WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface sediment layer

  1. Coupled penetrometer, MBES and ADCP assessments of tidal variations of the surface sediment layer along active subaqueous dunes, Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Nina; Hanff, Henrik; Svenson, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In-situ geotechnical measurements of surface sediments were carried out along large subaqueous dunes in the Knudedyb tidal inlet channel in the DanishWadden Sea using a small free-falling penetrometer. Vertical profiles showed a typical stratification pattern with a resolution of ~1 cm depicting...... a thin surface layer of low sediment strength and a stiffer substratum below (quasi-static bearing capacity equivalent: 1–3 kPa in the top layer, 20–140 kPa in the underlying sediment; thickness of the top layer ca. 5–8 cm). Observed variations in the thickness and strength of the surface layer during...... a tidal cycle were compared to mean current velocities (measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, ADCP), high-resolution bathymetry (based on multibeam echo sounding, MBES) and qualitative estimates of suspended sediment distributions in the water column (estimated from ADCP backscatter...

  2. Study of seasonal dynamics of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients and pollutants from the surface water layer of the Black Sea during 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Krivenko, O.V.; Stokozov, N.A.; Zherko, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    A series of regular measurements of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients (carbon, nitrogen) and pollutants (mercury, polychlorided biphenyls) from the surface water layer was carried out with 1-2 month interval between the measurements using 234 Th in the region of western cyclonic circulation of the Black Sea. It allowed to estimate the seasonal dynamics and to obtain average annual values of dientrophication and sedimentational self-purification of the euphotic zone of the Western part of the Black Sea. The parallel measurements of the rates of sedimentation evacuation of suspended organic nitrogen from the euphotic zone, which were performed using 234 Th and determining the so called products of phitoplankton by the absorption of 15 N traced nitrates and ammonium, give practically identical results. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  3. Enhancement of the surface methane hydrate-bearing layer based on the specific microorganisms form deep seabed sediment in Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yamamoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A methane hydrate-bearing layer located near the Japan Sea has been investigated as a new potential energy resource. In this study examined the feasibility of the seabed surface sediment strength located in the Japan Sea improvement technologies for enhancing microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. First, the authors cultivated the specific urease production bacterium culture medium from this surface methane hydrate-bearing layer in the seabed (-600m depth) of Japan Sea. After that, two types of the laboratory test (consolidated-drained triaxial tests) were conducted using this specific culture medium from the seabed in the Japan Sea near the Toyama Prefecture and high urease activities bacterium named Bacillus pasteurii. The main outcomes of this research are as follows. 1) Specific culture medium focused on the urease production bacterium can enhancement of the urease activities from the methane hydrate-bearing layer near the Japan Sea side, 2) This specific culture medium can be enhancement of the surface layer strength, 3) The microbial induced carbonate precipitation process can increase the particle size compared to that of the original particles coating the calcite layer surface, 4) The mechanism for increasing the soil strength is based on the addition of cohesion like a cement stabilized soil.

  4. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Changes in concentrations of nickel and copper in the surface layers of sediments of the Lake Imandra the last half century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauvalter V.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the content of the polluting heavy metals Ni and Cu, priority for the region, in surface layers of sediments of the Lake Imandra, the largest reservoir of Murmansk region, has been carried out. The constant increase in the contents of Ni and Cu on all water area of the lake during researches has been determined owing to as direct intake of sewage of the enterprises of mining and metallurgical complex (Bolshaya and Yokostrovskaya Imandra, and aerial pollution of lake watershed and wind-induced currents (Babinskaya Imandra. The largest increase in the contents is noted in the Monche Bay of the Big Imandra up to 3 and 0.6 % for Ni and Cu respectively in the last years

  6. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2018-01-01

    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  7. Determination of physical and dynamic properties of suspended particles in water column with ultrasonic scanning in between the water surface and stable sediment layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Ozeren, Sinan; Cagatay, Namık; Sari, Erol; Vardar, Denizhan; Eris, Kadir

    2015-04-01

    The behavior of seafloor sediment with its water column should be known against any occurrences of anoxic or oxic conditions. The most important ones of these conditions are possible leakage of natural gas or escape of liquids from sediment. On the basis of combined solid/liquid flow dynamics in sedimentation, such kind of events can change, even in an effective manner, the dynamic movements of molecules and their cumulative mass of particules, i.e. the suspended materials. The deployment of suitable sediment traps or ultrasonic transducers somewhere in the water column are not easy attempts in order to obtain useful information about the state of suspended materials during sedimentation. These are usually bulky instruments; therefore they may behave like an anti-move suppresser on the particles moving in the float direction, in oxic and anoxic manner. These instruments, on the other hand, may cover the effects of diffusive flow or bubble formed gas and fluid escape from the sediment surface into the water column. Ultrasonic scanners, however, are able to make observations in a remote manner, without affecting such artificial events. Our field trials were successfully completed at the historical estuary called Halic of Marmara sea . The physical properties; such as the velocity of particles, their travel directions, their dimensions and the ability to observe anti-compositor crushes of shock waves of the bubbles are only a few of these observations in natural ambience. The most important problem solved about water pressure during 3 atmosphere . The sensor has been tested successfully few times. We used the ''High voltage electric isolator oil filling'' to the inside of the scanner for pressure equalization between outer side and inner body of probe at a depth of (20 meters) beneath the sea surface . The transmitted signals by the planar crystal of the transducer become weaker under the pressure of overlying water column in depths. Our efforts are now focused on the

  8. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  9. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor

  10. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  11. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Surface Layer of Bottom Sediments in a Flow-Through Lake: A Case Study of Lake Symsar in Northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kuriata-Potasznik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available River-lake systems most often behave as hydrographic units, which undergo complex interactions, especially in the contact zone. One such interaction pertains to the role of a river in the dispersal of trace elements carried into and out of a lake. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of rivers on the accumulation of heavy metals in bottom sediments of natural lakes comprised in postglacial river-lake systems. The results showed that a river flowing through a lake is a key factor responsible for the input of the majority of available fraction of heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cd and Ni into the water body and for their accumulation along the flow of river water in the lake. The origin of other accumulated elements were the linear and point sources in catchments. In turn, the Pb content was associated with the location of roads in the direct catchment, while the sediment structure (especially size of fraction and density could have affected the accumulation of Cr and Zn, which indicated correlations between these metals and fine fraction. Our results suggest that lakes act as filters and contribute to the self-purification of water that flows through them. As a result, the content of most metals in lake sediments showed a decrease by approx. 75% between the upstream (inflow and downstream (outflow sections. The increased content of two metals only, such as chromium and cadmium (higher by 2.0 and 2.5 times, respectively, after passing through the lake, was due to the correlation of the metals with fine sand. Both the content and distribution pattern of heavy metals in lake sediments are indicative of the natural response of aquatic ecosystems to environmental stressors, such as pollutant import with river water or climate change. The complex elements creating the water ecosystem of each lake can counteract stress by temporarily removing pollutants such as toxic metals form circulation and depositing them mostly around the delta.

  12. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  13. Methanotrophy in surface sediments of streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi; Peter, Hannes; Battin, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Because streams are often found to be supersaturated in methane (CH4), they are considered as atmospheric sources of this greenhouse gas. However, little is known about the processes driving CH4 cycling in these environments, i.e. production, consumption and fluxes. CH4 is thought to be produced in deeper anoxic sediments, before it migrates up to reach the oxic stream water, where it can be oxidized by methanotrophs. In order to gain insights into this process, we investigated 14 different streams across Switzerland. We characterized the chemistry of surface and sediment waters by measuring dissolved chemical profiles. We also sampled surface sediments and determined methanotrophic rates with laboratory incubations and Michaelis-Menten modeling. Interestingly, rates were strongly correlated with the CH4 concentrations in stream waters, rather than in sediment waters. This indicates that methantrophic populations feed on CH4 from the surface streamwater, even though CH4 concentrations are higher in the sediment waters. Methanotrophy rates were also correlated with Crenothrix counts (based on 16S rRNA sequencing), a strict methanotroph, while this latter was correlated with pmoA counts (based on quantitative PCR), a gene involved in methanotrophy. These results show that Crenothrix genera are the most active methanotrophs in surface sediments of streams, and can represent more than 2% of microbial communities. Remarkably, the dominating Crenothrix species was detected in all 14 samples. This work allows the assessment of in situ methanotrophic rates, of the environmental parameters driving this process, and of the microbial populations carrying it out, and thus brings useful insights about carbon cycling in streams.

  14. The Diffusive Boundary-Layer of Sediments - Oxygen Microgradients Over a Microbial Mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; MARAIS, DJD

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen microelectrodes were used to analyze the distribution of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) at the sedimen-water interface in relation to surface topography and flow velocity. The sediment, collected from saline ponds, was covered by a microbial mat that had high oxygen consumption rate...

  15. Single-layer model for surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G

    2002-06-01

    Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.

  16. Erosion patterns in a sediment layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daerr, Adrian; Lee, Peter; Lanuza, José; Clément, Éric

    2003-06-01

    We report here on a laboratory-scale experiment which reproduces a rich variety of natural patterns with few control parameters. In particular, we focus on intriguing rhomboid structures often found on sandy shores and flats. We show that the standard views based on water surface waves do not explain the phenomenon, and we evidence a different mechanism based on mud avalanche instability.

  17. The Diffusive Boundary-Layer of Sediments - Oxygen Microgradients Over a Microbial Mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; MARAIS, DJD

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen microelectrodes were used to analyze the distribution of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) at the sedimen-water interface in relation to surface topography and flow velocity. The sediment, collected from saline ponds, was covered by a microbial mat that had high oxygen consumption rate...... and well-defined surface structure. Diffusion through the DBL constituted an important rate limitation to the oxygen uptake of the sediment. The mean effective DBL thickness decreased from 0.59 to 0.16 mm as the flow velocity of the overlying water was increased from 0.3 to 7.7 cm s-1 (measured 1 cm above...

  18. Reactive Fe(II) layers in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Iris; Haeckel, Matthias; Drodt, Matthias; Suess, Erwin; Trautwein, Alfred X.

    1999-05-01

    The percentage of the structural Fe(II) in clay minerals that is readily oxidized to Fe(III) upon contact with atmospheric oxygen was determined across the downcore tan-green color change in Peru Basin sediments. This latent fraction of reactive Fe(II) was only found in the green strata, where it proved to be large enough to constitute a deep reaction layer with respect to the pore water O 2 and NO 3-. Large variations were detected in the proportion of the reactive Fe(II) concentration to the organic matter content along core profiles. Hence, the commonly observed tan-green color change in marine sediments marks the top of a reactive Fe(II) layer, which may represent the major barrier to the movement of oxidation fronts in pelagic subsurface sediments. This is also demonstrated by numerical model simulations. The findings imply that geochemical barriers to pore water oxidation fronts form diagenetically in the sea floor wherever the stage of iron reduction is reached, provided that the sediments contain a significant amount of structural iron in clay minerals.

  19. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  20. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1993-01-01

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties

  1. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  2. The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, James W.

    1980-03-01

    Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {σ _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{σ _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{σ _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/ρ}}^{{1/2}}, σ w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements

  3. An Eulerian two-phase flow model for sediment transport under realistic surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T. J.; Kim, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Chauchat, J.

    2017-12-01

    Wave-driven sediment transport is of major importance in driving beach morphology. However, the complex mechanisms associated with unsteadiness, free-surface effects, and wave-breaking turbulence have not been fully understood. Particularly, most existing models for sediment transport adopt bottom boundary layer approximation that mimics the flow condition in oscillating water tunnel (U-tube). However, it is well-known that there are key differences in sediment transport when comparing to large wave flume datasets, although the number of wave flume experiments are relatively limited regardless of its importance. Thus, a numerical model which can resolve the entire water column from the bottom boundary layer to the free surface can be a powerful tool. This study reports an on-going effort to better understand and quantify sediment transport under shoaling and breaking surface waves through the creation of open-source numerical models in the OpenFOAM framework. An Eulerian two-phase flow model, SedFoam (Cheng et al., 2017, Coastal Eng.) is fully coupled with a volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam/waves2Foam (Jacobsen et al., 2011, Int. J. Num. Fluid). The fully coupled model, named SedWaveFoam, regards the air and water phases as two immiscible fluids with the interfaces evolution resolved, and the sediment particles as dispersed phase. We carried out model-data comparisons with the large wave flume sheet flow data for nonbreaking waves reported by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002, J. Geophysical Res.) and good agreements were obtained for sediment concentration and net transport rate. By further simulating a case without free-surface (mimic U-tube condition), the effects of free-surface, most notably the boundary layer streaming effect on total transport, can be quantified.

  4. HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE MUD SEDIMENT IN EKATERINBURG (RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Seleznev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Now the most part of the world’s population lives in cities, thus, it is relevant the search for universal, low-cost and express methods for environmental geochemical investigations of an urban environment. The objective of the study is the assessment of content and properties of surface mud sediment at the urban territory (on the example of Ekaterinburg, Russia. Methods of the study. The 30 samples of surface mud sediment, soils and ground were collected in the residential area of the city. Particle size composition, measurements of heavy metals content, correlation analysis was conducted for the samples. Results. Surface mud sediment at the residential territories can be classified as surface facie of the recent anthropogenic sediment. Samples of the environmental compartments were collected at the territories of six blocks of houses of various years of construction, located in various parts of the city and at the various geological units. Five samples were collected in each block: 3 samples within the block and 2 samples – outside. The content of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, and Mn was measured in particle size fractions of the samples. Particle size composition of the surface mud sediment in Ekaterinburg is similar to the particle size composition of the grounds formed on the sediments of Holocene age in Urals region. The positive statistically significant correlation was found between the couples of metals: Zn and Pb, Zn and Cu, Co and Ni. The distribution of concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu over particle size fractions of surface mud sediment is heterogeneous. Pollution of the ground and soil in urban areas is due to the transition of heavy metals with particles of dust and fine sand. Typical geochemical association of metals for particle size fraction of surface mud sediment 0.002–0.01 mm – Mn-Zn-Ni-Cu-Pb-Co, that is similar to the association for sediments of surface puddles in local zones of relief, soils and bottom

  5. Simulating Sediment Sorting of Streambed Surfaces - It's the Supply, Stupid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The grain size of the streambed surface is an integral part of the transport system because it represents the grains immediately available for transport. If the rate and size of grains entrained from the bed surface differ from that delivered to the bed surface, the bed surface grain size will change. Although this balance is intuitively clear, its implications can surprise. The relative mobility of different sizes in a mixture change as transport rates increase. At small transport rates, smaller sizes are more mobile. As transport rate increases, the transport grain size approaches that of the bed. This presents a dilemma when using flumes to simulate surface sorting and transport. When sediment is fed into a flume, the same sediment is typically used regardless of feed rate. The transport grain size remains constant at all rates, which does not match the pattern observed in the field. This operational constraint means that sediment supply is coarser than transport capacity in feed flumes, increasingly so as transport rates diminish. This imbalance drives a coarsening of the stream bed as less mobile coarse grains concentrate on the surface as the system approaches steady-state. If sediment is recirculated in a flume, sediment supply and entrainment are perfectly matched. Surface coarsening is not imposed, but does occur via kinematic sieving. The coarsening of the transport (and supply) accommodates the rate-dependent change in mobility such that the bed surface grain size does not change with transport rate. Streambed armoring depends on both the rate and grain size of sediment supply - their implications do not seem to be fully appreciated. A coarsened bed surface does not indicate sorting of the bed surface during waning flows - it can persist with active sediment supply and transport. Neither sediment feed nor sediment recirculating flumes accurately mimic natural conditions but instead represent end members that bracket the dynamics of natural streams

  6. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Surface rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirova, R; Marinova, K; Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Stoyanov, S; Pelan, E

    2011-10-18

    Extracts of the Quillaja saponaria tree contain natural surfactant molecules called saponins that very efficiently stabilize foams and emulsions. Therefore, such extracts are widely used in several technologies. In addition, saponins have demonstrated nontrivial bioactivity and are currently used as essential ingredients in vaccines, food supplements, and other health products. Previous preliminary studies showed that saponins have some peculiar surface properties, such as a very high surface modulus, that may have an important impact on the mechanisms of foam and emulsion stabilization. Here we present a detailed characterization of the main surface properties of highly purified aqueous extracts of Quillaja saponins. Surface tension isotherms showed that the purified Quillaja saponins behave as nonionic surfactants with a relatively high cmc (0.025 wt %). The saponin adsorption isotherm is described well by the Volmer equation, with an area per molecule of close to 1 nm(2). By comparing this area to the molecular dimensions, we deduce that the hydrophobic triterpenoid rings of the saponin molecules lie parallel to the air-water interface, with the hydrophilic glucoside tails protruding into the aqueous phase. Upon small deformation, the saponin adsorption layers exhibit a very high surface dilatational elasticity (280 ± 30 mN/m), a much lower shear elasticity (26 ± 15 mN/m), and a negligible true dilatational surface viscosity. The measured dilatational elasticity is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the Volmer adsorption model (260 mN/m). The measured characteristic adsorption time of the saponin molecules is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude longer than that predicted theoretically for diffusion-controlled adsorption, which means that the saponin adsorption is barrier-controlled around and above the cmc. The perturbed saponin layers relax toward equilibrium in a complex manner, with several relaxation times, the longest of them being around 3

  8. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

  9. Are atmospheric surface layer flows ergodic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chad W.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Froidevaux, Martin; Simeonov, Valentin; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-06-01

    The transposition of atmospheric turbulence statistics from the time domain, as conventionally sampled in field experiments, is explained by the so-called ergodic hypothesis. In micrometeorology, this hypothesis assumes that the time average of a measured flow variable represents an ensemble of independent realizations from similar meteorological states and boundary conditions. That is, the averaging duration must be sufficiently long to include a large number of independent realizations of the sampled flow variable so as to represent the ensemble. While the validity of the ergodic hypothesis for turbulence has been confirmed in laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations for idealized conditions, evidence for its validity in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL), especially for nonideal conditions, continues to defy experimental efforts. There is some urgency to make progress on this problem given the proliferation of tall tower scalar concentration networks aimed at constraining climate models yet are impacted by nonideal conditions at the land surface. Recent advancements in water vapor concentration lidar measurements that simultaneously sample spatial and temporal series in the ASL are used to investigate the validity of the ergodic hypothesis for the first time. It is shown that ergodicity is valid in a strict sense above uniform surfaces away from abrupt surface transitions. Surprisingly, ergodicity may be used to infer the ensemble concentration statistics of a composite grass-lake system using only water vapor concentration measurements collected above the sharp transition delineating the lake from the grass surface.

  10. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay...

  11. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2012-04-01

    In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to ∼3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect of

  12. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to {approx}3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect

  13. Natural radioactivity assessment of surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Bi, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    The activities of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K) of the surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary were determined and used to evaluate radiation hazards in the study area. The of activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K ranges from 14.1 to 62.3, 26.1 to 71.9, 13.7 to 52.3, and 392 to 898 Bq kg −1 , respectively, which were comparable to values of other regions in China. The activities of 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra were clearly different from the global recommended values. The radium equivalent activity was less than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg −1 ; therefore, the sediment in this area can be safely used for reclamation. The external hazard index values were less than one. The average absorbed gamma dose rate and annual effective dose equivalent values were slightly greater than the world average value. 226 Ra/ 238 U and 232 Th/ 238 U ratios could potentially be applied for tracing sediment source. - Highlights: • The natural radioactivity of surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary was observed. • The radiological hazards of the sediments are insignificant in this study area. • The ratios of natural radionuclides can potentially be applied for sediment source.

  14. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other \\'blue carbon\\' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  15. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other ‘blue carbon’ habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  16. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  17. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  18. Studies on sup(226) Ra and sup(210) Pb activities and the concentration factors of sup(226) Ra in the surface organic layers of the estuarine sediments of Mindola and Purna rivers in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joshi, L.U.; Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    ., to the sediment floor The activities of sup(226) Ra are found to vary from 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/g, while sup(210) Pb activities lie in the range of 3 to 8 pCi/g These activities find their way into the organisms present in sea water and then into fish which is finally...

  19. Conditions affecting the release of phosphorus from surface lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophoridis, Christophoros; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of pH and redox conditions, as well as the effect of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, on the release of ortho-phosphates in lake sediments taken from Lakes Koronia and Volvi (Northern Greece). Results were evaluated in combination with experiments to determine P fractionation in the sediment. The study revealed the major effect of redox potential and pH on the release of P from lake sediments. Both lakes showed increased release rates under reductive conditions and high pH values. The fractionation experiments revealed increased mobility of the reductive P fraction as well as of the NaOH-P fraction, indicating participation of both fractions in the overall release of sediment-bound P, depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. The results were assessed in combination with the release patterns of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, enabling the identification of more specific processes of P release for each lake. The basic release patterns included the redox induced reductive dissolution of P-bearing metal oxides and the competitive exchange of phosphate anions with OH- at high pH values. The formation of an oxidized surface microlayer under oxic conditions acted as a protective film, preventing further P release from the sediments of Lake Volvi, while sediments from Lake Koronia exhibited a continuous and increased tendency to release P under various physicochemical conditions, acting as a constant source of internal P loading.

  20. Pesticides distribution in surface waters and sediments of lotic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the availability and distribution of Lindane (HCHs) and Total organochlorine phosphate (TOCP) in the surface waters and sediments of selected water bodies in Agbede wetlands was carried out from December, 2012 to May, 2014 in order to cover seasonal trends in both matrixes. A Gas Chromatograph ...

  1. Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ziemann

    Full Text Available Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques.

  2. Patterns and drivers of bacterial α- and β-diversity across vertical profiles from surface to subsurface sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gian Marco; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Rastelli, Eugenio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the patterns and drivers of bacterial α- and β-diversity, along with viral and prokaryotic abundance and the carbon production rates, in marine surface and subsurface sediments (down to 1 m depth) in two habitats: vegetated sediments (seagrass meadow) and non-vegetated sediments. Prokaryotic abundance and production decreased with depth in the sediment, but cell-specific production rates and the virus-to-prokaryote ratio increased, highlighting unexpectedly high activity in the subsurface. The highest diversity was observed in vegetated sediments. Bacterial β-diversity between sediment horizons was high, and only a minor number of taxa was shared between surface and subsurface layers. Viruses significantly contributed to explain α- and β-diversity patterns. Despite potential limitations due to the only use of fingerprinting techniques, this study indicates that the coastal subsurface host highly active and diversified bacterial assemblages, that subsurface cells are more active than expected and that viruses promote β-diversity and stimulate bacterial metabolism in subsurface layers. The limited number of taxa shared between habitats, and between surface and subsurface sediment horizons, suggests that future investigations of the shallow subsurface will provide insights into the census of bacterial diversity, and the comprehension of the patterns and drivers of prokaryotic diversity in marine ecosystems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Exploring Scintillometry in the Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate observation methods of heat and momentum exchange and key variables that characterise turbulence in the atmospheric stable surface layer (SSL), a layer defined as the lower part of the stable boundary layer (SBL) where surface fluxes do not change

  4. Surface water, particulate matter, and sediments of inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde (BfG) since 1958 runs a system for monitoring the surface water and sediments of Federal German waterways in its capacity as a directing water monitoring centre. The data recorded over the years show that the radioactivity released by the various emission sources leads to radionuclide concentrations in water, particulate matter, or sediments that generally are below the detection limits defined in the relevant legal provisions governing monitoring and surveillance of nuclear facilities effluents. Representative examples of measuring methods and results (as for e.g. for H-3) are given. (DG) [de

  5. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  6. Aeolian sediment transport on a beach: Surface moisture, wind fetch, and mean transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B. O.; Davidson-Arnott, R. G. D.; Hesp, P. A.; Namikas, S. L.; Ollerhead, J.; Walker, I. J.

    2009-04-01

    speed, unsteadiness, approach angle, flow compression, boundary layer development). Moisture content is widely acknowledged as an important factor in controlling release of sediment from the beach surface. All other things being equal, the rate of sediment transport over a wet surface is lesser than over a dry surface. On this beach, the moisture effect has two important influences: (a) in a temporal sense, the rate of sediment transport typically decreases in association with rainfall and increases when surface drying takes place; and (b) in a spatio-temporal sense, shoreline excursions associated with nearshore processes (such as wave run-up, storm surge, and tidal excursions) have the effect of constraining the fetch geometry of the beach—i.e., narrowing the width of the beach. Because saturated sand surfaces, such as found in the swash zone, will only reluctantly yield sediments to aeolian entrainment, the available beach surface across which aeolian transport can occur becomes narrower as the sea progressively inundates the beach. Under these constrained conditions, the transport system begins to shut down unless wind angle becomes highly oblique (thereby increasing fetch distance). In this study, maximum sediment transport was usually measured on the mid-beach rather than the upper beach (i.e., closer to the foredunes). This unusual finding is likely because of internal boundary layer development across the beach, which yields a decrease in near-surface wind speed (and hence, transport capacity) in the landward direction. Although widely recognized in the fluid mechanics literature, this decrease in near-surface shear stress as a by-product of a developing boundary layer in the downwind direction has not been adequately investigated in the context of coastal aeolian geomorphology.

  7. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  8. The interaction of a vortex ring with a sloped sediment layer: Critical criteria for incipient grain motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, R. J.

    2012-02-01

    Experiments were performed to analyse the interaction between a vortex ring and a sloped sediment layer. Attention focussed on interactions under "critical" conditions, in which sediment motion was only just induced by the ring's flow field. Both hydraulically smooth and hydraulically rough bedforms were analysed, using near-spherical monodisperse sediments with relative densities of 1.2 and 2.5 and mean diameters (dp) ranging between 80 and 1087 μm. Measurements of the vortex-ring flow field were obtained, during the interaction, using two-dimensional particle imaging velocimetry. The threshold conditions for incipient sediment motion were analysed in terms of the critical Shields parameter (Nc), defined in terms of the peak tangential velocity measured adjacent to the bed surface. Bed-slope effects were investigated by tilting the sediment layer at various angles between the horizontal and the repose limit for the sediment. In all cases, the propagation axis of the vortex ring was aligned normal to the bed surface. The measured values of Nc were compared with a force-balance model based on the conditions for incipient grain motion on a sloping bed. For hydraulically smooth bedforms, where the bed roughness is small compared to the boundary-layer depth, the model was derived to account for how viscous stresses affect the drag and lift forces acting on the near surface sediment. For hydraulically rough bedforms, where this viscous-damping effect is not present, the model assumes the drag and lift forces scale with the square of the near-bed (inviscid) velocity scale. In both cases, the model predicts that bedforms become more mobile as the bed slope is increased. However, the damping effect of the viscous sublayer acts as a stabilizing influence for hydraulically smooth bedforms, to reduce the rate at which the bed mobility increases with bed slope. The measured values of Nc were in agreement with the trends predicted by this model, and exhibit a transition in

  9. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    hydrostatic equation: dP dz = −ρa g −→ ∫ ZI 0 ρa dz = − 1 g ∫ dP = + 1 g [P (0)− P (ZI)]. (6.14) The pressure at the surface is... surface pressure is estimated, we can compute a vertical pressure profile using the hydrostatic equation and a selected temperature profile based on dP... surface -layer atmosphere. By surface layer what is intended is a layer of foliage plus the surface itself. That is, a flat ground surface that

  10. Sedimentation and fouling of optical surfaces at the ANTARES site

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTARES Collaboration; CAU CEFREM Collaboration; Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beltramelli, J.; Benhammou, Y.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R. W.; Blondeau, F.; de Botton, N.; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C. B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; van Dantzig, R.; de Marzo, C.; Destelle, J.-J.; de Vita, R.; Dispau, G.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Ferdi, C.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gournay, J.-F.; Hallewell, G.; Heijboer, A.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Karolak, M.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Leilde, B.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G. J.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Romeyer, A.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G. V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Tilav, S.; Triay, R.; Usik, A.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Varlamov, I.; Vaudaine, G.; Vernin, P.; Vladimirsky, E.; Vorobiev, M.; de Witt Huberts, P.; de Wolf, E.; Zakharov, V.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zornoza, Juan de Dios; Zún~Iga, J.; Aloïsi, J.-C.; Kerhervé, Ph.; Monaco, A.

    2003-05-01

    ANTARES is a project leading towards the construction and deployment of a neutrino telescope in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will use an array of photomultiplier tubes to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by muons resulting from the interaction with matter of high energy neutrinos. In the vicinity of the deployment site the ANTARES Collaboration has performed a series of in situ measurements to study the change in light transmission through glass surfaces during immersions of several months. The average loss of light transmission is estimated to be only ~2% at the equator of a glass sphere one year after deployment. It decreases with increasing zenith angle, and tends to saturate with time. The transmission loss, therefore, is expected to remain small for the several year lifetime of the ANTARES detector whose optical modules are oriented downwards. The measurements were complemented by the analysis of the 210Pb activity profile in sediment cores and the study of biofouling on glass plates. Despite a significant sedimentation rate at the site, in the 0.02-0.05 cmyr-1 range, the sediments adhere loosely to the glass surfaces and can be washed off by water currents. Further, fouling by deposits of light-absorbing particulates is only significant for surfaces facing upwards.

  11. Surface sediment remobilization triggered by earthquakes in the Nankai forearc region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, N.; Ashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Irino, T.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Murayama, M.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine landslides triggered by earthquakes generate turbidity currents (e.g. Piper et al., 1988; 1999). Recently several studies report that the remobilization of the surface sediment triggered by earthquakes can also generate turbidity currents. However, studies that proposed such process are still limited (e.g. Ikehara et al., 2016; Mchugh et al., 2016; Moernaut et al., 2017). The purpose of this study is to examine those sedimentary processes in the Nankai forearc region, SW Japan using sedimentary records. We collected 46 cm-long multiple core (MC01) and a 6.7 m-long piston core (PC03) from the small basin during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-14-8 cruise. The small confined basin, which is our study site, block the paths of direct sediment supply from river-submarine canyon system. The sampling site is located at the ENE-WSW elongated basin between the accretionary prism and the forearc basin off Kumano without direct sediment supply from river-submarine canyon system. The basin exhibits a confined basin that captures almost of sediments supplied from outside. Core samples are mainly composed of silty clay or very fine sand. Cs-137 measurement conducted on a MC01 core shows constantly high value at the upper 17 cm section and no detection below it. Moreover, the sedimentary structure is similar to fine-grained turbidite described by Stow and Shanmgam (1980), we interpret the upper 17 cm of MC01 as muddy turbidite. Grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility also agree to this interpretation. Rapid sediment deposition after 1950 is assumed and the most likely event is the 2004 off Kii peninsula earthquakes (Mw=6.6-7.4). By calculation from extent of provenance area, which are estimated by paleocurrent analysis and bathymetric map, and thickness of turbidite layer we conclude that surface 1 cm of slope sediments may be remobilized by the 2004 earthquakes. Muddy turbidites are also identified in a PC03 core. The radiocarbon age gap of 170 years obtained

  12. Assessing the transport of PAH in the surficial sediment layer by passive sampler approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Criquet, Justine; Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    A new method based on passive samplers has been developed to assess the diffusive flux of fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene in the sediment bed and across the sediment-water interface. The dissolved compound concentration gradient in the sediment in the vertical direction was measured at the outlet of a storm water pond by using polyethylene strips as passive samplers. Simultaneously, the dissipation of a set of tracer compounds preloaded in the passive samplers was measured to estimate the effective diffusion coefficients of the pollutants in the sediment. Both measurements were used to evaluate the diffusive flux of the compounds according to Fick's first law. The diffusive fluxes of the 3 studied compounds have been estimated with a centimetre-scale resolution in the upper 44cm of the sediment. According to the higher compound diffusion coefficient and the steeper concentration gradient in the surficial sediment layer, the results show that the net flux of compounds near the sediment interface (1cm depth) is on average 500 times higher than in the deep sediment, with average fluxes at 1cm depth on the order of 5, 0.1 and 0.1ng/m 2 /y for fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Origin and migration of trace elements in the surface sediments of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Lisa; Omori, Takayuki; Yoneda, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Toru; Kobayashi, Ryuta; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2018-07-01

    The sediments of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, consist of bioclastic materials, including foraminifera and coral debris. The sedimentary depth profiles of elements showed that various elements including zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were enriched in the upper layers of the islands of Majuro Atoll. Carbon-14 dating revealed that the sedimentation of the upper layer was completed before 1670 and 542 cal BP in Laura and Calalen, respectively. The enriched elements could be categorized by their origins: (a) terrestrial elements transported as dust (aluminum (Al) and rare earth elements (REEs)); (b) anthropogenic elements (Zn and Cu); and (c) elements supplied by seabirds (phosphorus (P)). From the results of the total amount of Al supplied to sediments for ca. 2000 years, Al in Majuro Atoll was suggested to be airborne origin. The enrichment factors of the elements normalized to Al concentration of continental crust showed that REEs were also transported as dust, while Zn and Cu were mainly of anthropogenic origin. The speciation analysis by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) showed the presence of Zn-Cu alloys originated from industrial products. It was also revealed that Zn was enriched in the surface due to anthropogenic emission after urbanization on Majuro Atoll and fixed by carbonate and phosphate at the upper layer, which inhibits migration of Zn into the deeper layer and its release to the groundwater and costal water. Hence, the fixation of heavy metals at the surface prevents their exposure to aquatic organisms and residents via fresh groundwater in the island. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2012-03-07

    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  15. Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1978-01-01

    The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent...... numerical results from higher-order closure models, it is found that, even at a downwind distance such that the internal boundary layer has grown to the full height of the planetary boundary layers, the surface stress still considerably exceeds the equilibrium value...

  16. 210 Pb fluxes in sediment layers sampled from Northern Patagonia lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Sanchez, R.; Arribere, M.; Rizzo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Unsupported 210 Pb fluxes were determined from sediment core inventories in lakes located in Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Total 210 Pb, 226 Ra, associated with supported 210 Pb, and 137 Cs specific activity profiles were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Unsupported 210 Pb fluxes showed very low values when compared to other regions, with a 12 fold variation, ranging from 4 to 48 Bq m -2 x y -1 . The linear correlation observed between the 210 Pb fluxes and 137 Cs cumulative fluxes in sediment cores sampled from water bodies within a zone with similar precipitation demonstrated that both radioisotopes behave in the same manner in these systems concerning the processes occurred from fallout to sediment deposition, and that there are no appreciable local or regional sources of unsupported 210 Pb. Positive correlation of 210 Pb fluxes with organic matter contents of the uppermost sediment core layers was also observed. (author)

  17. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    the 0-4 cm surface layer are estimated to be less than 35% of the total inventory to depth in the sediment column.

  18. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  19. Geochemical fingerprints by activation analysis of tephra layers in Lake Van sediments, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landmann, Guenter [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Schnittspahnstr. 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H. [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kempe, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Schnittspahnstr. 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bichler, Max, E-mail: bichler@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-07-15

    We discuss geochemical and sedimentological characteristics of 12 tephra layers, intercalated within the finely laminated sediments of Lake Van. Within the about 15 kyr long sediment record studied, volcanic activity concentrated in the periods 2.6-7.2 and 11.9-12.9 kyr B.P. Concentrations of 25 elements provide the geochemical fingerprint of each tephra layer and allow comparison to literature values of potential source volcanoes such as Mts. Nemrut and Suephan. The youngest two tephra layers (and probably also the other three ashes from the 2.6-7.2 kyr B.P. eruptions) originate from the Nemrut volcano. The source of the older tephra (11.9-12.9 kyr B.P.), however, remains unidentified.

  20. Extractable organics in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.; Bhosle, N.B.; Kadam, A.N.

    Considerable variations in hydrocarbon and fatty acid levels in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour were observed Sediments from the westernside nearshore locations yielded higher values The residues were characterised by infrared...

  1. Great differences in the critical erosion threshold between surface and subsurface sediments: A field investigation of an intertidal mudflat, Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Benwei; Wang, Ya Ping; Wang, Li Hua; Li, Peng; Gao, Jianhua; Xing, Fei; Chen, Jing Dong

    2018-06-01

    Understanding of bottom sediment erodibility is necessary for the sustainable management and protection of coastlines, and is of great importance for numerical models of sediment dynamics and transport. To investigate the dependence of sediment erodibility on degree of consolidation, we measured turbidity, waves, tidal currents, intratidal bed-level changes, and sediment properties on an exposed macrotidal mudflat during a series of tidal cycles. We estimated the water content of surface sediments (in the uppermost 2 cm of sediment) and sub-surface sediments (at 2 cm below the sediment surface). Bed shear stress values due to currents (τc), waves (τw), and combined current-wave action (τcw) were calculated using a hydrodynamic model. In this study, we estimate the critical shear stress for erosion using two approaches and both of them give similar results. We found that the critical shear stress for erosion (τce) was 0.17-0.18 N/m2 in the uppermost 0-2 cm of sediment and 0.29 N/m2 in sub-surface sediment layers (depth, 2 cm), as determined by time series of τcw values and intratidal bed-level changes, and values of τce, obtained using the water content of bottom sediments, were 0.16 N/m2 in the uppermost 2 cm and 0.28 N/m2 in the sub-surface (depth, 2 cm) sediment. These results indicate that the value of τce for sub-surface sediments (depth, 2 cm) is much greater than that for the uppermost sediments (depth, 0-2 cm), and that the τce value is mainly related to the water content, which is determined by the extent of consolidation. Our results have implications for improving the predictive accuracy of models of sediment transport and morphological evolution, by introducing variable τce values for corresponding sediment layers, and can also provide a mechanistic understanding of bottom sediment erodibility at different sediment depths on intertidal mudflats, as related to differences in the consolidation time.

  2. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer scintillometer. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... of soil heat flux and net irradiance, evaporation rates were calculated as a residual of the ...

  3. 2nd international conference on ion beam surface layer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The papers of this conference are concerned with the fundamental aspects and with the application of surface layer analysis. It is reported amongst others about backscattering analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, channelling and microprobe. (HPOE) [de

  4. Sediment size of surface floodplain sediments along a large lowland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K. M.; Day, G.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    Data on size distribution of surface sediment across a floodplain should place important constraints of modeling of floodplain deposition. Diffusive or advective models would predict that, generally, grain size should decrease away from channel banks. Variations in grain size downstream along floodplains may depend on downstream fining of river bed material, exchange rate with river banks and net deposition onto the floodplain. Here we report detailed grain size analyses taken from 17 floodplain transects along 450 km (along channel distance) reach of the middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea. Field studies have documented a systematic change in floodplain characteristics downstream from forested, more topographically elevated and topography bounded by an actively shifting mainstem channel to a downstream swamp grass, low elevation topography along which the river meanders are currently stagnant. Frequency and duration of flooding increase downstream. Flooding occurs both by overbank flows and by injections of floodwaters up tributary and tie channels connected to the mainstem. Previous studies show that about 40% of the total discharge of water passes across the floodplain, and, correspondingly, about 40% of the total load is deposited on the plain - decreasing exponentially from channel bank. We find that floodplain sediment is most sandy at the channel bank. Grain size rapidly declines away from the bank, but surprisingly two trends were also observed. A relatively short distance from the bank the surface material is finest, but with further distance from the bank (out to greater than 1 km from the 250 m wide channel) clay content decreases and silt content increases. The changes are small but repeated at most of the transects. The second trend is that bank material fines downstream, corresponding to a downstream finding bed material, but once away from the bank, there is a weak tendency for a given distance away from the bank the floodplain surface deposits to

  5. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related...

  6. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related...

  7. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Gui-Lin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Hong [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Sheng-Chun [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming-Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 {mu}m) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obvious

  8. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin; Deng, Hong; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 μm) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: ► Obvious urbanization effect on metal

  9. Generation Mechanism of Work Hardened Surface Layer in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Kondo, Eiji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Arai, Minoru

    Finish machining used to be carried out in grinding, but it is being replaced by cutting with very small undeformed chip thickness. In ultra precision process, the effects of the cutting conditions and the complicated factors on the machined surface integrity are the serious problems. In this research, work hardened surface layer was dealt with as an evaluation of the machined surface integrity and the effect of the mechanical factors on work hardening was investigated experimentally in orthogonal cutting. As a result, it was found that work hardened surface layer was affected not only by the shear angle varied under the cutting conditions and the thrust force of cutting resistance, but also by the thrust force acting point, the coefficient of the thrust force and the compressive stress equivalent to the bulk hardness. Furthermore, these mechanical factors acting on the depth of the work hardened surface layer were investigated with the calculation model.

  10. Elimination device for decontaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct efficient decontamination injecting solid carbon dioxide particles at a high speed by using a simple and compact device. Constitution: Liquid carbon dioxide is injected from a first vessel containing liquid carbon dioxide by way of a carbon dioxide supply tube to a solid carbon dioxide particle jetting device. The liquid carbon dioxide is partially converted into fine solid carbon dioxide particles due to the temperature reduction caused by adiabatic expansion of the gaseous carbon dioxide in an expansion space for the gaseous carbon dioxide formed in the jetting device and arrives at a solid carbon dioxide injection nozzle in communication with the expansion space. Then, the fine solid carbon dioxide particles are further cooled and accelerated by the nitrogen gas jetted out from a nitrogen gas nozzle at the top of a nitrogen gas supply tube in communication with a second vessel containing liquid nitrogen disposed within the nozzle, and jetted out from the solid carbon dioxide injection nozzle to collide against the surface to be decontaminated and eliminate the surface contamination. (Seki, T.)

  11. A Layered Past: the Transformation and Development of Legacy Sediments as Alluvial Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, A.; Richter, D. D., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Legacy sediments are a widespread consequence of post-colonial upland erosion in the United States. Although these deposits are ubiquitous in valley bottoms of the southeastern Piedmont, mature hardwood forests and collapsed stream banks mask their occurrence. While these deposits have been studied for their fluvial dynamics and water quality impacts, they have received less attention in regards to soil structure and formation. In this study, we characterized legacy sediment mineraology, composition and structure to understand how pedogenic processes are overprinting sediment layering in a 40-hectare Piedmont floodplain. To constrain the timing of deposition, we used Pb-210 and C-14 dating on buried charcoal and tree stumps. Our results show that in 100 years of forest regeneration, vegetation and oscillating floodplain conditions have driven these eroded sediment deposits to evolve as soil profiles both in structure and composition. These textural and nutrient gradients have ramifications for the subsurface flow of nutrients through the floodplain. Given the estimated millennia it will take to erode legacy sediment from Piedmont floodplains, it is important to think of these deposits as new stable environments on their own trajectory of soil evolution.

  12. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ... in the nitrogen environment. Keywords. Surface reactivity ... sium (Na–K) compounds in the coating or core of the ..... Barkshire I R, Pruton M and Smith G C 1995 Appl. Sur.

  13. Apparatus for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g., forming a membrane layer on a substrate surface) comprises a plasma generation section which is operable at least at substantially atmospheric pressure and is in communication via at least one plasma inlet (e.g., a nozzle) with an enclosed

  14. Approaches to surface complexation modeling of Uranium(VI) adsorption on aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.A.; Meece, D.E.; Kohler, M.; Curtis, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium(VI) adsorption onto aquifer sediments was studied in batch experiments as a function of pH and U(VI) and dissolved carbonate concentrations in artificial groundwater solutions. The sediments were collected from an alluvial aquifer at a location upgradient of contamination from a former uranium mill operation at Naturita, Colorado (USA). The ranges of aqueous chemical conditions used in the U(VI) adsorption experiments (pH 6.9 to 7.9; U(VI) concentration 2.5 ?? 10-8 to 1 ?? 10-5 M; partial pressure of carbon dioxide gas 0.05 to 6.8%) were based on the spatial variation in chemical conditions observed in 1999-2000 in the Naturita alluvial aquifer. The major minerals in the sediments were quartz, feldspars, and calcite, with minor amounts of magnetite and clay minerals. Quartz grains commonly exhibited coatings that were greater than 10 nm in thickness and composed of an illite-smectite clay with occluded ferrihydrite and goethite nanoparticles. Chemical extractions of quartz grains removed from the sediments were used to estimate the masses of iron and aluminum present in the coatings. Various surface complexation modeling approaches were compared in terms of the ability to describe the U(VI) experimental data and the data requirements for model application to the sediments. Published models for U(VI) adsorption on reference minerals were applied to predict U(VI) adsorption based on assumptions about the sediment surface composition and physical properties (e.g., surface area and electrical double layer). Predictions from these models were highly variable, with results overpredicting or underpredicting the experimental data, depending on the assumptions used to apply the model. Although the models for reference minerals are supported by detailed experimental studies (and in ideal cases, surface spectroscopy), the results suggest that errors are caused in applying the models directly to the sediments by uncertain knowledge of: 1) the proportion and types of

  15. Can coarse surface layers in gravel-bedded rivers be mobilized by finer gravel bedload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Dietrich, W. E.; Nelson, P. A.; Wydzga, M. A.; Fadde, J.; Sklar, L.

    2005-12-01

    In response to reductions in sediment supply, gravel-bed rivers undergo a coarsening of the sediments that comprise the river's bed and, over some longer time scale, a river's grade may also be reduced as sediments are depleted from upstream reaches. Coarse, degraded river reaches are commonly observed downstream of dams across the Western United States. Following dam closure, these riverbeds become immobile under the altered flow and sediment supply regimes, leading to a reduction in the available salmon spawning and rearing habitat. Gravel augmentation to these streams is now common practice. This augmentation is typically seen as resurfacing the static coarse bed. As an alternative, we propose that the addition of appropriately finer gravels to these channels may be capable of mobilizing an otherwise immobile coarse surface layer, creating the potential to release fine material trapped beneath the surface. A series of laboratory experiments are being undertaken to test this hypothesis in a 30 m long and 0.86 m wide gravel-bedded flume channel using a constant discharge and a unimodal bed sediment with a median grain size of 8 mm and no sand present. The channel width-to-depth ratio of ~4 suppresses the development of lateral topography and allows us to focus on grain-to-grain interactions. Experiments proceed by maintaining a constant sediment feed until an equilibrium grade and transport rate are established, starving the flume of sediment for at least 24 hours, and then adding narrowly graded gravel over a period of one to two hours at a rate that is ~4x the bedload rate observed prior to terminating the sediment supply. The bed prior to sediment addition has an armor median grain size that is typically twice that of the subsurface and feed size distribution. The volume and median grain size of the resulting pulses are varied. Pulses move downstream rapidly with well-defined fronts in the form of bedload sheets and cause peaks in the sediment flux

  16. Connecting meteorology to surface transport in aeolian landscapes: Peering into the boundary layer with Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Edmonds, D. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Wanker, M.; David, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Aolian sand dunes grow to 100s or 1000s of meters in wavelength by sand saltation, which also produces dust plumes that feed cloud formation and may spread around the world. The relations among sediment transport, landscape dynamics and wind are typically observed at the limiting ends of the relevant range: highly resolved and localized ground observations of turbulence and relevant fluxes; or regional and synoptic-scale meteorology and satellite imagery. Between the geostrophic winds aloft and shearing stress on the Earth's surface is the boundary layer, whose stability and structure determines how momentum is transferred and ultimately entrains sediment. Although the literature on atmospheric boundary layer flows is mature, this understanding is rarely applied to aeolian landscape dynamics. Moreover, there are few vertically and time-resolved datasets of atmospheric boundary layer flows in desert sand seas, where buoyancy effects are most pronounced. Here we employ a ground-based upward-looking doppler lidar to examine atmospheric boundary layer flow at the upwind margin of the White Sands (New Mexico) dune field, providing continuous 3D wind velocity data from the surface to 300-m aloft over 70 days of the characteristically windy spring season. Data show highly resolved daily cyles of convective instabilty due to daytime heating and stable stratification due to nightime cooling which act to enhance or depress, respectively, the surface wind stresses for a given free-stream velocity. Our data implicate convective instability in driving strong saltation and dust emission, because enhanced mixing flattens the vertical velocity profile (raising surface wind speed) while upward advection helps to deliver dust to the high atmosphere. We also find evidence for Ekman spiralling, with a magnitude that depends on atmospheric stability. This spiralling gives rise to a deflection in the direction between geostrophic and surface winds, that is significant for the

  17. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  18. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rut’kov, E. V.; Lavrovskaya, N. P.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Gall, N. R.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  19. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rut’kov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lavrovskaya, N. P. [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (Russian Federation); Sheshenya, E. S., E-mail: sheshenayket@gmail.ru; Gall, N. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  20. Hydrography and bottom boundary layer dynamics: Influence on inner shelf sediment mobility, Long Bay, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Leonard, L.A.; Snedden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the hydrography and bottom boundary-layer dynamics of two typical storm events affecting coastal North Carolina (NC); a hurricane and the passages of two small consecutive extratropical storms during November 2005. Two upward-looking 1200-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) were deployed on the inner shelf in northern Long Bay, NC at water depths of less than 15 m. Both instruments profiled the overlying water column in 0.35 in bins beginning at a height of 1.35 in above the bottom (mab). Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and direction, wave and current parameters, and acoustic backscatter were coupled with output from a bottom boundary layer (bbl) model to describe the hydrography and boundary layer conditions during each event. The bbl model also was used to quantify sediment transport in the boundary layer during each storm. Both study sites exhibited similar temporal variations in wave and current magnitude, however, wave heights during the November event were higher than waves associated with the hurricane. Near-bottom mean and subtidal currents, however, were of greater magnitude during the hurricane. Peak depth-integrated suspended sediment transport during the November event exceeded transport associated with the hurricane by 25-70%. Substantial spatial variations in sediment transport existed throughout both events. During both events, along-shelf sediment transport exceeded across-shelf transport and was related to the magnitude and direction of subtidal currents. Given the variations in sediment type across the bay, complex shoreline configuration, and local bathymetry, the sediment transport rates reported here are very site specific. However, the general hydrography associated with the two storms is representative of conditions across northern Long Bay. Since the beaches in the study area undergo frequent renourishment to counter the effects of beach erosion, the results of this study also are relevant to coastal

  1. Geotechnical properties of surface sediments in the INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    As a part of the environmental impact assessment studies, geotechnical properties of sediments were determined in the Central Indian Basin. The undrained shear strength and index properties of the siliceous sediments were determined on 20 box cores...

  2. Effects of surface modification on the critical behaviour in multiple-surface-layer ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z X

    2013-01-01

    Using the usual mean-field theory approximation, the critical behaviour (i.e. the Curie temperature T c and the critical surface transverse field Ω sc ) in a multiple-surface-layer ferroelectric thin film is studied on the basis of the spin- 1/2 transverse Ising model. The dependence of the Curie temperature T c on the surface transverse field Ω s and the surface layer number N s are discussed in detail. Meanwhile the dependence of the critical surface transverse field Ω sc on the surface layer number N s is also examined. The numerical results indicate that the critical behaviour of ferroelectric thin films is obviously affected by modifications of the surface transverse field Ω s and surface layer number N s .

  3. Effect of Gas Velocity on the Dust Sediment Layer in the Coupled Field of Corona Plasma and Cyclone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Mingshan; Ma Chaochen; Li Minghua; Danish, S N

    2006-01-01

    A dust sediment layer was found on the outer tube wall when the ESCP (electrostatic centrifugal precipitator) trapped diesel particulates or ganister sand. The Compton back scatter method was used to measure the sediment thickness during the experiment. The effect of the inlet gas velocity on the dust sediment layer was investigated. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) was used to measure the velocity field between the inner barb tube wall and the outer tube wall. Experiments showed that the thickness of the sediment increased with time, and the sediment layer at the lower end was much thicker than that at the upper end. The agglomeration on the outer tube wall could be removed when the inlet gas velocity was increased to a certain value

  4. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface’s optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  5. Effect of high sedimentation rates on surface sediment dynamics and mangrove growth in the Porong River, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Neil, David; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-15

    Large quantities of mud from the LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo) volcano in northeastern Java have been channeled to the sea causing high rates of sediment delivery to the mouth of the Porong River, which has a cover of natural and planted mangroves. This study investigated how the high rates of sediment delivery affected vertical accretion, surface elevation change and the growth of Avicennia sp., the dominant mangrove species in the region. During our observations in 2010-2011 (4-5years after the initial volcanic eruption), very high rates of sedimentation in the forests at the mouth of the river gave rise to high vertical accretion of over 10cmy(-1). The high sedimentation rates not only resulted in reduced growth of Avicennia sp. mangrove trees at the two study sites at the Porong River mouth, but also gave rise to high soil surface elevation gains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interannual variability of surface and bottom sediment transport on the Laptev Sea shelf during summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wegner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sediment transport dynamics were studied during ice-free conditions under different atmospheric circulation regimes on the Laptev Sea shelf (Siberian Arctic. To study the interannual variability of suspended particulate matter (SPM dynamics and their coupling with the variability in surface river water distribution on the Laptev Sea shelf, detailed oceanographic, optical (turbidity and Ocean Color satellite data, and hydrochemical (nutrients, SPM, stable oxygen isotopes process studies were carried out continuously during the summers of 2007 and 2008. Thus, for the first time SPM and nutrient variations on the Laptev Sea shelf under different atmospheric forcing and the implications for the turbidity and transparency of the water column can be presented.

    The data indicate a clear link between different surface distributions of riverine waters and the SPM transport dynamics within the entire water column. The summer of 2007 was dominated by shoreward winds and an eastward transport of riverine surface waters. The surface SPM concentration on the southeastern inner shelf was elevated, which led to decreased transmissivity and increased light absorption. Surface SPM concentrations in the central and northern Laptev Sea were comparatively low. However, the SPM transport and concentration within the bottom nepheloid layer increased considerably on the entire eastern shelf. The summer of 2008 was dominated by offshore winds and northward transport of the river plume. The surface SPM transport was enhanced and extended onto the mid-shelf, whereas the bottom SPM transport and concentration was diminished. This study suggests that the SPM concentration and transport, in both the surface and bottom nepheloid layers, are associated with the distribution of riverine surface waters which are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns over the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean during the open water season. A continuing trend toward

  7. Sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical results from surface sediments and the sediment record from Site 2 of the ICDP drilling project at Lake Towuti, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasberg, A. K.; Melles, M.; Wennrich, V.; Vogel, H.; Just, J.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Morlock, M.; Opitz, S.

    2017-12-01

    More than 1000 m of sediment core were recovered in spring 2015 from three different drill sites in tropical Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E), Indonesia, during the Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Furthermore, a set of 84 lake surface sediment samples, distributed over the entire lake, was collected in order to better understand modern sedimentary processes. The surface samples were investigated for physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological properties at the University of Cologne (UoC), Germany. On the sediment cores macro- and microscopical lithological descriptions, line-scan imaging, logging of physical properties (MSCL), and subsampling was conducted at the National Lacustrine Core Facility of the University of Minnesota, USA, in November 2015 and January 2016. Afterwards, the archive core halves and 672 subsamples of TDP Site 2 were shipped to the UoC for X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning and sedimentological, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses, respectively, supplemented by visible to near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIR) at Brown University, USA. The data from the surface samples evidence that allochthonous sedimentation in Lake Towuti today is dominated by fluvial supply from five distinguishable source areas: (i) the Mahalona River to the north, which drains lakes Mahalona and Matano, (ii) inlets around the village of Timampu to the northwest, (iii) the Loeha River to the east, (iv) the Lengke River to the south, and (v) the Lemo-Lemo River to the northeast of Lake Towuti. Of these, source areas (ii) and (iii) as well as (iv) and (v) have similar geochemical compositions, respectively. In addition, the lake sedimentation is significantly influenced by gravitational sediment supply from steep slopes as well as lake-internal gravitational and density-driven processes. The uppermost 41 m of sediment core 2A consist of pelagic sediments (totaling 11 m) and event layers from mass movement

  8. Effect of sediment-water interface 'boundary layer' on exposure of nodules and their abundance: a study from seabed photos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    affects nodule abundance estimates based on photos. A model showing variable burial (or exposure) depending upon the thickness of the Sediment-Water Interface Boundary (SWIB) layer is presented. Standard relationships can be established between nodule...

  9. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko, E-mail: leena-sisko.johansson@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, PO Box 16100, FI‐00076 AALTO (Finland); Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland)

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  10. Surface influence upon vertical profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1983-05-01

    Near-surface wind profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer, depth h, above relatively flat, tree-covered terrain are described in the context of the analysis of Garratt (1980) for the unstable atmospheric boundary layer. The observations at two sites imply a surface-based transition layer, of depth z *, within which the observed non-dimensional profiles Φ M 0 are a modified form of the inertial sub-layer relation Φ _M ( {{z L}} = ( {{{1 + 5_Z } L}} ) according to Φ _M^{{0}} ˜eq ( {{{1 + 5z} L}} )exp [ { - 0.7( {{{1 - z} z}_ * } )] , where z is height above the zero-plane displacement and L is the Monin-Obukhov length. At both sites the depth z * is significantly smaller than the appropriate neutral value ( z * N ) found from the previous analysis, as might be expected in the presence of a buoyant sink for turbulent kinetic energy.

  11. [Surface Property and Sorption Characteristics of Phosphorus onto Surface Sediments in Sanggou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-mei; Cao, Xiao-yan; Liu, Su-mei; Wang, Li-sha; Yang, Gui-peng; Ge, Cheng-feng; Lu, Min

    2016-02-15

    Kinetic curves and isotherms were investigated to study the sorption mechanism of phosphorus onto the sediments of Sanggou Bay, together with the surface charge properties of sediments and the forms of phosphorus studied. The results showed that the sorption including a fast process and a slow one, and could be described by a two-compartment first order equation. The thermodynamic isotherms were well fitted with a modified Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity was larger in summer than in spring, and the smaller particle size was favorable to the sorption. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) were 0.0471-0.1230 mg x g(-1), and the zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0) of the sediments ranged from 0.0596 mg x L(-1) to 0.1927 mg x L(-1), which indicated that the sediments from Sanggou Bay were sources of phosphorus. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) was the main form of total phosphorus (TP). The contents of exchangeable or loosely absorbed P and Fe-bound P increased significantly in the samples after sorption. The sorption process involved physical sorption and chemical sorption, with the former being the predominant.

  12. Quantitative radiolarian assemblages in surface sediments from the central Indian Basin and their paleomonsoonal significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.

    The percentage data of 47 radiolarian coarser taxonomic groups in the surface sediments from the central Indian Basin was subjected to cluster and factor analyses. The R-mode cluster analysis resulted in 3 dominant clusters which represent surface...

  13. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  14. Elastic layer under axisymmetric indentation and surface energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarit, Pong-in; Senjuntichai, Teerapong; Rungamornrat, Jaroon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuum-based approach is adopted to investigate the contact problem of an elastic layer with finite thickness and rigid base subjected to axisymmetric indentation with the consideration of surface energy effects. A complete Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is employed to consider the influence of surface stresses. The indentation problem of a rigid frictionless punch with arbitrary axisymmetric profiles is formulated by employing the displacement Green's functions, derived with the aid of Hankel integral transform technique. The problem is solved by assuming the contact pressure distribution in terms of a linear combination of admissible functions and undetermined coefficients. Those coefficients are then obtained by employing a collocation technique and an efficient numerical quadrature scheme. The accuracy of proposed solution technique is verified by comparing with existing solutions for rigid indentation on an elastic half-space. Selected numerical results for the indenters with flat-ended cylindrical and paraboloidal punch profiles are presented to portray the influence of surface energy effects on elastic fields of the finite layer. It is found that the presence of surface stresses renders the layer stiffer, and the size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is observed in the present solutions. In addition, the surface energy effects become more pronounced with smaller contact area; thus, the influence of surface energy cannot be ignored in the analysis of indentation problem especially when the indenter size is very small such as in the case of nanoindentation.

  15. Reconciling surface ocean productivity, export fluxes and sediment composition in a global biogeochemical ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gehlen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on an improved representation of the biological soft tissue pump in the global three-dimensional biogeochemical ocean model PISCES. We compare three parameterizations of particle dynamics: (1 the model standard version including two particle size classes, aggregation-disaggregation and prescribed sinking speed; (2 an aggregation-disaggregation model with a particle size spectrum and prognostic sinking speed; (3 a mineral ballast parameterization with no size classes, but prognostic sinking speed. In addition, the model includes a description of surface sediments and organic carbon early diagenesis. Model output is compared to data or data based estimates of ocean productivity, pe-ratios, particle fluxes, surface sediment bulk composition and benthic O2 fluxes. Model results suggest that different processes control POC fluxes at different depths. In the wind mixed layer turbulent particle coagulation appears as key process in controlling pe-ratios. Parameterization (2 yields simulated pe-ratios that compare well to observations. Below the wind mixed layer, POC fluxes are most sensitive to the intensity of zooplankton flux feeding, indicating the importance of zooplankton community composition. All model parameters being kept constant, the capability of the model to reproduce yearly mean POC fluxes below 2000 m and benthic oxygen demand does at first order not dependent on the resolution of the particle size spectrum. Aggregate formation appears essential to initiate an intense biological pump. At great depth the reported close to constant particle fluxes are most likely the result of the combined effect of aggregate formation and mineral ballasting.

  16. RANS-based simulation of turbulent wave boundary layer and sheet-flow sediment transport processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Schløer, Signe; Sterner, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model coupling the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equationswith two-equation k−ω turbulence closure is presented and used to simulate a variety of turbulent wave boundary layer processes. The hydrodynamic model is additionally coupled...... with bed and suspended load descriptions, the latter based on an unsteady turbulent-diffusion equation, for simulation of sheet-flow sediment transport processes. In addition to standard features common within such RANS-based approaches, the present model includes: (1) hindered settling velocities at high...

  17. Whirlwinds and hairpins in the atmospheric surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oncley, Steven P.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Tong, Chenning

    2016-01-01

    Vortices in the atmospheric surface layer are characterized using observations at unprecedented resolution from a fixed array of 31 turbulence sensors. During the day, these vortices likely are dust devils, though no visual observations are available for confirmation. At night, hairpin vortices

  18. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins,

  19. Quantized layer growth at liquid-crystal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocko, B. M.; Braslau, A.; Pershan, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    of the specular reflectivity is consistent with a sinusoidal density modulation, starting at the surface and terminating abruptly, after an integral number of bilayers. As the transition is approached the number of layers increases in quantized steps from zero to five before the bulk undergoes a first...

  20. Wave-Breaking Turbulence in the Ocean Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2004) used direct numerical simulation ( DNS ) to show that a single breaking wave can energize the surface layer for more than 50 wave periods, and...1941: Dissipation of energy in the locally isotropic turbulence. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSR, 30, 301–305. Kukulka, T., and K. Brunner, 2015: Passive

  1. Method for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g. forming a membrane layer on a substrate) which comprises a plasma generation section (2) which is in communication via at least one plasma inlet means (4) (e.g. a nozzle) with an enclosed plasma treating section (3)

  2. DESIGN AND CALCULATION OF AERODROMECOAING WITH HEATED SURFACE LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Piskunov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The developed constructions with heated by surface layers for aerodromes and auto roads when developed composition of electroconductive concrete reinforced with chemical electrical conductive fibres being used was researched. The experimentally obtained characteristics of ended conductive concrete reinforced with fibers were presented. Calculation by developed heated construction of shell was made.

  3. Distribution of 137Cs in surface seawater and sediment around Sabahs Sulu-Sulawesi Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Izwan Abdul Aziz; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Yii, Mei Wo; Nurrul Assyikeen Jaffary; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The studies on distribution of 137 Cs in surface seawater and sediment around Sabahs Sulu-Sulawesi Sea were carried out during Ekspedisi Pelayaran Saintifik Perdana (EPSP) in July 2009. About sixteen and twenty five sampling locations were identified for surface seawater and sediment respectively in Sabahs Sulu-Sulawesi Sea. Large volumes of seawater samples are collected and co-precipitation technique was employed to concentrate cesium content before known amounts of 134 Cs tracer were added as yield determinant. Grab sampler were used to collect surface sediment sample. The caesium precipitate and sediment were dried and finely ground before counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661 keV. The activity of 137 Cs was found in surface seawater and sediment to be in the range 1.73 Bq/ m 3 to 5.50 Bq/ m 3 and 1.15 Bq/ kg to 4.53 Bq/ kg respectively. (author)

  4. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: zhuhl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  5. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z.; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD Mn in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community

  6. Surface sediment quality relative to port activities: A contaminant-spectrum assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; Hong, Bing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yongshan; Xi, Xiuping; Gao, Jingbo; Hu, Xiuqin; Xu, Xiangrong; Sun, Yuxin

    2017-10-15

    Ports are facing increasing environmental concerns with their importance to the global economy. Numerous studies indicated sediment quality deterioration in ports; however, the deterioration is not discriminated for each port activity. This study investigated a spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) in surface sediments at 20 sampling points in Port Ningbo, China, one of the top five world ports by volume. The spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) was quantified following marine sediment quality guidelines of China and USA and surface sediment quality was assessed according to thresholds of the two guidelines. Coupling a categorical matrix of port activities with the matrix of sedimentary contaminants revealed that contaminants were highly associated with the port operations. Ship repair posed a severe chemical risk to sediment. Operations of crude oil and coal loadings were two top activities related to organic pollutants in sediments while port operations of ore and container loadings discharged metals. Among the 20 sampling points, Cu, Zn, Pb, and DDT and its metabolites were the priority contaminants influencing sediment quality. Overall, surface sediments in Port Ningbo had relatively low environmental risks but ship repair is an environmental concern that must be addressed. This study provides a practical approach for port activity-related quality assessment of surface sediments in ports that could be applicable in many world sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. THz detectors using surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    We describe a proposal for THz detectors based on the excitation of surface waves, in layered superconductors, at frequencies lower than the Josephson plasma frequency ω J . These waves propagate along the vacuum-superconductor interface and are attenuated in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). The surface Josephson plasma waves are also important for the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood's anomalies, used for gratings) and produce a huge enhancement of the wave absorption, which can be used for the detection of THz waves

  10. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Rao, R.R.; Neetu, S.; Hegde, A.

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable...

  11. Lead-210 analyses of sediment accumulation rates in five Southern Illinois surface mine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugam, R.B.; Carlson, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    210 Pb is a naturally occurring radionuclide with a short half-life (22 yrs) which can be used to determine sedimentation rates in lakes. The technique was applied in 5 Southern Illinois surface mine lakes where it revealed past sedimentation rates to have been extremely variable. In some of the lakes there was evidence for extensive slumping immediately after mining ceased followed by a more regular sedimentary regime that continued until the present. In others there have been one or more changes in sediment accumulation rates since lacustrine sedimentation began. These results suggest that simply measuring the amount of sediment that has accumulated in a surface mine lake since mining ceased is inadequate to determine filling rates. Sedimentation rates in the 5 lakes varied from .60 +- .19 to 1.46 +- .19 cm/y. These rates are similar to natural lakes with moderately disturbed watersheds

  12. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  13. Tuning plasmons layer-by-layer for quantitative colloidal sensing with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William J; Nowinska, Kamila; Hutter, Tanya; Mahajan, Sumeet; Fischlechner, Martin

    2018-04-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is well known for its high sensitivity that emerges due to the plasmonic enhancement of electric fields typically on gold and silver nanostructures. However, difficulties associated with the preparation of nanostructured substrates with uniform and reproducible features limit reliability and quantitation using SERS measurements. In this work we use layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly to incorporate multiple functional building blocks of collaborative assemblies of nanoparticles on colloidal spheres to fabricate SERS sensors. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are packaged in discrete layers, effectively 'freezing nano-gaps', on spherical colloidal cores to achieve multifunctionality and reproducible sensing. Coupling between layers tunes the plasmon resonance for optimum SERS signal generation to achieve a 10 nM limit of detection. Significantly, using the layer-by-layer construction, SERS-active AuNP layers are spaced out and thus optically isolated. This uniquely allows the creation of an internal standard within each colloidal sensor to enable highly reproducible self-calibrated sensing. By using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as the internal standard adenine concentrations are quantified to an accuracy of 92.6-99.5%. Our versatile approach paves the way for rationally designed yet quantitative colloidal SERS sensors and their use in a variety of sensing applications.

  14. Amorphous surface layers in Ti-implanted Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Picraux, S.T.

    1979-01-01

    Implanting Ti into high-purity Fe results in an amorphous surface layer which is composed of not only Fe and Ti, but also C. Implantations were carried out at room temperature over the energy range 90 to 190 keV and fluence range 1 to 2 x 10 16 at/cm 2 . The Ti-implanted Fe system has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ion backscattering and channeling analysis, and (d,p) nuclear reaction analysis. The amorphous layer was observed to form at the surface and grow inward with increasing Ti fluence. For an implant of 1 x 10 17 Ti/cm 2 at 180 keV the layer thickness was 150 A, while the measured range of the implanted Ti was approx. 550 A. This difference is due to the incorporation of C into the amorphous alloy by C being deposited on the surface during implantation and subsequently diffusing into the solid. Our results indicate that C is an essential constituent of the amorphous phase for Ti concentrations less than or equal to 10 at. %. For the 1 x 10 17 Ti/cm 2 implant, the concentration of C in the amorphous phase was approx. 25 at. %, while that of Ti was only approx. 3 at. %. A higher fluence implant of 2 x 10 17 Ti/cm 2 produced an amorphous layer with a lower C concentration of approx. 10 at. % and a Ti concentration of approx. 20 at. %

  15. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. A scanning fluid dynamic gauging technique for probing surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Patrick W; Chew, Y M John; Wilson, D Ian; Brooker, Anju D M; York, David W

    2010-01-01

    Fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) is a technique for measuring the thickness of soft solid deposit layers immersed in a liquid environment, in situ and in real time. This paper details the performance of a novel automated, scanning FDG probe (sFDG) which allows the thickness of a sample layer to be monitored at several points during an experiment, with a resolution of ±5 µm. Its application is demonstrated using layers of gelatine, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and baked tomato purée deposits. Swelling kinetics, as well as deformation behaviour—based on knowledge of the stresses imposed on the surface by the gauging flow—can be determined at several points, affording improved experimental data. The use of FDG as a surface scanning technique, operating as a fluid mechanical analogue of atomic force microscopy on a millimetre length scale, is also demonstrated. The measurement relies only on the flow behaviour, and is thus suitable for use in opaque fluids, does not contact the surface itself and does not rely on any specific physical properties of the surface, provided it is locally stiff

  17. Neutron activation analysis to the profile surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Gelen, A.; Lopez, N.; Gonzalez, H.; Manso, M.V.; Graciano, A.M.; Nogueira, C.A.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was employed to analyze the surface sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, Cuba. Measurements of heavy and trace elements in the sediments are reported. The results show that the concentration of the elements is site dependent. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred

  18. Microplastics Baseline Surveys at the Water Surface and in Sediments of the North-East Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Thomas; van der Meulen, Myra; Devriese, Lisa; Leslie, H.A.; Huvet, Arnaud; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic contamination was determined in sediments of the Southern North Sea and floating at the sea surface of NorthWest Europe. Floating concentrations ranged between 0 and 1.5 microplastic/m3, whereas microplastic concentrations in sediments ranged between 0 and 3,146 particles/kg dry weight

  19. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS: A COMPARISON OF TWO ESTUARINE CONTINUUMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial diversity in estuarine sediments of the Altamaha and Savannah Rivers in Georgia were compared temporally and spatially using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Surface sediment samples collected along a salinity gradient were also analyzed for ATP, TOC, and C ...

  20. Boundary layer for non-newtonian fluids on curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, N.

    1981-04-01

    By using the basic equation of fluid motion (conservation of mass and momentum) the boundary layer parameters for a Non-Newtonian, incompressible and laminar fluid flow, has been evaluated. As a test, the flat plate boundary layer is first analized and afterwards, a case with pressure gradient, allowing separation, is studied. In the case of curved surfaces, the problem is first developed in general and afterwards particularized to a circular cylinder. Finally suction and slip in the flow interface are examined. The power law model is used to represent the stress strain relationship in Non-Newtonian flow. By varying the fluid exponent one can then, have an idea of how the Non-Newtonian behavior of the flow influences the parameters of the boundary layer. Two equations, in an appropriate coordinate system have been obtained after an order of magnitude analysis of the terms in the equations of motion is performed. (Author) [pt

  1. Mechanism of protective action of surface carbide layers on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukalovskaya, T.V.; Chebotareva, N.P.; Tomashov, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    The protective action of surface carbide layer on titanium produced in methane atmosphere at 1000 deg C and under 6.7 kPa pressure in H 2 SO 4 solutions is studied through comparison of microsection metallographic specimens prior to and after corrosion testing (after specimen activation); through comparison of anodic characteristics after partial stripping of the layer up to its complete stripping; through analysis of the behaviour of Ti-TiC galvanic couple, and through investigation of corresponding corrosion diagrams under test conditions. It is shown that screening protective mechanism is primarily got involved in highly agressive media (high temperature and concentration of solution), and in less agressive environment the protection of titanium with carbide layer is primarily ensured by electrochemical mechanism

  2. Electrografted diazonium salt layers for antifouling on the surface of surface plasmon resonance biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qiongjing; Kegel, Laurel L; Booksh, Karl S

    2015-02-17

    Electrografted diazonium salt layers on the surface of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors present potential for a significant improvement in antifouling coatings. A pulsed potential deposition profile was used in order to circumvent mass-transport limitations for layer deposition rate. The influence of number of pulses with respect to antifouling efficacy was evaluated by nonspecific adsorption surface coverage of crude bovine serum proteins. Instead of using empirical and rough estimated values, the penetration depth and sensitivity of the SPR instrument were experimentally determined for the calculation of nonspecific adsorption surface coverage. This provides a method to better examine antifouling surface coatings and compare crossing different coatings and experimental systems. Direct comparison of antifouling performance of different diazonium salts was facilitated by a tripad SPR sensor design. The electrografted 4-phenylalanine diazonium chloride (4-APhe) layers with zwitterionic characteristic demonstrate ultralow fouling.

  3. Modern processes of sediment formation in Lake Towuti, Indonesia, as derived from the composition of lake surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasberg, Ascelina; Melles, Martin; Morlock, Marina; Vogel, Hendrik; Russel, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria

    2016-04-01

    In summer 2015, a drilling operation funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) was conducted at Lake Towuti (2.75°S, 121.5°E), the largest tectonically formed lake (surface area: 561 km²) of the Republic Indonesia. The Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) recovered more than 1000 meters of sediment core from three sites. At all three sites replicate cores down to 133, 154, and 174 m below lake floor have penetrated the entire lake sediment record, which is expected to comprise the past ca. 650.000 years continuously. Lake Towutís sediment record thus can provide unique information for instance concerning the climatic and environmental history in the Indo-Pacific-Warm-Pool (IPWP) and concerning the evolutionary biology in SE Asia. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analyzed on the drill cores, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and in its catchment - under known environmental conditions - were investigated on a set of 84 lake sediment surface samples. Sampling was conducted by grab sampler (UWITEC Corp., Austria) in a grid of 1 to 4 km resolution that covers the entire lake. The samples were analyzed for inorganic geochemical composition (XRF powder scans and ICP-MS), magnetic susceptibility (Kappabridge), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), biogenic components (smear-slide analyses), biogenic silica contents (leaching), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN), and sulfur (TS) concentrations (elemental analyzer). The sediments close to the lake shores and in front of the major river inlets are characterized by mean grain sizes coarser than average and high magnetic susceptibilities presented by high ratios of Cr, Ni, Co, and Zr. This reflects higher energies due to wave action and fluvial sediment supply, as well as the occurrence of magnetic minerals particularly in the sand and gravel fractions of the sediments. In regions of deeper waters and more distal to

  4. A numerical investigation of fine sediment resuspension in the wave boundary layer - effect of hindered settling and bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T. J.; Cheng, Z.; Yu, X.

    2016-02-01

    The wave bottom boundary layer is a major conduit delivering fine terrestrial sediments to the continental margin. Hence, studying the fine sediment resuspension in the wave boundary layer is crucial to the understanding of various components of the earth system, such as carbon cycle. By assuming the settling velocity to be a constant in each simulation, previous turbulence-resolving numerical simulations reveal the existence of three transport modes in the wave boundary layer associated with the sediment availability. As the sediment availability and hence the sediment-induced stable stratification increase, a sequence of transport modes, namely, (I) well-mixed transport, (II) formulation of lutocline resembling a two-layer system, and (III) completely laminarized transport are observed. In general, the settling velocity is a flow variable due to the floc dynamics and hindered settling. This study further investigate the effect of hindered settling. Particularly, for flocs with lower gelling concentrations, the hindered settling effect can play a key role in sustaining large amount of suspended sediment load and results in the laminarized transport (III). For the simulation with a very significant hindered settling effect due to a low gelling concentration, results also indicate the occurrence of gelling ignition, a state in which the erosion rate is always higher than the deposition rate. A condition for the occurrence of gelling ignition is proposed for a range of wave intensities as a function of sediment/floc properties and erodibility parameters. These aforementioned studies are limited to fine sediment transport over a flat bed. However, recent field and laboratory observation show that a small amount of sand fraction can lead to the formation of small bedforms, which can armor the bed while in the meantime enhance near bed turbulence. Preliminary investigation on the effect of bedforms on the resulting transport modes will also be presented.

  5. The appearance of liquid surfaces and layers in routine radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, A.E.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg

    1986-01-01

    As has been demonstrated, the interfaces between a gas and a body fluid or a contrast medium may be visualized in the radiographic image as various kinds of boundaries, as also may interfaces between a contrast medium and a body fluid. These can provide little diagnostic information. Data of clinical value are usually derived from boundaries that represent bounding surfaces of anatomic structures touched by the roentgen rays. In the interpretation of the radiographic image it is important to recognize whether a boundary represents an anatomic structure, a liquid surface or a diffusion layer. It is a traditional view that a liquid surface is visualized by a horizontal beam as a straight horizontal boundary and that the imaged surface is then also horizontal. As has been shown in the earlier investigations and the present one, this is not always the case, for these boundaries are usually curved with an upward concavity. It is important to bear in mind that also rays departing considerably from the horizontal may still touch the liquid surface in its meniscoid. Even a vertical beam will form a boundary when touching a meniscoid. It would also appear that the simple layering phenomenon can present difficulty in interpretation. Examples of this phenomenon that illustrate particularly important situations have been presented. Ambiguity associated with the interpretation of images produced by a vertical beam may be resolved with the aid of supplementary films exposed with a horizontal beam. (orig.)

  6. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  7. Sliding behavior of oil droplets on nanosphere stacking layers with different surface textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te; Wu, Fang-Lin; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Two facile coating techniques, gravitational sediment and spin coating, were applied for the creation of silica sphere stacking layers with different textures onto glass substrates that display various sliding abilities toward liquid drops with different surface tensions, ranged from 25.6 to 72.3 mN/m. The resulting silica surface exhibits oil repellency, long-period durability > 30 days, and oil sliding capability. The two-tier texture offers a better roll-off ability toward liquid drops with a wide range of γ L , ranged from 30.2 to 72.3 mN/m, i.e., when the sliding angle (SA) ad ) appears to describe the sliding behavior within the W ad region: 2.20-3.03 mN/m. The smaller W ad , the easier drop sliding (i.e., the smaller SA value) takes place on the surfaces. The W ad value ∼3.03 mN/m shows a critical kinetic barrier for drop sliding on the silica surfaces from stationary to movement states. This work proposes a mathematical model to simulate the sliding behavior of oil drops on a nanosphere stacking layer, confirming the anti-oil contamination capability.

  8. Modern sedimentation patterns in Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia, derived from surface sediment and inlet streams samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wennrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake El'gygytgyn/NE Russia holds a continuous 3.58 Ma sediment record, which is regarded as the most long-lasting climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. Based on multi-proxy geochemical, mineralogical, and granulometric analyses of surface sediment, inlet stream and bedrock samples, supplemented by statistical methods, major processes influencing the modern sedimentation in the lake were investigated. Grain-size parameters and chemical elements linked to the input of feldspars from acidic bedrock indicate a wind-induced two-cell current system as major driver of sediment transport and accumulation processes in Lake El'gygytgyn. The distribution of mafic rock related elements in the sediment on the lake floor can be traced back to the input of weathering products of basaltic rocks in the catchment. Obvious similarities in the spatial variability of manganese and heavy metals indicate sorption or co-precipitation of these elements with Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides. But the similar distribution of organic matter and clay contents might also point to a fixation to organic components and clay minerals. An enrichment of mercury in the inlet streams might be indicative of neotectonic activity around the lake. The results of this study add to the fundamental knowledge of the modern lake processes of Lake El'gygytgyn and its lake-catchment interactions, and thus, yield crucial insights for the interpretation of paleo-data from this unique archive.

  9. The vertical distribution of prokaryotes in the surface sediment of Jiaolong cold seep at the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuzhi; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Wang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    In deep-sea cold seeps, microbial communities are shaped by geochemical components in seepage solutions. In the present study, we report the composition of microbial communities and potential metabolic activities in the surface sediment of Jiaolong cold seep at the northern South China Sea. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that a majority of the microbial inhabitants of the surface layers (0-6 cm) were sulfur oxidizer bacteria Sulfurimonas and archaeal methane consumer ANME-1, while sulfate reducer bacteria SEEP-SRB1, ANME-1 and ANME-2 dominated the bottom layers (8-14 cm). The potential ecological roles of the microorganisms were further supported by the presence of functional genes for methane oxidation, sulfur oxidation, sulfur reduction and nitrate reduction in the metagenomes. Metagenomic analysis revealed a significant correlation between coverage of 16S rRNA gene of sulfur oxidizer bacteria, functional genes involved in sulfur oxidation and nitrate reduction in different layers, indicating that sulfur oxidizing may be coupled to nitrate reducing at the surface layers of Jiaolong seeping site. This is probably related to the sulfur oxidizers of Sulfurimonas and Sulfurovum, which may be the capacity of nitrate reduction or associated with unidentified syntrophic nitrate-reducing microbes in the surface of the cold seep.

  10. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: their relations to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-04-15

    This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual ellipsometry on layered micro-facet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi; Wilkie, Alexander; Harcuba, Petr; Novosad, Lukas

    2017-09-18

    Microfacet-based BRDF models are a common tool to describe light scattering from glossy surfaces. Apart from their wide-ranging applications in optics, such models also play a significant role in computer graphics for photorealistic rendering purposes. In this paper, we mainly investigate the computer graphics aspect of this technology, and present a polarisation-aware brute force simulation of light interaction with both single and multiple layered micro-facet surfaces. Such surface models are commonly used in computer graphics, but the resulting BRDF is ultimately often only approximated. Recently, there has been work to try to make these approximations more accurate, and to better understand the behaviour of existing analytical models. However, these brute force verification attempts still emitted the polarisation state of light and, as we found out, this renders them prone to mis-estimating the shape of the resulting BRDF lobe for some particular material types, such as smooth layered dielectric surfaces. For these materials, non-polarising computations can mis-estimate some areas of the resulting BRDF shape by up to 23%. But we also identified some other material types, such as dielectric layers over rough conductors, for which the difference turned out to be almost negligible. The main contribution of our work is to clearly demonstrate that the effect of polarisation is important for accurate simulation of certain material types, and that there are also other common materials for which it can apparently be ignored. As this required a BRDF simulator that we could rely on, a secondary contribution is that we went to considerable lengths to validate our software. We compare it against a state-of-art model from graphics, a library from optics, and also against ellipsometric measurements of real surface samples.

  12. Environmental and geochemical assessment of surface sediments on irshansk ilmenite deposit area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is revealed the problem of pollution of surface sediments of Irshansk ilmenite deposit area of various chemical elements hazard class (Mn, V, Ba, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn. It is determined its average content in surface sediments of various functional areas (forest and agricultural land, flood deposits, reclaimed land, calculated geochemical criteria, so given ecological and geochemical assessment of area

  13. Total mercury concentrations in surface water and sediments from Danube Delta lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOROF Liliana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The samples were collected from surface water and sediments of Danube Delta lakes, during april and may 2006. The sediments were digested with nitric acid, and the surface water with real aqua, at Microwave Oven Anton Paar and analised at FIMS 400 Perkin Elmer. The results show that the total mercury is compared with the maximum allowed limits according with Normative 161/2006.

  14. CO2 leakage from carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) systems affects organic matter cycling in surface marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Greco, Silvestro; Lo Martire, Marco; Carugati, Laura; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), involving the injection of CO 2 into the sub-seabed, is being promoted worldwide as a feasible option for reducing the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, the effects on the marine ecosystems of potential CO 2 leakages originating from these storage sites have only recently received scientific attention, and little information is available on the possible impacts of the resulting CO 2 -enriched seawater plumes on the surrounding benthic ecosystem. In the present study, we conducted a 20-weeks mesocosm experiment exposing coastal sediments to CO 2 -enriched seawater (at 5000 or 20,000 ppm), to test the effects on the microbial enzymatic activities responsible for the decomposition and turnover of the sedimentary organic matter in surface sediments down to 15 cm depth. Our results indicate that the exposure to high-CO 2 concentrations reduced significantly the enzymatic activities in the top 5 cm of sediments, but had no effects on subsurface sediment horizons (from 5 to 15 cm depth). In the surface sediments, both 5000 and 20,000 ppm CO 2 treatments determined a progressive decrease over time in the protein degradation (up to 80%). Conversely, the degradation rates of carbohydrates and organic phosphorous remained unaltered in the first 2 weeks, but decreased significantly (up to 50%) in the longer term when exposed at 20,000 ppm of CO 2 . Such effects were associated with a significant change in the composition of the biopolymeric carbon (due to the accumulation of proteins over time in sediments exposed to high-pCO 2 treatments), and a significant decrease (∼20-50% at 5000 and 20,000 ppm respectively) in nitrogen regeneration. We conclude that in areas immediately surrounding an active and long-lasting leak of CO 2 from CCS reservoirs, organic matter cycling would be significantly impacted in the surface sediment layers. The evidence of negligible impacts on the deeper sediments should be

  15. Visualization of soil structure and pore structure modifications by pioneering ground beetles (Cicindelidae) in surface sediments of an artificial catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.; Weller, Ulrich; Vontobel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An artificial catchment was constructed to study initial soil and ecosystem development. As a key process, the pore structure dynamics in the soil at the surface strongly influences erosion, infiltration, matter dynamics, and vegetation establishment. Little is known, however, about the first macropore formation in the very early stage. This presentation focuses on observations of soil pore geometry and its effect on water flow at the surface comparing samples from three sites in the catchment and in an adjacent "younger" site composed of comparable sediments. The surface soil was sampled in cylindrical plastic rings (10 cm³) down to 2 cm depth in three replicates each site and six where caves from pioneering ground-dwelling beetles Cicindelidae were found. The samples were scanned with micro-X-ray computed tomography (at UFZ-Halle, Germany) with a resolution of 0.084 mm. The infiltration dynamics were visualized with neutronradiography (at Paul-Scherer-Institute, Switzerland) on slab-type soil samples in 2D. The micro-tomographies exhibit formation of surface sealing whose thickness and intensity vary with silt and clay content. The CT images show several coarser- and finer-textured micro-layers at the sample surfaces that were formed as a consequence of repeated washing in of finer particles in underlying coarser sediment. In micro-depressions, the uppermost layers consist of sorted fine sand and silt due to wind erosion. Similar as for desert pavements, a vesicular pore structure developed in these sediments on top, but also scattered in fine sand- and silt-enriched micro-layers. The ground-dwelling activity of Cicindelidae beetles greatly modifies the soil structure through forming caves in the first centimetres of the soil. Older collapsed caves, which form isolated pores within mixed zones, were also found. The infiltration rates were severely affected both, by surface crusts and activity of ground-dwelling beetles. The observations demonstrate relatively

  16. Effects of engineered nano-titanium dioxide on pore surface properties and phosphorus adsorption of sediment: Its environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhuanxi; Wang, Zhenhong; Wei, QunShan; Yan, Changzhou; Liu, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The attachment of Enano-TiO 2 to surface enhanced markedly sediment BET surface area and t-Plot external surface area. → The fill of Enano-TiO 2 into the micropores reduced significantly the sediment t-Plot micropore surface area. → Enano-TiO 2 could increase sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum and decrease in sediment P binding energy. → P would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO 2 . - Abstract: Understanding the environmental safety and human health implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of worldwide importance. As an important ENPs, engineered nano-TiO 2 (Enano-TiO 2 ) may have been substantially deposited in aquatic sediments because of its widely uses. Sediment pore surface properties would be thus significantly influenced due to the large surface area of Enano-TiO 2 . In this study, Enano-TiO 2 was found to greatly impact on sediment pore surface properties. The attachment of Enano-TiO 2 particles to sediment surfaces enhanced markedly BET specific surface area and t-Plot external specific surface area, and thereby increased sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum (S max ). Contrarily, the fill of Enano-TiO 2 particles into the micropores of sediments could significantly reduce t-Plot micropore specific surface area, and cause slight decrease in sediment P binding energy (K). Clearly, P sorbed in sediment would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO 2 . Enano-TiO 2 would thus cause aggravated endogenous pollution in water if such sediment was re-suspended on disturbance. The results obtained in this study contribute to our increasing knowledge of how to regulate physicochemical behavior of pollutants in sediments under the influences of Enano-TiO 2 and/or similar ENPs.

  17. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  18. Surface modification of upconverting nanoparticles by layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes and metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, Emilia; Salomäki, Mikko; Lastusaari, Mika

    2017-12-15

    Modificating and protecting the upconversion luminescence nanoparticles is important for their potential in various applications. In this work we demonstrate successful coating of the nanoparticles by a simple layer-by-layer method using negatively charged polyelectrolytes and neodymium ions. The layer fabrication conditions such as number of the bilayers, solution concentrations and selected polyelectrolytes were studied to find the most suitable conditions for the process. The bilayers were characterized and the presence of the desired components was studied and confirmed by various methods. In addition, the upconversion luminescence of the bilayered nanoparticles was studied to see the effect of the surface modification on the overall intensity. It was observed that with selected deposition concentrations the bilayer successfully shielded the particle resulting in stronger upconversion luminescence. The layer-by-layer method offers multiple possibilities to control the bilayer growth even further and thus gives promises that the use of upconverting nanoparticles in applications could become even easier with less modification steps in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of Surface Layer Characteristics by Shot Lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yasunori

    In the present study, lining of the metal with foils using shot peening was investigated to improve the surface layer characteristics. In the shot peening experiment, the foils set on the metal are pelted with hard particles traveling at a high velocity. The foils are bonded to the metal surface due to plastic deformation induced by the collision of the particles. The foils and the metal are heated to heighten the bondability because of the reduction of flow stress. Lining the metal with the hard powder sandwiched between two aluminum foil sheets was also attempted. In this experiment, a centrifugal shot peening machine wite an electrical heater was employed. The metals are commercially aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys, and the foils are commercially aluminum, titanium and nickel. The effects of shot speed and the heating temperature on the bondability were examined. Wear resistance was also evaluated by grinding. The foils were successfully bonded to the metal surface. It was found that the present method is effective in improving of surface layer characteristics.

  20. In-situ surface hardening of cast iron by surface layer metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Sebastian F.; Muschna, Stefan; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas; Bünck, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Abrasive wear is a serious problem in many cast iron castings used in industry. To minimize failure and repair of these components, different strategies exist to improve their surface microhardness thus enhancing their wear resistance. However, most of these methods lead to very brittle and/or expensive castings. In the current work a new method for surface hardening is presented which utilizes surface layer metallurgy to generate in-situ a boron-enriched white cast iron surface layer with a high microhardness on a gray cast iron casting. To do this, sand molds are coated with a ferroboron suspension and cast with a cast iron melt. After solidification, a 100–900 µm thick layer of boron-enriched ledeburite is formed on the surface of the casting which produces an increase in the average microhardness from 284 HV 0.1 ±52 HV 0.1 to 505 HV 0.1 ±87 HV 0.1 . Analyses of the samples' core reveal a typical cast iron microstructure which leads to the conclusion that the coating mainly affects the castings' surface. By varying the grain size of the ferroboron powder in the coatings, it is shown that a powder size ≤100 µm is most suitable to create a boron-enriched ledeburite surface layer possessing high hardness values

  1. Study on tribological properties of multi-layer surface texture on Babbitt alloys surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Zhao, Feifei; Li, Yan; Li, Pengyang; Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng

    2016-12-01

    To improve tribological properties of Babbitt alloys, multi-layer surface texture consisted of the main grooves and secondary micro-dimples are fabricated on the Babbitt substrate through laser pulse ablation. The tribological behaviors of multi-layer surface texture are investigated using a rotating type pin-on-disc tribo-meter under variation sliding speeds, and the film pressure distributions on the textured surfaces are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for elucidating the possible mechanisms. The results suggest that: (i) the multi-layer surface texture can reduce friction coefficient of Babbitt alloy, which has lowest friction coefficient of 0.03, in case of the groove parameter of 300 μm width and 15% of area density; (ii) the improvement effect may be more sensitive to the groove area density and the siding speed, and the textured surface with lower area density has lower friction coefficient under high sliding speed. Based on the reasons of (i) the secondary micro-dimples on Babbitt alloy possesses a hydrophobicity surface and (ii) the CFD analysis indicates that main grooves enhancing hydrodynamic effect, thus the multi-layer surface texture is regarded as dramatically improve the lubricating properties of the Babbitt alloy.

  2. Sedimentology and geochemistry of surface sediments, outer continental shelf, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Vallier, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Islands and the outer continental shelf and slope, indicates that Holocene sediment dynamics cannot be used to explain the observed distribution of surface sediment derived from the Aleutian Islands. We suggest that this pattern is relict and resulted from sediment dynamics during lower sea levels of the Pleistocene. ?? 1980.

  3. A novel surface cleaning method for chemical removal of fouling lead layer from chromium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Kh.; Khosravi, M.; Hosseini, S.G.; Fathollahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Most products especially metallic surfaces require cleaning treatment to remove surface contaminations that remain after processing or usage. Lead fouling is a general problem which arises from lead fouling on the chromium surfaces of bores and other interior parts of systems which have interaction with metallic lead in high temperatures and pressures. In this study, a novel chemical solution was introduced as a cleaner reagent for removing metallic lead pollution, as a fouling metal, from chromium surfaces. The cleaner aqueous solution contains hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as oxidizing agent of lead layer on the chromium surface and acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) as chelating agent of lead ions. The effect of some experimental parameters such as acetic acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and temperature of the cleaner solution during the operation on the efficiency of lead cleaning procedure was investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that using this procedure, the lead pollution layer could be completely removed from real chromium surfaces without corrosion of the original surface. Finally, the optimum conditions for the complete and fast removing of lead pollution layer from chromium surfaces were proposed. The experimental results showed that at the optimum condition (acetic acid concentration 28% (V/V), hydrogen peroxide 8% (V/V) and temperature 35 deg. C), only 15-min time is needed for complete removal of 3 g fouling lead from a chromium surface.

  4. Metal concentrations in intertidal water and surface sediment along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... The higher metal concentrations reported in sediment suggested that both ... the condition of the water column and health of benthic marine ... and fish processing facilities are situated on the western side of ... ated approximately 20 km north of Cape Town. .... caused such levels of metal input to the system.

  5. Phenyltins in Surface Sediments of the Visakhapatnam Harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jadhav, S.S.; Bhosle, S.N.; Venkat, K.; Sawant, S.S.

    and TPT varied between 1–26, 3–28, and 0.31–145 ng Sn g sup(-1) dry wt, respectively. Phenyltin concentrations were influenced by ship related activities, agricultural waste and sewage. These phenyltin concentrations indicate sediments are contaminated...

  6. Hot zirconium cathode sputtered layers for useful surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that multilayer zirconium based sputtered coatings can greatly improve the wear properties of a wide variety of mechanical components, machine tools, and metal surfaces. Although a hot (approximately 1000 0 C) cathode is employed, temperature sensitive components can be beneficially treated, and for precision parts a total coating thickness of only 0.5μm is often perfectly effective. Even at the highest coating rates substrate temperatures are below 300 0 C. For the corrosion protection of less well finished surfaces thicker layers are usually required and it is important that relatively stress free layers are produced. The authors employed a variety of tailored zirconium/zirconium nitride/zirconium oxide mixed layers to solve a number of tribological problems for some 5 or 6 years. However, it is only recently that they designed, built, and commissioned rapid cycle, multiple cathode, load-lock plant for economic production of such coatings. This paper provides an introduction to this method of depositing pure zirconium and pure synthetic zirconium nitride films

  7. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  8. Durable superhydrophobic surfaces made by intensely connecting a bipolar top layer to the substrate with a middle connecting layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jinghui; Zhang, Li-Zhi

    2017-08-30

    This study reported a simple fabrication method for a durable superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic top layer of the durable superhydrophobic surface was connected intensely to the substrate through a middle connecting layer. Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560) after hydrolysis was used to obtain a hydrophilic middle connecting layer. It could be adhered to the hydrophilic substrate by covalent bonds. Ring-open reaction with octadecylamine let the KH-560 middle layer form a net-like structure. The net-like sturcture would then encompass and station the silica particles that were used to form the coarse micro structures, intensely to increase the durability. The top hydrophobic layer with nano-structures was formed on the KH-560 middle layer. It was obtained by a bipolar nano-silica solution modified by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). This layer was connected to the middle layer intensely by the polar Si hydroxy groups, while the non-polar methyl groups on the surface, accompanied by the micro and nano structures, made the surface rather hydrophobic. The covalently interfacial interactions between the substrate and the middle layer, and between the middle layer and the top layer, strengthened the durability of the superhydrophobic surface. The abrasion test results showed that the superhydrophobic surface could bear 180 abrasion cycles on 1200 CW sandpaper under 2 kPa applied pressure.

  9. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  10. Analysis of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Agh Gel Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil and sediment serve as major reservoir for contaminants as they possess ability to bind various chemicals together. In this study the concentrations of heavy metals Cd, Cr and Cu were analyzed in surface sediments of Agh Gel Wetland in west of Iran. Methods: The sediment samples were taken from 10 stations. The samples were subjected to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning and Cd, Cr and Cu concentrations of the sediments were determined by ICP-OES. Geo-accumulation index (I-geo, Contamination factor (CF and Pollution load index (PLI were used to evaluate the magnitude of contaminants in the sediment profile. Results: The mean sediment concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight ranged within 0.20-0.29 (Cd, 58-71 (Cr and 23-36 (Cu. According to the I-geo values, the sediments' qualities are classified as unpolluted to moderately polluted category. According to the CF values, the sediments' qualities are classified as low to moderate contamination. Furthermore, the PLI values indicated that there were no metal pollution exists for all sampling stations. Conclusion: The Agh Gel Wetland is potential to be threatened by chemical pollutants such as agricultural effluent. So to preserve the environment of the Agh Gel Wetland from deterioration, periodically monitoring of the water and sediment qualities is recommended.

  11. Hierarchical Composite Membranes with Robust Omniphobic Surface Using Layer-By-Layer Assembly Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Yun Chul

    2018-01-17

    In this study, composite membranes were fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively-charged silica aerogel (SiA) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H – Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (FTCS) on a polyvinylidene fluoride phase inversion membrane, and interconnecting them with positively-charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via electrostatic interaction. The results showed that the PDDA-SiA-FTCS coated membrane had significantly enhanced the membrane structure and properties. New trifluoromethyl and tetrafluoroethylene bonds appeared at the surface of the coated membrane, which led to lower surface free energy of the composite membrane. Additionally, the LBL membrane showed increased surface roughness. The improved structure and property gave the LBL membrane an omniphobic property, as indicated by its good wetting resistance. The membrane performed a stable air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) flux of 11.22 L/m2h with very high salt rejection using reverse osmosis brine from coal seam gas produced water as feed with the addition of up to 0.5 mM SDS solution. This performance was much better compared to those of the neat membrane. The present study suggests that the enhanced membrane properties with good omniphobicity via LBL assembly make the porous membranes suitable for long-term AGMD operation with stable permeation flux when treating challenging saline wastewater containing low surface tension organic contaminants.

  12. Seasonal variation of monomethylmercury concentrations in surface sediments of the Tagus Estuary (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canario, Joao; Branco, Vasco; Vale, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected at 40 sites along the Tagus Estuary in July and December 2004. The sediments were analysed for total mercury, monomethylmercury (MMHg) and interpretative parameters (e.g. redox potential, pH, C org ). No significant differences in total Hg, pH, Al, Fe, Mn and C org were found between sediments collected in the two periods, but MMHg concentrations were higher in July. On average sediments were warmer and more reducing in summer. On the basis of these results, an increase of 7 kg of MMHg (+37%) in surface sediments of the Tagus Estuary was estimated. Presumably higher temperatures in summer promote the increase of microbial activity and higher methylation rates. The alterations observed in this study point to the potential importance of seasonal changes in MMHg production at surface sediments with eventual changes in the MMHg uptake by benthic invertebrates and other organisms in the food web. - Seasonal changes in monomethylmercury production in sediments may increase its uptake by benthic invertebrates and other organisms in the food web

  13. Engineering Particle Surface Chemistry and Electrochemistry with Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David Hyman Kentaro

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vapor phase thin film coating technique that relies on sequential pulsing of precursors that undergo self-limited surface reactions. The self- limiting reactions and gas phase diffusion of the precursors together enable the conformal coating of microstructured particles with a high degree of thickness and compositional control. ALD may be used to deposit thin films that introduce new functionalities to a particle surface. Examples of new functionalities include: chemical reactivity, a mechanically strong protective coating, and an electrically resistive layer. The coatings properties are often dependent on the bulk properties and microstructure of the particle substrate, though they usually do not affect its bulk properties or microstructure. Particle ALD finds utility in the ability to synthesize well controlled, model systems, though it is expensive due to the need for costly metal precursors that are dangerous and require special handling. Enhanced properties due to ALD coating of particles in various applications are frequently described empirically, while the details of their enhancement mechanisms often remain the focus of ongoing research in the field. This study covers the various types of particle ALD and attempts to describe them from the unifying perspective of surface science.

  14. Layer Dependence of Graphene for Oxidation Resistance of Cu Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qing Song; Xiao-ping Wang

    2017-01-01

    We studied the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu surface and its layer dependence by directly growing monolayer graphene with different multilayer structures coexisted,diminishing the influence induced by residue and transfer technology.It is found that the Cu surface coated with the monolayer graphene demonstrate tremendous difference in oxidation pattern and oxidation rate,compared to that coated with the bilayer graphene,which is considered to be originated from the strain-induced linear oxidation channel in monolayer graphene and the intersection of easily-oxidized directions in each layer of bilayer graphene,respectively.We reveal that the defects on the graphene basal plane but not the boundaries are the main oxidation channel for Cu surface under graphene protection.Our finding indicates that compared to putting forth efforts to improve the quality of monolayer graphene by reducing defects,depositing multilayer graphene directly on metal is a simple and effective way to enhance the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated metals.

  15. Radiolarian abundance and geochemistry of the surface-sediments from the Central Indian Basin: Inferences to Antarctic bottom water current

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Jauhari, P.

    The distribution trend of numbers of radiolarian shells/gram dry sediment, biogenic silica, organic carbon, and the carbon/nitrogen ratios in the surface sediments of the Central Indian Basin is similar. Ratios of two suborders of radiolaria, i...

  16. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.

    2013-09-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.; Farrar, J. T.; Weller, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Anomalous magnetotransport of a surface electron layer above liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.N.; Kovdrya, Yu.Z.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Kirichek, O.I.; Shcherbachenko, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetoconductivity σ xx of a surface electron layer above liquid helium has been measured at temperatures between 0.5-1.6 K, for concentrations up to about 4x10 8 cm -2 , in magnetic fields up to 25 kOe. As was observed, σ xx first decreases with lowering temperature, then has a minimum and at T xy , the earlier ascertained anomalous behaviour of the magnetoresistance ρ xx taken into consideration. The calculated dependence of ρ xx on T is in satisfactory agreement with the anomalous dependence ρ xx (T) found earlier by experiment

  19. Microplastics Baseline Surveys at the Water Surface and in Sediments of the North-East Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic contamination was determined in sediments of the Southern North Sea and floating at the sea surface of North West Europe. Floating concentrations ranged between 0 and 1.5 microplastic/m3, whereas microplastic concentrations in sediments ranged between 0 and 3,146 particles/kg dry weight sediment. In sediments, mainly fibers and spheres were found, whereas at the sea surface fragments were dominant. At the sea surface, concentrations of microplastics are lower and more variable than in sediments, meaning that larger sample sizes and water volumes are required to find detectable concentrations. We have calculated the widths of the confidence intervals (CI for different sample sizes, to give a first indication of the necessary sample size for a microplastic survey at the water surface. Higher concentrations of floating microplastics were found near estuaries. In sediments, estuaries and areas with a high organic carbon content were likely hotspots. Standardization of monitoring methods within marine regions is recommended to compare and assess microplastics pollution over time.

  20. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  1. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heavy metal distributions in Peru Basin surface sediments in relation to historic, present and disturbed redox environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschinsky, Andrea

    Heavy metal distributions in deep-sea surface sediments and pore water profiles from five areas in the Peru Basin were investigated with respect to the redox environment and diagenetic processes in these areas. The 10-20-cm-thick Mn oxide-rich and minor metal-rich top layer is underlain by an increase in dissolved Mn and Ni concentrations resulting from the reduction of the MnO 2 phase below the oxic zone. The mobilised associated metals like Co, Zn and Cu are partly immobilised by sorption on clay, organic or Fe compounds in the post-oxic environment. Enrichment of dissolved Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, Fe and V within the upper 1-5 cm of the oxic zone can be attributed to the degradation of organic matter. In a core from one area at around 22-25 cm depth, striking enrichments of these metals in dissolved and solid forms were observed. Offset distributions between oxygen penetration and Mn reduction and the thickness of the Mn oxide-rich layer indicate fluctuations of the Mn redox boundary on a short-term time scale. Within the objectives of the German ATESEPP research programme, the effect of an industrial impact such as manganese nodule mining on the heavy metal cycle in the surface sediment was considered. If the oxic surface were to be removed or disturbed, oxygen would penetrate deep into the formerly suboxic sediment and precipitate Mn 2+ and metals like Ni and Co which are preferably scavenged by MnO 2. The solid enrichments of Cd, V, and other metals formed in post-oxic environments would move downward with the new redox boundary until a new equilibrium between oxygen diffusion and consumption is reached.

  3. A numerical model for chemical reaction on slag layer surface and slag layer behavior in entrained-flow gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns with slag layer accumulation, chemical reaction on slag layer surface, and slag layer flow, heat and mass transfer on the wall of entrained-flow coal gasifier. A slag layer model is developed to simulate slag layer behaviors in the coal gasifier. This 3-D model can predict temperature, slag particle disposition rate, disposition particle composition, and syngas distribution in the gasifier hearth. The model is used to evaluate the effects of O2/coal ratio on slag layer behaviors.

  4. Surface layer conditions of the atmosphere over western Bay of Bengal during Monex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Rao, L.V.G.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on surface meteorological data and wave data collected from 2 stations in the western Bay of Bengal in July 1979, surface layer (SL) conditions of the atmosphere for different situations of surface circulations and the associated sea surface...

  5. Uranium series disequilibrium in the coastal surface sediments and sea water of the Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joshi, L.U.; Zingde, M.D.

    activity ratios in leachates, and residues after removal of surface organic matter from the sediment particles by treatment with hydrogen peroxide and 0.05M HCl, revealed disequilibrium between sup(238) U and sup(234) U only in the surface organic matter...

  6. Phosphorus forms of the surface sediment in the Iranian coast of the southern Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahzadeh Saravi, H.; Pouraria, A.; Nowruzi, B.

    2015-01-01

    Sediments from the southern Caspian Sea, located in Iranian coast were examined on the basis of P-fractionation (five forms of phosphorus) by a sequential extraction scheme. Ninety-six surface sediment samples (for each season with triplicate) were collected from eight sampling transects in 10 and 100 m depths during summer and winter in 2010-2011. The result indicated that the most abundant forms of phosphorus were calcium bound phosphorus. Relative abundance of other forms of phosphorus fol...

  7. Effects of engineered nano-titanium dioxide on pore surface properties and phosphorus adsorption of sediment: its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhuanxi; Wang, Zhenhong; Wei, Qunshan; Yan, Changzhou; Liu, Feng

    2011-09-15

    Understanding the environmental safety and human health implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of worldwide importance. As an important ENPs, engineered nano-TiO(2) (Enano-TiO(2)) may have been substantially deposited in aquatic sediments because of its widely uses. Sediment pore surface properties would be thus significantly influenced due to the large surface area of Enano-TiO(2). In this study, Enano-TiO(2) was found to greatly impact on sediment pore surface properties. The attachment of Enano-TiO(2) particles to sediment surfaces enhanced markedly BET specific surface area and t-Plot external specific surface area, and thereby increased sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum (S(max)). Contrarily, the fill of Enano-TiO(2) particles into the micropores of sediments could significantly reduce t-Plot micropore specific surface area, and cause slight decrease in sediment P binding energy (K). Clearly, P sorbed in sediment would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO(2). Enano-TiO(2) would thus cause aggravated endogenous pollution in water if such sediment was re-suspended on disturbance. The results obtained in this study contribute to our increasing knowledge of how to regulate physicochemical behavior of pollutants in sediments under the influences of Enano-TiO(2) and/or similar ENPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The laser surface alloying of the surface layer of the plain carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldan, A.; Kusinski, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the microstructure and properties (chemical composition, microhardness and the effect of tribological test of the surface laser alloyed layer with tantalum. Scanning electron microscopy examinations show structure, which consist of martensite and Ta2C carbides. Samples covered with Ta and the carbon containing binder showed after laser alloying higher hardness than in case of using silicon-containing binder. (author)

  9. Heavy metal contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of Vilnius, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff from urbanized territories carries a wide range of pollutants. Sediments in untreated runoff from direct discharge stormwater systems significantly contribute to urban waterway pollution. In this study, heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ba, As and Fe contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of the city of Vilnius was investigated. The surface runoff sediment samples were collected from seven dischargers with the highest volume rate of water flow and concentrations of suspended solids. The geospatial analysis of the distribution of heavy metals shows that there are several active pollution sources supplying the dischargers with contaminated sediments. Most of these areas are located in the central part of the city and in old town with intense traffic. Principal components analysis and t-test results clearly depicted the significantly different chemical compositions of winter and autumn surface sediment samples. The sampling approach and assessment of results provide a useful tool to examine the contamination that is generated in urban areas, distinguish pollution sources and give a better understanding of the importance of permeable surfaces and green areas.

  10. Copper in the sediment and sea surface microlayer near a fallowed, open-net fish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, Clyde V; Fisher, E Brian

    2012-09-01

    Sediment and sea surface microlayer samples near an open-net salmon farm in Nova Scotia, were analysed for copper. Copper is a constituent of the feed and is an active ingredient of anti-foulants. The salmon farm was placed in fallow after 15 years of production. Sampling was pursued over 27 months. Elevated copper concentrations in the sediments indicated the farm site as a source. Bubble flotation due to gas-emitting sediments from eutrophication is a likely process for accumulating copper in the sea surface microlayer at enriched concentrations. Elevated and enriched concentrations in the sea surface microlayer over distance from the farm site led, as a result of wind-drift, to an enlarged farm footprint. The levels of copper in both sediments and sea surface microlayer exceeded guidelines for protection of marine life. Over the 27 months period, copper levels persisted in the sediments and decreased gradually in the sea surface microlayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mathematical simulation of sediment and contaminant transport in surface waters. Annual report, October 1977--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Arnold, E.M.; Serne, R.J.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.; Mayer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Various pathways exist for exposure of humans and biota to radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities. Hydrologic transport (liquid pathway) is one element in the evaluation of the total radiation dose to man. Mathematical models supported by well-planned field data collection programs can be useful tools in assessing the hydrologic transport and ultimate fate of radionuclides. Radionuclides with high distribution coefficients or radionuclides in surface waters with high suspended sediment concentrations are, to a great extent, adsorbed by river and marine sediments. Thus, otherwise dilute contaminants are concentrated. Contaminated sediments may be deposited on the river and ocean beds creating a significant pathway to man. Contaminated bed sediment in turn may become a long-term source of pollution through desorption and resuspension. In order to assess migration and accumulation of radionuclides in surface waters, mathematical models must correctly simulate essential mechanisms of radionuclide transport. The objectives of this study were: (1) to conduct a critical review of (a) radionuclide transport models as well as sediment transport and representative water quality models in rivers, estuaries, oceans, lakes, and reservoirs, and (b) adsorption and desorption mechanisms of radionuclides with sediments in surface waters; (2) to synthesize a mathematical model capable of predicting short- and long-term transport and accumulation of radionuclides in marine environments

  12. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively.

  13. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-03-07

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively.

  14. Observations of transitional tidal boundary layers and their impact on sediment transport in the Great Bay, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetje, K. M.; Foster, D. L.; Lippmann, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of the vertical structure of tidal flows obtained in 2016 and 2017 in the Great Bay Estuary, NH show evidence of transitional tidal boundary layers at deployment locations on shallow mudflats. High-resolution bottom boundary layer currents, hydrography, turbidity, and bed characteristics were observed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV), conductivity-depth-temperature (CTD) sensors, optical backscatter sensors, multibeam bathymetric surveys, and sediment grab samples and cores. Over the 2.5 m tidal range and at water depths ranging from 0.3 m to 1.5 m at mean lower low water, peak flows ranged from 10 cm/s to 30 cm/s and were primarily driven by the tides. A downward-looking ADCP captured the velocity profile over the lowest 1 m of the water column. Results consistently show a dual-log layer system, with evidence of a lower layer within 15 cm of the bed, another layer above approximately 30 cm from the bed, and a transitional region where the flow field rotates between that the two layers that can be as much as 180 degrees out of phase. CTD casts collected over a complete tidal cycle suggest that the weak thermohaline stratification is not responsible for development of the two layers. On the other hand, acoustic and optical backscatter measurements show spatial and temporal variability in suspended sediments that are dependant on tidal phase. Current work includes an examination of the relationship between sediment concentrations in the water column and velocity profile characteristics, along with an effort to quantify the impact of rotation and dual-log layers on bed stress.

  15. UPWARD MOVEMENT OF PLUTONIUM TO SURFACE SEDIMENTS DURING AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.; Beals, D.; Cadieux, J.; Halverson, J.

    2010-01-25

    An 11-y lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  16. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  17. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-01-07

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.

  18. Electron tunneling in tantalum surface layers on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.; Track, E.K.; Prober, D.E.; Arnold, G.B.; DeWeert, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have performed electron tunneling measurements on tantalum surface layers on niobium. The tunnel junctions comprise 2000-A-circle Nb base electrodes with 10--100-A-circle in situ--deposited Ta overlayers, an oxide barrier, and Ag, Pb, or Pb-Bi alloy counterelectrodes. The base electrodes were prepared by ion-beam sputter deposition. The characteristics of these junctions have been studied as a function of Ta-layer thickness. These include the critical current, bound-state energy, phonon structure, and oxide barrier shape. We have compared our results for the product I/sub c/R versus tantalum-layer thickness with an extended version of the Gallagher theory which accounts for both the finite mean free path in the Ta overlayers and suppression of the I/sub c/R product due to strong-coupling effects. Excellent fits to the data yield a value of the intrinsic scattering probability for electrons at the Ta/Nb interface of r 2 = 0.01. This is consistent with the value expected from simple scattering off the potential step created by the difference between the Fermi energies of Ta and Nb. We have found a universal empirical correlation in average barrier height phi-bar and width s in the form phi-bar = 6 eV/(s-10 A-circle) for measured junctions which holds both for our data and results for available data in the literature for oxide-barrier junctions. The latter are composed of a wide variety of base and counterelectrode materials. These results are discussed in the general context of oxide growth and compared with results for artificial tunnel barriers

  19. The Association of Cryptosporidium parvum With Suspended Sediments: Implications for Transport in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, K. E.; Packman, A. I.; Atwill, E. R.; Harter, T.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of microorganisms in surface waters is of vital concern in protecting the integrity and safety of municipal water supply systems. The human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a particular public health interest, as it is ubiquitous in the surface waters of the United States, it can persist for long periods in the environment, and it is difficult to disinfect in water treatment plants. Due to its small size (5 um), low specific gravity (1.05 g/cm3), and negative surface charge, C. parvum oocysts are generally considered to move through watersheds from their source to drinking water reservoirs with little attenuation. However, the transport of the oocysts in surface waters may be mediated by interactions with suspended sediments. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the extent of C. parvum oocyst attachment to several inorganic and organic sediments under varying water chemical conditions, and settling column experiments were performed to demonstrate how these associations influence the effective settling velocity of C. parvum oocysts. Results from these experiments showed that C. parvum oocysts do associate with inorganic and organic sediments and often settle at the rate of the suspended sediment. The size and surface charge of the host suspended sediment influenced the extent of oocyst attachment as oocysts preferentially associated with particles greater than 3 um, and fewer oocysts associated with particles having a highly negative surface charge. Background water chemical conditions including ionic strength, ion composition, and pH did not have a significant effect on oocyst attachment to suspended sediments.

  20. Heavy metal enrichment and ecological risk assessment of surface sediments in Khorramabad River, West Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastmanesh, F; Safaie, S; Zarasvandi, A R; Edraki, M

    2018-04-11

    The ecological health of rivers has often been threatened in urbanized catchments due to the expansion of industrial activities and the population growth. Khorramabad River which flows through Khorramabad city, west of Iran, is an example of such settings. The river water is used for agricultural purposes downstream. In this study, the effect of Khorramabad city on heavy metal and metalloid (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and As) loads in Khorramabad River sediments was investigated. To evaluate sediment pollution and potential adverse biological effects, surface sediment samples were collected at selected locations along the river and were characterized for their geochemical properties. Contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and ecological risk assessment (RI) were calculated. Also, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were used to screen contaminants of concern in the study area. The results showed that sediments were moderately polluted, with stations located in more densely populated areas showing higher pollution indicators. Copper, Zn, and Pb sources could be attributed to urban wastewater, whereas Ni, Cr, and As had both natural and anthropogenic sources. Moreover, ecological risk assessments showed that sediments could be classified in the category of low risk. The results of the present study showed the effect of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal loads of the river sediments and these findings can be used to mitigate potential impacts on the environment and human health.

  1. Nickel, Lead and Zinc Contamination in the Surface Sediments of Agh Gel Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the increased human activities around the Agh Gel wetland, this study aimed to measured accumulations of heavy metals (Ni, Pb and Zn in the surface sediment samples taken from this wetland. Materials & Methods: Samples were taken from 10 stations and exposed to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning. Finally, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were monitored with ICP-OES in the sediments. Also, geo-accumulation index, contamination factor and pollution load index were used to evaluate the magnitude of contaminants in the sediment profile. Results: The results showed, the average of metal concentration in samples (mg kg-1 wet weight were 34.20±3.58 for Ni, 25.37±2.52 for Pb and 127.20±15.21 for Zn, respectively. Therefore, the pattern of metal concentrations in sediment was determined as Zinc>Nickel >Lead. According to the mean I-geo values, sediments' qualities are classified as unpolluted category for Ni and Pb. Also, sediment's quality is classified as unpolluted to moderately polluted for Zn. The CF values for all elements are classified as moderate contamination. The PLI values indicated that metal pollution exists for all sampling stations. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that the Agh Gel wetland has a potential to threaten by chemical pollutants such as agricultural effluent. So, in order to preserve the environment of the Agh Gel wetland from deterioration, monitoring of water and sediment qualities is recommended periodically.

  2. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  3. Hygrothermal analysis of surface layers of historical masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with the hygrothermal analysis of surface layers of historical masonry. Solid brick provided with a traditional and two modified lime-based plasters is studied. The heat and moisture transport in the envelope is induced by an exposure of the wall from the exterior side to dynamic climatic conditions of Olomouc, Czech Republic. The transport processes are described using diffusion type of mathematical model based on experimentally determined material properties. The computational results indicate that hygric transport and accumulation properties of exterior plasters affect the hygrothermal performance of the underlying solid brick in a very significant way, being able to regulate the amount of transported moisture. The modified lime plasters are not found generally superior to the traditional lime plasters in that respect. Therefore, their suitability for historical masonry should be assessed case by case, with a particular attention to the climatic conditions and to the properties of the load bearing structure.

  4. Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguri, J; Verde, J; Irabien, A

    2002-07-01

    Samples of intertidal surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected in 17 stations of the Santander Bay, Cantabric Sea, Northern Spain. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16, were analysed by HPLC and MS detection. Surface sediments show a good linear correlation among the parameters of the experimental organic matter evaluation, where total carbon (TC) and loss on ignition (LOI) are approximately 2.5 and 5 times total organic carbon (TOC). A wide range of TOC from 0.08% to 4.1%, and a broad distribution of the sum of sigma16PAHs, from 0.02 to 344.6 microg/g d.w., which can be correlated by an exponential equation to the TOC, has been identified. A qualitative relationship may be established between the industrial input along the rivers and the concentration of sigma6PAHs in the sediments of the estuaries: Boo estuary (8404-4631 microg/g OC), Solia-San Salvador estuaries (305-113 microg/g OC) and Cubas estuary (31-32 microg/g OC). This work shows a dramatic change in the spatial distribution in the concentration of PAHs of intertidal surface sediments. The left edge of the Bay has the main traffic around the city and the major source of PAHs is from combustion processes and estuarine inputs, leading to medium values of PAHs in the sediments; the right edge of the Bay has much lesser anthropogenic activities leading to lower values of PAHs in sediments. The distribution of individual PAHs in sediments varies widely depending on their structure and molecular weight; the 4-6 ring aromatics predominate in polluted sediments due to their higher persistence. The isomer ratio does not allow any clear identification of the PAHs origin. Environmental evaluation according to Dutch guidelines and consensus sediment quality guidelines based on ecotoxicological data leads to the same conclusion, sediments in the Santander Bay show a very different environmental quality depending on the spatial position from heavily polluted/medium effects to non

  5. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya

  6. Next-Generation Sequencing Assessment of Eukaryotic Diversity in Oil Sands Tailings Ponds Sediments and Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Maria; Richardson, Elisabeth; Tan, BoonFei; Walker, Giselle; Dunfield, Peter F; Bass, David; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia; Dacks, Joel B

    2016-11-01

    Tailings ponds in the Athabasca oil sands (Canada) contain fluid wastes, generated by the extraction of bitumen from oil sands ores. Although the autochthonous prokaryotic communities have been relatively well characterized, almost nothing is known about microbial eukaryotes living in the anoxic soft sediments of tailings ponds or in the thin oxic layer of water that covers them. We carried out the first next-generation sequencing study of microbial eukaryotic diversity in oil sands tailings ponds. In metagenomes prepared from tailings sediment and surface water, we detected very low numbers of sequences encoding eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA representing seven major taxonomic groups of protists. We also produced and analysed three amplicon-based 18S rRNA libraries prepared from sediment samples. These revealed a more diverse set of taxa, 169 different OTUs encompassing up to eleven higher order groups of eukaryotes, according to detailed classification using homology searching and phylogenetic methods. The 10 most abundant OTUs accounted for > 90% of the total of reads, vs. large numbers of rare OTUs (< 1% abundance). Despite the anoxic and hydrocarbon-enriched nature of the environment, the tailings ponds harbour complex communities of microbial eukaryotes indicating that these organisms should be taken into account when studying the microbiology of the oil sands. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  7. Ion doping of surface layers in conducting electrical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukowski, P.; Karwat, Cz.; Kozak, Cz. M.; Kolasik, M.; Kiszczak, K.

    2009-01-01

    The presented article gives basic component elements of an implanter MKPCz-99, its parameters and methods for doping surface layers of conducting electrical materials. The discussed device makes possible to dope the materials with ions of gaseous elements. At the application of cones made of solid-element sheets it is possible to perform doping with atoms that do not chemically react with the modified material. By performing voltage drop measurements with a specialized circuit between a movable testing electrode and the modified sample the dependence of transition resistance on pressure force of the testing electrode on the sample can be determined. The testing can be performed at the current passage of a determined value for surfaces modified with ions of gaseous elements or atoms of solid elements. A computer stand for switch testing makes possible to measure temperature of switch contacts and voltage drop at the contact and thereby to determine contact resistance of a switch depending on the number of switch cycles (ON-OFF). Pattern recording of current and voltage at the switch contacts and the application of an adequate computer software makes possible to determined the value of energy between fixed and moving contacts at their getting apart. In order to eliminate action of the environment onto the switch operation measurements can be performed at placing the tested switch together with the driving system in an atmosphere of noble gas like argon. (authors)

  8. Problems and Possible Solutions Concerning Radiocarbon Dating of Surface Marine Sediments, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John T.; Domack, Eugene W.; Cunningham, Wendy L.; Leventer, Amy; Licht, Kathy J.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; DeMaster, David J.; Jennings, Anne E.

    1999-09-01

    Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) dates on the acid-insoluble fraction from 38 core tops from the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, are used to address these questions: (1) What are the apparent ages of sediments at or close to the present sediment/water interface? (2) Is there a statistically significant pattern to the spatial distribution of core top ages? and (3) Is there a "correction factor" that can be applied to these age determinations to obtain the best possible Holocene (downcore) chronologies? Ages of core top sediments range from 2000 to 21,000 14C yr B.P. Some "old" core top dates are from piston cores and probably represent the loss of sediment during the coring process, but some core top samples >6000 14C yr B.P. may represent little or no Holocene deposition. Four possible sources of variability in dates ≤6000 14C yr B.P. (n = 28) are associated with (1) different sample preparation methods, (2) different sediment recovery systems, (3) different geographic regions, and (4) within-sample lateral age variability. Statistical analysis on an a posteriori design indicates that geographic area is the major cause of variability; there is a difference in mean surface sediment age of nearly 2000 yr between sites in the western Ross Sea and sites east of Ross Bank in south-central Ross Sea. The systematic variability in surface age between areas may be attributed to: (a) variable sediment accumulation rates (SAR) (surface age is inversely related to SAR), (b) differences in the percentage of reworked (dead) carbon between each area, and/or (c) differences in the CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  9. Mixed and mixing layer depths in the ocean surface boundary layer under conditions of diurnal stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G.; Reverdin, G.; Marié, L.; Ward, B.

    2014-12-01

    A comparison between mixed (MLD) and mixing (XLD) layer depths is presented from the SubTRopical Atlantic Surface Salinity Experiment (STRASSE) cruise in the subtropical Atlantic. This study consists of 400 microstructure profiles during fairly calm and moderate conditions (2 background level. Two different thresholds for the background dissipation level are tested, 10-8 and 10-9 m2 s-3, and these are compared with the MLD as calculated using a density threshold. The larger background threshold agrees with the MLD during restratification but only extends to half the MLD during nighttime convection, while the lesser threshold agrees well during convection but is deeper by a factor of 2 during restratification. Observations suggest the use of a larger density threshold to determine the MLD in a buoyancy driven regime.

  10. Formation and preservation of greigite (Fe3S4) in a thick sediment layer from the central South Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxing; Mei, Xi; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Yanguang; Ge, Shulan

    2018-04-01

    Sediments from continental shelves are sensitive to changes in both oceanic and terrestrial conditions, and, therefore, magnetic minerals in such sediments are affected strongly by depositional and diagenetic processes. Here, we investigated systematically an N-S transect of three sediment cores from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS) muddy area. Magnetic data indicate the presence of a horizontally distributed thick greigite-bearing layer. From an age model based on published magnetostratigraphy, accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating ages, sedimentary characteristics and foraminiferal analysis, this layer was deposited within marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-13, following an enhanced sulphidic period over MIS 21-19 when the YS Warm Current and the associated YS Cold Water Mass were strong and where underlying sediments have higher total organic carbon, total sulphur and trace element molybdenum contents. Trace element cadmium enrichment in the greigite-bearing layers is documented for the first time, which indicates that weakly sulphidic (i.e. with trace levels of free H2S) conditions existed before greigite formed in a sulphidic environment during early diagenesis. It also indicates that subsequent conditions free of oxygen and H2S after greigite formation are more favourable for its preservation. We propose that organic matter supply was controlled over an extended period by moderate primary productivity. The combined effects of palaeoclimate and local tectonic subsidence were crucial for the formation and preservation of the identified greigite. In brief, our study improves understanding of the formation and preservation mechanisms of greigite in continental shelf sediments and reveals mid-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changes in the SYS.

  11. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  12. The influence of Congo River discharges in the surface and deep layers of the Gulf of Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Vangriesheim, A.; Pierre, C.; Aminot, A.; Metzl, N.; Baurand, François; Caprais, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The main feature of the Congo-Angola margin in the Gulf of Guinea is the Congo (ex-Zaire) deep-sea fan composed of a submarine canyon directly connected to the Congo River, a channel and a [sediment] lobe area. During the multi-disciplinary programme called BIOZAIRE conducted by Ifremer from 2000 to 2005, two CTD-O2 sections with discrete water column samples were performed (BIOZAIRE3 cruise: 2003-2004) to study the influence of the Congo River discharges, both in the surface layer and in the...

  13. Sediment plume response to surface melting and supraglacial lake drainages on the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Vena W.; Smith, Laurence C; Rennermalm, Asa K.

    2009-01-01

    ) supraglacial lake drainage events from MODIS. Results confirm that the origin of the sediment plume is meltwater release from the ice sheet. Interannual variations in plume area reflect interannual variations in surface melting. Plumes appear almost immediately with seasonal surface-melt onset, provided...... the estuary is free of landfast sea ice. A seasonal hysteresis between melt extent and plume area suggests late-season exhaustion in sediment supply. Analysis of plume sensitivity to supraglacial events is less conclusive, with 69% of melt pulses and 38% of lake drainage events triggering an increase in plume...... area. We conclude that remote sensing of sediment plume behavior offers a novel tool for detecting the presence, timing and interannual variability of meltwater release from the ice sheet....

  14. Surface role in reorientation of internal layers of molybdenum single crystal during rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsiforov, P.N.; Gorordetskij, S.D.; Markashova, A.I.; Martynenko, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    Structure, orientations and chemical composition of surface and internal layers of molybdenum rolled monocrystals are studied using electron microscopy, X-ray and Auger-analyses. Model of reorientation allowing to determine relation of deformation mechanism localized in surface layer with reorientation of internal layers, is described to explain the results

  15. Short term changes in hydroperiod after thin layer sediment placement on a New Jersey salt marsh and implications for design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, C.; Carrillo, C. C.; VanZomeren, C. M.; Berkowitz, J.; Chasten, M. A.; Golden, D.; Jahn, J.; Welp, T. L.; Yepsen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the winter of 2015-2016, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Philadelphia District partnered with New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, The Nature Conservancy, Green Trust Alliance, Green Vest, and Princeton Hydro to implement a wetland thin layer placement on a salt marsh to the west of Avalon, New Jersey using dredged sediments removed from the Federal navigation channel in response to impacts from Hurricane Sandy. Prior to sediment placement, the marsh exhibited signs of degradation, including fragmentation of the marsh plain. The marsh is characterized by large, open water areas ( 1 m deep) fringed with overhanging banks and punctuated by small remnant ( 1-5 m) islands of intact marsh. The objective of the placement effort was to increase the elevation of degraded marsh areas to a level commensurate with the growth of low marsh vegetation dominated by Spartina alterniflora Loisel and to provide a small ( 5-15 cm) elevation boost to vegetated marsh areas surrounding the open water pools. We examine changes in inundation and tidal exchange resulting from the thin layer placement immediately after placement and a year later. Changes in sediment grain size and other factors are also considered. Coupling hydrologic measurements with observed vegetation recovery, we identify target elevations and sediment depths relative to mean sea level and mean high water consistent with rapid recovery in initially vegetated and open water areas.

  16. APPLICATION OF SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVE SURFACE SEDIMENT IN MENGKABONG LAGOON, SABAH, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Praveena, M. Radojevic, M. H. Abdullah, A. Z. Aris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous sediment quality guidelines developed to monitor the sediments. Sediment quality guidelines are very useful to screen sediment contamination by comparing sediment contaminant concentration with the corresponding quality guideline, provide useful tools for screening sediment chemical data to identify pollutants of concern and prioritise problem sites and relatively good predictors of contaminations. However, these guidelines are chemical specific and do not include biological parameters. Aquatic ecosystems, including sediments, must be assessed in multiple components (biological data, toxicity, physicochemistry by using intregrated approaches in order to establish a complete and comprehensive set of sediment quality guidelines. Numerous sediment quality guidelines Washington Department of Ecology Sediment Quality Guideline, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Swedish Environmental Sediment Quality, Screening Quick Reference Table, Portuguese Legislation on the Classification of Dredged Materials in Coastal Zones and Interim Sediment Quality Guideline for Hong Kong have been applied to the Mengkabong lagoon mangrove sediment and discussed. The most appropriate guideline that meets the prioritization criteria consistent with international initiatives and regulations is interim sediment quality values for Hong Kong. The guideline verifies that all the metals are below the Interim Sediment Quality Value-low. However, site-specific, biological testing and ecological analysis of exisiting benthics community structure related to sediment contamination are needed for final decision making in the case of Mengkabong lagoon.

  17. Diatoms as an indicator of bottom surface sediment dynamics in the southern Scotia sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Сергеевич Огиенко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of diatoms from the sediments of the lower interval of column K97-18 in Scotia Sea it is revealed the combination of Late-Holocene and Miocene species in complexes, due to the abundance of inclusions of Middle Miocene diatoms in the rock. Age of re-deposition, transporters and ways of transportation are determined, and it is suggested possible localization of diatomite layers

  18. An expression for the water-sediment moving layer in unsteady flows valid for open channels and embankments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Berta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During the floods, the effects of sediment transport in river beds are particulary significant and can be studied through the evolution of the water-sediment layer which moves in the lower part of a flow, named "moving layer". Moving layer variations along rivers lead to depositions and erosions and are typically unsteady, but are often tackled with expressions developed for steady (equilibrium conditions. In this paper, we develop an expression for the moving layer in unsteady conditions and calibrate it with experimental data. During laboratory tests, we have in fact reproduced a rapidly changing unsteady flow by the erosion of a granular steep slope. Results have shown a clear tendency of the moving layer, for fixed discharges, toward equilibrium conditions. Knowing the equilibrium achievement has presented many difficulties, being influenced by the choice of the equilibrium expression and moreover by the estimation of the parameters involved (for example friction angle. Since we used only data relevant to hyper-concentrated mono-dimensional flows for the calibration – occurring for slope gradients in the range 0.03–0.20 – our model can be applied both on open channels and on embankments/dams, providing that the flows can be modelled as mono-dimensional, and that slopes and applied shear stress levels fall within the considered ranges.

  19. Effect of Hydrograph Separation on Suspended Sediment Concentration Predictions in a Forested Headwater with Thick Soil and Weathered Gneiss Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Kabeya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two-component hydrograph separation using oxygen-18 concentrations was conducted at a sediment runoff observation weir installed in a small subcatchment of a forested gneiss catchment in Japan. The mean soil thickness of this catchment is 7.27 m, which comprises 3.29 m of brown forest soil (A and B layers and a 3.98-m layer of heavily weathered gneiss. Data were collected for a storm on 20–21 May 2003, and the percentage of event water separated by the stable isotope ratio in comparison with the total rainfall amount was about 1%. This value is within the ratio of a riparian zone in a drainage area. Temporal variation of suspended sediment concentration exhibited higher correlation with the event water component than with the total runoff or pre-event water component. This shows that the riparian zone causes rainwater to flow out quickly during a rain event, and that this is an important area of sediment production and transportation in a forested headwater with thick soil and weathered gneiss layers.

  20. Antibiotics in surface water and sediments from Hanjiang River, Central China: Occurrence, behavior and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Yan, Xue; Shen, Yun; Di, Mingxiao; Wang, Jun

    2018-08-15

    Thirteen antibiotics including sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TETs) and fluoroquinolones (FQs) were measured in Hanjiang River (HR) during two periods. The total concentrations of 13 antibiotics in surface water and sediments ranged from 3.1 to 109 ng/l and from 10 to 45 ng/g dry weight, respectively. SAs were dominant in water while the concentrations of TETs were the highest in sediments in two seasons. For their spatial distribution, total concentrations of 13 antibiotics in both matrices were significantly higher in the lower section of HR (p  5.15) due to wastewater release, agricultural activities and water transfer project. Obvious seasonal variations of sulfadiazine, sulfameter, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline in water were observed (p  4.62). Phase partition of antibiotics between water and sediments suggested a greater affinity of TETs and FQs to sediments. In addition, significantly positive relationships were found between SAs (sulfameter, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) and sediment TOC (p Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients of antibiotics were higher in the sediment than those in the water. Moreover, antibiotic mixtures posed higher ecological risks to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sedimentation of bidisperse, uncharged colloidal sphere suspensions: Influence of viscosity and irregular surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thies-Weesie, Dominique M. E.; Philipse, Albert P.; Lekkerkerker, Henk N. W.

    1996-01-01

    The sedimentation velocity of uncharged, nonaggregated silica spheres under gravity is strongly reduced after addition of small amounts of nonsedimenting small spheres. This reduction is largely due to surface irregularities on a nanoscale of the large spheres at which a limited number of small

  2. A note on geochemistry of surface sediments from Krishna-Godavari basin, East Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; PrakashBabu, C.; Khadge, N.H.; Paropkari, A.L.; Kodagali, V.N.

    A closely spaced 75 surface sediments drawn from ‘Gas Hydrate` Project taken up by National Institute of Oceanography on a regional scale from the Krishna-Godavari Basin (Latitude I5 degrees 35 minutes to 16 degrees 20 minutes N; Longitude 81...

  3. Early steroid sulfurisation in surface sediments of a permanebtly stratified lake (Ace Lake, Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Robertson, L.; Volkman, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Surface sediments (0 25 cm) from Ace Lake (eastern Antarctica), a saline euxinic lake, were analyzed to study the early incorporation of reduced inorganic sulfur species into organic matter. The apolar fractions were shown to consist predominantly of dimeric (poly)sulfide linked C27-C29 steroids.

  4. Micro contaminants in surface sediments and macrobenthic invertebrates of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, J.M.; Fischer, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    Trace metal concentrations (copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) were measured in the silt fraction (grainsize < 63 µm) of surface sediment of the North Sea. The concentrations varied in different areas of the Dutch continental shelf of the North Sea. The trace metal concentrations were highly related

  5. Distribution and sources of n-alkanes in surface sediments of Taihu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yunlong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The last study on n-alkanes in surface sediments of Taihu Lake was in 2000, only 13 surface sediment samples were analysed, in order to have a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of n-alkanes in the surface sediments of Taihu Lake, 41 surface sediment samples were analyzed by GC-MS. C10 to C37 were detected, the total concentrations of n-alkanes ranged from 2109 ng g−1 to 9096 ng g−1 (dry weight. There was strong odd carbon predominance in long chain n-alkanes and even carbon predominance in short chain n-alkanes. When this finding was combined with the analysis results of wax n-alkanes (WaxCn, carbon preference index (CPI, unresolved complex mixture (UCM, hopanes and steranes, it was considered that the long chain n-alkanes were mainly from terrigenous higher plants, and that the short chain n-alkanes mainly originated from bacteria and algae in the lake, compared with previous studies, there were no obvious anthropogenic petrogenic inputs. Terrestrial and aquatic hydrocarbons ratio (TAR and C21−/C25+ indicated that terrigenous input was higher than aquatic sources and the nearshore n-alkanes were mainly from land-derived sources. Moreover, the distribution of short chain n-alkanes presented a relatively uniform pattern, while the long chain n-alkanes presented a trend that concentrations dropped from nearshore places to the middle of lake.

  6. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio‐degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser‐print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running‐in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  7. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  8. Methane Bubbles Transport Particles From Contaminated Sediment to a Lake Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, K.; Hemond, H.

    2017-12-01

    Methane bubbling from aquatic sediments has long been known to transport carbon to the atmosphere, but new evidence presented here suggests that methane bubbles also transport particulate matter to a lake surface. This transport pathway is of particular importance in lakes with contaminated sediments, as bubble transport could increase human exposure to toxic metals. The Upper Mystic Lake in Arlington, MA has a documented history of methane bubbling and sediment contamination by arsenic and other heavy metals, and we have conducted laboratory and field studies demonstrating that methane bubbles are capable of transporting sediment particles over depths as great as 15 m in Upper Mystic Lake. Methane bubble traps were used in-situ to capture particles adhered to bubble interfaces, and to relate particle mass transport to bubble flux. Laboratory studies were conducted in a custom-made 15 m tall water column to quantify the relationship between water column height and the mass of particulate transport. We then couple this particle transport data with historical estimates of ebullition from Upper Mystic Lake to quantify the significance of bubble-mediated particle transport to heavy metal cycling within the lake. Results suggest that methane bubbles can represent a significant pathway for contaminated sediment to reach surface waters even in relatively deep water bodies. Given the frequent co-occurrence of contaminated sediments and high bubble flux rates, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals, it will be critical to study the significance of this transport pathway for a range of sediment and contaminant types.

  9. On the bioavailability of trace metals in surface sediments: a combined geochemical and biological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Prygiel, Emilie; Lesven, Ludovic; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David; Ferrari, Benoît J D; Criquet, Justine; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    The bioavailability of metals was estimated in three river sediments (Sensée, Scarpe, and Deûle Rivers) impacted by different levels of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn (Northern France). For that, a combination of geochemistry and biological responses (bacteria and chironomids) was used. The results obtained illustrate the complexity of the notion of "bioavailability." Indeed, geochemical indexes suggested a low toxicity, even in surface sediments with high concentrations of total metals and a predicted severe effect levels for the organisms. This was also suggested by the abundance of total bacteria as determined by DAPI counts, with high bacterial cell numbers even in contaminated areas. However, a fraction of metals may be bioavailable as it was shown for chironomid larvae which were able to accumulate an important quantity of metals in surface sediments within just a few days.We concluded that (1) the best approach to estimate bioavailability in the selected sediments is a combination of geochemical and biological approaches and that (2) the sediments in the Deûle and Scarpe Rivers are highly contaminated and may impact bacterial populations but also benthic invertebrates.

  10. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from South China Sea off Kuching Division, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafidz Yusoff; Zaini Assim; Samsur Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen surface sediment samples collected from South China Sea off Kuching Division, Sarawak were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons were recovered from sediment by Soxhlet extraction method and then analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/ MS). Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from South China Sea off Kuching division are ranged from 35.6 μg/ g to 1466.1 μg/ g dry weights. The sediments collected from Bako Bay, Kuching showed high concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons. Several molecular indices were used to predict the predominant sources of hydrocarbons. Carbon preference index (CPI) value revealed widespread anthropogenic input in this study area (CPI= 0 to 4.1). The ratio of C 31 / C 19 and C 29 / C 31 indicated that major input of aliphatic hydrocarbon mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements. Generally, the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment from South China Sea off Kuching division are generally higher compare to other area in the world. (author)

  11. Thallium dispersal and contamination in surface sediments from South China and its source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Jiang, Xiuyang; Xie, Xiaofan; Chen, Diyun; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin

    2016-06-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential element in humans and it is considered to be highly toxic. In this study, the contents, sources, and dispersal of Tl were investigated in surface sediments from a riverine system (the western Pearl River Basin, China), whose catchment has been contaminated by mining and roasting of Tl-bearing pyrite ores. The isotopic composition of Pb and total contents of Tl and other relevant metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, and Ni) were measured in the pyrite ores, mining and roasting wastes, and the river sediments. Widespread contamination of Tl was observed in the sediments across the river, with the highest concentration of Tl (17.3 mg/kg) measured 4 km downstream from the pyrite industrial site. Application of a modified Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM) sequential extraction scheme in representative sediments unveiled that 60-90% of Tl and Pb were present in the residual fraction of the sediments. The sediments contained generally lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios compared with the natural Pb isotope signature (1.2008 and 2.0766 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, respectively). These results suggested that a significant fraction of non-indigenous Pb could be attributed to the mining and roasting activities of pyrite ores, with low (206)Pb/(207)Pb (1.1539) and high (208)Pb/(206)Pb (2.1263). Results also showed that approximately 6-88% of Tl contamination in the sediments originated from the pyrite mining and roasting activities. This study highlights that Pb isotopic compositions could be used for quantitatively fingerprinting the sources of Tl contamination in sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of engineered nano-titanium dioxide on pore surface properties and phosphorus adsorption of sediment: Its environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Zhuanxi [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Wang, Zhenhong [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhangzhou Normal University, Department of Chemistry and Environment Sciences, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wei, QunShan [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yan, Changzhou, E-mail: czyan@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Feng [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The attachment of Enano-TiO{sub 2} to surface enhanced markedly sediment BET surface area and t-Plot external surface area. {yields} The fill of Enano-TiO{sub 2} into the micropores reduced significantly the sediment t-Plot micropore surface area. {yields} Enano-TiO{sub 2} could increase sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum and decrease in sediment P binding energy. {yields} P would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Understanding the environmental safety and human health implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is of worldwide importance. As an important ENPs, engineered nano-TiO{sub 2} (Enano-TiO{sub 2}) may have been substantially deposited in aquatic sediments because of its widely uses. Sediment pore surface properties would be thus significantly influenced due to the large surface area of Enano-TiO{sub 2}. In this study, Enano-TiO{sub 2} was found to greatly impact on sediment pore surface properties. The attachment of Enano-TiO{sub 2} particles to sediment surfaces enhanced markedly BET specific surface area and t-Plot external specific surface area, and thereby increased sediment phosphorus (P) adsorption maximum (S{sub max}). Contrarily, the fill of Enano-TiO{sub 2} particles into the micropores of sediments could significantly reduce t-Plot micropore specific surface area, and cause slight decrease in sediment P binding energy (K). Clearly, P sorbed in sediment would be easily released because of the decreasing P binding energy of the sediment with elevated Enano-TiO{sub 2}. Enano-TiO{sub 2} would thus cause aggravated endogenous pollution in water if such sediment was re-suspended on disturbance. The results obtained in this study contribute to our increasing knowledge of how to regulate physicochemical behavior of pollutants in sediments under the influences of Enano-TiO{sub 2} and/or similar ENPs.

  13. Radioactivity of some alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in surface marine sediments of different bays in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of surface (0-15) cm marine sediments of different grain sizes, namely sand, muddy and fine sand, were collected in the western, central and east coast of Algeria, to measure concentrations of natural and artificial radioactivity. The aim of this study is to detect any radioactive contamination, its origin and also to determine the uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments

  14. Aging promotes todorokite formation from layered manganese oxide at near-surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Haojie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Key Lab. of Urban Environment and Health; Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Tan, Wenfeng [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Wang, Ming Kuang [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry

    2010-12-15

    Todorokite is one common manganese oxide in soils and sediments and is commonly formed from layered Na-buserite. Aging processes can alter the physicochemical properties of freshly formed Na-buserite in natural environments. However, it is not clear whether and how aging affects the formation of todorokites. In the present paper, Na-buserite with aging treatment was employed to prepare todorokite at atmospheric pressure to investigate the effects of aging treatment of Na-buserite on the formation of todorokite. Four aged Na-buserite samples, which are produced through oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} in concentrated NaOH medium by O{sub 2} with aging for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, were employed to investigate the effects of aging processes on the transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite by Mg{sup 2+}-templating reaction at atmospheric pressure. The manganese oxides were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, determinations of the average manganese oxidation number, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD, IR, and elemental analyses indicate that aging treatment can alter the substructure of the freshly synthesized Na-buserite. During the aging process, some of the Mn(III) may migrate into the interlayer region or disproportionate to form Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} from the layer of Na-buserite and the concomitant formation of layer vacancies. The interlayer Mn{sup 3+} or Mn{sup 2+} occupied above or below the layer vacancy sites and become corner-sharing octahedral. XRD analyses and TEM clearly show that the transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite was promoted by aging treatments. The alterations of substructure of aged Na-buserites can promote the rearrangement of manganese to construct a tunnel structure during the transformation from layered manganese oxides to tunnel-structure todorokite at atmospheric pressure. The transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite was promoted by aging treatments at

  15. Spatiotemporal distributions of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in nearby marine surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakabe, M.; Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Misonoo, J. [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Spatiotemporal distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides in marine surface sediments off Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were analyzed on the basis of data collected during the monitoring program launched by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology in 2011 right after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident began. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the surface sediments varied spatially by two orders of magnitude, from 1.7 to 580 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and there was no obvious correlation between {sup 137}Cs concentration and the proximity of the sampling location to the accident site. The total inventory of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in the upper 3 cm of surface sediments in the monitoring area was estimated to be 3.78 x 10{sup 13} Bq, that is, 0.1-2% of the total {sup 137}Cs flux from the plant to the ocean as a result of the accident (the percentage depends on the model used to estimate the total flux). The spatial variations of {sup 137}Cs concentration and inventory depended on two main factors: the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the overlying water during the first several months after the accident and the physical characteristics of the sediments (water content and bulk density). The temporal variations of the concentrations of other anthropogenic radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 110} {sup m}Ag, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}Te, and {sup 129} {sup m}Te) in the sediments were also investigated. Activity ratios of these nuclides to {sup 137}Cs suggest that the nuclides themselves were not homogenized before they were removed from seawater to the sediments.

  16. Lateral surface superlattices in strained InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.

    2000-08-01

    Lateral Surface Superlattices were fabricated by etching in strained InGaAs layers above a GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG channel. These were etched both by dry plasma wet chemical etching to produce periods of 100nm, 200nm and 300nm. These superlattices were fabricated on Hall bars to allow four terminal measurement and a blanket gate was placed on top, to allow variations in the carrier concentration. The magnetoresistance effects of these superlattices were studied at varying values of gate voltage, which varies the carrier concentration and the electrostatic periodic potential and at temperatures down to 45mK in a dilution refrigerator. From the oscillations observed in the magnetoresistance trace's it is possible to calculate the magnitude of the periodic potential. This showed that the etched, strained InGaAs was producing an anisotropic piezoelectric potential, along with an isotropic electrostatic potential. The variation in period allowed a study of the change of this piezoelectric potential with the period as well as a study of the interactions between the electrostatic and piezoelectric potentials. Further, at the lowest temperatures a strong interaction was observed between the Commensurability Oscillations, caused by the periodic potential, and the Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations due to the Landau. Levels. This interaction was studied as it varied with temperature and carrier concentration. (author)

  17. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, M.S.; Naidu, S.A.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    of the northern and western Gulf of Mexico, the north coast of Alaska and the Niger Delta [Gearing et al., 1977], surface sediments from the Beaufort shelf, Beaufort Sea [Goni et al., 2000], coastal sediments from the Gulf of Trieste, N Adriatic Sea [Ogrinc et... the chemical composition of SOC off the Washington margin [Keil et al. 1994; Prahl et al. 1994], Amazon [Goni, 1997], Bengal fans [Lanord and Derry, 1994], and Gulf of Mexico [Goni et al. 1997]. Other possible reason could be preferential removal of N...

  18. Trace metal pollution assessment in the surface sediments of nearshore area, off Calicut, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Reji; Shynu, R; Sreeraj, M K; Ramachandran, K K

    2017-07-15

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb), grain size, and total organic carbon content in 29 surface sediment samples from the nearshore area off Calicut were analyzed to determine their distribution and pollution status. Surface sediments were dominantly silts with low percentage of clay and sand at nearshore and offshore areas. The mean metal concentrations were in the following order: Cr>Ni>Zn>Pb>Cu. The enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index of metals suggest that the surface sediments were not polluted by Zn and moderately polluted by Cu and Ni. By contrast, Cr and Pb showed significant enrichment levels. Results from a multivariate statistical analysis suggested that the spatial enrichment of these heavy metals was related to sediment type. Thus, the sediment distribution and their metal enrichment were mainly controlled by local hydrodynamic conditions that caused the winnowing of fine-grained sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Bacterial biogeography influenced by shelf-basin exchange in the Arctic surface sediment at the Chukchi Borderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dukki; Nam, Seung-Il; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyoungjun; Sadowsky, Michael J; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2016-02-01

    It has been known that continental shelves around the Arctic Ocean play a major role in the ventilation of the deep basins as a consequence of shelf-basin exchange. In the present study, we found that bacterial assemblage of the surface sediment was different from that of seawater while seawater harboured local bacterial assemblages in response to the Arctic hydrography. This finding suggests that the Arctic seafloor sediments may have distinctive bacterial biogeography. Moreover, the distribution of bacterial assemblages and physicochemical properties in surface sediments changed gradually from the Arctic continental shelf to deep-sea basin. Based on the results, bacterial biogeography in the Arctic seafloor sediments may be influenced by winnowing and re-deposition of surface sediments through the sediment gravity flow. The present study offers a deeper understanding of shelf convection and its role for the construction of bacterial assemblages in the Arctic Ocean. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Boundary layer transition observations on a body of revolution with surface heating and cooling in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, V. H.

    1980-04-01

    Boundary layer flow visualization in water with surface heat transfer was carried out on a body of revolution which had the predicted possibility of laminar separation under isothermal conditions. Flow visualization was by in-line holographic technique. Boundary layer stabilization, including elimination of laminar separation, was observed to take place on surface heating. Conversely, boundary layer destabilization was observed on surface cooling. These findings are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Wazzan et al. (1970).

  1. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  2. Sediment transport and fluid mud layer formation in the macro-tidal Chikugo river estuary during a fortnightly tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhikodan, Gubash; Yokoyama, Katsuhide

    2018-03-01

    The erosion and deposition dynamics of fine sediment in a highly turbid estuarine channel were successfully surveyed during the period from August 29 to September 12, 2009 using an echo sounder in combination with a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler. Field measurements were conducted focusing on the tide driven dynamics of suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and fluid mud at the upstream of the macrotidal Chikugo river estuary during semidiurnal and fortnightly tidal cycles. Morphological evolution was observed especially during the spring tide over a period of two weeks. The elevation of the channel bed was stable during neap tide, but it underwent fluctuations when the spring tide occurred owing to the increase in the velocity and shear stress. Two days of time lag were observed between the maximum SSC and peak tidal flow, which resulted in the asymmetry between neap-to-spring and spring-to-neap transitions. During the spring tide, a hysteresis loop was observed between shear stress and SSC, and its direction was different during flood and ebb tides. Although both fine sediments and flocs were dominant during flood tides, only fine sediments were noticed during ebb tides. Hence, the net elevation change in the bed was positive, and sedimentation took place during the semilunar tidal cycle. Finally, a bed of consolidated mud was deposited on the initial bed, and the height of the channel bed increased by 0.9 m during the two-week period. The observed hysteretic effect between shear stress and SSC during the spring tides, and the asymmetrical neap-spring-neap tidal cycle influenced the near-bed sediment dynamics of the channel, and led to the formation of a fluid mud layer at the bottom of the river.

  3. Heavy metal concentration in mangrove surface sediments from the north-west coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cadena, J C; Andrade, S; Silva-Coello, C L; De la Iglesia, R

    2014-05-15

    Mangrove ecosystems are coastal estuarine systems confined to the tropical and subtropical regions. The Estero Salado mangrove located in Guayaquil, Ecuador, has suffered constant disturbances during the past 20 years, due to industrial wastewater release. However, there are no published data for heavy metals present in its sediments and the relationship with anthropogenic disturbance. In the present study, metal concentrations were evaluated in surface sediment samples of the mangrove, showing that B, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, V, and Zn levels exceeded those declared in international environmental quality standards. Moreover, several metals (Pb, Sn, Cd, Ag, Mo, Zn and Ni) could be linked to the industrial wastewater present in the studied area. In addition, heavy metal levels detected in this mangrove are higher than previous reports on mangrove sediments worldwide, indicating that this mangrove ecosystem is one of the most disrupted on earth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving understanding of the underlying physical process of sediment wash-off from urban road surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Manoranjan; Tait, Simon; Schellart, Alma; Beg, Md Nazmul Azim; Carvalho, Rita F.; de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2018-02-01

    Among the urban aquatic pollutants, the most common is sediment which also acts as a transport medium for many contaminants. Hence there is an increasing interest in being able to better predict the sediment wash-off from urban surfaces. The exponential wash-off model is the most widely used method to predict the sediment wash-off. Although a number of studies proposed various modifications to the original exponential wash-off equation, these studies mostly looked into one parameter in isolation thereby ignoring the interactions between the parameters corresponding to rainfall, catchment and sediment characteristics. Hence in this study we aim (a) to investigate the effect of rainfall intensity, surface slope and initial load on wash-off load in an integrated and systematic way and (b) to subsequently improve the exponential wash-off equation focusing on the effect of the aforementioned three parameters. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a full-scale setup, comprising of a rainfall simulator, a 1 m2 bituminous road surface, and a continuous wash-off measuring system. Five rainfall intensities ranging from 33 to 155 mm/h, four slopes ranging from 2 to 16% and three initial loads ranging from 50 to 200 g/m2 were selected based on values obtained from the literature. Fine sediment with a size range of 300-600 μm was used for all of the tests. Each test was carried out for one hour with at least 9 wash-off samples per test collected. Mass balance checks were carried out for all the tests as a quality control measure to make sure that there is no significant loss of sand during the tests. Results show that the washed off sediment load at any given time is proportional to initial load for a given combination of rainfall intensity and surface slope. This indicates the importance of dedicated modelling of build-up so as to subsequently predict wash-off load. It was also observed that the maximum fraction that is washed off from the surface increases

  6. Surface plasmon polariton modulator with optimized active layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    package CST Microwave Studio in the frequency domain. We explore different permittivities of the ITO layer, which can be achieved by utilizing different anneal conditions. To increase transmittance and enhance modulation depth or efficiency, we propose to pattern the continuous active layer. Dependence...... from the pattern size and filling factor of the active material are analyzed for tuned permittivity of the ITO layer. Direct simulation of the device functionality validates optimization design....

  7. Automated Measurement for Sensitivity Analysis of Runoff-Sediment Load at Varying Surface Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanogor P.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of surface runoff is often associated with errors and inaccuracies which results to unreliable hydrological data. An automatic Runoff-meter using tipping buckets arrangement calibrated to tip 0.14 liter of runoff water per tip with an accuracy of ± 0.001 litre was used to measure surface runoff from a steel bounded soil tray of dimension (1200 mm X 900 mm X 260 mm filled with sand loamy to the depth of 130 mm and inclined at angle (0 0 , 5 0 ,12 0 and 15 0 horizontal to the instrument. The effect of varying angles of inclination on runoff intensity, sediment loss rate and sediment loss is significant at 5 % confidence level, while surface runoff is not significant at 5 % confidence level. Total highest sediment loss of 458.2 g and 313.4 g were observed at angle 15 0 and 12 0 respectively. Total surface runoff of 361.5 mm and 445.8 mm were generated at inclined angle of 0 0 and 5 0 , while at angle 12 0 and 15 0 , 564.3 mm and 590.0 mm of surface runoff were generated. In addition, runoff intensity and sediment loss rate were highest at angle 15 0 , while the lowest values of 1.5mm/min and 5.43 g/min were obtained at angle of inclination 5 0 . The results showed that strong relationship existed among the hydrological variables as a result of subjecting the steel bounded soil tray to different angles of inclination. Such results would provide useful data for the running of physics-based deterministic model of surface runoff and erosion which will be useful for the design of hydrological structures, land use planning and management.

  8. Comparison of phosphorus fraction distribution and influencing factors of suspended and surface sediments in the Tiaoxi watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongmeng; Yuan, Xuyin; Han, Lei; Yin, Heng; Jin, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Suspended and surface sediments from the Tiaoxi watershed, fed by the Xitiaoxi and Dongtiaoxi rivers, were analyzed for total phosphorus (TP) and the inorganic P fractions of loosely adsorbed P that were extractable with NH 4 Cl (NH 4 Cl-P), reductant P (BD-P), metal oxide-bound P extractable with NaOH (NaOH-P), and calcium-bound, HCl-extractable P (HCl-P), while other physicochemical compositions were also determined. The spatial variations of P fractions in these sediments were investigated, and the major factors influencing the various fractions were explored by multivariate statistics. Compared to surface sediments, suspended sediments contained considerably higher concentrations of total nitrogen, TP, organic matter, Al, Fe, Mn and biologically available P (BAP, given as NH 4 Cl-P, BD-P and NaOH-P combined) and lower concentrations of Si, Ca and HCl-P in the studied catchments. Dongtiaoxi sediments had higher TP, inorganic phosphorus and HCl-P concentrations and a lower BAP content compared with Xitiaoxi sediments, trends that were associated with local geological backgrounds, landscapes and anthropogenic characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed different effects of sediment properties on P fraction distributions for Xitiaoxi and Dongtiaoxi sediments. The sediment components and structure exert a strong influence on BAP in Xitiaoxi sediments, in contrast to Dongtiaoxi sediments, where P fractions are mainly affected by urbanization and other anthropogenic activities such as shipping.

  9. Distribution and temporal variation of trace metal enrichment in surface sediments of San Jorge Bay, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Jorge; Román, Domingo; Guiñez, Marcos; Rivera, Lidia; Morales, Tatiana; Morales, Tomás; Avila, Juan; Cortés, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Cu, Pb, and Hg concentrations were determined in surface sediment samples collected at three sites in San Jorge Bay, northern Chile. This study aims to evaluate differences in their spatial distribution and temporal variability. The highest metal concentrations were found at the site "Puerto", where minerals (Cu and Pb) have been loaded for more than 60 years. On the other hand, Hg does not pose a contamination problem in this bay. Cu and Pb concentrations showed significant variations from 1 year to another. These variations seem to be a consequence of the combination of several factors, including changes in the loading and/or storage of minerals in San Jorge Bay, the dredging of bottom sediments (especially at Puerto), and seasonal changes in physical-chemical properties of the water column that modify the exchange of metals at the sediment-water interface. Differences in the contamination factor and geoaccumulation index suggest that pre-industrial concentrations measured in marine sediments of this geographical zone, were better than geological values (average shale, continental crust average) for evaluating the degree of contamination in this coastal system. Based on these last two indexes, San Jorge Bay has a serious problem of Cu and Pb pollution at the three sampling locations. However, only Cu exceeds the national maximum values used to evaluate ecological risk and the health of marine environments. It is suggested that Chilean environmental legislation for marine sediment quality--presently under technical discussion--is not an efficient tool for protecting the marine ecosystem.

  10. Contamination assessment of heavy metal in surface sediments of the Wuding River, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longjiang, M.; Qiang, F.; Duowen, M.; Ke, H.; Jinghong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The heavy metal contents and the contamination levels of the surface sediments of the Wuding River, northern China, were investigated. Heavy metal concentration ranged in μg g -1 : 50.15 - 71.91 for Cr, 408.1 - 442.9 for Mn, 20.11 - 43.59 for Ni, 17.51 - 20.1 for Cu, 68.32 - 89.57 for Zn, 0.2 - 0.38 for Cd and 15.08 - 16.14 for Pb in the Wuding River sediments. The enrichment factor (EF) and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that the sediments of the Wuding River had been polluted by Cd, Cr and Ni, which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources, whereas the sediments had not been polluted by Zn, Pb, Cu and Mn, which were derived from the crust. In addition, the assessment results of EF and Igeo suggested that the sediments of the Wuding River was 'moderately' polluted by Cd and 'unpolluted to moderately' polluted by Cr and Ni. The elevated urban sewage discharges and agriculture fertilizers usage in river basin are the anthropogenic sources of these heavy metals in river. (author)

  11. Effect of Cosolutes on the Sorption of Phenanthrene onto Mineral Surface of River Sediments and Kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption of phenanthrene onto the natural sediment with low organic carbon content (OC%, organic-free sediment, and kaolinite was investigated through isotherm experiments. Effects of cosolutes (pyrene, 4-n-nonyphenol (NP, and humic acid (HA on phenanthrene sorption were also studied by comparing apparent solid-water distribution coefficients (Kdapp of phenanthrene. Two addition sequences, including “cosolute added prior to phenanthrene” and “cosolute and phenanthrene added simultaneously,” were adopted. The Freundlich model fits phenanthrene sorption on all 3 sorbents well. The sorption coefficients on these sorbents were similar, suggesting that mineral surface plays an important role in the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants on low OC% sediments. Cosolutes could affect phenanthrene sorption on the sorbents, which depended on their properties, concentrations, and addition sequences. Pyrene inhibited phenanthrene sorption. Sorbed NP inhibited phenanthrene sorption at low levels and promoted sorption at high levels. Similar to NP, effect of HA on phenanthrene sorption onto the natural sediment depended on its concentrations, whereas, for the organic-free sediment and kaolinite, preloading of HA at high levels led to an enhancement in phenanthrene Kdapp while no obvious effect was observed at low HA levels; dissolved HA could inhibit phenanthrene sorption on the two sorbents.

  12. Surface Sediment Analysis on Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Total Organic Carbon from Coastal Area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Payus, C.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments along coastal area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah. Surface sediment samples were collected in 24 different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted for TPH using standard method sediment/ sludge APHA 5520E and analyzed using UV/VIS spectrophotometer while for TOC method analysis using United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/ MAP Athens (2006). The range of TPH concentrations in surface sediments were recorded at 0.24 - 20.65 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents, meanwhile the TOC percentage ranged from 0.03 - 4.02 %. In the mean time, the statistical analysis by Pearson correlation showed a positive correlation with coefficient, r = 0.790 which showing the TPH concentrations significantly have influence on the TOC accumulations in the surface sediment. (author)

  13. Distribution of the rare earth elements in the surface sediments from the lower Wuding River of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longjiang, M.; Duowen, M.; Ke, H.; Jinghong, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and their signatures in the Wuding River of China were studied from samples of surface sediments and related to the geological formation in its watershed. The total REE (ΣREE) average concentrations of the Wuding River sediments (144.56 μg g -1 ), is lower than that in the Yangtze River sediments (167.10 μg g -1 ), getting closer to the values of the Yellow River sediments (137.76 μg g -1 ), being equivalent to the values of the UCC (the upper continental crust) (146.37 μg g-1). The chondrite-normalized REEs indicated LREE enrichment and flat HREE depletion and also showed a slightly negative Eu-anomaly. A similar chondrite-normalized REE distribution pattern between the Wuding River sediments and Yellow River sediments demonstrated the Wuding River sediments are the important material sources of the Yellow River sediments. UCC-normalized REE patterns between the Wuding River sediments and the Yellow River sediments were almost equivalent and close to the UCC. These implied the Wuding River sediments and the Yellow River sediments are subjected mostly to physical weathering due to higher erosion rates. Consequently, they can be used to trace the UCC compositions. (author)

  14. Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching

  15. Semi-automatic surface sediment sampling system - A prototype to be implemented in bivalve fishing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Marta M.; Baptista, Paulo; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2018-01-01

    In the current work we propose a new method to sample surface sediment during bivalve fishing surveys. Fishing institutes all around the word carry out regular surveys with the aim of monitoring the stocks of commercial species. These surveys comprise often more than one hundred of sampling stations and cover large geographical areas. Although superficial sediment grain sizes are among the main drivers of benthic communities and provide crucial information for studies on coastal dynamics, overall there is a strong lack of this type of data, possibly, because traditional surface sediment sampling methods use grabs, that require considerable time and effort to be carried out on regular basis or on large areas. In face of these aspects, we developed an easy and un-expensive method to sample superficial sediments, during bivalve fisheries monitoring surveys, without increasing survey time or human resources. The method was successfully evaluated and validated during a typical bivalve survey carried out on the Northwest coast of Portugal, confirming that it had any interference with the survey objectives. Furthermore, the method was validated by collecting samples using a traditional Van Veen grabs (traditional method), which showed a similar grain size composition to the ones collected by the new method, on the same localities. We recommend that the procedure is implemented on regular bivalve fishing surveys, together with an image analysis system to analyse the collected samples. The new method will provide substantial quantity of data on surface sediment in coastal areas, using a non-expensive and efficient manner, with a high potential application in different fields of research.

  16. Early steroid sulfurization in surface sediments of a permanently stratified lake (Ace Lake, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Marika D.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Robertson, Lisette; Volkman, John K.; Sinninghe Damstéé, Jaap S.

    2000-04-01

    Surface sediments (0-25 cm) from Ace Lake (eastern Antarctica), a saline euxinic lake, were analyzed to study the early incorporation of reduced inorganic sulfur species into organic matter. The apolar fractions were shown to consist predominantly of dimeric (poly)sulfide linked C 27-C 29 steroids. These steroid moieties were identified by GC-MS analysis of the apolar fractions after cleavage of polysulfide linkages using MeLi and MeI and after desulfurisation. The polar fractions contained the oligomeric analogues. The S-bound steroids are most likely formed by sulfur incorporation into steroidal ketones formed from Δ 5 sterols by biohydrogenation by anaerobic bacteria. The concentrations of these sulfurised steroids increased with depth in the sediment. The sulfurisation reaction is completed in 1000-3000 years. Despite a wide range of functionalised lipids present in these sediments that are potentially available for sulfurisation, there is a very strong preference for the incorporation of sulfur into steroidal compounds. A predominance of sulfurised C 27 steroids contrasted with the distribution of free sterols, which showed a strong predominance of C 29 sterols. This indicates that the incorporation of sulfur is biased towards C 27 sterols. The results demonstrate that intermolecular sulfurisation of organic matter can occur in surface sediments at low temperatures and in the absence of light.

  17. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work deal with the environmental assessment of Tarut Island Coastal area. • Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been chemically analyzed. • Thirteen major and trace metals have been recorded. • The area of study is highly polluted with Arsenic and Mercury. - Abstract: Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area

  18. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bixi; Liu, Yongqin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Juzhi; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd. The results of geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and potential ecological risk factor (E i r ) assessments showed that the sediments were moderately polluted by Cd and As, which posed much higher risks than the other metals. The values of the potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that lake Bieruoze Co has been severely polluted by heavy metals. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the 8 heavy metals in the lake surface sediments of the Tibetan Plateau could be classified into four groups. Group 1 included Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni which were mainly derived from both natural and traffic sources. Group 2 included Cd which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like alloying, electroplating, and dyeing industries and was transported to the Tibetan Plateau by atmospheric circulation. Group 3 included Cr and it might mainly generate from parent rocks of watersheds. The last Group (As) was mainly from manufacturing, living, and the striking deterioration of atmospheric environment of the West, Central Asia, and South Asia.

  19. Stability conditions of stationary rupture of liquid layers on an immiscible fluid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, A. [Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria; Kostarev, K.; Shmyrov, A.; Zuev, A. [Inst. of Continuous Media Mechanics, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The stationary equilibrium shape of a 3-phase liquids-gas system was investigated. The system consisted of a horizontal liquid layer with an upper free boundary placed on the immiscible fluid interface. The study investigated the stability conditions of rupture of the liquid layer surface. The dependence of rupture parameters on the experimental cuvette diameter and layer thickness was investigated, as well as the difference in the values of surface tension of the examined fluids. The 2-layer system of horizontal fluid layers was formed in a glass cylindrical cuvette. The liquid substrate was tetrachloride carbon (CCI{sub 4}), while upper layers included water, glycerine, ethyleneglycol, and aqueous solutions of 1,4-butanediol C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O{sub 2} and isopropanol C{sub 3H8L}. Initially, the surface of the substrate fluid was overlaid with a horizontal liquid layer. The rupture was formed by subjecting the layer surface to short-time actions of a narrow directional air jet. After rupture formation, the layer thickness increased gradually. The measurements demonstrated that the rupture diameter depends on the initial thickness of the upper layer as well as the diameter of the cuvette, and the difference in the values of the surface tension of the examined fluids. Analysis of the experimental relationships indicated that the critical thickness of the breaking layer is a constant value for any specific pairs of fluids. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. The geochemistry of coprostanol in waters and surface sediments from Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Lawrence A.; Latimer, James S.; Ellis, John T.; Quinn, James G.

    1992-05-01

    A geochemical study of coprostanol (5β-Cholestan-3β-ol) was undertaken, to examine the transport and fate of a compound of moderate polarity and reactivity in the marine environment, and also because of the interest in coprostanol for use as a sewage tracer. During 1985-86, 20 sites in Narragansett Bay, including the major point sources and rivers discharging into the bay estuary, were sampled at four different times. In addition, surface sediments from 26 stations in the bay were collected. The large number and diversity of samples allowed for an assessment of major inputs of sewage into the bay as well as the recent fate of sewage-derived particles in surface sediments. Results from the study revealed that 50% of the total particulate coprostanol entering the bay was discharged into the Providence River, primarily due to inputs from the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) at Fields Point, as well as input from the Pawtuxet and Blackstone Rivers. In the lower bay, the Newport WWTF was the largest single source of coprostanol (37% of the total particulate coprostanol) to the bay. Effluent concentrations of coprostanol from secondary WWTFs were consistently lower than those of primary treatment facilities, demonstrating the usefulness of corporstanol as an indicator of treatment plant efficiency. The distribution of coprostanol in waters and surface sediments showed a gradient of decreasing concentration downbay. When coprostanol concentrations in surface sediments were normalized to organic carbon (OC) concentrations, elevated levels were seen only in the Providence River, with a more or less even distribution throughout the rest of the bay. Results also suggest that coprostanol degrades more rapidly in the water column compared to the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), however, it is relatively stable once it is buried in the sediments. Coprostanol concentrations in waters (0·02-0·22

  1. Influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainev Dmitriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process and the formation of the quality of the surface machined. This effect has been confirmed by the study results of the combined cutting method with advanced plastic deformation (APD. The work estimates the impact of the change in the surface layer properties on the forces and temperature of cutting, stability of the chip formation and quality parameters of the surface machined.

  2. Modelling the artic stable boundary layer and its coupling to the surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of coupling the atmosphere to the surface energy balance is examined for the stable boundary layer, as an extension of the first GABLS (GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study) one-dimensional model intercomparison. This coupling is of major importance for the stable boundary-layer

  3. A general analytical equation for phase diagrams of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z X; Teng, B H; Rong, Y H; Lu, X H; Yang, X [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: phytbh@163.com

    2010-03-15

    Within the framework of effective-field theory with correlations, the phase diagrams of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers are studied by the differential operator technique based on the spin-1/2 transverse Ising model. A general analytical equation for the phase diagram of a ferroelectric thin film with arbitrary layer number as well as exchange interactions and transverse fields is derived, and then the effects of exchange interactions and transverse fields on phase diagrams are discussed for an arbitrary layer number N. Meanwhile, the crossover features, from the ferroelectric-dominant phase diagram (FPD) to the paraelectric-dominant phase diagram (PPD), for various parameters of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers are investigated. As a result, an N-independent common intersection point equation is obtained, and the three-dimensional curved surfaces for the crossover values are constructed. In comparison with the usual mean-field approximation, the differential operator technique with correlations reduces to some extent the ferroelectric features of a ferroelectric thin film.

  4. Layer-by-Layer Heparinization of the Cell Surface by Using Heparin-Binding Peptide Functionalized Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guowei; Hu, Yaning; Liu, Yusheng; Jiang, Rui

    2018-05-20

    Layer-by-layer heparinization of therapeutic cells prior to transplantation is an effective way to inhibit the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reactions (IBMIRs), which are the major cause of early cell graft loss during post-transplantation. Here, a conjugate of heparin-binding peptide (HBP) and human serum albumin (HSA), HBP-HSA, was synthesized by using heterobifunctional crosslinker. After the first heparin layer was coated on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by means of the HBP-polyethylene glycol-phospholipid conjugate, HBP-HSA and heparin were then applied to the cell surface sequentially to form multiple layers. The immobilization and retention of heparin were analyzed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively, and the cytotoxity of HBP-HSA was further evaluated by cell viability assay. Results indicated that heparin was successfully introduced to the cell surface in a layer-by-layer way and retained for at least 24 h, while the cytotoxity of HBP-HSA was negligible at the working concentration. Accordingly, this conjugate provides a promising method for co-immobilization of heparin and HSA to the cell surface under physiological conditions with improved biocompatibility.

  5. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Pulau Tinggi, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ezzati Sulhi Abdul; Halim, Izzyan Syazwani Abdul; Ali, Masni Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments samples were collected at 11 stations around the Pulau Tinggi, Johor in September 2015. A total of 15 PAHs were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations of surface sediments from Pulau Tinggi ranged from 39.61 ng/g to 149.2 ng/g and they were classified as being in low to moderate pollution range. Individual PAH analysis showed that two and three rings PAHs were the most frequently detected isomers and accounted for 22 - 46% of the total PAH concentrations. The sources of PAHs were evaluated by employing diagnostic ratiosof specific PAH compounds.PAH ratios analysis showed a prevalence of pyrogenic PAH origin at most of the stations with exception of only a few stations.

  6. TextureCam Field Test Results from the Mojave Desert, California: Autonomous Instrument Classification of Sediment and Rock Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, R.; Abbey, W. J.; Bekker, D. L.; Cabrol, N. A.; Francis, R.; Manatt, K.; Ortega, K.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2013-12-01

    TextureCam is an intelligent camera that uses integrated image analysis to classify sediment and rock surfaces into basic visual categories. This onboard image understanding can improve the autonomy of exploration spacecraft during the long periods when they are out of contact with operators. This could increase the number of science activities performed in each command cycle by, for example, autonomously targeting science features of opportunity with narrow field of view remote sensing, identifying clean surfaces for autonomous placement of arm-mounted instruments, or by detecting high value images for prioritized downlink. TextureCam incorporates image understanding directly into embedded hardware with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This allows the instrument to perform the classification in real time without taxing the primary spacecraft computing resources. We use a machine learning approach in which operators train a statistical model of surface appearance using examples from previously acquired images. A random forest model extrapolates from these training cases, using the statistics of small image patches to characterize the texture of each pixel independently. Applying this model to each pixel in a new image yields a map of surface units. We deployed a prototype instrument in the Cima Volcanic Fields during a series of experiments in May 2013. We imaged each environment with a tripod-mounted RGB camera connected directly to the FPGA board for real time processing. Our first scenario assessed ground surface cover on open terrain atop a weathered volcanic flow. We performed a transect consisting of 16 forward-facing images collected at 1m intervals. We trained the system to categorize terrain into four classes: sediment, basalt cobbles, basalt pebbles, and basalt with iron oxide weathering. Accuracy rates with regards to the fraction of the actual feature that was labeled correctly by the automated system were calculated. Lower accuracy rates were

  7. Nonlinear Bubble Dynamics And The Effects On Propagation Through Near-Surface Bubble Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Timothy G.

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear bubble dynamics are often viewed as the unfortunate consequence of having to use high acoustic pressure amplitudes when the void fraction in the near-surface oceanic bubble layer is great enough to cause severe attenuation (e.g. >50 dB/m). This is seen as unfortunate since existing models for acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are based on linear bubble dynamics. However, the development of nonlinear models does more than just allow quantification of the errors associated with the use of linear models. It also offers the possibility of propagation modeling and acoustic inversions which appropriately incorporate the bubble nonlinearity. Furthermore, it allows exploration and quantification of possible nonlinear effects which may be exploited. As a result, high acoustic pressure amplitudes may be desirable even in low void fractions, because they offer opportunities to gain information about the bubble cloud from the nonlinearities, and options to exploit the nonlinearities to enhance communication and sonar in bubbly waters. This paper presents a method for calculating the nonlinear acoustic cross-sections, scatter, attenuations and sound speeds from bubble clouds which may be inhomogeneous. The method allows prediction of the time dependency of these quantities, both because the cloud may vary and because the incident acoustic pulse may have finite and arbitrary time history. The method can be readily adapted for bubbles in other environments (e.g. clouds of interacting bubbles, sediments, structures, in vivo, reverberant conditions etc.). The possible exploitation of bubble acoustics by marine mammals, and for sonar enhancement, is explored.

  8. Nanoscale multiple gaseous layers on a hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Xuehua; Fan, Chunhai; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jun

    2009-08-18

    The nanoscale gas state at the interfaces of liquids (water, acid, and salt solutions) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was investigated via tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the first time, we report that the interfacial gases could form bilayers and trilayers, i.e., on the top of a flat gas layer, there are one or two more gas layers. The formation of these gas layers could be induced by a local supersaturation of gases, which can be achieved by (1) temperature difference between the liquids and the HOPG substrates or (2) exchange ethanol with water. Furthermore, we found that the gas layers were less stable than spherical bubbles. They could transform to bubbles with time or under the perturbation of the AFM tip.

  9. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  10. Investigation of surface layer on rolled recycled AA5050 in relation to Filiform Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The presence of a heavily deformed surface layer (a few microns thick) on rolled aluminium alloy is understood to be one of the main reasons contributing to the Filiform Corrosion (FFC) susceptibility of the alloy. The surface layer is formed during the thermo-mechanical processing of the sheet

  11. Evaluation and assessment of baseline metal contamination in surface sediments from the Bernam River, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Safaa A; Ishak, Mohd Yusoff; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2016-04-01

    The Bernam River is one of the most important rivers in Malaysia in that it provides water for industries and agriculture located along its banks. The present study was conducted to assess the level of contamination of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, Sn, and Fe) in surface sediments in the Bernam River. Nine surface sediment samples were collected from the lower, middle, and upper courses of the river. The results indicated that the concentrations of the metals decreased in the order of Sn > Cr > Ni > Fe > Cd (56.35, 14.90, 5.3, 4.6, and 0.62 μg/g(1) dry weight). Bernam River sediments have moderate to severe enrichment for Sn, moderate for Cd, and no enrichment for Cr, Ni, and Fe. The contamination factor (CF) results demonstrated that Cd and Sn are responsible for the high contamination. The pollution load index (PLI), for all the sampling sites, suggests that the sampling stations were generally unpolluted with the exception of the Bagan Tepi Sungai, Sabak Bernam, and Tanjom Malim stations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson's correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to apportion the various sources of the metals. The results suggested that the sediment samples collected from the upper course of the river had lower metal concentrations, while sediments in the middle and lower courses of the river had higher metal concentrations. Therefore, our results can be useful as a baseline data for government bodies to adopt corrective measure on the issues related to heavy metal pollution in the Bernam River in the future.

  12. Application of a surface complexation model to the interactions of Pu and Am with Esk Estuary sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.R.; Knox, S.; Titley, J.G.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Kelly, M.; Williams, G.

    1990-10-01

    Previous work has shown that Pu is remobilised from Esk sediments at low salinities of overlying water. A constant capacitance surface complexation model has been developed in order to understand and model the chemical processes occurring. The model is based on detailed chemical characterisation of sediment samples from the estuary. The following measurements were carried out to provide input parameters for the model: specific surface area; total surface sites (tritium exchange); proton and major ion exchange (potentiometric titration); and actinide (Pu and Am) partition coefficient as a function of pH and salinity at sediment and actinide concentrations typical of the Esk. (author)

  13. Different Planctomycetes diversity patterns in latitudinal surface seawater of the open sea and in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qinglong; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2008-04-01

    The 16S rRNA gene approach was applied to investigate the diversity of Planctomycetes in latitudinal surface seawater of the Western Pacific Ocean. The results revealed that the Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade dominated the Planctomycetes community at all surface seawater sites while the minority genera Gemmata and Planctomyces were only found at sites H5 and H2 respectively. Although the clone frequency of the PRB clade seemed stable (between 83.3% and 94.1%) for all surface seawater sites, the retrieved Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade presented unexpected diversity. Interestingly, low latitude seawater appeared to have higher diversity than mid-latitudes. integral-LIBSHUFF software analysis revealed significantly different diversity patterns between in latitudinal surface seawater and in the sediment of South China Sea station M2896. Our data suggested that different hydrological and geographic features contributed to the shift of Planctomycetes diversity in marine environments. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic assessment of Planctomycetes in latitudinal surface seawater of the open sea and the first comparison of diversity pattern between surface seawater and sediments and has broadened our understanding of Planctomycetes diversity in marine environments.

  14. DEPTH MEASUREMENT OF DISRUPTED LAYER ON SILICON WAFER SURFACE USING AUGER SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for depth measurement of a disrupted layer on silicon wafer surface which is based on application of Auger spectroscopy with the precision sputtering of surface silicon layers and registration of the Auger electron yield intensity. In order to measure the disrupted layer with the help of Auger spectroscopy it is necessary to determine dependence of the released Auger electron amount on sputtering time (profile and then the dependence is analyzed. Silicon amount in the disrupted layer is less than in the volume. While going deeper the disruptive layer is decreasing that corresponds to an increase of atom density in a single layer. The essence of the method lies in the fact the disruptive layer is removed by ion beam sputtering and detection of interface region is carried out with the help of registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from the sputtered surface up to the moment when it reaches the value which is equal to the Auger electron yield intensity for single-crystal silicon. While removing surface silicon layers the registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from silicon surface makes it possible to control efficiently a presence of the disrupted layer on the silicon wafer surface. In this case depth control locality is about 1.0 nm due to some peculiarities of Auger spectroscopy method. The Auger electron yield intensity is determined automatically while using Auger spectrometer and while removing the disrupted layer the intensity is gradually increasing. Depth of the disrupted layer is determined by measuring height of the step which has been formed as a result of removal of the disrupted layer from the silicon wafer surface. Auger spectroscopy methods ensures an efficient depth control surface disruptions at the manufacturing stages of silicon wafers and integrated circuits. The depth measurement range of disruptions constitutes 0.001–1.000 um.

  15. On the Existence of the Logarithmic Surface Layer in the Inner Core of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    characteristics of eyewall boundary layer of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 1447-1462. Zhang, JA, Montgomery MT. 2012 Observational...the inner core of hurricanes Roger K. Smitha ∗and Michael T. Montgomeryb a Meteorological Institute, University of Munich, Munich, Germany b Dept. of...logarithmic surface layer”, or log layer, in the boundary layer of the rapidly-rotating core of a hurricane . One such study argues that boundary-layer

  16. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.S., E-mail: jsfang@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Sun, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi-Nan University, Nan-Tou 54561, Taiwan (China); Chen, G.S.; Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO{sub 4}. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  17. Layer-by-Layer Method for the Synthesis and Growth of Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks (SURMOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shekhah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer method has been developed for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs and their deposition on functionalized organic surfaces. The approach is based on the sequential immersion of functionalized organic surfaces into solutions of the building blocks of the MOF, i.e., the organic ligand and the inorganic unit. The synthesis and growth of different types of MOFs on substrates with different functionalization, like COOH, OH and pyridine terminated surfaces, were studied and characterized with different surface characterization techniques. A controlled and highly oriented growth of very homogenous films was obtained using this method. The layer-by-layer method offered also the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, this method demonstrates the potential to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional methods. Finally, the controlled growth of MOF thin films is important for many applications like chemical sensors, membranes and related electrodes.

  18. Surface Modification of Titanium with Heparin-Chitosan Multilayers via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Y.; Zou, J.; Ou, G.; Wang, L.; Li, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM), like biomimetic surface modification of titanium implants, is a promising method for improving its biocompatibility. In this paper chitosan (Chi) and heparin (Hep) multilayer was coated on pure titanium using a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The Hep-Chi multilayer growth was carried out by first depositing a single layer of positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL) on the NaOH-treated titanium substrate (negatively charged surface), followed by alternate deposition of negatively charged Hep and positively charged Chi, and terminated by an outermost layer of Chi. The multilayer was characterized by DR-FTIR, SEM, and AFM, and osteoblasts were cocultured with the modified titanium and untreated titanium surfaces, respectively, to evaluate their cytocompatibility in vitro. The results confirmed that Hep-Chi multilayer was fabricated gradually on the titanium surface. The Hep-Chi multilayer-coated titanium improved the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Thus, the approach described here may provide a basis for the preparation of modified titanium surfaces for use in dental or orthopedic implants

  19. Mercury cycling in surface water, pore water and sediments of Mugu Lagoon, CA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E. [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com; Ambrose, Richard F. [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: rambrose@ucla.edu; Jay, Jennifer A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 951593, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593 (United States)], E-mail: jjay@seas.ucla.edu

    2008-07-15

    Mugu Lagoon is an estuary in southern California, listed as impaired for mercury. In 2005, we examined mercury cycling at ten sites within at most four habitats. In surface water (unfiltered and filtered) and pore water, the concentration of total mercury was correlated with methylmercury levels (R{sup 2} = 0.29, 0.26, 0.27, respectively, p < 0.05), in contrast to sediments, where organic matter and reduced iron levels were most correlated with methylmercury content (R{sup 2} = 0.37, 0.26, respectively, p < 0.05). Interestingly, levels for percent methylmercury of total mercury in sediments were higher than typical values for estuarine sediments (average 5.4%, range 0.024-38%, n = 59), while pore water methylmercury K{sub d} values were also high (average 3.1, range 2.0-4.2 l kg{sup -1}, n = 39), and the estimated methylmercury flux from sediments was low (average 1.7, range 0.14-5.3 ng m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, n = 19). Mercury levels in predatory fish tissue at Mugu are >0.3 ppm, suggesting biogeochemical controls on methylmercury mobility do not completely mitigate methylmercury uptake through the food web. - Trends in mercury cycling differed between habitats and within matrices at Mugu Lagoon.

  20. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution

  1. The Surface of Venus is Saturated With Ancient Impact Structures, and its Plains are Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2009-05-01

    Conventional interpretations of Venus are forced to fit dubious pre-Magellan conjectures that the planet is as active internally as Earth and preserves no ancient surface features. Plate tectonics obviously does not operate, so it is commonly assumed that the surface must record other endogenic processes, mostly unique to Venus. Imaginative systems of hundreds of tiny to huge rising and sinking plumes and diapirs are invoked. That much of the surface in fact is saturated with overlapping large circular depressions with the morphology of impact structures is obscured by postulating plume origins for selected structures and disregarding the rest. Typical structures are rimmed circular depressions, often multiring, with lobate debris aprons; central peaks are common. Marine-sedimentation features are overlooked because dogma deems the plains to be basalt flows despite their lack of source volcanoes and fissures. The unearthly close correlation between geoid and topography at long to moderate wavelengths requires, in conventional terms, dynamic maintenance of topography by up and down plumes of long-sustained precise shapes and buoyancy. A venusian upper mantle much stronger than that of Earth, because it is cooler or poorer in volatiles, is not considered. (The unearthly large so-called volcanoes and tessera plateaus often are related to rimmed circular depressions and likely are products of impact fluidization and melting.) Plains-saturating impact structures (mostly more obvious in altimetry than backscatter) with diameters of hundreds of km are superimposed as cookie-cutter bites, are variably smoothed and smeared by apparent submarine impact and erosion, and are differentially buried by sediments compacted into them. Marine- sedimentation evidence includes this compaction; long sinuous channels and distributaries with turbidite- channel characteristics and turbidite-like lobate flows (Jones and Pickering, JGSL 2003); radar-smooth surfaces and laminated aspect in

  2. Interpreting syndepositional sediment remobilization and deformation beneath submarine gravity flows; a kinematic boundary layer approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, Rob W.H.; Eggenhuisen, J.T.; Haughton, Peter; McCaffrey, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Turbidite sandstones and related deposits commonly contain deformation structures and remobilized sediment that might have resulted from post-depositional modification such as downslope creep (e.g. slumping) or density-driven loading by overlying deposits. However, we consider that deformation can

  3. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes at least two doped layers fabricated using MBE methods. The dopant sheet densities in the doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. The electrically active dopant sheet densities are quite high, reaching more than 1.times.10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, and locally exceeding 10.sup.22 per cubic centimeter. It has been found that silicon detector devices that have two or more such dopant layers exhibit improved resistance to degradation by UV radiation, at least at wavelengths of 193 nm, as compared to conventional silicon p-on-n devices.

  4. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface coastal sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coastal sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico have a high potential of being contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to extensive petroleum exploration and transportation activities. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution and contamination sources of PAHs, as well as the bioavailable fraction in the bulk PAH pool, in surface marsh and shelf sediments (top 5 cm) of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results PAH concentrations in this region ranged from 100 to 856 ng g−1, with the highest concentrations in Mississippi River mouth sediments followed by marsh sediments and then the lowest concentrations in shelf sediments. The PAH concentrations correlated positively with atomic C/N ratios of sedimentary organic matter (OM), suggesting that terrestrial OM preferentially sorbs PAHs relative to marine OM. PAHs with 2 rings were more abundant than those with 5–6 rings in continental shelf sediments, while the opposite was found in marsh sediments. This distribution pattern suggests different contamination sources between shelf and marsh sediments. Based on diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers and principal component analysis, shelf sediment PAHs were petrogenic and those from marsh sediments were pyrogenic. The proportions of bioavailable PAHs in total PAHs were low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.06%, with higher fractions found in marsh than shelf sediments. Conclusion PAH distribution and composition differences between marsh and shelf sediments were influenced by grain size, contamination sources, and the types of organic matter associated with PAHs. Concentrations of PAHs in the study area were below effects low-range, suggesting a low risk to organisms and limited transfer of PAHs into food web. From the source analysis, PAHs in shelf sediments mainly originated from direct petroleum contamination, while those in marsh sediments were from combustion of fossil fuels. PMID:24641695

  5. Thermal healing of the sub-surface damage layer in sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkas, Malki; Lotem, Haim; Golan, Yuval; Einav, Yeheskel; Golan, Roxana; Chakotay, Elad; Haim, Avivit; Sinai, Ela; Vaknin, Moshe; Hershkovitz, Yasmin; Horowitz, Atara

    2010-01-01

    The sub-surface damage layer formed by mechanical polishing of sapphire is known to reduce the mechanical strength of the processed sapphire and to degrade the performance of sapphire based components. Thermal annealing is one of the methods to eliminate the sub-surface damage layer. This study focuses on the mechanism of thermal healing by studying its effect on surface topography of a- and c-plane surfaces, on the residual stresses in surface layers and on the thickness of the sub-surface damage layer. An atomically flat surface was developed on thermally annealed c-plane surfaces while a faceted roof-top topography was formed on a-plane surfaces. The annealing resulted in an improved crystallographic perfection close to the sample surface as was indicated by a noticeable decrease in X-ray rocking curve peak width. Etching experiments and surface roughness measurements using white light interferometry with sub-nanometer resolution on specimens annealed to different extents indicate that the sub-surface damage layer of the optically polished sapphire is less than 3 μm thick and it is totally healed after thermal treatment at 1450 deg. C for 72 h.

  6. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    picture of the actual inversion phenomena occurring in this area. Figure 1 illustrates the procedure adopted in finding the inversion stations. If the temperature difference (Del T) obtained from (T U –T L ) is greater than 0.2°C, then the station... is more or less consistent. Figure 3-A shows the frequency distribution of temperature difference of the inversion layer (Del T). Figure 3-B shows the frequency distribution of the thickness of the inversion layers in meters (Di). Del T is distributed over...

  7. Expansible apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object are described. The method consists of providing a hole having a circular wall in the surface layer of the object, the hole being at least as deep as the thickness of the surface layer to be removed, and applying an outward wedging pressure on the wall of the hole sufficient to spall the surface layer around the hole. By the proper spacing of an appropriate number of holes, it is possible to remove the entire surface layer. The apparatus consists of an elongated tubular-shaped body having a relatively short handle with a solid wall at one end. The wall of the remainder of the body contains a plurality of evenly spaced longitudinal cuts to form a relatively long expandable section. The outer end of the expandable section has an expandable, wedge-shaped spalling edge extending from the outer surface of the wall, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, and expanding means in the body for outwardly expanding the expandable section and forcing the spalling edge into the wall of a hole with sufficient outward pressure to spall away the surface layer of concrete. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for removing surface layers of concrete which are radioactively contaminated

  8. Occurrence and profiles of organic sun-blocking agents in surface waters and sediments in Japanese rivers and lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Miyazaki, Motonobu

    2011-01-01

    Sun-blocking agents including eight UV filters (UVF) and 10 UV light stabilizers (UVLS) were measured in water and sediment collected from 22 rivers, four sewage treatment plant effluents (STPE) and three lakes in Japan. Total sun blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L and from 2.0 to 3422 μg/kg dry wt in surface water and in sediment, respectively. Benzyl salicylate, benzophenone-3, 2-ethyl hexyl-4-methoxycinnamte (EHMC) and octyl salicylate were dominant in surface water receiving wastewater effluents and STPE, although UV-328, benzophenone and EHMC were dominant in other surface water except background sites. Three UVF and nine UVLS were observed from all sediment and their compositions showed similar patterns with UV-328 and UV-234 as the most prevalent compounds. Homosalate, octocrylene, UV-326, UV-327, UV-328 and UV-234 were significantly correlated with Galaxolide in sediments. Concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328 also had strong correlation between those of UV-326 in sediment. - Highlights: → Total sun-blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L in surface water from 29 sampling sites. → The maximum concentration of total sun-blocking agents was 3422 μg/kg dry wt. in sediment. → Residential wastewaters and STPE were considered to be potential sources of UVLS in river and lakes. → Most of sun-blocking agents in sediment were significantly correlated with HHCB. → UV-326 had a strong linear correlation between UV-327 as well as UV-328 in all sediment. - Occurrence of eight UV filters and 10 UV light stabilizers in surface water and sediment were investigated and characterized their compositions in water and sediment.

  9. Innovative eco-friendly bio- solvent for combating sea surface and sedimented oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    The combating of oil spill at sea surface by chemical dispersants accelerates the evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes and/or is sedimented at the sea bottom, especially at near coastal shallow areas, ports and marinas. The usual methodology for cleaning the sedimented oil from the sea bottom is mainly carried out via excavation and dumping of the polluted sediment into deeper sea areas, where the contamination is transferred from one area to another. The eco-friendly bio-solvent MSL Aqua 250 is an innovative new solution based mainly on natural constituents. The action mechanism and the effectiveness of this eco-friendly solvent is based on the high surface tension process. Organic compounds, including hydrocarbons upon coming in contact with MSL Aqua 250 solvent generate a significant surface tension reaction, which is able to alter the organic compounds to liquid form and then to drastically evaporate it. The use of MSL Aqua 250 solvent, both at sea surface and at the bottom, has the following advantages compared to the dispersants: • Efficient solution without transferring the pollution from sea surface to the water column and to the bottom or disturbing the Aquatic Eco System. • Non-Toxic. • Environmentally friendly with a restoration of marine life in the Eco System. • Cost effective. The MSL Aqua 250 solvent has been tested in cooperation with the Cyprus Department of Fisheries and Marine Research and the Technological University of Cyprus and used during the years 2015 and 2016 in marinas and fishing shelters in Cyprus faced oil pollution, with high concentration in the sea water and at the sea bottom of chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), with excellent results.

  10. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıışık Merih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL process on cotton fabrics properties.

  11. Layer-by-layer modification of high surface curvature nanoparticles with weak polyelectrolytes using a multiphase solvent precipitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Ashvin T; You, Yil-Hwan; Choi, Jeong-Wan; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Meissner, Kenith E; McShane, Michael J

    2016-03-15

    The layer-by-layer modification of ≈5 nm mercaptocarboxylic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles was studied in an effort to illustrate effective means to overcome practical issues in handling and performing surface modification of such extremely small materials. To accomplish this, each layer deposition cycle was separated into a multi-step process wherein solution pH was controlled in two distinct phases of polyelectrolyte adsorption and centrifugation. Additionally, a solvent precipitation step was introduced to make processing more amenable by concentrating the sample and exchanging solution pH before ultracentrifugation. The pH-dependent assembly on gold nanoparticles was assessed after each layer deposition cycle by monitoring the plasmon peak absorbance location, surface charge, and the percentage of nanoparticles recovered. The selection of solution pH during the adsorption phase was found to be a critical parameter to enhance particle recovery and maximize surface charge when coating with weak polyelectrolytes. One bilayer was deposited with a high yield and the modified particles exhibited enhanced colloidal stability across a broad pH range and increased ionic strength. These findings support the adoption of this multi-step processing approach as an effective and generalizable approach to improve stability of high surface curvature particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. X-ray spectrum microanalysis of copper and stainless steel surface layer after electroerosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukarimov, Eh.T.; Saidinov, S.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the surface layer of copper and steel 12Kh18N10T after electroerrosion treatment by a rotating tungsten electrode in natural and distilled water are presented. It is established that the quantity of electrode material transferred to the surface of the steel treated grows with the spark discharge energy increase. Tungsten concentration in the surface layer reaches 5-10% with the average depth of penetration 40-50 μm

  13. Effect of surface wave propagation in a four-layered oceanic crust model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Pasupati; Kundu, Santimoy; Mandal, Dinbandhu

    2017-12-01

    Dispersion of Rayleigh type surface wave propagation has been discussed in four-layered oceanic crust. It includes a sandy layer over a crystalline elastic half-space and over it there are two more layers—on the top inhomogeneous liquid layer and under it a liquid-saturated porous layer. Frequency equation is obtained in the form of determinant. The effects of the width of different layers as well as the inhomogeneity of liquid layer, sandiness of sandy layer on surface waves are depicted and shown graphically by considering all possible case of the particular model. Some special cases have been deduced, few special cases give the dispersion equation of Scholte wave and Stoneley wave, some of which have already been discussed elsewhere.

  14. Vertical distribution of major, minor and trace elements in sediments from mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz: evidence of Cd, As and Ba fronts in upper layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lina; Monteiro, Rui; Figueira, Paula; Mieiro, Cláudia; Almeida, Joana; Pereira, Eduarda; Magalhães, Vítor; Pinheiro, Luís; Vale, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are feature of the coastal margins where anaerobic oxidation of methane triggers geochemical signals. Elemental composition, percentage of fine particles and loss on ignition were determined in sediment layers of eleven gravity cores retrieved from four mud volcanoes (Sagres, Bonjardim, Soloviev and Porto) and three undefined structures located on the deep Portuguese margin of the Gulf of Cadiz. Calcium was positively correlated to Sr and inversely to Al as well as to most of the trace elements. Vertical profiles of Ba, Cd and As concentrations, and their ratios to Al, in Porto and Soloviev showed pronounced enhancements in the top 50-cm depth. Sub-surface enhancements were less pronounced in other mud volcanoes and were absent in sediments from the structures. These profiles were interpreted as diagenetic enrichments related to the anaerobic oxidation of methane originated from upward methane-rich fluxes. The observed barium fronts were most likely caused by the presence of barite which precipitated at the sulphate-methane transition zone. Cd and As enrichments have probably resulted from successive dissolution/precipitation of sulphides in response to vertical shifts of redox boundaries.

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  16. Distribution and seasonal variation of trace metals in surface sediments of the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    The concentration and distribution of selected trace metals in surface sediments of the Mandovi estuary were studied to determine the extent of anthropogenic inputs from mining activities and to estimate the effects of monsoon on geochemical...

  17. Trigonium curvatus sp nov and Trigonium arcticum (Bacillariophyceae) from the surface sediments of Prydz Bay, east Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abhilash, N.; Mohan, R.; Shetye, S.; Gazi, S.; Jafar, S.A

    Here we propose a new species of genus Trigonium namely Trigonium curvatus from the surface sediments of coastal Antarctica A comparative study was done between Trigonium curvatus and Trigonium arcticum to find out the differential morphological...

  18. Fatty Alcohol Variations in Surface Sediments of Sungai Sepang Besar, Sepang, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masni Mohd Ali; Norfariza Humrawali; Ying, P.Q.; Mohd Talib Latif; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Composition of fatty alcohols from 19 surface sediment samples collected along Sungai Sepang Besar, Sepang, Selangor were determined. The sediments were extracted and analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 19 fatty alcohols from C 12 to C 30 including 4 branched compounds were identified with concentrations in the range 0.02 μg/ g - 9.01 μg/ g dry weight. C 26 fatty alcohols dominated most sampling stations with concentrations ranging from 0.29 to 5.43 μg/ g dry weight and constituted 15.5 % of total fatty alcohols. According to individual compounds of fatty alcohols and the [Σ(C 12 - C 20 )/ Σ(C 22 - C 30 )] ratio, Sungai Sepang Besar has a high composition of short-chain fatty alcohols (C 12 - C 20 ) which mainly originate from marine organisms. However, the Alcohol Sources Index (ASI) showed that terrestrial derived fatty alcohols dominated the area due to high concentration of C 26 compounds in most sampling stations. The value of (odd chain length)/ (even chain length) ratios were high for almost all the sampling stations due to high bacterial activities. It can be concluded that the surface sediments of Sungai Sepang Besar contained organic materials from marine, terrestrial and bacterial sources. (author)

  19. Biogeographical distribution and diversity of bacterial communities in surface sediments of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Peng

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at an investigation of the features of bacterial communities in surface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS). In particular, biogeographical distribution patterns and the phylogenetic diversity of bacteria found in sediments collected from a coral reef platform, a continental slope, and a deep-sea basin were determined. Bacterial diversity was measured by an observation of 16S rRNA genes, and 18 phylogenetic groups were identified in the bacterial clone library. Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria, candidate division OP11, and Alphaproteobacteria made up the majority of the bacteria in the samples, with their mean bacterial clones being 16%, 15%, 12%, and 9%, respectively. By comparison, the bacterial communities found in the SCS surface sediments were significantly different from other previously observed deep-sea bacterial communities. This research also emphasizes the fact that geographical factors have an impact on the biogeographical distribution patterns of bacterial communities. For instance, canonical correspondence analyses illustrated that the percentage of sand weight and water depth are important factors affecting the bacterial community composition. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of adequately determining the relationship between geographical factors and the distribution of bacteria in the world's seas and oceans.

  20. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  1. Heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of Yangtze River intertidal zone: An assessment from different indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weiguo; Feng Huan; Chang Jinna; Qu Jianguo; Xie Hongxia; Yu Lizhong

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediments (0-5 cm) from 59 stations within the Yangtze River intertidal zone (YRIZ) were sampled for metal contamination analysis in April and August 2005. The concentrations ranged (in mg kg -1 dry weight): Al, 40,803-97,213; Fe, 20,538-49,627; Cd, 0.12-0.75; Cr, 36.9-173; Cu, 6.87-49.7; Mn, 413-1,112; Ni, 17.6-48.0; Pb, 18.3-44.1; and Zn, 47.6-154; respectively. Among the 59 sampling stations, enrichment factors (EF) indicate enrichment of Cd (52 stations), Cr (54 stations), Cu (5 stations), Ni (26 stations), Pb (5 stations) and Zn (5 stations). Geoaccumulation indexes (I geo ) also suggest individual metal contamination in localized areas. This study indicates that Cd, Cr and Ni enrichment in the YRIZ sediment is widespread whereas Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn enrichment is localized or nonexistent. Factor and cluster analyses indicate that Cd is associated with total organic carbon whereas Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn have a close association with Mn. - Surface sediment metal enrichment is evidenced for Cd, Cr and Ni in the Yangtze River intertidal zone.

  2. The nanostructure and microstructure of SiC surface layers deposited by MWCVD and ECRCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, K.; Jonas, S.; Handke, B.

    2017-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to investigate ex-situ the surface topography of SiC layers deposited on Si(100) by Microwave Chemical Vapour Deposition (MWCVD) -S1,S2 layers and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) - layers S3,S4, using silane, methane, and hydrogen. The effects of sample temperature and gas flow on the nanostructure and microstructure have been investigated. The nanostructure was described by three-dimensional surface roughness analysis based on digital image processing, which gives a tool to quantify different aspects of surface features. A total of 13 different numerical parameters used to describe the surface topography were used. The scanning electron image (SEM) of the microstructure of layers S1, S2, and S4 was similar, however, layer S3 was completely different; appearing like grains. Nonetheless, it can be seen that no grain boundary structure is present in the AFM images.

  3. Distribution and contamination status of chromium in surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cheng-Di; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng

    2013-07-01

    The distribution, enrichment, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of chromium (Cr) in the surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan, China were investigated. Sediment samples from ten locations located between the river mouths and harbor entrance of northern Kaohsiung Harbor were collected quarterly in 2011 and characterized for Cr, aluminum, water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease, and grain size. Results showed that the Cr concentrations varied from 27.0 to 361.9 mg/kg with an average of (113.5 +/- 87.0) mg/kg. High Cr concentration was observed near the Jen-Gen River mouth. The mean Cr concentration was high at 255.5 mg/kg, which was at least 2 to 7 times than that of other sites. This might imply significant Cr contribution from upstream receiving tanneries wastewater into the Jen-Gen River. The spatial distribution of Cr reveals relatively high in the river mouth region, especially in Jen-Gen River, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor entrance region. This indicates that the major sources of Cr pollution from upstream industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged along the river bank; and Cr may drift with sea current and be dispersed into open sea. Moreover, Cr concentrations correlated closely to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the neighboring industrial parks and river basins. Results from the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index analyses imply that the Jen-Gen River sediments can be characterized as moderate enrichment and none to medium accumulation of Cr, respectively. However, results of potential ecological risk index indicate that the sediment has low ecological potential risk. The results can provide valuable information to developing future strategies for the management of river mouth and harbor.

  4. CoBOP: Microbial Biofilms: A Parameter Altering the Apparent Optical Properties of Sediments, Seagrasses and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-30

    CoBOP: Microbial Biofilms: A Parameter Altering the Apparent Optical Properties of Sediments, Seagrasses and Surfaces Alan W. Decho Department...TITLE AND SUBTITLE CoBOP: Microbial Biofilms: A Parameter Altering the Apparent Optical Properties of Sediments, Seagrasses and Surfaces 5a. CONTRACT...structures produced by bacteria. Their growth appears to depend on biofilm processes and light distributions ( photosynthesis ). Therefore, the data acquired

  5. Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Surface Sediment from Coastal Area of Putatan and Papar, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Rohana Tair; Yang, S.Z.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2013-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and percent total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments from coastal area of Papar and Putatan, Sabah. Samples were collected in five different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted with Soxhlet, concentrated and analyzed by using UV/ VIS spectrophotometer. The overall mean and range of TPH concentrations in the sediments from coastal area of Papar and Putatan were 1.95 (0.53-4.59 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents) and 0.85 (0.26-1.64 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents) respectively. Meanwhile, the TOC ranged from 0.81-2.32 % and 0.35-0.81 % respectively. Statistical analysis using Pearson correlation showed no significant differences between TPH and TOC (p<0.05) in both areas. (author)

  6. Uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments collected in Ghazaouet, west coast of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B.; Hocini, N.; Boulahdid, M.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of surface marine sediments of different grain sizes collected in Ghazaouet, a small bay on the western coast of Algeria, have been examined to measure concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides. The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity and its repartition in the sedimentary area. The samples analyzed by direct counting gamma spectrometry, showed relatively high activities for natural radioactivity and revealed measurable quantities of 137 Cs, ranging from 0.66-8.47 Bq kg -1 dry weight. In addition, some of the samples of different nature were sieved in different grain-sizes, to study the uptake of radioactivity. It is found that the sediments of less than 100 μm grain-size have the highest level of uptake of radioactivity

  7. Uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments collected in Ghazaouet, west coast of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B. [Laboratoire d' Environnement, Centre de Radioprotection et de Surete (C.R.S.), Algiers (Algeria); Hocini, N. [Laboratoire de Sedimentologie, Centre de Developpement des Techniques Nucleaires (C.D.T.N.), Algiers (Algeria); Boulahdid, M. [Departement de la Pollution Chimique, Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l' Amenagement du Littoral, Tipaza (Algeria)

    1998-12-01

    Samples of surface marine sediments of different grain sizes collected in Ghazaouet, a small bay on the western coast of Algeria, have been examined to measure concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides. The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity and its repartition in the sedimentary area. The samples analyzed by direct counting gamma spectrometry, showed relatively high activities for natural radioactivity and revealed measurable quantities of {sup 137}Cs, ranging from 0.66-8.47 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight. In addition, some of the samples of different nature were sieved in different grain-sizes, to study the uptake of radioactivity. It is found that the sediments of less than 100 {mu}m grain-size have the highest level of uptake of radioactivity.

  8. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Electric double layer interactions in bacterial adhesion to surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, AT; Norde, W; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    2002-01-01

    The DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek) theory was originally developed to describe interactions between non-biological lyophobic colloids such as polystyrene particles, but is also used to describe bacterial adhesion to surfaces. Despite the differences between the surface of bacteria and

  10. E. coli Surface Properties Differ between Stream Water and Sediment Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Liao, Chunyu; Thompson, Michael L; Soupir, Michelle L; Jarboe, Laura R; Dixon, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism in fresh water has led to numerous studies focusing on cell properties and transport behavior. However, previous studies have been unable to assess if differences in E. coli cell surface properties and genomic variation are associated with different environmental habitats. In this study, we investigated the variation in characteristics of E. coli obtained from stream water and stream bottom sediments. Cell properties were measured for 77 genomically different E. coli strains (44 strains isolated from sediments and 33 strains isolated from water) under common stream conditions in the Upper Midwestern United States: pH 8.0, ionic strength 10 mM and 22°C. Measured cell properties include hydrophobicity, zeta potential, net charge, total acidity, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition. Our results indicate that stream sediment E. coli had significantly greater hydrophobicity, greater EPS protein content and EPS sugar content, less negative net charge, and higher point of zero charge than stream water E. coli . A significant positive correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and EPS protein for stream sediment E. coli but not for stream water E. coli . Additionally, E. coli surviving in the same habitat tended to have significantly larger (GTG) 5 genome similarity. After accounting for the intrinsic impact from the genome, environmental habitat was determined to be a factor influencing some cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity. The diversity of cell properties and its resulting impact on particle interactions should be considered for environmental fate and transport modeling of aquatic indicator organisms such as E. coli .

  11. E. coli Surface Properties Differ between Stream Water and Sediment Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism in fresh water has led to numerous studies focusing on cell properties and transport behavior. However, previous studies have been unable to assess if differences in E. coli cell surface properties and genomic variation are associated with different environmental habitats. In this study, we investigated the variation in characteristics of E. coli obtained from stream water and stream bottom sediments. Cell properties were measured for 77 genomically different E. coli strains (44 strains isolated from sediments and 33 strains isolated from water under common stream conditions in the Upper Midwestern United States: pH 8.0, ionic strength 10mM and 22˚C. Measured cell properties include hydrophobicity, zeta potential, net charge, total acidity and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS composition. Our results indicate that stream sediment E. coli had significantly greater hydrophobicity, greater EPS protein content and EPS sugar content, less negative net charge, and higher point of zero charge than stream water E. coli. A significant positive correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and EPS protein for stream sediment E. coli but not for stream water E. coli. Additionally, E. coli surviving in the same habitat tended to have significantly larger (GTG5 genome similarity. After accounting for the intrinsic impact from the genome, environmental habitat was determined to be a factor influencing some cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity. The diversity of cell properties and its resulting impact on particle interactions should be considered for environmental fate and transport modeling of aquatic indicator organisms such as E. coli.

  12. Sources and distribution of yttrium and rare earth elements in surface sediments from Tagus estuary, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Pedro; Prego, Ricardo; Mil-Homens, Mário; Caçador, Isabel; Caetano, Miguel

    2018-04-15

    The distribution and sources of yttrium and rare-earth elements (YREE) in surface sediments were studied on 78 samples collected in the Tagus estuary (SW Portugal, SW Europe). Yttrium and total REE contents ranged from 2.4 to 32mg·kg -1 and 18 to 210mg·kg -1 , respectively, and exhibited significant correlations with sediment grain-size, Al, Fe, Mg and Mn, suggesting a preferential association to fine-grained material (e.g. aluminosilicates but also Al hydroxides and Fe oxyhydroxides). The PAAS (Post-Archean Australian Shale) normalized patterns display three distinct YREE fractionation pattern groups along the Tagus estuary: a first group, characterized by medium to coarse-grained material, a depleted and almost flat PAAS-normalized pattern, with a positive anomaly of Eu, representing one of the lithogenic components; a second group, characterized mainly by fine-grained sediment, with higher shale-normalized ratios and an enrichment of LREE relative to HREE, associated with waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls, located in the northern margin; and, a third group, of fine-grained material, marked by a significant enrichment of Y, a depletion of Ce and an enrichment of HREE over LREE, located near an inactive chemical-industrial complex (e.g. pyrite roast plant, chemical and phosphorous fertilizer industries), in the southern margin. The data allow the quantification of the YREE contents and its spatial distribution in the surface sediments of the Tagus estuary, identifying the main potential sources and confirming the use of rare earth elements as tracers of anthropogenic activities in highly hydrodynamic estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. X-ray evaluation of residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yuu; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    The excessive tensile residual stress generated by welding after surface machining may be an important factor to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nuclear power plants. Therefore we need to understand and control the residual stress distribution appropriately. In this study, residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding were evaluated by X-ray diffraction method. Depth directional distributions were also investigated by electrolytic polishing. In addition, to consider the effect of work hardened layer on the residual stress distributions, we also measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) obtained from X-ray diffraction. Testing material was a low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type SUS316L. Test specimens were prepared by surface machining with different cutting conditions. Then, bead-on-plate welding under the same welding condition was carried out on the test specimens with different surface machined layer. As a result, the tensile residual stress generated by surface machining increased with increasing cutting speed and showed nearly uniform distributions on the surface. Furthermore, the tensile residual stress drastically decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Then, the residual stress approached 0 MPa after the compressive value showed. FWHM also decreased drastically with increasing measurement depth and almost constant value from a certain depth, which was almost equal regardless of the machining condition, within surface machined layer in all specimens. After welding, the transverse distribution of the longitudinal residual stress varied in the area apart from the weld center according to machining conditions and had a maximum value in heat affected zone. The magnitude of the maximum residual stress was almost equal regardless of the machining condition and decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Finally, the

  14. Spatial glyphosate and AMPA redistribution on the soil surface driven by sediment transport processes – A flume experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bento, Célia P.M.; Commelin, Meindert C.; Baartman, Jantiene E.M.; Yang, Xiaomei; Peters, Piet; Mol, Hans G.J.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of small-scale sediment transport on glyphosate and AMPA redistribution on the soil surface and on their off-site transport during water erosion events. Both a smooth surface (T1) and a surface with “seeding lines on the contour” (T2) were tested in a rainfall

  15. Multiple ash layers in late Quaternary sediments from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Nath, B.N.; Iyer, S.D.; Borole, D.V.; Parthiban, G.; Jijin, R.; Khedekar, V.D.

    to those originated from Toba, the age (>180 ka) of the shard-bearing sediments was different from the major Quaternary Toba eruptions namely Young, Middle and Old Toba Tuff (YTT, MTT and OTT) and other rhyolitic eruptions in the Indian Ocean. This fact.... 4. Discussion Prior to delving into the discussion it would be pertinent to clarify certain aspects that may have a bearing on the distribution, characteristics, composition, source and age of the volcanic horizons. The premises that we have...

  16. Formation of Pentacene wetting layer on the SiO2 surface and charge trap in the wetting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chaeho; Jeon, D.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the early-stage growth of vacuum-evaporated pentacene film on a native SiO 2 surface using atomic force microscopy and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Pentacene deposition prompted an immediate change in the ellipsometry spectra, but atomic force microscopy images of the early stage films did not show a pentacene-related morphology other than the decrease in the surface roughness. This suggested that a thin pentacene wetting layer was formed by pentacene molecules lying on the surface before the crystalline islands nucleated. Growth simulation based on the in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra supported this conclusion. Scanning capacitance microscopy measurement indicated the existence of trapped charges in the SiO 2 and pentacene wetting layer

  17. Formation and Characterization of Stacked Nanoscale Layers of Polymers and Silanes on Silicon Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosie; Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Complete and consistent formation of nanoscale layers of silanes and polymers is a necessary first step for chemical patterning. We explored methods of silanizing silicon substrates for the purpose of functionalizing the surfaces. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was characterized by use of ellipsometry, water contact angle, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We found that forming the highest quality functionalized surfaces was accomplished through use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Specifically, surfaces were plasma cleaned and hydrolyzed before the silane was applied. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was also characterized for the polymer layer using ellipsometry, water contact angle, and AFM.

  18. Characterization of SCC crack tips and surface oxide layers in alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Fukuya, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC), direct observation of microstructures of SCC crack tips and surface oxide layers in alloy 600 were carried out. A focused-ion beam (FIB) micro-processing technique was applied to prepare electron transparent foils including the crack tip and the surface oxide layer without any damage to those microstructures. Transmission electron microscopy and analysis were used to characterize the crack tips and surface oxide layers. Cr-rich oxides and a metal-Ni phase were identified in the crack tips and grain boundaries ahead of the crack tips independent of dissolved hydrogen concentrations. >From the fact that the Cr-rich oxides and metal-Ni phase were observed in the inner surface oxide layer, the same oxidation mechanism as the surface is proposed for the crack tip region and internal oxidation accompanying selective Cr oxidation is suggested as the mechanism. (author)

  19. Boundary layer development on turbine airfoil suction surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, O. P.; Wells, R. A.; Schlinker, R. H.; Bailey, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study supported by NASA under the Energy Efficient Engine Program, conducted to investigate the development of boundary layers under the influence of velocity distributions that simulate the suction sides of two state-of-the-art turbine airfoils, are presented. One velocity distribution represented a forward loaded airfoil ('squared-off' design), while the other represented an aft loaded airfoil ('aft loaded' design). These velocity distributions were simulated in a low-speed, high-aspect-ratio wind tunnel specifically designed for boundary layer investigations. It is intended that the detailed data presented in this paper be used to develop improved turbulence model suitable for application to turbine airfoil design.

  20. Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical surface embedded in a thermally stratified porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan

    2008-01-01

    The mixed convection boundary layer flow through a stable stratified porous medium bounded by a vertical surface is investigated. The external velocity and the surface temperature are assumed to vary as x m , where x is measured from the leading edge of the vertical surface and m is a constant. Numerical solutions for the governing Darcy and energy equations are obtained. The results indicate that the thermal stratification significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the surface heat transfer, besides delays the boundary layer separation

  1. Dynamical structure of the turbulent boundary layer on rough surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Jonáš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 603-604 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent boundary layer * rough wall * hairpin vortex Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201110291/abstract

  2. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Surface Sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments in the Shenhu area of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Shen, Z.; Jia, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Methane hydrates are superior energy resources and potential predisposing factors of geohazard. With the success in China's persistent exploitation of methane hydrates in the Shenhu area of South China Sea for 60 days, there is an increasing demand for detailed knowledge of sediment properties and hazard assessment in this area. In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of both the surface sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) in the exploitation area, the Shenhu area of South China Sea, were investigated using laboratory geotechnical experiments, and triaxial tests were carried out on remolded sediment samples using a modified triaxial apparatus. The results show that sediments in this area are mainly silt with high moisture content, high plasticity, low permeability and low shear strength. The moisture content and permeability decrease while the shear strength increases with the increasing depth. The elastic modulus and peak strength of MHBS increase with the increasing effective confining pressure and higher hydrate saturation. The cohesion increases with higher hydrate saturation while the internal friction angle is barely affected by hydrate saturation. The obtained results demonstrate clearly that methane hydrates have significant impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of sediments and there is still a wide gap in knowledge about MHBS.

  3. Turbulence Scaling Comparisons in the Ocean Surface Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esters, L.; Breivik, Ø.; Landwehr, S.; ten Doeschate, A.; Sutherland, G.; Christensen, K. H.; Bidlot, J.-R.; Ward, B.

    2018-03-01

    Direct observations of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, ɛ, under open ocean conditions are limited. Consequently, our understanding of what chiefly controls dissipation in the open ocean, and its functional form with depth, is poorly constrained. In this study, we report direct open ocean measurements of ɛ from the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP) collected during five different cruises in the Atlantic Ocean. We then combine these data with ocean-atmosphere flux measurements and wave information in order to evaluate existing turbulence scaling theories under a diverse set of open ocean conditions. Our results do not support the presence of a "breaking" or a "transition layer," which has been previously suggested. Instead, ɛ decays as |z|-1.29 over the depth interval, which was previously defined as "transition layer," and as |z|-1.15 over the mixing layer. This depth dependency does not significantly vary between nonbreaking or breaking wave conditions. A scaling relationship based on the friction velocity, the wave age, and the significant wave height describes the observations best for daytime conditions. For conditions during which convection is important, it is necessary to take buoyancy forcing into account.

  4. Al2O3 dielectric layers on H-terminated diamond: Controlling surface conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Koeck, Franz A.; Dutta, Maitreya; Wang, Xingye; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates how the surface conductivity of H-terminated diamond can be preserved and stabilized by using a dielectric layer with an in situ post-deposition treatment. Thin layers of Al2O3 were grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) on H-terminated undoped diamond (100) surfaces. The changes of the hole accumulation layer were monitored by correlating the binding energy of the diamond C 1s core level with electrical measurements. The initial PEALD of 1 nm Al2O3 resulted in an increase of the C 1s core level binding energy consistent with a reduction of the surface hole accumulation and a reduction of the surface conductivity. A hydrogen plasma step restored the C 1s binding energy to the value of the conductive surface, and the resistance of the diamond surface was found to be within the range for surface transfer doping. Further, the PEALD growth did not appear to degrade the surface conductive layer according to the position of the C 1s core level and electrical measurements. This work provides insight into the approaches to establish and control the two-dimensional hole-accumulation layer of the H-terminated diamond and improve the stability and performance of H-terminated diamond electronic devices.

  5. Study on the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Duan Rongliang; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Zuo Changming; Zhao Chunpei; Chen Hong

    1997-01-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography (GC). Carbon monoxide adsorption on the oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased and the atomic ratio (O/U) is decreased by 7.2%. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere after the surface reaction is increased by 11.0%. The investigation indicates that the surface layer can prevent the further oxidation uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  6. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, E. B., E-mail: eugene.chubenko@gmail.com; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P. [Belarusian State University of Information and RadioElectronics (Belarus)

    2016-03-15

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  7. Abrasive wear mechanisms and surface layer structure of refractory materials after mechanical working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Y.V.; Lotsko, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of abrasive wear and surface layer structure formation after different kinds of mechanical working are considered in terms of fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms for various refractory materials. The principles for classification of abrasive wear mechanisms are proposed, the four types of wear mechanisms are distinguished for various combinations of fractures and plastic deformation types. The concept of characteristic deformation temperature t * (knee temperature) is used. Detailed examples are given of investigating the surface layer structures in grinded crystals of sapphire and molybdenum. The amorphisation tendency of the thinnest surface layer while mechanical polishing is discussed separately. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  8. Low-cycle fatigue of sheet elements with ''soft'' surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, V.F.; Kharchenko, V.Ya.; Berezutskij, V.I.; Ovsyannikov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated are regularities of low-cycle fatigue of bimetallic sheet constructions made of chrome-nickel-molybdenum steel, plated with a low-alloyed steel with a reduced yield limit. Static repeated bending tests have been carried out using two-layer samples. The surface layer has been shown to increase resistance to nucleation and propagation of cracks under pulsating load if stresses are not more than 2 times higher than the yield limit. Increase in stresses leads to elastoplastic deformation and reduces durability. The positive effect of the surface layer is advisable to be used when welding-up surface defects and strengthening welded joints of high-strength steels

  9. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, E. B.; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  10. The microstructure of the surface layer of magnesium laser alloyed with aluminum and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziadoń, Andrzej [Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia P.P. 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Mola, Renata, E-mail: rmola@tu.kielce.pl [Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia P.P. 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Błaż, Ludwik [Department of Structure and Mechanics of Solids, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    The surface layer under analysis was formed as a result of diffusion bonding of a thin AlSi20 plate to a magnesium substrate followed by laser melting. Depending on the process parameters, the laser beam melted the AlSi20 plate only or the AlSi20 plate and a layer of the magnesium surface adjacent to it. Two types of microstructure of the remelted layer were thus analyzed. If the melting zone was limited to the AlSi20 plate, the microstructure of the surface layer was typical of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–Si alloy. Since, however, the liquid AlSi20 reacted with the magnesium substrate, the following intermetallic phases formed: Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 2}Si. The microstructure of the modified surface layer of magnesium was examined using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the surface properties of the laser modified magnesium revealed that the thin layer has a microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al–Si alloy offering good protection against corrosion. By contrast, the surface layer containing particles of intermetallic phases was more resistant to abrasion but had lower corrosion resistance than the silumin type layer. - Highlights: •A CO{sub 2} laser was used for surface alloying of Mg with AlSi20. •Before alloying, an AlSi20 plate was diffusion bonded with the Mg substrate. •The process parameters affected the alloyed layer microstructure and properties. •With melting limited to AlSi20, the layer had a structure of rapidly solidified AlSi20. •Mg–Al and Mg–Si phases were present when both the substrate and the plate were melted.

  11. The microstructure of the surface layer of magnesium laser alloyed with aluminum and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziadoń, Andrzej; Mola, Renata; Błaż, Ludwik

    2016-01-01

    The surface layer under analysis was formed as a result of diffusion bonding of a thin AlSi20 plate to a magnesium substrate followed by laser melting. Depending on the process parameters, the laser beam melted the AlSi20 plate only or the AlSi20 plate and a layer of the magnesium surface adjacent to it. Two types of microstructure of the remelted layer were thus analyzed. If the melting zone was limited to the AlSi20 plate, the microstructure of the surface layer was typical of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–Si alloy. Since, however, the liquid AlSi20 reacted with the magnesium substrate, the following intermetallic phases formed: Al 3 Mg 2 , Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg 2 Si. The microstructure of the modified surface layer of magnesium was examined using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the surface properties of the laser modified magnesium revealed that the thin layer has a microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al–Si alloy offering good protection against corrosion. By contrast, the surface layer containing particles of intermetallic phases was more resistant to abrasion but had lower corrosion resistance than the silumin type layer. - Highlights: •A CO 2 laser was used for surface alloying of Mg with AlSi20. •Before alloying, an AlSi20 plate was diffusion bonded with the Mg substrate. •The process parameters affected the alloyed layer microstructure and properties. •With melting limited to AlSi20, the layer had a structure of rapidly solidified AlSi20. •Mg–Al and Mg–Si phases were present when both the substrate and the plate were melted.

  12. Functionalised nanoscale coatings using layer-by-layer assembly for imparting antibacterial properties to polylactide-co-glycolide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Frongia, Maria E; Cardellach, Mar; Miller, Cheryl A; Stafford, Graham P; Leggett, Graham J; Hatton, Paul V

    2015-07-01

    In order to achieve high local biological activity and reduce the risk of side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal and bone infections, a localised and temporally controlled delivery system is desirable. The aim of this research was to develop a functionalised and resorbable surface to contact soft tissues to improve the antibacterial behaviour during the first week after its implantation in the treatment of periodontal and bone infections. Solvent-cast poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) films were aminolysed and then modified by Layer-by-Layer technique to obtain a nano-layered coating using poly(sodium4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as polyelectrolytes. The water-soluble antibiotic, metronidazole (MET), was incorporated from the ninth layer. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the PSS and PAH absorption bands increased with the layer number. The contact angle values had a regular alternate behaviour from the ninth layer. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy evidenced two distinct peaks, N1s and S2p, indicating PAH and PSS had been introduced. Atomic Force Microscopy showed the presence of polyelectrolytes on the surface with a measured roughness about 10nm after 20 layers' deposition. The drug release was monitored by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showing 80% loaded-drug delivery in 14 days. Finally, the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro with L929 mouse fibroblasts and the antibacterial properties were demonstrated successfully against the keystone periodontal bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, which has an influence on implant failure, without compromising in vitro biocompatibility. In this study, PLGA was successfully modified to obtain a localised and temporally controlled drug delivery system, demonstrating the potential value of LbL as a coating technology for the manufacture of medical devices with advanced functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  13. Research Note : Near-surface layer replacement for sparse data: Is interpolation needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, D.J.; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Near-surface problem is a common challenge faced by land seismic data processing, where often, due to near-surface anomalies, events of interest are obscured. One method to handle this challenge is near-surface layer replacement, which is a wavefield reconstruction process based on downward

  14. Effect of Cholesterol on the Stability and Lubrication Efficiency of Phosphatidylcholine Surface Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The lubrication properties of saturated PC lipid vesicles containing high cholesterol content under high loads were examined by detailed surface force balance measurements of normal and shear forces between two surface-attached lipid layers. Forces between two opposing mica surfaces bearing

  15. Influence of changes in surface layer properties on tire/pavement noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.; Van Keulen, W.; Ceylan, H.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in tire/pavement noise caused by variations in the road surface characteristics. This research is based on the analysis of noise and surface characteristics collected from sections with 25 mm thickness thin layer surfacings in the Netherlands. Investigations are first

  16. Laminar boundary layer response to rotation of a finite diameter surface patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klewicki, J.C.; Hill, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The responses of the flat plate laminar boundary layer to perturbations generated by rotating a finite patch of the bounding surface are explored experimentally. The size of the surface patch was of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. The displacement thickness Reynolds number range of the boundary layers explored was 72-527. The rotation rates of the surface patch ranged from 2.14 to 62.8 s-1. Qualitative flow visualizations and quantitative molecular tagging velocimetry measurements revealed that rotation of a finite surface patch generates an asymmetric loop-like vortex. Significant features of this vortex include that, (i) the sign of the vorticity in the vortex head is opposite that of the boundary layer vorticity regardless of the sign of the input rotation, (ii) one leg of the vortex exhibits motion akin to solid body rotation while the other leg is best characterized as a spanwise shear layer, (iii) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation lifts more rapidly from the surface than the leg more like a shear layer, and (iv) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation always occurs on the side of the surface patch experiencing downstream motion. These asymmetries switch sides depending on the sign of the input rotation. The present results are interpreted and discussed relative to analytical solutions for infinite geometries. By way of analogy, plausible connections are drawn between the present results and the influences of wall normal vortices in turbulent boundary layer flows

  17. Thiol-ene thermosets exploiting surface reactivity for layer-by-layer structures and control of penetration depth for selective surface reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Westh, Andreas; Pereira Rosinha Grundtvig, Ines

    Thiol-ene thermosets have been shown to be an efficient platform for preparation of functional polymer surfaces. Especially the effectiveness and versatility of the system has enabled a large variety of network properties to be obtained in a simple and straight-forward way. Due to its selectivity......, various thiols and allyl or other vinyl reactants can be used to obtain either soft and flexible1 or more rigid functional thermosets 2. The methodology permits use of etiher thermal or photochemical conditions both for matrix preparation as well as for surface functionalization. Due to excess reactive...... groups in thµe surface of thiol-ene thermosets, it is possible to prepare surface functional thermosets or to exploit the reactive groups for modular construction and subsequent chemical bonding. Here a different approach preparing monolithic layer-by-layer structures with controlled mechanical...

  18. GPS based surface displacements – a proxy for discharge and sediment transport from the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Mikkelsen, Andreas Bech

    2014-01-01

    winter precipitation correlated fairly well with surface depression (R2=0.69). The relationships are based on seven years of runoff and sediment transport observations from the Watson River (2007–2013), winter precipitation from Kangerlussuaq Airport and GPS observations at Kellyville. GPS recordings...... of surface subsidence and uplift from 1996–2013 are used to calculate 18 years time series of annual runoff, sediment and solute transport and 10 winter precipitation. Runoff and related transport of sediment and solutes increase over the period, while winter precipitation (land depression) tends to decrease......The elastic respond of the Earth’s surface to mass changes has been measured with Global Positioning System (GPS). Mass loss as accumulated runoff and sediment transport from a 10000 km2 segment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) correlated very well (R2=0.83) with GPS measured uplift. Accumulated...

  19. Heavy metal pollution and Pb isotopic tracing in the intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay, southeast coast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ruilian; Zhang, Weifang; Hu, Gongren; Lin, Chengqi; Yang, Qiuli

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of 16 heavy metals and Pb isotopic ratios in the intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay were determined to study the pollution level of heavy metals and the sources of Pb. The results showed that most concentrations of Cd, Sn, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Co, Cs, Fe and V were higher than the background values, while most concentrations of Ti, Sb and Sr were lower than the background values. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd exceeded the first-grade criteria of Chinese marine sediment quality. The geo-accumulation indexes revealed that the sediments had been polluted by some heavy metals. The results of Pb isotopic tracing indicated that the total Pb in the sediments were mainly from parent material, industrial emission and vehicle exhaust with the mean contributions of 38.2%, 51.3% and 10.5%, respectively, calculated by a three-end-member model of Pb isotopic ratios. - Highlights: •Level of 16 heavy metals in intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay was studied. •The sediments had been polluted by some heavy metals including Pb. •Pb isotopic compositions in the sediments and the potential sources were determined. •A three-end member model was applied to estimate the contributions of Pb sources. •Industrial emission was the major anthropogenic Pb contributor in the sediments.

  20. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  1. Influence of ploughshare surface layers on ploughing efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Horvat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparison between standard ploughshares made of manganese steel 50Mn7 and the authors’ ploughshares hardfaced with a layer of C-Co-Cr-Ni-Si on the same steel. The research was carried out by using two tractors with two four-furrow plough of the same power in a total of 360 working hours, and a total of 180 hours of ploughing with each ploughshare. Ploughshares were used to measure hardness, to analyse the structure and wear.

  2. Fluid-membrane tethers: minimal surfaces and elastic boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas R; Huber, Greg; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2002-04-01

    Thin cylindrical tethers are common lipid bilayer membrane structures, arising in situations ranging from micromanipulation experiments on artificial vesicles to the dynamic structure of the Golgi apparatus. We study the shape and formation of a tether in terms of the classical soap-film problem, which is applied to the case of a membrane disk under tension subject to a point force. A tether forms from the elastic boundary layer near the point of application of the force, for sufficiently large displacement. Analytic results for various aspects of the membrane shape are given.

  3. Selected anionic and cationic surface active agents: case study on the Kłodnica sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkowska Ewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface active agents (surfactants are a group of chemical compounds, which are used as ingredients of detergents, cleaning products, cosmetics and functional products. After use, wastes containing surfactants or their degradation products are discharged to wastewater treatment plants or directly into surface waters. Due to their specific properties of SAAs, compounds are able to migrate between different environmental compartments such as soil, sediment, water or even living organisms and accumulate there. Surfactants can have a harmful effect on living organisms. They can connect with bioactive molecules and modify their function. Additionally, they have the ability to migrate into cells and cause their damage or death. For these reasons investigation of individual surfactants should be conducted. The presented research has been undertaken to obtain information about SAA contamination of sediment from the River Kłodnica catchment caused by selected anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS C10-C13 and cationic (alkylbenzyldimethylammonium (BDMA-C12-16, alkyl trimethyl ammonium (DTMA, hexadecyl piridinium chloride (HP chlorides surfactants. This river flows through an area of the Upper Silesia Industrial Region where various companies and other institutions (e.g. coal mining, power plants, metallurgy, hospitals are located. To determine their concentration the following analytical tools have been applied: accelerated solvent extraction– solid phase extraction – high performance liquid chromatography – UV-Vis (anionic SAAs and conductivity (cationic SAAs detectors. In all sediments anionic SAAs have been detected. The concentrations of HTMA and BDMA-C16 in tested samples were higher than other cationic analytes. Generally, levels of surfactants with longer alkyl chains were higher and this observation can confirm their higher susceptibility to sorption on solid surfaces.

  4. Shift in the microbial community composition of surface water and sediment along an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Huilin; Yang, Hong; Peng, Chao; Peng, Zhengsong; Lu, Lu

    2018-06-15

    Urban rivers represent a unique ecosystem in which pollution occurs regularly, leading to significantly altered of chemical and biological characteristics of the surface water and sediments. However, the impact of urbanization on the diversity and structure of the river microbial community has not been well documented. As a major tributary of the Yangtze River, the Jialing River flows through many cities. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the spatial microbial distribution in the surface water and sediments in the Nanchong section of Jialing River and its two urban branches was conducted using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed distinct differences in surface water bacterial composition along the river with a differential distribution of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria (P urban water. PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis revealed a growing number of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and nitrogen metabolism in the urban water, indicating that urban discharges might act as the dominant selective force to alter the microbial communities. Redundancy analysis suggested that the microbial community structure was influenced by several environmental factors. TP (P urban river. These results highlight that river microbial communities exhibit spatial variation in urban areas due to the joint influence of chemical variables associated with sewage discharging and construction of hydropower stations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanoue, Kei [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yahiro, Masayuki [Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies, 2-1-22, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0001 (Japan); Fukai, Jun, E-mail: jfukai@chem-eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  6. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Kei; Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento; Yahiro, Masayuki; Fukai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  7. Stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance of permeable pavement layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Lv, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Zhen-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the laboratory-scale permeable pavement layers, including a surface permeable brick layer, coarse sand bedding layers (thicknesses = 2, 3.5, and 5 cm), and single-graded gravel sub-base layers (thicknesses = 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm), were built to evaluate stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance. And, the infiltration rate (I) and concentrations of suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen (TN) were measured under the simulated rainfall intensity of 72.4 mm/h over duration of 60 min. The results indicate that the thickness factor primarily influences the infiltration rate and pollutant removal rate. The highest steady infiltration rate was for surface brick layer 51.0 mm/h, for 5-cm sand bedding layer 32.3 mm/h, and for 30-cm gravel sub-base layer 42.3 mm/h, respectively. The SS average removal rate was relative higher (79.8 ∼ 98.6 %) for all layers due to the interception and filtration. The average removal rates of TP and COD were for surface layer 71.2 and 24.1 %, for 5-cm bedding layer 54.8 and 9.0 %, and for 20-cm sub-base layer 72.2 and 26.1 %. Ammonia nitrogen and TN cannot steadily be removed by layers according to the experiment results. The optimal thickness of bedding sands was 5 cm, and that of sub-base gravels was 20 ∼ 30 cm.

  8. Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Representation for General Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two-layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC-2L) land surface model suitable for incorporation in general circulation models (GCMs) is described. The model consists of a two-layer characterization of the soil within a GCM grid cell, and uses an aerodynamic representation of latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The effects of GCM spatial subgrid variability of soil moisture and a hydrologically realistic runoff mechanism are represented in the soil layers. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatalogical data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters. Surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiments (FIFE) intensive field compaigns in the summer and fall of 1987 in central Kansas, and from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) in Brazil were used to validate the mode-simulated surface energy fluxes and surface temperature.

  9. Horizontal and vertical distribution of lignin in surface sediments of the Gdansk Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Staniszewski

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify lignin transported from the River Vistula to the accumulation area in the Gdansk Basin. Sediment samples collected along the Vistula mouth - Gdansk Deep transect were analysed for lignin. Lignin was characterised by oxidative degradation, cupric oxide being chosen as the most suitable oxidising agent. The polar functional groups of the oxidation products were silylated and the derivatives analysed by capillary gas chromatography on fused capillary silica columns with flame ionisation detection. Lignin-derived oxidation products were quantified in the range from 3 to 20 µg g-1 dry wt. for phenolic acids and from 6 to 12 µg g-1 dry wt. for phenolic aldehydes. Differences in oxidation products contents are assigned to different lignin sources in the marine environment. The horizontal and vertical gradients of these compounds in the sediments of the Gdansk Basin are documented. The results are discussed in terms of the origin and fate of organic matter in the Gdansk Basin. The measured differences in quality and quantity of the identified oxidation products provide insight into diagenetic processes in the surface marine sediments.

  10. Seasonal and spatial distribution of metals in surface sediment of an urban estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buggy, Conor J.; Tobin, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic pollution by metals is of concern because of various toxic effects to marine life. The Tolka Estuary, Co. Dublin, Ireland, is a typical Irish urban estuary. It has a significant metal loading originating from the urban environment. Results of a 25 month analysis of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc spatial and temporal distribution over 10 sample locations in this estuary are presented in this paper. Metal concentrations were analysed using differential pulse polarography. Significant seasonal and spatial trends in metal distribution were observed over the 25 months. Sediment metal concentrations gradually increased (30-120%) in spring to a maximum at the end of summer which was followed by a decrease in winter months (30-60%). Sediment organic matter (OM) concentrations exhibited similar seasonal trends and a positive correlation between OM and metal distributions was observed, implying OM had an influence on metal distributions over time. - Assessment and correlation of the seasonal and spatial distribution of metals and organic matter in surface sediment of an urban estuary

  11. PBDD/Fs in surface sediments from the East River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Peng, P A; Chen, D Y; Chen, P; Zhou, L

    2009-09-01

    The contamination status of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) was preliminarily investigated in surface sediments from the East River. The concentrations of eight 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra- to hexa- PBDD/Fs were found to be in the range of 0.32-110 (mean 13) pg g(-1) and the corresponding TEQ concentrations were 0.087-18 (mean 2) pg I-TEQ g(-1). All sediments were characterized by the dominant PBDFs. 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF was the most important TEQ contributor, accounting for 47%-77% of the total I-TEQ of PBDD/Fs. PCDD/Fs contributed dominantly to the total TEQs of PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in most samples except of the sediment from the Shima River. The higher PBDD/F concentrations in the Shima River may be attributed to the use of BFRs in the electrical and electronics industries, which posed a potential risk of dioxins on ecological system.

  12. Sensitivity-Based Modeling of Evaluating Surface Runoff and Sediment Load using Digital and Analog Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of runoff- sediment measurement and evaluation using automated and convectional runoff-meters was carried out at Meteorological and Hydrological Station of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi using two runoff plots (ABCDa and EFGHm of area 2m 2 each, depth 0.26 m and driven into the soil to the depth of 0.13m. Runoff depths and intensities were measured from each of the positioned runoff plot. Automated runoff-meter has a measuring accuracy of ±0.001l/±0.025 mm and rainfall depth-intensity was measured using tipping-bucket rainguage during the period of 14-month of experimentation. Minimum and maximum rainfall depths of 1.2 and 190.3 mm correspond to measured runoff depths (MRo of 0.0 mm for both measurement approaches and 60.4 mm and 48.9 mm respectively. Automated runoffmeter provides precise, accurate and instantaneous result over the convectional measurement of surface runoff. Runoff measuring accuracy for automated runoff-meter from the plot (ABCDa produces R 2 = 0.99; while R 2 = 0.96 for manual evaluation in plot (EFGHm. WEPP and SWAT models were used to simulate the obtained hydrological variables from the applied measurement mechanisms. The outputs of sensitivity simulation analysis indicate that data from automated measuring systems gives a better modelling index and such could be used for running robust runoff-sediment predictive modelling technique under different reservoir sedimentation and water management scenarios.

  13. Coccolith distribution patterns in South Atlantic and Southern Ocean surface sediments in relation to environmental gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckel, B.; Baumann, K.-H.; Henrich, R.

    2006-01-01

    affinities were ascertained. In general, Emiliania huxleyi is the most abundant species of the recent coccolith assemblages in the study region. However, the lower photic zone taxa, composed of Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus often dominate the assemblages between 20°N and 30°S. If E....... huxleyi is excluded, Calcidiscus leptoporus and F. profunda become the most abundant species, each dominating discrete oceanographic regimes. While F. profunda is very abundant in the sediments underneath warmer, stratified surface waters with a deep nutricline, Calcidiscus leptoporus is encountered...

  14. TBA biodegradation in surface-water sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Landmeyer, James E; Chapelle, Francis H

    2002-10-01

    The potential for [U-14C] TBA biodegradation was examined in laboratory microcosms under a range of terminal electron accepting conditions. TBA mineralization to CO2 was substantial in surface-water sediments under oxic, denitrifying, or Mn(IV)-reducing conditions and statistically significant but low under SO4-reducing conditions. Thus, anaerobic TBA biodegradation may be a significant natural attenuation mechanism for TBA in the environment, and stimulation of in situ TBA bioremediation by addition of suitable terminal electron acceptors may be feasible. No degradation of [U-14C] TBA was observed under methanogenic or Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  15. Heavy Metal Concentration in the Surface Sediment of Tanjung Lumpur Mangrove Forest, Kuantan, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Shahbudin Saad; Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury; Nurulnadia Mohd Yusuf; Noor Azhar Mohd Shazili; Chuan, O.M.; Bidai, J.

    2011-01-01

    Surface sediment samples from 2 transect (20 sampling points) of Tanjung Lumpur mangrove forest were analyzed for the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Co and Mn. In this study, the average concentrations of Pb, Cu, Co and Mn were 44.41 μg/g dry weight, 32.79 μg/g dry weight, 5.79 μg/g dry weight and 117.73 μg/g dry weight, respectively. The calculated enrichment factors (EF) obtained for Co and Mn can be considered to have the terigeneous in sources while Pb and Cu are considered to have anthropogenic input. (author)

  16. Metal concentrations in surface sediments of Paraiba do Sul River (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.O.; Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; UERJ, Rio de Janeiro; Araujo, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Paraiba do Sul River is located in a strategic region between the most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil. In the last years, an increase in the water pollution has been reported, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction from the riverbed. This work used total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) to determine metals in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediments. The metals identified were Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. (author)

  17. The endothelial surface layer: a new target of research in kidney failure and peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahu, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial glycocalyx is an important regulator of vascular homeostasis, and damage to this complex structure results in increased vascular vulnerability. Together with associated plasma molecules it forms the endothelial surface layer. Because of its vasculoprotective effects, the endothelial

  18. Atmospheric Surface Layer Characterization: Preliminary Desert Lapse Rate Study 22-25 August 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Doyle

    2003-01-01

    Results of the August 2000 Desert Lapse Rate (DLR) Experiment are presented. The DLR Experiment was performed to document the night-to-day transition effects on the desert Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL...

  19. A parametric description of a skewed puff in the diabatic surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T.

    1982-10-01

    The spreading of passive material in the stable, neutral and unstable surface layer from an instantaneous ground source is parameterized in a form appropriate for use with an operational puff diffusion model. (author)

  20. FDTD Investigation on Electromagnetic Scattering from Two-Layered Rough Surfaces under UPML Absorbing Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Li; Li-Xin, Guo; Hao, Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering from one-dimensional two-layered rough surfaces is investigated by using finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FDTD). The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. The rough surfaces are characterized with Gaussian statistics for the height and the autocorrelation function. The angular distribution of bistatic scattering coefficient from single-layered perfect electric conducting and dielectric rough surface is calculated and it is in good agreement with the numerical result with the conventional method of moments. The influence of the relative permittivity, the incident angle, and the correlative length of two-layered rough surfaces on the bistatic scattering coefficient with different polarizations are presented and discussed in detail. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  1. Investigation of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete. II : Properties of Steel Surface Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Van Breugel, K.; Lodhi, Z.F.; Ye, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface (using as-received low carbon construction steel) in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP).

  2. A manufacturing method for multi-layer polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced manufacturing technology which provides multi-layered polysilicon surface micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, the addition of another design layer to a 4 levels process to create a 5 levels process allows consideration of fundamentally new architecture in designs for weapon advanced surety components.

  3. Surface analysis of uranyl fluoride layers with a glow discharge lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nel, J.T.; Stander, C.M.; Boehmer, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Surface analysis with a Grimm-type glow discharge lamp was used to analyse uranyl fluoride layers that had formed on a nickel substrate after exposure to UF 6 . Narrow-band optical filters were used to isolate the intensities of three fluorine emission lines. An in-depth profile of layer composition was obtained. (author)

  4. X-ray diffraction study of surface-layer structure in parallel grazing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtypulyak, N.I.; Yakimov, I.I.; Litvintsev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction method is described for study of thin polycrystalline and amorphous films and surface layers in an extremely asymmetrical diffraction system in parallel grazing rays using a DRON-3.0 diffractometer. The minimum grazing angles correspond to diffraction under conditions of total external reflection and a layer depth of ∼ 2.5-8 nm

  5. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over wind-driven surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey; Stegmeir, Matt

    2017-11-01

    Complex interactions at the air-water interface result in two-way coupling between wind-driven surface waves and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turbulence generated at the surface plays an important role in aquatic ecology and biogeochemistry, exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and it is important for the transfer of energy and controlling evaporation. Energy transferred from the ABL promotes the generation and maintenance of waves. A fraction of the energy is transferred to the surface mixed layer through the generation of turbulence. Energy is also transferred back to the ABL by waves. There is a need to quantify the details of the coupled boundary layers of the air-water system to better understand how turbulence plays a role in the interactions. We employ time-resolved PIV to measure the detailed structure of the air and water boundary layers under varying wind and wave conditions in the newly developed IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel. The facility combines a 30-m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel. A thick turbulent boundary layer is developed in the 1 m high air channel, over the water surface, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.

  6. Seasonal cyclogenesis and the role of near-surface stratified layer in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.

    The role of the near-surface stratified layer developed due to the spread of low salinity waters under the influence of freshwater influx on the cyclogenesis over the Bay of Bengal is addressed. The seasonal variation of the Effective Oceanic Layer...

  7. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications.

  8. [Heavy metals distribution characteristics and ecological risk evaluation in surface sediments of dammed Jinshan lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Long-Mei; Chen, Xi; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Li, Yi-Min; Liu, Biao

    2014-11-01

    In order to reveal the pollution loading of heavy metals in Dammed Jinshan lake, six heavy metals (As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr) from 18 sediment samples were analyzed using ICP, and the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the sediment were comprehensively evaluated through concentration coefficient, geo-acumulation indexes, potential ecological risk evaluation and traceability analysis. The results showed that (1) the average contents of As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd were 23.22, 26.20, 24.42, 143.12, 245.30 and 0.67 mg x kg(-1), respectively, in the surface sediments of dammed Jinshan Lake. The average contents of Pb and Cu were lower than the primary standard and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of Zn and Cr were lower than the primary standard and higher than the secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of As and Cd were higher than the primary and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. From the spatial distribution, the contents of Pb and Zn were the highest at sampling site No. 1, which was located at the Beigushan Square. The contents of As,Cu, Cr, Cd were the highest at sampling sites Nos. 12, 3, 14, and 7, respectively; (2) The order of concentration coefficient was As > Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu, which indicated that the enrichment amount of As was the highest and that of Cu was the lowest; (3) Based on the geo-acumulation indexes, the Cu is clean and Pb, Zn, Cd is the light pollution and As, Cr moderate pollution; (4) The order of Potential ecological risk coefficient was Cd > As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn were of light ecological risk and As, Cd were of medium ecological risk. From the spatial distribution, the sampling sites Nos. 1, 6, 7 and 12 had medium potential ecological risk, and the rest sample points had slight potential ecological risk; (5) The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the main reason for the differences

  9. Structural features of the adsorption layer of pentacene on the graphite surface and the PMMA/graphite hybrid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, A. I.; Gorbunov, V. A.; Litunenko, T. A.

    2017-08-01

    Using the molecular dynamics and the Monte Carlo methods, we have studied the structural features and growth mechanism of the pentacene film on graphite and polymethylmethacrylate /graphite surfaces. Monolayer capacity and molecular area, optimal angles between the pentacene molecules and graphite and PMMA/graphite surfaces as well as the characteristic angles between the neighboring pentacene molecules in the adsorption layer were estimated. It is shown that the orientation of the pentacene molecules in the film is determined by a number of factors, including the surface concentration of the molecules, relief of the surface, presence or absence of the polymer layer and its thickness. The pentacene molecules adsorbed on the graphite surface keep a horizontal position relative to the long axis at any surface coverage/thickness of the film. In the presence of the PMMA layer on the graphite, the increase of the number of pentacene molecules as well as the thickness of the PMMA layer induce the change of molecular orientation from predominantly horizontal to vertical one. The reason for such behavior is supposed to be the roughness of the PMMA surface.

  10. Changes of electrical conductivity of the metal surface layer by the laser alloying with foreign elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek; Pawlak, Ryszard; Raczynski, Tomasz; Walczak, Maria

    1994-09-01

    Laser treatment of the surface of materials is of major importance for many fields technology. One of the latest and most significant methods of this treatment is laser alloying consisting of introducing foreign atoms into the metal surface layer during the reaction of laser radiation with the surface. This opens up vast possibilities for the modification of properties of such a layer (obtaining layers of increased microhardness, increased resistance to electroerosion in an electric arc, etc.). Conductivity of the material is a very important parameter in case of conductive materials used for electrical contacts. The paper presents the results of studies on change in electrical conductivity of the surface layer of metals alloyed with a laser. A comparative analysis of conductivity of base metal surface layers prior to and following laser treatment has been performed. Depending on the base metal and the alloying element, optical treatment parameters allowing a required change in the surface layer conductivity have been selected. A very important property of the contact material is its resistance to plastic strain. It affects the real value of contact surface coming into contact and, along with the material conductivity, determines contact resistance and the amount of heat generated in place of contact. These quantities are directly related to the initiation and the course of an arc discharge, hence they also affect resistance to electroerosion. The parameter that reflects plastic properties with loads concentrated on a small surface, as is the case with a reciprocal contact force of two real surfaces with their irregularities being in contact, is microhardness. In the paper, the results of investigations into microhardness of modified surface layers compared with base metal microhardness have been presented.

  11. Vertical migration of fine-grained sediments from interior to surface of seabed driven by seepage flows-`sub-bottom sediment pump action'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaotong; Jia, Yonggang; Wen, Mingzheng; Wang, Zhenhao; Zhang, Yaqi; Zhu, Chaoqi; Li, Bowen; Liu, Xiaolei

    2017-02-01

    A scientific hypothesis is proposed and preliminarily verified in this paper: under the driving of seepage flows, there might be a vertical migration of fine-grained soil particles from interior to surface of seabed, which is defined as `sub-bottom sediment pump action' in this paper. Field experiments were performed twice on the intertidal flat of the Yellow River delta to study this process via both trapping the pumped materials and recording the pore pressures in the substrate. Experimental results are quite interesting as we did observe yellow slurry which is mainly composed of fine-grained soil particles appearing on the seabed surface; seepage gradients were also detected in the intertidal flat, under the action of tides and small wind waves. Preliminary conclusions are that `sediment pump' occurs when seepage force exceeds a certain threshold: firstly, it is big enough to disconnect the soil particles from the soil skeleton; secondly, the degree of seabed fluidization or bioturbation is big enough to provide preferred paths for the detached materials to migrate upwards. Then they would be firstly pumped from interior to the surface of seabed and then easily re-suspended into overlying water column. Influential factors of `sediment pump' are determined as hydrodynamics (wave energy), degree of consolidation, index of bioturbation (permeability) and content of fine-grained materials (sedimentary age). This new perspective of `sediment pump' may provide some implications for the mechanism interpretation of several unclear geological phenomena in the Yellow River delta area.

  12. Detection of Entrainment Influences on Surface-Layer Measurements and Extension of Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, van de A.; Moene, A.F.; Graf, A.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Simmer, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to detect influences of boundary-layer processes on surface-layer measurements, using statistics and spectra of surface-layer variables only. We validated our detection method with boundary-layer measurements. Furthermore, we confirm that Monin–Obukhov similarity functions fit

  13. Contamination by persistent toxic substances in surface sediment of urban rivers in Chaohu City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feipeng; Zhang, Haiping; Meng, Xiangzhou; Chen, Ling; Yin, Daqiang

    2012-01-01

    The concentration and spatial distribution of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the river sediment in Chaohu City, China were investigated. A total of nine surface sediments were collected and the selected PTS pollutants including six heavy metals and nineteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed. The mean heavy metal concentrations (in mg/kg, dry weight) ranged within 0.18-1.53 (Hg), 50.08-200.18 (Cu), 118.70-313.65 (Zn), 50.77-310.85 (Cr), 37.12-92.72 (Pb) and 13.29-197.24 (As), and Cu, Zn and As have been regarded as the main metal pollutants. The levels of PBDEs (1.2-12.1 ng/g) and BDE-209 (2.4-30.5 ng/g) were at the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (67.0%-85.7%), which agrees with the fact that technical deca-BDE mixtures are the dominant PBDE formulation in China. The relative high level of PTS pollutants in the western part of the city is probably owing to the intensive agricultural activities and lack of sewerage system there. The ecological risk assessment with the sediment quality guidelines (SOGs) indicates that the urban river sediments in the city have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals with probable ecotoxicological impacts on freshwater organisms and the main toxic pollutants are Hg and As. The results of current study imply that the city, and perhaps many other small cities in China as well, requires immediate pollution control measures with emphasis on not only conventional organic pollutants but also on PTS such as heavy metals and PBDEs.

  14. Determination of DDT and metabolites in surface water and sediment using LLE, SPE, ACE and SE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibali, Linda L; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Zvinowanda, Caliphs

    2009-12-01

    Surface water and sediment samples collected from Jukskei River in South Africa, were subjected to different extraction techniques, liquid-liquid (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), activated carbon extraction (ACE) and soxhlet extraction (SE) for sediment. The samples were extracted with dichloromethane, cleaned in a silica gel column and the extracts quantified using a Varian 3800 GC-ECD. The percentage recovery test for 2,4'DDT, DDE and DDD and 4,4'DDT, DDE and DDD in water ranged from 80%-96% and 76%-95% (LLE); 56%-76% and 56%-70% (SPE) and 75%-84% (ACE), respectively; while that recoveries for sediment samples varied from 65%-95% for 2,4'DDT, DDE and DDD and 80%-91% for 4,4'DDT, DDE and DDD. The high recoveries exhibited by ACE compared very well with LLE and SE. This was not the case with SPE which exhibited the lowest value of recoveries for both 2,4 and 4,4'DDD, DDE and DDT standard samples. The mean concentrations of DDT and metabolites ranged from nd-1.10 μg/L, nd-0.80 μg/L, nd-1.21 μg/L and 1.92 μg/L for LLE, SPE, ACE and SE, respectively. The total DDT (2,4' and 4,4'-DDT) in water and sediment samples ranged from 1.20-3.25 μg/L and 1.82-5.24 μg/L, respectively. The low concentrations of the DDT metabolites obtained in the present study may suggest a recent contamination of the river by DDT.

  15. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  16. Thermographic analysis of plasma facing components covered by carbon surface layer in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Tokamaks are reactors based on the thermonuclear fusion energy with magnetic confinement of the plasma. In theses machines, several MW are coupled to the plasma for about 10 s. A large part of this power is directed towards plasma facing components (PFC). For better understanding and control the heat flux transfer from the plasma to the surrounding wall, it is very important to measure the surface temperature of the PFC and to estimate the imposed heat flux. In most of tokamaks using carbon PFC, the eroded carbon is circulating in the plasma and redeposited elsewhere. During the plasma operations, this leads at some locations to the formation of thin or thick carbon layers usually poorly attached to the PFC. These surface layers with unknown thermal properties complicate the calculation of the heat flux from IR surface temperature measurements. To solve this problem, we develop first, inverse method to estimate the heat flux using thermocouple (not sensitive to the carbon surface layers) temperature measurements. Then, we propose a front face pulsed photothermal method allowing an estimation of layers thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity and the thermal contact resistance between the layer and the tile. The principle is to study with an infrared sensor, the cooling of the layer surface after heating by a short laser pulse, this cooling depending on the thermal properties of the successive layers. (author) [fr

  17. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  18. Surface Phenomena During Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Etching of SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasvoda, Ryan J; van de Steeg, Alex W; Bhowmick, Ranadeep; Hudson, Eric A; Agarwal, Sumit

    2017-09-13

    Surface phenomena during atomic layer etching (ALE) of SiO 2 were studied during sequential half-cycles of plasma-assisted fluorocarbon (CF x ) film deposition and Ar plasma activation of the CF x film using in situ surface infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Infrared spectra of the surface after the CF x deposition half-cycle from a C 4 F 8 /Ar plasma show that an atomically thin mixing layer is formed between the deposited CF x layer and the underlying SiO 2 film. Etching during the Ar plasma cycle is activated by Ar + bombardment of the CF x layer, which results in the simultaneous removal of surface CF x and the underlying SiO 2 film. The interfacial mixing layer in ALE is atomically thin due to the low ion energy during CF x deposition, which combined with an ultrathin CF x layer ensures an etch rate of a few monolayers per cycle. In situ ellipsometry shows that for a ∼4 Å thick CF x film, ∼3-4 Å of SiO 2 was etched per cycle. However, during the Ar plasma half-cycle, etching proceeds beyond complete removal of the surface CF x layer as F-containing radicals are slowly released into the plasma from the reactor walls. Buildup of CF x on reactor walls leads to a gradual increase in the etch per cycle.

  19. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    Rolling Resistance coefficient that could improve energy efficiency of the roads. In particular, two new types of Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were developed and compared to a reference one; both mixtures have a relatively small maximum grain-size, 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Surface measurements...

  20. The surface layer of austempered ductile iron investment castings properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Myszka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a unique process of carbonnitriding and nitriding the precision casting surfaces of austempered ductile iron. The results of the research are pointing that adequate process parameters allow to obtain multiple increase of wear resistance and a significant increase of corrosion resistance. Also, changes of cast microstructure and hardness are presented.

  1. Streams and magnetic fields in surface layers of Ap-stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolginov, A.Z.; Urpin, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic field generation of Ap-stars is considered. It is shown that in the surface layers of Ap-stars inhomogeneity of chemical composition produces a strong magnetic field. Velocities of possible circulation of stellar matter are estimated. It is shown that circulation does not prevent the process of the magnetic field generation. It needs the order of million years, for arranging the stationary magnetic field in surface layers

  2. The Influence of the Tool Surface Texture on Friction and the Surface Layers Properties of Formed Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šugárová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological texturing of forming tool surfaces has high potential to reduce friction and tool wear and also has impact on the surface layers properties of formed material. In order to understand the effect of different types of tool textures, produced by nanosecond fibre laser, on the tribological conditions at the interface tool-formed material and on the integrity of formed part surface layers, the series of experimental investigations have been carried out. The coefficient of friction for different texture parameters (individual feature shape, including the depth profile of the cavities and orientation of the features relative to the material flow was evaluated via a Ring Test and the surface layers integrity of formed material (surface roughness and subsurface micro hardness was also experimentally analysed. The results showed a positive effect of surface texturing on the friction coefficients and the strain hardening of test samples material. Application of surface texture consisting of dimple-like depressions arranged in radial layout contributed to the most significant friction reduction of about 40%. On the other hand, this surface texture contributed to the increase of surface roughness parameters, Ra parameter increased from 0.49 μm to 2.19 μm and the Rz parameter increased from 0.99 μm to 16.79 μm.

  3. [A surface reacted layer study of titanium-zirconium alloy after dental casting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Guo, T; Li, Z; Li, C

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the influence of the mold temperature on the surface reacted layer of Ti-Zr alloy castings. Ti-Zr alloy was casted into a mold which was made of a zircon (ZrO2.SiO2) for inner coating and a phosphate-bonded material for outer investing with a casting machine (China) designed as vacuum, pressure and centrifuge. At three mold temperatures (room temperature, 300 degrees C, 600 degrees C) the Ti-Zr alloy was casted separately. The surface roughness of the castings was calculated by instrument of smooth finish (China). From the surface to the inner part the Knoop hardness and thickness in reacted layer of Ti-Zr alloy casting was measured. The structure of the surface reacted layer was analysed by SEM. Elemental analyses of the interfacial zone of the casting was made by element line scanning observation. The surface roughness of the castings was increased significantly with the mold temperature increasing. At a higher mold temperature the Knoop hardness of the reactive layer was increased. At the three mold temperature the outmost surface was very hard, and microhardness data decreased rapidly where they reached constant values. The thickness was about 85 microns for castings at room temperature and 300 degrees C, 105 microns for castings at 600 degrees C. From the SEM micrograph of the Ti-Zr alloy casting, the surface reacted layer could be divided into three different layers. The first layer was called non-structure layer, which thickness was about 10 microns for room temperature group, 20 microns for 300 degrees C and 25 microns for 600 degrees C. The second layer was characterized by coarse-grained acicular crystal, which thickness was about 50 microns for three mold temperatures. The third layer was Ti-Zr alloy. The element line scanning showed non-structure layer with higher level of element of O, Al, Si and Zr, The higher the mold temperature during casting, the deeper the Si permeating and in the second layer the element Si could also be found

  4. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-09-01

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U 3 O 8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  5. Influence of laser alloyed layer of carbon steel with tantalum on the structure and surface layer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldan, A.; Kusinski, J.; Kac, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the microstructure and properties (chemical composition and microhardness) of the surface laser alloyed layer with tantalum. The surface alloyed zones varied in microstructure, zones depth and width, as well as Ta content according to the thickness of the coated layer, bonding paint type and process parameters (power and scanning velocity). The electron microprobe analysis of melts showed that higher tantalum content in the melted zone resulted from the thicker original Ta coating as well as slower scanning velocity. Scanning electron microscopy examinations show that dendritic structure of the melted zone becomes evident when carbon was used as one of the components of the binder, while structure is typically martensitic when silicon containing binder was used for powder deposition. Samples covered with Ta and carbon containing binder showed after laser alloying higher hardness than in case of using silicon containing binder. (author)

  6. Distribution, Source, and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediment of Liaodong Bay, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Ping; Li, Yuxia; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Man; Jia, Hongliang; Shao, Mihua

    2018-01-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in surface sediments from Liaodong Bay, northeast China. The concentration levels of total PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in sediment were 11.0˜249.6 ng·g-1 dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 89.9 ng·g-1 dry weight (dw). From the point of the spatial distribution, high PAHs levels were found in the western areas of Liaodong Bay. In the paper, sources of PAHs were investigated by diagnostic ratios, which indicated that pyrogenic sources were the main sources of PAHs in the sediment of Liaodong Bay. Therefore, selected PAH levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism.

  7. [Accumulation, distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediment of Caohai plateau wetland, Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Hai; Lin, Chang-Hu; Tan, Hong; Lin, Shao-Xia; Yang, Hong-Bo

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the concentrations and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in surface sediments of different areas in the Caohai plateau wetland. 16 samples of surface sediments were collected and 7 heavy metals were analyzed. Heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of different areas in the Caohai plateau wetland was estimated by the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI) method. The analyzed results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn were 0.985, 0.345, 15.8, 38.9, 38.6, 22.8 and 384 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The heavy metal distributions varied with regional environment changes, the order of average contents of Cd and Hg in different regions was E (the eastern region) > S (the southern region) > N (the northern region), the order of the average content of Pb was N > E > S, and that of Zn was S > E > N. The results also suggested a medium heavy metal pollution level in the surface sediment of the Caohai plateau wetland with the PLI(zone) reaching 1.17. The order of pollution level in surface sediments of different regions was E > S > N. The results showed medium pollution levels in E and Hg which reached the extreme intensity pollution level were also the major polluted elements in surface sediments of the Caohai plateau wetland. And also, results showed medium pollution levels of Cd and Pb in surface sediments of Caohai plateau wetland. Cluster analysis results showed similar pollution sources of Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg, which should be attached great importance in terms of the prevention of the Caohai plateau wetland.

  8. Dry Deposition, Surface Production and Dynamics of Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairall, C.W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1984-01-01

    A model of downward aerosol panicle flux characterized by dry deposition velocity, Vd, due to Slinn and Slinn (1980) is generalized to the case of nonzero surface concentration (absorbing surface with a surface source). A more general expression for the flux at some reference height is developed ...... produced as droplets at the surface and ‘continental’ background aerosols brought into the boundary layer at the top by entrainment and gravitational settling. Estimates of Si are provided....

  9. Methane oxidation and methane fluxes in the ocean surface layer and deep anoxic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B. B.; Kilpatrick, K. A.; Novelli, P. C.; Scranton, M. I.

    1987-01-01

    Measured biological oxidation rates of methane in near-surface waters of the Cariaco Basin are compared with the diffusional fluxes computed from concentration gradients of methane in the surface layer. Methane fluxes and oxidation rates were investigated in surface waters, at the oxic/anoxic interface, and in deep anoxic waters. It is shown that the surface-waters oxidation of methane is a mechanism which modulates the flux of methane from marine waters to the atmosphere.

  10. Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer and Its Application to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    An important application of the atmospheric surface layer research is to characterize the near surface vertical gradients in temperature and humidity in order to predict radar and radio communication conditions in the environment. In this presentation, we will give an overview of a new research initiative funded under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI): the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and EM Ducting Research (CASPER). The objective is to fully characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as an electromagnetic (EM) propagation environment with the emphasis of spatial and temporal heterogeneities and surface wave/swell effects, both of which contravene the underlying assumptions of Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) used in coupled environmental forecast models. Furthermore, coastal variability in the inversion atop the MABL presents a challenge to forecast models and also causes practical issues in EM prediction models. These issues are the target of investigation of CASPER. CASPER measurement component includes two major field campaigns: CASPER-East (2015 Duck, NC) and CASPER-West (2018 southern California). This presentation will show the extensive measurements to be made during the CASPER -East field campaign with the focus on the marine atmospheric surface layer measurements with two research vessels, two research aircraft, surface flux buoy, wave gliders, ocean gliders, tethered balloons, and rawinsondes. Unlike previous research on the marine surface layer with the focus on surface fluxes and surface flux parameterization, CASPER field campaigns also emphasize of the surface layer profiles and the validation of the surface layer flux-profile relationship originally derived over land surfaces. Results from CASPER pilot experiment and preliminary results from CASPER-East field campaign will be discussed.

  11. Potential Carbon Transport: Linking Soil Aggregate Stability and Sediment Enrichment for Updating the Soil Active Layer within Intensely Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Abban, B. K.; Wilson, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, many biogeochemical models lack the mechanistic capacity to accurately simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, especially within intensely managed landscapes (IMLs) such as those found in the U.S. Midwest. These modeling limitations originate by not accounting for downslope connectivity of flowpathways initiated and governed by landscape processes and hydrologic forcing, which induce dynamic updates to the soil active layer (generally top 20-30cm of soil) with various sediment size fractions and aggregates being transported and deposited along the downslope. These hydro-geomorphic processes, often amplified in IMLs by tillage events and seasonal canopy, can greatly impact biogeochemical cycles (e.g., enhanced mineralization during aggregate breakdown) and in turn, have huge implications/uncertainty when determining SOC budgets. In this study, some of these limitations were addressed through a new concept, Potential Carbon Transport (PCT), a term which quantifies a maximum amount of material available for transport at various positions of the landscape, which was used to further refine a coupled modeling framework focused on SOC redistribution through downslope/lateral connectivity. Specifically, the size fractions slaked from large and small aggregates during raindrop-induced aggregate stability tests were used in conjunction with rainfall-simulated sediment enrichment ratio (ER) experiments to quantify the PCT under various management practices, soil types and landscape positions. Field samples used in determining aggregate stability and the ER experiments were collected/performed within the historic Clear Creek Watershed, home of the IML Critical Zone Observatory, located in Southeastern Iowa.

  12. Distribution of branched GDGTs in surface sediments from the Colville River, Alaska: Implications for the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer in Arctic marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant climate fluctuations in the Arctic over the recent past, and additional predicted future temperature changes, highlight the need for high-resolution Arctic paleoclimate records. Arctic coastal environments supplied with terrigenous sediment from Arctic rivers have the potential to provide annual to subdecadal resolution records of climate variability over the last few millennia. A potential tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in these marine sediments is the revised methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT')/cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) proxy based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs). In this study, we examine the source of brGDGTs in the Colville River, Alaska, and the adjacent Simpson Lagoon and reconstruct temperatures from Simpson Lagoon sediments to evaluate the applicability of this proxy in Arctic estuarine environments. The Colville catchment soils, fluvial sediments, and estuarine sediments contain statistically similar brGDGT distributions, indicating that the brGDGTs throughout the system are soil derived with little alteration from in situ brGDGT production in the river or coastal waters. Temperatures reconstructed from the MBT'/CBT indices for surface samples show good agreement with regional summer (June through September) temperatures, suggesting a seasonal bias in Arctic temperature reconstructions from the Colville system. In addition, we reconstruct paleotemperatures from an estuarine sediment core that spans the last 75 years, revealing an overall warming trend in the twentieth century that is consistent with trends observed in regional instrumental records. These results support the application of this brGDGT-based paleotemperature proxy for subdecadal-scale summer temperature reconstructions in Arctic estuaries containing organic material derived from sediment-laden, episodic rivers.

  13. Recycling inflow method for simulations of spatially evolving turbulent boundary layers over rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang I. A.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The technique by Lund et al. to generate turbulent inflow for simulations of developing boundary layers over smooth flat plates is extended to the case of surfaces with roughness elements. In the Lund et al. method, turbulent velocities on a sampling plane are rescaled and recycled back to the inlet as inflow boundary condition. To rescale mean and fluctuating velocities, appropriate length scales need be identified and for smooth surfaces, the viscous scale lν = ν/uτ (where ν is the kinematic viscosity and uτ is the friction velocity) is employed for the inner layer. Different from smooth surfaces, in rough wall boundary layers the length scale of the inner layer, i.e. the roughness sub-layer scale ld, must be determined by the geometric details of the surface roughness elements and the flow around them. In the proposed approach, it is determined by diagnosing dispersive stresses that quantify the spatial inhomogeneity caused by the roughness elements in the flow. The scale ld is used for rescaling in the inner layer, and the boundary layer thickness δ is used in the outer region. Both parts are then combined for recycling using a blending function. Unlike the blending function proposed by Lund et al. which transitions from the inner layer to the outer layer at approximately 0.2δ, here the location of blending is shifted upwards to enable simulations of very rough surfaces in which the roughness length may exceed the height of 0.2δ assumed in the traditional method. The extended rescaling-recycling method is tested in large eddy simulation of flow over surfaces with various types of roughness element shapes.

  14. Design of Matched Absorbing Layers for Surface Plasmon-Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de la Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a procedure for designing metal-metal boundaries for the strong attenuation of surface plasmon-polaritons without the introduction of reflections or scattering effects. Solutions associated with different sets of matching materials are found. To illustrate the results and the consequences of adopting different solutions, we present calculations based on an integral equation formulation for the scattering problem and the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition.

  15. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in surface sediments of the Yellow River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Zhang, E.; Hang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Estuarine sediment is an important carbon reservoir thus may play an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) in the surface sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, a large estuary in northern China. In this study, we applied element analyses and isotopic approach to study spatial distribution and sources of OC and IC in the Yellow River Estuary. We found that TIC concentration (6.3-20.1 g kg-1) was much higher than TOC (0.2-4.4 g kg-1) in the surface sediment. There showed a large spatial variability in TOC and TIC and their stable isotopes. Both TOC and TIC were higher to the north (2.6 and 14.5 g kg-1) than to the south (1.6 and 12.2 g kg-1), except in the southern bay where TOC and TIC reached 2.7 and 15.4 g kg-1, respectively. Generally, TOC and TIC in our study area was mainly autochthonous. The lower TOC values in the south section were due to relatively higher kinetic energy level whereas the higher values in the bay was attributable to terrigenous matters accumulation and lower kinetic energy level. However, the southern bay revealed the most negative δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb, suggesting that there might exist some transfer of OC to IC in the section. Our study points out that the dynamics of sedimentary carbon in the Yellow River Estuary is influenced by multiple and complex processes, and highlights the importance of carbonate in carbon sequstration.

  16. Reprint of: A numerical investigation of fine sediment resuspension in the wave boundary layer-Uncertainties in particle inertia and hindered settling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Yu, Xiao; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Balachandar, S.

    2016-05-01

    The wave bottom boundary layer is a major conduit delivering fine terrestrial sediments to continental margins. Hence, studying fine sediment resuspensions in the wave boundary layer is crucial to the understanding of various components of the earth system, such as carbon cycles. By assuming the settling velocity to be a constant in each simulation, previous turbulence-resolving numerical simulations reveal the existence of three transport modes in the wave boundary layer associated with sediment availabilities. As the sediment availability and hence the sediment-induced stable stratification increases, a sequence of transport modes, namely, (I) well-mixed transport, (II) formulation of lutocline resembling a two-layer system, and (III) completely laminarized transport are observed. In general, the settling velocity is a flow variable due to hindered settling and particle inertia effects. Present numerical simulations including the particle inertia suggest that for a typical wave condition in continental shelves, the effect of particle inertia is negligible. Through additional numerical experiments, we also confirm that the particle inertia tends (up to the Stokes number St = 0.2) to attenuate flow turbulence. On the other hand, for flocs with lower gelling concentrations, the hindered settling can play a key role in sustaining a large amount of suspended sediments and results in the laminarized transport (III). For the simulation with a very significant hindered settling effect due to a low gelling concentration, results also indicate the occurrence of gelling ignition, a state in which the erosion rate is always higher than the deposition rate. A sufficient condition for the occurrence of gelling ignition is hypothesized for a range of wave intensities as a function of sediment/floc properties and erodibility parameters.

  17. Spatial Homogeneity of Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus Layer of the Reef-Building Coral Acropora palmata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin W Kemp

    Full Text Available Coral surface mucus layer (SML microbiota are critical components of the coral holobiont and play important roles in nutrient cycling and defense against pathogens. We sequenced 16S rRNA amplicons to examine the structure of the SML microbiome within and between colonies of the threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys. Samples were taken from three spatially distinct colony regions--uppermost (high irradiance, underside (low irradiance, and the colony base--representing microhabitats that vary in irradiance and water flow. Phylogenetic diversity (PD values of coral SML bacteria communities were greater than surrounding seawater and lower than adjacent sediment. Bacterial diversity and community composition was consistent among the three microhabitats. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Proteobacteria, respectively were the most abundant phyla represented in the samples. This is the first time spatial variability of the surface mucus layer of A. palmata has been studied. Homogeneity in the microbiome of A. palmata contrasts with SML heterogeneity found in other Caribbean corals. These findings suggest that, during non-stressful conditions, host regulation of SML microbiota may override diverse physiochemical influences induced by the topographical complexity of A. palmata. Documenting the spatial distribution of SML microbes is essential to understanding the functional roles these microorganisms play in coral health and adaptability to environmental perturbations.

  18. Spatial Homogeneity of Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus Layer of the Reef-Building Coral Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Dustin W; Rivers, Adam R; Kemp, Keri M; Lipp, Erin K; Porter, James W; Wares, John P

    2015-01-01

    Coral surface mucus layer (SML) microbiota are critical components of the coral holobiont and play important roles in nutrient cycling and defense against pathogens. We sequenced 16S rRNA amplicons to examine the structure of the SML microbiome within and between colonies of the threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys. Samples were taken from three spatially distinct colony regions--uppermost (high irradiance), underside (low irradiance), and the colony base--representing microhabitats that vary in irradiance and water flow. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) values of coral SML bacteria communities were greater than surrounding seawater and lower than adjacent sediment. Bacterial diversity and community composition was consistent among the three microhabitats. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Proteobacteria, respectively were the most abundant phyla represented in the samples. This is the first time spatial variability of the surface mucus layer of A. palmata has been studied. Homogeneity in the microbiome of A. palmata contrasts with SML heterogeneity found in other Caribbean corals. These findings suggest that, during non-stressful conditions, host regulation of SML microbiota may override diverse physiochemical influences induced by the topographical complexity of A. palmata. Documenting the spatial distribution of SML microbes is essential to understanding the functional roles these microorganisms play in coral health and adaptability to environmental perturbations.

  19. Hard Surface Layers by Pack Boriding and Gaseous Thermo-Reactive Deposition and Diffusion Treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Bottoli, Federico; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2017-01-01

    ) layers with hardnesses up to 1800 HV. Titanizing of ARNE tool steel results in a surface layer consisting of TiC with a hardness of approximately 4000 HV. Duplex treatments, where boriding is combined with subsequent (TRD) titanizing, result in formation of hard TiB2 on top of a thick layer of Fe......Thermo-reactive deposition and diffusion (TRD) and boriding are thermochemical processes that result in very high surface hardness by conversion of the surface into carbides/nitrides and borides, respectively. These treatments offer significant advantages in terms of hardness, adhesion, tribo...... subjected to TRD (chromizing and titanizing) and boriding treatments. For the steels with low carbon content, chromizing results in surface alloying with chromium, i.e., formation of a (soft) “stainless” surface zone. Steels containing higher levels of carbon form chromium carbide (viz. Cr23C6, Cr7C3...

  20. X-ray study of surface layers of tungsten monocrystals after electroerosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshina, S.A.; Baranov, Yu.V.; Smirnov, I.S.; Marchuk, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of polycrystal surface layer, approximately 10 μm thick in subjacent layers and the presence of highly developed block structure which is the result of high-temperature effect of electroerosion machining are detected. Angles of disorientation between blocks, which constitute tens of angular minutes, are evaluated using the method of X-ray topography. According to broadening of profile of X-ray diffraction lines analysis of fine crystal structure of the surface layers is conducted. It is shown that the broadening of diffraction lines is mainly connected with the presence of coherent scat-- tering regions

  1. Absorption and reflectivity of the lithium niobate surface masked with a graphene layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Salas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed simulations of the interaction of a graphene layer with the surface of lithium niobate utilizing density functional theory and molecular dynamics at 300K and atmospheric pressure. We found that the graphene layer is physisorbed on the lithium niobate surface with an adsorption energy of -0.8205 eV/(carbon-atom. Subsequently, the energy band structure, the optical absorption and reflectivity of the new system were calculated. We found important changes in these physical properties with respect to the corresponding ones of a graphene layer and of a lithium niobate crystal.

  2. Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weoncheol Koo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.

  3. UV and plasma treatment of thin silver layers and glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hluschi, J.H. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Roth, P. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Boewer, R. [Interpane Glasbeschichtungsgesellschaft mbH and Co KG, Sohnreystr. 21, D-37697 Lauenfoerde (Germany); Herlitze, L. [Interpane Glasbeschichtungsgesellschaft mbH and Co KG, Sohnreystr. 21, D-37697 Lauenfoerde (Germany); Vioel, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.de

    2006-11-10

    Thin silver layers can be modified by treatment with UV radiation or a plasma discharge. UV treatment at a wavelength of {lambda}=308 -bar nm improves the layer properties, thus leading to an enhancement of the layers IR reflectivity. For the purpose of in situ-measurement the sheet resistance is recorded during the process. Due to the Hagen-Rubens-Relation [E. Hagen, H. Rubens, Ann. Phys. 11 (1903) 873]-bar the sheet resistance is linked to the IR reflectivity of thin metal-films. A pretreatment of uncoated glass using a dielectric barrier discharge activates and cleans its surface, thus leading to an increase in adhesion of thin layers.

  4. Control of Alq3 wetting layer thickness via substrate surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Shufen; Szeto, Bryan; Fleischauer, Michael D; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Brett, Michael J

    2007-06-05

    The effects of substrate surface energy and vapor deposition rate on the initial growth of porous columnar tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) nanostructures were investigated. Alq3 nanostructures thermally evaporated onto as-supplied Si substrates bearing an oxide were observed to form a solid wetting layer, likely caused by an interfacial energy mismatch between the substrate and Alq3. Wetting layer thickness control is important for potential optoelectronic applications. A dramatic decrease in wetting layer thickness was achieved by depositing Alq3 onto alkyltrichlorosilane-derivatized Si/oxide substrates. Similar effects were noted with increasing deposition rates. These two effects enable tailoring of the wetting layer thickness.

  5. UV and plasma treatment of thin silver layers and glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hluschi, J.H.; Helmke, A.; Roth, P.; Boewer, R.; Herlitze, L.; Vioel, W.

    2006-01-01

    Thin silver layers can be modified by treatment with UV radiation or a plasma discharge. UV treatment at a wavelength of λ=308 -bar nm improves the layer properties, thus leading to an enhancement of the layers IR reflectivity. For the purpose of in situ-measurement the sheet resistance is recorded during the process. Due to the Hagen-Rubens-Relation [E. Hagen, H. Rubens, Ann. Phys. 11 (1903) 873]-bar the sheet resistance is linked to the IR reflectivity of thin metal-films. A pretreatment of uncoated glass using a dielectric barrier discharge activates and cleans its surface, thus leading to an increase in adhesion of thin layers

  6. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Sfax coastal zone, (Tunisia) Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghden, Hatem; Kallel, Monem; Louati, Afifa; Elleuch, Boubaker; Oudot, Jean; Saliot, Alain

    2005-11-01

    The Semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea records various signals of high anthropic pressures from surrounding countries and the industrialized European countries. This is particularly true for oil pollution. Although accounting for 1% of the world's ocean surface, it receives about 25% of the petroleum inputs to the ocean. To achieve a global budget we need to collect information from different parts of the Mediterranean. Particularly, we focus in this paper on the Southern Mediterranean, where data are presently very scarce. In this context, the University of Sfax has undertaken an estimation of hydrocarbon pollution along the coasts of Sfax and Gabès Gulf. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were analysed in 8 surface sediments by FT/IR and GC/MS. Non-aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations vary in the range 310-1406 microg g(-1) sediments dry weight, which is high, compared to other Mediterranean sites. GC/MS data indicate a large group of unresolved compounds suggesting a petroleum contamination, confirmed by the identification of hopanes with predominant C29 and C30alpha,beta compounds and steranes with predominance of C27 over C28) and C29 compounds.

  7. Lipid composition of water and surface sediments in Takapoto atoll lagoon (French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliot, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Lorre-Boireau, A.; Trichet, J.; Poupet, P.; Charpy, L.

    1994-11-01

    Dissolved, particulate and sedimentary lipid compounds were analyzed in samples collected in May 1988 at three sites in the lagoon of the closed atoll of Takapoto (Tuamotu archipelago, French Polynesia). The study provides background information dealing with water quality and the nature and concentration of lipids. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids were isolated from lipids and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Non-aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations did not exceed 1000 ng l-1 in water, and 2300 ng g-1 in surface sediments and are among the lowest encountered in pristine marine environments. No noticeable petroleum pollution was evidenced in the lagoon. Nevertheless, traces of petroleum-derived compounds were detected at the central site for both surface and deep water. Total fatty acid concentrations varied in the range 6.3 14.4 μg l-1 for the particulate phase and in the range 0.5 3.2 μg l-1 for the dissolved phase. The molecular fingerprints of fatty acids and hydrocarbons evidenced a predominant algal, and to a lesser extent microbial, origin of the organic matter present in water and sediments. Mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are essential components for animal metabolism, were identified in noticeable amounts in suspended matter (1.8 4.6 μg l-1), and at highly variable levels in the dissolved phase (0.08 1.21 μg l-1).

  8. Distribution and characteristics of organic micropollutants in surface sediments from Bohai Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenxin; Chen Jianglin; Lin Xiumei; Tao Shu

    2006-01-01

    Spatial distribution and compositional characteristics of PAHs, DDTs and PCBs in surface sediments from Bohai Sea were investigated. Proportion of LMW PAHs at Jinzhou Bay was significant, due probably to the petrogenic sources from neighboring oil wells and plants, while HMW PAHs were dominant in the other sea areas, inferred pyrogenic origins mainly from coal or petroleum combustion. The average ERL quotient for the PAH species in Qinhuangdao and Liaodong Bay indicated relatively stronger potential ecological risk. The concentration ratios of DDT to metabolites (DDD + DDE) exceeded 1.0 in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao, Liaodong Bay and Bohai Bay, demonstrated some recent inputs of DDT nearby, and DDD as the major degradation product. The concentrations of PCBs were generally low, however, the contents of DDTs were greater than the ERL guidelines in the coastal areas of Qinhuangdao, Liaodong Bay and Bohai Bay, and suggested the potential ecological risk. - The recent inputs of DDT in surface sediments at some sites of Bohai Sea indicated potential ecological risk

  9. Salinity shapes microbial diversity and community structure in surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Li'an; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang

    2016-04-26

    Investigating microbial response to environmental variables is of great importance for understanding of microbial acclimatization and evolution in natural environments. However, little is known about how microbial communities responded to environmental factors (e.g. salinity, geographic distance) in lake surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, microbial diversity and community structure in the surface sediments of nine lakes on the QTP were investigated by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique and the resulting microbial data were statistically analyzed in combination with environmental variables. The results showed total microbial community of the studied lakes was significantly correlated (r = 0.631, P diversity and community structure in the studied samples. In addition, the abundant and rare taxa (OTUs with relative abundance higher than 1% and lower than 0.01% within one sample, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated (r = 0.427 and 0.783, respectively) with salinity, suggesting rare taxa might be more sensitive to salinity than their abundant counterparts, thus cautions should be taken in future when evaluating microbial response (abundant vs. rare sub-communities) to environmental conditions.

  10. 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Ra/226Ra in surface marine sediment of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Wo Yii; Zal Uyun Wan-Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected at the West (east coast and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia) and East (Sabah and Sarawak) Malaysia in several expeditions within August 2003 until June 2008 for determining the level of natural radium isotopes. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in surface marine sediment at 176 sampling stations were measured. The activity concentrations of both radionuclides in Malaysia (East and West Malaysia) display varied with the range from 9 to 158 Bq/kg dry wt. and 13 to 104 Bq/kg dry wt., respectively. Meanwhile, the ratio distributions of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra were ranged from 0.62 to 3.75. This indicated that the ratios were slightly high at west coast of Peninsular Malaysia compared to other regions (east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak). The variation of activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra and its ratios were also supported by the statistical analyses of one-way ANOVA and t test at 95 % confidence level, whereby there were proved that the measured values were different between the regions. These different were strictly related to their half-life, potential input sources (included their parents, 238 U and 232 Th), parent's characteristic, the geological setting/formation of the study area, environment origin and behavior. (author)

  11. Mercury net methylation in five tropical flood plain regions of Brazil: high in the root zone of floating macrophyte mats but low in surface sediments and flooded soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, J R; Meili, M; Hylander, L D; de Castro e Silva, E; Roulet, M; Mauro, J B; de Lemos, R

    2000-10-16

    In aquatic systems, bottom sediments have often been considered as the main methylmercury (MeHg) production site. In tropical floodplain areas, however, floating meadows and flooded forests extend over large areas and can be important Hg methylating sites. We present here a cross-system comparison of the Hg net methylation capacity in surface sediments, flooded soils and roots of floating aquatic macrophytes, assayed by in situ incubation with 203Hg and extraction of formed Me203 Hg by acid leaching and toluene. The presence of mono-MeHg was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and other techniques. Study areas included floodplain lakes in the Amazon basin (Tapajós, Negro and Amazon rivers), the Pantanal floodplain (Paraguay river basin), freshwater coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro and oxbow lakes in the Mogi-Guaçú river, São Paulo state. Different Hg levels were added in assays performed in 1994-1998, but great care was taken to standardise all other test parameters, to allow data comparisons. Net MeHg production was one order of magnitude higher (mean 13.8%, range 0.28-35) in the living or decomposing roots of floating or rooted macrophyte mats (Eichhornia azurea, E. crassipes, Paspalum sp., Eleocharis sellowiana, Salvinia sp., S. rotundifolia and Scirpus cubensis) than in the surface layer of underlying lake sediments (mean 0.6%, range 0.022-2.5). Methylation in flooded soils presented a wide range and was in some cases similar to the one found in macrophyte roots but usually much lower. In a Tapajós floodplain lake, natural concentrations of MeHg in soil and sediment cores taken along a lake-forest transect agreed well with data on net methylation potentials in the same samples. E. azurea, E. crassipes and Salvinia presented the highest methylation potentials, up to 113 times higher than in sediments. Methylation in E. azurea from six lakes of the Paraguay and Cuiabá rivers, high Pantanal, was determined in the 1998 dry and wet seasons and ranged from

  12. Tribological Characteristic of Titanium Alloy Surface Layers Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tribological properties of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V composite surface layers Ti/TiN were produced during laser surface gas nitriding by means of a novel high power direct diode laser with unique characteristics of the laser beam and a rectangular beam spot. Microstructure, surface topography and microhardness distribution across the surface layers were analyzed. Ball-on-disk tests were performed to evaluate and compare the wear and friction characteristics of surface layers nitrided at different process parameters, base metal of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and also the commercially pure titanium. Results showed that under dry sliding condition the commercially pure titanium samples have the highest coefficient of friction about 0.45, compared to 0.36 of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 0.1-0.13 in a case of the laser gas nitrided surface layers. The volume loss of Ti6Al4V samples under such conditions is twice lower than in a case of pure titanium. On the other hand the composite surface layer characterized by the highest wear resistance showed almost 21 times lower volume loss during the ball-on-disk test, compared to Ti6Al4V samples.

  13. Distribution, enrichment and sources of thallium in the surface sediments of the southwestern coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu

    2015-07-15

    The concentrations of thallium (Tl) in the surface sediments of the southwestern coastal Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects were determined. In riverine sediments, the Tl concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 0.76 μg g(-1) in summer; in autumn, the corresponding data were 0.35-1.08 μg g(-1). In marine sediments, the Tl concentrations ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 μg g(-1) in summer; and from 0.30 to 0.56 μg g(-1) in autumn. The grain size, Al and Fe oxides were major factors affecting Tl distribution. Tl in the surface sediments of the studied area was mainly from the natural input with the non-natural input as a subsidiary source. The low concentrations of Tl made it hard to cause potential negative environmental effects in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tracing the origin of Pb using stable Pb isotopes in surface sediments along the Korean Yellow Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Choi, Man-Sik; Song, Yunho; Lim, Dhong-Il

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the factors controlling lead (Pb) concentration and identify the sources of Pb in Yellow Sea sediments along the Korean coast, the concentration of Pb and Pb isotopes in 87 surface and 6 core sediment samples were analyzed. The 1 M HCl leached Pb concentrations had a similar geographic distribution to those of fine-grained sediments, while the distribution of residual Pb concentrations resembled that of coarse-grained sediments. Leached Pb was presumed to be associated with manganese (Mn) oxide and iron (Fe) oxy/hydroxide, while residual Pb was associated with potassium (K)-feldspar, based on good linear relationships between the leached Pb and the Fe/Mn concentrations, and the residual Pb and K concentrations. Based on a ratio-ratio plot with three isotopes (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) and the geographic location of each sediment, sediments were categorized into two groups of samples as group1 and group2. Group 1 sediments, which were distributed in Gyeonggi Bay and offshore (north of 36.5°N), were determined to be a mixture of anthropogenic and natural Pb originating from the Han River, based on a 208Pb/206Pb against a Cs/Pbleached mixing plot of core and surface sediments. Group 2 sediments, which were distributed in the south of 36.5°N, also showed a two endmembers mixing relationship between materials from the Geum River and offshore materials, which had very different Pb concentrations and isotope ratios. Based on the isotopes and their concentrations in core and surface sediments, this mixing relationship was interpreted as materials from two geographically different origins being mixed, rather than anthropogenic or natural mixing of materials with the same origin. Therefore, the relative percentage of materials supplied from the Geum River was calculated using a two endmembers mixing model and estimated to be as much as about 50% at 35°N. The spatial distribution of materials derived from the Geum River represented that of fine

  15. Surface passivation of InP solar cells with InAlAs layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells is limited by high values of surface recombination. The effect of a lattice-matched In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer material for InP solar cells, using the numerical code PC-1D is investigated. It was found that the use of InAlAs layer significantly enhances the p(+)n cell efficiency, while no appreciable improvement is seen for n(+)p cells. The conduction band energy discontinuity at the heterojunction helps in improving the surface recombination. An optimally designed InP cell efficiency improves from 15.4 percent to 23 percent AMO for a 10 nm thick InAlAs layer. The efficiency improvement reduces with increase in InAlAs layer thickness, due to light absorption in the window layer.

  16. Investigation of Selective Laser Melting Surface Alloyed Aluminium Metal Matrix Dispersive Reinforced Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburov, V. V.; Dimitrova, R. B.; Kandeva, M. K.; Sofronov, Y. P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the improvement of mechanical properties and in particular wear resistance of laser surface alloyed dispersive reinforced thin layers produced by selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The wear resistance investigation of aluminium matrix composite layers in the conditions of dry friction surface with abrasive particles and nanoindentation tests were carried out. The process parameters (as scan speed) and their impact on the wear resistant layers have been evaluated. The alloyed layers containing metalized SiC particles were studied by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The obtained experimental results of the laser alloyed thin layers show significant development of their wear resistance and nanohardness due to the incorporated reinforced phase of electroless nickel coated SiC particles.

  17. EDXRF and INAA analyses of surface sediments of the Gulf of Saros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, T.; Mukhamedshina, N.; Mirsagatova, A.A.; Akyuz, S.; Sari, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A variety of elements and organic matter have been introduced to the environment as a result of human activities. Such substances find their way to the aquatic sediments from direct discharges to waterways, atmospheric emissions, and run of. In aquatic systems, sediments become the eventual sink for most of these chemicals. One of the most useful approaches to long-term monitoring of aquatic systems is the analysis of marine sediments. The Gulf of Saros in the northeastern Aegean Sea (Turkey) is a relatively unpolluted marine environment. It is located between latitudes 40 o 19 ' N - 40 o 37 ' N and longitudes 26 o 19 ' E - 26 o 50 ' E and has approximately 60 km length and 6-33 km wide. The main sources of fresh water and sediment to the Gulf are the Meric River in the northwest and the Kavak Creek in the east. In this study, 54 surface sediment samples, collected at different water depths in the Saros Gulf, by cruise of Sismik-1 of Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, using Van Veen graph sampler were analysed quantitatively by radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques. In the case of EDXRF analysis, samples were excited using an 241 Am source (10 mCi) and a HPGe detector or a 109 Cd source (25 mCi) and a Si(Li) detector for 50,000 s with resolutions of approximately 350 eV and 185 eV FWHM, respectively, at 5.89 keV. The quantitative analyses were performed by the fundamental parameter technique, in order to minimise the matrix effects in X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the case of INAA method, the samples of 0.1 - 0.15 g mass were irradiated simultaneously with reference materials at a fission spectra neutron flux of the density of ∼5.10 13 cm -2 .s -1 (WWR-SM) nuclear reactor of Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The concentrations of 40 elements were determined. The main interest of the present study is to assess the environmental state

  18. Water erosion in surface soil conditions: runoff velocity, concentration and D50 index of sediments in runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos,Júlio César; Bertol,Ildegardis; Barbosa,Fabrício Tondello; Bertól,Camilo; Mafra,Álvaro Luiz; Miquelluti,David José; Mecabô Júnior,José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water erosion and contamination of water resources are influenced by concentration and diameter of sediments in runoff. This study aimed to quantify runoff velocity and concentration and the D50 index of sediments in runoff under different soil surface managements, in the following treatments: i) cropped systems: no-tilled soil covered by ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCR); no tilled soil covered by vetch (Vicia sativa L.) res...

  19. Torsional surface waves in an inhomogeneous layer over a gravitating anisotropic porous half-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Shishir; Pramanik, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to deal with the propagation of torsional surface wave in an inhomogeneous layer over a gravitating anisotropic porous half space. The inhomogeneous layer exhibits the inhomogeneity of quadratic type. In order to show the effect of gravity the equation for the velocity of torsional wave has been obtained. It is also observed that for a layer over a homogeneous half space without gravity, the torsional surface wave does not propagate. An attempt is also made to assess the possible propagation of torsional surface waves in that medium in the absence of the upper layer. The effects of inhomogeneity factors and porosity on the phase velocity are depicted by means of graphs. (paper)

  20. SURFACE LAYER ACCRETION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS DRIVEN BY FAR-ULTRAVIOLET IONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Whether protoplanetary disks accrete at observationally significant rates by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) depends on how well ionized they are. Disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays are susceptible to charge neutralization by small condensates, ranging from ∼0.01 μm sized grains to angstrom-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ion densities in X-ray-irradiated surfaces are so low that ambipolar diffusion weakens the MRI. Here we show that ionization by stellar far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation enables full-blown MRI turbulence in disk surface layers. Far-UV ionization of atomic carbon and sulfur produces a plasma so dense that it is immune to ion recombination on grains and PAHs. The FUV-ionized layer, of thickness 0.01-0.1 g cm -2 , behaves in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit and can accrete at observationally significant rates at radii ∼> 1-10 AU. Surface layer accretion driven by FUV ionization can reproduce the trend of increasing accretion rate with increasing hole size seen in transitional disks. At radii ∼<1-10 AU, FUV-ionized surface layers cannot sustain the accretion rates generated at larger distance, and unless turbulent mixing of plasma can thicken the MRI-active layer, an additional means of transport is needed. In the case of transitional disks, it could be provided by planets.

  1. CHARACTERIZING SURFACE LAYERS IN NITINOL USING X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopfel, R.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitinol is a shape memory alloy whose properties allow for large reversible deformations and a return to its original geometry. This nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy has become a material used widely in the biomedical fi eld as a stent to open up collapsed arteries. Both ambient and biological conditions cause surface oxidation in these devices which in turn change its biocompatibility. The thickness of oxidized layers can cause fractures in the material if too large and can allow for penetration if too thin. Depending on the type and abundance of the chemical species on or near the surface, highly toxic metal ions can leak into the body causing cell damage or even cell death. Thus, biocompatibility of such devices is crucial. By using highly surface sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the surface of these structures, it is possible to decipher both layer composition and layer thickness. Two samples, both of which were mechanically polished, were investigated. Of the two samples, one was then exposed to a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution to mimic the chemical properties of blood, while the other remained unexposed. Although both samples were found to have oxide layers of appropriate thickness (on the order of a few nm), it was found that the sample exposed to the saline solution had a slightly thicker oxide layer and more signifi cantly, a phosphate layer very near the surface suggesting toxic metal components are well contained within the sample. These are considerable indications of a biocompatible device.

  2. Compensation of propagation loss of surface plasmon polaritons with a finite-thickness dielectric gain layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Haitao; Zhong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study the compensation of propagation loss of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the use of a finite-thickness dielectric layer with optical gain. The impacts of the gain coefficient, the gain-layer thickness and the wavelength on the loss compensation and the field distribution of the SPP mode are systematically explored with a fully vectorial method. Abnormal behaviors for the loss compensation as the gain-layer thickness increases are found and explained. Critical values of the gain coefficient and of the corresponding gain-layer thickness for just compensating the propagation loss are provided. Our results show that as the SPP propagation loss is fully compensated with a gain coefficient at a reasonably low level, the gain layer is still thin enough to ensure a large exterior SPP field at the gain-layer/air interface, which is important for achieving a strong light–matter interaction for applications such as bio-chemical sensing. (paper)

  3. A novel carbohydrate-binding surface layer protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Shuichiro; Koga, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kuriura, Ryo; Ueda, Toshifumi

    2018-04-08

    In Archaea and Bacteria, surface layer (S-layer) proteins form the cell envelope and are involved in cell protection. In the present study, a putative S-layer protein was purified from the crude extract of Pyrococcus horikoshii using affinity chromatography. The S-layer gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses showed that the S-layer protein bound N-acetylglucosamine and induced agglutination of the gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The protein comprised a 21-mer structure, with a molecular mass of 1,340 kDa, as determined using small-angle X-ray scattering. This protein showed high thermal stability, with a midpoint of thermal denaturation of 79 °C in dynamic light scattering experiments. This is the first description of the carbohydrate-binding archaeal S-layer protein and its characteristics.

  4. Polyethylene imine/graphene oxide layer-by-layer surface functionalization for significantly improved limit of detection and binding kinetics of immunoassays on acrylate surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Celina M; Mishra, Rohit; Kinahan, David J; Ferreira, Marystela; Ducrée, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Antibody immobilization on polymeric substrates is a key manufacturing step for microfluidic devices that implement sample-to-answer automation of immunoassays. In this work, a simple and versatile method to bio-functionalize poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), a common material of such "Lab-on-a-Chip" systems, is proposed; using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique, we assemble nanostructured thin films of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO). The wettability of PMMA surfaces was significantly augmented by the surface treatment with (PEI/GO) 5 film, with an 81% reduction of the contact angle, while the surface roughness increased by 600%, thus clearly enhancing wettability and antibody binding capacity. When applied to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the limit of detection of PMMA surface was notably improved from 340pgmL -1 on commercial grade polystyrene (PS) and 230pgmL -1 on plain PMMA surfaces to 130pgmL -1 on (PEI/GO) 5 treated PMMA. Furthermore, the accelerated antibody adsorption kinetics on the LbL films of GO allowed to substantially shorten incubation times, e.g. for anti-rat IgG adsorption from 2h down to 15min on conventional and treated surfaces, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiferromagnetic MnN layer on the MnGa(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J., E-mail: guerrero@cnyn.unam.mx; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A ferromagnetic Gallium terminated surface is stable before N incorporation. • After N incorporation, an antiferromagnetic MnN layer becomes stable in a wide range of chemical potential. • Spin density distribution shows an antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (MnN/MnGa) arrangement at the surface. - Abstract: Spin polarized first principles total energy calculations have been applied to study the stability and magnetic properties of the MnGa(001) surface and the formation of a topmost MnN layer with the deposit of nitrogen. Before nitrogen adsorption, surface formation energies show a stable gallium terminated ferromagnetic surface. After incorporation of nitrogen atoms, the antiferromagnetic manganese terminated surface becomes stable due to the formation of a MnN layer (Mn-N bonding at the surface). Spin density distribution shows a ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic arrangement in the first surface layers. This thermodynamically stable structure may be exploited to growth MnGa/MnN magnetic heterostructures as well as to look for exchange biased systems.

  6. Laser study of phase changes in the surface layer of porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtatowicz, T W

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects of the use of interference patterns observed upon reflection of laser radiation from the surface of a porous solid (laser speckles) for the study of moisture condensation in the near-surface layer. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  7. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  8. A mechanical model for surface layer formation on self-lubricating ceramic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jiupeng; Valefi, Mahdiar; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    To predict the thickness of a self-lubricating layer on the contact surface of ceramic composite material containing a soft phase during dry sliding test, a mechanical model was built to calculate the material transfer of the soft second phase in the composite to the surface. The tribological test,

  9. Laser-induced oxidation of titanium substrate: Analysis of the physicochemical structure of the surface and sub-surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J., E-mail: arkadiusz.antonczak@pwr.edu.pl [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Skowroński, Łukasz; Trzcinski, Marek [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Kinzhybalo, Vasyl V. [Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+, Stabłowicka 147, 54-066 Wrocław (Poland); Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Łazarek, Łukasz K.; Abramski, Krzysztof M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Chemical structure of the films induced by laser on titanium surface was analyzed. • It was shown that outer layer of this films consist of oxides doped with nitrogen. • The optical properties of the laser-induced oxynitride films were characterized. • We found that the films demonstrated significant absorption in the band of 300–580 nm. • The morphology of the layers as a function of the laser fluence was investigated. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the analysis of the complex chemical structure of the layers made on titanium in the process of the heating of its surfaces in an atmospheric environment, by irradiating samples with a nanosecond-pulsed laser. The study was carried out for electroplated, high purity, polycrystalline titanium substrates using a Yb:glass fiber laser. All measurements were made for samples irradiated in a broad range of accumulated fluence, below the ablation threshold. It has been determined how the complex index of refraction of both the oxynitride layers and the substrate vary as a function of accumulated laser fluence. It was also shown that the top layer of the film produced on titanium, which is transparent, is not a pure TiO{sub 2} as had been supposed before. The XPS and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of nitrogen compounds and the existence of nonstoichiometric compounds. By sputtering of the sample's surface using an Ar{sup +} ion gun, the changes in the concentration of individual elements as a function of the layer's cross-section were determined. Lastly, an analysis of the surface morphology has also been carried out, explaining why the layers crack and exfoliate from their substrate.

  10. Modification on surface oxide layer structure and surface morphology of niobium by gas cluster ion beam treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, A.T.; Swenson, D.R.; Insepov, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that significant reductions in field emission on Nb surfaces could be achieved by means of a new surface treatment technique called gas cluster ion beam (GCIB). Further study as shown in this paper revealed that GCIB treatments could modify surface irregularities and remove surface asperities leading to a smoother surface finish as demonstrated through measurements using a 3D profilometer, an atomic force microscope, and a scanning electron microscope. These experimental observations were supported by computer simulation via atomistic molecular dynamics and a phenomenological surface dynamics. Measurements employing a secondary ion mass spectrometry found that GCIB could also alter Nb surface oxide layer structure. Possible implications of the experimental results on the performance of Nb superconducting radio frequency cavities treated by GCIB will be discussed. First experimental results on Nb single cell superconducting radio frequency cavities treated by GCIB will be reported.

  11. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryniewicz, A. M; Ryniewicz, W.; Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A.

    2010-01-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  12. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A. M.; Ryniewicz, A.; Ryniewicz, W.; Gaska, A.

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  13. Development of scour in non-cohesive sediments under a poorly erodible top layer

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zuylen, J.A.; Sloff, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the development of deep scour holes in the river bed of the Dutch Rhine delta in the Netherlands. Assessment of multi-beam surveys, laboratory-flume experiments, and 3D numerical modelling, shows how fast this type of scour holes grows in depth and width. These typical scour holes are found in the tidal deltaic rivers that experience a general incision. This erosion decreases the thickness of the erosion resistant clay/peat layer that is covering and protecting the under...

  14. Surface layer composition of titania produced by various methods. The change of layer state under illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharenko, V; Daibova, E; Zmeeva, O; Kosova, N

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of experimental data over titanium dioxide powders prepared by various ways under ambient air is carried out. The results over TiO 2 prepared by high-temperature heating of anatase, produced by burning of titanium micro particles and grinding of rutile crystal are used for that comparison. Water and carbon dioxide were the main products released from the surface of the titania powders. It was found that under UV irradiation absorbed by titania, in absent oxygen, water effectively reacts with lattice oxygen of titanium dioxide. (paper)

  15. Thickened boundary layer theory for air film drag reduction on a van body surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Cao, Lifeng; Huang, Heng

    2018-05-01

    To elucidate drag reduction mechanism on a van body surface under air film condition, a thickened boundary layer theory was proposed and a frictional resistance calculation model of the van body surface was established. The frictional resistance on the van body surface was calculated with different parameters of air film thickness. In addition, the frictional resistance of the van body surface under the air film condition was analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and different air film states that influenced the friction resistance on the van body surface were discussed. As supported by the CFD simulation results, the thickened boundary layer theory may provide reference for practical application of air film drag reduction on a van body surface.

  16. Helicity and potential vorticity in the surface boundary layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhetiani, Otto; Kurgansky, Michael; Koprov, Boris; Koprov, Victor

    2016-04-01

    An experimental measurement of all three components of the velocity and vorticity vectors, as well as the temperature and its gradient, and potential vorticity, has been developed using four acoustic anemometers. Anemometers were placed at vertices of a tetrahedron, the horizontal base of which was a rectangular triangle with equal legs, and the upper point was exactly above the top of the right angle. The distance from the surface to the tetrahedron its base was 5.5 m, and the lengths of legs and a vertical edge were 5 m. The measurements were carried out of total duration near 100 hours both in stable and unstable stratification conditions (at the Tsimlyansk Scientific Station in a uniform area of virgin steppe 700 x 650 m, August 2012). A covariance-correlation matrix for turbulent variations in all measured values has been calculated. In the daytime horizontal and vertical components of the helicity are of the order of -0.03 and +0.01 m s-2, respectively. The nighttime signs remain unchanged, but the absolute values are several times smaller. It is confirmed also by statistics of a relative helicity. The cospectra and spectral correlation coefficients have been calculated for all helicity components. The time variations in the components of "instantaneous" relative helicity and potential vorticity are considered. Connections of helicity with Monin-Obukhov length and the wind vertical profile structure are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Project No 14-27-00134).

  17. Speciation and spatial distribution of solid-phase iron in surface sediments of the East China Sea continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Hao, Xiao-Chen; Shi, Xiao-Ning; Yang, Gui-Peng; Li, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Speciation and reactivity characterization of solid-phase Fe in marine sediments are of significance to understanding its heterogeneous mineralogy and crystallinity, the diagenetic cycling of Fe and its regulating roles on many other elements in sediments. In this study, a combination of sequential and single-step extractions was used for the determination of seven Fe pools in surface sediments of the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf: (1) carbonate associated Fe (Fe(II) carb ) plus acid volatile sulfide-Fe (Fe(II) AVS ), (2) easily reducible amorphous/poorly crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox1 ), (3) reducible crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox2 ), (4) magnetite (Fe mag ), (5) poorly reactive sheet silicate Fe (Fe PRS ), (6) pyrite-Fe (Fe py ), and (7) unreactive silicate Fe (Fe U ). Total Fe (Fe T ) in the sediments is largely determined by terrestrial aluminosilicate particles as indicated by a great similarity of the Fe T with that of the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates. The size of Fe PRS is found to be the largest pool, followed by Fe U , Fe ox2 , Fe mag , Fe(II) AVS+carb , Fe ox1 and Fe py . The large Fe PRS may result from neoformation of Fe-rich clay minerals via reverse weathering and subsequent ageing. The small sizes of Fe(II) AVS+carb and Fe py pools is believed to be the result of low SO 4 reduction due to generally low labile organic matter together with the oxic/suboxic, dynamic environments of the surface sediments. The occurrence of Fe ox1 , Fe ox2 and Fe PRS in the sediments is closely associated with the clay fraction as indicated by a high spatial correlation between the former and the latter. Highly reactive Fe(Fe HR ) in the sediments is comparable to that in global marine sediments, but apparently lower than in the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates due probably to sequestration in the Yangtze Estuary. The ratios of Fe HR /Fe T , Fe PR /Fe T and Fe U /Fe T in the ECS surface sediments consistently show more similarity to

  18. Diversity and distribution of catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase genes in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peiqing; Li, Li; Liu, Jihua; Bai, Yazhi; Fang, Xisheng

    2016-05-01

    Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase (C23O) is the key enzyme for aerobic aromatic degradation. Based on clone libraries and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we characterized diversity and distribution patterns of C23O genes in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea. The results showed that sediments of the Bohai Sea were dominated by genes related to C23O subfamily I.2.A. The samples from wastewater discharge area (DG) and aquaculture farm (KL) showed distinct composition of C23O genes when compared to the samples from Bohai Bay (BH), and total organic carbon was a crucial determinant accounted for the composition variation. C6BH12-38 and C2BH2-35 displayed the highest gene copies and highest ratios to the 16S rRNA genes in KL, and they might prefer biologically labile aromatic hydrocarbons via aquaculture inputs. Meanwhile, C7BH3-48 showed the highest gene copies and highest ratios to the 16S rRNA genes in DG, and this could be selective effect of organic loadings from wastewater discharge. An evident increase in C6BH12-38 and C7BH3-48 gene copies and reduction in diversity of C23O genes in DG and KL indicated composition perturbations of C23O genes and potential loss in functional redundancy. We suggest that ecological habitat and trophic specificity could shape the distribution of C23O genes in the Bohai Sea sediments. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Occurrence and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zijiao; Liu, Guijian; Lam, Michael Hon Wah; Liu, Houqi; Da, Chunnian

    2016-05-01

    A total of 21 surface sediments collected from the Yellow River Estuary, China were analyzed for 40 kinds of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Their levels, spatial distribution, congener profiles and possible sources were investigated. Only ten congeners were detected in the sediments. The total concentrations of the lower brominated BDEs (∑PBDEslow, PBDEs excluding BDE 209) and BDE 209 ranged from 0.482 ng/g to 1.07 ng/g and 1.16-5.40 ng/g, with an average value of 0.690 and 2.79 ng/g, respectively, which were both at the low end of the global contamination level. The congener profiles were dominated by BDE 209, with the average value accounting for 79.2% of the total PBDEs in the sediment samples. Among the nine lower brominated BDE congeners, BDE 47, 99 and 183 had high abundances. Although the commercial Penta/Octa-BDE products have been banned in most countries, the residual commercial Penta/Octa/Deca-BDE products and the debromination of highly brominated BDE compounds such as BDE 209 were still found to be the possible sources for the trace level of PBDEs in the present study area. In spite of the gradual removal of the commercial PBDEs in the world, the present research results further suggested that scientific attention should not be reduced on the issue of environmental contamination caused by these outdated chemical compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  1. Surface layers in the 4A group metals with implanted silicon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovneristyj, Yu.K.; Vavilova, V.V.; Krasnopevtsev, V.V.; Galkin, L.N.; Kudyshev, A.N.; Klechkovskaya, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made on the change of structure and phase composition of fine near the surface layers of 4A group metals (Hf, Zr, Ti) during ion Si implantation and successive thermal annealing at elevated temperatures. Implantation of Si + ions with 30 or 16 keV energy in Ti, Zr and Hf at room temperature results to amorphization of metal surface layer. The surface hafnium and titanium layer with implanted Si atoms due to interaction with residual atmosphere of oxygen turns during annealing at 870 K to amorphous solid solution of HfO 2m or TiO 2 with Si, preventing further metal oxidation; layers of amorphous alloy are characterized by thermal stability up to 1270 K. Oxidation of the surface amorphous layer in residual oxygen atmosphere and its crystallization in ZrO 2 take place in result of Zr annealing with implanted Si ions at temperature not exceeding 870 K. Similar phenomena are observed in the case of hafnium with implanted oxygen ions or small dose of silicon ions. Thermal stability of amorphous layers produced during ion implantation of Si in Ti, Zr and Hf corresponds to scale resistance of monolithic alloys in Ti-Si, Zr-Si and Hf-Si systems

  2. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from the Luan River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Jinqing; Jiang, Xuejun; Cao, Ke; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xunhua

    2016-01-15

    The distribution, sources and risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of surface sediments in the Luan River Estuary, China, have been investigated in the research. The results indicated that the total concentrations of 16 PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary ranged from 5.1 to 545.1 ng g(-1)dw with a mean value of 120.8 ng g(-1)dw, which is relatively low in comparison with other estuaries around the world. The PAHs in the study area were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. Besides, PAHs may be contaminated by petrogenic PAHs as indicated by the selected ratios of PAHs, the 2-tailed Pearson correlation analysis and principal components analysis at different sites. The result of the ecological risk assessment shows little negative effect for most individual PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary, China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A preliminary investigation of the distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Cona tidal marsh (Venice Lagoon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, S.; Costa, F.; Vazzoler, S.; Zonta, R.

    1988-01-01

    Data are from the two series of surface sediment sampling in an interface area between the Venice Lagoon and the mainland. The distribution of heavy metals gives a correlation with polluted sourcesites-identified in the channel systems with a highly polluted input-and allows us to identify the localities of accumulation. Restricted to the estuary of the river tributary transporting a high concentration of pollutants into a tidal marsh area of the lagoon, the study shows the effect of the fresh water forcing to distribute heavy metals on surface sediments. Within the scope of this preliminary investigation, indications from sampling identify a sector of the 'palude of Cona' in this estuary, which is highly suitable for detailed studies on precesses affecting heavy-metal distributions in bottom surface sediments of shallow-water areas

  4. Dynamic Dispersal of Surface Layer Biofilm Induced by Nanosized TiO2 Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance and Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Yan, Peng; Chen, You-Peng; Wang, Wei; Dai, You-Zhi; Fang, Fang; Wang, Gui-Xue; Shen, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Pollutant degradation is present mainly in the surface layer of biofilms, and the surface layer is the most vulnerable to impairment by toxic pollutants. In this work, the effects of nanosized TiO 2 (n-TiO 2 ) on the average thicknesses of Bacillus subtilis biofilm and on bacterial attachment on different surfaces were investigated. The binding mechanism of n-TiO 2 to the cell surface was also probed. The results revealed that n-TiO 2 caused biofilm dispersal and the thicknesses decreased by 2.0 to 2.6 μm after several hours of exposure. The attachment abilities of bacteria with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on hydrophilic surfaces were significantly reduced by 31% and 81% under 10 and 100 mg/liter of n-TiO 2 , respectively, whereas those of bacteria without EPS were significantly reduced by 43% and 87%, respectively. The attachment abilities of bacteria with and without EPS on hydrophobic surfaces were significantly reduced by 50% and 56%, respectively, under 100 mg/liter of n-TiO 2 The results demonstrated that biofilm dispersal can be attributed to the changes in the cell surface structure and the reduction of microbial attachment ability. IMPORTANCE Nanoparticles can penetrate into the outer layer of biofilm in a relatively short period and can bind onto EPS and bacterial surfaces. The current work probed the effects of nanosized TiO 2 (n-TiO 2 ) on biofilm thickness, bacterial migration, and surface properties of the cell in the early stage using the surface plasmon resonance waveguide mode. The results demonstrated that n-TiO 2 decreased the adhesive ability of both cell and EPS and induced bacterial migration and biofilm detachment in several hours. The decreased adhesive ability of microbes and EPS worked against microbial aggregation, reducing the effluent quality in the biological wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. A quality-control procedure for surface temperature and surface layer inversion in the XBT data archive from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.; Pattanaik, J.; Ratnakaran, L.

    and surface layer temperature inversion. XBT surface temperatrues (XST) are compared with the surface temperature from simultaneous CTD observations from four cruises and the former were found to be erroneous in a number of stations. XSTs are usually corrected...

  6. Dissolution model for a glass having an adherent insoluble surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.B.; Larocque, C.A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Waste form glasses that contain substantial quantities of iron, manganese, and aluminum oxides, such as the Savannah River SRL TDS-131 glass, form a thick, hydrated surface layer when placed in contact with water. The dissolution of such a glass has been modeled with the Savannah River Model. The authors showed previously that the equations of the Savannah River Model could be fitted to published experimental data if a time-dependent diffusion coefficient was assumed for species of diffusing through the surface layer. The Savannah River Model assumes that all of the material dissolved from the glass enters solution, whereas it was observed that substantial quantities of material were retained in the surface layer. An alternative model, presented contains a mass balance equation that allows material either to enter solution or to be retained in the surface layer. It is shown that the equations derived using this model can be fitted to the published experimental data assuming a constant diffusion coefficient for species diffusing through the surface layer

  7. Diffusion of C and Cr During Creation of Surface Layer on Cast Steel Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnar J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In paper a method of improvement in utility properties of unalloyed cast steel casting in result of diffusion of C and Cr in process of creation of surface layer is presented. The aim of paper was determination of diffusion range of basic elements of alloyed surface layer. Moreover a quantitative analysis of carbides phase strengthens alloyed surface layer of casting was carried out. The results of studies shown that important factors of surface layer creation are maximal temperature Tmax on granular insert – cast steel boundary dependent of pouring temperature, granularity Zw of Fe-Cr-C alloy insert and thickness of casting wall gśo. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that with increase of thickness of casting wall increases range of diffusion in solid state in Fe-Cr-C grains and in liquid state. Moreover the range of Tmax = 13001500oC favours creation of the proper alloyed surface layers on cast steel.

  8. Ecological and taphonomical influences on coccoliths in surface sediments in the shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobo; Liu, Chuanlian

    2017-05-01

    Coccoliths, combined with sediment grain size, carbonate calcium and organic matters content, were analyzed to assess the ecological and taphonomical influences on coccolith distribution patterns in surface sediments in the continental shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas. Coccolith abundances ranged from 0 to 2.08×109 coccoliths g-1 sediment. The increasing abundance from the coastal inner shelf to the seaward middle shelf generally reflects the ecological fact that living coccolithophores are more abundant in the mesotrophic shelf waters than in the eutrophic coastal waters, although their deposits are still controlled by taphonomical effects, such as bottom (tidal) currents and calcite preservation conditions. Most abundant coccoliths are found in the fine-grained sediments of southwestern Cheju Island, where both ecology and taphonomy favor coccolith preservation. Still, large densities of coccoliths (>108 coccoliths g-1 sediment) are also found in coarse-grained relict sediments in the middle shelf. Coccolith assemblages were predominated by Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Emiliania huxleyi. The relative abundance of E. huxleyi, in addition to ecological reasons, may relate to selective post-mortem dissolution, since small E. huxleyi coccoliths are more susceptible to dissolution. Coccolith calcite has minor contributions (<1% to 12%) to total sediment CaCO3, and the main parts are attributed to terrigenous CaCO3 debris and relict shell fragments.

  9. Long-Term Impact of Sediment Deposition and Erosion on Water Surface Profiles in the Ner River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dysarz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to test forecasting of the sediment transport process, taking into account two main uncertainties involved in sediment transport modeling. These are: the lack of knowledge regarding future flows, and the uncertainty with respect to which sediment transport formula should be chosen for simulations. The river reach chosen for study is the outlet part of the Ner River, located in the central part of Poland. The main characteristic of the river is the presence of an intensive morphodynamic process, increasing flooding frequency. The approach proposed here is based on simulations with a sediment-routing model and assessment of the hydraulic condition changes on the basis of hydrodynamic calculations for the chosen characteristic flows. The data used include Digital Terrain Models (DTMs, cross-section measurements, and hydrological observations from the Dabie gauge station. The sediment and hydrodynamic calculations are performed using program HEC-RAS 5.0. Twenty inflow scenarios are of a 10-year duration and are composed on the basis of historical data. Meyer-Peter and Müller and Engelund-Hansen formulae are applied for the calculation of sediment transport intensity. The methodology presented here seems to be a good tool for the prediction of long-term impacts on water surface profiles caused by sediment deposition and erosion.

  10. Key parameters of the sediment surface morphodynamics in an estuary - An assessment of model solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, D. M. R.; Boski, T.

    2018-05-01

    Large-scale geomorphological evolution of an estuarine system was simulated by means of a hybrid estuarine sedimentation model (HESM) applied to the Guadiana Estuary, in Southwest Iberia. The model simulates the decadal-scale morphodynamics of the system under environmental forcing, using a set of analytical solutions to simplified equations of tidal wave propagation in shallow waters, constrained by empirical knowledge of estuarine sedimentary dynamics and topography. The key controlling parameters of the model are bed friction (f), current velocity power of the erosion rate function (N), and sea-level rise rate. An assessment of sensitivity of the simulated sediment surface elevation (SSE) change to these controlling parameters was performed. The model predicted the spatial differentiation of accretion and erosion, the latter especially marked in the mudflats within mean sea level and low tide level and accretion was mainly in a subtidal channel. The average SSE change mutually depended on both the friction coefficient and power of the current velocity. Analysis of the average annual SSE change suggests that the state of intertidal and subtidal compartments of the estuarine system vary differently according to the dominant processes (erosion and accretion). As the Guadiana estuarine system shows dominant erosional behaviour in the context of sea-level rise and sediment supply reduction after the closure of the Alqueva Dam, the most plausible sets of parameter values for the Guadiana Estuary are N = 1.8 and f = 0.8f0, or N = 2 and f = f0, where f0 is the empirically estimated value. For these sets of parameter values, the relative errors in SSE change did not exceed ±20% in 73% of simulation cells in the studied area. Such a limit of accuracy can be acceptable for an idealized modelling of coastal evolution in response to uncertain sea-level rise scenarios in the context of reduced sediment supply due to flow regulation. Therefore, the idealized but cost

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of two lakes of the Dongting Lake district in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Yang, Yajing; Zhang, Lugang; Luo, Yushuang; Liu, Fei; Yang, Pinhong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 18 and 12 surface sediment samples were collected from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively, and the 16 USEPA priority Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these samples were detected. The result indicated that the Σ16PAHs ranged from 206.56 to 1058.98 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 667.22 ng.g-1 in sediments from Datong Lake, whereas it ranged from 90.62 to 900.70 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 364.97 ng.g-1 in sediments from Shanpo Lake. The concentrations of individual PAHs in sediments ranged from 5.50 to 85.23 and from 4.39 to 52.74 ng.g-1 in Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively. According to the indexes such as HMW/LMW, Ant/(Ant+Phe), Flua/(Flua+Pyr), IcdP/(IcdP+BghiP), and BaA/(BaA+Chr), the PAHs in sediments from both lakes are mainly of pyrogenic origin. The total BaP equivalent in the surface sediment samples from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake is 42.77 and 33.35 ng.g-1, respectively.

  12. Chemical and physical properties of the surface sea sediments at the Olkiluoto offshore, South-Western Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Keskinen, A.

    2011-11-01

    Due to land uplift, the present sea sediments near Olkiluoto will be future land areas, and thus important for the transport of possible releases from nuclear waste repositories at the site. Coastal areas are the transition zones between land and sea, and also potential sites for deep groundwater discharge. The geochemical properties of the surface sediments at the Olkiluoto sea area are summarised in this report. Thirteen sediment samples were cored during the R/V Geomari cruise in autumn 2008. In addition, surface sediment samples from six transects, altogether 57 cores, were taken near the Olkiluoto shoreline by diving in the summer of 2008. The analysis procedure included pH, moisture, dry matter, ash and LOI contents, grain size distribution, carbon and nitrogen analyses and the total concentrations of thirtythree elements. The lateral and vertical distribution of element concentrations, especially heavy metals, is caused by variations in transport and sedimentation patterns of particulate matter, in the occurrence of migration processes and bonding types. The distribution pattern in most of the elements is strongly linked to that of organic matter, carbon and fine-grained material contents. The sediments are strongly enriched by some of the studied elements possibly due to anthropogenic load, while others are only moderately or slightly present. However, the source of different natural and anthropogenic loads is not easy to point out. (orig.)

  13. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  14. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunishi, T; Sato, N; Yazawa, K

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  15. Bloch Surface Waves Using Graphene Layers: An Approach toward In-Plane Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Dubey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A dielectric multilayer platform was investigated as a foundation for two-dimensional optics. In this paper, we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of absorption of Bloch surface waves in the presence of graphene layers. Graphene is initially grown on a Cu foil via Chemical Vapor Deposition and transferred layer by layer by a wet-transfer method using poly(methyl methacrylate, (PMMA. We exploit total internal reflection configuration and multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy as a far-field coupling method and near-field characterization tool, respectively. The absorption is quantified in terms of propagation lengths of Bloch surface waves. A significant drop in the propagation length of the BSWs is observed in the presence of graphene layers. The propagation length of BSWs in bare multilayer is reduced to 17 times shorter in presence of graphene monolayer, and 23 times shorter for graphene bilayer.

  16. XPS studies of SiO2 surface layers formed by oxygen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Finster, J.

    1983-01-01

    SiO 2 surface layers of 160 nm thickness formed by 16 O + ion implantation into silicon are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements into the depth after a step-by-step chemical etching. The chemical nature and the thickness of the transition layer were determined. The results of the XPS measurements show that the outer surface and the bulk of the layers formed by oxygen implantation and subsequent high temperature annealing consist of SiO 2 . There is no evidence for Si or SiO/sub x/ (0 2 and Si is similar to that of thin grown oxide layers. Only its thickness is somewhat larger than in thermal oxide

  17. Duplex surface treatment of AISI 1045 steel via plasma nitriding of chromized layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, F.; Sohi, M. Heydarzadeh; Ghani, J. Rasizadeh

    2011-01-01

    In this work AISI 1045 steel were duplex treated via plasma nitriding of chromized layer. Samples were pack chromized by using a powder mixture consisting of ferrochromium, ammonium chloride and alumina at 1273 K for 5 h. The samples were then plasma-nitrided for 5 h at 803 K and 823 K, in a gas mixture of 75%N 2 + 25%H 2 . The treated specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Vickers micro-hardness test. The thickness of chromized layer before nitriding was about 8 μm and it was increased after plasma nitriding. According to XRD analysis, the chromized layer was composed of chromium and iron carbides. Plasma nitriding of chromized layer resulted in the formation of chromium and iron nitrides and carbides. The hardness of the duplex layers was significantly higher than the hardness of the base material or chromized layer. The main cause of the large improvement in surface hardness was due to the formation of Cr x N and Fe x N phases in the duplex treated layers. Increasing of nitriding temperature from 803 to 823 K enhanced the formation of CrN in the duplex treated layer and increased the thickness of the nitrided layer.

  18. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  19. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland); Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo [Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Wood Materials Science, ETH Zürich, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 3, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Applied Wood Materials Laboratory, Empa − Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Österberg, Monika, E-mail: monika.osterberg@aalto.fi [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  20. Variation in PAH inputs and microbial community in surface sediments of Hamilton Harbour: Implications to remediation and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.F.; Cowie, B.R.; Harper, N.; Droppo, I.G.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and microbial community indicators were investigated in representative highly contaminated and less contaminated surface sediment sites of Hamilton Harbour. Inputs of PAH to the upper 3 cm of sediments up to four times the average upper sediment concentrations were observed. Associated PAH fingerprint profiles indicated that the source was consistent with the PAH source to the industrial region of the harbour. Increased PAH loadings were associated with decreased bacterial populations as indicated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. However, relatively minor impacts on overall community composition were indicated. Porewater methane concentrations and isotopic data indicated a difference in the occurrence of methane oxidation between the two sites. This study confirms temporally limited transport of contaminants from highly impacted regions as a vector for contaminants within the harbour and the impact on microbial carbon cycling and bed stability. - Variations in PAH inputs to harbour sediments have implications to implementation and monitoring of mitigation/remediation efforts

  1. Content of trace metals in surface sediments of Lac Sud de Tunis before development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Souissi, J.; Zaouali, J.; Aouij, S.; Orlando, E.; Mazghouni, M.; Rezig, M.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, Fe) concentrations in the surface sediments of the South Lake of Tunis before its restoration showed a high level of contamination. The values for mercury, cadmium and lead oscillate respectively between (0,17 and 2,6 μg/g d.w), (0,13 and 13,3 μg/g d. w); (3,97 and 698 μg/g d. w). This pollution is generated by the intensive industrial activity situated on south banks of the Lake. This environment constitutes since more of the millennium a outfall of urban used waters and since one century an outfall of industrial waste waters strongly charged with nutrients and heavy metals. (author)

  2. Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Syracuse Bay (Western Ionian Sea, Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Fernando; Belmonte, Manuela; Caroppo, Carmela; Giacobbe, Mariagrazia

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts were investigated for the first time at an Ionian locality along the south-eastern coast of Sicily, subject to spring-summer harmful algal events. Thirty-four cyst morphotypes were recognized belonging to 24 taxa identified at least at the genus level. Cyst abundance in surface sediments ranged from 43 to 828 cysts g -1 dry weight, with the highest numbers recorded at the most restricted station. Germination experiments allowed confirmation of species identification determined by cyst analysis and provided clonal cultures of Alexandrium minutum and Gymnodinium nolleri, two of the bloom-forming species in the area. This represents the first record of G. nolleri for the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sea ice and primary production proxies in surface sediments from a High Arctic Greenland fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Sejr, Mikael K; Limoges, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring Programme. Clear spatial gradients in organic carbon and biogenic silica contents reflected marine influence, nutrient availability and river-induced turbidity, in good agreement with in situ measurements. The sea ice proxy IP25 was detected at all sites but at low concentrations, indicating...... that IP25 records from fjords need to be carefully considered and not directly compared to marine settings. The sea ice-associated biomarker HBI III revealed an open-water signature, with highest concentrations near the mid-July ice edge. This proxy evaluation is an important step towards reliable......In order to establish a baseline for proxy-based reconstructions for the Young Sound–Tyrolerfjord system (Northeast Greenland), we analysed the spatial distribution of primary production and sea ice proxies in surface sediments from the fjord, against monitoring data from the Greenland Ecosystem...

  5. Murein Hydrolase Activity in the Surface Layer of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356▿

    OpenAIRE

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Palomino, María Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Rivas, Carmen Sanchez; Ruzal, Sandra M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new enzymatic functionality for the surface layer (S-layer) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, namely, an endopeptidase activity against the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, assayed via zymograms and identified by Western blotting. Based on amino acid sequence comparisons, the hydrolase activity was predicted to be located at the C terminus. Subsequent cloning and expression of the C-terminal domain in Bacillus subtilis resulted in the functional verificati...

  6. Heat-resistant organic molecular layer as a joint interface for metal reduction on plastics surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, Jing; Aisawa, Sumio; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Mori, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ adsorption behaviors of TES on PA6 surface were clarified by QCM. • Highest adsorption of TES on PA6 was obtained in pH 3 and 0.1 M solution. • Molecular layers of TES with uniform structures were prepared on PA6 surface. • TES layer improved PA6 local heat resistance from 150 °C to 230 °C. • TES molecular layer successfully reduced Ag ion to Ag"0. - Abstract: Heat-resistant organic molecular layers have been fabricated by triazine-based silane coupling agent for metal reduction on plastic surfaces using adsorption method. These molecular layers were used as an interfacial layer between polyamide (PA6) and metal solution to reduce Ag"+ ion to Ag"0. The interfacial behaviors of triazine molecular layer at the interfaces between PA6 and Ag solution were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The kinetics of molecular adsorption on PA6 was investigated by using triazine-based silane coupling agent solutions at different pH and concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and local nano thermal analysis were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The nano thermal analysis results show that molecular layers of triazine-based silane coupling agent greatly improved heat resistance of PA6 resin from 170 °C up to 230 °C. This research developed an in-depth insight for molecular behaviors of triazine-based silane coupling agent at the PA6 and Ag solution interfaces and should be of significant value for interfacial research between plastics and metal solution in plating industry.

  7. Heat-resistant organic molecular layer as a joint interface for metal reduction on plastics surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Jing [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Aisawa, Sumio, E-mail: aisawa@iwate-u.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Hirahara, Hidetoshi [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kudo, Takahiro [Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan); Mori, Kunio [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ adsorption behaviors of TES on PA6 surface were clarified by QCM. • Highest adsorption of TES on PA6 was obtained in pH 3 and 0.1 M solution. • Molecular layers of TES with uniform structures were prepared on PA6 surface. • TES layer improved PA6 local heat resistance from 150 °C to 230 °C. • TES molecular layer successfully reduced Ag ion to Ag{sup 0}. - Abstract: Heat-resistant organic molecular layers have been fabricated by triazine-based silane coupling agent for metal reduction on plastic surfaces using adsorption method. These molecular layers were used as an interfacial layer between polyamide (PA6) and metal solution to reduce Ag{sup +} ion to Ag{sup 0}. The interfacial behaviors of triazine molecular layer at the interfaces between PA6 and Ag solution were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The kinetics of molecular adsorption on PA6 was investigated by using triazine-based silane coupling agent solutions at different pH and concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and local nano thermal analysis were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The nano thermal analysis results show that molecular layers of triazine-based silane coupling agent greatly improved heat resistance of PA6 resin from 170 °C up to 230 °C. This research developed an in-depth insight for molecular behaviors of triazine-based silane coupling agent at the PA6 and Ag solution interfaces and should be of significant value for interfacial research between plastics and metal solution in plating industry.

  8. Growth of micrometric oxide layers to explore laser decontamination of metallic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Luisa; Pacquentin Wilfried; Tabarant Michel; Maskrot Hicham; Semerok Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in terms of hazard level, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop safe techniques for dismantling and for decontamination, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. In this paper we propose a method for the creation of oxide layers on stai...

  9. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Luisa; Pacquentin Wilfried; Tabarant Michel; Maskrot Hicham; Semerok Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless st...

  10. The influence of Ni, Mo, Si, Ti on the surface alloy layer quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walasek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of microstructure and selected mechanical properties of alloy layer. The aim of the researches was to determine the influence of Ni, Mo, Si and Ti with high-carbon ferrochromium (added separately to pad on the alloy layer on the steel cast. Metallographic studies were made with use of light microscopy. During studies of usable properties measurements of hardness, microhardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral for creation alloy layer were made. As thick as possible composite layer without any defects and discontinuity was required. The conducted researches allowed to take the suitable alloy addition of the pad material which improved the quality of the surface alloy layer.

  11. Methods of improvement in hardness of composite surface layer on cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in founding process a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy and next its remelting with use of welding technology TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generally applied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. However the results of studies show, that is possible to connection of both methods founding and welding of surface hardening of cast steel castings. In range of experimental plan was made test castings with composite surface layer, which next were remelted with energy 0,8 and 1,6 kJ/cm. Usability for industrial applications of test castings was estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  12. IMPACT OF VIBRATORY AND ROTATIONAL SHOT PEENING ONTO SELECTED PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM ALLOY SURFACE LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of tests on impact of vibratory and rotational shot peening of the Ti6A12Mo2Cr titanium alloy onto the processed object surface roughness and surface layer microhardness. The external surfaces of ring-shaped samples were shot peened. The preceding process consisted of turning with a cubic boron nitride blade knife. Steel beads, having a diameter of 6 mm, were used as a processing medium. The variable parameters of shot peening were vibrator amplitude and shot peening time. The range of recommended technological parameters for vibratory and rotational shot peening was determined. As a result of shot peening, the surface roughness could be reduced by approximately 4 times and the surface layer could be hardened to the depth of approximately 0.4 mm.

  13. Strengthening of the RAFMS RUSFER-EK181 through nano structuring surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, A.; Melnikova, E.A. [Tomsk State Univ., lnstitute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB, RAS (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leontieva-Smirnova, M.V. [A.A. Bochvar Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Surface nano-structuring increases yield point and strength of the reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel (RAFMS ) RUSREF - EK181. Ultrasonic impact treatment was used to produce a nano-structure within the surface layers of the specimens. Using scanning tunnelling microscope reveals a new mechanism of mesoscale-level plastic deformation of nano-structured surface layers of the RAFMS RUSREF - EK181 as doubled spirals of localised-plastic deformation meso-bands. A linear dependence of their sizes on thickness of strengthened layer was obtained. The effect of localised deformation meso-bands on macro-mechanical properties of a material was demonstrated. A certain combination of thermal and mechanical treatment as well as optimum proportion of nano-structured surface layer thickness to thickness of a whole specimen are necessary to achieve maximum strength values. Tests performed at high temperatures in the range from 20 to 700 deg. C shows efficiency of the surface hardening of the RAFMS RUSREF - EK181. The effect of nano-structured surface layer on the character of plastic deformation and mechanical properties of the RAFMS RUSREF - EK181 was considered in the framework of a multilevel model in which loss of shear stability and generation of structural defects occur self-consistently at various scale levels such as nano-, micro-, meso-, and macro-Chessboard like distribution of stresses and misfit deformations was theoretical and experimentally shown to appear at the 'nano-structured surface layer - bulk of material' interface. Zones of compressive normal stresses alternates with zones of tensile normal stresses as on a chessboard. Plastic shear can generate only within local zones of tensile normal stresses. Critical meso-volume of non-equilibrium states required for local structure-phase transformation can be formed within these zones. Whereas within the zones of compressive normal stresses acting from both

  14. Relevance of sub-surface chip layers for the lifetime of magnetically trapped atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H. B.; Henkel, C; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    on the thickness of that layer, as long as the layers below have a much smaller conductivity; essentially the same magnetic noise would be obtained with a metallic membrane suspended in vacuum. Based on our theory we give general scaling laws of how to reduce the effect of surface magnetic noise on the trapped...... measurements where the center of a side guide trap is laterally shifted with respect to the current carrying wire using additional bias fields. Comparing the experiment to theory, we find a fair agreement and demonstrate that for a chip whose topmost layer is metallic, the magnetic noise depends essentially...

  15. Enrichment of Arsenic in Surface Water, Stream Sediments and Soils in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shehong; Wang, Mingguo; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jianming; Zheng, Baoshan; Zheng, Yan

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater in sedimentary deposits in China, Southern, and Southeast Asia down gradient from the Tibetan plateau contain elevated As concentrations on a regional scale. To ascertain the possibility of source region As enrichment, samples of water (n=86), stream sediment (n=77) and soil (n=73) were collected from the Singe Tsangpo (upstream of the Indus River), Yarlung Tsangpo (upstream of the Brahmaputra River) and other drainage basins in Tibet in June of 2008. The average arsenic concentration in stream waters, sediments and soils was 58±70 μg/L (n=39, range 2-252 μg/L), 42±40 mg/kg (n=37, range 12-227 mg/kg), and 44±27mg/kg (n=28, range 12-84 mg/kg) respectively for the Singe Tsangpo and was 11±17 μg/L (n=30, range 2-83 μg/L), 28±11 mg/kg (n=28, range 2-61 mg/kg), and 30±34 mg/kg (n=21, range 6-173 mg/kg) respectively for the Yarlung Tsangpo. A dug well contained 195 μg/L of As. In addition to elevated As levels in surface and shallow groundwater of Tibet, hot spring and alkaline salt lake waters displayed very high As levels, reaching a maximum value of 5,985 μg/L and 10,626 μg/L As, respectively. The positive correlation between [As] and [Na]+[K] in stream waters indicates that these surface water arsenic enrichments are linked to the hot springs and/or salt lakes. Further, 24% of As in stream sediment is reductively leachable, with bulk As displaying a positive correlation with stream water As, suggesting sorption from stream water. In contrast, the fraction of reductively leachable As is negligible for soils and several rock samples, suggesting that As in them are associated with unweathered minerals. Whether the pronounced As anomaly found in Tibet affects the sedimentary As content in deltas downstream or not requires further study.

  16. Surface Floating 2D Bands in Layered Nonsymmorphic Semimetals: ZrSiS and Related Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Andreas; Queiroz, Raquel; Grüneis, Andreas; Müchler, Lukas; Rost, Andreas W.; Varykhalov, Andrei; Marchenko, Dmitry; Krivenkov, Maxim; Rodolakis, Fanny; McChesney, Jessica L.; Lotsch, Bettina V.; Schoop, Leslie M.; Ast, Christian R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a model of the surface states of nonsymmorphic semimetals. These are derived from surface mass terms that lift the high degeneracy imposed in the band structure by the nonsymmorphic bulk symmetries. Reflecting the reduced symmetry at the surface, the bulk bands are strongly modified. This leads to the creation of two-dimensional floating bands, which are distinct from Shockley states, quantum well states or topologically protected surface states. We focus on the layered semimetal ZrSiS to clarify the origin of its surface states. We demonstrate an excellent agreement between DFT calculations and ARPES measurements and present an effective four-band model in which similar surface bands appear. Finally, we emphasize the role of the surface chemical potential by comparing the surface density of states in samples with and without potassium coating. Our findings can be extended to related compounds and generalized to other crystals with nonsymmorphic symmetries.

  17. Detecting unfrozen sediments below thermokarst lakes with surface nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsekian, Andrew D.; Grosse, Guido; Walbrecker, Jan O.; Müller-Petke, Mike; Keating, Kristina; Liu, Lin; Jones, Benjamin M.; Knight, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    A talik is a layer or body of unfrozen ground that occurs in permafrost due to an anomaly in thermal, hydrological, or hydrochemical conditions. Information about talik geometry is important for understanding regional surface water and groundwater interactions as well as sublacustrine methane production in thermokarst lakes. Due to the direct measurement of unfrozen water content, surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a promising geophysical method for noninvasively estimating talik dimensions. We made surface NMR measurements on thermokarst lakes and terrestrial permafrost near Fairbanks, Alaska, and confirmed our results using limited direct measurements. At an 8 m deep lake, we observed thaw bulb at least 22 m below the surface; at a 1.4 m deep lake, we detected a talik extending between 5 and 6 m below the surface. Our study demonstrates the value that surface NMR may have in the cryosphere for studies of thermokarst lake hydrology and their related role in the carbon cycle.

  18. Report on Radiocarbon Analysis of Surface Sediments from the Fore-Arc Basin of Nankai Trough

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pohlman, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Radiocarbon analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) on 30 sediment samples from two multicores and six piston cores was performed to investigate the fate of methane carbon in sediment of the Nankal Trough...

  19. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Battaglin, William A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDC, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountains National Park (ROMO). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 14C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. ROMO bed sediment microbial communities also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens, bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The current results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged.

  20. Evaluation of Near-Surface Gases in Marine Sediments to Assess Subsurface Petroleum Gas Generation and Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Abrams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gases contained within near-surface marine sediments can be derived from multiple sources: shallow microbial activity, thermal cracking of organic matter and inorganic materials, or magmatic-mantle degassing. Each origin will display a distinctive hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon composition as well as compound-specific isotope signature and thus the interpretation of origin should be relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, this is not always the case due to in situ microbial alteration, non-equilibrium phase partitioning, mixing, and fractionation related to the gas extraction method. Sediment gases can reside in the interstitial spaces, bound to mineral or organic surfaces and/or entrapped in carbonate inclusions. The interstitial sediment gases are contained within the sediment pore space, either dissolved in the pore waters (solute or as free (vapour gas. The bound gases are believed to be attached to organic and/or mineral surfaces, entrapped in structured water or entrapped in authigenic carbonate inclusions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the gas types found within shallow marine sediments and examine issues related to gas sampling and extraction. In addition, the paper will discuss how to recognise mixing, alteration and fractionation issues to best interpret the seabed geochemical results and determine gas origin to assess subsurface petroleum gas generation and entrapment.

  1. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Battaglin, William A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Clark, Jimmy M; Journey, Celeste A

    2016-05-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDCs, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 (14) C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. Bed sediment microbial communities in Rocky Mountain National Park also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The present study's results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  2. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Haung, Chiung-Fang [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Family and Operative Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Shyu, Shih-Shiun [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chou, Yen-Ru [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  3. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS

  4. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  5. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2018-02-21

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  6. SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Tabor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo studywas to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces.Materials and Methods: Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. Thespecimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD.All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer.Results: MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001 the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used.Conclusion: MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested.

  7. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Tempelman, Kristianne; Napolitano, Simone; Benes, Nieck E.

    2018-01-01

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  8. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Tempelman, Kristianne; Napolitano, Simone; Benes, Nieck E

    2018-03-15

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  9. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R; Hollerer, M; Striedinger, B; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p ++ -silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3-4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact-channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility.

  10. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  11. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  12. Covalent assembly of poly(ethyleneimine) via layer-by-layer deposition for enhancing surface density of protein and bacteria attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Bing, E-mail: xiabing@njfu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education of China), Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Advanced Analysis and Testing Center, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Shi, Jisen; Dong, Chen; Zhang, Wenyi; Lu, Ye [Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education of China), Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Guo, Ping [Nanjing College of Information Technology, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Covalently assembly of low molecular weight poly(ethyleneimine) was introduced to glass surfaces via glutaraldehyde crosslinking, with focus on its application on protein immobilization or bacteria attachment. Characterizations of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurement revealed a stepwise growth of poly(ethyleneimine) films by layer-by-layer deposition. After fluorescein isothiocyanate labelling, photoluminescence spectroscopy measurement indicated that the amount of surface accessible amine groups had been gradually enhanced with increasing poly(ethyleneimine) layers deposition. As compared with traditional aminosilanized surfaces, the surface density of amine groups was enhanced by ∼11 times after five layers grafting, which resulted in ∼9-time increasing of surface density of immobilized bovine serum albumin. Finally, these as-prepared PEI multi-films with excellent biocompatibility were adopted as culture substrates to improve Escherichia coli adherence, which showed that their surface density had been increased by ∼251 times.

  13. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  14. Metal Surface Modification for Obtaining Nano- and Sub-Nanostructured Protective Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledovskykh, Volodymyr; Vyshnevska, Yuliya; Brazhnyk, Igor; Levchenko, Sergiy

    2017-03-01

    Regularities of the phase protective layer formation in multicomponent systems involving inhibitors with different mechanism of protective action have been investigated. It was shown that optimization of the composition of the inhibition mixture allows to obtain higher protective efficiency owing to improved microstructure of the phase layer. It was found that mechanism of the film formation in the presence of NaNO2-PHMG is due to deposition of slightly soluble PHMG-Fe complexes on the metal surface. On the basis of the proposed mechanism, the advanced surface engineering methods for obtaining nanoscaled and sub-nanostructured functional coatings may be developed.

  15. Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, E. F.; de Jeu, W. H.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray reflectivity form the surface of a liquid crystal with terminally polar (cyano substituted) molecules has been studied using a high-resolution triple-axis X-ray spectrometer in combination with a synchrotron source. It is demonstrated that at the surface of the smectic Al phase a few...... antiferroelectric double layers develop that can be distinguished from the bulk single layer structure. A model is developed that separates the electron density in a contribution from the molecular form factor, and from the structure factor of the mono- and the bilayers, respectively. It shows that (i) the first...

  16. On the sensitivity of mesoscale models to surface-layer parameterization constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.

    1989-09-01

    The Colorado State University standard mesoscale model is used to evaluate the sensitivity of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) fields to differences in surface-layer parameterization “constants”. Such differences reflect the range in the published values of the von Karman constant, Monin-Obukhov stability functions and the temperature roughness length at the surface. The sensitivity of 1D boundary-layer structure, and 2D sea-breeze intensity, is generally less than that found in published comparisons related to turbulence closure schemes generally.

  17. Moessbauer study of magnetic transformation of Ni3Al-(57Co+57Fe) surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, J.; Zemcik, T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the magnetic transformation study of the Ni 3 Al-( 57 Co+ 57 Fe) surface layer by the 57 Fe Moessbauer effect in dependence on the penetration depth of ( 57 Co+ 57 Fe) are presented. These results are discussed in terms of the magnetic polarization of the Co (and Fe) atoms and the appearance of the 'giant' magnetic moment. The critical concentration of Co+Fe impurities sufficient for transformation of the originally paramagnetic surface layer into ferromagnetic at room temperature was determined to be 1.03 at.'=.. (author)

  18. Macro-carriers of plastic deformation of steel surface layers detected by digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanitsa, D. G., E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Ustinov, A. M., E-mail: artemustinov@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Potekaev, A. I., E-mail: potekaev@spti.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kopanitsa, G. D., E-mail: georgy.kopanitsa@mail.com [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a study of characteristics of an evolution of deformation fields in surface layers of medium-carbon low-alloy specimens under compression. The experiments were performed on the “Universal Testing Machine 4500” using a digital stereoscopic image processing system Vic-3D. A transition between stages is reflected as deformation redistribution on the near-surface layers. Electronic microscopy shows that the structure of the steel is a mixture of pearlite and ferrite grains. A proportion of pearlite is 40% and ferrite is 60%.

  19. The effect of using waste newspaper in surface layers on physical and mechanical properties of three-layer particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid vaziri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from recycled newspaper in the surface layers were investigated. Coarse and fine wood chips and recycled newspaper with dimension of 0.5 × 4 cm2 were used. The variable in this research were the ratio of recycled newspaper to wood chips (at five levels; 0:100, 15:85, 30:70, 45:55, 60:40. Urea formaldehyde resin used at 10% content on dry weight basis of the wood particles and newspaper and ammonium chloride was used as a catalyst to 2% of the dry weight of adhesive. Physical and mechanical properties of panels measured according to EN Standard. The results showed that panels containing recycled newspapers at the level of 45% had the highest bending strength and modulus of elasticity. Internal bonding and screw holding strength decreased with increasing of recycled newspaper and control sample had the highest strength. Water absorption and thickness swelling increased with increasing of recycled newspaper portion. On the basis of results of this study can be concluded that particleboard containing recycled newspapers in the surface layers up to the level of 30% can be used for general purpose boards and interior fitments (including furniture for use in dry conditions.

  20. A theory for natural convection turbulent boundary layers next to heated vertical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, W.K. Jr.; Capp, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The turbulent natural convection boundary layer next to a heated vertical surface is analyzed by classical scaling arguments. It is shown that the fully developed turbulent boundary layer must be treated in two parts: and outer region consisting of most of the boundary layer in which viscous and conduction terms are negligible and an inner region in which the mean convection terms are negligible. The inner layer is identified as a constant heat flux layer. A similarity analysis yields universal profiles for velocity and temperature in the outer and constant heat flux layers. An asymptotic matching of these profiles in an intermediate layer (the buoyant sublayer) yields analytical expressions for the buoyant sublayer profiles. Asymptotic heat transfer and friction laws are obtained for the fully developed boundary layers. Finally, conductive and thermo-viscous sublayers characterized by a linear variation of velocity and temperature are shown to exist at the wall. All predictions are seen to be in excellent agreement with the abundant experimental data. (author)

  1. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengwei; Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Yanguang; Dong, Linsen; Jiao, Liping; Hu, Limin; Fan, Dejiang

    2016-03-15

    To analyze the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluate their potential ecological risks, the concentrations of 16 PAHs were measured in 43 surface sediment samples from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean. Total PAH (tPAH) concentrations ranged from 36.95 to 150.21 ng/g (dry weight). In descending order, the surface sediment tPAH concentrations were as follows: Canada Basin>northern Chukchi Sea>Chukchi Basin>southern Chukchi Sea>Aleutian Basin>Makarov Basin>Bering Sea shelf. The Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean mainly received PAHs of pyrogenic origin due to pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. The concentrations of PAHs in the sediments of the study areas did not exceed effects range low (ERL) values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement and protection of niobium surface superconductivity by atomic layer deposition and heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proslier, T.; /IIT, Chicago /Argonne; Zasadzinski, J.; /IIT, Chicago; Moore, J.; Pellin, M.; Elam, J.; /Argonne; Cooley, L.; /Fermilab; Antoine, C.; /Saclay

    2008-11-01

    A method to treat the surface of Nb is described, which potentially can improve the performance of superconducting rf cavities. We present tunneling and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements at the surface of cavity-grade niobium samples coated with a 3 nm alumina overlayer deposited by atomic layer deposition. The coated samples baked in ultrahigh vacuum at low temperature degraded superconducting surface. However, at temperatures above 450 C, the tunneling conductance curves show significant improvements in the superconducting density of states compared with untreated surfaces.

  3. Boundary layers of aqueous surfactant and block copolymer solutions against hydrophobic and hydrophilic solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steitz, Roland; Schemmel, Sebastian; Shi Hongwei; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2005-01-01

    The boundary layer of aqueous surfactants and amphiphilic triblock copolymers against flat solid surfaces of different degrees of hydrophobicity was investigated by neutron reflectometry (NR), grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Solid substrates of different hydrophobicities were prepared by appropriate surface treatment or by coating silicon wafers with polymer films of different chemical natures. For substrates coated with thin films (20-30 nm) of deuterated poly(styrene) (water contact angle θ w ∼ 90), neutron reflectivity measurements on the polymer/water interface revealed a water depleted liquid boundary layer of 2-3 nm thickness and a density about 90% of the bulk water density. No pronounced depletion layer was found at the interface of water against a less hydrophobic polyelectrolyte coating (θ w ∼ 63). It is believed that the observed depletion layer at the hydrophobic polymer/water interface is a precursor of the nanobubbles which have been observed by AFM at this interface. Decoration of the polymer coatings by adsorbed layers of nonionic C m E n surfactants improves their wettability by the aqueous phase at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Here, GISANS experiments conducted on the system SiO 2 /C 8 E 4 /D 2 O reveal that there is no preferred lateral organization of the C 8 E 4 adsorption layers. For amphiphilic triblock copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO) it is found that under equilibrium conditions they form solvent-swollen brushes both at the air/water and the solid/water interface. In the latter case, the brushes transform to uniform, dense layers after extensive rinsing with water and subsequent solvent evaporation. The primary adsorption layers maintain properties of the precursor brushes. In particular, their thickness scales with the number of ethylene oxide units (EO) of the block copolymer. In the case of dip-coating without

  4. Air Entrainment and Surface Ripples in a Turbulent Ship Hull Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Naeem; Erinin, Martin; Duncan, James H.

    2017-11-01

    The air entrainment and free-surface fluctuations caused by the interaction of a free surface and the turbulent boundary layer of a vertical surface-piercing plate is studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes. This belt device is mounted inside a large water tank with the water level set just below the top edge of the belt. The belt, rollers, and supporting frame are contained within a sheet metal box to keep the device dry except for one 6-meter-long straight test section. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface ripples are measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with the laser sheet oriented parallel or normal to the belt surface. Air entrainment events and bubble motions are recorded from underneath the water surface using a stereo imaging system. Measurements of small bubbles, that tend to stay submerged for a longer time, are planned via a high-speed digital in-line holographic system. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Heat transfer control in a plane magnetic fluid layer with a free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashtovoi, V.G.; Pogirnitskaya, S.G.; Reks, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The heat transfer mechanisms that are specific to a magnetic liquid have been already investigated extensively. The high sensitivity of the free magnetic liquid surface to the external magnetic field introduces a new feature into the heat transfer process. In the present work, the authors have investigated the possibility of controlling the heat transfer through the phenomenon of magnetic liquid surface instability in a uniform magnetic field. The conditions for heat transfer through a chamber, partially filled with a magnetic liquid, are governed by the characteristics of the free liquid surface and by its stability and development in the supercritical magnetic fields. The authors consider a model two-dimensional problem of heat transfer through a two-layer medium consisting of horizontally situated immiscible layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic liquids with given thermal conductivities. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the interface of the liquids represents a plane surface. In fields which exceed the critical magnitude, the interface is deformed along the wave. As the field intensity is increased, the amplitude of interface distortion becomes larger. The two-dimensional shape of the free magnetic liquid surface may be realized experimentally using two plane layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic liquids in a uniform magnetic field tangent to the interface of the component layers. 7 refs., 9 figs

  6. Soil aggregate stability and size-selective sediment transport with surface runoff as affected by organic residue amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu; Arter, Christian; Liu, Xingyu; Keller, Martin; Schulin, Rainer

    2017-12-31

    Aggregate breakdown influences the availability of soil particles for size-selective sediment transport with surface runoff during erosive rainfall events. Organic matter management is known to affect aggregate stability against breakdown, but little is known about how this translates into rainfall-induced aggregate fragmentation and sediment transport under field conditions. In this study, we performed field experiments in which artificial rainfall was applied after pre-wetting on three pairs of arable soil plots (1.5×0.75m) six weeks after incorporating a mixture of grass and wheat straw into the topsoil of one plot in each pair (OI treatment) but not on the other plot (NI treatment). Artificial rainfall was applied for approximately 2h on each pair at an intensity of 49.1mmh -1 . In both treatments, discharge and sediment concentration in the discharge were correlated and followed a similar temporal pattern after the onset of surface runoff: After a sharp increase at the beginning both approached a steady state. But the onset of runoff was more delayed on the OI plots, and the discharge and sediment concentration were in average only roughly half as high on the OI as on the NI plots. With increasing discharge the fraction of coarse sediment increased. This relationship did not differ between the two treatments. Thus, due to the lower discharge, the fraction of fine particles in the exported sediment was larger in the runoff from the OI plots than from the NI plots. The later runoff onset and lower discharge rate was related to a higher initial aggregate stability on the OI plots. Terrestrial laser scanning proved to be a very valuable method to map changes in the micro-topography of the soil surfaces. It revealed a much less profound decrease in surface roughness on the OI than on the NI plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  8. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  9. Surface crack formation on rails at grinding induced martensite white etching layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten Jørn; Fæster, Søren; Dhar, Somrita

    2017-01-01

    The connection between profile grinding of rails, martensite surface layers and crack initiation has been investigated using visual inspection, optical microscopy and 3D X-ray computerized tomography. Newly grinded rails were extra