivers of the evapotranspiration in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  6. Surface Charging Controlling of the Chinese Space Station with Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Wang, Xianrong; Qin, Xiaogang; Yang, Shengsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Chengxuan; Chen, Yifeng; Shi, Liang; Tang, Daotan; Xie, Kan


    A highly charged manned spacecraft threatens the life of an astronaut and extravehicular activity, which can be effectively reduced by controlling the spacecraft surface charging. In this article, the controlling of surface charging on Chinese Space Station (CSS) is investigated, and a method to reduce the negative potential to the CSS is the emission electron with a hollow cathode plasma contactor. The analysis is obtained that the high voltage (HV) solar array of the CSS collecting electron current can reach 4.5 A, which can be eliminated by emitting an adequate electron current on the CSS. The theoretical analysis and experimental results are addressed, when the minimum xenon flow rate of the hollow cathode is 4.0 sccm, the emission electron current can neutralize the collected electron current, which ensures that the potential of the CSS can be controlled in a range of less than 21 V, satisfied with safety voltage. The results can provide a significant reference value to define a flow rate to the potential controlling programme for CSS.

  7. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal parameters at a tropical station (United States)

    Sugathan, Neena; Biju, V.; Renuka, G.


    Half hourly data of soil moisture content, soil temperature, solar irradiance, and reflectance are measured during April 2010 to March 2011 at a tropical station, viz., Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India (76°59'E longitude and 8°29'N latitude). The monthly, seasonal and seasonal mean diurnal variation of soil moisture content is analyzed in detail and is correlated with the rainfall measured at the same site during the period of study. The large variability in the soil moisture content is attributed to the rainfall during all the seasons and also to the evaporation/movement of water to deeper layers. The relationship of surface albedo on soil moisture content on different time scales are studied and the influence of solar elevation angle and cloud cover are also investigated. Surface albedo is found to fall exponentially with increase in soil moisture content. Soil thermal diffusivity and soil thermal conductivity are also estimated from the subsoil temperature profile. Log normal dependence of thermal diffusivity and power law dependence of thermal conductivity on soil moisture content are confirmed.

  8. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal parameters at a tropical station

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neena Sugathan; V Biju; G Renuka


    Half hourly data of soil moisture content, soil temperature, solar irradiance, and reflectance are measured during April 2010 to March 2011 at a tropical station, viz., Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India (76° 59’E longitude and 8°29’N latitude). The monthly, seasonal and seasonal mean diurnal variation of soil moisture content is analyzed in detail and is correlated with the rainfall measured at the same site during the period of study. The large variability in the soil moisture content is attributed to the rainfall during all the seasons and also to the evaporation/movement of water to deeper layers. The relationship of surface albedo on soil moisture content on different time scales are studied and the influence of solar elevation angle and cloud cover are also investigated. Surface albedo is found to fall exponentially with increase in soil moisture content. Soil thermal diffusivity and soil thermal conductivity are also estimated from the subsoil temperature profile. Log normal dependence of thermal diffusivity and power law dependence of thermal conductivity on soil moisture content are confirmed.

  9. Characterization of the Vajont landslide (North-Eastern Italy) by means of reflection and surface wave seismics (United States)

    Petronio, Lorenzo; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio


    The mechanisms of the disastrous Vajont rockslide (North-Eastern Italy, October 9, 1963) have been studied in great detail over the past five decades. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the rockslide dynamics still presents several uncertainties, including those related to the accurate estimation of the actual landslide mass. This work presents the results of a geophysical characterization of the Vajont landslide body in terms of material properties and buried geometry. Both aspects add new information to the existing dataset and will help a better understanding of the rockslide failure mechanisms and dynamics. In addition, some general considerations concerning the intricacies of landslide characterization can be drawn, with due attention to potential pitfalls. The employed techniques are: (i) high resolution P-wave reflection, (ii) high resolution SH-wave reflection, (iii) controlled source surface wave analysis. We adopted as a seismic source a vibrator both for P waves and SH waves, using vertical and horizontal geophones respectively. For the surface wave seismic survey we used a heavy drop-weight source and low frequency receivers. Despite the high noise level caused by the fractured conditions of the large rock body, a common situation in landslide studies, we managed to achieve a satisfying imaging quality of the landslide structure thanks to the large number of active channels, the short receiver interval and the test of appropriate seismic sources. The joint use of different seismic techniques help focus the investigation on the rock mass mechanical properties. Results are in good agreement with the available borehole data, the geological sections and the mechanical properties of the rockmass estimated by other studies. In general the proposed approach is likely to be applicable successfully to similar situations where scattering and other noise sources are a typical bottleneck to geophysical data acquisition on landslide bodies.

  10. Study on the Monitoring Capability of the Seismic Network at the Dagangshan Hydropower Station%大岗山水电站地震台网的地震监测能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晟; 康昊天


    Located at the northern section of the NS-trending seismic tectonic zone at the border between Sichuan and Yunnan,the reservoir of the Dagangshan hydropower station is at the intersection of three seismic belts,Xianshuihe, Longmenshan,and Anninghe,which present a complex geological environment.The earthquake seismic network at the Dagangshan hydropower station is a dedicated small diameter minor earthquake monitoring network for hydro-power station projects and consists of eight stationary monitoring sites located across the Luding county of Ganzi and the Shimian county of Yaan,Sichuan province.The monitoring sites are located at both sides of the Dadu river,a-round the dam,at the main reservoir area,and at the fault zones,in accordance with the identified key fault zones to monitor reservoir induced earthquakes,increase the precision of locating seismic events,and decrease the lower limit of seismic magnitudes detectable in the area.The theoretical minimum monitoring capability of the designed seismic network in the focused monitoring area is M L 0.5.Based on the velocity records,the displacements recorded by the W-A short period seismometer are emulated,and then the max.P-P and the corresponding period on the displacement waveform emulated are substituted into the formula for near earthquake magnitude to calculate the earthquake mag-nitude.For validation of the background noise of earth motion,the PSD per hour at each station and the RMS values in the range of 1~20 Hz are calculated based on the noise data randomly selected from the background noise of earth motion recorded in a 48-hr interval at the Dagangshan earthquake monitoring network and the mean RMS value is taken as the average background noise of earth motion.Taking the ratio of the maximum magnitude of the S wave to the background noise as the minimum lower limit for seismic velocity detection by the system,the calibration func-tion value R (Δ)is calculated using the earthquake magnitude formula

  11. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004 (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.


    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  12. Effect of the surface roughness on the seismic signal generated by a single rock impact: insight from laboratory experiments (United States)

    Bachelet, Vincent; Mangeney, Anne; de Rosny, Julien; Toussaint, Renaud


    The seismic signal generated by rockfalls, landslides or avalanches is a unique tool to detect, characterize and monitor gravitational flow activity, with strong implication in terms of natural hazard monitoring. Indeed, as natural flows travel down the slope, they apply stresses on the ground, generating seismic waves in a wide frequency band. Our ultimate objective is to relate the granular flow properties to the generated signals that result from the different physical processes involved. We investigate here the more simple process: the impact of a single bead on a rough surface. Farin et al. [2015] have already shown theoretically and experimentally the existence of a link between the properties of an impacting bead (mass and velocity) on smooth surfaces, and the emitted signal (radiated elastic energy and mean frequency). This demonstrates that the single impactor properties can be deduced from the form of the emitted signal. We extend this work here by investigating the impact of single beads and gravels on rough and erodible surfaces. Experimentally, we drop glass and steel beads of diameters from 2 mm to 10 mm on a PMMA plate. The roughness of this last is obtained by gluing 3mm-diameter glass beads on one of its face. Free beads have been also added to get erodible beds. We track the dropped impactor motion, times between impacts and the generated acoustic waves using two fast cameras and 8 accelerometers. Cameras are used in addition to estimate the impactor rotation. We investigate the energy balance during the impact process, especially how the energy restitution varies as a function of the energy lost through acoustic waves. From these experiments, we clearly observe that even if more dissipative processes are involved (friction, grain reorganization, etc.), the single bead scaling laws obtained on smooth surfaces remain valid. A main result of this work is to quantify the fluctuations of the characteristic quantities such as the bounce angle, the

  13. Towards marine seismological Network: real time small aperture seismic array (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry


    Most powerful and dangerous seismic events are generated in underwater subduction zones. Existing seismological networks are based on land seismological stations. Increased demands for accuracy of location, magnitude, rupture process of coming earthquakes and at the same time reduction of data processing time require information from seabed seismic stations located near the earthquake generation area. Marine stations provide important contribution for clarification of the tectonic settings in most active subduction zones of the world. Early warning system for subduction zone area is based on marine seabed array which located near the area of most hazardous seismic zone in the region. Fast track processing for location of the earthquake hypocenter and energy takes place in buoy surface unit. Information about detected and located earthquake reaches the onshore seismological center earlier than the first break waves from the same earthquake will reach the nearest onshore seismological station. Implementation of small aperture array is based on existed and shown a good proven performance and costs effective solutions such as weather moored buoy and self-pop up autonomous seabed seismic nodes. Permanent seabed system for real-time operation has to be installed in deep sea waters far from the coast. Seabed array consists of several self-popup seismological stations which continuously acquire the data, detect the events of certain energy class and send detected event parameters to the surface buoy via acoustic link. Surface buoy unit determine the earthquake location by receiving the event parameters from seabed units and send such information in semi-real time to the onshore seismological center via narrow band satellite link. Upon the request from the cost the system could send wave form of events of certain energy class, bottom seismic station battery status and other environmental parameters. When the battery life of particular seabed unit is close to became empty

  14. Co- and post-seismic surface deformation and gravity changes of M S7.0 Lushan, earthquake (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chengli; Xiong, Xiong; Zheng, Yong


    On April 20, 2013, an earthquake with magnitude 7.0 occurred in the southwest of the Longmenshan fault system in and around Lushan County, Sichuan Province, China. This devastating earthquake killed hundreds of people, injured 10 thousand others, and collapsed countless buildings. In order to analyze the potential risk of this big earthquake, we calculate the co- and post-seismic surface deformation and gravity changes of this event. In this work, a multilayered crustal model is designed, and the elastic dislocation theory is utilized to calculate the co- and post-seismic deformations and gravity changes. During the process, a rupture model obtained by seismic waveform inversion (Liu et al. Sci China Earth Sci 56(7):1187-1192, 2013) is applied. The time-dependent relaxation results show that the influences on Lushan and its surrounding areas caused by the M S7.0 Lushan earthquake will last as long as 10 years. The maximum horizontal displacement, vertical uplift, and settlement are about 5 cm, 21.24 cm, and 0.16 m, respectively; the maximal positive and negative values of gravity changes are 45 and -0.47 μGal, respectively. These results may be applied to evaluate the long-term potential risk caused by this earthquake and to provide necessary information for post-earthquake reconstruction.

  15. A web-based platform for simulating seismic wave propagation in 3D shallow Earth models with DEM surface topography (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang


    Realistic shallow seismic wave propagation simulation is an important tool for studying induced seismicity (e.g., during geothermal energy development). However over a long time, there is a significant problem which constrains computational seismologists from performing a successful simulation conveniently: pre-processing. Conventional pre-processing has often turned out to be inefficient and unrobust because of the miscellaneous operations, considerable complexity and insufficiency of available tools. An integrated web-based platform for shallow seismic wave propagation simulation has been built. It is aiming at providing a user-friendly pre-processing solution, and cloud-based simulation abilities. The main features of the platform for the user include: revised digital elevation model (DEM) retrieving and processing mechanism; generation of multi-layered 3D shallow Earth model geometry (the computational domain) with user specified surface topography based on the DEM; visualization of the geometry before the simulation; a pipeline from geometry to fully customizable hexahedral element mesh generation; customization and running the simulation on our HPC; post-processing and retrieval of the results over cloud. Regarding the computational aspect, currently the widely accepted specfem3D is chosen as the computational package; packages using different types of elements can be integrated as well in the future. According to our trial simulation experiments, this web-based platform has produced accurate waveforms while significantly simplifying and enhancing the pre-processing and improving the simulation success rate.

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Biosafety Level 2 Opportunistic Pathogens Isolated from the Environmental Surfaces of the International Space Station. (United States)

    Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra; Singh, Nitin K; Allen, Jonathan E; Thissen, James; Jaing, Crystal; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri


    The draft genome sequences of 20 biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) opportunistic pathogens isolated from the environmental surfaces of the International Space Station (ISS) were presented. These genomic sequences will help in understanding the influence of microgravity on the pathogenicity and virulence of these strains when compared with Earth strains.

  17. A comparison of information on clouds and phenomena accompanying Cb obtained from surface and radar net stations (United States)

    Gashina, S. B.; Matveyeva, L. I.; Razumovskiy, A. A.


    Methods and criteria are proposed for the comparison of surface and radar data on clouds and phenomena accompanying Cb. It is shown that the effectiveness of the radar information on thunderstorms from a net over the territory of the BSSR is approximately 3 times greater than that of visual observations obtained from the station net.

  18. Seafloor surface processes and subsurface paleo-channel unconformities mapped using multi-channel seismic and multi-beam sonar data from the Galicia 3D seismic experiment. (United States)

    Gibson, J. C.; Shillington, D. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Morgan, J. K.; Ranero, C.; Reston, T. J.


    In this study we use geophysical methods, stratigraphic relationships, and coring/drilling leg results to assess possible controls on deep-sea channel formation in order to further constrain paleo-channel (PC) and associated unconformity timing/source processes. A series of cut and fill PC are mapped in 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) data and compared with multi-beam (MB) sonar bathymetry/backscatter data collected during the Galicia 3D survey with the R/V Marcus G. Langseth (2013). The MCS data were collected using four 6 km streamers spaced at 200 m resulting in 25 m x 25 m common mid-point bins within the ~67 km x 20 km 3D volume. The MB data were collected at an average depth of ~4900 m with a constrained swath width of 4.5 km resulting in 11.25x overlap while enabling 25-m bathymetry and 10-m backscatter grids. The PC lie below the mouth of a submarine canyon at the edge of the Galicia abyssal plain and cut pre/syn-rift sediments; they are bound by a rift block to the north and paleo-levees to the south (maximum height of ~180m). From drilling results, the most recent PC is late Miocene in age. In this study, four PC are traced into the basin as unconformities. Several of the PC/unconformities are tentatively correlated with previously interpreted Pyrenean orogeny/compressional Miocene/Oligocene tectonic events. However, one PC/unconformity within this interval has not been previously interpreted. In order test the hypothesis that the unconformities are the result of a significant change in base level indicated by a low shale/sand (SS) ratio, we use seismic surface attributes to calculate the SS ratio and trace the horizontal extent of the unconformities. Additionally, the MB/MCS seafloor morphology reveals sedimentary waves outboard of the canyon mouth. We use backscatter data to compare the extent of recent processes (e.g., Pleistocene glaciation/de-glaciation) with the unconformities by mapping the surface/shallow subsurface SS ratio (volume scattering).

  19. Seismic and hydroacoustic analysis relevant to MH370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The vicinity of the Indian Ocean is searched for open and readily available seismic and/or hydroacoustic stations that might have recorded a possible impact of MH370 with the ocean surface. Only three stations are identified: the IMS hydrophone arrays H01 and H08, and the Geoscope seismic station AIS. Analysis of the data from these stations shows an interesting arrival on H01 that has some interference from an Antarctic ice event, large amplitude repeating signals at H08 that obscure any possible arrivals, and large amplitude chaotic noise at AIS precludes any analysis at higher frequencies of interest. The results are therefore rather inconclusive but may point to a more southerly impact location within the overall Indian Ocean search region. The results would be more useful if they can be combined with any other data that are not readily available.

  20. Confronting AeroCom models with particle size distribution data from surface in situ stations (United States)

    Platt, Stephen; Fiebig, Markus; Mann, Graham; Schulz, Michael


    The size distribution is the most important property for describing any interaction of an aerosol particle population with its surroundings. In first order, it determines both, the aerosol optical properties quantifying the direct aerosol climate effect, and the fraction of aerosol particles acting as cloud condensation nuclei quantifying the indirect aerosol climate effect. Aerosol schemes of modern climate models resolve the aerosol particle size distribution (APSD) explicitly. In improving the skill of climate models, it is therefore highly useful to confront these models with precision APSD data observed at surface stations. Corresponding previous work focussed on comparing size integrated, seasonal particle concentrations at selected sites with ensemble model averages to assess overall model skill. Building on this work, this project intends to refine the approach by comparing median particle size and integral concentration of fitted modal size distributions. It will also look at skill differences between models in order to find reasons for matches and discrepancies. The presentation will outline the project, and will elaborate on input requested from modelling groups to participate in the exercise.

  1. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee


    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  2. Detection of precursory slips on a fault by the quiescence and activation of seismicity relative to the ETAS model and by the anomalous trend of the geodetic time series of distances between GPS stations around the fault (United States)

    Ogata, Y.


    This paper is concerned with the detection of precursory slip on a rupturing fault, supported by both seismic and geodetic records. Basically, the detection relies on the principle that, assuming precursory slip on the rupturing fault, the seismic activity around the fault should be enhanced or reduced in the zones where increment of the Coulomb failure stress (CFS) is positive or negative, respectively. However, any occurring event also affects the stress changes in neighboring regions, which can trigger further aftershock clusters. Whereas such stress transfers are too difficult to be computed precisely, due to the unknown complex fault system, the ordinary short-term occurrence rate of earthquakes in a region is easily predicted using the ETAS model of triggering seismicity; and any anomalous seismic activity, such as quiescence and activation, can be quantified by identifying a significant deviation from the predicted rate. Such anomalies are revealed to have occurred during several years leading up to the 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake of M6.8, central Honshu, and also the 2005 Western Fukuoka-Ken-Oki Earthquake of M7.0, Kyushu, Japan. Quiescence and activation in the regions coincided with negative and positive increments of the CFS, respectively, and were probably transferred from possible aseismic slips on the focal fault plane. Such slips are further supported by transient crustal movement around the source preceding the rupture. Time series records of the baseline distances between the permanent GPS stations deviated from the predicted trends, with the deviations consistent with the coseismic horizontal displacements of the stations due to these earthquakes. References Ogata, Y. (2006) Report of the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction, 76 (to appear, in Japanese).

  3. 地铁地下车站在非一致性地震输入下的动力响应%Dynamic response analysis of an underground station subjected to non-uniform seismic action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 陈健云


    由于近年来城市地下空间的开发,修建了一大批地铁车站,这些大尺度地下结构的出现,为工程抗震提出了新的课题.首先详细阐述了基于设计反应谱合成空间相关多点地震波的方法,合成的地震波不仅具有地震动的空间相关性,同时还具有强度和频率含量的双重非平稳性;再分别建立了位于三种场地中的地铁车站三维有限元模型,用无限单元来模拟无限域的影响,在此基础上分析了一致与非一致地震动输入情况下该地铁车站的地震响应特征.结果表明:在软土场地中,地震动的非一致性使车站轴向各中柱位移产生了较大的相位差,同时对侧墙的动应力影响较大;在中等和硬土场地中,地震动的非一致性对结构的动力响应影响较小,一般可以忽略.建议在对软土场地中的大尺度车站结构进行地震反应分析时,应考虑地震动的非一致性影响.%Because of exploitation of urban underground space recently, a lot of large-scale subway stations were built. So, a new issue appeared for engineering design. The procedures for artificial simulation of multi-point seismic waves based on the code response spectrum were presented here. The generated seismic waves were spatially correlated to the ground motion, and had the double non-stationary properties of strength and frequency. The three-dimensional numerical models of a subway station were established under three different site conditions, and the infinite domain of soil was simulated with an infinite element. On this basis, the seismic responses of the subway station under non-uniform ground motion were analyzed compared with those under uniform seismic excitation. The results showed that horizontally relative displacements between top and bottom at different axial sections of the subway station have a great phase difference in soft sites because of non-uniform seismic action, and the effect on the dynamic stress of the side

  4. Near-surface mapping using SH-wave and P-wave seismic land-streamer data acquisition in Illinois, U.S (United States)

    Pugin, Andre J.M.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; McBride, J.H.; Bexfield, C.E.


    SH-wave and P-wave high-resolution seismic reflection combined with land-streamer technology provide 3D regional maps of geologic formations that can be associated with aquifers and aquitards. Examples for three study areas are considered to demonstrate this. In these areas, reflection profiling detected near-surface faulting and mapped a buried glacial valley and its aquifers in two settings. The resulting seismic data can be used directly to constrain hydrogeologic modeling of shallow aquifers.

  5. Derivation of GNSS derived station velocities for a surface deformation model in the Austrian region (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Maras, Jadre; Brückl, Ewald


    This contribution deals with the first comprehensive analysis of GNSS derived surface velocities computed within an observation network of about 100 stations covering the whole Austrian territory and parts of the neighbouring countries. Coordinate time series are available now, spanning a period of 5 years (2010.0-2015.0) for one focus area in East Austria and one and a half year (2013.5-2015.0) for the remaining part of the tracking network. In principle the data series are stemming from two different GNSS campaigns. The former was set up to investigate intra plate tectonic movements within the framework of the project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics), the latter was designed to support a number of various requests, e.g. derivation of GNSS derived water vapour fields, but also to expand the foresaid tectonic studies. In addition the activities within the ALPAACT project supplement the educational initiative SHOOLS & QUAKES, where scholars contribute to seismological research. For the whole period of the processed coordinate time series daily solutions have been computed by means of the Bernese software. The processed coordinate time series are tied to the global reference frame ITRF2000 as well as to the frame ITRF2008. Due to the transition of the reference from ITRF2000 to ITRF2008 within the processing period, but also due to updates of the Bernese software from version 5.0 to 5.2 the time series were initially not fully consistent and have to be re-aligned to a common frame. So the goal of this investigation is to derive a nationwide consistent horizontal motion field on base of GNSS reference station data within the ITRF2008 frame, but also with respect to the Eurasian plate. In this presentation we focus on the set-up of the coordinate time series and on the problem of frame alignment. Special attention is also paid to the separation into linear and periodic motion signals, originating from tectonic or non

  6. A Layer-Stripping Method for 3D Near-Surface Velocity Model Building Using Seismic First-Arrival Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taikun Shi; Jianzhong Zhang; Zhonglai Huang; Changkun Jin


    In order to improve the efficiency of 3D near-surface velocity model building, we develop a layer-stripping method using seismic first-arrival times. The velocity model within a Common Mid-Point (CMP) gather is assumed to be stratified into thin layers, and the velocity of each layer var-ies linearly with depth. The thickness and velocity of the top layer are estimated using minimum-offset first-arrival data in a CMP gather. Then the top layer is stripped and the second layer becomes a new top layer. After removing the effect of the top layer from the former first-arrival data, the new first-arrival data are obtained and then used to estimate the parameters of the second layer. In this manner, the velocity model, being regarded as that at a CMP location, is built layer-by-layer from the top to the bottom. A 3D near-surface velocity model is then formed using the velocity models at all CMP locations. The tests on synthetic and observed seismic data show that the layer-stripping method can be used to build good near-surface velocity models for static correction, and its computation speed is ap-proximately hundred times faster than that of grid tomography.

  7. Legacy seismic investigations of karst surfaces: Implications for heavy oil extraction from the Devonian Grosmont Formation, northeastern Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Bown, Todd Dylan

    The Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada is the world's largest accumulation of heavy oil in carbonate rock with estimated bitumen in place of 64.5×109 m 3. At the studies location the eroded and buried surface of the Grosmont, referred here as the SubMannville uncoformity (SMU), was analyzed and interpret for a karsted surface. Results from legacy seismic data and available well log information were able to define the SMU as a mature karst surface within observable features such as dolines, karst valleys, karst plain and poljie and a ridge. The large scale topography of the ridge and poljie were geologically controlled by the underlying the Paleozoic rocks. Furthermore, the poljie was observed to contain the majority of the dolines in the area, noted to occur elsewhere. That said, dolines and karst valleys and other such dissolution features have the potential to erode the bitumen reservoir of the upper Grosmont members C and D. It is important for future oil prospectors to map and avoid areas such as the poljie, dolines and karst valley to increase certainty of reservoir presence. A preliminary rock-physics model was developed for the Grosmont reservoir of a bitumen-saturated dolomite. Results suggest that elastic properties of the Grosmont reservoir are temperature-frequency dispersive. This implies that there is a potential to use time-lapse seismic to map and monitor heating of the reservoir.

  8. Strike-slip fault network of the Huangshi structure, SW Qaidam Basin: Insights from surface fractures and seismic data (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Zhang, Qiquan; Yu, Xiangjiang; Du, Wei; Liu, Runchao; Bian, Qing; Wang, Zhendong; Zhang, Tuo; Guo, Zhaojie


    The Huangshi structure, as one of the NWW-trending S-shaped structures in the southwestern Qaidam Basin, holds important implications for unraveling the regional structural pattern. There are four dominant sets of surface strike-slip fractures at the core of the Huangshi structure. The fractures with orientations of N28°E, N47°E and N65°E correlate well with conjugate Riedel shears (R‧), tension fractures (T) and Riedel shears (R) in the Riedel shear model, respectively. Two conjugate strike-slip fracture sets occur at the surface of the Hongpan structure (secondary to the Huangshi structure) and the southwestern part of the Huangshi structure. In seismic sections, the Huangshi structure is present as a positive flower or Y-shaped structure governed by steeply dipping faults, whereas Hongpan and Xiaoshaping structures, located symmetrically to the Huangshi structure, are thrust-controlled anticlines. The Riedel shear pattern of surface strike-slip fractures, the positive flower or Y-shaped structure in seismic sections and the NW-trending secondary compressional anticlines consistently demonstrate that the Huangshi structure is dominated by left-lateral strike-slip faults which comprise a strike-slip fault network. Considering the similar S-shaped configuration and NWW trend of structures across the southwestern Qaidam Basin, it can be further speculated that these structures are also predominantly of left-lateral strike-slip types.

  9. Inverse seismic interferometry: can we observe seismic data at greater depth? (United States)

    Koelemeijer, Paula; Fichtner, Andreas; Kimman, Wouter


    By the very nature of our planet, seismological recordings are limited to the Earth's surface with some deployments in boreholes and more recently the placement of seismometers on the sea floor. Therefore, only travelling and standing waves that are excited and oscillate at shallow depths can be observed. Seismic waves oscillating at great depth with zero amplitude near the surface, e.g. higher frequency core-mantle boundary Stoneley modes, remain practically invisible to us. Seismic interferometry based on background noise has become a standard method for obtaining information regarding shallow and more recently also deeper Earth structure. Noise cross-correlations between a set of stations located on the surface of the Earth provide in theory information on the inter-station Green's functions, in case of an equipartitioned wave field or an isotropic source distribution. Using reciprocity, similar techniques can be employed to obtain the Green's function between two events for a distribution of receivers. In this contribution, we propose to use the concept of inverse interferometry for observing seismic data with only deep non-zero amplitude. As an initial step, cross-correlation measurements between two deep events, recorded at stations over the globe, will be analysed. Numerical wave field simulations will enable us to investigate the sensitivity of these measurements to Earth structure. Important contributing factors are possibly the source mechanisms of the events, inter-source distance and the distribution of receivers over the surface of the Earth.

  10. Earthquake Activity, Operation of State Seismic Network with 5 stations, 3-Piedmont 2-Coastal Plane, Published in 1970, Delaware Geological Survey. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Earthquake Activity dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 1970. It is described as 'Operation of State Seismic Network...

  11. Surface Wave Dispersion Measurements and Tomography From Ambient Seismic Noise in China (United States)


    and the US Geological Survey in 1986, most of the new stations started operating in early 2000. The bandwiths of the instruments are from 20 Hz to over...predictions from a global 3D model based on earthquake data (Shapiro and Ritzwoller, 2002). However, the HTA -BRVK path, which samples the Tarim Basin...Ritzwoller and Levshin, 1998) to retrieve dispersion curves (blue lines) for Rayleigh waves of station pair AXX-QIZ (upper panels) and HTA -BRVK

  12. Seismic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Quittmeyer


    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground

  13. High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Brawley Seismic Fault Zone (United States)

    Goldman, M.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Lohman, R. B.; McGuire, J. J.; Sickler, R. R.; Criley, C.; Rosa, C.


    In March 2010, we acquired a series of high-resolution P-wave seismic reflection and refraction data sets across faults in the Brawley seismic zone (BSZ) within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). Our objectives were to determine the dip, possible structural complexities, and seismic velocities within the BSZ. One dataset was 3.4 km long trending east-west, and consisted of 334 shots recorded by a 2.4 km spread of 40 hz geophones placed every 10 meters. The spread was initially laid out from the first station at the eastern end of the profile to roughly 2/3 into the profile. After about half the shots, the spread was shifted from roughly 1/3 into the profile to the last station at the western end of the profile. P-waves were generated by Betsy-Seisgun 'shots' spaced every 10 meters. Initial analysis of first breaks indicate near-surface velocities of ~500-600 meters/sec, and deeper velocities of around 2000 meters/sec. Preliminary investigation of shot gathers indicate a prominent fault that extends to the ground surface. This fault is on a projection of the Kalin fault from about 40 m to the south, and broke the surface down to the west with an approximately north-south strike during a local swarm of earthquakes in 2005 and also slipped at the surface in association with the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Baja California. The dataset is part of the combined Obsidian Creep data set, and provides the most detailed, publicly available subsurface images of fault structures in the BSZ and SSGF.

  14. Seismicity of block-and-ash flows occurring during the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    DeRoin, Nicole; McNutt, Stephen R.; Sentman, Davis D.; Reyes, Celso


    In January 2006, Augustine Volcano began erupting following an increase in seismicity that was first noted in late April 2005. Thirteen large explosive eruptions of Augustine occurred from January 11 to 28, 2006, followed by a continuously erupting phase and then by a dome growth phase in which numerous pyroclastic flows and block-and-ash flows occurred. As a new steep-sided and unstable dome grew in spring 2006, rockfalls and related events, likely block-and-ash flows, dominated the seismic record. Relative amplitudes at pairs of seismic stations for 68 block-and-ash flow events were examined to constrain locations of the flow-events. Higher amplitudes were associated with events closer to a given station. These relations were confirmed by images collected on a low-light camera. Captured images show a correlation between flow direction and seismic amplitude ratios from nearby stations AUE and AUW. Seismic amplitudes and energies of the flow signals, measured in several different ways, were found to correlate with the surface areas and run-out distances of the flows. The ML range of rockfalls was 0.1 to 1.1, and seismic efficiencies were estimated to be much less than 1%. Particle motion analyses showed that the seismic waves contained both body waves and surface waves and demonstrate that the flows were acting as moving sources with velocities of 30-93 m/s.

  15. Seismic Anisotropy from the Core-Mantle Boundary to the Surface (United States)

    Lynner, Colton Lee

    Subduction systems are vitally important to plate tectonics and mantle convection, but questions remain about many aspects of subduction dynamics, particularly the nature of sub-slab mantle flow. Observations of seismic anisotropy can shed light on the pattern of mantle flow in subduction systems. Understanding the sub-slab mantle is the focus of my first three chapters as well as my last chapter. In Chapters 1 and 2, I examine the sub-slab anisotropy beneath the Caribbean, Scotia, Central America, Alaska-Aleutians, Sumatra, Ryukyu, and IzuBonin-Japan-Kurile subduction systems. I find that measured fast splitting directions in these regions generally fall into two broad categories, aligning either with the strike of the trench or with the motion of the subducting slab relative to the overriding plate. In theses systems, there is a correlation between fast direction and age of the subducting lithosphere; older lithosphere (> 95 Ma) is associated with trench parallel splitting while younger lithosphere (studies of source-side splitting studies to test the predictions of a number of recently proposed conceptual models for the dynamics of the sub-slab mantle. I find that a model in which fast splitting directions are determined by slab age matches the observations better than either the 3D-return flow or radial anisotropic models. Based on this observation, I propose that the sub-slab mantle is characterized by two distinct anisotropic and mantle flow regimes. Beneath younger lithosphere ( 95 Ma), the entrained layer is thin and effectively serves as decoupling layer; the dynamics of the sub-slab region beneath old lithosphere is therefore dominated by three-dimensional return flow. In Chapters 4 and 5, I focus on the dynamics of lowermost mantle. Shear wave splitting of SK(K)S phases is often used to examine upper mantle anisotropy. In specific cases, however, splitting of these phases may reflect anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. In both Chapters 4 and 5, I present

  16. Multi-decadal Surface Temperature Trends and Extremes at Arctic Stations (United States)

    Uttal, T.; Makshtas, A.


    The Arctic region is considered to be one where global temperatures are changing the most quickly; a number of factors make it the region where an accurate determination of surface temperature is the most difficult to measure or estimate. In developing a pan-Arctic perspective on Arctic in-situ temperature variability, several issues must be addressed including accounting for the different lengths of temperature records at different locations when comparing trends, accounting for the steep latitudinal controls on 'seasonal' trends, considering the often significant variability between different (sometimes a multitude) of temperature measurements made in the vicinity of a single station, and loss of detail information when data is ingested in a global archives or interpolated into gridded data sets. The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere ( is an internationally networked consortium of facilities that measure a wide range of meteorological and climate relevant parameters; temperature is the most fundamental of these parameters. Many of the observatories have the longest temperature records in the Arctic region including Barrow, Alaska (114 years), Tiksi, Russia (83 years), and Eureka, Canada (67 years). Using the IASOA data sets a detailed analysis is presented of temperature trends presented as a function of the beginning date from which the trend is calculated, seasonal trends considered in the context of the extreme Arctic solar ephemeris, and the variability in occurrence of annual extreme temperature events. At the Tiksi observatory, a complete record is available of 3-hourly temperatures 1932 to present that was constructed through digitization of decades of written records. This data set is used to investigate if calculated trends and variabilities are consistent with those calculated from daily minimum and maximum values archived by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information Global Historical Climatology

  17. System and method for generating 3D images of non-linear properties of rock formation using surface seismic or surface to borehole seismic or both (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt Toshimi; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.


    A system and method of characterizing properties of a medium from a non-linear interaction are include generating, by first and second acoustic sources disposed on a surface of the medium on a first line, first and second acoustic waves. The first and second acoustic sources are controllable such that trajectories of the first and second acoustic waves intersect in a mixing zone within the medium. The method further includes receiving, by a receiver positioned in a plane containing the first and second acoustic sources, a third acoustic wave generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic waves in the mixing zone; and creating a first two-dimensional image of non-linear properties or a first ratio of compressional velocity and shear velocity, or both, of the medium in a first plane generally perpendicular to the surface and containing the first line, based on the received third acoustic wave.

  18. Analysis of dispersion and attenuation of surface waves in poroelastic media in the exploration-seismic frequency band (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Xia, J.


    We analyse dispersion and attenuation of surface waves at free surfaces of possible vacuum/poroelastic media: permeable-'open pore', impermeable-'closed pore' and partially permeable boundaries, which have not been previously reported in detail by researchers, under different surface-permeable, viscous-damping, elastic and fluid-flowing conditions. Our discussion is focused on their characteristics in the exploration-seismic frequency band (a few through 200 Hz) for near-surface applications. We find two surface-wave modes exist, R1 waves for all conditions, and R2 waves for closed-pore and partially permeable conditions. For R1 waves, velocities disperse most under partially permeable conditions and least under the open-pore condition. High-coupling damping coefficients move the main dispersion frequency range to high frequencies. There is an f1 frequency dependence as a constant-Q model for attenuation at high frequencies. R1 waves for the open pore are most sensitive to elastic modulus variation, but least sensitive to tortuosities variation. R1 waves for partially permeable surface radiate as non-physical waves (Im(k) Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  19. Coastal Boundary Layer Characteristics of Wind, Turbulence, and Surface Roughness Parameter over the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Namboodiri


    Full Text Available The study discusses the features of wind, turbulence, and surface roughness parameter over the coastal boundary layer of the Peninsular Indian Station, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS. Every 5 min measurements from an ultrasonic anemometer at 3.3 m agl from May 2007 to December 2012 are used for this work. Symmetries in mesoscale turbulence, stress off-wind angle computations, structure of scalar wind, resultant wind direction, momentum flux (M, Obukhov length (L, frictional velocity (u*, w-component, turbulent heat flux (H, drag coefficient (CD, turbulent intensities, standard deviation of wind directions (σθ, wind steadiness factor-σθ relationship, bivariate normal distribution (BND wind model, surface roughness parameter (z0, z0 and wind direction (θ relationship, and variation of z0 with the Indian South West monsoon activity are discussed.

  20. Characterization of an earth-filled dam through the combined use of electrical resistivity tomography, P- and SH-wave seismic tomography and surface wave data (United States)

    Cardarelli, E.; Cercato, M.; De Donno, G.


    The determination of the current state of buildings and infrastructures through non-invasive geophysical methods is a topic not yet covered by technical standards, since the application of high resolution geophysical investigations to structural targets is a relatively new technology. Earth-filled dam investigation is a typical engineering application of this type. We propose the integration of Electrical Resistivity Tomography and P- and SH-wave seismic measurements for imaging the geometry of the dam's body and the underlying soil foundations and to characterize the low strain elastic properties. Because S-wave velocity is closely tied to engineering properties such as shear strength, low-velocity zones in the S-wave velocity models are of particular interest. When acquiring seismic data on earth filled dams, it is not uncommon to encounter highly attenuative surface layers. If only lightweight seismic sources are available, the seismic data generally exhibit a narrow frequency bandwidth: the lack of high frequency components generally prevents from having good quality shallow reflections. If there is no possibility to increase the power as well as the frequency content of the seismic source, the integration of other seismic methods than reflection may be the only available way to achieve a reliable near surface seismic characterization. For these reasons, we combined P- and SH-wave tomography with Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves to image the internal and the underlying soil foundations of an earth filled dam located in Central Italy. In the presence of moderate velocity contrasts, tomographic methods have proven successful in imaging near surface variations along both the horizontal and vertical directions. On the other hand, body wave propagation is severely affected by attenuation under the previously described conditions, so that the quality of picked traveltimes dramatically decreases with offset and, consequently, the tomographic investigation

  1. Estimation of seismic moments from local magnitudes and coda durations for the Cairo earthquake aftershocks recorded at Kottamyia (KEG Broadband station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelwahed


    Full Text Available The spectral analysis of fifty-five KEG VBB records from the October 12, 1992 Cairo earthquake source region was performed to obtain the seismic moment. We obtained this parameter in turn to develop empirical local magnitude (ML, seismic moment (Mo, coda duration (D relations for that region. In this study the data consist of Lg-waves on the vertical component seismograms for the recorded earthquakes with ML ranging from 1.7 to 4.7. The derived empirical relation between the seismic moment (Mo and magnitude ML for the aftershocks sequence with 1.7 = ML < 3.5 is Log (Mo = (0.96 ± 0.05 ML + (17.88 ± 0.13. We found a correlation between the coda duration (D and Log of the moment (Log (Mo as follows: Log (Mo = (2.35 ± 0.27 Log (D + (16.33 ± 0.48.

  2. High-resolution shear-wave seismic reflection as a tool to image near-surface subrosion structures - a case study in Bad Frankenhausen, Germany (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja H.; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.


    Subrosion is the subsurface leaching of soluble rocks that results in the formation of depression and collapse structures. This global phenomenon is a geohazard in urban areas. To study near-surface subrosion structures, four shear-wave seismic reflection profiles, with a total length of ca. 332 m, were carried out around the famous leaning church tower of Bad Frankenhausen in northern Thuringia, Germany, which shows an inclination of 4.93° from the vertical. Most of the geological underground of Thuringia is characterized by soluble Permian deposits, and the Kyffhäuser Southern Margin Fault is assumed to be a main pathway for water to leach the evaporite. The seismic profiles were acquired with the horizontal micro-vibrator ELVIS, developed at Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), and a 72 m long landstreamer equipped with 72 horizontal geophones. The high-resolution seismic sections show subrosion-induced structures to a depth of ca. 100 m and reveal five features associated with the leaching of Permian deposits: (1) lateral and vertical varying reflection patterns caused by strongly heterogeneous strata, (2) discontinuous reflectors, small offsets, and faults, which show the underground is heavily fractured, (3) formation of depression structures in the near-surface, (4) diffractions in the unmigrated seismic sections that indicate increased scattering of the seismic waves, and (5) varying seismic velocities and low-velocity zones that are presumably caused by fractures and upward-migrating cavities. A previously undiscovered southward-dipping listric normal fault was also found, to the north of the church. It probably serves as a pathway for water to leach the Permian formations below the church and causes the tilting of the church tower. This case study shows the potential of horizontal shear-wave seismic reflection to image near-surface subrosion structures in an urban environment with a horizontal resolution of less than 1 m in the uppermost 10

  3. Ambient seismic noise monitoring of the Super-Sauze landslide from a very dense temporary seismic array (United States)

    Chtouki, Toufik; Vergne, Jerome; Provost, Floriane; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Burtin, Arnaud; Hibert, Clément


    The Super-Sauze landslide is located on the southern part of the Barcelonnette Basin (French Alps) and has developed in a soft clay-shale environment. It is one of the four sites continuously monitored through a wide variety of geophysical and hydro-geological techniques in the framework of the OMIV French national landslide observatory. From early June to mid-July 2016, a temporary dense seismic array has been installed in the most active part of the landslide and at its surroundings. 50 different sites with an average inter-station distance of 50m have been instrumented with 150 miniaturized and autonomous seismic stations (Zland nodes), allowing a continuous record of the seismic signal at frequencies higher than 0.2Hz over an almost regular grid. Concurrently, a Ground-Based InSAR device allowed for a precise and continuous monitoring of the surface deformation. Overall, this experiment is intended to better characterize the spatio-temporal evolution of the deformation processes related to various type of forcing. We analyze the continuous records of ambient seismic noise recorded by the dense array. Using power spectral densities, we characterize the various types of natural and anthropogenic seismic sources, including the effect of water turbulence and bedload transport in the small nearby torrents. We also compute the correlation of the ambient diffuse seismic noise in various frequency bands for the 2448 station pairs to recover the empirical Green functions between them. The temporal evolution of the coda part of these noise correlation functions allows monitoring and localizing shear wave velocity variations in the sliding mass. Here we present some preliminary results of this analysis and compare the seismic variations to meteorological data and surface deformation.

  4. The reliability of radon as seismic precursor (United States)

    Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru


    Our multidisciplinary network (AeroSolSys) located in Vrancea (Curvature Carpathian Mountains) includes radon concentration monitoring in five stations. We focus on lithosphere and near surface low atmosphere phenomena using real-time information about seismicity, + / - ions, clouds, solar radiation, temperature (air, ground), humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, telluric currents, variations of the local magnetic field, infrasound, variations of the atmospheric electrostatic field, variations in the earth crust with inclinometers, electromagnetic activity, CO2 concentration, ULF radio wave propagation, seismo-acoustic emission, animal behavior. The main purpose is to inform the authorities about risk situation and update hazard scenarios. The radon concentration monitoring is continuously with 1 hour or 3 hours sample rate in locations near to faults in an active seismic zone characterized by intermediate depth earthquakes. Trigger algorithms include standard deviation, mean and derivative methods. We correlate radon concentration measurements with humidity, temperature and atmospheric pressure from the same equipment. In few stations we have meteorological information, too. Sometime the radon concentration has very high variations (maxim 4535 Bq/m3 from 106 Bq/m3) in short time (1 - 2 days) without being accompanied by an important earthquake. Generally the cause is the high humidity that could be generated by tectonic stress. Correlation with seismicity needs information from minimum 6 month in our case. For 10605 hours, 618 earthquakes with maxim magnitude 4.9 R, we have got radon average 38 Bq/m3 and exposure 408111 Bqh/m3 in one station. In two cases we have correlation between seismicity and radon concentration. In other one we recorded high variation because the location was in an area with multiple faults and a river. Radon can be a seismic precursor but only in a multidisciplinary network. The anomalies for short or long period of

  5. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti (United States)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.


    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

  6. Excitation of seismic waves by a tornado (United States)

    Valovcin, A.; Tanimoto, T.; Twardzik, C.


    Tornadoes are among the most common natural disasters to occur in the United States. Various methods are currently used in tornado forecasting, including surface weather stations, weather balloons and satellite and Doppler radar. These methods work for detecting possible locations of tornadoes and funnel clouds, but knowing when a tornado has touched down still strongly relies on reports from spotters. Studying tornadoes seismically offers an opportunity to know when a tornado has touched down without requiring an eyewitness report. With the installation of Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA), there have been an increased number of tornadoes that have come within close range of seismometers. We have identified seismic signals corresponding to three tornadoes that occurred in 2011 in the central US. These signals were recorded by the TA station closest to each of the tornado tracks. For each tornado, the amplitudes of the seismic signals increase when the storm is in contact with the ground, and continue until the tornado lifts off some time later. This occurs at both high and low frequencies. In this study we will model the seismic signal generated by a tornado at low frequencies (below 0.1 Hz). We will begin by modeling the signal from the Joplin tornado, an EF5 rated tornado which occurred in Missouri on May 22, 2011. By approximating the tornado as a vertical force, we model the generated signal as the tornado moves along its track and changes in strength. By modeling the seismic waveform generated by a tornado, we can better understand the seismic-excitation process. It could also provide a way to quantitatively compare tornadoes. Additional tornadoes to model include the Calumet-El Reno-Piedmont-Guthrie (CEPG) and Chickasa-Blanchard-Newcastle (CBN) tornadoes, both of which occurred on May 24, 2011 in Oklahoma.

  7. Tidal and non-tidal contributions to surface loading processes on station coordinates


    Mendes Cerveira, Paulo Jorge


    Paulo Jorge Mendes Cerveira Zsfassung in dt. Sprache Wien, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2006 OeBB Auch erschienen in: Journal of Geodynamics, Mendes Cerveira, P.J., R. Heinkelmann, J. Boehm, R. Weber and H. Schuh, (2006a), Contributions of GPS and VLBI in understanding station motions, DOI:10.1016/j.jog.2005.08.024, pp. 87-93.

  8. Studying propagation of seismic waves across the Valley of Mexico from correlations of seismic noise (United States)

    Rivet, D. N.; Campillo, M.; Shapiro, N. M.; Singh, S.; Cruz Atienza, V. M.; Quintanar, L.; Valdés, C.


    We reconstruct Rayleigh and Love waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at 22 broad-band stations of the MesoAmerica Seismic Experiment (MASE) and Valley of Mexico Experiment (VMEX). The cross-correlations are computed over 2 years of noise data for the 9 MASE stations and over 1 year for the 13 VMEX stations. Surface waves with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio are then used in the group velocity dispersion analysis. We use the reconstructed waveforms to measure group velocity dispersion curves at period of 0.5 to 5 seconds. For traveling path inside the lake-bed zone, the maximum energy is observed at velocity higher than expected for the fundamental mode. This indicates that the propagation within the Mexico basin is dominated by higher modes of surface waves that propagate deeper in the basin. We identify the propagation modes by comparing observations with theoretical dispersion curves and eigenfunctions calculated for Rayleigh and Loves waves associated with a given model of the upper crust. The fundamental mode shows a very low group velocity, <100m/s, which is consistent with previous studies. The domination of the higher modes in the Valley of Mexico may be a determining factor in the long duration of the seismic signal. A better velocity constraint on the deeper structure of the basin is thus needed to fully understand this phenomenon.

  9. Research Note: The sensitivity of surface seismic P-wave data in transversely isotropic media to reflector depth

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    The leading component of the high-frequency asymptotic description of the wavefield, given by the travel time, is governed by the eikonal equation. In anisotropic media, traveltime measurements from seismic experiments conducted along one surface cannot constrain the long-wavelength attribute of the medium along the orthogonal-to-the-surface direction, as anisotropy introduces an independent parameter controlling wave propagation in the orthogonal direction. Since travel times measured on the Earth\\'s surface in transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis are mainly insensitive to the absolute value of the anisotropic parameter responsible for relating these observations to depth δ, the travel time was perturbed laterally to investigate the traveltime sensitivity to lateral variations in δ. This formulation can be used to develop inversion strategies for lateral variations in δ in acoustic transversely isotropic media, as the surface-recorded data are sensitive to it even if the model is described by the normal moveout velocity and horizontal velocity, or the anellipticity parameter η. Numerical tests demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity of our data when the model is parameterised with a lateral change in δ.

  10. Earth Analog Seismic Deployment for InSight's Mars seismic installation (United States)

    Kedar, S.; Bradford, S. C.; Clayton, R. W.; Davis, P. M.; Ervin, J.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonne, P. H.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mimoun, D.; Murdoch, N.; Roberson, T.; Stubailo, I.; Van Buren, D.


    InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that will place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. InSight's main experiment is the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), which will robotically place a broadband seismometer provided by the French Space Agency (CNES) on the Martian surface. SEIS will operate on the surface for a full Mars year. Installing and operating a seismometer on Mars imposes constraints rarely considered in terrestrial seismic installations. The InSight project has therefore conducted a terrestrial analog field deployment exercise to better understand and prepare for the distinctive challenges that placing a broadband seismometer in a Mars-like configuration and environment would pose. The exercise was conducted in two phases at NASA's Goldstone facility in the Southern California Mojave desert. In the first phase we have installed a surface geophysical station including a broadband seismometer, a microbarometer, anemometer, and thermal sensors in a configuration resembling the InSight's geophysical station. The site was located in an exposed location with rough surface and subsurface terrain. It was in close proximity to Goldstone permanent seismic station (GSC) that provided a ground-truth measurement. In the second phase, the installation was moved to a dry lakebed where the geophysical conditions mimic the expected geophysical environment of InSight's target landing site on Mars. We will present a summary of lessons learned so far from our analog deployment exercise. The data analysis emphasizes several aspects of key importance to the InSight mission: (1) Exploring strategies to mitigate environmental noise sources; (2) Recognizing noise sources that might be introduced by the InSight lander (solar panel flutter); (3) Identifying weak geophysical signals with low SNR above the environmental noise; (4) Using non tectonic

  11. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen


    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  12. Use of floating surface detector stations for the calibration of a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Tsirigotis, A G; Gizani, N A B; Leisos, A; Tzamarias, S E; 10.1016/j.nima.2008.07.011


    We propose the operation of floating Extensive Air Shower (EAS) detector stations in coincidence with the KM3NeT Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope to determine the absolute position and orientation of the underwater detector and to investigate possible systematic angular errors. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed calibration strategies using a detailed simulation of the EAS and KM3NeT detectors.

  13. Expanding Conventional Seismic Stratigrphy into the Multicomponent Seismic Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocent Aluka


    Multicomponent seismic data are composed of three independent vector-based seismic wave modes. These wave modes are, compressional mode (P), and shear modes SV and SH. The three modes are generated using three orthogonal source-displacement vectors and then recorded using three orthogonal vector sensors. The components travel through the earth at differing velocities and directions. The velocities of SH and SV as they travel through the subsurface differ by only a few percent, but the velocities of SV and SH (Vs) are appreciably lower than the P-wave velocity (Vp). The velocity ratio Vp/Vs varies by an order of magnitude in the earth from a value of 15 to 1.5 depending on the degree of sedimentary lithification. The data used in this study were acquired by nine-component (9C) vertical seismic profile (VSP), using three orthogonal vector sources. The 9C vertical seismic profile is capable of generating P-wave mode and the fundamental S-wave mode (SH-SH and SV-SV) directly at the source station and permits the basic components of elastic wavefield (P, SH-SH and SV-SV) to be separated from one another for the purposes of imaging. Analysis and interpretations of data from the study area show that incident full-elastic seismic wavefield is capable of reflecting four different wave modes, P, SH , SV and C which can be utilized to fully understand the architecture and heterogeneities of geologic sequences. The conventional seismic stratigraphy utilizes only reflected P-wave modes. The notation SH mode is the same as SH-SH; SV mode means SV-SV and C mode which is a converted shear wave is a special SV mode and is the same as P-SV. These four wave modes image unique geologic stratigraphy and facies and at the same time reflect independent stratal surfaces because of the unique orientation of their particle-displacement vectors. As a result of the distinct orientation of individual mode's particle-displacement vector, one mode may react to a critical subsurface sequence

  14. Applications of elastic full waveform inversion to shallow seismic surface waves (United States)

    Bohlen, Thomas; Forbriger, Thomas; Groos, Lisa; Schäfer, Martin; Metz, Tilman


    Shallow-seismic Rayleigh waves are attractive for geotechnical site investigations. They exhibit a high signal to noise ratio in field data recordings and have a high sensitivity to the S-wave velocity, an important lithological and geotechnical parameter to characterize the very shallow subsurface. Established inversion methods assume (local) 1-D subsurface models, and allow the reconstruction of the S-wave velocity as a function of depth by inverting the dispersion properties of the Rayleigh waves. These classical methods, however, fail if significant lateral variations of medium properties are present. Then the full waveform inversion (FWI) of the elastic wave field seems to be the only solution. Moreover, FWI may have the potential to recover multi-parameter models of seismic wave velocities, attenuation and eventually mass density. Our 2-D elastic FWI is a conjugate-gradient method where the gradient of the misfit function is calculated by the time-domain adjoint method. The viscoelastic forward modelling is performed with a classical staggered-grid 2-D finite-difference forward solver. Viscoelastic damping is implemented in the time-domain by a generalized standard linear solid. We use a multi-scale inversion approach by applying frequency filtering in the inversion. We start with the lowest frequency oft the field data and increase the upper corner frequency sequentially. Our modelling and FWI software is freely available under the terms of GNU GPL on In recent years we studied the applicability of two-dimensional elastic FWI using numerous synthetic reconstruction tests and several field data examples. Important pre-processing steps for the application of 2-D elastic FWI to shallow-seismic field data are the 3D to 2D correction of geometrical spreading and the estimation of a priori Q-values that must be used as a passive medium parameter during the FWI. Furthermore, a source-wavelet correction filter should be applied during the FWI

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Remote Triggered Seismicity in Northern Baja California Generated by the 2011, Tohoku-Oki, Japan Earthquake (United States)

    Wong-Ortega, V.; Castro, R. R.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.


    We analyze possible variations of seismicity in the northern Baja California due to the passage of seismic waves from the 2011, M9.0, Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquake. The northwestern area of Baja California is characterized by a mountain range composed of crystalline rocks. These Peninsular Ranges of Baja California exhibits high microseismic activity and moderate size earthquakes. In the eastern region of Baja California shearing between the Pacific and the North American plates takes place and the Imperial and Cerro-Prieto faults generate most of the seismicity. The seismicity in these regions is monitored by the seismic network RESNOM operated by the Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE). This network consists of 13 three-component seismic stations. We use the seismic catalog of RESNOM to search for changes in local seismic rates occurred after the passing of surface waves generated by the Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquake. When we compare one month of seismicity before and after the M9.0 earthquake, the preliminary analysis shows absence of triggered seismicity in the northern Peninsular Ranges and an increase of seismicity south of the Mexicali valley where the Imperial fault jumps southwest and the Cerro Prieto fault continues.

  16. Estimation of seismic wave velocity at seafloor surface and sound source localization based on transmitted wave observation with an ocean bottom seismometer offshore of Kamaishi, Japan (United States)

    Iwase, Ryoichi


    An in situ method of estimating the seismic wave velocity at the seafloor surface by observing the particle motion of a wave transmitted into the sediment is presented; this method uses a sound source whose location is known. Conversely, a sound source localization method using the obtained seismic velocities and involving particle motion observation is also presented. Although this method is applicable only when the sound source exists within the critical incidence angle range, it is expected to contribute to the tracing of vocalizing baleen whales, which are unknown around Japanese waters.

  17. Imaging seismic reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op 't Root, Timotheus Johannes Petrus Maria


    The goal of reflection seismic imaging is making images of the Earth subsurface using surface measurements of reflected seismic waves. Besides the position and orientation of subsurface reflecting interfaces it is a challenge to recover the size or amplitude of the discontinuities. We investigate tw

  18. Geometry and spatial variations of seismic reflection intensity of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate off the Boso Peninsula, Japan (United States)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryousuke


    In the region off the Boso Peninsula, Japan, the Pacific plate is subducting westward beneath both the Honshu island arc and Philippine Sea plate, while the Philippine Sea plate is subducting northwestward beneath the Honshu island arc. These complex tectonic interactions have caused numerous seismic events occurred in the past. To better understand these seismic events, it is important to determine the geometry of the plate boundary, in particular the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate. We conducted an active-source seismic refraction survey in July and August 2009 from which we obtained a 2-D P-wave velocity structure model along a 216-km profile. We used the velocity model and previously published data that indicate a P-wave velocity of 5.0 km/s for the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate to delineate its boundary with the overriding Honshu island arc. Our isodepth contours of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate show that its dip is shallow at depths of 10 to 15 km, far off the Boso Peninsula. This shallow dip may be a result of interference from the Pacific plate slab, which is subducting westward under the Philippine Sea plate. Within our survey data, we recognized numerous seismic reflections of variable intensity, some of which came from the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate. An area of high seismic reflection intensity corresponds with the main slip area of the Boso slow slip events. Our modeling indicates that those reflections can be explained by an inhomogeneous layer close to the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate.

  19. Seismicity in West Iberia: small scale seismicity recording from a Dense Seismic Broadband Deployment in Portugal (WILAS Project) (United States)

    Afonso Dias, Nuno; Custódio, Susana; Silveira, Graça; Carrilho, Fernando; Haberland, Christian; Lima, Vânia; Rio, Inês; Góngora, Eva; Marreiros, Célia; Morais, Iolanda; Vales, Dina; Fonseca, João; Caldeira, Bento; Villaseñor, Antonio


    Over the last years several projects targeted the lithospheric structure and its correlation with the surface topography, e.g. EarthSCOPE/USArray or TOPO-EUROPE. Two projects focused on the Iberian Peninsula, one giving particular attention to the southern collision margin (TOPO-MED) and the other to the central cratonic Massif (TOPO-IBERIA/IBERArray). These projects mostly rely on deployed dense seismic broadband (BB) networks with an average inter-station spacing of 60km, which strongly increases the available network spatial coverage. The seismicity recording in such networks is critical to access current rates of lithospheric deformation. Within the scope of project WILAS - West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), a 3-year project funded by the Portuguese Science & Technology Foundation (FCT), we deployed a temporary network of 30 BB stations in Portugal between 2010 and 2012, doubling the total number of operating BB stations. Together with the permanent and TOPO-IBERIA stations, the resulting networks provided a full and dense coverage of the Iberian Peninsula. The majority of the permanent stations in Portugal, aimed at the seismic surveillance, are located in the southern part of the country in result of the active tectonic convergence between Iberia and Africa. Therefore, the temporary stations were mainly deployed in the north of Portugal. These temporary stations allowed an improvement of the earthquake detection threshold. The detection of seismic events was based on the analysis of daily spectrograms of the entire network, the new events detected being analysed and included in the catalogue. The new detected events are located mainly in the north, with magnitudes as low as 0.5 ML and in the offshore in the Estremadura Spur. Some additional events were also located south of Portugal, between the Gorringe Bank and the Gulf of Cadiz, in this case the lower magnitudes being ~2.0ML. Focal mechanisms will also be

  20. Receiver-pair seismic interferometry applied to body-wave USArray data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, E.


    With seismic interferometry, reflections can be retrieved between stations positioned on the Earth's surface. In the classical form, the reflections are retrieved by a crosscorrelation of observations and an integration over subsurface sources. For a specific data set, however, the actual source dis

  1. Preliminary analysis of eclipses phenomenon influence on body strain observationat Korla Seismic Station%日月食现象对库尔勒体应变观测的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长银; 孙海军; 杨绍富; 苏萍; 江崇崑; 罗宏江


    Through analyzing the distortion phenomenon of body strain observation in Korla Seismic Station, there is marked influence of eclipses phenomenon on body strain and auxiliary air pressure observation. The influence of solar and lunar eclipses is different because of the special position of the Sun, Moon and Earth. The special position changes the tide generating force on the Earth. Proper recognition of Eclipses phenomenon influence on body strain is very significant to identify earthquake precursor anomalies.%通过对库尔勒体应变观测的畸变现象分析,认为日、月食现象对体应变及辅助气压观测有显著影响,且产生的影响不同,正确认识日、月食现象对体应变观测的影响,对于识别地震前兆异常具有一定意义.

  2. Seismic imaging of post-glacial sediments - test study before Spitsbergen expedition (United States)

    Szalas, Joanna; Grzyb, Jaroslaw; Majdanski, Mariusz


    This work presents results of the analysis of reflection seismic data acquired from testing area in central Poland. For this experiment we used total number of 147 vertical component seismic stations (DATA-CUBE and Reftek "Texan") with accelerated weight drop (PEG-40). The profile was 350 metres long. It is a part of pilot study for future research project on Spitsbergen. The purpose of the study is to recognise the characteristics of seismic response of post-glacial sediments in order to design the most adequate survey acquisition parameters and processing sequence for data from Spitsbergen. Multiple tests and comparisons have been performed to obtain the best possible quality of seismic image. In this research we examine the influence of receiver interval size, front mute application and surface wave attenuation attempts. Although seismic imaging is the main technique we are planning to support this analysis with additional data from traveltime tomography, MASW and other a priori information.

  3. On the Frontier: Some Observations of Surface Tension Phenomena from the International Space Station (United States)

    Pettit, Don


    Frontiers are interesting places; they offer the possibility to make observations outside our normal range of experience. The International Space Station is such a frontier offering a local reduction in acceleration force by nearly a factor of a million thus allowing the observation of subtle phenomena that are typically masked on Earth. In this presentation we show a variety of unusually large length scale fluid interfacial phenomena dominated by electro-hydrodynamics, Marangoni convection, and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The experimental results presented are largely performed during weekends and other brief time-off periods allotted to the astronaut crew on the ISS.

  4. Empirical Requirements Analysis for Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Lee, Pascal; Sierhuis, Maarten; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Living and working on Mars will require model-based computer systems for maintaining and controlling complex life support, communication, transportation, and power systems. This technology must work properly on the first three-year mission, augmenting human autonomy, without adding-yet more complexity to be diagnosed and repaired. One design method is to work with scientists in analog (mars-like) setting to understand how they prefer to work, what constrains will be imposed by the Mars environment, and how to ameliorate difficulties. We describe how we are using empirical requirements analysis to prototype model-based tools at a research station in the High Canadian Arctic.

  5. A Review of Seismicity in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gang; Liu Jie; Yu Surong


    @@ 1 SURVEY OF GLOBE SEISMICITY IN 2008 A total of 19 strong earthquakes with Ms≥7.0 occurred in the world in 2008 according to the Chinese Seismic Station Network (Table 1 ). The strongest earthquake was the Wenchuan earthquake with Ms8.0 on May 12,2008 (Fig.1). Earthquake frequency was apparently lower and the energy release remarkably attenuated in 2008, compared to seismicity in 2007. The characteristics of seismicity are as follows:

  6. The Detection of Vertical Cracks in Asphalt Using Seismic Surface Wave Methods (United States)

    Iodice, M.; Muggleton, J.; Rustighi, E.


    Assessment of the location and of the extension of cracking in road surfaces is important for determining the potential level of deterioration in the road overall and the infrastructure buried beneath it. Damage in a pavement structure is usually initiated in the tarmac layers, making the Rayleigh wave ideally suited for the detection of shallow surface defects. This paper presents an investigation of two surface wave methods to detect and locate top-down cracks in asphalt layers. The aim of the study is to compare the results from the well- established Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and the more recent Multiple Impact of Surface Waves (MISW) in the presence of a discontinuity and to suggest the best surface wave technique for evaluating the presence and the extension of vertical cracks in roads. The study is conducted through numerical simulations alongside experimental investigations and it considers the cases for which the cracking is internal and external to the deployment of sensors. MISW is found to enhance the visibility of the reflected waves in the frequency wavenumber (f-k) spectrum, helping with the detection of the discontinuity. In some cases, by looking at the f-k spectrum obtained with MISW it is possible to extract information regarding the location and the depth of the cracking.

  7. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.


    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  8. Retrieval of P wave Basin Response from Autocorrelation of Seismic Noise-Jakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Lumley, D. E.


    Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is home to a very large (over 10 million), vulnerable population and is proximate to known active faults, as well as to the subduction of Australian plate, which has a megathrust at abut 300 km distance, as well as intraslab seismicity extending to directly beneath the city. It is also located in a basin filled with a thick layer of unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediment, which increases the seismic hazard the city is facing. Therefore, the information on the seismic velocity structure of the basin is crucial for increasing our knowledge of the seismic risk. We undertook a passive deployment of broadband seismographs throughout the city over a 3-month interval in 2013-2014, recording ambient seismic noise at over 90 sites for intervals of 1 month or more. Here we consider autocorrelations of the vertical component of the continuously recorded seismic wavefield across this dense network to image the shallow P wave velocity structure of Jakarta, Indonesia. Unlike the surface wave Green's functions used in ambient noise tomography, the vertical-component autocorrelograms are dominated by body wave energy that is potentially sensitive to sharp velocity contrasts, which makes them useful in seismic imaging. Results show autocorrelograms at different seismic stations with travel time variations that largely reflect changes in sediment thickness across the basin. We also confirm the validity our interpretation of the observed autocorrelation waveforms by conducting 2D finite difference full waveform numerical modeling for randomly distributed seismic sources to retrieve the reflection response through autocorrelation.

  9. Source properties of Strombolian explosions at Aso volcano, Japan, derived from seismic signals (United States)

    Zobin, Vyacheslav M.; Sudo, Yasuaki


    A new episode of Strombolian activity at Aso volcano, Japan began on 25 November 2014, causing ashfall and glowing emissions. A total of 100 seismic signals of explosive events, recorded during November 2014 to February 2015 by a short-period seismic station that was situated at a distance of 150 m from the crater, were investigated. They indicated a two-phase structure of the seismic waveforms. The seismic signals consisted of the initial phase of lower frequency and lower amplitude and the main phase of higher frequency and higher amplitude that allowed to propose a two-stage conceptual model of Strombolian explosions at Aso volcano. According to the model, the initial phase is generated by the vertical movement of the gas slug in the volcanic conduit before an explosion, and the main phase is generated by the subsequent explosion. In the framework of this model, the following seismic parameters of Strombolian Aso explosions were calculated: the power of the initial seismic phases as a measure of force governing the gas-slug movement to the surface, and the power of the main seismic phases as a measure of the energy of the eruption. Direct log-log dependence of the power of the main phase of the seismic signals on the power of initial seismic phases, obtained in the paper, indicates the dependence of the eruption energy on the magnitude of the force governing the movement of the gas slug before an explosion.

  10. Broadband seismic effects from train vibrations (United States)

    Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz


    Seismologists rarely study train induced vibrations which are mainly regarded an unwanted source of noise for classical seismological applications such as earthquake monitoring. A few seismological studies try to utilize train vibrations however as active sources, e.g. for subsurface imaging, but they do not focus on the characteristics of the train signal itself. Most available studies on train induced vibrations take an engineering approach and aim at better understanding the generation and short-distance propagation of train induced vibrations, mainly for mitigation and construction purposes. They mostly rely on numerical simulations and/or short-period or accelerometer recordings obtained directly on the train track or up to few hundred meters away and almost no studies exist with seismic recordings further away from the track. In some of these previous studies sharp and equidistant peaks are present in the vibration spectrum of heavy freight trains, but they do not attempt to explain them. Here we show and analyze various train vibration signals obtained from a set of seismic broadband stations installed in the context of the temporary, large-scale regional seismic network AlpArray. The geometrical restrictions of this seismic network combined with budget and safety considerations resulted in a number of broad-band instruments deployed in the vicinity of busy railway lines. On these stations we observe very characteristic seismic signals associated with different types of trains, typically showing pronounced equidistant spectral lines over a wide frequency range. In this study we analyze the nature of such signals and discuss if they are generated by a source effect or by wave propagation effects in near-surface soil layers.

  11. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele


    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  12. Analysis and models of pre-injection surface seismic array noise recorded at the Aquistore carbon storage site (United States)

    Birnie, Claire; Chambers, Kit; Angus, Doug; Stork, Anna L.


    Noise is a persistent feature in seismic data and so poses challenges in extracting increased accuracy in seismic images and physical interpretation of the subsurface. In this paper, we analyse passive seismic data from the Aquistore carbon capture and storage pilot project permanent seismic array to characterise, classify and model seismic noise. We perform noise analysis for a three-month subset of passive seismic data from the array and provide conclusive evidence that the noise field is not white, stationary, or Gaussian; characteristics commonly yet erroneously assumed in most conventional noise models. We introduce a novel noise modelling method that provides a significantly more accurate characterisation of real seismic noise compared to conventional methods, which is quantified using the Mann-Whitney-White statistical test. This method is based on a statistical covariance modelling approach created through the modelling of individual noise signals. The identification of individual noise signals, broadly classified as stationary, pseudo-stationary and non-stationary, provides a basis on which to build an appropriate spatial and temporal noise field model. Furthermore, we have developed a workflow to incorporate realistic noise models within synthetic seismic data sets providing an opportunity to test and analyse detection and imaging algorithms under realistic noise conditions.

  13. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.


    -treatment processes, and effective regulations. Phosphorus data for most of the study stations could not be analyzed because of the data limitations for trend tests. The only station with a significant negative trend in total phosphorus concentration is the Clinton River at Mount Clemens. However, scatter-plot analyses of phosphorus data indicate decreasing concentrations with time for most of the study stations. Positive trends in concentration of nitrogen compounds were detected at the Kalamazoo River near Saugatuck and Muskegon River near Bridgeton. Positive trends in both fecal coliform and total fecal coliform were detected at the Tahquamenon River near Paradise. Various different point and nonpoint sources could produce such positive trends, but most commonly the increase in concentrations of nitrogen compounds and fecal coliform bacteria are associated with agricultural practices and sewage-plant discharges. The constituent with the most numerous and geographically widespread significant trend is pH. The pH levels increased at six out of nine stations on all the major rivers in Michigan, with no negative trend at any station. The cause of pH increase is difficult to determine, as it could be related to a combination of anthropogenic activities and natural processes occurring simultaneously in the environment. Trends in concentration of major ions, such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, chloride, and potassium, were detected at eight out of nine stations. A negative trend was detected only in sulfate and fluoride concentrations; a positive trend was detected only in calcium concentration. The major ions with the most widespread significant trends are sodium and chloride; three positive and two negative trends were detected for sodium, and three negative and two positive trends were detected for chloride. The negative trends in chloride concentrations outnumbered the positive trends. This result indicates a slight improvement in surface-water quality because

  14. 软弱场地地铁车站结构地震反应的数值模拟与模型试验对比分析%Comparative Analysis between Numerical Simulation and Model Test on the Seismic Response of Subway Station Structure in Soft Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶道奎; 陈国兴; 左熹


    根据软弱场地土上地铁车站结构大型振动台模型试验结果,以软件ABAQUS为平台,采用记忆型嵌套面黏塑性动力本构模型和动塑性损伤模型,分别模拟土体和车站结构混凝土的动力特性,建立了土-地铁车站结构非线性动力相互作用二维和三维有限元分析模型,对各种试验工况下地基土-地铁车站结构体系的地震反应进行了数值模拟,并与试验结果进行了对比.结果表明:二维、三维数值模拟与振动台模型试验结果基本一致,三维模型可更好地模拟软弱场地与地铁车站结构的动力相互作用及模型结构的动力反应.数值模拟结果和振动台试验结果可相互验证其可靠性.%Based on the results of the large-scale shaking table test of subway station structures in soft clay, finite element software ABAQUS was used to establish two-and three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic interaction model for soil-subway station structure system. In the modeling, dynamic visco-plastic memorial nested yield surface model was used to describe the dynamic characteristics of soils, and dynamic plastic-damage model was used to simulate the dynamic characteristics of tunnel concrete. The seismic response of soil-subway station structure system under different test conditions was analyzed by the numerical simulation method. Moreover, the numerical simulation results and the shaking table test were compared in detail. The results show that the simulation results of the two-and three-dimensional model are basically identical with the shaking table tests. The three-dimensional model is better to simulate the dynamic interaction of the subway station structure and the soil as well as the dynamic responses of the station structure in soft clay. The modeling analysis based on software ABAQUS and the shaking table test results are mutually verified.

  15. National Seismic Network of Georgia (United States)

    Tumanova, N.; Kakhoberashvili, S.; Omarashvili, V.; Tserodze, M.; Akubardia, D.


    Georgia, as a part of the Southern Caucasus, is tectonically active and structurally complex region. It is one of the most active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The deformation and the associated seismicity are due to the continent-continent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Seismic Monitoring of country and the quality of seismic data is the major tool for the rapid response policy, population safety, basic scientific research and in the end for the sustainable development of the country. National Seismic Network of Georgia has been developing since the end of 19th century. Digital era of the network started from 2003. Recently continuous data streams from 25 stations acquired and analyzed in the real time. Data is combined to calculate rapid location and magnitude for the earthquake. Information for the bigger events (Ml>=3.5) is simultaneously transferred to the website of the monitoring center and to the related governmental agencies. To improve rapid earthquake location and magnitude estimation the seismic network was enhanced by installing additional 7 new stations. Each new station is equipped with coupled Broadband and Strong Motion seismometers and permanent GPS system as well. To select the sites for the 7 new base stations, we used standard network optimization techniques. To choose the optimal sites for new stations we've taken into account geometry of the existed seismic network, topographic conditions of the site. For each site we studied local geology (Vs30 was mandatory for each site), local noise level and seismic vault construction parameters. Due to the country elevation, stations were installed in the high mountains, no accessible in winter due to the heavy snow conditions. To secure online data transmission we used satellite data transmission as well as cell data network coverage from the different local companies. As a result we've already have the improved earthquake location and event magnitudes. We

  16. Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Air and Surfaces of the International Space Station. (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin P; Blachowicz, Adriana; Palmer, Jonathan M; Romsdahl, Jillian; Huttenlocher, Anna; Wang, Clay C C; Keller, Nancy P; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri


    One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10. Whole-genome sequencing of ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 showed 54,960 and 52,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, compared to Af293, which is consistent with observed genetic heterogeneity among sequenced A. fumigatus isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources. Assessment of in vitro growth characteristics, secondary metabolite production, and susceptibility to chemical stresses revealed no outstanding differences between ISS and clinical strains that would suggest special adaptation to life aboard the ISS. Virulence assessment in a neutrophil-deficient larval zebrafish model of invasive aspergillosis revealed that both ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 were significantly more lethal than Af293 and CEA10. Taken together, these genomic, in vitro, and in vivo analyses of two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the ISS provide a benchmark for future investigations of these strains and for continuing research on specific microbial isolates from manned space environments. IMPORTANCE As durations of manned space missions increase, it is imperative to understand the long-term consequence of microbial exposure on human health in a closed human habitat. To date, studies aimed at bacterial and fungal contamination of space vessels have highlighted species compositions biased toward hardy, persistent organisms capable of withstanding harsh conditions. In the current study, we assessed traits of two independent Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated

  17. Wenchuan Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture and Disaster: A Lesson on Seismic Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du


    Full Text Available The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan Faults in China and was a great disaster. Most of the damage and casualties during the quake were concentrated along surface rupture zones: the 240-km-long Beichuan-Yingxiu Fault and the 70-km-long Jiangyou-Guanxian Fault. Although the Longmenshan Faults are well known and studied, the surface Fault ruptures were not considered in mitigation planning, and the associated ground-motion hazard was therefore underestimated. Not considering Fault rupture and underestimating ground-motion hazard contributed to the disastrous effects of the earthquake. The lesson from the Wenchuan earthquake disaster is that the fault rupture hazard must be assessed and considered in mitigation. Furthermore, the deterministic approach is more appropriate for fault rupture hazard assessment than the probabilistic approach.

  18. Obtaining Near-surface Parameters for Seismic Statics by Using Differential Electric Sounding and Land Sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The differential electric sounding and land sonar method was a new technique used in recent years. Good results from shallow engineering surveys have been obtained. Tests on obtaining thicknesses and velocities of near-surface Myers were conducted by combining the two approaches. With hammersources, satisfactory results were obtained at depth of about 60min surveying the Quaternary layers in the Shengli oilfield and at depth of about 120 m in the mountainous areas of southern Guizhou.

  19. Meteorological observations on Martian surface : met-packages of Mars-96 Small Stations and Penetrators (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.; Polkko, J.; Marov, M.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Lipatov, A.; Siili, T.; Manuilov, K.; Lebedev, V.; Lehto, A.; Pellinen, R.; Pirjola, R.; Carpentier, T.; Malique, C.; Makarov, V.; Khloustova, L.; Esposito, L.; Maki, J.; Lawrence, G.; Lystsev, V.


    The scientific objectives of a meterological experiment on the Martian surface are defined, and the meteorological equipment of the landing elements of the Mars-96 mission are described with emphasis on the applicability for re-use in forthcoming Mars missions. The general strategy for atmospheric surface observations is discussed. Meteorological surface observations are of utmost value in studying the Martian atmosphere. The climatological cycles and atmospheric circulations, as well as the boundary layer phenomena can be understood thoroughly only, if the contribution of in situ surface measurements are amalgamated with the remote observations. The Mars-96 mission had an ambitious goal of deploying four versatile payloads at four Northern hemispheric sites. The observations of pressure, temperature, wind, atmospheric optical thickness and humidity, as well as pressure and temperature measurements during the atmospheric descent were included in the meteorology experiment. Even though the Mars-96 mission was unsuccessful, the objectives and implementation of the meteorology experiment are applicable to any forthcoming landing mission to Mars. This applies both to a mission having a number of observation sites spread all over the surface of Mars, and to a single lander or rover. The main operational objective of this meteorological experiment is to provide a regular time series of the meteorological parameters with accelerated measurement campaigns during dawn and dusk. Such a data set would substantially improve our understanding of the atmospheric structure, dynamics, climatological cycles, and the atmosphere-surface interactions. The implementation of the meteorology instrument features advanced sensor technology and flexible system design. The application on the Mars-96 landing elements was, however, severely constrained by the limited power supply. The usefulness of the system can be substantially enhanced by modest additional resources and with few or no

  20. Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) quality control of solar radiation data on the Gangneung-Wonju National University radiation station (United States)

    Zo, Il-Sung; Jee, Joon-Bum; Kim, Bu-Yo; Lee, Kyu-Tae


    Gangneung-Wonju National University (GWNU) radiation station has been collecting data on global, direct, and diffuse solar radiation since 2011. We conducted a quality control (QC) assessment of GWNU data collected between 2012 and 2014, using procedures outlined by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The QC process involved the comparison of observations, the correction of observational equipment, the examination of physically possible limits, and the comparative testing of observations and model calculations. Furthermore, we performed a shading check of the observational environment around the GWNU solar station. For each solar radiation element (observed every minute), we performed a QC check and investigated any flagged problems. 98.31% of the data were classified as good quality, while the remaining 1.69% were flagged as bad quality based on the shading check and comparison tests. We then compared the good-quality data to the global solar radiation data observed at the Gangwon Regional Office of Meteorology (GROM). After performing this comparison, the determination coefficient (R2; 0.98) and standard deviation (SD; 0.92 MJ m-2) increased compared to those computed before the QC check (0.97 and 1.09 MJ m-2). Even considering the geographical differences and weather effects between the two stations, these results are statistically significant. However, we also confirmed that the quality of the GROM data deteriorated in relation to weather conditions because of poor maintenance. Hence, we conclude that good-quality observational data rely on the maintenance of both observational equipment and the surrounding environment under optimal conditions.

  1. An Instrument for Measuring the Near-Surface PlasmaTemperature and Concentration, and the Surface Charging of the International Space Station (United States)

    Kirov, B.


    The Langmuir probe is one of the classical instruments for plasma diagnostics [1] and among the first space-borne instruments. Langmuir probes have been successfully used aboard a number of rockets and satellites for in situ measurements of thermal plasma parameters in the terrestrial ionosphere [2], at other planets [3] and comets [4], and recently it is an indispensable instrument for measuring the satellite surface potential. In the present paper we discuss some theoretical and practical aspects of the application of the Langmuir probe for ionospheric measurements. We show that the spherical probe cannot be used for measurements in the ionosphere, and for the cylindrical probe the experimental Volt-Ampere curves are not described by the formula for an infinite cylinder. A formula is proposed for processing of this region. We demonstrate that in the case of two prevailing ions, their concentration can be found from the ion saturation region. Finally, we describe the two Langmuir probes designed and manufactured in Bulgaria, a part of the Plasma Wave Complex PWC (Obstanovka experiment) aboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station, whose goal is to monitor the surface charging and the noises and disturbances in the surrounding plasma induced by the station and by the experiments conducted aboard it.

  2. 提高台站地震资料信噪比的自适应极化滤波%Adaptive Polarization Filtering for Improving the S/N of Station Seismic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马见青; 李庆春


    length window do not have time-varying characteristics.The filtering results of the SCM are relatively stable,insensitive to disturbance,and unable to determine the polarization parameters in the beginning and end of the seismic record.Thus,the filtering effect is not ideal and will inevitably appear glossy in interpretation.For this reason,the present study in-troduces a new polarization method based on the adaptive covariance matrix(ACM).We use an approximate formula to compute the adaptive window function,in which the length is adapted to the instantaneous frequency of three-component seismic data.In particular,the window length of the covariance matrix adjusts to the minimum cycle of the desired signal,which reduces the facti-tious impact of the window length selection.In addition,there is no need to interpolate processing because the polarization parameters are computed in every time sampling point of the three-com-ponent seismic records,except for one-half of the time window of the start and end points.Due to the above advantages,ACM greatly improves the filtering accuracy.The processing results of the model and actual three-component station seismic data show that the SCM represents a smoothed version of the instantaneous attributes from the ACM.Furthermore,because the time window is fixed for the standard method,it is not possible to characterize the polarization attributes of a seis-mic event with a period lower than that of the time window used for the analysis.The polarization curves computed by SCM and ACM agree quite well in the region in which the period of the domi-nant signal is close to the time window selected for the covariance analysis,which greatly reduces the effective signal waveform differences before and after filtering.With ACM,a comparison of the original signal and that after filtering reveals that almost no high-frequency interference exists near the effective signal.In general,the significantly different regions in which the two curves from

  3. Near-Surface Seasonal Creeping and Subsurface Repeated Seismicity on the Plate-Suture Thrust Fault in Chihshang, Eastern Taiwan (United States)

    Lee, J.; Chu, H.; Angelier, J.; Hu, J.; Rau, R.


    The Chihshang fault is one of the most active segments of the Longitudinal Valley Fault, the plate suture between the converging Philippine and Eurasian plates. A destructive earthquake of M 6.2 with substantial surface scarps resulted from rupturing of the Chihshang fault in 1951. From that on, no big earthquake greater than M 6 occurred in this area. Instead, the Chihshang fault reveals a creeping behavior at least during the past 18 observation years. The creepmeter data of daily basis at Chihshang since 1998 revealed different behaviors of surface fault motion at two sites but similar annual shortening rates, 16.2 mm at Tapo site and 15.0 mm at Chinyuan site. Four of five creepmeters showed a seasonal variation, in which the fault only moved, as steadily rapid creeping, during the rainy season, generally from April to October, and remained quite during the rest of year. The only exception is due to the creepmeter located on the mélange-composed slope, where local gravitational landslide played a significant role combined with the tectonic faulting. Comparing to the precipitation data, we inferred that the relatively moderate rainfall is seemingly enough for triggering or facilitating slippages on the surface fault, one or two months before the heavy rains dropped in the wet season. During this observation period from 1998 to 2001, the subsurface seismicity exhibited clusters of micro-earthquakes occurred on the Chihshang fault at the depth of 15-25 km. The repeated earthquakes continuously occurred regardless the wet or the dry seasons, indicating the stress on the Chihshang fault in the shallow crust level of less than 10 km released only by creeping during the wet season. Combination of the near-surface creeping and the subsurface repeated earthquakes provided insights on the mechanical behaviors of the Chihshang fault, which are likely related to the geological materials of the converging island-arc: week mélange in the near-surface fault zone and strong

  4. Determining Engineering Properties of the Shallow Lunar Subsurface using Seismic Surface Wave Techniques (United States)

    Yeluru, P. M.; Baker, G. S.


    The geology of Earth's moon has previously been examined via telescopic observations, orbiting spacecraft readings, lunar sample analysis, and also from some geophysical data. Previous researchers have examined layering of the moon and models exist explaining the velocity variations in the mantle and core. However, no studies (or datasets) currently exist regarding the engineering properties of the shallow (civil engineering works, as they characterize the mechanical behavior of geotechnical materials under various types of loading. Therefore, understanding the physical and engineering properties within the upper 30 m of the lunar subsurface will be critical for lunar exploration if deployment of large structures, large-scale excavation, and/or landing of large spacecraft on the surface is desired. Advances in near-surface geophysical techniques, such as Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW), has greatly increased our ability to map subsurface variations in physical properties. The MASW method involves deployment of multiple seismometers to acquire 1-D or 2-D shear wave velocity profiles that can be directly related to various engineering properties. The advantage of this technique over drilling boreholes or any other geophysical technique is that it is less intensive, non-invasive, more cost- effective, and more robust because strong surface-wave records are almost guaranteed. In addition, data processing and analysis is fairly straightforward, and the MASW method allows for analysis of a large area of interest as compared to drilling boreholes. A new scheme using randomly distributed geophones (likely deployed from a mortar-type device) instead of a conventional linear array will be presented. A random array is necessary for lunar exploration because of the logistical constraints involved in deploying a linear or circular array robotically or by astronaut. Initial results indicate that robust dispersion curves (and thus subsurface models of engineering

  5. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS) (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.


    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  6. Estimating the near-surface site response to mitigate earthquake disasters at the October 6th city, Egypt, using HVSR and seismic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed


    Full Text Available The damage caused by earthquake occurrences in different localities necessitates the evaluation of the subsurface structure. A priori estimation of the site effects became a major challenge for an efficient mitigation of the seismic risk. In the case of moderate to large earthquakes, at some distances from large events, severe damage often occurred at zones of unfavorable geotechnical conditions that give rise to significant site effects. The damage distribution in the near-source area is also significantly affected by fault geometry and rupture history. The microtremor (background noises and shallow seismic surveys (through both the seismic refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW were carried out in a specific area (The club of October 6 city and its adjacent space area. The natural periods derived from the HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio analysis vary from 0.37 to 0.56 s. The shallow seismic refraction data, which were conducted at the area, are used to determine the attenuation of P-waves (Qp in different layers, using the pulse-width technique. The evaluation of the site response at the studied area yields amplification factor of the ground motion, ranging between 2.4 and 4.4.

  7. Validation of three satellite-derived databases of surface solar radiation using measurements performed at 42 stations in Brazil (United States)

    Thomas, Claire; Wey, Etienne; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien


    The SoDa website ( is populated with numerous solar-related Web services. Among them, three satellite-derived irradiation databases can be manually or automatically accessed to retrieve radiation values within the geographical coverage of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite: the two most advanced versions of the HelioClim-3 database (versions 4 and 5, respectively HC3v4 and HC3v5), and the CAMS radiation service. So far, these databases have been validated against measurements of several stations in Europe and North Africa only. As the quality of such databases depends on the geographical regions and the climates, this paper extends this validation campaign and proposes an extensive comparison on Brazil and global irradiation received on a horizontal surface. Eleven stations from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research (INPE) network offer 1 min observations, and thirty-one stations from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET) network offer hourly observations. The satellite-derived estimates have been compared to the corresponding observations on hourly, daily and monthly basis. The bias relative to the mean of the measurements for HC3v5 is mostly comprised between 1 and 3 %, and that for HC3v4 between 2 and 5 %. These are very satisfactory results and they demonstrate that HC3v5, and to a lesser extent HC3v4, may be used in studies of long-term changes in SSI in Brazil. The situation is not so good with CAMS radiation service for which the relative bias is mostly comprised between 5 and 10 %. For hourly irradiation, the relative RMSE ranges from 15 to 33 %. The correlation coefficient is very large for all stations and the three databases, with an average of 0.96. The three databases reproduce well the hour from hour changes in SSI. The errors show a tendency to increase with the viewing angle of the MSG satellite. They are greater in tropical areas where the relative humidity in the atmosphere is important. It is concluded

  8. Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography across SE Tibet (United States)

    Zheng, DingChang; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Ge, Zengxi; Min, Zhaoxu; Cipta, Athanasius; Yang, Runhai


    We analyze seismic ambient noise data recorded at a set of permanent and temporary stations across southeastern Tibet to image crustal structure. High-resolution phase velocity maps are presented based on Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography. Seismic images exhibit more apparent horizontal heterogeneities and show more detailed information compared to previous studies based on traditional ambient noise tomography. As noted from the phase velocity image at 25 s, the rigid high velocity anomalies beneath the Sichuan Basin and the South China Fold System act as a blockage to crustal material expansion, and the distribution of velocity anomalies contributes to the interpretation of a surface clockwise rotation pattern. Our results imply a more complex distributed low-velocity zone rather than two isolated channels beneath SE Tibet.

  9. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis


    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  10. 核电站工业水池的地震反应分析%Seismic Response Analysis of Industry Pool Building on a Nuclear Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志成; 裴强; 赵杰


    目的 探索核电站工业水池作为抗震物项进行动力计算时的内力分布规律及其危险工况,为工业水池合理截面设计及配筋方案提供技术支持.方法 基于大型有限元商业软件开发了工业水池构筑物进行地震反应分析的编码程序,该程序考虑了土-结构动力相互作用,并以黏弹性边界模拟无限地基的影响.结果 依据材料力学平截面假定实现了ANSYS三维实体单元应力到内力转化,得到了各种荷载工况作用下工业水池后墙弯矩最大值为101.8 kN·m,相对于反应位移法的计算结果小17%,并通过统计最大内力包络确定了工业水池的危险工况为空水状态与SL2地震波共同作用.结论 笔者确定出危险工况下最不利内力的方法比较准确且简单明了,易于工程设计应用.%As a seismic item,internal force distribution and risk case of industry pool in the nuclear power plant is explored while calculating the earthquake responses.The results can provide technical support for the design plan of sectional dimensions and reinforcement.The finite element program of seismic response analysis for industrial pool structures is developed based on commercial software.And soil-structure interaction is simulated by means of adding a viscoelastic boundary in the sides of the model.Based on the plane section assumes of materials mechanics,the transformation between the stress and internal force of three-dimensional solid elements is accomplished.Internal forces distribution and envelope of industrial pools are obtained from the simulation results,the value of the maximum bending moment is 101.8 that is 17% smaller than the calculation results of response displacement method,and then it is determined that the most dangerous case is the combined effects of SL2 seismic waves and empty pool.Based on the calculation results,it can be concluded that the method of determining the worst intemal force in the most dangerous case is

  11. 太钢地震台避雷设施的布设及效果%Installation and Effect of Lightning Arrester in Seismic Station of Taiyuan Iron and Steel Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建仁; 刘润生


    The seismic observation instruments are injured by the thunderbolt during the strong thunderbolt activity season.In order to avoid the problem,the Seismic Station of Taiyuan Iron and Steel Corporation adopted the measure of the lightning arrester in the systematic region which set up the netted lightning rod tower in the observation region,set up the multigrade lightning arrester protected the thunderstroke of the electromagnetic induction in the power supply system of the observation equipments,and series connected the lightning arrester to the observational signal system.The run situation of 1a suggested that the arrester set played best lightning protect role in the thunderstrokes,and ensured the norma l running of the observation instruments.%在强雷电活动季节,地震观测仪器常受到雷电的侵害,太原钢铁(集团)有限公司地震台为解决这一问题采取了系统区域避雷的措施——在观测区域架设网状式避雷针塔,在观测设备的供电系统进行防电磁感应雷击的多级避雷,在观测信号系统串接避雷器等,避雷装置运行1 a的结果表明,在遭受多次雷电时,该装置发挥了很好的避雷作用,保证了仪器的正常运转,得出该装置避雷效果较好的结论。

  12. 3D Nonlinear Damage Analysis of Metro-station Structures Under Strong Seismic Loading%强震作用下地铁车站结构损伤破坏的三维非线性动力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    还毅; 方秦; 陈力; 柳锦春


    In order to investigate the dynamic response and the failure mechanism of metro-station structures under strong seismic loading, a two-dimensional (2D) and a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element models of the Daikai subway station during Kobe earthquake were established based on damaged plasticity model for concrete, extended Drucker-Prager model for soil, soil-underground structure interaction theory and artificial boundary theory. The 3 D nonlinear responses of the Daikai subway station with isolators fixed at the column ends subjected to seismic loading were also analyzed. The results show that: ( 1 ) the finite element models established in this paper can describe the dynamic properties of the reinforced concrete structure and the dynamic interaction of soil-underground structure properly; (2) the 3D numerical results agree well with the in situ observations by comparison of the numerical results of the 2D and 3D models, and the failure mode of the column in the metrostation structure under seismic loading can not be predicted precisely by the 2D analysis; (3) the 3D shock isolator, composed of dish spring and lead rubber beading, has a rather large vertical stiffness and good resistance to lateral deformation, and consequently can markedly reduce the deformation and damage of the column when fixed at the ends of the column.%为了研究地铁车站结构在强震作用下的动力响应及破坏机理,基于混凝土损伤塑性模型、岩土扩展的Drucker-Prager模型、土-结构相互作用以及人工边界等相关理论,利用ABAQUS软件建立了强震作用下地铁车站的动态响应与损伤破坏的二维、三维精细化非线性有限元分析模型,并对柱端设置隔震器的地铁车站结构进行了三维非线性动力分析.分析结果表明:所建立的有限元分析模型能较好地反映强震荷载作用下钢筋混凝土结构的动力特性以及土-地下结构之间相互作用,适用于地下结构抗震分

  13. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.


    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  14. Retrieving impulse response function amplitudes from the ambient seismic field (United States)

    Viens, Loïc; Denolle, Marine; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki


    Seismic interferometry is now widely used to retrieve the impulse response function of the Earth between two distant seismometers. The phase information has been the focus of most passive imaging studies, as conventional seismic tomography uses traveltime measurements. The amplitude information, however, is harder to interpret because it strongly depends on the distribution of ambient seismic field sources and on the multitude of processing methods. Our study focuses on the latter by comparing the amplitudes of the impulse response functions calculated between seismic stations in the Kanto sedimentary basin, Japan, using several processing techniques. This region provides a unique natural laboratory to test the reliability of the amplitudes with complex wave propagation through the basin, and dense observations from the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network. We compute the impulse response functions using the cross correlation, coherency and deconvolution techniques of the raw ambient seismic field and the cross correlation of 1-bit normalized data. To validate the amplitudes of the impulse response functions, we use a shallow Mw 5.8 earthquake that occurred on the eastern edge of Kanto Basin and close to a station that is used as the virtual source. Both S and surface waves are retrieved in the causal part of the impulse response functions computed with all the different techniques. However, the amplitudes obtained from the deconvolution method agree better with those of the earthquake. Despite the expected wave attenuation due to the soft sediments of the Kanto Basin, seismic amplification caused by the basin geometry dominates the amplitudes of S and surface waves and is captured by the ambient seismic field. To test whether or not the anticausal part of the impulse response functions from deconvolution also contains reliable amplitude information, we use another virtual source located on the western edge of the basin. We show that the surface wave amplitudes

  15. The derivation of an anisotropic velocity model from combined surface and borehole seismic experiments at the COSC-1 borehole, central Sweden (United States)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher


    The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision, where the surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of parts of the Caledonian structure. The project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) investigates the structure and physical conditions of the orogen units and the underlying basement with two approximately 2.5 km deep fully cored boreholes in western Jämtland, central Sweden. In 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was successfully drilled through the Seve Nappe Complex. This unit, mainly consisting of gneisses, belongs to the so-called Middle Allochthons and has been ductilely deformed and transported during collisional orogeny. A major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Combined with core analysis and downhole logging, the survey will allow extrapolation of the structures away from the borehole. The survey consisted of three parts: 1) a high-resolution zero-offset Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP), 2) a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP in combination with three long offset surface receiver lines, and 3) a limited 3D seismic survey. Data from the multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP experiment and the long offset surface lines were used to derive a detailed velocity model around the borehole from the inversion of first arrival traveltimes. The comparison of velocities from these tomography results with a velocity function calculated from the zero-offset VSP revealed clear differences in velocities for mainly horizontally and vertically traveling waves. Therefore, an anisotropic VTI model was constructed, using the P-wave velocity function from zero-offset VSP and the Thomson parameters ɛ and δ. The latter were partly derived from ultrasonic lab measurements on COSC-1 core samples. Traveltimes were calculated with an anisotropic eikonal solver and serve as the basis

  16. A Study of Near-Surface Seismic Methods on Terrain Susceptible to Landslides in the City of Campos do Jordão, State of São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Shams, B. S.


    This study seeks to prove the usefulness of near-surface seismic methods as complementary data to conventional geotechnical and geological data in the characterization of areas of landslide risk. The setting is located in a low income housing neighborhood in the city of Campos do Jordão, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The area was devastated by numerous landslides between December 1999 to January 2000 after heavy rainfall in the area. Currently the area is being monitored by the National Center for Monitoring and Warning of Natural Disasters (CEMADEN). The landslides in this area are known to be shallow. The survey line passes within a couple feet of the CEMADEN monitoring station which measures soil temperature, soil moisture, rainfall intensity, and rainfall accumulation (Mendes et. al 2015). Refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) surveys were performed. In order to better identify the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave, separate surveys isolating the vertical and radial components of the Rayleigh wave were performed. By comparing the obtained Shear wave (Vs) and Compressional wave (Vp) profiles with the already known geotechnical data provided by CEMADEN and geological data from a previous study (Ahrendt 2005) of the site a better understanding of the geological interfaces that constitute the landslide prone area is obtained.

  17. Seismic Receiver Functions and the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (United States)

    Kind, R.; Yuan, X.; Kumar, P.


    The lower boundary of the lithospheric plates has remained as an enigmatic boundary for seismologists, since it is relatively poorly observed by seismic means. There is traditionally a broad consensus that the asthenosphere is observable as a low velocity zone by seismic surface waves. Seismic techniques which use shorter period P-to-S or S-to-P converted body waves are now far enough developed to be successful in observing such a low velocity zone with a higher resolution. The principle of this technique (the so-called receiver function technique) is that a strong teleseismic mother phase (e.g. P, S, PP or SKS) incident from below on any seismic discontinuity beneath a station produces a converted phase (Ps or Sp) which indicates its depth and properties. We discuss details of this technique. A sufficient number of such observations exist already to indicate that the top of the low velocity zone is a globally observable discontinuity and it is sharper than previously thought. An intriguing observation is that in some cratons the new seismic data indicate that the low velocity zone exists already at shallower depths than obtained from surface waves. This confirms earlier results from controlled source observations (Thybo and Perchuc 1997). We discuss possible interpretations of this shallow low velocity zone in cratonic regions.

  18. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.


    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area.

  19. Surface deformation associated with the 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake revealed by satellite-based geodetic observations and its implications for the seismic cycle (United States)

    Feng, Wanpeng; Samsonov, Sergey; Tian, Yunfeng; Qiu, Qiang; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yong; Deng, Zhiguo; Omari, Khalid


    In this study, we present inter-, co- and post-seismic displacements observed in the 2015 Illapel earthquake area by Global Positioning System (GPS) and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR). RADARSAT-2, ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1A interferograms capture the co- and post-seismic displacements due to the Illapel earthquake. Based on a layered Earth structure, we modeled both co- and post-seismic faulting behaviors on the subduction interface of central Chile. The best-fit model shows that the coseismic rupture broke a 200 km × 200 km area with a maximum slip of 10 m at a depth of 20 km. Two distinct slip centers, likely controlled by local ramp-flat structure, are revealed. The total coseismic geodetic moment is 2.76 ×1021 N m, equivalent to a moment magnitude 8.3. The accumulated afterslip in the first two months after the mainshock is observed on both sides of the coseismic rupture zone with both ascending and descending Sentinel-1A interferograms. A limited overlap zone between co- and post-seismic slip models can be observed, suggesting partitioning of the frictional properties within the Illapel earthquake rupture zone. The total afterslip releases ∼ 5.0 ×1020 N m geodetic moment, which is equivalent to an earthquake of Mw 7.7. The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake that occurred ∼400 km away from the Illapel earthquake epicenter could have exerted certain effects on the seismic cycle of the Illapel earthquake area. The seismic records from 2000 to 2015 imply that the rate of annual seismic moment release in the Illapel earthquake area dropped from 0.4 to 0.2 ×1019 N m /yr after the Maule earthquake. Based on the forward modeling with the best-fit slip models determined in this study, we reproduce the local surface displacements before, during and after the Illapel earthquake. A rough deformation cycle, 105 ± 29 yr, calculated by using the coseismic displacements and interseismic rate is basically identical with the revisit interval of M8 events in the

  20. Near–surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Pérez Díaz


    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air and snow skin temperature (T-skin helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  1. Near-surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data (United States)

    Pérez Díaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Muñoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.


    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle) that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air) and snow skin temperature (T-skin) helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20091465 Cai Xuelin(College of Earth Sciences,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Cao Jiamin Preliminary Study on the 3-D Crust Structure for the Longmen Lithosphere and the Genesis of the Huge Wenchuan Earthquake,Sichuan Province,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,35(4),2008,p.357-365,8 illus.,39 refs.)Key words:deep-seated structures,large earthquakes,Longmenshan Fracture ZoneBased on a structural analysis of many seismic sounding profiles,there are two fault systems in Longmen collisional orogenic belt,Sichuan Province,China.They are both different obviously and correlative closely.One is shallow fault system composed mainly of brittle shear zones in surface crust,and the other is deep fault system composed mainly of crust-mantle ductile shear zones cutting Moho discontinuity.Based on the result of researching geological structure and seismic sounding profiles,

  3. The Seismic Wavefield (United States)

    Kennett, B. L. N.


    The two volumes of The Seismic Wavefield are a comprehensive guide to the understanding of seismograms in terms of physical propagation processes within the Earth. The focus is on the observation of earthquakes and man-made sources on all scales, for both body waves and surface waves. Volume I provides a general introduction and a development of the theoretical background for seismic waves. Volume II looks at the way in which observed seismograms relate to the propagation processes. Volume II also discusses local and regional seismic events, global wave propagation, and the three-dimensional Earth.

  4. Seismic detectability of meteorite impacts on Europa (United States)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Teanby, Nicholas


    Europa, the second of Jupiter's Galilean satellites, has an icy outer shell, beneath which there is probably liquid water in contact with a rocky core. Europa, may thus provide an example of a sub-surface habitable environment so is an attractive object for future lander missions. In fact, the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) mission has been selected for the L1 launch slot of ESA's Cosmic Vision science programme with the aim of launching in 2022 to explore Jupiter and its potentially habitable icy moons. One of the best ways to probe icy moon interiors in any future mission will be with a seismic investigation. Previously, the Apollo seismic experiment, installed by astronauts, enhanced our knowledge of the lunar interior. For a recent mission, NASA's 2016 InSight Mars lander aims to obtain seismic data and will deploy a seismometer directly onto Mars' surface. Motivated by these works, in this study we show how many meteorite impacts will be detected using a single seismic station on Europa, which will be useful for planning the next generation of outer solar system missions. To this end, we derive: (1) the current small impact flux on Europa from Jupiter impact rate models; (2) a crater diameter versus impactor energy scaling relation for ice by merging previous experiments and simulations; (3) scaling relations for seismic signals as a function of distance from an impact site for a given crater size based on analogue explosive data obtained on Earth's icy surfaces. Finally, resultant amplitudes are compared to the noise level of a likely seismic instrument (based on the NASA InSight mission seismometers) and the number of detectable impacts are estimated. As a result, 0.5-3.0 local/regional small impacts (i.e., direct P-waves through the ice crust) are expected to be detected per year, while global-scale impact events (i.e., PKP-waves refracted through the mantle) are rare and unlikely to be detected by a short duration mission. We note that our results are

  5. Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. (United States)

    Gailey, Glenn; Würsig, Bernd; McDonald, Trent L


    A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and proximity to the seismic survey by employing scan sampling, focal follow, and theodolite tracking methodologies. These data were analyzed in relation to temporal, environmental, and seismic related variables to evaluate potential disturbance reactions of gray whales to the seismic survey. The relative numbers of whales and pods recorded from five shore-based stations were not significantly different during periods when seismic surveys were occurring compared to periods when no seismic surveys were occurring and to the post-seismic period. Univariate analyses indicated no significant statistical correlation between seismic survey variables and any of the eleven movement and behavior variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after accounting for temporal and environmental variables, 6 of 11 movement and behavior variables (linearity, acceleration, mean direction, blows per surfacing, and surface-dive blow rate) were not significantly associated with seismic survey variables, and 5 of 11 variables (leg speed, reorientation rate, distance-from-shore, blow interval, and dive time) were significantly associated with seismic survey variables. In summary, after accounting for environmental variables, no correlation was found between seismic survey variables and the linearity of whale movements, changes in whale swimming speed between theodolite fixes, mean direction of whale movement, mean number of whale exhalations per minute at the surface, mean time at the surface, and mean number of exhalations per minute during a whales surface-to-dive cycle. In contrast, at higher

  6. Measurement of near-surface seismic compressional wave velocities using refraction tomography at a proposed construction site on the Presidio of Monterey, California (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is determining the feasibility of constructing a new barracks building on the U.S. Army Presidio of Monterey in Monterey, California. Due to the presence of an endangered orchid in the proposed area, invasive techniques such as exploratory drill holes are prohibited. To aid in determining the feasibility, budget, and design of this building, a compressional-wave seismic refraction survey was proposed by the U.S. Geological Survey as an alternative means of investigating the depth to competent bedrock. Two sub-parallel profiles were acquired along an existing foot path and a fence line to minimize impacts on the endangered flora. The compressional-wave seismic refraction tomography data for both profiles indicate that no competent rock classified as non-rippable or marginally rippable exists within the top 30 feet beneath the ground surface.

  7. Evaluation of representativeness of near-surface winds in station measurements, global and regional reanalysis for Germany (United States)

    Kaspar, Frank; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.; Heene, Vera; Borsche, Michael; Keller, Jan


    Within the preparation activities for a European COPERNICUS Climate Change Service (C3S) several ongoing research projects analyse the potential of global and regional model-based climate reanalyses for applications. A user survey in the FP7-project CORE-CLIMAX revealed that surface wind (10 m) is among the most frequently used parameters of global reanalysis products. The FP7 project UERRA (Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional Re-Analysis) has the focus on regional European reanalysis and the associated uncertainties, also from a user perspective. Especially in the field of renewable energy planning and production there is a need for climatological information across all spatial scales, i.e., from climatology at a certain site to the spatial scale of national or continental renewable energy production. Here, we focus on a comparison of wind measurements of the Germany's meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) with global reanalyses of ECWMF and a regional reanalysis for Europe based on DWD's NWP-model COSMO (performed by the Hans-Ertel-Center for Weather Research, University of Bonn). Reanalyses can provide valuable additional information on larger scale variability, e.g. multi-annual variation over Germany. However, changes in the observing system, model errors and biases have to be carefully considered. On the other hand, the ground-based observation networks partly suffer from change of the station distribution, changes in instrumentation, measurements procedures and quality control as well as local changes which might modify their spatial representativeness. All these effects might often been unknown or hard to characterize, although plenty of the meta-data information has been recorded for the German stations. One focus of the presentation will be the added-value of the regional reanalysis.

  8. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    Seismic exploration utilizes controlled sources, which emit seismic waves that propagate through the earth subsurface and get reflected off subsurface interfaces and scatterers. The reflected and scattered waves are recorded by recording stations installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single-scattering assumption, where only energy that bounces once off a subsurface scatterer and recorded by a receiver is projected back to its subsurface position. The internally multiply scattered seismic energy is considered as unwanted noise and is usually suppressed or removed from the recorded data. Conventional seismic imaging techniques yield subsurface images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and acquisition fingerprint due to the limited acquisition aperture, number of sources and receivers, and bandwidth of the source wavelet. Hydrocarbon traps are becoming more challenging and considerable reserves are trapped in stratigraphic and pinch-out traps, which require highly resolved seismic images to delineate them. This thesis focuses on developing and implementing new advanced cost-effective seismic imaging techniques aiming at enhancing the resolution of the migrated images by exploiting the sparseness of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and utilizing the multiples that are usually neglected when imaging seismic data. I first formulate the seismic imaging problem as a Basis pursuit denoise problem, which I solve using an L1-minimization algorithm to obtain the sparsest migrated image corresponding to the recorded data. Imaging multiples may illuminate subsurface zones, which are not easily illuminated by conventional seismic imaging using primary reflections only. I then develop an L2-norm (i.e. least-squares) inversion technique to image

  9. Ray-tracing traveltime tomography versus wave-equation traveltime inversion for near-surface seismic land data

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei


    Full-waveform inversion of land seismic data tends to get stuck in a local minimum associated with the waveform misfit function. This problem can be partly mitigated by using an initial velocity model that is close to the true velocity model. This initial starting model can be obtained by inverting traveltimes with ray-tracing traveltime tomography (RT) or wave-equation traveltime (WT) inversion. We have found that WT can provide a more accurate tomogram than RT by inverting the first-arrival traveltimes, and empirical tests suggest that RT is more sensitive to the additive noise in the input data than WT. We present two examples of applying WT and RT to land seismic data acquired in western Saudi Arabia. One of the seismic experiments investigated the water-table depth, and the other one attempted to detect the location of a buried fault. The seismic land data were inverted by WT and RT to generate the P-velocity tomograms, from which we can clearly identify the water table depth along the seismic survey line in the first example and the fault location in the second example.

  10. 泾阳地磁台数字化与模拟资料的对比分析%Comparative Analysis between at Jingyang Digital Data and Simulating Data Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄英; 张世民; 张创军


    本文选取泾阳地磁台2007年FHD-1核旋磁力仪和CB3磁变仪观测数据采用日变幅形态、日均值年变形态、总场21点值年变形态等方法做对比分析。结果表明:两种观测一致性较好,说明数字化仪器观测的数据是可靠的,但是数字化仪器还存在易受外界环境干扰,稳定性不好的问题,需要工作人员按规范调试仪器,认真维护与管理。%This article selects observation data of FHD-I nuclear precession magnetometer and CB3 geomagnetic variometer at Jingyang Geomagnetic Seismic Station in 2007, and makes comparative analysis in terms of the daily amplitude, mean annual change shape, and total intensity magnetic field. The results show that two kinds of observation have good consistency, and digital instrument observation data are reliable, but the digital instrument is vulnerable to external environment interference and is not stable enough, and needs careful maintenance and management.

  11. The analysis of reference background noise of f luxgate magnetometer GM4 at Hongshan Seismic Station%红山地震台磁通门磁力仪GM4参考背景噪声分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 胡秀娟; 罗娜; 李细顺; 王利兵; 宋昭; 畅国平


    This article analyzes preliminarily the data of reference background noise,which is chosen from GM4-1 fluxgate magnetometer instrument and GM4-2 fluxgate magnetometer instrument during the year of 2009 to 2013 at Hongshan Seismic Station. The result shows that the reference background noise of two instruments annual variation trend is consistent,and magnetic declination component changes with the seasons obviously,horizontal component and vertical component is not obvious. In addition,the background noise GM4-2 fluxgate magnetometer′s each component is more than that of GM4-1 fluxgate magnetometer instrument,which is caused by itself through the analysis by comparison.%选取红山地震台2009—2013年磁通门磁力仪 GM4-1和 GM4-2的参考背景噪声数据进行分析。结果显示:两套仪器背景噪声年变化趋势一致,其中 D 分量背景噪声随季节变化明显,H 分量、Z 分量不明显。另外,GM4-2仪各分量背景噪声值较高,认为是其自身原因引起的。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白占孝; 罗自浩


    对湟源地震台周边各种因素所致的地震记录干扰情况进行了分析,认为干扰源主要有采石场爆破、灌溉水渠、小河、车辆干扰及各种天气及固有干扰等。根据这些干扰源的频谱特性,采用MATLAB语言,设计、编制了不同类型的滤波器,在震相识别上发挥了很大作用。%The interferes caused by various factors around Huangyuan seismic station are analyzed,and the sources are explosion in the quarry, water channels,rivers,vibration due to traffic,fluctuation of climate and others.According to their spectral features,the authors use MATLAB language to design different filters which play an important role to phase identification.

  13. Triggered Seismicity in Utah from the November 3, 2002, Denali Fault Earthquake (United States)

    Pankow, K. L.; Nava, S. J.; Pechmann, J. C.; Arabasz, W. J.


    Coincident with the arrival of the surface waves from the November 3, 2002, Mw 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska earthquake (DFE), the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional seismic network detected a marked increase in seismicity along the Intermountain Seismic Belt (ISB) in central and north-central Utah. The number of earthquakes per day in Utah located automatically by the UUSS's Earthworm system in the week following the DFE was approximately double the long-term average during the preceding nine months. From these preliminary data, the increased seismicity appears to be characterized by small magnitude events (M = 3.2) and concentrated in five distinct spatial clusters within the ISB between 38.75°and 42.0° N. The first of these earthquakes was an M 2.2 event located ~20 km east of Salt Lake City, Utah, which occurred during the arrival of the Love waves from the DFE. The increase in Utah earthquake activity at the time of the arrival of the surface waves from the DFE suggests that these surface waves triggered earthquakes in Utah at distances of more than 3,000 km from the source. We estimated the peak dynamic shear stress caused by these surface waves from measurements of their peak vector velocities at 43 recording sites: 37 strong-motion stations of the Advanced National Seismic System and six broadband stations. (The records from six other broadband instruments in the region of interest were clipped.) The estimated peak stresses ranged from 1.2 bars to 3.5 bars with a mean of 2.3 bars, and generally occurred during the arrival of Love waves of ~15 sec period. These peak dynamic shear stress estimates are comparable to those obtained from recordings of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake in regions where the Landers earthquake triggered increased seismicity. We plan to present more complete analyses of UUSS seismic network data, further testing our hypothesis that the DFE remotely triggered seismicity in Utah. This hypothesis is

  14. Ground motion prediction for the Vienna Basin area using the ambient seismic field (United States)

    Schippkus, Sven; Zigone, Dimitri; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group


    The Vienna Basin is one of the most seismically active regions in Austria. Because of the population density and sensitive infrastructure, seismic hazard assessment in this area is of critical importance. An important part of seismic hazard analysis is ground motion prediction, which can in principle be done using either empirical studies to derive ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) or using a physics-based approach to simulate ground motion by modelling surface wave propagation. Recently a new method has been presented that is based on the emergence of the inter-station Green's function from ambient noise cross-correlations (Denolle et al. 2013), which provides the impulse response of the Earth from a point source at the surface (from the site of one of the two receivers to the other). These impulse responses are dominated by surface waves, which would, in the case of a real earthquake, cause the major damages. The Green's function can in principle be modified to simulate a double couple dislocation at depth, i.e., a virtual earthquake. Using an adapted pre-processing method, the relative amplitudes of the ambient noise records of different inter-station paths are preserved in the correlation functions, and effects like attenuation and amplification of surface waves in sedimentary basins can be studied. This provides more precise information that will help improve seismic hazard evaluations. Here we present a preliminary study of such ground motion prediction for the Vienna Basin using about two dozen broadband stations from available networks in the area, e.g., stations from the University of Vienna (AlpArray) and Vienna Technical University. References Denolle, M. A., E. M. Dunham, G. A. Prieto, and G. C. Beroza (2013), Ground motion prediction of realistic earthquake sources using the ambient seismic field, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 2102-2118, doi:10.1029/2012JB009603.

  15. Seismic probing of continental subduction zones (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Xu, Xiaobing; Malusà, Marco G.


    High-resolution images of Earth's interior provide pivotal information for the understanding of a range of geodynamic processes, including continental subduction and exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. Here we present a synthesis of available global seismic observations on continental subduction zones, and selected examples of seismic probing from the European Alps, the Himalaya-Tibet and the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belts. Our synthesis and examples show that slabs recognized beneath exhumed continental UHP terranes generally have shallow dip angles (100 km. Slabs underlined by a clear high velocity anomaly from Earth's surface to the mantle are generally Cenozoic in age. Some of these slabs are continuous, whereas other continental subduction zones are located above discontinuous high velocity anomalies possibly suggesting slab breakoff. The density of seismic stations and the quality of recordings are of primary importance to get high-resolution images of the upper mantle to be used as a starting point to provide reliable geodynamic interpretations. In some cases, areas previously indicated as possible site of slab breakoff, such as the European Alps, have been later proven to be located above a continuous slab by using higher quality travel time data from denser seismic arrays. Discriminating between oceanic and continental slabs can be challenging, but valuable information can be provided by combining teleseismic tomography and receiver function analysis. The upper mantle beneath most continental UHP terranes generally shows complex seismic anisotropy patterns that are potentially preserved even in pre-Cenozoic subduction zones. These patterns can be used to provide information on continental slabs that are no longer highlighted by a clear high-velocity anomaly.

  16. Landslide seismic magnitude (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.


    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  17. 基于3G 无线传输的测震台站监控设备的研制%The Design and Realization of a Type of Monitoring Equipment for Seismic Stations Based on 3G Wireless Data Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏志; 王学成; 刘一萌; 卢山; 赵龙梅; 孙恺微


    介绍了一种基于3G(第三代移动通信技术)和 SMS(短信业务)的无线数据传输测震台监控仪的工作原理、设计和实现。可实现对相关设备进行断电、上电、重启和备用设备切换等控制;具有通过网口和串口监控数据采集器工作状态的功能;具有通过3G 无线传输测震数据的功能。%Quickly recovering the seismic signals channel or solving problems with seismic station equipment is a major challenge once they are damaged or experience sudden failure.In our study, we designed and constructed wireless data transmitting and monitoring equipment for seismic sta-tions based on the global system for mobile communication(GSM),third generation mobile com-munication technology(3G)and short message service(SMS).This equipment can control(shut down,switch on,restart,and enable the backup device)remote equipment easily,monitor the earthquake data acquisition system (EDAS)by the serial port and network,and transmit the seis-mic data by 3G.The hardware is composed of a core interfacing circuit board and a driving circuit board.The core circuit board includes one LAN port,two COM ports,and a number of I/O inter-faces.The working status of the EDAS at a local seismic station is real-time monitored through the LAN port and COM port.When abnormal data is outputted from the EDAS,the data output stops or is unable to be recognized.Abnormal information of the EDAS is sent to the earthquake monitoring center as short messages,and the center staff is able to make a judgment and take the correct action according to the messages.We designed two CPUs on the core circuit board,one a P89c668 and the other an STC12C5A60S2.The device can make data exchanges with the EDAS-24IP through the LAN chip.Meanwhile,P89c668 can monitor the real-time data flow of the EDAS-24IP,and analyze the correctness of the seismic data flow of the EDAS-24IP as well.In or-der to store parameter data,we used an electrically erasable

  18. Ice thickness, internal layers, and surface and subglacial topography in the vicinity of Chinese Antarctic Taishan station in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Xue-Yuan; Guo Jing-Xue; Sun Bo; Wang Tian-Tian; Cui Xiang-Bin


    We present the results of two ground-based radio-echo-sounding (RES) and GPS surveys performed in the vicinity of new Chinese Taishan station, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, obtained in two austral summers during CHINARE 21 (2004/2005) and CHINARE 29 (2012/2013). The radar surveys measured ice thickness and internal layers using 60- and 150-MHz radar systems, and GPS measurements showed smooth surface slopes around the station with altitudes of 2607–2636 m above sea level (a.s.l.). Radar profiles indicate an average ice thickness of 1900 m, with a maximum of 1949 m and a minimum of 1856 m, within a square area measuring approximately 2 km × 2 km in the vicinity of the station. The ice thickness beneath the station site is 1870 m. The subglacial landscape beneath the station is quiet sharp and ranges from 662 to 770 m a.s.l., revealing part of a mountainous topography. The ice volume in the grid is estimated to be 7.6 km3. Along a 60-MHz radar profi le with a length of 17.6 km at the region covering the station site, some disturbed internal layers are identifi ed and traced; the geometry of internal layers within the englacial stratigraphy may imply a complex depositional process in the area.

  19. Quasi-periodic oscillations of aerosol backscatter profiles and surface meteorological parameters during winter nights over a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Manoj


    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves, which are a manifestation of the fluctuations in buoyancy of the air parcels, are well known for their direct influence on concentration of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols, and also on oscillations of meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, visibility and so on. The present paper reports quasi-periodic oscillations in the lidar backscatter signal strength due to aerosol fluctuations in the nocturnal boundary layer, studied with a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro pulse lidar and concurrent meteorological parameters over a tropical station in India. The results of the spectral analysis of the data, archived on some typical clear-sky conditions during winter months of 2008 and 2009, exhibit a prominent periodicity of 20–40 min in lidar-observed aerosol variability and show close association with those observed in the near-surface temperature and wind at 5% statistical significance. Moreover, the lidar aerosol backscatter signal strength variations at different altitudes, which have been generated from the height-time series of the one-minute interval profiles at 2.4 m vertical resolution, indicate vertical propagation of these waves, exchanging energy between lower and higher height levels. Such oscillations are favoured by the stable atmospheric background condition and peculiar topography of the experimental site. Accurate representation of these buoyancy waves is essential in predicting the sporadic fluctuations of weather in the tropics.

  20. 3D modelling of the active normal fault network in the Apulian Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean Sea): Integration of seismic and bathymetric data with implicit surface methods (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Pellegrini, Caludio; Savini, Alessandra; Marchese, Fabio


    The Apulian ridge (North-eastern Ionian Sea, Mediterranean), interposed between the facing Apennines and Hellenides subduction zones (to the west and east respectively), is characterized by thick cretaceous carbonatic sequences and discontinuous tertiary deposits crosscut by a penetrative network of NNW-SSE normal faults. These are exposed onshore in Puglia, and are well represented offshore in a dataset composed of 2D seismics and wells collected by oil companies from the '60s to the '80s, more recent seismics collected during research projects in the '90s, recent very high resolution seismics (VHRS - Sparker and Chirp-sonar data), multibeam echosounder bathymetry, and sedimentological and geo-chronological analyses of sediment samples collected on the seabed. Faults are evident in 2D seismics at all scales, and their along-strike geometry and continuity can be characterized with multibeam bathymetric data, which show continuous fault scarps on the seabed (only partly reworked by currents and covered by landslides). Fault scarps also reveal the finite displacement accumulated in the Holocene-Pleistocene. We reconstructed a 3D model of the fault network and suitable geological boundaries (mainly unconformities due to the discontinuous distribution of quaternary and tertiary sediments) with implicit surface methods implemented in SKUA/GOCAD. This approach can be considered very effective and allowed reconstructing in details complex structures, like the frequent relay zones that are particularly well imaged by seafloor geomorphology. Mutual cross-cutting relationships have been recognized between fault scarps and submarine mass-wasting deposits (Holocene-Pleistocene), indicating that, at least in places, these features are coeval, hence the fault network should be considered active. At the regional scale, the 3D model allowed measuring the horizontal WSW-ENE stretching, which can be associated to the bending moment applied to the Apulian Plate by the combined effect

  1. Investigation of surface ozone variability over the Antractic Plateau by observations at the "Concordia" WMO/GAW contributing station (United States)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Udisti, Roberto; Busetto, Maurizio; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Putero, Davide; Lupi, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; Petkov, Boyan; Bonasoni, Paolo


    Tropospheric ozone (O3), is a greenhouse gas and a driver for atmosphere oxidative capacity. It has at least doubled since pre-industrial age but a comprehensive understanding of the global distribution and trends are difficult to achieve due to its reactivity. Measurements at Antarctic locations provide the opportunity to investigate O3 variability without direct anthropogenic influence providing information on its background variability. This work will focus on the investigation of the variability of surface tropospheric O3 over the eastern Antarctic Plateau. In particular, we will analyze seven years (2006 - 2013) of continuous observations at the WMO/GAW Contributing Station Concordia (75.10°S, 123.33°E, 3233m a.s.l. m) with the purpose of shading light on specific atmospheric processes that need to be accurately taken into account for interpreting O3 variability: (i) in-situ NOx emissions and subsequent photochemical O3 production during summer, (ii) long-range transport of air-masses enriched in O3 by photochemical production over the surface of Antarctic Plateau, (iii) long-range transport of air-masses depleted in O3 from coastal regions or open oceans. Moreover, even if their influence is expected to be limited, the possible influence of STE will be specifically investigated. To this aims, in-situ O3 variability will be analyzed as a function of 3D air-mass back-trajectories calculated by the HYSPLIT and FLEXTRA models. Co-variability with meteorological parameters and other atmospheric tracers (e.g. aerosol measurement as a function of key source and transport processes) will be also studied in order to provide a preliminary assessment of their impact on O3 variability. The STEFLUX (Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Exchange Flux) tool will be used to investigate the influence of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport on ozone variability over eastern Antarctic Plateau.

  2. Seismicity in Northern Germany (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian


    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  3. Application of the nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm for forecasting surface wind of point station in the South China Sea with scatterometer observations (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Dong, Gang; Sun, Yimei; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wu, Yuqin


    The present work reports the development of nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm (GA) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for forecasting the surface wind of a point station in the South China Sea (SCS) with scatterometer observations. Before the nonlinear technique GA is used for forecasting the time series of surface wind, the SSA is applied to reduce the noise. The surface wind speed and surface wind components from scatterometer observations at three locations in the SCS have been used to develop and test the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts in terms of root mean square error. The predicted surface wind with GA and SSA made up to four days (longer for some point station) in advance have been found to be significantly superior to those made by persistence model. This method can serve as a cost-effective alternate prediction technique for forecasting surface wind of a point station in the SCS basin. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41230421 and 41605075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB430101).

  4. Discriminating Induced-Microearthquakes Using New Seismic Features (United States)

    Mousavi, S. M.; Horton, S.


    We studied characteristics of induced-microearthquakes on the basis of the waveforms recorded on a limited number of surface receivers using machine-learning techniques. Forty features in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains were measured on each waveform, and several techniques such as correlation-based feature selection, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Logistic Regression (LR) and X-mean were used as research tools to explore the relationship between these seismic features and source parameters. The results show that spectral features have the highest correlation to source depth. Two new measurements developed as seismic features for this study, spectral centroids and 2D cross-correlations in the time-frequency domain, performed better than the common seismic measurements. These features can be used by machine learning techniques for efficient automatic classification of low energy signals recorded at one or more seismic stations. We applied the technique to 440 microearthquakes-1.7Reference: Mousavi, S.M., S.P. Horton, C. A. Langston, B. Samei, (2016) Seismic features and automatic discrimination of deep and shallow induced-microearthquakes using neural network and logistic regression, Geophys. J. Int. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw258.

  5. Continuous broadband seismic observation on the Greenland Ice Sheet under Greenland Ice Sheet monitoring Network (United States)

    Tsuboi, Seiji; Kanao, Masaki; Tono, Yoko; Himeno, Tetsuto; Toyokuni, Genti; Childs, Dean; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; anderson, Kent


    We have installed the ice sheet broadband seismograph station, called ICE-S (DK.ICESG) in June 2011, in collaboration with IRIS Polar Services under the GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN), which is a new, international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland being implemented through the collaboration between Denmark, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and the USA. The primary purpose of GLISN project is to define the fine structure and detailed mechanisms of glacial earthquakes within the Greenland Ice Sheet. These glacial earthquakes in the magnitude range 4.6-5.1 may be modeled as a large glacial ice mass sliding downhill several meters on its basal surface over duration of 30 to 60 seconds. Glacial earthquakes have been observed at seismic stations within Greenland (Larsen et al, 2006), but the coverage was very sparse and a broadband, real-time seismic network was needed to be installed throughout Greenland's Ice Sheet and perimeter. The National Institute for Polar Research and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology are members of GLISN project and we have started to operate ICESG station since 2011. The station is equipped with a CMG-3T broadband seismometer and a Quanterra Q330 data logger. We have visited the station again in May, 2012 and successfully retrieved one year of continuous records from the broadband seismometer and updated the telemetry system to eventually allow real time monitoring of the station. ICESG station is now daily sending 1 Hz continuous data over the iridium satellite system using RUDICS. The observed three component seismograms demonstrate that the quality of this ice sheet station is good enough to record not only local earthquakes around Greeland but also teleseismic earthquakes. We could record three component broadband seismograms for April 11, 2012 Off the west coast of Northern Sumatra earthquake (Mw8.6). These seismograms show high signal to noise ratio

  6. Seismic ambient noise study at Bouillante geothermal system, French Antilles (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bitri, Adnan; Loiseau, Justine; Bouchot, Vincent


    Seismic ambient noise analyses have been shown to be able to image structural features of the crust and to monitor underground changes of seismic wave ground velocity. We present results of cross-correlation techniques at Bouillante geothermal field, French Antilles, the largest French high-enthalpy geothermal system exploited for electrical power from 3 collocated productive wells. Two power plants generate electricity and fluid extraction rate varies with time and wells are sometimes closed for equipment maintenance. Under the support of the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French Research Agency (ANR), BRGM has been analyzing seismic data from a network comprising 5 broadband seismological stations set-up at Bouillante area since 2004. Amongst the large number of earthquakes recorded, we show that no single earthquake could be related to the fluid exploitation. Instead, they are due to the intense regional seismicity. Despite the small number of stations, surface wave travel times computed from ambient noise cross-correlation for about a year suggest that the velocity structure is consistent with the conceptual model of hot (250°C) and permeable (fractured) geothermal reservoir of Bouillante. We show at several instances that changes of the fluid extraction rate have spatial and temporal slight perturbations on medium wave velocity. For example, when the production stops for maintenance, velocity increases by several percent and with larger amplitude at stations within 1 km distance from the production wells and lower amplitudes (by more than 50 %) at stations further than 2 km from the production wells. In addition, we note that velocity perturbations have a delay of at most 1 day at further stations. We discuss several mechanisms to explain those observations like pressure and stress variations in the geothermal system. The results suggest that the inferred velocity changes, owing the fine sensibility of the inter

  7. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Aleksander


    Full Text Available The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许英才; 许文俊; 李鸿庭; 陈继锋


    268 pieces of digital oscillograms of 32 seismic events of form ML.2.6 to ML4.9 recorded at 20 seismologic stations located on Ningxia region and its adjacent areas occurred from May, 2009 to Oct. , 2010 were studied and the relation of inelastic attenuation Q value with media frequency in the crust of this area, the site responses of 20 stations were calculated with the genetic algorithm. The results indicate that the frequency-dependent relation of inelastic attenuation value Q in the studied area is estimated as: Q(f) = 337.67f0.4554. The Q value is close to the regional result in Shanxi and Zhejiang. It probably indicate that the geological tectonic activity is in a normal level.%利用宁夏及邻区的数字地震波资料,选取2009-05-2010-10月M_L2.6以上的20个台站32次地震事件的268条波形记录,用遗传算法反演了宁夏及邻区介质非弹性衰减系数和台站场地相应.反演得到:宁夏地区介质非弹性衰减Q值与频率的关系为Q(f)=337.67f0.4554.其Q值和山西及浙江地区的结果最相近,可能预示着该区地质构造活动处于一个正常的活动水平.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang


    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  10. Automated delineation and characterization of watersheds for more than 3,000 surface-water-quality monitoring stations active in 2010 in Texas (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Gonzales, Sophia L.; Maltby, David R.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, developed computer scripts and applications to automate the delineation of watershed boundaries and compute watershed characteristics for more than 3,000 surface-water-quality monitoring stations in Texas that were active during 2010. Microsoft Visual Basic applications were developed using ArcGIS ArcObjects to format the source input data required to delineate watershed boundaries. Several automated scripts and tools were developed or used to calculate watershed characteristics using Python, Microsoft Visual Basic, and the RivEX tool. Automated methods were augmented by the use of manual methods, including those done using ArcMap software. Watershed boundaries delineated for the monitoring stations are limited to the extent of the Subbasin boundaries in the USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset, which may not include the total watershed boundary from the monitoring station to the headwaters.

  11. Deep seismic image enhancement with the common reflection surface (CRS) stack method: evidence from the Aravalli-Delhi fold belt of northwestern India (United States)

    Mandal, Biswajit; Sen, Mrinal K.; Vaidya, Vijaya Rao; Mann, Juergen


    Imaging of deep crustal features from narrow-angle deep seismic reflection data, especially from fold belt region, has been a challenging task. The common reflection surface (CRS) stack is an alternative seismic imaging technique for multicoverage reflection data. It is an automatic stacking process, which does not require explicit knowledge of stacking velocity. This CRS stack is especially useful when the data quality is poor and foldage is low. In this paper, we demonstrate an application of the CRS stack to a deep seismic reflection data set acquired across the Aravalli-Delhi fold belt of the northwestern India, which provides a seismic stack section with much improved signal-to-noise ratio. Comparing the conventional common mid-point (CMP) Stack with the CRS stack, we find that the Moho and other crustal reflections have been resolved clearly and the continuity of the reflectors has also been enhanced with the CRS stack method. The major findings from our CRS processing include clear image of the Moho discontinuity below the Marwar Basin and Sandmata Complex, and prominent upper and mid-crustal reflections. Our study for the first time images an extension of crustal-scale Jahazpur thrust below the Sandmata Complex, which becomes listric at the Moho. Some of the crustal features derived in this study were not identified in the earlier investigations using the CMP stack. Our study clearly demonstrates that the CRS stacking method is more appropriate for imaging the crustal and subcrustal structures of the thrust fold belt region than the conventional CMP method, where limited velocity information is available. Crustal thickness across the Proterozoic orogenic Aravalli-Delhi fold belt varies between 38 and 50 km. Global correlation of the seismic results suggests no relation between crustal thickness and age of the crustal block, but it depends on the thermorheological and tectonic history of the region. Palaeosignatures of the Proterozoic subduction and

  12. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C


    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  13. The natural seismic hazard and induced seismicity of the european HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal energy project at Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France); Alea sismique naturel et sismicite induite du projet geothermique europeen RCS (roche chaude seche) de Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, J.A.


    Development of the Soultz-sous-Forets HDR (Hot Dry Rock) geothermal energy project will involve important fluid injections which will induce micro-seismic events. This thesis discusses the natural seismicity of the region and induced seismicity associated with fluid injections. A catalogue of all historical and instrument seismicity of the Soultz-sous-Forets (SSF) region has been compiled. This seismicity does not correspond to movements along the major tectonic features of the region. The area around SSF has been identified as being one where high heat flow corresponds to low seismicity. The largest well documented seismic event in the region which took place in 1952 had an epicentral intensity of VI. All important data pertaining to the series of seismic events which took place in the region from August to October 1952 have been collected and are presented. This work details the installation and operation of a permanent 3 station network of accelerometers and seismometers around the HDR site. Also the installation and operation of a mobile network of vertical seismometers during fluid injections. 167 micro-seismic events were recorded on the surface network, with magnitudes from -0.5 to 1.9. The preferential alignment of the micro-seismic cloud is N160 deg. Individual focal mechanisms of the larger seismic events correspond to an extensional tectonic regime. Stress inversion of P wave polarities indicates that the maximum stress is vertical and the intermediate and minimum stress axes horizontal. The largest of the horizontal stresses is orientated N124 deg and the smallest N34 deg. Induced seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing fractures controlled by the in situ stress seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing tectonic fractures controlled by the in situ stress field, and the largest of the induced events had a magnitude 1.9. This level of seismicity does not pose any environmental hazard to the region around Soultz-sous-Forets. (author) 151

  14. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures (United States)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.


    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  15. Seismic and Gravity Investigations of the Caja del Rio Geothermal Area, New Mexico (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Burke, B.; Butler, E.; Harper, C.; Livermore, J.; McGlannan, A.; Wasik, A.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D. K.; Snelson, C. M.; Sussman, A. J.


    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new seismic and gravity data in 2012 in the Caja del Rio area of northern New Mexico. The area, about 25 km NW of Santa Fe, has been identified as a potential geothermal resources area based on relatively high temperature gradients in drill holes. The SAGE 2012 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2011. Seismic data consisted of a 6.4 km SE to NW profile (80 three-component stations, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated cover over a thin volcanic layer) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of the refraction and reflection arrivals. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods. The reflection data were processed to produce a CMP stacked record section. Strong, NW-dipping reflectors, interpreted as from the Espinaso formation, are visible at about 1.4 seconds two-way time. One hundred and sixty-four new gravity measurements (detailed data at 500 m spacing along the seismic profile and regional stations) were collected and combined with existing regional data for modeling. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. The sedimentary basin interpreted from the seismic and gravity data, along with existing geological and geophysical information, consists of a thick section of Tertiary rift fill (capped by a thin layer of volcanic rocks), over Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks, with a total basin thickness of about 3 km.

  16. Near Surface Structure of the Frijoles Strand of the San Gregorio Fault, Point Año Nuevo, San Mateo County, California, from Seismic Imaging (United States)

    Campbell, L.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Weber, G. E.


    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is one of the major faults of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The SGFZ is nearly 200 km long, trends subparallel to the SAF, and is located primarily offshore with two exceptions- between Point Año Nuevo and San Gregorio Beach and between Pillar Point and Moss Beach. It has a total width of 2 to 3 km and is comprised of seven known fault strands with Quaternary activity, five of which also demonstrate late Holocene activity. The fault is clearly a potential source of significant earthquakes and has been assigned a maximum likely magnitude of 7.3. To better understand the structure, geometry, and shallow-depth P-wave velocities associated with the SGFZ, we acquired a 585-m-long, high-resolution, combined seismic reflection and refraction profile across the Frijoles strand of the SGFZ at Point Año Nuevo State Park. Both P- and S-wave data were acquired, but here we present only the P-wave data. We used two 60-channel Geometrics RX60 seismographs and 120 40-Hz single-element geophones connected via cable to record Betsy Seisgun seismic sources (shots). Both shots and geophones were approximately co-located and spaced at 5-m intervals along the profile, with the shots offset laterally from the geophones by 1 m. We measured first-arrival refractions from all shots and geophones to develop a seismic refraction tomography velocity model of the upper 70 m. P-wave velocities range from about 600 m/s near the surface to more than 2400 m/s at 70 m depth. We used the refraction tomography image to infer the depth to the top of the groundwater table on the basis of the 1500 m/s velocity contour. The image suggests that the depth, along the profile, to the top of groundwater varies by about 18 m, with greater depth on the west side of the fault. At about 46 m depth, a 60- to 80-m-wide, low-velocity zone, which is consistent with faulting, is observed southwest of the Frijoles strand of the

  17. Study and optimization of boronization in Alcator C-Mod using the Surface Science Station (S{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoukov, Roman, E-mail: [Plasma Science and Fusion Center MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Whyte, Dennis; Lipschultz, Bruce; LaBombard, Brian [Plasma Science and Fusion Center MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gierse, Niels [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Juelich (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Harrison, Soren [Fusion Research Technologies, 519 Somerville Avenue 243, Somerville, MA 02143 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron deposition profiles measured on Alcator C-Mod during boronization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron deposition profile is consistent with ionic deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monte Carlo simulation of boron deposition agrees with experiment assuming warm ({approx}1-10 eV) boron{sup +1} ions. - Abstract: A Surface Science Station (S{sup 3}) on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is used to study and optimize the location and rate of boron film deposition in situ during electron cyclotron (EC) discharge plasmas using 2.45 GHz radio-frequency (RF) heating and a mixture of helium and diborane (B{sub 2}D{sub 6}) gasses. The radial profile of boron deposition is measured with a pair of quartz microbalances (QMB) on S{sup 3}, the faces of which can be rotated 360 Degree-Sign including orientations parallel and perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field B{sub T} {approx}0.1 T. The plasma electron density is measured with a Langmuir probe, also on S{sup 3} in the vicinity of the QMBs, and typical values are {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} m{sup -3}. A maximum boron deposition rate of 0.82 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/min is obtained, which corresponds to 3.5 nm/min if the film density is that of solid boron. These deposition rates are sufficient for boron film applications between tokamak discharges. However the deposition does not peak at the EC resonance as previously assumed. Rather, deposition peaks near the upper hybrid (UH) resonance, {approx}5 cm outboard of the EC resonance. This has implications for RF absorption, with the RF waves being no longer damped on the electrons at the EC resonance. The previously inferred radial locations of critical erosion zones in Alcator C-Mod also need to be re-evaluated. The boron deposition profile versus major radius follows the ion flux/density profile, implying that the boron deposition is primarily ionic. The application of a vertical magnetic field (B{sub V} {approx}0.01 T) was

  18. A Review of Seismicity in 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gang; Liu Jie; Yu Surong


    @@ 1. SURVEY OF GLOBE SEISMICITY IN 2004 A total of 19 strong earthquakes with Ms≥7.0 occurred in the world according to the Chinese Seismic Station Network in 2004 (Table 1 ). The strongest earthquake was the Sumatra earthquake with Ms 8.7 near the northwest coast of Sumatra on December 26 ( Fig. 1 ). Global seismicity maintains the same patterns from recent years, being distributed mainly on the western part of the circum-Pacific seismic zone. Remarkable macroseismic activities were seen in the India-Australian plate and in the Japan region. The macroseismic activities of Ms≥7.0 in 2004 were as follows:

  19. Gravity and Seismic Investigations of the Santo Domingo Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Boucher, C.; Novitsky, C. G.; O'Shea, P. M.; Daves, J.; Marzen, R.; Mendoza, K.; Rasmussen, T.; Wei, W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Claytor, J. M.; Bischoff, S. H.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Corredor, A.


    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new gravity, seismic, electromagnetic and down-hole temperature data in 2014 in the Santo Domingo Basin and adjacent areas of the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) area of northern New Mexico. The SAGE 2014 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2010 and adds data and interpretations to a W to E transect of the RGR. The transect includes previous SAGE seismic refraction and CMP reflection profiles recorded in 2010 and 2011, some industry seismic reflection data, and detailed gravity observations. Seismic data consisted of a 4.8 km NW to SE profile (120 three-component stations in four overlapping deployments, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) along the Borrego Canyon road with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. About 50,000 seismograms were recorded. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated sediments) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of reflection arrivals although some wide-angle reflections with two-way times as great as 1.8 s were visible. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods and mainly helped identify the velocity and minimum thickness of the Tertiary Santa Fe group sedimentary rocks in the Santo Domingo Basin. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data along the transect was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. Gravity modeling, with significant control on depths of interfaces and densities from the seismic and drill hole data, indicates that the Santo Domingo sedimentary basin has a total depth of about 6 km.

  20. Seismic source parameters of the induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermal area, California, by a generalized inversion approach (United States)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Oth, Adrien; Parolai, Stefano; Bindi, Dino; De Landro, Grazia; Amoroso, Ortensia


    The accurate determination of stress drop, seismic efficiency and how source parameters scale with earthquake size is an important for seismic hazard assessment of induced seismicity. We propose an improved non-parametric, data-driven strategy suitable for monitoring induced seismicity, which combines the generalized inversion technique together with genetic algorithms. In the first step of the analysis the generalized inversion technique allows for an effective correction of waveforms for the attenuation and site contributions. Then, the retrieved source spectra are inverted by a non-linear sensitivity-driven inversion scheme that allows accurate estimation of source parameters. We therefore investigate the earthquake source characteristics of 633 induced earthquakes (ML 2-4.5) recorded at The Geysers geothermal field (California) by a dense seismic network (i.e., 32 stations of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Geysers/Calpine surface seismic network, more than 17.000 velocity records). We find for most of the events a non-selfsimilar behavior, empirical source spectra that requires ωγ source model with γ > 2 to be well fitted and small radiation efficiency ηSW. All these findings suggest different dynamic rupture processes for smaller and larger earthquakes, and that the proportion of high frequency energy radiation and the amount of energy required to overcome the friction or for the creation of new fractures surface changes with the earthquake size. Furthermore, we observe also two distinct families of events with peculiar source parameters that, in one case suggests the reactivation of deep structures linked to the regional tectonics, while in the other supports the idea of an important role of steeply dipping fault in the fluid pressure diffusion.

  1. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout (United States)


    ... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not... plant achieves safe shutdown by relying on components that are not ac powered, such as turbine- or..., or seismic activity and that preexisting licensing requirements specified sufficient...

  2. Elastic structure and seismicity of Donegal (Ireland): insights from passive seismic analysis (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola


    Ireland's crust is the result of a complex geological history, which began in the Palaeozoic with the oblique closure of the Iapetus Ocean and, probably, it is still on-going. In the northwestern portion of the island, the geology of Donegal has been the subject of detailed geological investigation by many workers in the last century. The most widely represented rock types in Donegal are metasediments of Dalradian and Moinian age, invaded by several granites of Caledonian age (so called Donegal granite). Smaller and separate intrusions are present (e.g. Fanad Head). On the contrary, it is widely accepted that the the deep crustal structure of the northern portion of Ireland has been re-worked in more recent time. The several phases of lithospheric stretching associated to the opening of the Atlantic ocean interested such portion of Ireland, with the extrusion of flood basalts. Moreover, the presence of a hot, low-density asthenospheric plume spreading from Iceland has been suggested, with the formation of a thick high-velocity layer of magmatic underplated material at the base of the crust. Oddly, at present, Donegal is the only seismically active area in Ireland, with an average rate of one Mw=2-3 event every 3-4 years. In the last three years, passive seismic data have been recorded at 12 seismic stations deployed across the most seismically active area in Co. Donegal, with the aim of reconstructing the seismic structure down to the upper-mantle depth and of locating the microseismic activity within investigating volume. Both local and teleseismic events were recorded giving the opportunity of integrating results form different techniques for seismic data analysis, and jointly interpret them together with surface geology and mapped fault traces. Local events have been used to define constrain faulting volumes, focal mechanisms and to reconstruct a low-resolution 3D Vp and VpVs velocity models. Teleseismic events have been used to compute receiver function data

  3. Seismic detections of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor from the dense ChinArray (United States)

    Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Peng, Zhigang; Wang, Weitao


    ChinArray is a dense portable broadband seismic network to cover the entire continental China, and the Phase I is deployed along the north-south seismic belt in southwest China. In this study, we analyze seismic data recorded on the ChinArray following the February 15, 2013 Chelyabinsk (Russia) meteor. This was the largest known object entering the Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska meteor. The seismic energy radiated from this event was recorded by seismic stations worldwide including the dense ChinArray that are more than 4000 km away. The weak signal from the meteor event was contaminated by a magnitude 5.8 Tonga earthquake occurred ~20 min earlier. To test the feasibility of detecting the weak seismic signals from the meteor event, we compute vespagram and perform F-K analysis to the surface-wave data. We identify a seismic phase with back azimuth (BAZ) of 329.7° and slowness of 34.73 s/deg, corresponding to the surface wave from the Russian meteor event (BAZ ~325.97°). The surface magnitude ( M S) of the meteor event is 3.94 ± 0.18. We also perform similar analysis on the data from the broadband array F-net in Japan, and find the BAZ of the surface waves to be 316.61°. With the different BAZs of ChinArray and F-net, we locate the Russian meteor event at 58.80°N, 58.72°E. The relatively large mislocation (~438 km as compared with 55.15°N, 61.41°E by others) may be a result of the bending propagation path of surface waves, which deviates from the great circle path. Our results suggest that the dense ChinArray and its subarrays could be used to detect weak signals at teleseismic distances.

  4. Seismic signals associated with basal processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Röösli, Claudia; Walter, Fabian; Kisslin, Edi; Helmstetter, Agnes; Lüthi, Martin


    Understanding ice sheet and glacier dynamics is crucial for modeling of ice mass balance and resulting sea level changes. Ice dynamics is strongly influenced by surface melt water accumulating at the glacier base and its effect on basal sliding. The relationship between surface melt and ice flow depends on hydraulic processes in the subglacial drainage system. However, both subglacial and englacial drainage systems are inherently difficult to investigate due to their remoteness, and basal processes to date remain poorly understood. Borrowing concepts from volcano studies, recent glacier studies are employing passive seismology as a supplement to traditional glaciological techniques. When monitoring the seismic activity of a glacier or an ice sheet, several different types of so-called 'icequakes' and some times even 'tremor' may be detected in the seismic records that is dominated by the large number of surficial icequakes. Deep icequakes may provide information about englacial water flow and basal motion in response to hydraulic events over a region whose size is only limited by seismic background noise and the aperture of the monitoring network. Here, we present results from a passive seismic deployment on western Greenland's ablation zone during summer 2011. The high-density seismometer network consisted of 17 three-component stations installed at the ice surface or in boreholes. We recorded a large variety of seismic signals, including thousands of near-surface crevasse events as well as dislocation events deep within the ice sheet and near its bed. We discuss these 'deep icequakes' in view of hydraulic processes and basal motion. Furthermore, the seismic deployment was part of larger field campaign including a deep drilling project and glaciological surface observations. This provides the unique opportunity to interpret the seismic monitoring results within the variety of observations including subglacial water pressures and other borehole measurements.

  5. DOBRE-2000: Deep Reflection Seismic, Gravimetric and Surface Structural Controls Across a Devonian Failed Rift in the Southeastern Europe (United States)

    Roy-Chowdhury, K.; Bayer, U.; Gajewski, D.; Huebscher, C.; Rabbel, W.; Saintot, A.; Starostenko, V. I.; Stephenson, R.; Stovba, S. M.; Tolkunov, A.; Thybo, H.


    Situated between the Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Masif, the Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets Basin (PDD) is a crustal-scale geodynamic feature associated with the Late Devonian rifting of the East European Craton. The Donbas Foldbelt (DF), comprising the eastern part of the PDD, includes pre- & syn-rift deposits below a large thickness of post-rift successions. Later, DF has been inverted (elevated, eroded, deformed). With 20+ km of sediments, it has a large economic potential, but its tectonic history - and the cause for its isolated evolution - is not well understood. Recently, 130+ km multi-channel reflection seismic profiling data has been acquired across the southern part of the DF in the framework of an international industry-academic collaboration. Coincident gravity data has been collected along the profile too, and extensive structural studies have been carried out to understand the spatio-temporal distribution of the stress-regime in the area. The high-resolution seismic images reveal an extensive stair-step like fragmentation of the basement including faults with upto 2km offset. The typical size of these "steps" are influenced by the ambient conditions at the time of their formation. Combined use of the different datasets is expected to shed light on several intriguing features associated with DF. The presence/extent of salt, causing localization and/or partition of strain both laterally and vertically, may be studied by using its seismic and gravitational reponses simultaneously. The interaction between the lower crust and the upper mantle may also be studied in the same manner, which should result in a lithological interpretation at depth favoring in turn one of the causative mechanisms.

  6. Comparative Tests Between Shallow Downhole Installation and Classical Seismic Vaults (United States)

    Charade, Olivier; Vergne, Jérôme; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Bonnin, Mickaël; Louis-Xavier, Thierry; Beucler, Eric; Manhaval, Bertrand; Arnold, Benoît


    The French permanent broadband network is engaged in a major evolution with the installation of a hundred of new stations within the forthcoming years. Since most of them will be located in open field environments, we are looking for a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost. Nowadays, the use of posthole seismometers that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes appears to be an affordable and alternative solution to more traditional installation methods such as seismic vaults or dedicated underground cellars. Here we present some comparative tests performed at different sites (including two GEOSCOPE stations), spanning various geological conditions. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed for several weeks to months at various depths from 1.5m up to 20m. We compare the seismic noise levels measured in the different boreholes with the one for a reference sensor either directly buried or installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault. Apart from the microseism frequency band, seismic noise level in most of the boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. At periods higher than 20s we observe a strong reduction of the seismic noise on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and appears to be mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved strongly depends on the local geology.

  7. Reflection seismic imaging of shallow aquifers in Milano (northern Italy) (United States)

    Francese, R.; Zaja, A.; Giudici, M.; Schmitt, D.


    A high resolution P-wave seismic reflection survey was conducted in the Lambro park within the city of Milano (northern Italy). The objective of the survey was to image structure and stratigraphy of shallow late tertiary and quaternary deposits. This information is necessary to develop a comprehensive 3D hydrological model of the fresh water aquifers where the municipality drilled several production wells. The expected complexity of the acoustic framework and the urban environment with its complications created a challenging test site for the reflection technique. The aquifer system was targeted with a 2-D high resolution seismic reflection survey to outline its vertical and lateral dimensions to a depth of 150-200 m and to estimate some petrophysical properties of the depositional units. A 0.8-km CMP seismic line, with 1-m station spacing, was deployed to collect reflection data. The recording geometry was a 240-channel split spread array, with 6-m shot separation, resulting in a maximum of 20-fold dataset. A single 40-Hz geophone at each station location detected the incoming signals. Field records exhibit clear reflections although the signal to noise ratio is poor because of strong surface waves and severe disturbances from the nearby highway. Optimized FK and KL transforms were used to attenuate these coherent noises and to enhance the primary reflections from the main horizons. The data analysis was also assisted by forward modeling to guide the selection of the processing parameters. The seismic data have a good correlation thourhgout the section and most of the acoustic units show flat bedding. The boundaries of the three major depositional units are clearly resolved by the seismic images. The stacked section clearly indicates that reflection technique provides a powerful method to characterize aquifers, even in a very noisy environment like the urban areas.

  8. First results of an ambient seismic noise analysis in western Corinth Gulf (Greece) (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Dimitrios; Paraskevopoulos, Paraskevas; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis


    We present the preliminary results of an ambient seismic noise analysis performed in the western Corinth Gulf, Greece. The Corinth Gulf is a continental rift which separates the central Greek mainland from Peloponnese. The rift is approximately 120 km long and 10-20 km wide, with a WNW-ESE orientation, extending from the Gulf of Patras in the west, to the Gulf of Alkionides in the east. It is considered as one of the most active extensional intra-continental rifts in the world, with the geodetically measured rates of extension varying from ~5 mm/yr at the eastern part, to ~15 mm/yr at the western part. We used data from three-component broad-band seismic stations operated under the framework of the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) and the Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL). After the classical processing of continuous ambient seismic noise recordings, we used both auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of single stations and station pairs, respectively, in order to retrieve empirical Green's functions (EGFs) of surface waves and estimate relative velocity changes. For estimating the relative velocity changes we used the moving-window cross spectrum analysis (MWCS) technique. This is the first attempt to characterize the ambient seismic noise properties in the area and study the possible relation between the detected relative velocity changes and the occurrence of moderate or strong earthquakes in the study area.

  9. A Dramatic Increase in Seismic Observations in the Central and Eastern US (United States)

    Woodward, R.; Busby, R.; Simpson, D.; Alvarez, M.; Vernon, F.


    The USArray Transportable Array (TA) is a network of 400 seismograph stations that is systematically moving west-to-east across the contiguous United States. The TA is part of the National Science Foundation's multi- disciplinary EarthScope program. The TA has already occupied over 700 stations in the western US, and is continuing its multi-year migration towards the Atlantic coast before heading for Alaska. The stations use a grid-like deployment with 70 km separation between stations. At any given time there are approximately 400 stations operational, occupying a nominal 800 km by 2000 km "footprint." Each station is operated for two years. TA stations consist of three component broadband seismometers, with a few sites in the westernmost United States also including three component strong motion instruments. The instruments are installed about two meters below the surface, in thermally stable vaults. All stations transmit continuous data in near-real-time, and the data are freely distributed through the IRIS Data Management Center. TA stations can be upgraded to incorporate high frequency or strong motion instrument. Organizations can also "adopt" stations after installation by reimbursing the cost of the hardware, so that the stations become permanent. The TA is presently operating in the swath of the country extending from Texas to Montana. From 2010 to 2013 the TA will occupy ~800 sites in the central and eastern US. The array will be centered on the New Madrid, MO region during the bicentennial of the 1811-1812 earthquakes. During the TA deployment every existing or planned nuclear plant in the eastern US will be within 70 km of at least four new seismic stations. Thus, this station deployment in the eastern half of the US presents an unprecedented opportunity for improving source characterization, modeling the regional velocity and attenuation structure, and mapping seismic zones down to low magnitude thresholds. We will provide an overview of TA

  10. Evaluation of the National Seismic Station (United States)


    microcomputer with MULTIBUS* external bus format and card cage. An 8-slot chassis contains 2 custom circuit boards and an off-the-shelf Z-80 single board computer with...processing. A control signal then is sent to the Z-80 single board computer where final formatting is -37- . t CE D F-BS-L11. icC. WC caU co z W6 I

  11. The use of vertical and horizontal surface displacements at EPOS GNSS stations in Greenland to study ice sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas


    and present-day changes in ice mass. Superimposed on longer-term trends, an anomalous ‘pulse’ of uplift accumulated at many GNSS stations during an approximate six-month period in 2010 and 2012. This anomalous uplift is spatially correlated with the 2010 melting day anomaly (Bevis et al.,2012) and show...... present data from arctic GNSS stations included in the EPOS network. The arctic EPOS GNSS network consists of 16 continuous GPS stations spread across Greenland. This network is able to map the velocity fields associated with, plate motion, postglacial rebound and improve our understanding of tectonic...... processes and present-day ice mass changes in Greenland, allowing scientists to quickly detect and analyze any abrupt changes in the rate of ice loss in this region. Recent analyses of the EPOS-GNSS data and GNET data (Greenland GPS Network) show that the entire network is uplifting in response to past...

  12. Recent seismicity detection increase in the Santorini volcanic island complex


    G. Chouliaras; Drakatos, G.; Makropoulos, K.; Melis, N. S.


    Santorini is the most active volcanic complex in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc. To improve the seismological network detectability of the seismicity in this region, the Institute of Geodynamics of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) recently installed 4 portable seismological stations supplementary to the 3 permanent stations operating in the region. The addition of these stations has significantly improved the detectability and reporting of the local seismic activity in the NOA instrume...

  13. Continuous atmospheric 222Rn concentration measurements to study surface-air exchange at the station of Gredos and Iruelas, in Central Spain (United States)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morgui, Josep Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Curcoll, Roger; Arias, Rosa; Arnold, Delia; Ealo, Marina; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Sánchez-Garcíaa, Laura; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier


    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the ClimaDat IC3 network ( This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park at a latitude of 40.22° N and a longitude of -5.14° E in the Spanish central plateau. The ClimaDat network is made by 8 stations distributed around Spain and it has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems, at different time and space scales. Since November 2012, measurements of CO2, CH4, and of the natural radioactive gas 222Rn are continuously performed at GIC3 station at 20 m agl and at 1100 m asl . Maximum,minimum and average values of meteorological parameters, such as ambient air humidity and temperature, wind speed and direction are also measured at GIC3 station. Particularly, the concentration series of 222Rn measured at GIC3 station are extremely useful to evaluate the exchange of this noble radioactive gas between the soil surface and the lower troposphere in this area, under different weather situations and environmental conditions. The Gredos Natural Park is located in a granitic basement and this type of soil presents a high porosity and permeability. Furthermore, granitic materials have high activity levels of 228U. These factors enable large amount of radon to escape from the deeper soil, giving radon flux values of 90-100 Bq m-2 h-1 . These radon flux values are much higher than the average radon flux over the Earth, which is about 50 Bq m-2 h-1 (Szegvary et al, 2009). On the other hand, this geographical area is frequently affected by snow and rain events which drastically reduce the local radon exhalation. It is also influenced by winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean, which are poor in radon and strong, causing an important mixing. In addition, the cold nights' stability leads to an observed nocturnal radon accumulation. All the aforementioned conditions influence atmospheric radon concentrations measured at the GIC3 station, enlarging the range

  14. Comparison of Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature from Meteorological Stations on the Pan-Arctic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Schmullius


    Full Text Available Satellite-based temperature measurements are an important indicator for global climate change studies over large areas. Records from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and (Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer ((AATSR are providing long-term time series information. Assessing the quality of remote sensing-based temperature measurements provides feedback to the climate modeling community and other users by identifying agreements and discrepancies when compared to temperature records from meteorological stations. This paper presents a comparison of state-of-the-art remote sensing-based land surface temperature data with air temperature measurements from meteorological stations on a pan-arctic scale (north of 60° latitude. Within this study, we compared land surface temperature products from (AATSR, MODIS and AVHRR with an in situ air temperature (Tair database provided by the National Climate Data Center (NCDC. Despite analyzing the whole acquisition time period of each land surface temperature product, we focused on the inter-annual variability comparing land surface temperature (LST and air temperature for the overlapping time period of the remote sensing data (2000–2005. In addition, land cover information was included in the evaluation approach by using GLC2000. MODIS has been identified as having the highest agreement in comparison to air temperature records. The time series of (AATSR is highly variable, whereas inconsistencies in land surface temperature data from AVHRR have been found.

  15. Seismic activity at the western Pyrenean edge (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Gallart, J.; Díaz, J.; Olivera, C.; Pedreira, D.; López, C.; González-Cortina, J. M.; Pulgar, J. A.


    The present-day seismicity at the westernmost part of the Pyrenean domain reported from permanent networks is of low to moderate magnitude. However, it is poorly constrained due to the scarce station coverage of the area. We present new seismic data collected from a temporary network deployed there for 17 months that provides an enhanced image of the seismic activity and its tectonic implications. Our results delineate the westward continuity of the E-W Pyrenean band of seismicity, through the Variscan Basque Massifs along the Leiza Fault, ending up at the Hendaya Fault. This seismicity belt is distributed on a crustal scale, dipping northward to almost 30 km depth. Other relevant seismic events located in the area can be related to the central segment of the Pamplona fault, and to different E-W thrust structures.

  16. Seismic Creep (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seismic creep is the constant or periodic movement on a fault as contrasted with the sudden erupture associated with an earthquake. It is a usually slow deformation...

  17. Investigation of ambient seismic noise using seismic interferometry in western Montana (United States)

    Krzywosz, Natalia

    Passive seismic interferometry is a process by which ambient noise data recorded at different seismic stations can be cross-correlated to estimate Green's functions. In the past, both surface waves and body waves have successfully been extracted by cross-correlation of ambient noise data on both regional and global scales. In this study, I have generated Matlab code to simulate an application of seismic interferometry on a synthetic model with pre-defined layers and p-wave velocities. For areas with known velocity models, the Matlab code produced in this study can be used to generate synthetic seismograms, and model the effects of cross-correlation on receiver responses. In order to develop a general understanding of the ambient noise wavefield in western Montana, a spectral analysis program was developed in Matlab. This program is used to process ambient noise data from the Transportable Array (TA) Seismographic Network, and to generate its power spectral density plots and probability density functions. The detailed spectral analysis provides some insight to the ambient noise sources, and their energy distribution throughout western Montana. In addition, an attempt was made to preprocess ambient noise data from the TA array in Matlab for later use. Although preprocessing of the data was successful, limitations in computing power and time, allowed for temporal stacking of only one month of data. The one month period was not long enough to produce Green's functions which contain coherent body waves.

  18. Adaptive Polarization Analysis and Filtering of Station Seismic Data in Time-Frequency Domain%台站地震资料的时频域自适应极化分析和滤波

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马见青; 李庆春; 王卫东; 王美丁; 李春兰


    提出一种自适应协方差的时频域极化滤波方法.该方法在广义 S 变换时频方法的基础上,构造时频域自适应协方差矩阵,通过特征分析计算时频域瞬时极化参数,设计极化滤波器,实现多分量地震极化分析和滤波.其优势在于协方差矩阵的分析时窗的长度由多分量地震数据的瞬时频率确定,可以自适应于有效信号的周期,在每个时频点计算极化参数不需要进行插值处理;结合时间频率信息,解决在时间域或频率域波形或频率重叠的信号具有明显的直观性.模型数据及实际三分量台站地震数据处理结果表明,该极化滤波方法在台站地震资料分析和处理方面具有很好的直观性和较高的分辨率.%Polarization filtering methods based on a covariance matrix play an important role in the processing of multicomponent seismograms due to their explicit physical meaning,ease of imple-mentation,and high efficiency.Conventional polarization filtering methods that are realized in a time domain have major limitations in resolving seismic signals in which waveforms or frequencies overlap.Time-frequency analysis methods are especially suitable for resolving separate seismic signals that overlap in time but have different spectra for instantaneous signal analysis.These methods can describe frequency components of a signal that change over time.Owing to the advantages of the time-frequency analysis method,it can be used in polarization analysis.This study presents a polarization filtering method based on the generalized S-transform to suppress surface waves in a time-frequency domain.On one hand,we remold the window function of the S-transform and improve the frequency resolution of seismic signals by increasing regulatory factors to create a nonlinear change in the window function with the signal frequency.On the other,we structure the cross-energy matrix in the time-frequency domain using the generalized S

  19. Seismic seiches (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur; Gupta, Harsh K.


    Seismic seiche is a term first used by Kvale (1955) to discuss oscillations of lake levels in Norway and England caused by the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950. This definition has since been generalized to apply to standing waves set up in closed, or partially closed, bodies of water including rivers, shipping channels, lakes, swimming pools and tanks due to the passage of seismic waves from an earthquake.

  20. Local Ambient Seismic Noise Survey in Dixie Valley, NV for Engineered Geothermal System Favorability Assessment (United States)

    Tibuleac, I. M.; Iovenitti, J. L.; von Seggern, D. H.; Sainsbury, J.


    The primary objective of this study is to develop and test the seismic component of a calibrated exploration method that integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical data to identify potential drilling targets for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). In exploring for EGS sites, the selection criteria identified by the AltaRock Energy, Inc. (AltaRock) and University of Nevada, Reno teams are, in order of importance, (1) temperature greater than 200C at 1.5 km depth, (2) rock type at the depth of interest (porous rocks at 1-3 km); and (3) favorable stress regime (tensional environment). To improve spatial resolution, a dense seismic array (21 three-component, broadband sensors, with an overall array aperture of 45km) was installed in two deployments in Dixie Valley, NV, each deployment having a three-month duration Ambient seismic noise and signal were used to retrieve inter-station and same-station Green's Functions (GFs), to be used for subsurface imaging. We used ambient seismic noise interferometry to extract GFs from crosscorrelation of continuous records. An innovative aspect of the seismic work was estimating the receiver functions beneath the stations using noise auto-correlation which was used to image the substructure. We report results of applying the technique to estimate a P/S velocity model from the GF surface wave components and from the GF body-wave reflection component, retrieved from ambient noise and signal cross-correlation and auto-correlation beams. We interpret our results in terms of temperature, pressure and rock composition. The estimated seismic velocity model capability to infer temperature is statistically assessed, in combination with other geophysical technique results.

  1. ASOS Station Photos (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  2. Studies on seismic source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世愚; 陈运泰


    During the period of 1999~2002, the Chinese seismologists made a serious of developments in the study on seismic sources including observations, experiments and theory. In the field of observation, the methods of the accuracy location of earthquake sources, the inversion of seismic moment tensor and the mechanism of earthquake source are improved and developed. A lot of important earthquake events are studied by using these methods. The rupture processes of these events are inverted and investigated combined with the local stress fields and the tectonic moment by using the measurements of surface deformation. In the fields of experiments and theory, many developments are obtained in cause of seismic formation, condition of stress and tectonics, dynamics of earthquake rupture, rock fracture and nucleation of strong earthquakes.

  3. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun XIONG; Yong-hong WENG; Yun-long HE


    Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  4. From the Surface Topography to the Upper Mantle Beneath Central-Iberian-Zone. the Alcudia Seismic Experiments. (United States)

    Carbonell, R.; Ehsan, S. A.; Ayarza, P.; Martinez-Poyatos, D. J.; Simancas, J. F.; Azor, A.; Pérez-Estaún, A.


    Normal incidence and wide-angle seismic reflection data acquired in the Central and southern parts of the Iberia Peninsula resolve the internal architecture and constrain the distribution of the physical properties along an almost 350 km long transect that samples the major tectonic domains of the Iberian Massif, including the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) and the associated sutures. The internal architecture down to almost 70 km depth (~15 s TWTT) is resolved by the normal incidence data set. It images a number of elements that characterize the tectonics of the study area, which is one of the best exposed fragment of the Variscan orogenic Belt. A well marked brittle-to-ductile (B2D) transition separates the crust in two, the upper and mid-lower parts, approximately, 13 km and 18 km thick, respectively. The upper crust appears to be decoupled from the mid-lower crust and responded differently to shortening. The Mohorovicic discontinuity is located at ~10.5 s (TWTT) , it is relatively thick, and highly reflective beneath the CIZ. The wide-angle seismic transect extended the lithospheric section towards the north across the Madrid Basin. This profile provides very strong constraints on the distribution of physical properties (P- and S- wave velocities, Poisson's ratio) of the upper lithosphere as well as a high resolution image of the base of the crust beneath the area. This data is one of the first datasets to present solid evidence of a relatively significant crustal thickening beneath the Madrid Basin. The crustal thickness varies from ~31 km beneath the CIZ to ~35.5 km beneath the Madrid Basin. This data set also reveals two major discontinuity levels, the B2D and the Moho, both represent levels of lithological/rheological variations. The characteristics of the the PmP and SmS seismic phases suggest further details on the internal structure of the Moho. Furthermore, low fold wide-angle P and S wave stacks reveal a marked crust-mantle transition which is most

  5. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi


    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  6. Multiscale seismic tomography and mantle dynamics (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng


    ; Zhao, 2004). Evidence also shows that arc magma and slab dehydration may also contribute to the generation of various types of earthquakes in subduction zones (Zhao et al., 2002). Most of the slab materials in NW Pacific regions are stagnant in the mantle transition zone before finally collapsing down to the CMB as a result of large gravitational instability from phase transitions. The active intraplate volcanoes in NE Asia continent (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes) are not plume-related hotspots, but are a kind of back-arc volcanoes whose formation was closely related to the deep subduction of the Pacific slab and its stagnancy in the mantle transition zone (Zhao, 2004; Zhao et al., 2009). The origin of the active Tengchong volcano in SW China is related to the subduction of the Burma microplate (Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao, 2009). The Philippine Sea slab is subducting aseismically down to about 500 km depth (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007; Zhao, 2009). The Apollo seismic data (1969-1977) are used to estimate P and S wave tomography down to 1000 km depth under the near-side of the Moon, which shows a correlation between the lateral heterogeneity in the lunar mantle and distribution of deep moonquakes (Zhao et al., 2008). The non-uniform nature of the current distribution of seismic stations and earthquakes on Earth requires a multiscale approach to seismic imaging. Regions that are covered densely by stations and/or seismicity can be imaged with a high resolution by using local tomography, while poorly instrumented regions can only be imaged roughly by global or large-scale regional tomography. This situation will last for quite a long time. A thorough understanding of the seismic structure and deep Earth dynamics will only be achieved by a combination of more effective seismic imaging techniques and dense coverage of global seismic networks, particularly in the oceans. References Abdelwahed, M., D. Zhao (2007) Deep structure of the Japan subduction zone. Phys

  7. Storage of fluids and melts at subduction zones detectable by seismic tomography (United States)

    Luehr, B. G.; Koulakov, I.; Rabbel, W.; Brotopuspito, K. S.; Surono, S.


    During the last decades investigations at active continental margins discovered the link between the subduction of fluid saturated oceanic plates and the process of ascent of these fluids and partial melts forming a magmatic system that leads to volcanism at the earth surface. For this purpose the geophysical structure of the mantle and crustal range above the down going slap has been imaged. Information is required about the slap, the ascent paths, as well as the reservoires of fluids and partial melts in the mantle and the crust up to the volcanoes at the surface. Statistically the distance between the volcanoes of volcanic arcs down to their Wadati Benioff zone results of approximately 100 kilometers in mean value. Surprisingly, this depth range shows pronounced seismicity at most of all subduction zones. Additionally, mineralogical laboratory investigations have shown that dehydration of the diving plate has a maximum at temperature and pressure conditions we find at around 100 km depth. The ascent of the fluids and the appearance of partial melts as well as the distribution of these materials in the crust can be resolved by seismic tomographic methods using records of local natural seismicity. With these methods these areas are corresponding to lowered seismic velocities, high Vp/Vs ratios, as well as increased attenuation of seismic shear waves. The anomalies and their time dependence are controlled by the fluids. The seismic velocity anomalies detected so far are within a range of a few per cent to more than 30% reduction. But, to explore plate boundaries large and complex amphibious experiments are required, in which active and passive seismic investigations should be combined to achieve best results. The seismic station distribution should cover an area from before the trench up to far behind the volcanic chain, to provide under favorable conditions information down to 150 km depth. Findings of different subduction zones will be compared and discussed.

  8. Upper crustal structures beneath Yogyakarta imaged by ambient seismic noise tomography (United States)

    Zulfakriza, Saygin, E.; Cummins, P.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, Andri Dian


    Delineating the upper crustal structures beneath Yogyakarta is necessary for understanding its tectonic setting. The presence of Mt. Merapi, fault line and the alluvial deposits contributes to the complex geology of Yogyakarta. Recently, ambient seismic noise tomography can be used to image the subsurface structure. The cross correlations of ambient seismic noise of pair stations were applied to extract the Green's function. The total of 27 stations from 134 seismic stations available in MERapi Amphibious EXperiment (MERAMEX) covering Yogyakarta region were selected to conduct cross correlation. More than 500 Rayleigh waves of Green's functions could be extracted by cross-correlating available the station pairs of short-period and broad-band seismometers. The group velocities were obtained by filtering the extracted Green's function between 0.5 and 20 s. 2-D inversion was applied to the retrieved travel times. Features in the derived tomographic images correlate with the surface geology of Yogyakarta. The Merapi active volcanoes and alluvial deposit in Yogyakarta are clearly described by lower group velocities. The high velocity anomaly contrasts which are visible in the images obtained from the period range between 1 and 5 s, correspond to subsurface imprints of fault that could be the Opak Fault.

  9. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea (United States)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.


    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  10. Frozen Gaussian approximation for three-dimensional seismic wave propagation (United States)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu


    We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in three-dimensional earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a three-dimensional (3D) seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3D crust-over-mantle model.

  11. Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3-D seismic wave propagation (United States)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu


    We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3-D earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a 3-D seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3-D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model, respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3-D crust-over-mantle model.

  12. Seismic Passive Prospecting techniques as a useful tool during destructive earthquakes (United States)

    Albarello, D.; Bianca, M.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Giocoli, A.; Mucciarelli, M.; Piscitelli, S.


    After the 2009 Abruzzo earthquake (Italy) several surface geophysical surveys were performed to support emergency microzonation studies. The most used technique was the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio applied to seismic ambient noise. More than 200 ambient vibration recordings were performed by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio approach. This survey was performed using the same kind of equipment, acquisition, processing, data analysis and reliability test. To verify the site response obtained by seismic ambient noise in Navelli, Castelnuovo and San Gregorio we installed a temporary accelerometric network. The stations were continuously operating for a period from few days to more than a month after the mainshock, allowing the recording of hundreds of seismic events with magnitudes from about 1 to more than 5. In order to reconstruct the geological settlement of the study areas, the passive/active seismic prospections were integrated by electric and gravimetric surveys, detailed geology surveys and down-hole seismic measurements. The availability of such a large and homogeneous data-base, allowed us to carry out some 1-D geological models which corroborate the capability of seismic ambient noise to assess soil response and to detect the shallow subsurface geological and structural setting, the geometry of the lithological units, their mechanical and dynamical properties and the soil-structure interaction.

  13. Site effects in the Amatrice municipality through dense seismic network and detailed geological-geophysical survey (United States)

    Cultrera, Giovanna; Cardinali, Mauro; de Franco, Roberto; Gallipoli, Maria Rosaria; Pacor, Francesca; Pergalani, Floriana; Milana, Giuliano; Moscatelli, Massimiliano


    After the first mainshock of the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence, several Italian Institutions (under the umbrella of the Italian Center for Seismic Microzonation; conducted a preparatory survey to seismic microzonation of the Amatrice municipality, badly affected by the Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake of August 24. Despite the difficulties due to the heavily damaged investigated area and the winter weather condition, a large amount of different data were gathered in a very short time: (i) geological and geomorphological surveys (field trip and photo-geological interpretation), (ii) geophysical measurements (noise single-station and arrays, geoelectric, seismic refraction, MASW), and (iii) continuous seismic recordings from temporary network. In particular, 35 seismic stations were installed from half-September to early-December in an area of 170 km2, equipped with both velocimeter and accelerometer. They recorded thousands of earthquakes, including the Mw 6.5 of October 30, 2016; the continuous data will be organized in the EIDA repository ( through the INGV EIDA-node. The sites selection was performed according to the following criteria: representativeness of the geological conditions of 26 hamlets that experienced a damage level greater than VII MCS degree, optimization of the network geometry for array analysis, redundancy of bedrock reference sites, safety and accessibility. The photo-geology and the field investigations allowed the realization of a detailed geological-technical map of the area, characterized by peculiar features, namely the distinction between bedrock and Quaternary deposits (alluvial deposits and terraces, alluvial fans, landslides) and morpho-structural features (faults, folds, bedding attitude). Preliminary results allowed also the evaluation of the velocity models that show surface shear wave velocities (Vs) ranging from 200 m/s to 600 m/s. Data analysis of

  14. Reevaluation of the Seismicity and seismic hazards of Northeastern Libya (United States)

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur; Aousetta, Fawzi


    Libya, located at the northern margin of the African continent, underwent many episodes of orogenic activities. These episodes of orogenic activities affected and shaped the geological setting of the country. This study represents a detailed investigation that aims to focus on the seismicity and its implications on earthquake hazards of Northeastern Libya. At the end of year 2005 the Libyan National Seismological Network starts functioning with 15 stations. The Seismicity of the area under investigation was reevaluated using data recorded by the recently established network. The Al-Maraj earthquake occurred in May 22nd 2005was analyzed. This earthquake was located in a known seismically active area. This area was the sight of the well known 1963 earthquake that kills over 200 people. Earthquakes were plotted and resulting maps were interpreted and discussed. The level of seismic activity is higher in some areas, such as the city of Al-Maraj. The offshore areas north of Al-Maraj seem to have higher seismic activity. It is highly recommended that the recent earthquake activity is considered in the seismic hazard assessments for the northeastern part of Libya.

  15. Comprehensive observation and modeling of earthquake and temperature-related seismic velocity changes in northern Chile with passive image interferometry (United States)

    Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Kind, Rainer; Asch, Günter


    We report on earthquake and temperature-related velocity changes in high-frequency autocorrelations of ambient noise data from seismic stations of the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile project in northern Chile. Daily autocorrelation functions are analyzed over a period of 5 years with passive image interferometry. A short-term velocity drop recovering after several days to weeks is observed for the Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake at most stations. At the two stations PB05 and PATCX, we observe a long-term velocity decrease recovering over the course of around 2 years. While station PB05 is located in the rupture area of the Tocopilla earthquake, this is not the case for station PATCX. Station PATCX is situated in an area influenced by salt sediment in the vicinity of Salar Grande and presents a superior sensitivity to ground acceleration and periodic surface-induced changes. Due to this high sensitivity, we observe a velocity response of several regional earthquakes at PATCX, and we can show for the first time a linear relationship between the amplitude of velocity drops and peak ground acceleration for data from a single station. This relationship does not hold true when comparing different stations due to the different sensitivity of the station environments. Furthermore, we observe periodic annual velocity changes at PATCX. Analyzing data at a temporal resolution below 1 day, we are able to identify changes with a period of 24 h, too. The characteristics of the seismic velocity with annual and daily periods indicate an atmospheric origin of the velocity changes that we confirm with a model based on thermally induced stress. This comprehensive model explains the lag time dependence of the temperature-related seismic velocity changes involving the distribution of temperature fluctuations, the relationship between temperature, stress and velocity change, plus autocorrelation sensitivity kernels.

  16. Using a Large N Geophone Array to Identify Hydrothermal Seismic Sources in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Farrell, J.; Lin, F. C.; Allam, A. A.; Smith, R. B.; Karplus, M. S.


    The recent availability of large N seismic arrays provides a unique capability for recording environmental seismic signals that can be monitored in detail. In November 2015, the University of Utah, in collaboration with Yellowstone National Park and the University of Texas El Paso, installed a seismic array in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park centered on Old Faithful geyser. The array consisted of 133 three-component 5 Hz geophones recording continuously at 1000Hz for two weeks, with an average station spacing of 50 m and an aperture of 1 km. The array recorded numerous hydrothermal seismic sources including distinct seismic signals that could be attributed to surficial hydrothermal features as well as those that do not appear to be related to any individual surface feature. Old Faithful geyser eruptions themselves are largely aseismic. However, hydrothermal tremor, likely due to collapsing bubbles within the subsurface plumbing system, starts building about 45 minutes prior to an Old Faithful eruption. Tremor amplitudes slowly increase with time until they reach a peak about 25 minutes prior to the eruption and then slowly decrease until the eruption begins. The seismic signal related to the buildup of the Old Faithful subsurface reservoir is recorded at stations north, south and to the east of Old Faithful but is missing on stations to the northwest. This suggests a shallow subsurface feature that strongly attenuates the seismic signal immediately NW of the cone of Old Faithful. Another of the more interesting signals is observed regularly about every 38 minutes and may come from Doublet Pool on Geyser Hill. This signal has large seismic wave amplitudes and is recorded across much of the seismic array. The Geyser Hill signal may also be affected by the aforementioned subsurface attenuating feature NW of the Old Faithful cone. Interestingly, there is a persistent 20-25 Hz signal at several stations that seems to be affected by variations air


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓清; 何春晖; 张晶; 刘薇; 马震; 文勇


    Based on the digital seismic data of the aftershocks of Dachaidan Ms6. 3 earthquake in Nov. 10, 2008, using the three-component seismic data from a single-station, we calculate the focal mechanisms of af- tershocks by the method of the moment tensors inversion. We collect the epicenter parameters published of Dachaidan Ms6.3 earthquake in Nov. 10, 2008 and the digital seismic data of the seismic network in Qinghai region. Through calculated theoretical seismic wave, we can get the velocity structure model of the research ar- ea in this paper by the epicenter parameters of Dachaidan Ms6.3 earthquake. Using this model, we obtain the focal mechanisms of the ME 92.0 aftershocks. We chosed the 160 aftershocks from the digital seismic data and got some results of 85 aftershocks at last, among which, the largest event is ML 4.7, the smallest magnitude is ML 2.0. Through contrast analysis, it almost is similar that we obtain the moment tensor inversion results from a single-station and the five stations. The calculated results show that the focal mechanisms of a small to mod- erate earthquakes can be gotten using the digital seismic data from a single-station.%以2008年11月10日大柴旦Ms6.3级地震余震数字地震波观测资料为基础,运用矩张量反演方法,利用单台三分量波形资料计算余震的震源机制。收集整理大柴旦Ms6.3级地震公认的震源参数结果和青海区域地震台网数字地震波资料,以大柴旦Ms6.3级地震的震源参数作为约束,计算理论地震波来确定该区域的地壳速度模型。以此模型计算ML≥2.0级余震震源机制解。共收集160个余震资料,最后确定了85个余震震源机制解,其中最大震级为朋。4.7,最小震级为ML2.0。进行单台与多台联合矩张量反演结果对比,两种方法所确定的结果相差不大。实际计算表明,在观测资料信噪比较高的情况下,运用单台数字地震波观测资料可以较好

  18. Reconstruction of 2D seismic wavefield from Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope by Seismic Gradiometry applied to the Hi-net Array (United States)

    Maeda, Takuto; Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota; Obara, Kazushige


    The high-sensitive seismograph network (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km all over the Japanese archipelago. Although it is equipped with short-period seismometers, we also can observe long-period seismic wave up to 100 s in periods for significantly large earthquakes. In this case, we may treat long-period seismic waves as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength rather than individual traces at stations. In this study, we attempt to reconstruct 2D wavefield and obtain its propagation properties from seismic gradiometry (SG) method. The SG estimates the wave amplitude and its spatial derivative coefficients from discrete station record by the Taylor series approximation with an inverse problem. By using spatial derivatives in horizontal directions, we can obtain properties of propagating wave packet such as the arrival direction, slowness, geometrical spreading and radiation pattern. In addition, by using spatial derivatives together with free-surface boundary condition, we may decompose the vector elastic 2D wavefield estimated by the SG into divergence and rotation components. First, we applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50 s) seismogram dataset computed by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout as a feasibility test. We confirmed that the wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are very well reproduced with average correlation coefficients higher than 0.99 in this period range. Applications to a real large earthquakes show that the amplitude and phase of the wavefield are well reconstructed with additional information of arrival direction and its slowness. The reconstructed wavefield contained a clear contrast in slowness between body and surface waves, regional non-great-circle-path wave propagation which may be attributed to scattering. Slowness

  19. Study of Seismic Activity at Ceboruco Volcano, Mexico (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero, C. R.; Rodríguez Ayala, N. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.


    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive volcanic eruptions. The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast, which is a key communication point for coast of Jalisco and Nayarit and the northwest of Mexico. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacitic composition lava flows along the southeast side. Although surface activity has been restricted to fumaroles near the summit, Ceboruco exhibits regular seismic unrest characterized by both low frequency seismic events and volcano-tectonic earthquakes. From March 2003 until July 2008 a three-component short-period seismograph Marslite station with a Lennartz 3D (1Hz) was deployed in the south flank (CEBN) and within 2 km from the summit to monitoring the seismic activity at the volcano. The LF seismicity recorded was classified using waveform characteristics and digital analysis. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, most of the hypocenters are below the volcanic edifice within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the

  20. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during February 2016 (NCEI Accession 0145743) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  1. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during April 2016 (NCEI Accession 0151726) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  2. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during February 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131074) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  3. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during March 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131884) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  4. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during May 2016 (NCEI Accession 0154389) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  5. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0148078) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  6. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during April 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138389) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  7. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during May 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138488) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  8. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during December 2015 (NCEI Accession 0141105) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  9. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during March 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138305) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  10. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during July 2016 (NCEI Accession 0156405) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  11. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during January 2015 (NCEI Accession 0137088) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  12. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during April 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131908) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  13. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during May 2016 (NCEI Accession 0154390) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  14. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during February 2016 (NCEI Accession 0145802) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  15. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during January 2016 (NCEI Accession 0144289) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  16. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during June 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138584) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  17. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during June 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131956) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  18. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during January 2016 (NCEI Accession 0144286) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  19. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during December 2015 (NCEI Accession 0141107) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  20. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during June 2016 (NCEI Accession 0155978) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  1. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during September 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138948) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  2. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during August 2016 (NCEI Accession 0156626) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  3. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during April 2016 (NCEI Accession 0151734) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  4. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during November 2015 (NCEI Accession 0139553) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  5. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during October 2015 (NCEI Accession 0139156) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  6. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during May 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131932) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  7. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during June 2016 (NCEI Accession 0155984) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  8. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during January 2015 (NCEI Accession 0129913) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  9. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during February 2015 (NCEI Accession 0137265) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  10. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during July 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138671) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  11. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during August 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138776) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  12. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0148080) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  13. Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava


    The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

  14. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.


    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  15. The development of the Moldova digital seismic network (United States)

    Ilies, I.; Ionescu, C.; Grigore, A. G.


    The Republic of Moldova is located in the seismically active region, about 70% of its area is predisposed to shaking intensity 7 - 8 points MSK. Focal zones of the primary seismic danger to the territory of the Republic of Moldova are: Vrancea zone - for the whole of its territory and Dobrogea zone - for the southern part. Monitoring of seismic instrumentation in the republic is provided by the Center of Experimental Seismology, Institute of Geology and Seismology, Academy of Sciences of Moldova. According to the seismic zoning map of the Republic of Moldova, seismic stations "Cahul, Leova" and "Giurgiulesti" located in 8 - degree zone, the central regional station "Chisinau" - in 7 - degree, a station "Soroca" - in 6 - degree zone MSK scale. The development of seismic network since 2004, going through a transition to a modern digital recording, improving working conditions for staff and the construction of new buildings for seismic stations, equipping the new network equipment and improve the methods of collecting and processing seismic data. The works to modernize the network of seismic stations in Moldova were initiated in 2003 with the acquisition of the first three axial digital accelerometer. The device was installed initially in Chisinau, and from it we received the first digital recordings of earthquakes from September 27 and October 27, 2004. In joint efforts with National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics from Bucharest, Romania, four seismic stations from Republic of Moldavia was upgraded by broadband and strong motion sensors connected at Q 330 digital recorders that issue continuous recording and real time data stream. Starting from spring of 2008, real time seismic data exchange between IGG Republic of Moldavia and NIEP Romania is running using internet connection.

  16. The Apollo passive seismic experiment (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.


    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  17. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station]. (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying


    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  18. Infrasound observations at Syowa Station, East Antarctica: Implications for detecting the surface environmental variations in the polar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Ishihara


    Full Text Available Characteristic infrasound waves observed at Antarctic stations demonstrate physical interaction involving environmental changes in the Antarctic continent and the surrounding oceans. A Chaparral-type infrasound sensor was installed at Syowa Station (SYO; 39°E, 69°S, East Antarctica, as one of the projects of the International Polar Year (IPY2007‒2008. Data continuously recorded during the three seasons in 2008–2010 clearly indicate a contamination of the background oceanic signals (microbaroms with peaks between 4 and 10 s observed during a whole season. The peak amplitudes of the microbaroms have relatively lower values during austral winters, caused by a larger amount of sea-ice extending around the Lützow-Holm Bay near SYO, with decreasing ocean wave loading effects. Microbaroms measurements are useful tool for characterizing ocean wave climate, complementing other oceanographic and geophysical data. A continuous monitoring by infrasound sensors in the Antarctic firmly contributes to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT in the southern high latitude, together with the Pan-Antarctic Observations System (PAntOS under the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR. Detailed measurements of the infrasound waves in Antarctica, consequently, could be a new proxy for monitoring regional environmental change as well as the temporal climate variations in the polar regions.

  19. Concordia, Antarctica, seismic experiment for the International Polar Year (CASE-IPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Maggi


    Full Text Available The CASE-IPY project, part of the larger POLENET initiative of geophysical observations for the International Polar Year, was built on our extensive experience of running seismological stations in Antarctica, both on rock sites (Dumont d’Urville station, and directly on the ice plateau (Concordia station. For CASE-IPY, we deployed 8 temporary seismic stations on the Antarctic plateau: 3 situated near Concordia itself (starting 2008, and the other 5 regularly spaced between Concordia and Vostok (2010-2012, following the maximum in ice topography. The technical problems we have encountered in our field deployments were essentially due to a combination of extreme environmental conditions and isolation of deployment sites. The 3 stations near Concordia were used as test sites to experiment different solutions, and to converge on a design for the 5 main stations. Results from the nearest stations, which transmit data regularly to Concordia, are very promising. The data recorded by our stations will be distributed widely in the scientific community. We expect them to be exploited essentially for structural studies involving Antarctica itself (its ice-cap, crust and lithosphere via receiver functions, noise correlation, and surface-wave tomography, but also for studies of the Earth’s core.

  20. Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data. (United States)

    Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan


    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research.

  1. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  2. Space Station (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.


    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  3. Seismic Tomography and Monitoring of Magmatic Geothermal and Natural Hydrothermal Systems in the South of Bandung, Indonesia


    P. Jousset; R. Sule; W. Diningrat; Devy Kamil Syahbana; Alexandra Gassner; F. Akbar; Sebastien Guichard; Nicole Schuck; R. Ryannugroho; Andri Hendriyana; Y. Kusnadi; A. Nugraha; U. Muksin; M. Jaya; B. Pratomo


    We assess geothermal resources from our understanding of the structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs and hydrothermal systems in the south of Bandung. The co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. We deployed a geophysical network starting with a network of 30 seismic stations including...

  4. Dependence of near field co-seismic ionospheric perturbations on surface deformations: A case study based on the April, 25 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake (United States)

    Sunil, A. S.; Bagiya, Mala S.; Catherine, Joshi; Rolland, Lucie; Sharma, Nitin; Sunil, P. S.; Ramesh, D. S.


    Ionospheric response to the recent 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is studied in terms of Global Positioning System-Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) from the viewpoints of source directivity, rupture propagation and associated surface deformations, over and near the fault plane. The azimuthal directivity of co-seismic ionospheric perturbations (CIP) amplitudes from near field exhibit excellent correlation with east-southeast propagation of earthquake rupture and associated surface deformations. In addition, the amplitude of CIP is observed to be very small in the opposite direction of the rupture movement. Conceptual explanations on the poleward directivity of CIP exist in literature, we show the observational evidences of additional equator ward directivity, interpreted in terms of rupture propagation direction. We also discuss the coupling between earthquake induced acoustic waves and local geomagnetic field and its effects on near field CIP amplitudes. We suggest that variability of near field CIP over and near the fault plane are the manifestations of the geomagnetic field-wave coupling in addition to crustal deformations that observed through GPS measurements and corroborated by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data sets.

  5. Seismic site characterization of an urban dedimentary basin, Livermore Valley, California: Site tesponse, basin-edge-induced surface waves, and 3D simulations (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Leeds, Alena L.; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Allen, James P.; Schmitt, Robert G.


    Thirty‐two accelerometers were deployed in the Livermore Valley, California, for approximately one year to study sedimentary basin effects. Many local and near‐regional earthquakes were recorded, including the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa, California, earthquake. The resulting ground‐motion data set is used to quantify the seismic response of the Livermore basin, a major structural depression in the California Coast Range Province bounded by active faults. Site response is calculated by two methods: the reference‐site spectral ratio method and a source‐site spectral inversion method. Longer‐period (≥1  s) amplification factors follow the same general pattern as Bouguer gravity anomaly contours. Site response spectra are inverted for shallow shear‐wave velocity profiles, which are consistent with independent information. Frequency–wavenumber analysis is used to analyze plane‐wave propagation across the Livermore Valley and to identify basin‐edge‐induced surface waves with back azimuths different from the source back azimuth. Finite‐element simulations in a 3D velocity model of the region illustrate the generation of basin‐edge‐induced surface waves and point out strips of elevated ground velocities along the margins of the basin.

  6. Seismic Symphonies (United States)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano


    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  7. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.


    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  8. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.


    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  9. Relocating Seismicity on the Arctic Plate Boundary Using Teleseismic and Regional Phases and a Bayesian Multiple Event Locator (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Kværna, Tormod; Larsen, Tine B.; Paulsen, Berit; Voss, Peter


    The tectonophysics of plate boundaries are illuminated by the pattern of seismicity - and the ability to locate seismic events accurately depends upon the number and quality of observations, the distribution of recording stations, and how well the traveltimes of seismic phases are modelled. The boundary between the Eurasian and North American plates between 70 and 84 degrees North hosts large seismic events which are well recorded teleseismically and many more events at far lower magnitudes that are well recorded only at regional distances. Existing seismic bulletins have considerable spread and bias resulting from limited station coverage and deficiencies in the velocity models applied; this is particularly acute for the lower magnitude events which may only be constrained by a small number of Pn and Sn arrivals. Over the past 15 years, there has been a significant improvement in the seismic network in the Arctic - a difficult region to instrument due to the harsh climate, a sparsity of quiet and accessible sites, and the expense and difficult logistics of deploying and maintaining stations. New deployments and upgrades to stations on Greenland, Svalbard, and the islands Jan Mayen, Hopen, and Bjørnøya have resulted in a sparse but stable regional seismic network which results in events down to magnitudes below 3 generating high quality Pn and Sn signals on multiple stations. A catalog of over 1000 events in the region since 1998 has been generated using many new phase readings on stations on both sides of the spreading ridge in addition to teleseismic P phases. The Bayesloc program, a Bayesian hierarchical multiple event location algorithm, has been used to relocate the full set of events iteratively and this has resulted in a significant reduction in the spread in hypocenter estimates for both large and small events. Whereas single event location algorithms minimize the vector of time residuals on an event-by-event basis, Bayesloc favours the hypocenters which

  10. Monitoring of seismic anisotropy at the time of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi (Japan) earthquake (United States)

    Saade, M.; Montagner, J. P.; Roux, P.; Shiomi, K.; Enescu, B.; Brenguier, F.


    We investigate temporal variations of the polarization anomaly of surface waves (Rayleigh and Love) relative to an isotropic medium, before and after the 2008 June 13, Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (Mw = 6.9) in Japan, using passive image interferometry. We use continuous data records of 20 high-sensitivity three-component seismic stations (National Institute for Earth Sciences and Disaster Resilience—NIED Hi-net) from mid-2007 to the end of 2009. We compute cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise between each pair of stations, in the frequency range of 0.08-0.22 Hz. The temporal variations of the surface wave polarization show slow and weak variations due to seasonal changes to which rapid and strong variations are superposed at the time of the earthquake, and more surprisingly, also a month and a half before the earthquake. Strong changes in the polarization of surface waves might be related to changes in the distribution of crack orientation affecting seismic anisotropy.

  11. Structure of Suasselkä Postglacial Fault in northern Finland obtained by analysis of ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Afonin, Nikita; Kozlovskaya, Elena


    Understanding inner structure of seismogenic faults and their ability to reactivate is particularly important in investigating the continental intraplate seismicity regime. In our study we address this problem using analysis of ambient seismic noise recorded by the temporary DAFNE array in northern Fennoscandian Shield. The main purpose of the DAFNE/FINLAND passive seismic array experiment was to characterize the present-day seismicity of the Suasselkä post-glacial fault (SPGF) that was proposed as one potential target for the DAFNE (Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe) project. The DAFNE/FINLAND array comprised the area of about 20 to 100 km and consisted of 8 short-period and 4 broad-band 3-component autonomous seismic stations installed in the close vicinity of the fault area. The array recorded continuous seismic data during September, 2011-May, 2013. Recordings of the array have being analyzed in order to identify and locate natural earthquakes from the fault area and to discriminate them from the blasts in the Kittilä Gold Mine. As a result, we found several dozens of natural seismic events originating from the fault area, which proves that the fault is still seismically act