WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface sculpturing system

  1. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with  high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...

  2. Sculpturing Surfaces with Cartan Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffaelli, Matteo; Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Using the concepts of Cartan development and rolling from differential geometry we develop a method for sculpturing any surface with the use of Cartan ribbons.......Using the concepts of Cartan development and rolling from differential geometry we develop a method for sculpturing any surface with the use of Cartan ribbons....

  3. Relief Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    Relief sculpture is an art form that is midway between painting and sculpture in the round. It is a process in which the subject stands out or projects a surface from the background. The surface has several levels. It can be low relief or high relief (deep or almost round) or anywhere in between. The most common example of low relief is a coin…

  4. Study of the laser cleaning on plaster sculptures. The effect of laser irradiation on the surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, C.; Fodaro, D.; Sforzini, L.; Rubino, A. R.; Falqui, A.

    2013-06-01

    The focus of this paper is to study the effects caused by the laser irradiation on nineteenth and twentieth century plaster sculptures. Before applying the laser cleaning on the sculptures, it was tested on samples prepared in laboratory according to the results of the scientific investigation carried out on the selected works of art. The characterization of the surface finishing materials of the sculptures was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), UV fluorescence photography, and internal micro stratigraphic analysis. Regarding the finishing materials, shellac, zinc white, siccative oil and proteins were found on the surfaces. The results of the scientific investigation, together with the examination of the ancient technical manuals, were used to create the laboratory samples to carry out the irradiation tests with laser. The laser irradiation and cleaning tests were carried out with a Q-switched Nd:YAG system. The irradiated surfaces were analyzed before and after the laser tests with the aid of a video microscope and a reflectance spectrophotometer, in order to evaluate the color changes of the surfaces. The possible morphological modifications caused by laser irradiation were also investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) together with ancillary Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental analysis. Concerning the laser cleaning test on the samples, in general little color changes were observed both with the 532 and 1064 nm wavelength. Total color changes, expressed as Δ E*, are always small apart from the samples made of shellac and zinc white in linseed oil, as finishing layer. As regards these samples the surface irradiated with the laser greyed lightly, corresponding to a decrease of L* parameter (lightness). SEM imaging of the treated and not-treated samples, both at low and high magnification, does not show evidence of significant morphological differences due to the laser beam

  5. Kinetic sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Joneta Witabora; Jonata Witabora

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic Sculpture was born from a long process of searching new approach in sculpture. The artists tried to escape from 'static' paradigm and tried to implement movement into their works: a sculpture that is mobile. Movement is always a fascinating phenomenon to eyes. Kinetic sculpture strength lies in its unique character in combining science and art. Kinetic Sculptures are really interesting pieces of art. It succeeds to fascinate human everytime. 

  6. Teachingless spray-painting of sculptured surface by an industrial robot

    OpenAIRE

    Asakawa, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yoshimi

    1997-01-01

    The study deals with the automatic spray-painting by a 6-DOF industrial robot equipped with an air spray gun. Since the robot control commands generation for the spray-painting is manually performed by skilled workers using a teaching-playback function of a robot controller, the time, experience and patience are required. The study aims at making robot control commands without any special knowledge on spray-painting, in the case of bumpers of a car as an example of sculptured surfaces. The sy...

  7. Artificial immune algorithm implementation for optimized multi-axis sculptured surface CNC machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountas, N. A.; Kechagias, J. D.; Vaxevanidis, N. M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results obtained by the implementation of an artificial immune algorithm to optimize standard multi-axis tool-paths applied to machine free-form surfaces. The investigation for its applicability was based on a full factorial experimental design addressing the two additional axes for tool inclination as independent variables whilst a multi-objective response was formulated by taking into consideration surface deviation and tool path time; objectives assessed directly from computer-aided manufacturing environment A standard sculptured part was developed by scratch considering its benchmark specifications and a cutting-edge surface machining tool-path was applied to study the effects of the pattern formulated when dynamically inclining a toroidal end-mill and guiding it towards the feed direction under fixed lead and tilt inclination angles. The results obtained form the series of the experiments were used for the fitness function creation the algorithm was about to sequentially evaluate. It was found that the artificial immune algorithm employed has the ability of attaining optimal values for inclination angles facilitating thus the complexity of such manufacturing process and ensuring full potentials in multi-axis machining modelling operations for producing enhanced CNC manufacturing programs. Results suggested that the proposed algorithm implementation may reduce the mean experimental objective value to 51.5%

  8. Telling Stories through Sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art activity that incorporates storytelling with sculpture. Intermediate-level sculpture students create a sculpture that represents a family story, memory, or event. Describes the process and provides four examples, including stories and sculptures. (CMK)

  9. Review of the research on “structural bionic” method of large sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiang; Yang, Wenchang

    2017-09-01

    This paper presented the basic concept of bionic sculpture and summarized the application status of “structural bionic”theory in large bionic sculpture field. Introduced the development trend and challenges of large bionic sculpture and pointed out that the sculpture's “structural bionic” can bring higher mechanical performance of the new structure and system, The evaluation method and structure design for large bionic sculpture are urgently needed.Finally prospected the market of the large bionic sculpture.

  10. Digital Sculpture Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This author relates how she came upon the idea of using an image-editing program to virtually install monumental sculptures into real-life landscapes in her desire to bring technology and sculpture together in her art class. In this article, she describes how she made her class create tabletop-sized sculptures and photographs of digital…

  11. Self-Portrait Sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorberg, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project where eighth-grade girls create self-portrait sculptures made out of papier-mache and other materials. Explains that the sculptures serve as an outlet for the students to express something about their own personal identities. Discusses in detail the process of creating the sculptures. (CMK)

  12. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hydrophobic micro-nano roughness surface on magnesium was fabricated. • Micro-nano structure derives from duplicating ‘over growth’ regions by MAO. • 7–9 μm micro-scale big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores were fabricated. • Hydrophobicity of micro-nano surface was improved by chemical decoration and stearic treatment. - Abstract: Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic ‘lotus leaf’ hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO 3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7–9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured ‘over growth’ oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO 3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from −1.521 V of the bare magnesium to −1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the

  13. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yunfeng [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yaming, E-mail: wangyaming@hit.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Hao [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Yan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A hydrophobic micro-nano roughness surface on magnesium was fabricated. • Micro-nano structure derives from duplicating ‘over growth’ regions by MAO. • 7–9 μm micro-scale big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores were fabricated. • Hydrophobicity of micro-nano surface was improved by chemical decoration and stearic treatment. - Abstract: Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic ‘lotus leaf’ hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO{sub 3} aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7–9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured ‘over growth’ oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO{sub 3} and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from −1.521 V of the bare magnesium to −1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily

  14. Structures in sculptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanggaard, Ole

    the different concepts and find a final synthesis, but the problem is known. Large sculptures represent structural challenges. The design of the supports inside the structures reveals often a very different world from the outside view of the sculpture. The piece of art and its structure may have two very...... different lives. A sculpture of today may be very dissimilar from what we have seen earlier. The structure becomes sometimes a visual part of the art. Ultimately, there may not be any distinction between structure and art. The technical demand, the durability and the safety are just as important for a large...... sculpture as in all other structures. The problem presented by the artist involves sometimes quite new structural themes. The dialog between the engineer and the artist brings the engineer close into the creative work of the artist. Neither the artist nor the engineer can rely upon any tradition...

  15. EDXRF portable system used in the analysis of altars, sculptures and paintings from XVII and XVIII centuries in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R.P. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); CEFETEQ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, R.O. [RG Conservation and Restoration, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The preservation of cultural heritage has acquired increasing interest in the last decades and many scientific techniques have been employed to analyze paintings, manuscripts, ceramics, glasses, statues, coins and metal artifacts in order to solve problems related to restoration, conservation, dating and attribution of artworks. There is also an increasing trend for non-destructive investigations since most of the samples are unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) is the most widely used investigative technique in the field of archaeometry, due to a number of favorable analytical characteristics, such as multielemental and non-destructive analysis, high sensitivity and applicability to a wide range of samples. In this work, XRF was used to analyze altars, sculptures and paintings in the Saint Anthony Convent (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The cornerstone of this convent was launched in 1608, by the Franciscan friars, and the construction of the church was finished in 1620. The Saint Anthony sculpture in the main altar is one of the few remaining pieces from the XVII century in Rio de Janeiro. The splendid Baroque carvings of the chapel, covered with integral gilding, in the national Portuguese style, dates from 1716 to 1719. The results obtained during the analyses have been used in the meticulous process of restoration, developed in the last two years, in order to recover the original splendour of this important piece of our cultural heritage. The analyses were carried out with an EDXRF portable system developed in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 {mu}A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each sample were obtained several spectra, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 1.5 and 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL from IAEA. The analysis of the golden carvings of the altars, in

  16. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and structural characterization of Ag/Cu chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savaloni, Hadi; Babaei, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced on copper substrates using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were employed to obtain morphologies and nano-structure of the films. Raman spectroscopy was performed on all samples that were subject to impregnation by 4,4′-bipyridine (C 10 H 8 N 2 ) solution. A high degree of enhancement of the main bands at 1610, 1297, and 1009 cm −1 that can be assigned to the C=C stretching mode, aromatic ring stretching ring and in-plane ring mode of 4,4′-bipyridine, is achieved.

  17. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and structural characterization of Ag/Cu chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaloni, Hadi, E-mail: savaloni@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Reza, E-mail: reza_babaee_62@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced on copper substrates using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were employed to obtain morphologies and nano-structure of the films. Raman spectroscopy was performed on all samples that were subject to impregnation by 4,4′-bipyridine (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2}) solution. A high degree of enhancement of the main bands at 1610, 1297, and 1009 cm{sup −1} that can be assigned to the C=C stretching mode, aromatic ring stretching ring and in-plane ring mode of 4,4′-bipyridine, is achieved.

  18. Sculpture Sketches in Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    The best artistic challenges open students' eyes, hearts, and minds by combining both formal and conceptual concerns. In this article, the author describes a project inspired by a temporary exhibition of African Shona sculpture entitled "Mutambo! (Celebrate!)" at the Norfolk Botanical Gardens in Norfolk, Virginia. (Contains 2 online…

  19. Wood Sculpture Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Whenever possible, the author tries to incorporate the work of artists who are included in the collection of nearby museums. The school is close to the Dallas area and visiting the Dallas Museum of Arts (DMA) is in the realm possibility. The DMA has a sculpture in their collection by artist David Bates called "Seated Man #4." The fact…

  20. EDXRF analysis of sculptures on polychrome wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Valter de Souza; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Freitas, Renato P.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, the analysis of sacred sculptures, belonging to museums, churches and private collectors has gained an increasing interest. This kind of analysis can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments; it can also supply important information that makes possible to identify an artist, to date a sculpture and to identify forgeries. By means of techniques such as XRF, PIXE or XRD, is possible to identify the composition of materials employed in the manufacturing of the pieces, pigments used in the polychromy and also the presence of ancient or modern retouchings. However, the fact that every artwork is a unique piece emphasizes the necessity of working with non-destructive techniques. This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood - portraying Our Lady (XIX century) and Saint Anthony (XVIII century) - using EDXRF. The analyses were performed with a portable system, consisting of Amptek 123-SDD detector and Mini-X X-Ray tube, with W anode, operating at 30 kV and 40 μA. The analysis of the sculpture of Our Lady revealed the use of the following pigments: lead white, lithopone, vermilion, red ochre, umber and Prussian blue. The analysis of Saint Anthony revealed: lead white, vermilion, brown ochre, bone black and Prussian blue. In both sculptures the use of gold foils for gilding was proved by the presence of Au in the spectra. These results were used to assist the restoration procedures of the sculptures. (author)

  1. EDXRF analysis of sculptures on polychrome wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Valter de Souza; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Renato P., E-mail: renato.freitas@ifrj.edu.br, E-mail: valter.felix@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Paracambi, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, the analysis of sacred sculptures, belonging to museums, churches and private collectors has gained an increasing interest. This kind of analysis can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments; it can also supply important information that makes possible to identify an artist, to date a sculpture and to identify forgeries. By means of techniques such as XRF, PIXE or XRD, is possible to identify the composition of materials employed in the manufacturing of the pieces, pigments used in the polychromy and also the presence of ancient or modern retouchings. However, the fact that every artwork is a unique piece emphasizes the necessity of working with non-destructive techniques. This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood - portraying Our Lady (XIX century) and Saint Anthony (XVIII century) - using EDXRF. The analyses were performed with a portable system, consisting of Amptek 123-SDD detector and Mini-X X-Ray tube, with W anode, operating at 30 kV and 40 μA. The analysis of the sculpture of Our Lady revealed the use of the following pigments: lead white, lithopone, vermilion, red ochre, umber and Prussian blue. The analysis of Saint Anthony revealed: lead white, vermilion, brown ochre, bone black and Prussian blue. In both sculptures the use of gold foils for gilding was proved by the presence of Au in the spectra. These results were used to assist the restoration procedures of the sculptures. (author)

  2. Sculpture Versus Architecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Many critics consider Richard Serra the leading sculptor of the 20th century. He is famous not only for inventing something new in sculpture (abstract sculpture compositions existed before him, having been opened by constructivist vanguard of the beginning of the 20th century. Material selections by Vladimir Tatlin and sculptures by Osip Tsadkin, as well as compositions by Henry Moor appeared before Serra. Serra is famous for transferring his works' accent from the works as they are, which could be installed in any place, to their environment. That is he saw in the sculpture a key to understanding the urban space. His crude metal sheets and profiles, rectangular and curvilinear, exceeding regular scale of sculpture, come closer to architecture. Richard Serra places them near architectural constructions as checkpoints of intermediate scale category of space located between so-called «street furniture» – lamp posts, stalls, fountains and benches – and buildings, especially huge modern ones.But the matter is not only in the scale. Serra's sculptures are not only abstract compositions that harmoniously add to the space with their spacious scale. They have some mystery, some implicit sense appearing before a pedestrian as an enigma. Their mystique opposes both street furniture and architecture. But first of all it opposes the historical sculpture with its enigma always overshadowed by historical or biographical topic. Krylov's sculpture in the Summer Garden or Minin and Pozharsky's monument on the Red Square do not strike us, because we know that those monuments are erected IN COMMEMORATION of prominent people, as fellow citizens' tribute to their great contribution to the national history. But the crude metal sheets welded at different angles – what are they for? Who needs them?As an art critic, Edward Goldman, said, fame came to Richard Serra in 1989, when the sculpture composition Tilted Arc erected eight years before it was demolished by

  3. Chihuly-Inspired Balloon Sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Erin

    2009-01-01

    When the glass artist Dale Chihuly exhibited his work at the Missouri Botanical Garden, the author took a class of fourth-grade students to view the artist's extraordinary sculptures. Just as the author predicted, the students were in awe of Chihuly's organic three-dimensional sculptures. Before taking the field trip to the Missouri Botanical…

  4. 4D Visualization of Painted Sculpture and Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, M. Y.; Tong, H.; Shen, L.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. C.; Hu, Q. W.; Zhu, Y. X.; Zhang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Most cultural heritage applications address visualization with using various media or platforms: desktop-based multimedia presentations, museum kiosks, or videos produced with computer animation. However, these techniques can not directly reveal or show the course that the colorful surface of painted sculpture and murals becomes faint along with the change of the climate and time. Most current techniques just preserve the current appearance and disseminate the current situation of the painted sculpture and murals. The course how these forms of cultural heritage change along the time has not been visualized. In this paper we developed an approach to modelling of painted sculpture and murals that has undergone changes over the years. Different hypotheses has also be given if there is uncertainty. A painted sculpture of Mogao Grottoes is used to demonstate this approach.

  5. Shaving a Shell: Effect of Manipulated Sculpture and Feeding on Shell Growth and Sculpture Development in Nucella lamellosa (Muricidae: Ocenebrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole B; Palmer, A Richard

    2016-02-01

    Gastropod shell sculpture offers a novel tool for studying morphological patterning. Existing shell features may be manipulated experimentally to test how alteration affects subsequent shell growth and form. Axial sculpture occurs in many gastropod groups, and spacing of sculpture may be regular or irregular. But how gastropods control sculpture placement during shell growth is unknown. We studied the growth and positioning of axial lamellae in the muricid Nucella lamellosa, and compared these to the superficially similar axial varices seen in other muricids. First, we tested whether the feeding rate had any effect on the rate of addition or positioning of new lamellae. Second, we tested what effect previous shell sculpture had on lamellar placement, and shell growth in general, by removing all shell sculpture and allowing snails to grow over the "shaved" shell surface. Lamellar growth appeared to be relatively plastic; spacing was highly variable both within and among individual snails, and 1-2 weeks were required to complete the addition of a new lamella. Body growth rate was the primary determinant of lamellar growth; past lamellae had no effect on placement of new lamellae or rate of shell length increase. Feeding rate and body size affected only growth in shell length, and had no direct effect on spacing or on the rate of addition of new lamellae. The growth of axial lamellae in N. lamellosa differed from that of varices by exhibiting neither a) regular spacing nor b) a growth hiatus after completion of a lamella. Significantly, despite the obvious impediment of previous sculpture to future shell growth, removal of this sculpture had no observable effect on the rate of body growth or on any aspect of subsequent lamellar growth. © 2016 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  6. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  7. Visual Identity of Malaysian Modern Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Husain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An artwork is the manifestation of an artist’s utilization of a variety of approaches, which is closely related to the idea of an artist, media and technique. The manipulation of an artwork is based on the relationship of an artist, idea and media, through formalistic approaches and the surrounding community. Understanding of the visual identity is related to other disciplines in fine art, such as painting, printing and drawing, and new media because of the nature of its context, which is based on the physical form and space. The aim of this research is to generate knowledge on visual identity through sculpture. The research explores the forms and the symbolic meanings based on the influence of the local community and social system. This study employs the cultural concept as a system to create an understanding framework to the process of creating artwork. The qualitative approach is used as the methodology framework, which is deemed as suitable to the problem of investigating the visual identity in sculptures. The findings uncover that Malaysian sculptures synergize harmoniously the value system with modern expression, through belief, surroundings, needs and social requirements. These findings contribute to the knowledge of art, generally, that can be used in other fields of art in the process of creation and appreciation.

  8. 3D Reconstruction and Restoration Monitoring of Sculptural Artworks by a Multi-Sensor Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Barone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, optical sensors are used to digitize sculptural artworks by exploiting various contactless technologies. Cultural Heritage applications may concern 3D reconstructions of sculptural shapes distinguished by small details distributed over large surfaces. These applications require robust multi-view procedures based on aligning several high resolution 3D measurements. In this paper, the integration of a 3D structured light scanner and a stereo photogrammetric sensor is proposed with the aim of reliably reconstructing large free form artworks. The structured light scanner provides high resolution range maps captured from different views. The stereo photogrammetric sensor measures the spatial location of each view by tracking a marker frame integral to the optical scanner. This procedure allows the computation of the rotation-translation matrix to transpose the range maps from local view coordinate systems to a unique global reference system defined by the stereo photogrammetric sensor. The artwork reconstructions can be further augmented by referring metadata related to restoration processes. In this paper, a methodology has been developed to map metadata to 3D models by capturing spatial references using a passive stereo-photogrammetric sensor. The multi-sensor framework has been experienced through the 3D reconstruction of a Statue of Hope located at the English Cemetery in Florence. This sculptural artwork has been a severe test due to the non-cooperative environment and the complex shape features distributed over a large surface.

  9. African Traditional Sculpture and Aesthetic Realism | Mangiri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional African sculpture which is one of the essences of modern art movements in the world of art has not been attributed with that aesthetic identity. However, a close look at the traditional African sculpture reveals the artistic and aesthetic qualities. African traditional sculpture was regarded as mere objects or crafts.

  10. The Sculpture, man and word

    OpenAIRE

    Madjar, Neda

    2016-01-01

    In the diploma work entitled The Sculpture, Man and Word I explore the practices of the modern and the contemporary art. The theoretical part begins with sculpture, wire and iron as materials and with the artists that have been active within this particular field. These artists are Picasso, Gonzalez and Calder in the 1920s and 1930s, and David Smith at the turn of the century. I continue by taking a look at the following practices: readymade, fluxus, performance and conceptual art. These a...

  11. Eurasia International Sculpture Biennale, Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The first Eurasia International Sculpture Biennale was held from 4 July to 4 August 2017 in the atrium of the Palace of Peace and Reconciliation as one of the most important events of the cultural program EXPO-2017, commissioned by the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  12. Three-Dimensional Utah: 100 Years of Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Art

    1996-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Utah: 100 Years of Sculpture began as a series of conversations about sculptors and sculpture nearly six years ago. Specific development of the exhibition began three years ago during the process of creating a national inventory of outdoor sculpture for a program called Save Outdoor Sculpture (SOS)! Utah is home to more than 200 pieces of outdoor sculpture.

  13. The Iberian sculpture from Fabara (Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Simón Cornago

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study again the Iberian sculpture from Fabara, because it was catalogued as a lion, while in fact it seems to be a horse. It’s one of few stone sculptures that have been documented in the northern part of the Iberian areas in the Peninsula, because the vast majority of Iberian stone sculptures are found in the South.

  14. Socio-Psychological Impact of Outdoor Sculptures in Nigeria Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Francis Ebunola Oladugbagbe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One major element that finds expression at road intersections, parks, gardens, square and open spaces in the urban landscape are outdoor sculptures. Of great significance is the historical information they disseminate, the visual impressions they convey and the aesthetic value they add to the quality of the city. From 1960s and after the civil war, the uses of sculptures for embellishments in public places have increased tremendously in Nigeria. However, outdoor sculpture for the purpose of recreation and relaxation in our built environment has not been adequately addressed scholastically in Nigeria. This paper, therefore, focuses on the social values derivable from the use of sculpture in urban design and the losses that could accrue to the social system if not adequately managed. The values of these sculptures to the socio-psychological development of Nigerians and the beautification of the urban environment are equally emphasized. The study shows that incorporating sculptures into public places without doubt will heighten public appreciation and aesthetic perception and make Nigerian cities unique and vibrant.Keywords: Nigeria urban cities; socio-psychological impact; outdoor sculptures.

  15. Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture is the first monograph to discuss the Victorian critic Walter Pater's attitude to sculpture. It brings together Pater's aesthetic theories with his theories on language and writing, to demonstrate how his ideas of the visual and written language...... are closely linked. Going beyond Pater's views on sculpture as an art form, this study traces the notion of relief (rilievo) and hybrid form in Pater, and his view of the writer as sculptor, a carver in language. Alongside her treatment of rilievo as a pervasive trope, Lene Østermark-Johansen also employs...... the idea of rivalry (paragone) more broadly, examining Pater's concern with positioning himself as an art critic in the late Victorian art world. Situating Pater within centuries of European aesthetic theories as never before done, Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture throws new light...

  16. Ceramics And Sculpture Interface With Architecture.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters Edem E.; Henry Asante

    2015-01-01

    This work is an inter-disciplinary discourse that examines the role that their collective efforts it properly harassed can play in the development of modern architecture to meet the quest for safe and comfortable homes. The paper aims at assessing how much presence there are sculpture and ceramics in architecture. Sculpture and ceramics are disciplines in fine art and industrial art respectively. The paper identifies the specific contributions each discipline gives to the making of modern arc...

  17. Structural aspects of Imbrium sculpture, part G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    Apollo 16 metric photographs taken at low to high sun angles provided the first stereographic coverage of the distinctive landforms collectively referred to as Imbrium sculpture. The sculpture consists of a series of nearly linear ridges and troughs extending radially outward for more than 1000 km from the rim of the Imbrium Basin. The origin of the ridges and troughs, whether by deposition and impact scoring by fluidized clouds of ejecta from the Imbrium Basin or by faulting and volcanism during and subsequent to basin formation, is controversial. Evidence indicative of the mode of origin of Imbrium sculpture is summarized as follows. Evidence of volcano-tectonic mode of origin is favored by: (1) wide variation in relative age of parts of the sculpture; (2) furrows without rims; (3) absence of ballistic shielding; (4) asymmetry of sculpture; (5) absence of randomly oriented clusters; and (6) association with other features of structural origin. An origin by ejecta scoring and deposition is favored by the gradational ejecta with a Fra Mauro-type texture. Features that are ambiguous as to mode or origin are furrows made of coalesced crater chains and prominent rims on furrows.

  18. Interlocked by nanoscale sculpturing: pure aluminum copper contacts (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross-Baytekin, Melike; Gerngross, Mark Daniel; Carstensen, Jürgen; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Connecting metals reliable with different corrosion potential is a well-known challenge. An extreme example are copper aluminum contacts. Galvanic corrosion occurs if the two different metals are in contact with each other and an electrolyte, the aluminum becomes susceptible to corrosion under current flow. Usually, antioxidant pastes containing metals are employed but create difficulties e.g. for fatigue resistant power electronic connections. The recently described process of nanoscale sculpturing [1] offers an alternative. Usually, if the surface of metals like aluminium are prepared they are just arbitrary cuts through the bulk. There is no optimization of the surface grain structure towards stability at all. Neither the crystalline facets in the grains are in their most stable orientation nor is the protective oxide shell the most stable one. The nanoscale sculpturing approach is carving out the most stable grains and planes by chemical or electrochemical treatment. The decisive trick is that the chemistry is targeting towards the instable oxide and not the metal. Aluminium sample surfaces including alloys like AA575 exhibit afterwards single crystalline surface facets covered with nanoscale stable oxide films. Galvanically deposited copper forms extremely reliable interlocked connections on top, even allowing for soldering on top of their surface.

  19. Trends in Owo traditional sculpture: 1995-2010 | Aseniserare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study probes into the origin, style and patronage of the traditional sculptures in Owo kingdom between 1950 and 2010. It examines comparatively the sculpture of the people and its affinity with Benin and Ife before and during the period in question with a view to predicting the future of the sculptural arts of the people in ...

  20. Atomic Oxygen Cleaning of Unpainted Plaster Sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers has been found to be a threat to spacecraft in low Earth orbit. As a result ground facilities have been developed to identify coatings to protect polymers such as used for solar array blankets. As a result of extensive laboratory testing, it was discovered that soot and other organic contamination on paintings could be readily removed by atomic oxygen interactions with minimal damage to the artwork. No method, other than dusting, has been found to be effective in the cleaning of unpainted plaster sculptures This presentation discusses the atomic oxygen interaction processes and how effective they are for cleaning soot damaged unpainted plaster sculptures.

  1. Ceramics And Sculpture Interface With Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Edem E.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is an inter-disciplinary discourse that examines the role that their collective efforts it properly harassed can play in the development of modern architecture to meet the quest for safe and comfortable homes. The paper aims at assessing how much presence there are sculpture and ceramics in architecture. Sculpture and ceramics are disciplines in fine art and industrial art respectively. The paper identifies the specific contributions each discipline gives to the making of modern architecture and offers suggestions for future improvement that will lead to entrepreneurial skill and its development.

  2. Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    are closely linked. Going beyond Pater's views on sculpture as an art form, this study traces the notion of relief (rilievo) and hybrid form in Pater, and his view of the writer as sculptor, a carver in language. Alongside her treatment of rilievo as a pervasive trope, Lene Østermark-Johansen also employs...... the idea of rivalry (paragone) more broadly, examining Pater's concern with positioning himself as an art critic in the late Victorian art world. Situating Pater within centuries of European aesthetic theories as never before done, Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture throws new light...

  3. HINTS IN OMABE BASED SCULPTURE INSTALLATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASOGWA IFEANYI

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... refractive gaze approach, was developed and used, in realizing the conceptual forms in sculpture ... Introduction. Contemporary trends in art academia tend to be shifting in favour of multiple or collaborative approaches, where cultural perceptions and ..... as part and parcel of him, in his course of action.

  4. Instructional Resources: Issues in Public Sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julie Lasater; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents four lesson plans for teaching K-12 students about public sculpture and contemporary sculptors. Highlights the following works: "Playscapes" by Isamu Noguchi, "The Dallas Piece" by Henry Moore, "Old Glory" by Mark di Suvero, and "Face of the Earth" by Vito Acconci. Includes background information on…

  5. The Joy of Creating Virtual Mathematical Sculptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Jen-chung

    The process of turning symbols into a mathematical sculpture has never been easier. A copy of Maple V release five and a Web browser configured with a VRML plug-in such as the Cosmo Player is necessary to do these activities. Maple V furnishes the computing environment with the capability of allowing for concentration on the mathematical…

  6. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  7. Three dimensional computerized microtomography in the analysis of sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badde, Aurelia; Illerhaus, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    The Alte Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (SMB) and the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) tested the accomplishment of the three dimensional computerized microtomography (3D-microCT)-a new flat panel detector computerized tomography (CT) system at the BAM with extended energy range, with high voltage X-ray tubes (330 and 225 kV), with micrometer focal spot size and micrometer resolution and enlarged object size (up to 70 cm diameter)-for examining plaster statues. The high spatial and density resolution of the tomograph enable detailed insights into the individual work processes of the investigated cast plaster statues. While initiated in support of the conservation process, computed tomography (CT) analysis has assisted in revealing relative chronologies within the series of the cast works of art, thus serving as a valuable tool in the art-historical appraisal of the oeuvres. The image-processing systems visualize the voids and cracks within and the cuts through the original cast works. Internal structures, armoring, sculptural reworking as well as restorative interventions are virtually reconstructed. The authors are currently employing the 3D-microCT systems at the BAM into the detection of defects in Carrara marble sculpture. Microcracks, fractures, and material flaws are visualized at spatial resolution down to 10 microm. Computerized reconstruction of ultrasound tomography is verified by analyzing correlations in the results obtained from the complementary application of these two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods of diagnosis.

  8. ' "Life is Movement": Vernon Lee and Sculpture'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    How do living, breathing human bodies respond to the inert bodies of sculpture? This article examines some of the art-theoretical and psychological writings of Violet Paget (‘Vernon Lee’) and Clementina Anstruther-Thomson of the 1880s and 1890s in an attempt to map the evolution of their formalist...... from Lee’s early essays in Belcaro: Being Essays on Sundry Aesthetical Questions (1881) to the late collaborative volume Art and Man (1924)....

  9. Beauty and ugliness in Olmec monumental sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Baudez, Claude-François

    2015-01-01

    Beauty and ugliness in Olmec monumental sculpture. Since our Western art tradition has put such a prize on naturalism, we tend to think that other civilizations valued it as much as we did and do. I contend that Olmec monumental art illustrates the opposite, and suggest that the Olmecs most appreciated the anthropomorphic statues that incorporated feline features, and disliked the very naturalistic style of the colossal heads. The latter represented the severed heads of opponents who probably...

  10. Vapor and liquid optical monitoring with sculptured Bragg microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Ramirez, Manuel; Gil-Rostra, Jorge; López-Santos, Maria Carmen; González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Yubero, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    Sculptured porous Bragg microcavities (BMs) formed by the successive stacking of columnar SiO2 and TiO2 thin films with a zig-zag columnar microstructure are prepared by glancing angle deposition. These BMs act as wavelength-dependent optical retarders. This optical behavior is attributed to a self-structuration of the stacked layers involving the lateral association of nanocolumns in the direction perpendicular to the main flux of particles during the multilayer film growth, as observed by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. The retardance of these optically active BMs can be modulated by dynamic infiltration of their open porosity with vapors, liquids, or solutions with different refractive indices. The tunable birefringence of these nanostructured photonic systems has been successfully simulated with a simple model that assumes that each layer within the BMs stack has uniaxial birefringence. The sculptured BMs have been incorporated as microfluidic chips for optical transduction for label-free vapor and liquid sensing. Several examples of the detection performance of these chips, working either in reflection or transmission configuration, for the optical monitoring of vapor and liquids of different refractive indices and aqueous solutions of glucose flowing through the microfluidic chips are described.

  11. Seed sculpture of Polish species of the genus Plantago L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Klimko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on seed sculpture of Plantago major, P. intermedia, P. media, P. coronopus subsp. coronopus, P. maritima subsp. maritima, P. atrata subsp. carpatica, P. lanceolata and P. arenaria. Special attention was paid to the sculpture of the external layer of the testa. Observations were made under a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The sculpture typical for each species was presented in micrographs. The results indicate that seed sculpture is a very good interspecific identification feature. The study also confirmed that P. maritima should not be assigned to the section Coronopus DC., but to a separate section Maritima Rahn.

  12. Virtual Steel Connection Sculpture--Student Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Karen C.; Moaveni, Saeed; Drane, Denise

    2016-01-01

    A Virtual Steel Connection Sculpture was developed through a grant from the National Science Foundation. The Virtual Sculpture is an interactive tool that shows students and anyone interested in connections how steel members are connected. This tool is created to complement students' steel design courses. The features of this educational tool,…

  13. The Sculptural Elements in Kwagh-Hir Popular Theatre: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, recent study has registered an increasing (influence of globalization) on aspects of Kwagh-hir sculpturing and themes. This paper attempts a scrutiny of the sculptural element in Kwagh-hir theatre as a complement to its other features, identifying and tracing its growth from its beginning to its current stage within ...

  14. Shaping space: facial asymmetries in fifth-century Greek sculpture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochscheid, H.; Hamel, R.; Wootton, W.; Russell, B.; Libonati, E.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of optical correction in Classical Greek sculpture has been attested by both ancient authors and modern scholars. Despite the apparent normalcy of optical correction in sculpture, however, there are no obvious reasons for it and how such correction worked in statues is a question

  15. Apical Shell Sculpture of some African Freshwater Limpets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Scanning Electron Microscope has been used to describe in detail the apical shell sculpture of sevenAfrican species (three genera) of freshwater limpet snails (Ancylidae). The apical sculpture of Ancylus fluviatilis (? syn. strigatus and ? brondeli) is striate, but quite different in basic pattern from the other three striate ...

  16. Mother goddesses with boat motifs on stone sculptures from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, R.; Gaur, A.S.

    to assign a particular date for these sculptures on the style basis as they belong local folk tradition. However, there state of present condition and comparison with modern sculpture indicate that these could be much older which need to be debated...

  17. Local Treatment for Monochrome Outdoor Painted Metal Sculptures: Assessing the suitability of conservation paints for retouching

    OpenAIRE

    van Basten, Nikki; Defeyt, Catherine; Rivenc, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    When outdoor painted sculptures get chipped, scratched or abraded, conservators might consider local retouching treatments as an option that would protect the exposed metal substrate and restore the aesthetic integrity, thus postponing a very costly and invasive overall repainting. Unfortunately, matching colour gloss and texture on large monochrome surfaces is always challenging. This paper reports on research undertaken to investigate some of the materials and application techniques that co...

  18. Reconstruction of sculpture from its profiles with unknown camera positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan-Yee Kenneth; Cipolla, Roberto

    2004-03-01

    Profiles of a sculpture provide rich information about its geometry, and can be used for shape recovery under known camera motion. By exploiting correspondences induced by epipolar tangents on the profiles, a successful solution to motion estimation from profiles has been developed in the special case of circular motion. The main drawbacks of using circular motion alone, namely the difficulty in adding new views and part of the object always being invisible, can be overcome by incorporating arbitrary general views of the object and registering its new profiles with the set of profiles resulted from the circular motion. In this paper, we describe a complete and practical system for producing a three-dimensional (3-D) model from uncalibrated images of an arbitrary object using its profiles alone. Experimental results on various objects are presented, demonstrating the quality of the reconstructions using the estimated motion.

  19. Glancing angle deposition of sculptured thin metal films at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, S.; Grüner, Ch; Lotnyk, A.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2017-09-01

    Metallic thin films consisting of separated nanostructures are fabricated by evaporative glancing angle deposition at room temperature. The columnar microstructure of the Ti and Cr columns is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selective area electron diffraction. The morphology of the sculptured metallic films is studied by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that tilted Ti and Cr columns grow with a single crystalline morphology, while upright Cr columns are polycrystalline. Further, the influence of continuous substrate rotation on the shaping of Al, Ti, Cr and Mo nanostructures is studied with view to surface diffusion and the shadowing effect. It is observed that sculptured metallic thin films deposited without substrate rotation grow faster compared to those grown with continuous substrate rotation. A theoretical model is provided to describe this effect.

  20. Making Sense: Interactive Sculptures as Tangible Design Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vedel; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2007-01-01

    is experienced. The exercise utilizes the designer’s own bodily experiences in the design of new tangible interfaces. The design exercise was done with a group of design students. We asked them to design interactive sculptures to convey the interaction qualities they had extracted from video material....... The interactive sculptures served as a physical reflective tool that allowed the students to test and experience the qualities of interaction they wanted to bring into a new design, before they moved on to designing the actual product. We conclude that interactive sculptures serve as a rich design material...

  1. Handedness, Hinduism and sculpture: searching for evidence of lateralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Braj; Rai Sapru, Shikha

    2008-07-01

    The majority of people throughout the world show extreme preference for the right hand. We studied lateral bias depicted in ancient Indian sculptures dating between the 7th and 9th centuries ad. A total of 288 sculptures were selected from various excavation sites/museums and the frequencies were computed on 13 different criteria in order to see the preferential bias for hand depicted in sculptures of male and female figures. The findings are discussed in the light of Hindu mythology and rituals.

  2. Effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on a surface change of ceromers finished with different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, L-R; Yi, Y-J; Heo, S-J

    2002-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on the surface lustre and surface roughness of three ceromer systems treated with different surface finishing methods. The ceromers studied were: (1). Artglass, (2). Targis, (3). Sculpture and (4). the control group, Z 100. Half of the Targis and Sculpture groups were polished and the rest were coated with staining and glazing solution, respectively. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling 10000 times. Tooth brushing abrasion tests were performed in a customized tooth-brushing machine with 500 g weight applied on a back-and-forth cycle for 20000 repetitions. The lustre determined by measuring the light reflection area and the average roughness was compared between groups and between pre- and post-test values. All materials showed a lower lustre and rougher surface after thermocycling and tooth brushing (P ceromer specimens, except glazed Sculpture, showed a higher lustre and similar roughness to the control group. The post-brushing results revealed that glazed Sculpture presented discretely fallen out glaze coatings and had maximum change. However, stained Targis showed minimum change (P < 0.05) and polished Targis presented more changes than that of the staining treatment. It is therefore concluded that the glaze coatings for Sculpture don't exhibit long-term durability, while stain coatings for Targis acted like a protective layer.

  3. Photogeology: Part G: structural aspects of Imbrium sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.

    1972-01-01

    Apollo 16 metric photographs taken at low to high Sun angles (from approximately 7° to 40°) provide the first stereographic coverage of the distinctive landforms collectively referred to as "Imbrium sculpture" (refs. 29-40 and 29-41). The sculpture consists of a series of nearly linear ridges and troughs extending radially outward for more than 1000 km from the rim of the Imbrium Basin. The sculpture is particularly well developed in the highlands southwest of the basin, where individual segments have lengths measured in tens of kilometers. THe origin of the ridges and troughs, whether by deposition and impact scoring by fluidized clouds of ejecta from the Imbrium Basin or by faulting and volcanism during and subsequent to basin formation, is controversial. Similar appearing features occur around other large basins on both the near and far sides of the Moon; thus, information leading to a better interpretation of Imbrium sculpture has significance throughout the Moon.

  4. Cross Sectional Attitudes of Public Sculpture Matrix in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Akintunde Akintonde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public outdoor sculpture practice in the Southwestern Nigeria entails different types of attitudes. These attitudes are discernable from the stage of commissioning of work, its conceptualization to the display and uses in the public sphere generated diverse fundamental, constant technical issues. Some are explicitly alluring while others are absurd, fleeting and injurious to the practice. However, whatever attitude advanced in the public outdoor sculpture practice, it has not been discussed cross sectionally. The inadequate scholarship attention on the attitudinal issues in outdoor sculpture certainly created art historical gap apt to make the study of contemporary Nigeria art incoherent. Apparently, attitudinal studies certainly involve psychological measurement - a type of instrument that does not required descriptive survey. For this reason, the study was based on qualitative methods. The study categorised various attitudes in outdoor sculpture practice in the studied area into pre-unveiling, unveiling and post unveiling stages and critically examined them. Some attitudes in the practice of the art were observed to be stimulant for advancement; invariably others are clearly incongruous to the spirit of typical Yoruba societal value orientation in orderliness, therefore degrading and detrimental to the development of the outdoor sculpture in the public sphere.Keywords: Art patron; cross sectional attitude; outdoor sculpture; post-unveiling; pre-unveiling; public art; Southwestern Nigeria; unveiling.

  5. The thinker: opposing directionality of lighting bias within sculptural artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Jennifer R.; Weiers, Bradley; Stewart, Aaron; Elias, Lorin J.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to perceive the direction of light to come from above and slightly from the left; it has been speculated that this phenomenon is also producing similar lighting preferences within 2-dimensional artworks (e.g., paintings, advertisements). The purpose of the present study was to address if lighting bias was present in the 3-dimensional medium of sculpture by implementing a virtual art gallery lighting paradigm. Thirty-nine participants completed a computer task that consisted of 48 galleries each containing one sculpture (24 original sculptures, 24 mirror-reversed) which was surrounded by eight lights (above/below, left/right, front/back). Participants would select one light source to illuminate the sculpture in a manner they perceived to be the most aesthetically pleasing. The results indicated a significant preference for lights positioned from above and from the right, a finding that is contradictory to previous lighting bias research examining artworks. An interpretation for the rightward bias applies the perceptual concept of subjective lighting equality. Objects illuminated from the left typically appear brighter in comparison to right-side lighting; in sculpture, however, increased luminosity can reduce the sculptural detail, and may have been compensated via right-side lighting choices within the lighting task. PMID:25999840

  6. Microanalysis of pictorial layers in polychrome sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna

    2008-01-01

    Cross section samples from polychrome wood sculpture are analyzed by optical microscopy, the nuclear techniques: micro X Ray Fluorescence, micro Proton induced Xray Emission coupled with Rutherford Backscattering and the traditional method by Scanning Electronic Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Xray fluorescence detection (SEMEDX) microanalytical methods. Special emphasis is dedicated to mXRF, a novel advanced technique developed thanks to the last achievements of the Xray optics that can be available by modifying conventional laboratory XRF spectrometer, representing an alternative to the traditional and expensive SEMEDX stratigraphic analysis of pictorial works. The results are compared with respect to spatial resolution to differentiate pictorial layer structure and elemental sensitivity. Number of layer, relative position of layer, layer thickness and chemical composition of pigments are determined in the characterization of valuable polychromes of once church San Juan de Letrán in order to obtain information about their “material history” that should contribute to its provenance and attribution research. The pigments used in this artistic works were identified by their characteristic elements. The elemental distribution maps obtained by the used nuclear techniques precisely reproduced microphotographies obtained by means of Light Microscopy. (author)

  7. Nondestructive insights into composition of the sculpture of Egyptian Queen Nefertiti with CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Alexander; Wildung, Dietrich; Kemp, Barry J; Nentwig, Tanja; Asbach, Patrick; Rasche, Franz Maximilian; Hamm, Bernd

    2009-04-01

    To assess the conservation status of, to gain information on the creation of, and to provide surface reformations of the core and the surface of the bust of the pharaoh-queen Nefertiti, considered to be one of the greatest treasures of ancient Egyptian art, with computed tomography (CT). Multisection CT was performed with 0.6-mm section thickness. Two- and three-dimensional reformations were made to depict the core and the surface separately. The stucco layer on the face and the ears was very thin, a maximum of 1-2 mm thick. The rear part of the reconstructed crown showed two thick stucco layers of different attenuation values, indicating that a multistep process was used to create the sculpture. Within the stucco, a great number of air-equivalent hypoattenuating areas, filamentous fissures parallel to the surface, and an inhomogeneous bonding between the layers were delineated. Nefertiti's inner face was not anonymous, but rather delicately sculpted by the royal sculptor Thutmose. The comparison to the outer face revealed differences, including the angles of the eyelids, creases around the corners of the mouth on the limestone surface, and a slight bump on the ridge of the nose. According to the beauty ideals of the Amarna period, the differences had positive and negative effects and can be read as signs of individualization of the sculpture. The potential material-related weaknesses of the sculpture that were revealed at imaging necessitate careful handling, with the avoidance of any focal pressure and shearing forces in the crown and the shoulders. CT imaging revealed construction techniques in Nefertiti's bust that had implications for conservation, as well as for an understanding of the artistic methods used in the creation of this masterpiece of art of the 18th dynasty.

  8. Spines vs. microspines: an overview of the sculpture exine in selected basal and derived Asteraceae with focus on Asteroideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, María C

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the echinate and microechinate sculpturing in relation to the size of pollen grains in 31 selected species of Asteraceae belonging to the subfamilies Barnadesioideae, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae and Asteroideae. The aims were to recognize sculpturing patterns, under LM and SEM, within large and small pollen of both basal and derived species and to explore the features that could have taxonomic value to apply in palynological disciplines. The detailed examination of the exine surface showed both the relevance and limits of sculptural patterns for taxonomy. Under LM, the microechinate sculpture gave little taxonomic information, whereas in the echinate sculpture, three exine types and two subtypes were recognized. Type I included microechinate exine, which is commonly present in large pollen grains of the basal lineages. Types II (subtypes IIa and IIb) and III included echinate and smaller pollen grains. In these types, spines were always regularly arranged and, were characterized by the length, shape, tip, perforations and distribution. Type IIa included more or less conical spines usually with a distended base, less than 4 µm in length, present in species of different tribes like Astereae, Eupatorieae, Helenieae, Gnaphalieae, Senecioideae and Heliantheae to a lesser extent. Type IIb includes slender spines with narrower bases, longer than 4 µm, present in species of Coreopsideae, Heliantheae, Tageteae and Eupatorieae to a lesser extent. Type III included spines with swollen base, blunt tip and perforations over their entire surface. This type was present in only one of the basal species-Carduus thoermeri-and in one species of the derived tribe Helenieae, Gaillardia megapotamica. Probably, this is due to evolutionary convergence.

  9. FTIR spectroscopy of woods: A new approach to study the weathering of the carving face of a sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Vartanian; Odile, Barres; Céline, Roque

    2015-02-05

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), a useful method to study woods, has been applied in order to measure an eventual gradient of water absorbed (more precisely, hydroxyl groups, OH) between the surface and the inner part of an ancient and a modern wooden sculptures. The methodology adopted has consisted in comparing FTIR bands within two spectral ranges, one corresponding to the OH content in the wood (around 3400cm(-1)) and the other to the lignin molecules (aromatic CC, around 1610cm(-1)). The ratio between the intensities of the peaks leads to a self-normalization of the measurements which avoids the effects of some experimental parameters (such as sample preparation). The results obtained show that there is a significant and progressive penetration of OH groups from the surface to the inside part of the ancient sculpture (more OH on the surface than inside the wood, due to the aging of the surface and the creation of sites which are able to fix OH groups). In contrary, for the modern one, we measure an increase of OH contents from the surface to the inner part of the sculpture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sub-wavelength antireflection coatings from nanostructure sculptured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructure sculptured thin films from SiO 2 are grown on quartz substrates by ion beam sputter deposition using rotating substrate motion accommodated to an oblique angle of incidence for the particle flux. Structural peculiarities of sculptured thin films have an intriguing impact on the optical response upon reflection of light with different wavelengths. The reflectivity of quartz substrates coated with SiO 2 sub-wavelength nanostructures is simulated by means of effective medium theory and antireflection is predicted for the deep ultraviolet spectral region. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectivity measurements are performed on SiO 2 sculptured thin films and antireflection near λ = 193 nm is found. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Waiting for Art: The Experience of Real Time in Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Buhe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Why and how does some contemporary art make us wait, and why does the beholder choose to stay? This study seeks to answer this question by exploring what happens to the viewer while waiting in front of a “time sculpture,” a term coined here to mean a three-dimensional artwork that is dynamic over a set period of time. Through an analysis of select works by artists Anish Kapoor, Amelia Whitelaw, Michael Sailstorfer, and Roman Signer, the article posits that while in front of these time sculptures, the viewer experiences an anxiety of waiting and temporal confusion that glues him to the spot. Ultimately, by drawing upon Henri Bergson’s concept of duration, the essay suggests that the viewership of time sculpture allows for a heightened state of perception. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  12. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  13. Data-Driven Analysis of Virtual 3D Exploration of a Large Sculpture Collection in Real-World Museum Exhibitions

    KAUST Repository

    Agus, Marco

    2018-01-29

    We analyze use of an interactive system for the exploration of highly detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of a collection of protostoric Mediterranean sculptures. In this system, when the object of interest is selected, its detailed 3D model and associated information are presented at high resolution on a large display controlled by a touch-enabled horizontal surface at a suitable distance. The user interface combines an object-Aware interactive camera controller with an interactive point-ofinterest selector and is implemented within a scalable implementation based on multiresolution structures shared between the rendering and user interaction subsystems. The system was installed in several temporary and permanent exhibitions and was extensively used by tens of thousands of visitors. We provide a data-driven analysis of usage experience based on logs gathered during a 27-month period at four exhibitions in archeological museums for a total of more than 75K exploration sessions. We focus on discerning the main visitor behaviors during 3D exploration by employing tools for deriving interest measures on surfaces and tools for clustering and knowledge discovery from high-dimensional data. The results highlight the main trends in visitor behavior during the interactive sessions. These results provide useful insights for the design of 3D exploration user interfaces in future digital installations.© 2017 ACM 1556-4673/2017/12-ART2 $15.00.

  14. A Virtual Steel Sculpture for Structural Engineering Education: Development and Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Hazar Nicholas; Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a virtual steel sculpture for engineering education. A good connection design requires the engineer to have a solid understanding of the mechanics and steel behavior. To help students better understand various connection types, many schools have acquired steel sculptures. A steel sculpture is a…

  15. Sculpture africaine. Blessures et altérité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Speranza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Au delà de la notion de “blessure” relative à l’objet, l’auteur s’attache aux traumatismes culturels résultant de la rencontre entre la sculpture africaine et le monde occidental. Un exemple particulier est celui des instruments de musique ethnographiques, dont la restauration est souvent tributaire des conceptions occidentales.Beyond the notion of « injury » for the object, the author dwells on cultural traumatisms resulting from the meeting between African sculpture and the western world. A particular example is the one of ethnographical musical instruments for which restoration is often tributary of western conceptions.

  16. Thin-section microscopy of decayed crystalline marble from the garden sculptures of Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Beseler, S.; Sterflinger, K.

    2007-01-01

    Sterzing marble, a crystalline white marble used in the late-Baroque garden sculptures of Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna, was studied by means of thin-section and scanning electron microscopy in order to obtain a better understanding of its surface decay caused by atmospheric weathering. Following the classification of distinct phenomena of deterioration by visual on-site inspection, the microstructural features including surface erosion, micro-cracking, soiling, black crust formation, and microbiological infestation are exemplified by microscopical images and are briefly discussed. The results proved useful for evaluating and understanding the various types of marble decay for creating a safer basis for establishing the procedural principles aimed at conservation and maintenance of the sculptures

  17. Fabrication of graded helical square tower-like Mn sculptured thin films and investigation of their electrical properties: comparison with perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharpour, Mahsa; Savaloni, Hadi

    2017-06-01

    Mn sculptured thin films were fabricated in form of graded helical square tower-like terraced sculptured Mn thin films (GHSTTS) using oblique angle deposition together with rotation of substrate about its surface normal with fixed rotation angle (90°) and a shadowing block which was fixed at the centre of the substrate holder. The anisotropy of the samples was examined by resistivity measurements at two orthogonal angles. Direct relationship is obtained between resistivity and the anisotropy of the produced samples which showed that both of these parameters increase with decreasing distance from the edge of the shadowing block. Simulation work using the perturbation theory produced results consistent with the experimental observations.

  18. Effects of Photography on Acquisition of Sculpture Skills among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of photography on acquisition of sculpture skills among Junior Secondary School Students in Osun State. Forty students were randomly selected from two schools. The two schools were purposefully selected from fifty secondary schools in Ife Central Local Government Council Area of Osun ...

  19. The Eco-Sculpture Assignment: Using Art to Scaffold Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polegato, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    The Eco-Sculpture Assignment demonstrates that art may be used as a conduit to scaffold metacognition in marketing courses. Theoretical underpinnings are drawn from the literature on pedagogy used in general, marketing, and art education contexts. The assignment is described in detail, followed by examples of learner response that illustrate…

  20. Sculpture: Creative Designs with Modern Materials (Tentative Course Outline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    This document reports on a course in comprehension and application of various techniques of sculpture and collage, using a contemporary point of view. Students will work with contemporary materials such as wood, metals, plaster, plastics, styrofoam, and many other cardboard basic materials suitable for creative design products. This unit will…

  1. 37 CFR 202.10 - Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pictorial, graphic, and... Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. (a) In order to be acceptable as a pictorial, graphic, or... utility or design patent will not affect the registrability of a claim in an original work of pictorial...

  2. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  3. Ken Okoli's absracted landscape sculptures: The Zaria influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In art history scholarship the study of landscape has always been focused on the representation of beautiful sceneries in painting. Most of the attempt to represent landscape in relief sculpture has also been centered on the representation of human figures, animal forms, and generally on decorative patterns which form the ...

  4. NATURE AND SCULPTURE IN THE CREATION OF AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sculptural images of African gods and other handicrafts have also been quite vocal. The combination of these .... architectural perspective, or as the representation of domicile structures, we may say those types of setting .... Nigerian theatre had evolved three noticeable genres with the full influence of European technical ...

  5. TRENDS IN OWO TRADITIONAL SCULPTURES: 1995 – 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HON DEJI

    techniques and styles of Owo traditional sculptures, their resemblances and relationship with. Benin and Ife ... titles, socials, cults, street names, music, dance and royal costumes etcetera propelled, rekindled and influenced the ... These trees are very good for various types of carving such as veranda posts, doors, pillars ...

  6. The conservation treatment of a contemporary collaged sculpture by Jiří Kolář (1914-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Crann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Une sculpture représentant une pomme réalisée par collage de l’artiste tchèque Jiří Kolář et datant de 1972, a été soumise à un traitement de conservation-restauration. La sculpture présentait des dommages structurels causés par des facteurs externes ainsi que des surfaces encrassées. Les interrogations déontologiques soulevées lors de la restauration d’une œuvre d’art contemporain ont représenté un aspect important de l’étude. Par conséquent, la majeure partie des recherches a été dévolue à  la compréhension du matériau et de la structure, celle des intentions de l’artiste,tout comme du concept et de la signification de l’œuvre. Ce travail a été étayé par une recherche scientifique ayant pour but d’évaluer l’efficacité du Triammonium citrate comme agent de nettoyage à base aqueuse, ainsi que par une analyse de la construction en trois dimensions de l’œuvre d’art.A collaged sculpture of an apple by the Czech artist Jiří Kolář, dated 1972 was presented for conservation. The sculpture suffered from structural damage caused by external factors and ingrained surface dirt. The ethical implications raised in conserving a contemporary artwork were an important aspect and subsequently an understanding of the materials and structure, the artist’s intentions, concept and meaning of the artwork formed a large part of the research. Combined with this was scientific research into the effectiveness of Tri-ammonium Citrate as an aqueous surface cleaning agent and analysing construction of 3-Dimensional artworks.

  7. The Golden Beauty: Brain Response to Classical and Renaissance Sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Macaluso, Emiliano; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Is there an objective, biological basis for the experience of beauty in art? Or is aesthetic experience entirely subjective? Using fMRI technique, we addressed this question by presenting viewers, naïve to art criticism, with images of masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture. Employing proportion as the independent variable, we produced two sets of stimuli: one composed of images of original sculptures; the other of a modified version of the same images. The stimuli were presented in three conditions: observation, aesthetic judgment, and proportion judgment. In the observation condition, the viewers were required to observe the images with the same mind-set as if they were in a museum. In the other two conditions they were required to give an aesthetic or proportion judgment on the same images. Two types of analyses were carried out: one which contrasted brain response to the canonical and the modified sculptures, and one which contrasted beautiful vs. ugly sculptures as judged by each volunteer. The most striking result was that the observation of original sculptures, relative to the modified ones, produced activation of the right insula as well as of some lateral and medial cortical areas (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus and prefrontal areas). The activation of the insula was particularly strong during the observation condition. Most interestingly, when volunteers were required to give an overt aesthetic judgment, the images judged as beautiful selectively activated the right amygdala, relative to those judged as ugly. We conclude that, in observers naïve to art criticism, the sense of beauty is mediated by two non-mutually exclusive processes: one based on a joint activation of sets of cortical neurons, triggered by parameters intrinsic to the stimuli, and the insula (objective beauty); the other based on the activation of the amygdala, driven by one's own emotional experiences (subjective beauty). PMID:18030335

  8. a Target Aware Texture Mapping for Sculpture Heritage Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Zhang, F.; Huang, X.; Li, D.; Zhu, Y.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we proposed a target aware image to model registration method using silhouette as the matching clues. The target sculpture object in natural environment can be automatically detected from image with complex background with assistant of 3D geometric data. Then the silhouette can be automatically extracted and applied in image to model matching. Due to the user don't need to deliberately draw target area, the time consumption for precisely image to model matching operation can be greatly reduced. To enhance the function of this method, we also improved the silhouette matching algorithm to support conditional silhouette matching. Two experiments using a stone lion sculpture of Ming Dynasty and a potable relic in museum are given to evaluate the method we proposed. The method we proposed in this paper is extended and developed into a mature software applied in many culture heritage documentation projects.

  9. ARTISTIC AND PRODUCTION FEATURES OF PORCELAIN SCULPTURE BY AUGUST SPIESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Сергеевна Хмельницкая

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the identification and attribution of artistic production and features of porcelain sculpture created by the chief scultor of the Imperial Porcelain Factory in St. Petersburg August K. Spiess . Porcelain through creativity of Spies become so amazingly diverse, as it used to be in the XVIII century . Creative heritage of A. Spiess could be identified as a phenomenon that naturally associated with the broader social and cultural processes , typical for Russian art of the second half of the XIX century. However , in contrast to the next generation of sculptors , Spies activity does not go beyond the existence of porcelain production , and the sculptor has not sought to create works that can approve a porcelain sculpture in the eyes of a higher status.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-1-6

  10. Typical conservation problems of polychrome wooden sculptures in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vuga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovene ethnic territory lies at the contact of Italian and German cultural influences, which can also be traced in gilded works of art. The majority of wooden Gothic art heritage has been lost for good, but a great number of wooden "golden altars" from the 17th century and large 18th century baroque altarpieces with outstanding sculptures survive. Conservators-restorers face great problems resulting from repeated restoration interventions of a great deal of these works of art. The paper describes a recent treatment undertaken at the National Gallery of Slovenia of an 18th century water gilded sculpture from no more existing altar, which was subsequently and typically overpainted several times. The case study is used to illustrate the problems encountered in overpaint removal from gilded areas.

  11. Metal corrosion in polychrome baroque lead sculptures: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Faria,Dalva L. A. de; Puglieri,Thiago S.; Souza,Luiz Antonio C.

    2013-01-01

    Polychrome lead sculptures from Oratory Museum in Ouro Preto (Minas Gerais, Brazil) kept inside a glass showcase were severely degraded. The formed corrosion products were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX) and Raman microscopy and proved to be mostly Pb carbonates and formates. Although carbonate is a very common finding in Pb atmospheric corrosion, Pb formates ...

  12. Rock Engravings and Sculptures of North Guwahati, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwipen Bezbaruah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidences of rock engravings and sculptures, in Assam, are predominantly found to occur in the vicinity of the temples. Incidence of images of Gods and Goddesses, faunal and floral motif are invariably more. Apart from these, some geometric designs are also perceived. Such tangible archaeological heritages are considered important evidences for understanding the past in a more meaningful way. Therefore, it is pertinent to systematically document these sites and the remains before natural and anthropogenic obliteration. The objective of the present paper is to record and document the rock engravings and sculptures observed in the archaeological sites, namely Dirgheswari, Aswakranta, Manikarneswar, Rudreswar and Kanai Boroshi bowa of North Guwahati in Kamrup district, Assam, which are protected and preserved by the Directorate of Archaeology, Assam and to understand the archaeological context of the sites and their remains. The data for the present paper have been collected through field visit and Exploration was conducted in dry and winter season. The findings of the present work comprises of some sculptures of Ganesa, Yama, Sage, Kali, deities, bull without head, human figures, broken piece of a tiger, remains of door frame or pillar and shrines. Series of dot marks, cut marks, inscription, image of Shiva, foot impression, chess board, square, bow, signs, female figurine, and elephant engravings constitute the rock engravings observed in the area.

  13. External-beam PIXE analysis of small sculptures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyodi, I.; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Kovacs, I.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z. E-mail: sznagy@rmki.kfki.hu

    1999-04-02

    Non-destructive analysis of precious art objects is an important tool to solve provenance problems or to facilitate restoration. External beam PIXE analysis is one of the most powerful and popular methods used in this respect. The paper summarises the external beam PIXE set-up at the Accelerator Laboratory in Budapest, and two selected applications are described. Different parts of a small Cambodian metal sculpture probably made in the 11th century were analysed. It was observed that the sculpture was composed of an iron core and an outer bronze shell. This sculptural technique was well known in the Middle-East but no indication has been found about its use in the Far-East, yet. Before its restoration paint traces on a wooden relief of St. Jerome made by an unknown artist in about 1600 were analysed. Different white and red paints were distinguished at selected points and the presence of titanium on a certain part of the relief was attributed to a repainting in modern times.

  14. Introduction to British Sculpture Abroad in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Wood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, British sculpture enjoyed a complex transitional life, taking on a new, bold, and increasingly internationalized profile, at the very same time that its forms and meanings were being challenged and contested. Both in Britain and beyond its shores, sculpture experienced substantial reorientation at the same time as it developed a rich and complicated “import” and “export” life, conceptually, commercially, and curatorially. When “Sculpture” was “British” and “Abroad”, its “abroad-ness” was not always so explicitly visible, since its forms and concerns frequently chimed with sensibilities and approaches that were emerging elsewhere too, whether they were figurative or abstract, Constructivist or Pop. At the same time, when sculpture was being displayed in Britain, whether in terms of groups, schools, and/or recent tendencies, it was increasingly described as “British Sculpture”. Visual evidence of foreign impact and exchange gradually emerged at the same time as this national and generational trope became a cultural identifier on a broader cultural landscape.

  15. Exploration technology surface systems: Surface Habitats And Construction (SHAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschbein, Murray

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of exploration technology program - surface systems are: (1) to develop technology emplace and to build an outpost on the moon and Mars; and (2) to develop concepts for permanent habitats and enclosures on the Moon and Mars.

  16. Non-destructive Investigation of "The Violinist" a Lead Sculpture by Pablo Gargallo, Using the Neutron Imaging Facility NEUTRA in the Paul Scherrer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalles, Alex; Lehmann, Eberhard; Mannes, David

    The Violinist (1920), the only sculpture made by Gargallo using lead sheet and wood, is being corroded by carbonation, most probably due to the organic vapours released by the wood inside, a material not chemically compatible with lead. Hydrogen plasma has been tested and proved to be an effective treatment meaning that the sculpture has to be dismantled in order to give the plasma gas access to the lead carbonate crusts on the inner surface of the lead sheet. Prior to dismantling, a complete exploration and diagnosis of this lead sculpture has been carried out through neutron imaging at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This non-destructive technique has produced different sets of images including radiography, tomography and 3D reconstruction. Despite the presence of a core made of an organic material such as wood, the digital processing of the images and their in depth visual analysis have yielded new three-dimensional information of inaccessible details of the sculpture, allowing us to assess its present state of conservation and the manufacturing technique and materials used by the artist. The results presented in this article highlight how information from neutron imaging can be of great value when it comes to set the strategies for future conservation treatment

  17. A highly sensitive multiplasmonic sensor using hyperbolic chiral sculptured thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Farhat; Faryad, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves guided by an interface of a metal and a hyperbolic chiral sculptured thin film (STF) were theoretically investigated for optical sensing of an analyte. The chiral STF was infiltrated with the analyte to be sensed, and the resulting change in the incidence angle of excitation of the SPP waves in the prism-coupled configuration was computed. The results indicated the potential of this configuration for a plasmonic sensor with sensitivity up to 6000 degrees per refractive index units of the infiltrating fluid in the angular investigation scheme, with multiple SPP waves of the same frequency but different phase speeds, spatial profiles, and sensitivities. The enhancement in the sensitivity is attributed to the high field strength of the SPP waves near the interface. A multiplasmonic sensor is advantageous because of its potential for higher confidence in the measurement of the same analyte.

  18. Moving into Uncertainty: Sculpture with Three- to Five-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a six-month emergent curriculum project on sculpture in a Reggio-inspired program and the thinking behind teachers' decisions in supporting the children's developing ideas. ["Moving into Uncertainty: Sculpture with Three- to Five-Year-Olds" was written with Bobbi-Lynn Keating, Annette Coates, and Barbara Bigelow.

  19. Analysis of a Brazilian baroque sculpture using Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P; Ribeiro, Iohanna M; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L; Felix, Valter S; Ferreira, Douglas S; Pimenta, André R; Pereira, Ronaldo V; Pereira, Marcelo O; Lopes, Ricardo T

    2016-02-05

    In this study, samples were taken from the sculpture of Our Lady of Sorrows and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR. This sculpture has been dated to the early eighteenth century. Samples were also examined using optical microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Based on chemical analysis, the pigments vermilion [HgS], massicot [PbO] and azurite [Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2]were found in the sculpture polychrome. The results indicate that the green polychrome of the sculpture's mantle comes from the blending of massicot and azurite. Because the literature reports that the mantle of the Our Lady of Sorrows sculpture is blue, the mixing of these pigments results from a production error. The results also indicate the presence of Au in the sculpture, which indicates the originality of the piece. The results from this study helped restorers to choose the appropriate procedures for intervening in the sculpture and contributed to the knowledge about the manufacturing process of Brazilian baroque sculptures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of a Brazilian baroque sculpture using Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Ribeiro, Iohanna M.; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L.; Felix, Valter S.; Ferreira, Douglas S.; Pimenta, André R.; Pereira, Ronaldo V.; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, samples were taken from the sculpture of Our Lady of Sorrows and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR. This sculpture has been dated to the early eighteenth century. Samples were also examined using optical microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Based on chemical analysis, the pigments vermilion [HgS], massicot [PbO] and azurite [Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2] were found in the sculpture polychrome. The results indicate that the green polychrome of the sculpture's mantle comes from the blending of massicot and azurite. Because the literature reports that the mantle of the Our Lady of Sorrows sculpture is blue, the mixing of these pigments results from a production error. The results also indicate the presence of Au in the sculpture, which indicates the originality of the piece. The results from this study helped restorers to choose the appropriate procedures for intervening in the sculpture and contributed to the knowledge about the manufacturing process of Brazilian baroque sculptures.

  1. Stone sculptures of goddesses on the boats from Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Kerkar, R.

    goddess panels. A few sculptures reflect influence of folk art traditions in Goa. On the basis of lion figures in a few sculptured panels indicate that these boat motifs must have been engraved during the Kadamba period (10 th - 13 th) when Goa witnessed...

  2. Go with the flow: conservation of a floating sculpture from 1961 made from glass fibre-reinforced polyester resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, L.; Stigter, S.; van Oosten, T.; van Keulen, H.; Keneghan, B.; Egan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Marta Pan’s Sculpture flottante, Otterlo was commissioned by the Kröller-Müller Museum for a pond at the entrance of the new sculpture garden that opened in June 1961. The floating sculpture is made from glass fibre-reinforced polyester resin and is now coated with white paint layers. The top is

  3. 25 CFR 309.20 - What are examples of sculpture, carving, and pipes that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of sculpture, carving, and pipes that... INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.20 What are examples of sculpture, carving, and pipes that are Indian products? (a) Sculpture, carving, and pipes made by an Indian, including...

  4. From “The New Sculpture” to Garden Statuary: the suppression of Abstract Expressionist sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Bissonnette

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1940s, David Smith, David Hare, Herbert Ferber, Ibram Lassaw, Seymour Lipton and Theodore Roszak were part of a new generation of sculptors working in New York who used welding and other direct-metal techniques to make abstract sculpture. In the 1950s, Abstract Expressionist sculpture was praised for its vitality and inventiveness, yet beginning in the 1960s these works gradually fell out of favour. The sole exception is David Smith, who has been upheld as the only sculptor of merit from this period. This study will contend that the suppression of Abstract Expressionist sculpture is largely due to Clement Greenberg and the lasting impact of his writings. Furthermore, his critique of the new sculpture has shaped subsequent assessments by Michael Leja, Kirk Varnedoe, and Edward Lucie-Smith. It has also contributed to the belief, still current today, that Abstract Expressionism is a movement of painters with no comparable counterparts in sculpture.

  5. Controlled Sculpture of Black Phosphorus Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih Das, Paul; Danda, Gopinath; Cupo, Andrew; Parkin, William M; Liang, Liangbo; Kharche, Neerav; Ling, Xi; Huang, Shengxi; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Meunier, Vincent; Drndić, Marija

    2016-06-28

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a highly anisotropic allotrope of phosphorus with great promise for fast functional electronics and optoelectronics. We demonstrate the controlled structural modification of few-layer BP along arbitrary crystal directions with sub-nanometer precision for the formation of few-nanometer-wide armchair and zigzag BP nanoribbons. Nanoribbons are fabricated, along with nanopores and nanogaps, using a combination of mechanical-liquid exfoliation and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM nanosculpting. We predict that the few-nanometer-wide BP nanoribbons realized experimentally possess clear one-dimensional quantum confinement, even when the systems are made up of a few layers. The demonstration of this procedure is key for the development of BP-based electronics, optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, and other applications in reduced dimensions.

  6. Vapor deposited sculptured nano-porous titania films by glancing angle deposition for efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Lee, Ming-Fu; Chen, Ching-Lun; Huang, Chia-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Sculptured porous titania films as photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were prepared using an electron-beam evaporation system with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method. By controlling the substrate rotation rate and the incident angle of evaporant, titania films of various thicknesses were prepared on ITO glasses. The as-deposited nano-porous films are comprised of helical nano-columns and assembled in an orderly manner with gaps or pores in between, which offer large internal surface area for dye adsorption and direct electron transfer path. There is a positive correlation between the film thickness, film effective surface area, amount of absorbed dye and cell efficiency. The nano-porous films provide a synergistic effect of high surface area, effective route for electron transfer, tight interfaces, and enhanced light trapping, which are all beneficial for higher cell efficiency. The DSSC consisting of a 6 μm titania film, deposited at substrate rotating rate 0.17 rpm and incident angle 73 o , gave a cell efficiency of 6.1%.

  7. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  8. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

  9. JCMT active surface control system: implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian A.

    1998-05-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii is a 15 meter sub-millimeter telescope which operates in the 350 microns to 2 millimeter region. The primary antenna surface consists of 276 panels, each of which is positioned by 3 stepper motors. In order to achieve the highest possible surface accuracy we are embarking upon a project to actively control the position of the panels adjuster system is based on a 6809 micro connected to the control computer by a GPIB interface. This system is slow and inflexible and it would prove difficult to build an active surface control system with it. Part of the upgrade project is to replace the existing micro with a 68060 VME micro. The poster paper will describe how the temperature of the antenna is monitored with the new system, how a Finite Element Analyses package transforms temperature changes into a series of panel adjuster moves, and how these moves are then applied to the surface. The FEA package will run on a high end Sun workstation. A series of DRAMA tasks distributed between the workstation and the Baja 68060 VxWorks Active Surface Control System micro will control the temperature monitoring, FEA and panel adjustment activities. Users can interact with the system via a Tcl/TK based GUI.

  10. Applications of petrography and electron microprobe analysis to the study of Indian stone sculpture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.

    1992-01-01

    Examples of research on ancient Indian stone artefacts utilizing petrographic examination coupled with qualitative and quantitative electron beam microprobe analysis of specific minerals are described. Types of artefacts discussed include Gandharan schist sculptures, Pala dynasty phyllite and schist objects from eastern India. Hoysala sculptures from Karnataka state (southern India), and sandstone objects from northern India. In spite of the rich history of stone sculpture in the Indian subcontinent, characterization studies to date have been limited in scope, typically involving unprovenanced artefacts. The examples described point to areas in which more extensive research could produce useful information for the provenancing of artefacts. (author)

  11. Stèles et sculptures protohistoriques du Languedoc occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Gailledrat, Éric

    2017-01-01

    Fig. 1 : Carte de situation des sites mentionnés dans le texte Au regard d’autres régions méridionales, et plus précisément la Provence et le Languedoc oriental, l’ensemble culturellement cohérent que forment à l’âge du Fer les terres comprises entre les vallées de l’Hérault et du Lez au Nord, les Pyrénées au Sud, se caractérise par la relative indigence des documents matériels évoquant cultes et croyances situés hors de la sphère domestique (fig. 1). Le corpus des stèles, sculptures et autr...

  12. Sandscape - engaging people in Met Office science through sand sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggins, Felicity; Dowell, Ellen; Wardley, Jamie; Jamieson, Claire

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, the Met Office's award-winning outreach programme, designed to inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers, delivered one of its most ambitious and creative activities to date. It explored how scientists and artists can come together to create an engaging experience for young people and families. This activity was called Sandscape. Sandscape is an interactive sand sculpture workshop exploring how weather and climate affect our health. Budding sand sculptors are shown how to fashion elaborate structures from sand and water - creating a landscape with bridges, skyscrapers, forests and factories. As they work, participants are encouraged by the scientists delivering the activity to reflect on what makes a healthy city, considering how the natural and built environments influence air quality and circulation and how this impacts our health. Topics discussed include urban heat islands, air pollution and dispersion modelling, pollen forecasting and predicting the wind-borne spread of animal diseases. Each hour long workshop culminates in a dramatic demonstration that uses dry ice to represent clean air circulating from mountains, along rivers and into cities. Here we present an overview of Sandscape, identify the strengths and challenges of such a collaborative, innovative and playful approach to public engagement and share the results of our evaluation. Sandscape was originally supported by the Met Office and the Wellcome Trust, and produced by Einstein's Garden in collaboration with the Met Office, scientists from the University of Exeter and sand sculptors from Sand in Your Eye. It was first presented in Einstein's Garden at Green Man festival 2015, an independent music and arts festival held annually in Wales, and has since been invited to run at the 2015 Bournemouth Arts By the Sea Festival and Teignmouth's TRAIL Sculpture Festival in the summer of 2016.

  13. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  14. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  15. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  16. Dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, Carlo; Leonelli, Vincenzo

    1975-01-01

    Research and experiments made on dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces are described. The demonstration program planned in Italy for a 100Gcal/h dry cooling system is exposed, and an installation intended for a large 1300Mwe nuclear power station is described with reference to the assembly (exploitation and maintenance included). The performance and economic data relating to this installation are also exposed [fr

  17. [Model creation in art therapy. A sculpture project at a psychiatric clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo, N; van der Lee, T; Greil, W

    2000-01-01

    Therapeutic modelling has found little attention in the literature. For the first time, the present article reports about sculptural work in psychiatric art therapy. Since 1994 the Psychiatric Hospital Kilchberg/Zürich is carrying out a sculpture project, in which about 30 patients work with sand- or limestone for 2 1/2 hours daily, cared for by eight therapists and protected by detailed safety regulations. At the beginning and the end of each afternoon the patients stand in a circle to communicate inner mood and ideas about the work. An exposition at the end of the project gives the opportunity to demonstrate the sculptures to family, friends and clinical staff. Until now there have been only positive experiences, which speak in favour of a wider use of sculpture in psychiatric art therapy. Sculptural work stimulates the vitality of the patients, who are challenged to use their willpower adaptedly and rhythmically. Especially on patients with autodestructive tendencies sculptural work seems to exert a beneficial influence.

  18. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  19. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Ebert, Thomas; Cox, Rachel; Rahmatian, Laila; Wood, James; Schuler, Jason; Nick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) excavator robot is a teleoperated mobility platform with a space regolith excavation capability. This more compact, lightweight design (<50 kg) has counterrotating bucket drums, which results in a net-zero reaction horizontal force due to the self-cancellation of the symmetrical, equal but opposing, digging forces.

  20. Novel surface measurement system reading cost savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sword, M.

    1996-05-01

    A new state-of-the-art data acquisition system for the oil and natural gas industries is being marketed by OPSCO`92 Industries Ltd. The unit is portable, it measures surface data which is calibrated to bottom-hole conditions and designed to measure temperature and pressure information without the necessity of sending testing equipment downhole. The Surface Data System (SDS) uses silicon-crystal technology, is mounted in a suitcase size carrying case, and runs off a 12-volt battery enclosure which can be backed up by a small solar panel. The first generation system can handle 16 different channels of information input on a laptop computer. Pressure, pressure differential, temperature, frequency and pulse signals for flow meter measurements are handled by standard sensors. Areas of application include build-up and fall-off tests, pipeline evaluation, pre-frac tests, underbalanced drilling and gas well evaluation. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  1. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  2. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  3. Restitution of sculptural groups using 3D scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, Pilar; Salamanca, Santiago; Adán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Imagine for a moment that you have to solve a 3D jigsaw of which you have lost several pieces. You have also lost the original box-top showing the final picture, and as if that were not enough, some of the pieces you do have may belong to some other jigsaw. This is in essence the sort of challenge that we faced in the novel project that we shall be describing in this paper. The final aim of the project was, with the help of 3D scanners, to digitalize and reconstruct multi-piece classical sculptures. Particularly, we tackle the restitution of the so-called "Aeneas Group", a famous iconographic reference during the Roman Empire. We have undertaken this ambitious project in collaboration with the research department of the Spanish National Museum of Roman Art (MNAR). This paper summarizes the real problems that arose and had to be solved, the innovations, and the main results of the work that we have carried out over these recent years.

  4. Suture techniques in nasal tip sculpture: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S; Rowe-Jones, J

    2007-08-01

    The three-dimensional anatomy and conspicuous location of the nasal tip makes it one of the most challenging sites of facial plastic surgery. This article reviews literature on nasal tip sculpture using suture techniques, as well as the authors' own experience. A search was conducted using Pubmed, the Google internet search engine and the authors' files, using the keywords 'nasal tip', 'suture', 'rhinoplasty' and 'septorhinoplasty'. Common nasal tip suture techniques and suture algorithms are presented, along with a summary of the indications and side effects of each technique. Predictable long-term results are more likely to occur with minimal local tissue excision. Suture techniques remodel the shape of the nasal tip by altering the configuration of, and the relationship between, the tip cartilages and their supporting structures; they also preserve nasal tip anatomy and limit resection. Intra-operatively, the effects are immediately visible, and can be adjusted or reversed. Tip sutures should therefore be considered instead of tissue excision whenever possible.

  5. Restitution of Sculptural Groups Using 3D Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, Pilar; Salamanca, Santiago; Adán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Imagine for a moment that you have to solve a 3D jigsaw of which you have lost several pieces. You have also lost the original box-top showing the final picture, and as if that were not enough, some of the pieces you do have may belong to some other jigsaw. This is in essence the sort of challenge that we faced in the novel project that we shall be describing in this paper. The final aim of the project was, with the help of 3D scanners, to digitalize and reconstruct multi-piece classical sculptures. Particularly, we tackle the restitution of the so-called “Aeneas Group”, a famous iconographic reference during the Roman Empire. We have undertaken this ambitious project in collaboration with the research department of the Spanish National Museum of Roman Art (MNAR). This paper summarizes the real problems that arose and had to be solved, the innovations, and the main results of the work that we have carried out over these recent years. PMID:22164088

  6. The Sculptured Hills of the Taurus Highlands: Implications for the relative age of Serenitatis, basin chronologies and the cratering history of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, P.D.; Wilhelms, D.E.; Robinson, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    New images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera show the distribution and geological relations of the Sculptured Hills, a geological unit widespread in the highlands between the Serenitatis and Crisium basins. The Sculptured Hills shows knobby, undulating, radially textured, and plains-like morphologies and in many places is indistinguishable from the similarly knobby Alpes Formation, a facies of ejecta from the Imbrium basin. The new LROC image data show that the Sculptured Hills in the Taurus highlands is Imbrium ejecta and not directly related to the formation of the Serenitatis basin. This occurrence and the geological relations of this unit suggests that the Apollo 17 impact melts may not be not samples of the Serenitatis basin-forming impact, leaving their provenance undetermined and origin unexplained. If the Apollo 17 melt rocks are Serenitatis impact melt, up to half of the basin and large crater population of the Moon was created within a 30 Ma interval around 3.8 Ga in a global impact "cataclysm." Either interpretation significantly changes our view of the impact process and history of the Earth-Moon system. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  8. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2018-01-01

    of restorative cleaning (RC), nine recently built PP systems were tested for their infiltration capacity with and without restorative cleaning (RC) over an interval of 12–14.5 months. The results were related to each site’s unique history of sedimentation. RC significantly improved permeability, but when...... revisited after approximately one year, the permeability of cleaned surfaces was not significantly better for the RC spots than from their uncleaned neighbouring areas. Relating permeability to the contextual issues revealed that PP perimeter, adjacent bare soil and mismanagement strongly affected...... the sedimentation process. At two of the sites, sedimentation processes were so advanced that surface permeability was below the level of service (five-year design storm)....

  9. PIXE analysis of museum soapstone sculptures from Esie, south west Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Olarewaju, V.O.; Onabajo, O.

    1989-05-01

    The PIXE technique was employed for the study of Esie museum stone sculptures using 2.55 MeV protons from the 3 MeV tandem accelerator (NEC 3 UDH) in Lund, coupled with the geological and archaeological findings. The aim is to elucidate and decipher the prodigious but rather enigmatic and bewildering stone sculptures. PIXE results show that the composition of the stone sculptures are 40.69% talc-tremolite schist, 30.88% talc-chlorite schist, 15.20% talc-tremolite-anthophyllite schist and 13.24% talc-amphibolite schist. Thus the composition of Esie sculptures are found to be the same with the locally available talc-schists present around Esie. The geological evidence (mineralogical results) corroborated this as there was no textural or mineralogical difference between the talc-bearing country rock (outcrop) in Esie and the museum soapstone samples studied. Consequently, there is a very high probability that the sculptures were carved using the locally available talc-schists. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Effects of sculpture based art therapy in dementia patients-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kathrin; Spottke, Annika; Fliessbach, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    Art and art therapy open up interesting possibilities for dementia patients. However, it has not been evaluated scientifically so far, whether the art of sculpting has any benefits. In this non-randomized pilot study with twelve participants, we investigated the feasibility and acceptance of sculptural activity in patients with dementia and the effects on their well-being. A questionnaire was custom-designed to investigate five key aspects of well-being: mental state and concentration, corporeal memory, self-reliance, self-esteem and physicality. Remarkable improvements were seen in several subscales in the sculptural activity group, but not the control group: Mental state and concentration (nine of thirteen key aspects), self-reliance (four of five), self-esteem (one of one) and physicality (two of two). The results of this pilot study indicate the multidimensional effects of sculptural activity on patients living with dementia. The field would benefit greatly from further research.

  11. Henry Moore’s Public Sculpture in the US: The Collaborations with I. M. Pei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Potts

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The many commissions Henry Moore received for public sculpture in the United States provided the occasion for several quite distinctive works. While not site specific, these were unique, and their final form, scale, and disposition was elaborated with a particular setting in mind. This aspect of Moore’s work in the US, which began with the monumental piece he designed for the Lincoln Center in New York in 1963–65, is examined here by focusing on the productive relationship he forged with the architect I. M. Pei in the 1970s. The sculptures Moore produced in collaboration with Pei respond in suggestive ways to the spatial environments created in American cities by late modern architectural developments. They also realize an oddly effective combination of the biomorphic and abstract that differs both from the bodily conception of Moore’s earlier work and the non-figurative character of much public sculpture of the time.

  12. A few words about the founder of the Macedonian modern sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Kamenko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the life and work of Dima Todorovski, the founder of the Macedonian modern sculpture. Dimo Todorovski was born in Thessaloniki in 1910. He finished the Art School, the sculpture department, in Belgrade in 1935. He lived and worked in Skopje from 1942 until his death in 1983. During his career, he made an impressive number of sculptures among which are portraits, lovely female nudes, figures of men in motion, and other pieces related to the WWII. His best pieces include: The Portrait of the Artist's Mother, A Peasant Woman Portrait, The Pit, The Macedonian Pieta, A Girl, A monument in honour of Koco Racin, The Miladinov Brothers, St. Kliment Ohridski.

  13. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site, first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1), second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), and third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) at Oliktok Point (OLI). A SEBS was also deployed with the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site, before it was decommissioned. Data from these sites, including the retired TWP, are available in the ARM Data Archive. The SEBS consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  14. Examinations of wooden sculptures from the altar of Veit Stoss in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska, Academy in Kielce, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)]. E-mail: janusz.braziewicz@pu.kielce.pl; Dudzik, R. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska, Academy in Kielce, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); JaskoIa, M. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Kubala-Kukus, A. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska, Academy in Kielce, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Kretschmer, W. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Rutkowski, J. [Faculty of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts, 31-108 Cracow (Poland); Semaniak, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska, Academy in Kielce, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Scharf, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Stankiewicz, M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Uhl, T. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-10-15

    The AMS facility at Erlangen University was used for dating samples from a wooden coping of the Veit Stoss's altar, one taken from its component originating from the 15th century and another one taken from its newer renovated part. The XRF method has been used to investigate trace element distribution inwards the sculptures. Concentrations of some elements, including Cl and Pb, show systematic increase while approaching the front or back side of the sculptures. The measured distributions are discussed in the context of history of the altar, in particular renovation and restoration procedures it underwent over the years.

  15. Examinations of wooden sculptures from the altar of Veit Stoss in Cracow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braziewicz, J.; Dudzik, R.; JaskoIa, M.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Rutkowski, J.; Semaniak, J.; Scharf, A.; Stankiewicz, M.; Uhl, T.

    2005-01-01

    The AMS facility at Erlangen University was used for dating samples from a wooden coping of the Veit Stoss's altar, one taken from its component originating from the 15th century and another one taken from its newer renovated part. The XRF method has been used to investigate trace element distribution inwards the sculptures. Concentrations of some elements, including Cl and Pb, show systematic increase while approaching the front or back side of the sculptures. The measured distributions are discussed in the context of history of the altar, in particular renovation and restoration procedures it underwent over the years

  16. Politics of Participation in Benoît Maubrey’s Speaker Sculptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keylin, Vadim

    Speaker Sculptures is a series of works by Benoît Maubrey, created in 1983-2015. All of them are large-scale architecture-like constructions (often modelled after existing historical buildings or building types) built of recycled loudspeakers. The public could connect to the work by calling...... Sculptures connect the public space to the electronic media, subverting their antagonism and creating a single space of social interactions. This offers a possibility of political presence in public space to those, who are unable to do so in person due to physical or mental disabilities, or other personal...

  17. SMALL ARCHITECTURAL AND SCULPTURAL FORMS ARE IN DESIGN OF INTERIORS OF AIR TERMINALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.А. Зеленкова

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Determination of small forms is considered in architecture and in a sculpture. Certainly difference between national and international style in a design. Their use is considered in the design of interiors of passenger spaces of air terminals on existent examples. Connection is analysed between architectural small forms and by the sculpture of small forms, which consists in the transmission of the general semantic and aesthetically beautiful loading on a man, namely to create feeling of comfort, national self-esteem, national pride, and but to consciousness

  18. The history of the "Virgin with Child" sculpture (Ottaviano, Naples, southern Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balassone, Giuseppina; Toscano, Maria; Cavazzini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    historical context. Historical documents testify that the sculpture was a property of the cadet branch of noble Tuscan family of the Medici, the Medici of Ottaviano. A multianalytical approach has been used to try to indicate the supply area of the white marble of the studied sculpture. Considering the whole......A life-size whitish marble statue of a "Virgin with Child" has been recently rediscovered in the St.Rosario church located in Ottaviano, a small town near Naples (southern Italy). This artwork shows stylistic features of the Tuscan-Roman school of the 16th century, and is framed in an intriguing...

  19. Acid rain attack on outdoor sculpture in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Richard A.

    2016-12-01

    A major concern motivating research in acid rain materials effects has been the potential for damage to cultural heritage, particularly outdoor marble and bronze sculpture. However, a combination of field and laboratory studies has failed to show a correlation between rain pH and loss of materials. In order to understand this counterintuitive lack of acid rain effect, an aqueous geochemical modeling approach was used to analyze rain runoff chemistry for the relative importance of acid rain neutralization, dry deposition, and in the case of marble, natural carbonate dissolution. This approach involved the development of pH - SO42- phase diagrams for marble (calcium carbonate) and bronze (copper) under ambient environmental conditions. This then enabled reaction path modeling of the acid neutralization process using the pH range typically found in wet deposition (3.5-6). The results were for marble that the theoretical maximum amount of Ca2+ ion that could be lost due acid rain neutralization would be 0.158 mmol/l compared to 10.5 mmol/l by dry deposition, and for bronze, the Cu2+ ion losses would be 0.21 mmol/l and 47.3 mmol/l respectively. Consequently dry deposition effects on these materials have the potential to dominate over wet deposition effects. To test these predictions the geochemical models were applied to examples of data sets from mass balance (runoff vs rainfall) studies on a marble statue in New York City and some bronze memorial plaques at Gettysburg PA. Although these data sets were collected in the early 1980s they remain valid for demonstrating the mass balance method. For the marble statue, the mean Ca2+ losses by dry deposition was about 69% of the total compared 0.3% for acid rain neutralization, which was less than the natural carbonate dissolution losses of 0.8%. For the bronze, the mean Cu2+ losses were 70.6% by SO42- dry deposition and 23% by NO3- dry deposition compared to 6.4% by acid rain neutralization. Thus for both cases the wet

  20. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  1. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  2. Power System for Venus Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Mellott, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    A radioisotope power and cooling system is designed to provide electrical power for a probe operating on the surface of Venus. Most foreseeable electronics devices and sensors cannot operate at the 450 C ambient surface temperature of Venus. Because the mission duration is substantially long and the use of thermal mass to maintain an operable temperature range is likely impractical, some type of active refrigeration may be required to keep electronic components at a temperature below ambient. The fundamental cooling parameters are the cold sink temperature, the hot sink temperature, and the amount of heat to be removed. In this instance, it is anticipated that electronics would have a nominal operating temperature of 300 C. Due to the highly thermal convective nature of the high-density (90 bar CO2) atmosphere, the hot sink temperature was assumed to be 50 C, which provided a 500 C temperature of the cooler's heat rejecter to the ambient atmosphere. The majority of the heat load on the cooler is from the high temperature ambient surface environment on Venus, with a small contribution of heat generation from electronics and sensors. Both thermoelectric (RTG) and dynamic power conversion systems were analyzed, based on use of a standard isotope (General-purpose heat source, or GPHS) brick. For the radioisotope Stirling power converter configuration designed, the Sage model predicts a thermodynamic power output capacity of 478.1 watts, which slightly exceeds the required 469.1 watts. The hot sink temperature is 1200 C, and the cold sink temperature is 500 C. The required heat input is 1740 watts. This gives a thermodynamic efficiency of 27.48 %. It is estimated that the mechanical efficiency of the power converter design is on the order of 85 %, based on experimental measurements taken from 500-watt power class, laboratory-tested Stirling engines. The overall efficiency is calculated to be 23.36 %. The mass of the power converter is estimated at approximately 21.6 kg

  3. Co-occurrence of linear and circular dichroism in chiral sculptured ZrO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zahir; Wali, Faiz; Song, Li

    2018-01-01

    Three dimensional chiral metamaterials, have unique helical shaped morphologies and periodically varying permittivity, possess inherent fascinatingly chiroptical activity in developing potential photonic applications. Herein, we demonstrate a systemic simulations of optical activity in chiral sculptured thin films (CSTFs) made of ZrO2 . In particular, a circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) are scrutinized for the proposed ZrO2 CSTFs. From the calculated differential absorption, LD and CD spectrum is computed using linear and circular polarized light beams respectively. The signated mode of different peaks for LD and CD is observed at different sweep angles with a large LD effect. Moreover, the CD diminishes at large sweep angle. This finding strongly indicates high potential of our proposed helical ZrO2 nanostructures as a perfect polarization converter. Simultaneously, optical remittance of different helical nanostructures are also compared.

  4. Venus Surface Power and Cooling System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    2004-01-01

    A radioisotope power and cooling system is designed to provide electrical power for the a probe operating on the surface of Venus. Most foreseeable electronics devices and sensors simply cannot operate at the 450 C ambient surface temperature of Venus. Because the mission duration is substantially long and the use of thermal mass to maintain an operable temperature range is likely impractical, some type of active refrigeration may be required to keep certain components at a temperature below ambient. The fundamental cooling requirements are comprised of the cold sink temperature, the hot sink temperature, and the amount of heat to be removed. In this instance, it is anticipated that electronics would have a nominal operating temperature of 300 C. Due to the highly thermal convective nature of the high-density atmosphere, the hot sink temperature was assumed to be 50 C, which provided a 500 C temperature of the cooler's heat rejecter to the ambient atmosphere. The majority of the heat load on the cooler is from the high temperature ambient surface environment on Venus. Assuming 5 cm radial thickness of ceramic blanket insulation, the ambient heat load was estimated at approximately 77 watts. With an estimated quantity of 10 watts of heat generation from electronics and sensors, and to accommodate some level of uncertainty, the total heat load requirement was rounded up to an even 100 watts. For the radioisotope Stirling power converter configuration designed, the Sage model predicts a thermodynamic power output capacity of 478.1 watts, which slightly exceeds the required 469.1 watts. The hot sink temperature is 1200 C, and the cold sink temperature is 500 C. The required heat input is 1740 watts. This gives a thermodynamic efficiency of 27.48 %. The maximum theoretically obtainable efficiency is 47.52 %. It is estimated that the mechanical efficiency of the power converter design is on the order of 85 %, based on experimental measurements taken from 500 watt power

  5. Study of Italian Renaissance sculptures using an external beam nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Bouquillon, A.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J.; Gaborit, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The use of an extracted proton micro-beam for the PIXE analysis of glazes is discussed in the context of the growing interest in the creation of an analytical database on Italian Renaissance glazed terracotta sculptures. Some results concerning the frieze of an altarpiece of the Louvre museum, featuring white angels and cherubs heads, are presented

  6. From Postmodernism to Milk Cartons: Junk Art Sculptures and Pre-Service Teachers' Philosophies of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Morna

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses of an arts-informed inquiry performed by sixteen pre-service teachers who created sculptures to explore their teaching philosophies. Through this creative process changes occurred in their assumptions and expectations about what is of value in teaching and relationships between themselves, their students, and the community. The…

  7. Stereoscan electron microscope observations on opisthobranch radulae and shell-sculpture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, T.E.; Hinton, H.E.

    1968-01-01

    Traditional methods of observation applied to the sculpture of tectibranch shells and to the radulae of gastropods in general, have yielded a great deal of information regarding the structure of these organs, which are so important in taxonomy. In the genus Philine, for instance, the numerous

  8. Dress Fashion in Feminist and Child Rights Campaigns in Ghanaian Public Sculptures of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Osuanyi Quaicoo; Opoku-Mensah, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how dress fashion in outdoor sculptures of the 1990s in the Accra cityscape accentuated feminist activism, sensitised child right campaigns, and encouraged girl-child education in support of governmental efforts and activism of civil society organisations in Ghana. It gives attention to how dress fashion of the time was used…

  9. Nature and sculpture in the creation of African theatre scenery | Iwuh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning of space is defined by the images contained in that space. Creating scenery for the theatre as an indoor activity involves either the creation of imaginary forms or the replication of existing images around the creator's environment. These imported items include natural vegetation, architecture, sculpture and ...

  10. Chronologies in wood and resin: AMS 14C dating of pre-Hispanic Caribbean Wood Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Ostapkowicz; Christopher Bronk-Ramsey; Fiona Brock; Tom Higham; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Erika Ribechini; Jeannette J. Lucejko; Samuel. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes a chronological framework for selected pieces of Caribbean (Tafno/Lucayan) wooden sculpture, enabling previously ahistoric artefacts to fit back into the wider corpus of pre-colonial material culture. Seventy-two 14C AMS determinations from 56 artefacts held in museum collections are reported, including 32 ceremonial

  11. A likely cranial osteodystrophy (Paget's disease of bone) in a Precolumbian, Mesoamerican stone sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, R; Ceglia, L

    2017-07-01

    This short note illustrates facial and head features found in a stone sculpture of the ancient, Precolumbian period in a temple of the Mayan city of Copan (Honduras). The authors believe that this observation may support paleoanthropological evidence of Paget's disease of bone, an osteodystrophy described in the Mesoamerican Indian populations before the first millennium A.D.

  12. Three-Dimensional Interpretation of Sculptural Heritage with Digital and Tangible 3D Printed Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saorin, José Luis; Carbonell-Carrera, Carlos; Cantero, Jorge de la Torre; Meier, Cecile; Aleman, Drago Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Spatial interpretation features as a skill to acquire in the educational curricula. The visualization and interpretation of three-dimensional objects in tactile devices and the possibility of digital manufacturing with 3D printers, offers an opportunity to include replicas of sculptures in teaching and, thus, facilitate the 3D interpretation of…

  13. Analysis of the body mass index and leg profiles of Asian women after total leg sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Chou; Chen, Chien-Hao; Lin, Chan-Yi; Ho, Li-Yung

    2009-08-01

    In addition to the conventional methods used to improve leg contours, total leg sculpture, including liposuction, selective neurectomy, and transilluminated powered phlebectomy, provides a one-time solution of leg contour problems, which is a major aesthetic concern among Asian women. The authors present the postoperative results of total leg sculpture and determine any significance and correlation between the leg variables and body mass index by statistical analysis. Thirty female patients who underwent total leg sculpture between 2005 and 2008 were included in the study, and prospective analysis of the patients' data was performed during a follow-up period of 1 year. Local measurement variables and body mass index were recorded, and the correlation between them was determined by Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. A paired t test was used to compare the postoperative outcomes. Subjectively, all patient results were satisfactory. There were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative measurements for all variables for total leg sculpture. Body mass index was strongly correlated with all leg indexes, and there was a significant positive correlation between the index and variables related to the buttocks and upper thigh. The satisfactory postoperative leg variables were buttocks circumference (87.85 cm), thigh circumference (T60, 44.20 cm), maximal calf circumference (32.24 cm), and calf ratio (0.78). Each preoperative body mass index increment represents a 0.3 percent circumference improvement around the buttocks after surgery. No obvious morbidities or long-term hospital stays were noted. Total leg sculpture provides a combined aesthetic solution for improving limb contours with minimal morbidity. Patients with larger body mass index values exhibit better aesthetic improvement than those with smaller values.

  14. Precision Subsampling System for Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Paulsen, G.; Mellerowicz, B.; ten Kate, I. L.; Conrad, P.; Corrigan, C. M.; Li, X.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to analyze heterogeneous rock samples at fine spatial scales would represent a powerful addition to our planetary in situ analytical toolbox. This is particularly true for Mars, where the signatures of past environments and, potentially, habitability are preserved in chemical and morphological variations across sedimentary layers and among mineral pr.ases in a given rock specimen. On Earth, microbial life often associates with surfaces at the interface of chemical nutrients, and ultimately retains sub-millimeter to millimeter-scale layer confinement in fossilization. On Mars, and possibly other bodies, trace chemical markers (elemental, organic/molecular, isotopic, chiral, etc.) and fine-scale morphological markers (e.g., micro-fossils) may he too subtle, degraded, or ambiguous to be detected, using miniaturized instrumentation, without some concentration or isolation. This is because (i) instrument sensitivity may not be high enough to detect trace markers in bulk averages; and (ii) instrument slectiviry may not be sufficient to distinguish such markers from interfering/counteracting signals from the bulk. Moreover from a fundamental chemostratigraphic perspective there would be a great benefit to assessing specific chemical and stable isotopic gradients, over millimeter-to-centimeter scales and beyond, with higher precision than currently possible in situ. We have developed a precision subsampling system (PSS) that addresses this need while remaining relatively flexible to a variety of instruments that may take advantage of the capability on future missions. The PSS is relevant to a number of possible lander/rover missions, especially Mars Sample Return. Our specific PSS prototype is undergoing testing under Mars ambient conditions, on a variety of natural analog rocks and rock drill cores, using a set of complementary flight-compatible measurement techniques. The system is available for testing with other contact instruments that may benefit from

  15. RASSOR - Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Mueller, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) is a lightweight excavator for mining in reduced gravity. RASSOR addresses the need for a lightweight (robot that is able to overcome excavation reaction forces while operating in reduced gravity environments such as the moon or Mars. A nominal mission would send RASSOR to the moon to operate for five years delivering regolith feedstock to a separate chemical plant, which extracts oxygen from the regolith using H2 reduction methods. RASSOR would make 35 trips of 20 kg loads every 24 hours. With four RASSORs operating at one time, the mission would achieve 10 tonnes of oxygen per year (8 t for rocket propellant and 2 t for life support). Accessing craters in space environments may be extremely hard and harsh due to volatile resources - survival is challenging. New technologies and methods are required. RASSOR is a product of KSC Swamp Works which establishes rapid, innovative and cost effective exploration mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  16. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  17. Geometric Description of Fibre Bundle Surface for Birkhoff System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Mei, Cao; Hua-Fei, Sun; Zhen-Ning, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A fibre bundle surface for the Birkhoff system is constructed. The metric and the Riemannian connection of the surface are defined and the representation of the Gaussian curvature of this surface is presented. Finally, three examples for the Birkhoff system are given to illustrate our results. (general)

  18. Roman period portrait habit in the funerary sculpture of northern Jordan: Local and foreign influences and their implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenberger, Achim; Raja, Rubina

    Funerary portraiture in the Near East has become a topic of discussion in the last years’ of scholarship once again. However, the funerary sculpture of Northern Jordan has received little attention in this connection. There are several reasons for that. For one the sculpture, often in the shape...... of funerary busts, are not of what we perceive as a high quality and secondly it has not been collected in a corpus and thirdly a strict typology and chronology of the sculpture does not exist. Nonetheless this portraiture, which it was, no matter the quality, deserves attention as a group of its own...

  19. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  20. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T

    2015-01-01

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 μL) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system

  1. Surface nucleation in complex rheological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfurth, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2017-07-01

    Forced nucleation induced by suitable foreign seeds is an important tool to control the production of defined crystalline products. The quality of a surface provided by seed materials represents an important variable in the production of crystallizing layers that means for the nucleation process. Parameters like shape and surface structure, size and size distribution of the seed particles as well as the ability to hold up the moisture (the solvent), can have an influence on the nucleation process of different viscous supersaturated solutions. Here the properties of different starch powders as seeds obtained from corn, potato, rice, tapioca and wheat were tested. It could be found, that the best nucleation behavior of a sugar solution could be reached with the use of corn starch as seed material. Here the surface of the crystallized sugar layer is smooth, crystallization time is short (<3 h) and the shape of the product is easily reproducible. Beneficial properties of seed materials are therefore an edged, uneven surface, small particle sizes as well as low moisture content at ambient conditions within the seed materials.

  2. From Soft Sculpture to Soft Robotics: Retracing a Physical Aesthetics of Bio-Morphic Softness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    the soft sculpture that started proliferating in the late 1960s. Critical descriptions of these works, interestingly, frequently emphasize their similarities with living organisms and bodies as a central tenet of their aesthetics. The paper seeks to articulate aspects of a contiguity between softness...... science. Recently, soft robotics technology has also started to make its way into art, design, and architecture. This paper attempts to think an aesthetics of softness and the life-like through an artistic tradition deeply imbricated with an interrogation of softness and its physical substrates, namely...... and the life-like in these works through readings that draw on concepts from technical soft robotics research and the description of life in physics (via entropy). It is argued, that fractions of soft sculpture anticipate central interests and notions present in contemporary technical soft robotics research....

  3. High Rise Building: The Mega Sculpture Made Of Steel, Concrete and Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Alicja; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    High rise building has transformed from providing not only the expansion of floor space but functioning as mega sculpture in the city. The shift away from economic efficiency driven need is only expected to grow in the future. Based on literature studies; after analysing planning documents and case studies, it was examined whether the presumption that gaining the maximum amount of usable area is the only driving factor; or if the need for the creation of an image for the city provided a supplementary reason. The results showed that forming high rise buildings as three-dimensional sculptures is influenced not only by aesthetics, but also marketing. Visual distinction in the city skyline is economically beneficial for investors gaining not only functionality but art, enriching the cultural landscape. Organizing architectural competitions, public debates and following the latest art trends is therefore possible due to large budgets of such projects.

  4. Massive Modularity of Space and Surface Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will conduct a systems level investigation of a modular design and operations approach for future NASA exploration systems. Particular emphasis will be...

  5. PIXE and μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Lanterna, Giancarlo; Franco, Lucarelli; Mando, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-01-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action

  6. Visiting Richard Serra's "Promenade" sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoï; Lang, Alexandre; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Adenis, Marie-Sarah; Yang, Qing; Lipede, Gabi; Vernet, Marine

    2014-01-01

    Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra's Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesized to have stimulated the body's vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased five monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69(°) angle. Using computerized dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements) before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade). A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway). Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability [in terms of spectral power and canceling time (CT) of body sway] at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of CT). Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto) was canceled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power) increased after the promenade. Fourteen additional visitors were asked to stand in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra's monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test. We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic "training ground" thereby improving the visitors' overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium, and gravity.

  7. Visiting Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï eKapoula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesised to have stimulated the body’s vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased 5 monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69° angle.Using computerised dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade. A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway. Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability (in terms of spectral power and cancelling time of body sway at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of cancelling time. Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto was cancelled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power increased after the promenade.Fourteen additional visitors were asked to sit in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra’s monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test.We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic training ground thereby improving the visitors’ overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium and gravity.

  8. Wildlife art and illustration: stone sculpture and painting - some experiments in Auroville, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Ramanujam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The métier of combining granite stone carving with painting of wildlife subjects in Pitchandikulam at Auroville International Township has been rather innovative, and some works are described and analyzed. The basic history of stone carving, and especially of those sculptures with animal motifs, is recounted, and the applications, especially in the context of enhancing landscape architecture, are discussed and highlighted.

  9. The microbial community characteristics of ancient painted sculptures in Maijishan Grottoes, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yulong; Wu, Fasi; Wang, Wanfu; He, Dongpeng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Feng, Huyuan; Chen, Tuo; Liu, Guangxiu; An, Lizhe

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a culture-independent Illumina MiSeq sequencing strategy was applied to investigate the microbial communities colonizing the ancient painted sculptures of the Maijishan Grottoes, a famous World Cultural Heritage site listed by UNESCO in China. Four mixed samples were collected from Cave 4-4 of the Maijishan Grottoes, the so-called Upper Seven Buddha Pavilion, which was built during the Northern Zhou Dynasty (557-581AD). The 16/18S rRNA gene-based sequences revealed a rich bacterial diversity and a relatively low fungal abundance, including the bacterial groups Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and the fungal groups Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Among them, the bacteria genera of Pseudonocardia and Rubrobacter and unclassified fungi in the order of Capnodiales were dominant. The relative abundance of Pseudonocardia in the painted layer samples was higher than that in the dust sample, while Cyanobacteria dominated in the dust sample. Many of them have been discovered at other cultural heritage sites and associated with the biodeterioration of cultural relics. The presence and activity of these pioneering microorganisms may lead to an unexpected deterioration of the painted sculptures that are preserved in this heritage site. Thus, proper management strategies and potential risk monitoring should be used in the Maijishan Grottoes to improve the conservation of these precious painted sculptures.

  10. Photographs of Sculpture: Greek Slave’s ‘complex polyphony’, 1847–77

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Di Bello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the representations, iterations, and appearances of Hiram Powers’s 'Greek Slave' in London in the decades after its first exhibition in 1845, years in which a variety of new ‘engines of the fine arts’ were fuelling a widening market for art objects of all kinds, and popular culture could turn statues into celebrities appearing everywhere — exhibitions, photographers’ studios, newspapers, 'tableau-vivant' shows, even confectionery shops. The article’s focus is on how sculpture was used in the reception and understanding of photography as a new medium of reproduction, and how the materiality of specific photographic ‘objects’ — daguerreotypes, paper prints, and stereographs — interacted with that of sculpture to affect the viewer, at a time when sculptural objects themselves blurred the boundaries between original and reproduction. The article ends with an analysis of stereoscopic cards of 'Greek Slave', as the first photographic reproductions that could really compete with wood engravings and statuettes in the dissemination and circulation of statues, arguing for their pleasurable interactivity as key to their success.

  11. DOUBLE BOSS SCULPTURED DIAPHRAGM EMPLOYED PIEZORESISTIVE MEMS PRESSURE SENSOR WITH SILICON-ON-INSULATOR (SOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SINDHANAISELVI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the detailed study on the measurement of low pressure sensor using double boss sculptured diaphragm of piezoresistive type with MEMS technology in flash flood level measurement. The MEMS based very thin diaphragms to sense the low pressure is analyzed by introducing supports to achieve linearity. The simulation results obtained from Intellisuite MEMS CAD design tool show that very thin diaphragms with rigid centre or boss give acceptable linearity. Further investigations on very thin diaphragms embedded with piezoresistor for low pressure measurement show that it is essential to analyse the piezoresistor placement and size of piezoresistor to achieve good sensitivity. A modified analytical modelling developed in this study for double boss sculptured diaphragm results were compared with simulated results. Further the enhancement of sensitivity is analyzed using non uniform thickness diaphragm and Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI technique. The simulation results indicate that the double boss square sculptured diaphragm with SOI layer using 0.85μm thickness yields the higher voltage sensitivity, acceptable linearity with Small Scale Deflection.

  12. Comparing Compositions of Modern Cast Bronze Sculptures: Optical Emission Spectroscopy Versus x-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. L.; Dunand, D. C.

    2015-07-01

    Bulk elemental compositions of 74 modern cast bronze sculptures from the collection at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Rodin Museum (Philadelphia, PA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and a handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. The elemental compositions of the cast sculptures as measured previously by ICP-OES and presently by XRF are compared: A good match is found between the two methods for the base metal (Cu) and the two majority alloying elements (Zn and Sn). For both ICP-OES and XRF data, when the Zn composition is plotted versus the Sn composition, three discernable clusters are found that are related to the artist, foundry, casting date, and casting method; they consist of (A) high-zinc brass, (B) low-zinc, low-tin brass, and (C) low-zinc, tin bronze. Thus, our study confirms that the relatively fast, nondestructive XRF spectrometry can be used effectively over slower and invasive, but more accurate, ICP-OES to help determine a sculpture's artist, foundry, date of creation, date of casting, and casting method.

  13. Micro-analytical study of a rare papier-mâché sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Marta; Bidarra, Ana; Longelin, Stéphane; Pessanha, Sofia; Ferreira, Adriana; Guerra, Mauro; Coroado, João; Carvalho, Luísa

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of a Portuguese "papier-mâché" sculpture depicting Saint Anthony is presented in this case study. Several questions were addressed such as the characteristics of the support, pigments used, and artistic technique in order to establish a possible timeline for its production. Qualitative analyses of the cross-sections and of the paper support were performed by optical microscopy using reflected light. Two polychrome layers from different periods and a rag pulped support were identified on the sculpture. The use of micro X-ray fluorescence and Raman microscopy techniques enabled the differentiation of coloring materials used in both polychromies. Semi-quantitative analyses of the gilded samples were also performed by scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive spectroscopy allowing the determination of a common Au-Ag-Cu alloy with differences in the purity of the gold. The identified coloring materials lead us to believe that the sculpture was produced in the 19th century, being overpainted in the first half of the 20th century.

  14. "Lesbians are not women": feminine and lesbian sensibilities in Harmony Hammond's late-1970s sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2008-01-01

    Harmony Hammond's wrapped fabric sculptures are placed in context of the theories of gender and sexuality that circulated among lesbian and straight feminists at the time they were made, the late 1970s. Hammond has cited in particular Monique Wittig's novels, such as The Lesbian Body, and her essays including "The Straight Mind" where Wittig concludes that the lesbian is not a woman. The critique to which Wittig's lesbian separatism has been subjected by Judith Butler in her consideration of the appeal and limitations of essentialism also applies to Hammond's art. Hammond's use of vaginal imagery was instrumental to visualizing a lesbian sensibility, but the proposition of such a sensibility established a new problematic: a new essential category. The article concludes that because Hammond's work was produced in the context of a complex set of discourses, lesbian, feminist, and aesthetic, it resisted reduction to a singular meaning. Her sculptures avoided the pitfall of substituting one essence for another, lesbian for feminine sensibility, but activated both. The sculptures effectively queered vaginal imagery: When Hammond used vaginal imagery to represent lesbian sensibility, she subverted the equation of sex and gender and the essentialist notion of feminine sensibility.

  15. Pride and memory: perceptions of individuality in Iberian sculpture around 1400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martínez de Aguirre

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Iberian kingdoms of Castile-Leon and Navarre, the development of individualized sculptural representations at the beginning of fifteenth-century was directly conditioned by the interest of patrons. Castilian kings and many nobles of the most powerful lineages gave no importance to the commissioning of funerary statues. On the other hand, King Charles the Noble of Navarre and some prelates and nobles, raised to the highest positions because of their services to the monarchs, felt more attracted by the idea of leaving a memory including their physical appearance. The depiction of physical likeness depended, secondly, on the training and ability of the artists, as well as on the existence or not of the sitter at the time the work was executed. In Navarra, sculptural fidelity to facial features enjoyed wide acceptance, while the contemporary literature showed no signs of interest in these personality traits. In Castile, however, writers of classical training had provided physical descriptions of the main characters in history since the 14th century, while sculptural depiction of individualized features came later.

  16. Archaeometric characterization and provenance determination of sculptures and architectural elements from Gerasa, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bashaireh, Khaled

    2018-02-01

    This study aims at the identification of the provenance of white marble sculptures and architectural elements uncovered from the archaeological site of Gerasa and neighboring areas, north Jordan. Most of the marbles are probably of the Roman or Byzantine periods. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry were used to investigate petrographic, mineralogical and isotopic characteristics of the samples, respectively. Analytical results were compared with the main reference databases of known Mediterranean marble quarries exploited in antiquity. The collected data show that the most likely main sources of the sculptures were the Greek marble quarries of Paros-2 (Lakkoi), Penteli (Mount Pentelikon, Attica), and Thasos-3 (Thasos Island, Cape Vathy, Aliki); the Asia Minor marble quarries of Proconessus-1 (Marmara) and Aphrodisias (Aphrodisias); and the Italian quarry of Carrara (Apuan Alps). Similarly, the Asia Minor quarries of the fine-grained Docimium (Afyon) and the coarse-grained Proconessus-1 (Marmara) and Thasos-3 are the most likely sources of the architectural elements. The results agree with published data on the wide use of these marbles for sculpture and architectural elements.

  17. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Schuler, Jason M.; Ebert, Tom; Nick, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Regolith is abundant on extra-terrestrial surfaces and is the source of many resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, titanium, aluminum, iron, silica and other valuable materials, which can be used to make rocket propellant, consumables for life support, radiation protection barrier shields, landing pads, blast protection berms, roads, habitats and other structures and devices. Recent data from the Moon also indicates that there are substantial deposits of water ice in permanently shadowed crater regions and possibly under an over burden of regolith. The key to being able to use this regolith and acquire the resources, is being able to manipulate it with robotic excavation and hauling machinery that can survive and operate in these very extreme extra-terrestrial surface environments. In addition, the reduced gravity on the Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids poses a significant challenge in that the necessary reaction force for digging cannot be provided by the robot's weight as is typically done on Earth. Space transportation is expensive and limited in capacity, so small, lightweight payloads are desirable, which means large traditional excavation machines are not a viable option. A novel, compact and lightweight excavation robot prototype for manipulating, excavating, acquiring, hauling and dumping regolith on extra-terrestrial surfaces has been developed and tested. Lessons learned and test results will be presented including digging in a variety of lunar regolith simulant conditions including frozen regolith mixed with water ice.

  18. Nanosculptures on round surfaces of natural diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurov, A. A.; Kosolobov, S. S.; Shcheglov, D. V.; Sonin, V. M.; Chepurov, A. I.; Latyshev, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The results of a study using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy comprising the micromorphology of the ditrigonal and trigonal layers on surfaces near the edges of octahedral diamond crystals from the Udachnaya-Eastern kimberlite pipe in Yakutia are presented. The studied surface sculptures are elongated parallel to the direction and have similar morphological features, characterized by a wavy profile across the lamination, the absence of flat areas at the micro- and nanolevel. It is proposed that both sculpture types were formed as a result of dissolution under natural conditions. This suggestion is corroborated by the revelation of negative trigons on the octahedral facets of the studied diamonds.

  19. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO 2 -fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  20. Toward a new concept of the "cultural elite state": Cultural capital and the urban sculpture planning authority in elite coalition in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of an attractive public art scene in urban public areas (termed urban sculpture in the Chinese context) is a recent phenomenon in Shanghai. The role of the local state in urban sculpture planning and development has not been critically examined. This article proposes a model entitled "cultural elite state" to conceptualize the characteristics of urban sculpture authority. The main argument is that the cultural capital held by individual political and social eli...

  1. A Comet Surface Sample Return System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal the...

  2. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  3. Sikorsky interactive graphics surface design/manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive graphics system conceived to be used in the design, analysis, and manufacturing of aircraft components with free form surfaces was described. In addition to the basic surface definition and viewing capabilities inherent in such a system, numerous other features are present: surface editing, automated smoothing of control curves, variable milling patch boundary definitions, surface intersection definition and viewing, automatic creation of true offset surfaces, digitizer and drafting machine interfaces, and cutter path optimization. Documented costs and time savings of better than six to one are being realized with this system. The system was written in FORTRAN and GSP for use on IBM 2250 CRT's in conjunction with an IBM 370/158 computer.

  4. In situ surface-enhanced raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 mu L) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC

  5. Surface free energy for systems with integrable boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehmann, Frank; Bortz, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2005-01-01

    The surface free energy is the difference between the free energies for a system with open boundary conditions and the same system with periodic boundary conditions. We use the quantum transfer matrix formalism to express the surface free energy in the thermodynamic limit of systems with integrable boundary conditions as a matrix element of certain projection operators. Specializing to the XXZ spin-1/2 chain we introduce a novel 'finite temperature boundary operator' which characterizes the thermodynamical properties of surfaces related to integrable boundary conditions

  6. The Materials and Techniques of Polychrome Baroque Wooden Sculpture: Three Works From Baião, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Barata

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Three polychrome wooden sculptures, made between the last quarter of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century, from a monastery in Northern Portugal, representing an episode of the Passion of Christ, were analysed with three aims: to identify the materials and techniques employed; to clarify the relationship between the three sculptures; to reveal previous restorations. Techniques such as radiography, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, optical and polarized light microscopy and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy were employed. White lead, vermillion, umber, carbon black, gypsum, anhydride and chalk were identified as pigments and fillers. These materials and the layer structure led to the conclusion that sculptures 1 and 2 were treated as a pair of sculptures and that they underwent at least two restorations: the first was probably done in the workshop where they were made. During the second restoration, the heads were replaced. Sculpture 3 is not restored and its poorer style seems to have correspondence to materials of lower quality.

  7. The great beauty: a neuroaesthetic study by neuroelectric imaging during the observation of the real Michelangelo's Moses sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, F; Cherubino, P; Graziani, I; Trettel, A; Bagordo, G M; Cundari, C; Borghini, G; Arico, P; Maglione, A G; Vecchiato, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have been showed as the perception of real or displayed masterpieces by ancient or modern painters generate stable neuroelectrical correlates in humans. In this study, we collected the neuroelectrical brain activity correlated with the observation of the real sculpture of Michelangelo's Moses within the church where it is actually installed in a group of healthy subjects. In addition to the cerebral activity also the heart rate (HR) and the galvanic skin response (GSR) were collected simultaneously, to assess the emotional engage of the investigated population. The Moses sculpture was observed by the group from three different point of views, each one revealing different details of the sculpture. In addition, in each location the light conditions related to the specific observation of the sculpture were explicitly changed. Results showed that cerebral activity of the subjects varied significantly across the three different views and for light condition against no light condition (psculpture could be easily grab by the eyes. Results suggested how the perception of the sculpture depends critically by the point of view of the observers and how such point of view can produce separate emotional and cerebral responses.

  8. Surface-Mount Rotor Motion Sensing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  9. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  10. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  11. A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  12. A surface refractive index scanning system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction, and a s......The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction...

  13. Metolachlor and atrazine fate in surface water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.J.; Anderson, T.A.; Coats, J.R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The detection of pesticides in surface water and ground water provokes concern involving human health risks associated with pesticide exposure. Monitoring studies of surface waters have detected concentrations of herbicides that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contamination level (MCL) for drinking water. Conventional water treatment processes do not remove many herbicides. Tap water drawn from surface-water sources has been reported to contain levels of herbicides above the regulatory limits. There is current interest in the use of artificial wetlands and macrophyte-cultured ponds in waste-water-treatment systems. Aquatic plant-based water treatment systems improve waste water effluent by solid filtration and nutrient assimilation. Various aquatic plants have been shown to accumulate metals, absorb inorganic ions, and accelerate the biodegradation of complex organics. Our research evaluates the fate of metolachlor and atrazine in surface water, surface water/sediment, and surface water/aquatic plant incubation systems to study the influence of sediment and aquatic plants in the removal and biotransformation of herbicides from contaminated waters. Aquatic macrophyte systems may prove to be useful in the remediation of herbicide contaminated surface waters in water treatment facilities or in the reduction of herbicide concentrations from tile drain effluents prior to entering watersheds.

  14. Soluble salt sources in medieval porous limestone sculptures: A multi-isotope (N, O, S) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloppmann, W., E-mail: w.kloppmann@brgm.fr [BRGM, Direction des Laboratoires, Unité Isotopes, BP 6009, F-45060 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Rolland, O., E-mail: olivierrolland@wanadoo.fr [Montlouis-sur-Loire (France); Proust, E.; Montech, A.T. [BRGM, Direction des Laboratoires, Unité Isotopes, BP 6009, F-45060 Orléans cedex 2 (France)

    2014-02-01

    The sources and mechanisms of soluble salt uptake by porous limestone and the associated degradation patterns were investigated for the life-sized 15th century “entombment of Christ” sculpture group located in Pont-à-Mousson, France, using a multi-isotope approach on sulphates (δ{sup 34}S and δ{sup 18}O) and nitrates (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O). The sculpture group, near the border of the Moselle River, is within the potential reach of capillary rise from the alluvial aquifer. Chemical analyses show a vertical zonation of soluble salts with a predominance of sulphates in the lower parts of the statues where crumbling and blistering prevail, and higher concentrations of nitrates and chloride in the high parts affected by powdering and efflorescence. Isotope fingerprints of sulphates suggest a triple origin: (1) the lower parts are dominated by capillary rise of dissolved sulphate from the Moselle water with characteristic Keuper evaporite signatures that progressively decreases with height; (2) in the higher parts affected by powdering the impact of atmospheric sulphur becomes detectable; and (3) locally, plaster reparations impact the neighbouring limestone through dissolution and re-precipitation of gypsum. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes suggest an organic origin of nitrates in all samples. N isotope signatures are compatible with those measured in the alluvial aquifer of the Moselle River further downstream. This indicates contamination by sewage or organic fertilisers. Significant isotopic contrasts are observed between the different degradation features depending on the height and suggest historical changes of nitrate sources. - Highlights: • We use S, N and O isotopes to distinguish salt sources in limestone sculptures. • Vertical zonation of degradation is linked to capillary rise and air pollution. • Sulphate salts in lower parts are derived from river/groundwater. • Sulphate salts in higher parts show signature of air pollution. • Nitrates

  15. Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; von Ahnen, Mathis; Fernandes, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, cultur...... for determining bacterial activity might provide a means for future monitoring and assessment of microbial water quality in aquaculture farming systems......Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture......-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant®) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation...

  16. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  17. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  18. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. On phantom point clouds, their method achieved submillimeter

  19. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE PORTRAIT IN NATIONAL PAINTING AND SCULPTURE (1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOZOVANU VLADIMIR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is devoted to the peculiarities of the portrait in national painting and sculpture in the period of the 1950s. The text refl ects the creation of prominent artists who have realized the most famous portrait works. The author presents examples of representative portraits and they are analysed in the context of the period we refer to. He identifies both the methods, techniques, the ideas and aspiration of plastic artists who have practised portrait art. the presented information is useful to artists and teachers working in the fi eld of visual arts and to students who are interested in portrait painting.

  20. On Penelope Curtis’ Patio and Pavilion: The Place of Sculpture in Modern Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hatton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This is more of an engagement with Curtis’ classic text than a book review, its author being more concerned with expanding on the significance of some of the points made in Patio and Pavilion. Hatton explores the relationship between the artwork (mostly examples of sculpture and its architectural container (that is, the pavilion, museum or gallery, and way in which that binary is deconstructed in the work of a number of architect-artists from Mies van der Rohe through to Dan Graham, where the pavilion itself becomes the object of display.

  1. Wetting and elasto-plasticity based sculpture of liquid marbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianlin; Zuo, Pingcheng

    2016-02-01

    As an emerging material with exotic properties, liquid marble holds great potential for such areas as microfluidics, stimuli-responsive sensors, micro-chemical reactors, micro-bioreactors, energy harvesting devices, and mechanical structures. In this study, we mainly concentrate on the mechanical behaviors, such as elasto-plasticity of liquid marble with the decrease of liquid volume. The contact radius with the substrate and Young's contact angle of liquid marble are both measured with the change of water volume, and those of a water droplet are compared. The mechanism for the different responses for liquid marble and water droplet is clarified according to the mechanics analysis. Moreover, it is found that liquid marble can behave like an elasto-plastic material when the particle surface density is big enough. Based upon this fact, liquid marble can be sculpted to all kinds of special shapes as expected. These investigations may cast new light on how to engineer multifunctional materials and devices, which are beneficial to microprinting and micromachining.

  2. TECHNICAL VISION SYSTEM FOR THE ROBOTIC MODEL OF SURFACE VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Gromov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of work on creation of technical vision systems within the training complex for the verification of control systems by the model of surface vessel. The developed system allows determination of the coordinates and orientation angle of the object of control by means of an external video camera on one bench mark and without the need to install additional equipment on the object of control itself. Testing of the method was carried out on the robotic complex with the model of a surface vessel with a length of 430 mm; coordinates of the control object were determined with the accuracy of 2 mm. This method can be applied as a subsystem of receiving coordinates for systems of automatic control of surface vessels when testing on the scale models.

  3. Sculplexity: Sculptures of Complexity using 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, D. S.; Price, J. J.; Evans, T. S.

    2013-11-01

    We show how to convert models of complex systems such as 2D cellular automata into a 3D printed object. Our method takes into account the limitations inherent to 3D printing processes and materials. Our approach automates the greater part of this task, bypassing the use of CAD software and the need for manual design. As a proof of concept, a physical object representing a modified forest fire model was successfully printed. Automated conversion methods similar to the ones developed here can be used to create objects for research, for demonstration and teaching, for outreach, or simply for aesthetic pleasure. As our outputs can be touched, they may be particularly useful for those with visual disabilities.

  4. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  5. Origin and implications of non-radial Imbrium Sculpture on the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H; Crawford, David A

    2016-07-21

    Rimmed grooves, lineations and elongate craters around Mare Imbrium shape much of the nearside Moon. This pattern was coined the Imbrium Sculpture, and it was originally argued that it must have been formed by a giant oblique (~30°) impact, a conclusion echoed by later studies. Some investigators, however, noticed that many elements of the Imbrium Sculpture are not radial to Imbrium, thereby implicating an endogenic or structural origin. Here we use these non-radial trends to conclude that the Imbrium impactor was a proto-planet (half the diameter of Vesta), once part of a population of large proto-planets in the asteroid belt. Such independent constraints on the sizes of the Imbrium and other basin-forming impactors markedly increase estimates for the mass in the asteroid belt before depletion caused by the orbital migration of Jupiter and Saturn. Moreover, laboratory impact experiments, shock physics codes and the groove widths indicate that multiple fragments (up to 2% of the initial diameter) from each oblique basin-forming impactor, such as the one that formed Imbrium, should have survived planetary collisions and contributed to the heavy impact bombardment between 4.3 and 3.8 billion years ago.

  6. Étude et restauration de deux sculptures de jardin en terre cuite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Vétillard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’étude et la restauration de deux sphynges en terre cuite, particulièrement dégradées par leur installation en extérieur, ont permis d’approfondir la connaissance des techniques d’estampage, de caractériser les propriétés des terres cuites et les mécanismes de dégradation liés au gel. Les différentes techniques mises en oeuvre ont été l’occasion de réfléchir aux limites d’intervention pour des sculptures de jardin.The study and the restoration of two sphynges in terra-cotta, particularly degraded by their outdoor installation, allowed to deepen the knowledge of stamping techniques, to characterize the properties of terra-cottas and mechanisms of degradation bound to the frost. The different techniques used were the opportunity to think about limits of intervention for garden installed sculptures.

  7. Model Making and Anti-Competitive Practices in the Late Eighteenth-Century London Sculpture Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craske, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of anti-competitive practices, and the associated discontents, that rose to the fore in the London sculpture trade in the late eighteenth century (1770-1799. It charts the business strategies and technical procedures of the most economically successful practitioners, whose workshops had some of the characteristics of manufactories, and whose critics accused them of conducting a "monopoly" trade. Small-scale practitioners lost out in the competition for great public contracts on account of their design processes and their inability to represent any manifestation of "establishment". A combination of three factors increased the gap between a handful of powerful "manufacturers" and the rest of the trade: the foundation of the Royal Academy, shifts in the ways designs were evaluated, and a growing number of very lucrative contracts for public sculpture. I conclude that such were the discontents within the London trade that by the 1790s, there was a marked tendency for practitioners who were not manufacturers to be attracted to democratic political movements, to the Wilkite call for liberty and the rise of civic radicalism in the merchant population of London.

  8. Soluble salt sources in medieval porous limestone sculptures: a multi-isotope (N, O, S) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, W; Rolland, O; Proust, E; Montech, A T

    2014-02-01

    The sources and mechanisms of soluble salt uptake by porous limestone and the associated degradation patterns were investigated for the life-sized 15th century "entombment of Christ" sculpture group located in Pont-à-Mousson, France, using a multi-isotope approach on sulphates (δ(34)S and δ(18)O) and nitrates (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). The sculpture group, near the border of the Moselle River, is within the potential reach of capillary rise from the alluvial aquifer. Chemical analyses show a vertical zonation of soluble salts with a predominance of sulphates in the lower parts of the statues where crumbling and blistering prevail, and higher concentrations of nitrates and chloride in the high parts affected by powdering and efflorescence. Isotope fingerprints of sulphates suggest a triple origin: (1) the lower parts are dominated by capillary rise of dissolved sulphate from the Moselle water with characteristic Keuper evaporite signatures that progressively decreases with height; (2) in the higher parts affected by powdering the impact of atmospheric sulphur becomes detectable; and (3) locally, plaster reparations impact the neighbouring limestone through dissolution and re-precipitation of gypsum. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes suggest an organic origin of nitrates in all samples. N isotope signatures are compatible with those measured in the alluvial aquifer of the Moselle River further downstream. This indicates contamination by sewage or organic fertilisers. Significant isotopic contrasts are observed between the different degradation features depending on the height and suggest historical changes of nitrate sources. © 2013.

  9. Alison Gill – "To See a World", an exhibition of new sculpture and works on paper

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Wednesday, 11 December 2013 from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. in the Library, bldg. 52 1-052 "Sculpture stories and invisible things" How might the presence of an artist influence the CMS experiment? And how does the LHC change the artist and the work they make? Over the last two decades, I have worked with a wide range of media to create both sculpture and drawing. The interdisciplinary approach that I have taken has often involved engagement and dialogues with scientists. Through my art, I explore the stories we tell to make sense of things that seem beyond our conscious grasp, taking familiar objects and materials and re-purposing, casting or altering the meaning. Underlying themes have included folklore, beliefs and methods used in the pursuit of transcendence. Knots, Klein bottles and Möbius strips have also been used for their topological, emotive and metaphysical associations. I try to scrutinise the world around me to find hidden meanings and use humour to provoke thought, elicit c...

  10. Surface Complexation Modelling in Metal-Mineral-Bacteria Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. J.; Fein, J. B.

    2002-12-01

    The reactive surfaces of bacteria and minerals can determine the fate, transport, and bioavailability of aqueous heavy metal cations. Geochemical models are instrumental in accurately accounting for the partitioning of the metals between mineral surfaces and bacteria cell walls. Previous research has shown that surface complexation modelling (SCM) is accurate in two-component systems (metal:mineral and metal:bacteria); however, the ability of SCMs to account for metal distribution in mixed metal-mineral-bacteria systems has not been tested. In this study, we measure aqueous Cd distributions in water-bacteria-mineral systems, and compare these observations with predicted distributions based on a surface complexation modelling approach. We measured Cd adsorption in 2- and 3-component batch adsorption experiments. In the 2-component experiments, we measured the extent of adsorption of 10 ppm aqueous Cd onto either a bacterial or hydrous ferric oxide sorbent. The metal:bacteria experiments contained 1 g/L (wet wt.) of B. subtilis, and were conducted as a function of pH; the metal:mineral experiments were conducted as a function of both pH and HFO content. Two types of 3-component Cd adsorption experiments were also conducted in which both mineral powder and bacteria were present as sorbents: 1) one in which the HFO was physically but not chemically isolated from the system using sealed dialysis tubing, and 2) others where the HFO, Cd and B. subtilis were all in physical contact. The dialysis tubing approach enabled the direct determination of the concentration of Cd on each sorbing surface, after separation and acidification of each sorbent. The experiments indicate that both bacteria and mineral surfaces can dominate adsorption in the system, depending on pH and bacteria:mineral ratio. The stability constants, determined using the data from the 2-component systems, along with those for other surface and aqueous species in the systems, were used with FITEQL to

  11. Active surface system for the new Sardinia Radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Morsiani, Marco; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Roda, Juri; Fiocchi, Franco

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we'll describe the active surface system that will be provided on the new Italian radiotelescope being in the phase of erection in the Sardinia Island. SRT (Sardinia Radiotelescope) will be a 64m shaped dish working up to 100GHz by exploiting the active surface facility designed by the authors. This facility will overcome the effects of gravity deformations on the antenna gain and will also be used to re-shape in a parabolic form the primary mirror, in order to avoid large phase error contribution on the antenna gain for the highest frequencies placed on the primary focus. Together with the description of the SRT system, a wide overview will be given regarding our previous installation of an active surface system, that can be seen like a prototype for SRT, mounted on the 32m dish of the Noto antenna.

  12. Tangible display systems: bringing virtual surfaces into the real world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferwerda, James A.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing tangible display systems that enable natural interaction with virtual surfaces. Tangible display systems are based on modern mobile devices that incorporate electronic image displays, graphics hardware, tracking systems, and digital cameras. Custom software allows the orientation of a device and the position of the observer to be tracked in real-time. Using this information, realistic images of surfaces with complex textures and material properties illuminated by environment-mapped lighting, can be rendered to the screen at interactive rates. Tilting or moving in front of the device produces realistic changes in surface lighting and material appearance. In this way, tangible displays allow virtual surfaces to be observed and manipulated as naturally as real ones, with the added benefit that surface geometry and material properties can be modified in real-time. We demonstrate the utility of tangible display systems in four application areas: material appearance research; computer-aided appearance design; enhanced access to digital library and museum collections; and new tools for digital artists.

  13. Using surfaces and surface relations in an early cognitive vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Mustafa, Wail; Popovic, Mila

    2015-01-01

    We present a deep hierarchical visual system with two parallel hierarchies for edge and surface information. In the two hierarchies, complementary visual information is represented on different levels of granularity together with the associated uncertainties and confidences. At all levels geometr...

  14. Joep van Lieshout's Mobile Home for Kröller-Müller: outdoor polyester sculpture in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, S.; Beerkens, L.; Schellen, H.L.; Kuperholc, S.; Bridgland, J.

    2008-01-01

    The nature and condition of the large scale glass fibre reinforced polyester resin outdoor sculpture by Dutch artist Joep van Lieshout: Mobile Home for Kröller-Müller (1995) is challenging traditional conservation ethics. Chemists, physicists, art historians, conservators specialised in different

  15. Ars Moriendi Tradition and Visualization of Death in Roman Baroque Sculpture: Death Education in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Robert H.

    1980-01-01

    The tradition of the Ars Moriendi influenced art by creating a new reality in which the dead could appear eternally alive. A good death was seen as an act of faith. The literature of Ars Moriendi influenced baroque sculpture which today is viewed as almost bizarre. (JAC)

  16. Photographer: NASA Ames On 20 December 1989, Ames buried a time capsule and unveiled a sculpture at

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Photographer: NASA Ames On 20 December 1989, Ames buried a time capsule and unveiled a sculpture at the spot where, fifty years earlier, Russel Robinson had turned the first spade of dirt for the Ames construction shack: Robinson (left) Ames Director Dale Compton (center) and Ames Deputy Director Sy Syvertson (right)

  17. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures 2 -fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important 'affordability' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk

  18. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface environmental monitoring system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  20. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T

    2015-03-03

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system includes a nanostructured Au surface that serves dual roles as the electrochemical working electrode (WE) and SERS substrate, a microfabricated Pt counter electrode (CE), and an external Ag/AgCl reference electrode (RE). The nanostructured Au WE enables highly sensitive in situ SERS spectroscopy through large and reproducible SERS enhancements, which eliminates the need for resonant wavelength matching of the laser excitation source with the electronic absorption of the target molecule. The new SEC analysis system has the merits of wide applicability to target molecules, small sample volume, and a low detection limit. We demonstrate in situ SERS spectroelectrochemistry measurements of the metalloporphyrin hemin showing shifts of the iron oxidation marker band ν4 with the nanostructured Au working electrode under precise potential control.

  1. Determination of Surface Fluxes Using a Bowen Ratio System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point ...

  2. Body surface mounted biomedical monitoring system using Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Continuous monitoring in daily life is important for the health condition control of the elderly. However, portable or wearable devices need to carry by user on their own will. On the other hand, implantation sensors are not adoptable, because of generic users dislike to insert the any object in the body for monitoring. Therefore, another monitoring system of the health condition to carry it easily is necessary. In addition, ID system is necessary even if the subject live with few families. Furthermore, every measurement system should be wireless system, because not to obstruct the daily life of the user. In this paper, we propose the monitoring system, which is mounted on the body surface. This system will not obstruct the action or behavior of user in daily life, because this system attached the body surface on the back of the user. In addition, this system has wireless communication system, using Bluetooth, and acquired data transfer to the outside of the house via the Internet.

  3. Interactive system for quick modeling of aircraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudur, S. P.; Khandekar, Dilip R.

    1990-08-01

    The precise specification of surface geometry of an aircraft is one of the most important and major activities inits design. An initial design, defined by the fundamental requirements, is iteratively analysed and modified till a satisfactory configuration is obtained. Very often in the early stages the need to rapidly make modifications to the geometry for immediate analysis overrides the stringency of smoothness and correctness ofthe surfaces. This paper describes the design of an interactive system which enables the designer to quickly specify the surface geometry and to modify it easily and rapidly. In particular, the software engineering aspects are emphasized. The system uses B-splines for the representation of complex geometry. Surfaces of revolution, required to model certain parts ofthe aircraft, and other simple geometric primitives are also supported. Apart from the usual modeller facilities, features such as camber, twist and form constraints such as tangent or curvature control at a point, etc., are also provided. The system enables easy input and rapid editing of geomeiry through the use of a number of innovative concepts which aim at simplifying and speeding up the man-machine interaction. Multiple window display of entities, augmented by plots of curvature, cross sections etc. provide the visualization tool necessary to assist the designer in decision making.

  4. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  5. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test procedure is to verify that the mechanical and electrical features of the Surface Moisture Measurement System are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. This procedure will be used in conjunction with a software acceptance test procedure, which addresses testing of software and electrical features not addressed in this document. Hardware testing will be performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  6. Non-exhibition of Bragg phenomenon by chevronic sculptured thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepachedu, Vikas; McAtee, Patrick D.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-08-01

    The unit cell of a chevronic sculptured thin film (ChevSTF) comprises two identical columnar thin films (CTFs) except that the nanocolumns of the first are oriented at an angle Χ and nanocolumns of the second are oriented at an angle π - χ with respect to the interface of the two CTFs. A ChevSTF containing 10 unit cells was fabricated and its planewave reflectance and transmittance spectrums of this ChevSTF were measured. Despite its structural periodicity, the ChevSTF did not exhibit the Bragg phenomenon. Theoretical calculations with the CTFs modeled as biaxial dielectric materials indicated that the Bragg phenomenon would not be manifested for normal and near-normal incidence, but vestigial manifestation was possible for sufficiently oblique incidence.

  7. Homogeneity analysis of sculptured thin films deposited in symmetric style through glancing angle deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Qi Hong-Ji; Sun Wei; He Jun; Zhao Jiao-Ling; Wang Hu; Hou Yong-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The symmetric deposition technique is often used to improve the uniformity of sculptured thin film (STF). In this paper, optical properties of STF with the columnar angles ±β are analyzed theoretically, based on the characteristic matrix method for extraordinary waves. Then, the transmittances of uniformity monolayer and bilayer STF in symmetrical style are calculated to show the effect of the bilayer structure on the optical properties of STF. The inhomogeneity of STF is involved in analyzing the differences in transmittance and phase retardation between monolayer and bilayer STF deposited in symmetric style. The results show that optical homogeneity of STF can be improved by depositing in symmetric style at the normal incidence, but it is not the same case as the oblique incidence. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Protection performance of some polyurethane surface systems on wood surface in outdoor conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özgenc

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different surface system applied oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L. were investigated resistance to the outdoor conditions of the test and control wood. Surface systems were compared as two different property polyurethane-based materials. Outdoor test has been implemented in Sürmene coastal, Uzungol and Hıdırnebi plateaus. Oriental spruce samples were compared based on the discoloration and reduction in fiber to parallel compressive strength in outdoor conditions. The weathering test in Hıdırnebi plateau was found at the lowest discoloration and reduction rate on compressive strength. According to the obtained results; polyester-based material, the oriental spruce wood against discoloration and reduction in compressive strength was determined at outdoor conditions is relatively well preserved

  9. Using Soft Sculpture Microfossils and Other Crafted Models to Teach Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinak, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 5 years, the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) has been using the author's sewn models of microfossils to help learners understand the shapes and design of these tiny fossils. These tactile objects make the study of ancient underwater life more tangible. Multiple studies have shown that interactive models can help many learners understand science. The Montessori and Waldorf education programs are based in large part on earlier insights into meeting these needs. The act of drawing has been an essential part of medical education. The STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math) movement has advocated for STEM supporters to recognize the inseparability of science and art. This presentation describes how the author's knitted or sewn models of microfossils incorporate art and design into geoscience education. The geoscience research and art processes used in developing and creating these educational soft sculptures will be described. In multiple entry points to science study, specific reciprocal benefits to boundary crossing among the arts and sciences for those who have primary talents in a particular area of study will be discussed. Geoscience education can benefit from using art and craft items such as models. Many websites now offer soft sculptures for biology study such as organs and germs (e.g. (https://www.giantmicrobes.com/us/main/nasty-germs). The Wortheim project involving community and crochet is another approach (http://crochetcoralreef.org/). These tactile artifacts give learners an entry-level experience with biology. Three dimensional models are multisensory. The enlarged manipulative microfossil models invite learners to make comparisons and gain insights when microscopes are not available or appropriate for the audience. Adding the physical involvement of creating a microfossil yourself increases the multi-sensory experience even further. Learning craft skills extends the cross-cutting concepts of the NGSS to a mutual

  10. Evaluation of Surface Treatment Methods on the Bond Strength of Zirconia Ceramics Systems, Resin Cements and Tooth Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkuş Emek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effects of airborne-particle abrasion (APA and tribochemical silica coating (TSC surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramics systems, resin cements and tooth surface

  11. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  12. Surface-based determination of the pelvic coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Lorenz; Eschweiler, Jörg; Heger, Stefan; Kabir, Koroush; Gravius, Sascha; de la Fuente, Matías; Radermacher, Klaus

    2009-02-01

    In total hip replacement (THR) one technical factor influencing the risk of dislocation is cup orientation. Computer-assisted surgery systems allow for cup navigation in anatomy-based reference frames. The pelvic coordinate system most used for cup navigation in THR is based on the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) and the anterior pelvic plane (APP). From a geometrical point of view, the MSP can be considered as a mirror plane, whereas the APP can be considered as a tangent plane comprising the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) and the pubic tubercles. In most systems relying on the pelvic coordinate system, the most anterior points of the ASIS and the pubic tubercles are selected manually. As manual selection of landmark points is a tedious, time-consuming and error-prone task, a surface-based approach for combined MSP and APP computation is presented in this paper: Homologous points defining the MSP and the landmark points defining the APP are selected automatically from surface patches. It is investigated how MSP computation can benefit from APP computation and vice versa, and clinical perspectives of combined MSP and APP computation are discussed. Experimental results on computed tomography data show that the surface-based approach can improve accuracy.

  13. Global structual optimizations of surface systems with a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Feng-Chuan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Global structural optimizations with a genetic algorithm were performed for atomic cluster and surface systems including aluminum atomic clusters, Si magic clusters on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface, silicon high-index surfaces, and Ag-induced Si(111) reconstructions. First, the global structural optimizations of neutral aluminum clusters Aln algorithm in combination with tight-binding and first-principles calculations were performed to study the structures of magic clusters on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface. Extensive calculations show that the magic cluster observed in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments consist of eight Si atoms. Simulated STM images of the Si magic cluster exhibit a ring-like feature similar to STM experiments. Third, a genetic algorithm coupled with a highly optimized empirical potential were used to determine the lowest energy structure of high-index semiconductor surfaces. The lowest energy structures of Si(105) and Si(114) were determined successfully. The results of Si(105) and Si(114) are reported within the framework of highly optimized empirical potential and first-principles calculations. Finally, a genetic algorithm coupled with Si and Ag tight-binding potentials were used to search for Ag-induced Si(111) reconstructions at various Ag and Si coverages. The optimized structural models of √3 x √3, 3 x 1, and 5 x 2 phases were reported using first-principles calculations. A novel model is found to have lower surface energy than the proposed double-honeycomb chained (DHC) model both for Au/Si(111) 5 x 2 and Ag/Si(111) 5 x 2 systems.

  14. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  15. Fracture surface energy of the Punchbowl fault, San Andreas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Judith S; Chester, Frederick M; Kronenberg, Andreas K

    2005-09-01

    Fracture energy is a form of latent heat required to create an earthquake rupture surface and is related to parameters governing rupture propagation and processes of slip weakening. Fracture energy has been estimated from seismological and experimental rock deformation data, yet its magnitude, mechanisms of rupture surface formation and processes leading to slip weakening are not well defined. Here we quantify structural observations of the Punchbowl fault, a large-displacement exhumed fault in the San Andreas fault system, and show that the energy required to create the fracture surface area in the fault is about 300 times greater than seismological estimates would predict for a single large earthquake. If fracture energy is attributed entirely to the production of fracture surfaces, then all of the fracture surface area in the Punchbowl fault could have been produced by earthquake displacements totalling <1 km. But this would only account for a small fraction of the total energy budget, and therefore additional processes probably contributed to slip weakening during earthquake rupture.

  16. Aerosol Observing System Surface Meteorology (AOSMET) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrouac, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observing System (AOS) surface meteorology instrument is an ancillary sensor that provides temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation data relevant to the AOS. It consists of a Vaisala WXT520 Weather Transmitter mounted on top of the AOS aerosol inlet, at a height of approximately 10 meters.

  17. Mars Surface System Common Capabilities and Challenges for Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Toups, Larry

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a process to identify and evaluate candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the martian surface. These locations are referred to as Exploration Zones (EZs). Given current mission concepts, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains a landing site and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. In parallel with this process, NASA continues to make progress on the Evolvable Mars Campaign examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. This involves ongoing assessments of surface systems and operations to enable a permanent, sustainable human presence. Because of the difficulty in getting equipment and supplies to the surface of Mars, part of these assessments involve identifying those systems and processes that can perform in multiple, sometimes completely unrelated, situations. These assessments have been performed in a very generic surface mission carried out at a very generic surface location. As specific candidate EZs are identified it becomes important to evaluate the current suite of surface systems and operations as they are likely to perform for the specific locations and for the types of operations - both scientific and development - that are proposed for these EZs. It is also important to evaluate the proposed EZs for their suitability to be explored or developed given the range of capabilities and constraints for the types of surface systems and operations being considered within the EMC. This means looking at setting up and operating a field station at a central location within the EZ as well as traversing to and

  18. System for supporting conception in the field of surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Gras, M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of the techniques issued from artificial intelligence for assisting the development of a computer technical memory on a representative subject, which is the surface treatments and coating in tribology, is illustrated. The development of the system is composed of several steps: data acquisition and formatting representation, data validation and software. Particular attention is given to the dialogue between the user and the system. The study shows that the development of the following points are indispensable: the possibility of following the user's reasoning and coming back to previous steps or exploring several parallel ways [fr

  19. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  20. Integrable systems twistors, loop groups, and Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hitchin, NJ; Ward, RS

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is designed to give graduate students an understanding of integrable systems via the study of Riemann surfaces, loop groups, and twistors. The book has its origins in a series of lecture courses given by the authors, all of whom are internationally known mathematicians and renowned expositors. It is written in an accessible and informal style, and fills a gap in the existing literature. The introduction by Nigel Hitchin addresses the meaning of integrability: how do werecognize an integrable system? His own contribution then develops connections with algebraic geometry, and inclu

  1. Advanced biofeedback from surface electromyography signals using fuzzy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a fuzzy inference-based biofeedback system and investigate its effects when inducing active (shoulder elevation) and passive (relax) pauses on the trapezius muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work. Surface EMG signals were recorded from...... clavicular, descending (bilateral) and ascending parts of the trapezius muscles during computer work. The fuzzy system readjusted itself based on the history of previous inputs. The effect of feedback was assessed in terms of muscle activation regularity and amplitude. Active pause resulted in non...

  2. Simulation of a Lunar Surface Base Power Distribution Network for the Constellation Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Toby; Maslowski, Edward A.; Colozza, Anthony; McFarland, Willard; Prokopius, Kevin P.; George, Patrick J.; Hussey, Sam W.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Power Distribution Network Study team worked to define, breadboard, build and test an electrical power distribution system consistent with NASA's goal of providing electrical power to sustain life and power equipment used to explore the lunar surface. A testbed was set up to simulate the connection of different power sources and loads together to form a mini-grid and gain an understanding of how the power systems would interact. Within the power distribution scheme, each power source contributes to the grid in an independent manner without communication among the power sources and without a master-slave scenario. The grid consisted of four separate power sources and the accompanying power conditioning equipment. Overall system design and testing was performed. The tests were performed to observe the output and interaction of the different power sources as some sources are added and others are removed from the grid connection. The loads on the system were also varied from no load to maximum load to observe the power source interactions.

  3. Modified hot-conditioning of PHT system surfaces of PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.

    1997-01-01

    The increased awareness on the importance of controlling activity transport and radiation buildup on out-of-core surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors is leading to a host of measures both from chemistry as well as engineering sides being undertaken. Passivation of the surfaces of structural materials is one such. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors of CANDU design use large surface area of carbon steel alloy in the Primary Heat Transport System. Hot-conditioning of the PHT system with deoxygenated light water at temperatures ≅ 473 - 523 K during commissioning stage is done to form a protective magnetite film on the surfaces of carbon steel essentially to guard this material from corrosion during the intervening period between initial commissioning and first fuel loading and achieving nuclear heat. However, a need is felt to improve the quality of this magnetite film and control the crud release so that the twin objectives of controlling the corrosion of carbon steel and reducing a possible deposition of corrosion products on surfaces of fuel clad could be achieved. Laboratory static autoclave investigations have been carried out on the formation of protective magnetite film on carbon steel at 473 K, pH 10 (pH at 298 K) deoxygenated aqueous solutions of chelants like HEDTA, DTPA, NTA apart from EDTA. Additionally, influence of AVT chemicals like hydrazine, cyclohexylamine, morpholine and additives like glucose, boric acid has been studied. The data have been compared with the standard procedure of hot-conditioning namely with simple LiOH. It is found that chelants increase the base metal loss but the oxide formed is more protective than the one formed under simple LiOH treatment. The efficiency of passivation is greatly enhanced by hydrazine and boric acid while it is adversely affected by glucose. AVT chemicals acts as effective corrosion inhibitors. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Plasma surface interactions in Q-enhanced mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two approaches to enhancement of the Q (energy gain) factor of mirror systems are under study at Livermore. These include the Tandem Mirror and the Field Reversed Mirror. Both of these new ideas preserve features of conventional mirror systems as far as plasma-wall interactions are concerned. Specifically in both approaches field lines exit from the ends of the system and impinge on walls located at a distance from the confinement chamber. It is possible to predict some aspects of the plasma/surface interactions of TM and FRM systems from experience obtained in the Livermore 2XIIB experiment. In particular, as observed in 2XIIB, effective isolation of the plasma from thermal contact with the ends owing to the development of sheath-like regions is to be expected. Studies presently underway directed toward still further enhancing the decoupling of the plasma from the effects of plasma surface interactions at the walls will be discussed, with particular reference to the problem of minimizing the effects of refluxing secondary electrons produced by plasma impact on the end walls

  5. [Construction of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG particles surface display system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Runyu; Nie, Boyao; Yuan, Shengling; Tao, Haoxia; Liu, Chunjie; Yang, Bailiang; Wang, Yanchun

    2017-01-25

    To describe a novel particles surface display system which is consisted of gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles and anchor proteins for bacteria-like particles vaccines, we treated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteria with 10% heated-TCA for preparing GEM particles, and then identified the harvested GEM particles by electron microscopy, RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. Meanwhile, Escherichia coli was induced to express hybrid proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP, and GEM particles were incubated with them. Then binding of anchor proteins were determined by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry. GEM particles preserved original size and shape, and proteins and DNA contents of GEM particles were released substantially. The two anchor proteins both had efficiently immobilized on the surface of GEM. GEM particles that were bounded by anchor proteins were brushy. The fluorescence of GEM particles anchoring PA3 was slightly brighter than P60, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). GEM particles prepared from L. rhamnosus GG have a good binding efficiency with anchor proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP. Therefore, this novel foreign protein surface display system could be used for bacteria-like particle vaccines.

  6. Localization precision of the superconducting imaging-surface MEG system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Robert H., Jr.; Matlachov, A. N. (Andrei N.); Espy, M. A. (Michelle A.); Maharajh, K. (Keeran); Volegov, P. (Petr)

    2001-01-01

    A unique whole-head Magnetoencephalography (MEG) system incorporating a superconducting imaging surface (SIS) has been designed and built at Los Alamos with the goal of dramatically improving source localization accuracy while mitigating limitations of current systems (e.g. low signal-to-noise, cost, bulk). Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measures the weak magnetic fields emanating from the brain as a direct consequence of the neuronal currents resulting from brain function[1]. The extraordinarily weak magnetic fields are measured by an array of SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) sensors. The position and vector characteristics of these neuronal sources can be estimated from the inverse solution of the field distribution at the surface of the head. In addition, MEG temporal resolution is unsurpassed by any other method currently used for brain imaging. Although MEG source reconstruction is limited by solutions of the electromagnetic inverse problem, constraints used for source localization produce reliable results. The Los Alamos SIS-MEG system[2] is based on the principal that fields from nearby sources measured by a SQUID sensor array while the SIS shields the sensor array from distant noise fields. In general, Meissner currents flow in the surface of superconductors, preventing any significant penetration of magnetic fields. A hemispherical SIS with a brim, or helmet, surrounds the SQUID sensor array largely sheilding the SQUIDs from sources outside the helmet while measuring fields from nearby sources within the helmet. We have implemented a finite element model (FEM) description of the SIS using the exact as-built geometry to accurately describe how the SIS impacts the forward physics of source models. The FEM is used to calculate the distribution of Meissner currents in the complicated surface geometry of the SIS such that B{perpendicular} = 0 at the surface. This model of the forward physics is described elsewhere in these proceedings [3]. In

  7. Advanced shield development for a fission surface power system for the lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, A.E.; Silver, I.J.; Clark, C.M.; Howe, S.D.; King, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear reactor power system such as the affordable fission surface power system enables a potential outpost on the moon. A radiation shield must be included in the reactor system to reduce the otherwise excessive dose to the astronauts and other vital system components. The radiation shield is typically the most massive component of a space reactor system, and thus must be optimized to reduce mass asmuchas possible while still providing the required protection.Various shield options for an on-lander reactor system are examined for outpost distances of 400m and 1 km from the reactor. Also investigated is the resulting mass savings from the use of a high performance cermet fuel. A thermal analysis is performed to determine the thermal behaviours of radiation shields using borated water. For an outpost located 1000m from the core, a tetramethylammonium borohydride shield is the lightest (5148.4 kg), followed by a trilayer shield (boron carbide-tungsten-borated water; 5832.3 kg), and finally a borated water shield (6020.7 kg). In all of the final design cases, the temperature of the borated water remains below 400 K.

  8. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiu-yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  9. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  10. Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.

  11. Painted Fiberglass-Reinforced Contemporary Sculpture: Investigating Composite Materials, Techniques and Conservation Using a Multi-Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Barbara; Cantisani, Emma; Colombini, Maria Perla; Tognon, Cecilia Gaia Rachele

    2016-01-01

    A multi-analytical approach was used to study the constituent materials, manufacturing technique, and state of conservation of a contemporary sculpture. This sculpture, entitled Nuredduna, was created by Aligi Sassu in 1995 and is located in the "Bellariva garden" in Florence (Italy). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), optical and electronic microscopy (OM and SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) highlighted the multi-layered structure of the statue: fiberglass and an overlay of different layers (gel coat) applied with an unsaturated polyester resin added with aggregate materials and bromine compounds. A top-coat in acrylic black varnish, used as a finish, was also found. The combination of these materials with their different compositions, environmental impact, and even vandalism have negatively affected the state of conservation of Nuredduna, causing the loss of strata in its lower parts (legs and feet). © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Visiting Richard Serra’s “Promenade” sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoï; Lang, Alexandre; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Adenis, Marie-Sarah; Yang, Qing; Lipede, Gabi; Vernet, Marine

    2014-01-01

    Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesized to have stimulated the body’s vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased five monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69° angle. Using computerized dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements) before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade). A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway). Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability [in terms of spectral power and canceling time (CT) of body sway] at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of CT). Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto) was canceled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power) increased after the promenade. Fourteen additional visitors were asked to stand in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra’s monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test. We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic “training ground” thereby improving the visitors’ overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium, and gravity. PMID:25566107

  13. Treasures ... of black wood, brilliantly polished : five examples of Taino sculpture from the tenth-sixteenth century Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Ostapkowicz; Alex Wiedenhoeft; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Erika Ribechini; Samuel Wilson; Fiona Brock; Tom Higham

    2011-01-01

    Five wooden sculptures from the pre-contact Caribbean, long held in museum collections, are here dated and given a context for the first time. The examples studied were made from dense Guaiacum wood, carved, polished and inlaid with shell fastened with resin. Dating the heartwood, sapwood and resins takes key examples of ‘Classic’ Ta´ýno art back to the tenth century...

  14. System for routine surface anthropometry using reprojection registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, R. J.; Owens, R. A.; Hartmann, P. E.

    2003-11-01

    Range data measurement can be usefully applied to non-invasive monitoring of anthropometric changes due to disease, healing or during normal physiological processes. We have developed a computer vision system that allows routine capture of biological surface shapes and accurate measurement of anthropometric changes, using a structured light stripe triangulation system. In many applications involving relocation of soft tissue for image-guided surgery or anthropometry it is neither accurate nor practical to apply fiducial markers directly to the body. This system features a novel method of achieving subject re-registration that involves application of fiducials by a standard data projector. Calibration of this reprojector is achieved using a variation of structured lighting techniques. The method allows accurate and comparable repositioning of elastic surfaces. Tests of repositioning using the reprojector found a significant improvement in subject registration compared to an earlier method which used video overlay comparison only. It has a current application to the measurement of breast volume changes in lactating mothers, but may be extended to any application where repeatable positioning and measurement is required.

  15. Surface relief gratings in azobenzene supramolecular systems based on polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa; Sobolewska, Anna; Stumpe, Joachim; Hamryszak, Lukasz; Bujak, Piotr

    2012-12-01

    The paper describes formation of new supramolecular azopolymers based on hydrogen bonds as perspective materials for laser induced surface relief gratings (SRGs) and for polarization gratings. Supramolecular films were built on the basis of hydrogen bonds between the functional groups of polymer and azobenzene derivatives, that is 4-[4-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)phenylazo]-pyridine and 4-[4-(6-hydroxyhexyloxy)phenylazo]pyridine. Polymers with imide rings, i.e., poly(esterimide)s and poly(etherimide)s, with phenolic hydroxyl or carboxylic groups were applied as matrixes for polymer-dye supramolecular systems. They revealed glass transition temperatures (Tg) in the range of 170-260 °C, whereas supramolecular systems exhibited lower Tg (88-187 °C). The polymers were easily soluble in aprotic polar solvents and exhibited remarkable good film forming properties. Moreover, new chromophore 4-[4-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)phenylazo]pyridine was synthesized and characterized. The light induced SRGs formation and simultaneous formation of the polarization gratings were explored in prepared polymer-chromophore assembles films using a holographic grating recording technique. First time to the best of our knowledge SRGs were formed in hydrogen-bonded supramolecular systems based on polyimides. The highest SRG amplitude and thus the highest diffraction efficiency were obtained in poly(esterimide)s with the hydroxyl functional group. Additionally, the thermal stability of the photoinduced surface gratings and polarization gratings were tested revealing in the case of the SRGs partial stability and almost complete erasure of the polarization gratings.

  16. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  17. The Impact of Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Angie Sue Morris

    The unique properties of nanomaterials, such as their small size and large surface area-to-volume ratios, have attracted tremendous interest in the scientific community over the last few decades. Thus, the synthesis and characterization of many different types of nanoparticles has been well defined and reported on in the literature. Current research efforts have redirected from the basic study of nanomaterial synthesis and their properties to more application-based studies where the development of functionally active materials is necessary. Today such nanoparticle-based systems exist for a range of biomedical applications including imaging, drug delivery and sensors. The inherent properties of the nanomaterial, although important, aren't always ideal for specific applications. In order to optimize nanoparticles for biomedical applications it is often desirable to tune their surface properties. Researchers have shown that these surface properties (such as charge, hydrophobicity, or reactivity) play a direct role in the interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems can be altered by attaching molecules to the surface of nanoparticles. In this work, the effects of physicochemical properties of a wide variety of nanoparticles was investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. For example, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were of interest due to their instability in biological media. These nanoparticles undergo dissolution when in an aqueous environment and tend to aggregate. Therefore, the cytotoxicity of two sizes of CuO NPs was evaluated in cultured cells to develop a better understanding of how these propertied effect toxicity outcomes in biological systems. From these studies, it was determined that CuO NPs are cytotoxic to lung cells in a size-dependent manner and that dissolved copper ions contribute to the cytotoxicity however it is not solely responsible for cell death. Moreover, silica nanoparticles are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials

  18. Petrographic characterization and provenance determination of the white marbles used in the Roman sculptures of Forum Sempronii (Fossombrone, Marche, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Fabrizio; Columbu, Stefano; Lezzerini, Marco; Miriello, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    The Roman municipium of Forum Sempronii (Fossombrone, Marche) was located along the `Via Consolare Flaminia', in the stretch of road where it ran along the final sector of the valley of the River Metauro ( Mataurus). The ancient colony of Forum Sempronii, which is cited by Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, was found in the second century BC, probably on the site of an earlier community and its activity continued until the end of the fifth century AD. During ancient and more recent archaeological excavations, many fragments of coloured stones and marbles, and some white marble sculptures have been unearthed. In this paper, we report the results of the provenance identification of the white marbles used for the sculptures found in the archaeological site of Forum Sempronii and now displayed at the local archaeological museum. The determination of the source origin of the white marbles used for the sculptures has been established by mineralogical-petrographic and geochemical analyses. Microscopic study of thin sections together with carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios indicate that more than one type of white marbles was used: Pentelikon, Lunense, and Thasian.

  19. Incompatible building materials within the stereotomic Avalos sculptures of the Valley of Fallen (Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The examination of the recently open pit in top of head of the La Piety sculpture of Avalos confirms that the external outer of Black Limestone Calatorao (BLC composite is made by slabs 20 cm thick joined with gypsum mortars without aggregates. The analyses of these mortars samples performed by optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energies Dispersive Spectrometry (ESEM-EDS techniques show hydrous admixtures composed by portlandite, mirabilite, ettringite, thaumasite and gypsum, all of them are well-know dangerous phases for a suitable preservation of the architectural heritage. The huge stereotomic structures have open access to the raining waters reaching the internal core of the sculptures made by concrete with weathered alkali-feldspar aggregates providing sodium to the surrounding sulfated environment facilitating the formation of hydrous calcium and sodium sulfates such as ettringite and mirabilite which reduces the inter-grains adherence.

    El estudio de un boquete abierto recientemente en la cabeza de la escultura de la Piedad de Avalos confirma que está recubierta por placas caliza negra de Calatorao (CNC de unos 20 cm de espesor sujetas con morteros de yeso sin áridos. El análisis de estas muestras de morteros mediante microscopía óptica (MO, difracción de rayos X (DRX y Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido Ambiental con Espectroscopia de Dispersión de Energías dispersivas de rayos X (MEBA-EDS muestra mezclas de portlandita, mirabilita, etringita, taumasita y yeso, es decir, fases hidratadas bien conocidas por ser peligrosas para una adecuada preservación del patrimonio arquitectónico. Las gigantescas estructuras estereotómicas de Avalos están abiertas a las aguas de lluvia llegando a alcanzar sus núcleos de hormigón, que tienen áridos de granitos con feldespatos alcalinos alterados que están aportando sodio al ambiente sulfatado formando nuevos sulfatos

  20. Dye sensitized solar cells based on nanowire sculptured thin film titanium dioxide photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursel, Sean M.

    Energy harvested from the sun using photovoltaics (PVs) is a renewable resource in high demand. Photovoltaics convert photons into electron-hole pairs which are then separated and used for electrical power. 75 TW of energy arrives from the sun every year onto US soil. Harvesting it all would provide enough energy to power the entire world for more than five years. It is this abundance of energy that makes PVs an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. PVs currently produce 0.15% of the energy consumed in the US. Production needs to grow as the worldwide demand for energy is projected to almost double by 2050. Fundamental and device based PV research have made steady efficiency gains in silicon based devices and thin film devices have started to become commercially viable. However, less expensive devices with suitable efficiency have not been fully developed. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are one such device which has been optimized using standard components. However, device efficiency has not increased significantly since DSSCs were first conceived in 1991. Interestingly, none of the standard components are optimized, but act in a synergistic way in the most efficient devices. This research, along with other parallel research, attempts to optimize a single component of DSSCs with the goal of combining efforts to produce a device with increased efficiency. This research attempts to optimize the TiO2 photoanode used in DSSCs in terms of electron collection, dye coverage, light harvesting, and novel electrolyte infiltration by replacing the standard colloidal structure with nanowires deposited using physical vapor deposition at an oblique angle to form sculptured thin films. The results are quantified through standard photovoltaic testing, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, and general materials characterization techniques. The nanowire photoanodes are engineered during deposition using reactive evaporation, substrate heating

  1. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  2. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms' underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940's. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination

  3. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  4. MarsSI: Martian surface data processing information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; Thollot, P.; Loizeau, D.; Bultel, B.; Fernando, J.; Allemand, P.; Dubuffet, F.; Poulet, F.; Ody, A.; Clenet, H.; Leyrat, C.; Harrisson, S.

    2018-01-01

    MarsSI (Acronym for Mars System of Information, https://emars.univ-lyon1.fr/MarsSI/, is a web Geographic Information System application which helps managing and processing martian orbital data. The MarsSI facility is part of the web portal called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal) developed by the Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) to provide users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the martian surface. The portal proposes 1) the management and processing of data thanks to MarsSI and 2) the visualization and merging of high level (imagery, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu). The portal PSUP as well as the facility MarsVisu is detailed in a companion paper (Poulet et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe the facility MarsSI. From this application, users are able to easily and rapidly select observations, process raw data via automatic pipelines, and get back final products which can be visualized under Geographic Information Systems. Moreover, MarsSI also contains an automatic stereo-restitution pipeline in order to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTM) on demand from HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) or CTX (Context Camera) pair-images. This application is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) (ERC project eMars, No. 280168) and has been developed in the scope of Mars, but the design is applicable to any other planetary body of the solar system.

  5. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  6. Ancient lenses in art and sculpture and the objects viewed through them, dating back 4500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    1998-07-01

    The early history of lenses is controversial. The author has sought to address the problem by identifying lens elements (mainly convex/plano) which remain associated with objects intended to be viewed through them (i.e., in their original context). These are found in museums in sculptures, rings, pendants, etc. A number of outstanding examples will be illustrated in the talk; these sophisticated pieces of art are certainly not first constructs. Most are of rock crystal, rose quartz, or glass. Lenses have origin among artisans rather than scientists. Clearly, skills were often lost and rediscovered. Early lens-like objects have been found broadly in the eastern Mediterranean area/Middle East, in France, in Italy (Rome), and possibly in Peru and Scandinavia, etc. To date, the earliest lenses identified in context are from the IV/V Dynasties of Egypt, dating back to about 4500 years ago (e.g., the superb `Le Scribe Accroupi' and `the Kai' in the Louvre; added fine examples are located in the Cairo Museum). Latter examples have been found in Knossos (Minoan [Herakleion Museum]; ca. 3500 years ago); others had origin in Greece (examples in the Athens National Archeological Museum and the British Museum equals BM), in Rome (Metropolitan Museum, NY; BM; Vatican Museums; Bologna Archeological Museum), etc. Also. of great interest is the study of possible lens applications. This is a fascinating scientific, artistic and intellectual project.

  7. Stereoscopic CAD and Environmental Sculpture: Enhancement of the Design Process in the Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Bandini, Pier L.

    1989-09-01

    In this paper, co-authors Robert Fisher and Pier Luigi Bandini describe their personal observations concerning stereo enhancements of computer graphics images employed in their research. in Part One, Robert Fisher, a professional sculptor, Professor and Artist-in-Residence in the College of Engineering at Penn State, cites three recent environmental sculpture projects: "See-scape," "A Page from the Book of Skies," and an as yet untitled work. Wireframe images, interior views of architectural spaces, and complex imagery are rendered comprehensible by stereo 3-D. In Part Two, Pier L. Bandini, Associate Professor of Architecture and Director of the Architecture CAD Lab at Penn State, describes the virtues of the stereo-enhanced wireframe model--the benefits of the "see-through coupled with a complete awareness of the whole space." The final example, of a never-realized XVIII-century project, suggests a new and profound application of stereo 3-D to historical inquiry, namely, the experience of ancient spaces and structures that are no longer existing or that were never constructed.

  8. Nonexhibition of Bragg phenomenon by chevronic sculptured thin films: experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepachedu, Vikas; McAtee, Patrick D.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-07-01

    The unit cell of a chevronic sculptured thin film (ChevSTF) comprises two identical columnar thin films (CTFs) except that the nanocolumns of the first are oriented at an angle χ and nanocolumns of the second are oriented at an angle π-χ with respect to the interface of the two CTFs. A ChevSTF containing 10 unit cells was fabricated using resistive-heating physical vapor deposition of zinc selenide. Planewave reflectance and transmittance spectrums of this ChevSTF were measured for a wide variety of incidence conditions over the 500- to 900-nm range of the free-space wavelength. Despite its structural periodicity, the ChevSTF did not exhibit the Bragg phenomenon. Theoretical calculations with the CTFs modeled as biaxial dielectric materials indicated that the Bragg phenomenon would not be manifested for normal and near-normal incidence, but vestigial manifestation was possible for sufficiently oblique incidence. Thus, structural periodicity does not always lead to electromagnetic periodicity that underlies the exhibition of the Bragg phenomenon.

  9. Classifying terrestrial surface water systems using integrated residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allan; Hodges, Ben; McClelland, James; Hardison, Amber; Moffett, Kevan

    2017-04-01

    Linkages between ecology and hydrology in terrestrial surface water often invoke a discussion of lentic (reservoir) vs. lotic (riverine) system behaviors. However, the literature shows a wide range of thresholds separating lentic/lotic regimes and little agreement on a quantitative, repeatable classification metric that can be broadly and reliably applied across a range of systems hosting various flow regimes and suspended/benthic taxa. We propose an integrated Residence Time (iTR) metric as part of a new Freshwater Continuum Classification (FCC) to address this issue. The iTR is computed as the transit time of a water parcel across a system given observed temporal variations in discharge and volume, which creates a temporally-varying metric applicable across a defined system length. This approach avoids problems associated with instantaneous residence times or average residence times that can lead to misleading characterizations in seasonally- or episodically-dynamic systems. The iTR can be directly related to critical flow thresholds and timescales of ecology (e.g., zooplankton growth). The FCC approach considers lentic and lotic to be opposing end-members of a classification continuum and also defines intermediate regimes that blur the line between the two ends of the spectrum due to more complex hydrological system dynamics. We also discover the potential for "oscillic" behavior, where a system switches between lentic and lotic classifications either episodically or regularly (e.g., seasonally). Oscillic behavior is difficult to diagnose with prior lentic/lotic classification schemes, but can be readily identified using iTR. The FCC approach was used to analyze 15 tidally-influenced river segments along the Texas (USA) coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The results agreed with lentic/lotic designations using prior approaches, but also identified more nuanced intermediate and oscillic regimes. Within this set of systems, the oscillic nature of some of the river

  10. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.; Schoenfeld, M.; Webster, K.; Briggs, M. H.; Geng, S. M.; Adkins, H. E.; Werner, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to perform testing at both the module/component level and in near prototypic reactor configurations using a non-nuclear test methodology allowed for evaluation of two components critical to the development of a potential nuclear fission power system for the lunar surface. A pair of 1 kW Stirling power convertors, similar to the type that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, were integrated into a reactor simulator system to determine their performance using pumped NaK as the hot side working fluid. The performance in the pumped-NaK system met or exceed the baseline performance measurements where the converters were electrically heated. At the maximum hot-side temperature of 550 C the maximum output power was 2375 watts. A specially-designed test apparatus was fabricated and used to quantify the performance of an annular linear induction pump that is similar to the type that could be used to circulate liquid metal through the core of a space reactor system. The errors on the measurements were generally much smaller than the magnitude of the measurements, permitting accurate performance evaluation over a wide range of operating conditions. The pump produced flow rates spanning roughly 0.16 to 5.7 l/s (2.5 to 90 GPM), and delta p levels from less than 1 kPa to 90 kPa (greater than 0.145 psi to roughly 13 psi). At the nominal FSP system operating temperature of 525 C the maximum efficiency was just over 4%.

  11. Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces: A Framework for Detection System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces Detection Rough surface BRDF Reflectance Fill factor CFAR Data fusion (Continued on next page.) 16...surfaces, detection, rough surface, BRDF, reflectance, fill factor, distributed binary integration, CFAR , data fusion, distributed sensor system, double...detection, tem)detect(sys)( 1 PP systemmiss  , for a given constraint of constant false alarm ( CFAR ) system-false-alarm probability, )( systemfalseP

  12. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  13. Faceting of curved surfaces using the curvature coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In many situations, a curved surface has to be approximated by a facetted surface, i.e., as a network with planar meshes. Most often this is done by triangulation of the surface. Points are chosen on the surface and the points are connected by straight lines so that these lines make a network...... this is by tangent faceting. Tangent points are chosen on the surface and the tangent planes at these points are connected along lines of intersection so that these lines make a network with planar meshes and so that no normal to the curved surface intersect more than one facet. The result is a faceted surface...... of triangular meshes and so that no normal to the curved surface intersect more than one mesh/facet. The result is a faceted surface, with vertices, edges and triangular facets. But faceting a curved surface can also be done using planes as the basic geometrical element instead of points. One way of doing...

  14. Waterway-View Imaging with a Small Unmanned Surface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. N.; Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigated the use of a small unmanned surface system (USS) for waterway-view imaging in an intensively managed agricultural landscape. Tile drains commonly dewater landscapes into drainage tributaries so that land uses such as agricultural production can occur. The outlets of tile drain networks, which contribute to the water balance in a river network, are often located on private property and in most instances cannot be readily cataloged. Remote sensing presents one option for identifying tile drain networks but vegetation and other topographic occlusions may obstruct identification. This work presents a case study in the Upper Sangamon River Basin in East-Central Illinois for the use of a small USS utilizing visual sensing with a 360-degree camera as an alternative method of mapping agricultural tile drain outlets for improved hydrologic and hydraulic modeling. The results are expected to serve as groundwork for future design and refinement of small unmanned surface vehicles, as well as improved human interfaces for USS, and a foundation for better understanding human-machine interaction in USS applied to agricultural, riparian, and similar domains.

  15. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  16. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  17. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  18. System and method for free-boundary surface extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei

    2017-10-26

    A method of extracting surfaces in three-dimensional data includes receiving as inputs three-dimensional data and a seed point p located on a surface to be extracted. The method further includes propagating a front outwardly from the seed point p and extracting a plurality of ridge curves based on the propagated front. A surface boundary is detected based on a comparison of distances between adjacent ridge curves and the desired surface is extracted based on the detected surface boundary.

  19. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  20. An object detection and tracking system for unmanned surface vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Xiao, Yang; Fang, Zhiwen; Zhang, Naiwen; Wang, Li; Li, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Object detection and tracking are critical parts of unmanned surface vehicles(USV) to achieve automatic obstacle avoidance. Off-the-shelf object detection methods have achieved impressive accuracy in public datasets, though they still meet bottlenecks in practice, such as high time consumption and low detection quality. In this paper, we propose a novel system for USV, which is able to locate the object more accurately while being fast and stable simultaneously. Firstly, we employ Faster R-CNN to acquire several initial raw bounding boxes. Secondly, the image is segmented to a few superpixels. For each initial box, the superpixels inside will be grouped into a whole according to a combination strategy, and a new box is thereafter generated as the circumscribed bounding box of the final superpixel. Thirdly, we utilize KCF to track these objects after several frames, Faster-RCNN is again used to re-detect objects inside tracked boxes to prevent tracking failure as well as remove empty boxes. Finally, we utilize Faster R-CNN to detect objects in the next image, and refine object boxes by repeating the second module of our system. The experimental results demonstrate that our system is fast, robust and accurate, which can be applied to USV in practice.

  1. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  2. 'The surface management system' (SuMS) database: a surface-based database to aid cortical surface reconstruction, visualization and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, J.; Drury, H.; Van Essen, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    Surface reconstructions of the cerebral cortex are increasingly widely used in the analysis and visualization of cortical structure, function and connectivity. From a neuroinformatics perspective, dealing with surface-related data poses a number of challenges. These include the multiplicity of configurations in which surfaces are routinely viewed (e.g. inflated maps, spheres and flat maps), plus the diversity of experimental data that can be represented on any given surface. To address these challenges, we have developed a surface management system (SuMS) that allows automated storage and retrieval of complex surface-related datasets. SuMS provides a systematic framework for the classification, storage and retrieval of many types of surface-related data and associated volume data. Within this classification framework, it serves as a version-control system capable of handling large numbers of surface and volume datasets. With built-in database management system support, SuMS provides rapid search and retrieval capabilities across all the datasets, while also incorporating multiple security levels to regulate access. SuMS is implemented in Java and can be accessed via a Web interface (WebSuMS) or using downloaded client software. Thus, SuMS is well positioned to act as a multiplatform, multi-user 'surface request broker' for the neuroscience community.

  3. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts.

  4. A Robust Mechanical Sensing System for Unmanned Sea Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Magnone, Lee J.; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Padgett, Curtis W.; Trotz, David C.; Garrett, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    The need for autonomous navigation and intelligent control of unmanned sea surface vehicles requires a mechanically robust sensing architecture that is watertight, durable, and insensitive to vibration and shock loading. The sensing system developed here comprises four black and white cameras and a single color camera. The cameras are rigidly mounted to a camera bar that can be reconfigured to mount multiple vehicles, and act as both navigational cameras and application cameras. The cameras are housed in watertight casings to protect them and their electronics from moisture and wave splashes. Two of the black and white cameras are positioned to provide lateral vision. They are angled away from the front of the vehicle at horizontal angles to provide ideal fields of view for mapping and autonomous navigation. The other two black and white cameras are positioned at an angle into the color camera's field of view to support vehicle applications. These two cameras provide an overlap, as well as a backup to the front camera. The color camera is positioned directly in the middle of the bar, aimed straight ahead. This system is applicable to any sea-going vehicle, both on Earth and in space.

  5. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts

  6. Liquidus surface of Sm-Ga-S system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, O.A.; Aliev, O.M.

    1989-01-01

    Using methods of physicochemic alanalysis for the first time phase diagrams of SmS-Ga 2 S 3 , Sm 2 S 3 -Ga 2 S 3 , SmS-GaS, Sm-GaS, SmGa 2 -SmS, SmGa 2 -GaS, GaS-SmGa 2 S 4 , Sm 3 S 4 -Ga 2 S 3 , Sm 2 S 3 -GaS, Sm 3 S 4 -SmGa 2 S 4 cross sections are studied and the projection of the liquidus surface of the Sm-Ga-S ternary system is plotted. It is found that there exist 6 ternary compounds in the system (SmGa 2 S 4 , SmGaS 3 , SmGa 4 S 7 , Sm 4 GaS 5 , Sm 3 Ga 2 S 5 , Sm 6 Ga 10/3 S 14 ) and, besides, found solid solutions based on GaS, Ga 2 S 3 and SmGa 2 S 4

  7. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  8. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Isotope Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, NASA has used the decay of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTGs have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency and the scarcity of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14.75 Earth days), isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 W with two GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (32% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a four-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of americium-241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling- convertor-based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from tens of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a substitute for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about one-fifth while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 W of electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot

  9. Determination of weathering and conservation of sculptured stone by use of the laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, G.; Stijfhoorn, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    Weathering and deterioration of sculptured stone and masonry is a natural process which stars at the same moment the stone is quarried and exposed to exogenous conditions. This process of natural decay has, however, been accelerated due to the emission of different man-made pollutants, domestic and industrial, local and global. The ISOLASER project is based on the laser microprobe technique for determining the depth of natural and induced weathering and the effect of conservation measures of cultural objects of carbonaceous sandstone and marble/limestone. The purpose of the project is to determine the depth of weathering and depth of penetration of conservation agents in unweathered calcite-cemented stone and the weathering profile in linseed oil-treated stone after accelerated weathering cycles in a climatic chamber. The analytical results show that even after such a short period as five weeks of exposure the effect of SO 2 , NO 2 and elevated humidity on Gotland sandstone can be easily observed in a change of the δ 13 C values in the outermost 2 mm of the stone. Treating the sample with linseed oil has a preserving effect on the rock and hinders the deteriorating effect of SO 2 and NO 2 . The oil treatment even preserves the signature of previously incorporated organic carbon. Compilation of a questionnaire representing a broad field within natural sciences in cultural heritage research in Europe, shows an overwhelming positive approach to the project as such. The questioned researchers consider the laser method particularly useful as a complementary method in other investigations and states that the method can without doubt give new dimensions to the analysis of important cultural objects. 2 refs., 6 figs

  10. Documentation and dissemination of the sculptural elements of Canada's Parliamentary Buildings: Methodology development and evolution, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ouimet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Parliament Hill consists of four historic gothic revival buildings, which form part of the Parliament Buildings National Historic Site of Canada in the National Capital of Ottawa. There are more than 2000 masonry sculptural elements throughout the four buildings. Three of the buildings are in the middle of multi-year rehabilitation projects. Extensive Heritage Documentation is being undertaken to support various activities and conservation teams throughout the interior and exterior of the buildings while also serving as a key posterity records. One of the significant heritage documentation projects is the 3D digitization of the 2000+ heritage character defining sculptural elements. The Heritage Conservation Directorate (HCD of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC was tasked by the Parliamentary Precinct Branch (PPB of PWGSC to document these character defining elements. The sculptures vary in size from as small as 100mm in width to up to 2 meters in size. This project is in its third year and much has been learned and researched about the most appropriate and efficient means by which to document these elements. Although a methodology was in place to document the sculptures at the inception of the project, it has gone through several iterations in order to improve the gathered data, and in turn increase the efficiency, quality and speed of data acquisition. This paper will describe the evolution of the methodology, as well as the rationale for the alterations in technique. With over 600 of the approximate 2000 (heritage character defining sculptural elements captured to date, the project is entering a critical phase where an efficient and effective method for sharing and disseminating the information to a wide audience is being explored and evaluated. The end result is intended to allow the client (PPB and the general public a way to look at and interactively manipulate the viewpoint of each digital model. This will provide a unique

  11. Documentation and dissemination of the sculptural elements of Canada's Parliamentary Buildings: Methodology development and evolution, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, C.; Gregg, J.; Kretz, S.; Chandler, C.; Hayes, J.

    2015-08-01

    Parliament Hill consists of four historic gothic revival buildings, which form part of the Parliament Buildings National Historic Site of Canada in the National Capital of Ottawa. There are more than 2000 masonry sculptural elements throughout the four buildings. Three of the buildings are in the middle of multi-year rehabilitation projects. Extensive Heritage Documentation is being undertaken to support various activities and conservation teams throughout the interior and exterior of the buildings while also serving as a key posterity records. One of the significant heritage documentation projects is the 3D digitization of the 2000+ heritage character defining sculptural elements. The Heritage Conservation Directorate (HCD) of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) was tasked by the Parliamentary Precinct Branch (PPB) of PWGSC to document these character defining elements. The sculptures vary in size from as small as 100mm in width to up to 2 meters in size. This project is in its third year and much has been learned and researched about the most appropriate and efficient means by which to document these elements. Although a methodology was in place to document the sculptures at the inception of the project, it has gone through several iterations in order to improve the gathered data, and in turn increase the efficiency, quality and speed of data acquisition. This paper will describe the evolution of the methodology, as well as the rationale for the alterations in technique. With over 600 of the approximate 2000 (heritage character defining) sculptural elements captured to date, the project is entering a critical phase where an efficient and effective method for sharing and disseminating the information to a wide audience is being explored and evaluated. The end result is intended to allow the client (PPB) and the general public a way to look at and interactively manipulate the viewpoint of each digital model. This will provide a unique opportunity

  12. Pigment identification on "Pietà" of Barletta, example of Renaissance Apulian sculpture: a Raman microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, D; Catalano, I M; Monno, A

    2006-08-01

    A study of the original painting layer of the "Pietà" of Barletta, a polychrome statue, important example of Renaissance Apulian sculpture, was performed by mu-Raman spectroscopy. Vermilion was identified in the original layer of the blood drops on Jesus knee. Lazurite was identified as the original blue pigment on Our Lady's veil and lace, currently a yellow ochre-like color. The use of lazurite demonstrates the historical-artistic importance of this polychrome statue, and supports the hypothesis that this artwork was probably commissioned by Our Lady's devotees to itinerant artists inspired by the more precious Vesperbilder model.

  13. Clenbuterol Assay by Spectral Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yichuan; Yao, Manwen; Fang, Xiangyi; Yang, Yucong; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2015-11-01

    To prevent illegal use of clenbuterol and for quality control in the food industry, more efficient and reliable methods for clenbuterol detection are needed. In this study, clenbuterol was detected using a spectral imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor system via two inhibition methods: (1) the target site compensation method, in which anti-clenbuterol antibody was immobilized on the sensor chip as a bioprobe and (2) the solution competition method in which a clenbuterol-BSA conjugate was immobilized on the sensor chip as the bioprobe. The detectable clenbuterol concentration ranged between 6.25 and 100 μg/mL for both methods. The clenbuterol limit of detection for the target site compensation method and solution competition method are estimated to be 6.7 and 4.5 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the detection of clenbuterol molecules and were found to have high specificity and high-throughput and were label free and operationally convenient.

  14. Nanoparticle Surface Functionality Dictates Cellular and Systemic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saei, Amir Ata; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Lohse, Samuel E.

    2017-01-01

    can greatly enhance subsequent therapeutic effects of NPs while diminishing their adverse side effects. In this review, we will focus on the effect of surface functionality on the cellular uptake and the transport of NPs by various subcellular processes.......Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have opened new frontiers in therapeutics and diagnostics in recent years. The surface functionality of these nanoparticles often predominates their interactions with various biological components of human body, and proper selection or control of surface functionality...

  15. Using impulses to control the convergence toward invariant surfaces of continuous dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marão, José; Liu Xinzhi; Figueiredo, Annibal

    2012-01-01

    Let us consider a smooth invariant surface S of a given ordinary differential equations system. In this work we develop an impulsive control method in order to assure that the trajectories of the controlled system converge toward the surface S. The method approach is based on a property of a certain class of invariant surfaces whose the dynamics associated to their transverse directions can be described by a non-autonomous linear system. This fact allows to define an impulsive system which drives the trajectories toward the surface S. Also, we set up a definition of local stability exponents which can be associated to such kind of invariant surface.

  16. Protecting Surface Water Systems on Forest Sites Through Herbicide Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; H.L. Gibbs; J.B. Fischer; E.C. Webber

    2000-01-01

    Sediment, nutrients, and pesticides are universally accepted as the greatest threats to surface water quality world-wide. Sedimentation in surface waters is a natural phenomenon, but is magnified by human activities. Intensive forest management practices, particularly road building, harvesting and planting site preparation, result in the greatest increases in erosion...

  17. Dynamic characteristics of numerical systems for induction surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulina, T.; Blinov, K.; Galunin, S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the development, investigation and optimization of induction surface heating process of a workpice taking into account its rotation by numerical simulation in a commercial package ANSYS® [1]. During the investigation it is necessary to select the optimal dynamic characteristics of the heating process in order to obtain the required temperature level and uniform temperature distribution on the surface of the workpiece.

  18. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  19. "Petit Granit": a Belgian limestone used in heritage, construction and sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Touneur, Francis; Bernáldez, Lorenzo; García Blázguez, Ana

    2014-05-01

    "Petit Granit" is a Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian) grey-bluish crinoidal limestone that becomes shiny black when polished. The rock is known under several other names like Pierre Bleue (Blue Stone), but at the same time it should not be confused with other natural stones having a similar commercial name (e.g. Chinese Bluestone or Irish Bluestone) which are superficially similar limestones. It consists of around 96% microcrystalline calcite and a high proportion of fossils, mainly crinoids. In addition some dolomite, quartz, pyrite, marcasite and fluorite are present. Around fifteen quarries are active these days, employing almost one thousand people and thus is an important part of the natural stone economy in Belgium. "Petit Granit" has an Appellation d'Origine Locale (Local Appellation of Origin) designation since 1999. It has been extracted in several regions of South Belgium since the Middle Ages. In a sense the name is misleading because it is not an igneous rock and therefore not a true granite, but it derives from the profusion of numerous white fossil fragments in a dark carbonaceous matrix which look similar to feldspar crystals in a granitic background. The stone characterizes many façades of the urban architecture of Brussels and other Belgian cities, and since the second half of the 19th century it has been used in various countries in Europe and overseas. Its high density and uniformity mean that it takes an excellent polish and thus has versatile use as a dimension stone. "Petit Granit" has also been used widely in sculpture and architecture by several well known artists (e.g. Mateo Hernández, Michel Smolders, Tom Blatt, Elise Delbrassinne, Benoît Luyckx, Santiago Calatrava, among others). However, deterioration has been observed when it has been used for exterior purposes, and appropriate measures need to be taken to prevent this. This stone can be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource in Europe, for both its use in construction and for

  20. Technologies for protection of the Space Station power system surfaces in atomic oxygen environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1988-01-01

    Technologies for protecting Space Station surfaces from degradation caused by atomic oxygen are discussed, stressing protection of the power system surfaces. The Space Station power system is described and research concerning the solar array surfaces and radiator surfaces is examined. The possibility of coating the solar array sufaces with a sputter deposited thin film of silicon oxide containing small concentrations of polytetrafluoroethylene is presented. Hexamethyldisiloxane coating for these surfaces is also considered. For the radiator surfaces, possible coatings include silver teflon thermal coating and zinc orthotitanate.

  1. The materials and techniques used in a baroque sculpture representing Saint Dominic from the Museum of Santa Maria de Lamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barata

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A polychrome wooden sculpture from the Museum of Santa Maria de Lamas (Northern Portugal, representing the image of Saint Dominic, produced in the first half of the 18th century, was studied for the identification of the materials and techniques employed in its fine modelling. Radiography was used for the study of the construction details of the wooden support, optical microscopy (OM and polarized light microscopy (PLM for the characterization of the paint layers and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXRF, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and microchemical tests for the identification of pigments and fillers.The identified materials were common to the period when the sculpture was made: gypsum, gold leaf, bole,white lead, brown ochre, vermillion, a black pigment made of carbon (possibly mixed with verdigris, used as a drier, a red lake and a calcium compound used as filler. However, regarding the techniques employed, and probably due to economic reasons, it seems that the recommended practice in art treatises and working contracts was not completely followed in what concerns the ground layers. Similar reasons appear to have caused the use of white lead mixed with a calcium compound, as a filler, in the less expressive areas, and should explain the fact that the estofado techniques (simulation of brocaded vestment have been limited to the visible areas at the front.

  2. Can AFLP genome scans detect small islands of differentiation? The case of shell sculpture variation in the periwinkle Echinolittorina hawaiiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, K A; Carlon, D B

    2011-08-01

    Genome scans have identified candidate regions of the genome undergoing selection in a wide variety of organisms, yet have rarely been applied to broadly dispersing marine organisms experiencing divergent selection pressures, where high recombination rates can reduce the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the ability to detect genomic regions under selection. The broadly dispersing periwinkle Echinolittorina hawaiiensis exhibits a heritable shell sculpture polymorphism that is correlated with environmental variation. To elucidate the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, a genome scan using over 1000 AFLP loci was conducted on smooth and sculptured snails from divergent habitats at four replicate sites. Approximately 5% of loci were identified as outliers with Dfdist, whereas no outliers were identified by BayeScan. Closer examination of the Dfdist outliers supported the conclusion that these loci were false positives. These results highlight the importance of controlling for Type I error using multiple outlier detection approaches, multitest corrections and replicate population comparisons. Assuming shell phenotypes have a genetic basis, our failure to detect outliers suggests that the life history of the target species needs to be considered when designing a genome scan. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Surface-Confined Dynamic Covalent System Driven by Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhua; Park, Eunsol; Jin, Yinghua; Liu, Jie; Yu, Yanxia; Zhang, Wei; Lei, Shengbin; Hu, Wenping

    2018-02-12

    Understanding how the constitutional dynamics of a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) adapts to surfaces (compared to bulk solution) is of fundamental importance to the design of adaptive materials. Submolecular resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can provide detailed insights into olefin metathesis at the interface. Analysis of the distribution of products has revealed the important role of environmental pressure, reaction temperature, and substituent effects in surface-confined olefin metathesis. We also report an unprecedented preferred deposition and assembly of linear polymers, and some specific oligomers, on the surface that are hard to obtain otherwise. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Surface resistance of superconductors - examples from Nb - O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, F.

    1988-01-01

    The observed surface resistance of most superconductors can be written as the sum of two terms. R/sub obs/ = R/sub BCS/ + R/sub res/. This paper is divided into three sections. The first section describes the BCS theory of surface resistance in terms of a simplified two-fluid model. The second section describes several possible causes of residual resistance including normal conducting materials, tunneling across cracks in the surface, and direct generation of phonons by the RF electric field. The last section describes recent experiments having to do with the effects of oxide layers on surface resistance. Layers grown in pure oxygen at room temperature were found to have little or no effect, but if these layers are heated to temperatures near 300 0 C, they can alter both the BCS resistance and the residual resistance. Heated oxide layers also increased the dependence of the residual resistance on ambient magnetic field. 31 references, 13 figures, 3 tables

  5. Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) surface observation data.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GMOS global surface elemental mercury (Hg0) observations from 2013 & 2014. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sprovieri, F., N. Pirrone,...

  6. Protecting Surface Transportation Systems and Patrons from Terrorist Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report documents the first phase of a continuing research effort carried out by the Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies (IISTPS) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Transportation. It comprises a ch...

  7. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of...

  8. Coatings and Surface Treatments for Reusable Entry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2016-01-01

    This talk outlines work in coatings for TPS done at NASA Ames. coatings and surface treatments on reusable TPS are critical for controlling the behavior of the materials. coatings discussed include RCG, TUFI and HETC. TUFROc is also discussed.

  9. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mailapalli, Damodhara R.; Raghuwanshi, Narendra S.; Singh, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in fur...

  10. Sub-micron surface plasmon resonance sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, James A. (Inventor); Amarie, Dragos (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Wearable or implantable devices combining microfluidic control of sample and reagent flow and micro-cavity surface plasmon resonance sensors functionalized with surface treatments or coatings capable of specifically binding to target analytes, ligands, or molecules in a bodily fluid are provided. The devices can be used to determine the presence and concentration of target analytes in the bodily fluids and thereby help diagnose, monitor or detect changes in disease conditions.

  11. Laboratory Determination of Thermal Protection System Materials Surface Catalytic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Zalar, A., "Recombination of Neutral Hydrogen Atoms on AISI 304 Stainless Steel Surface," Applied Surface Science, Vol. 144-145, 1999, pp. 399-403. 57...and test environments. Typically, these fits contain only the temperature dependence of the loss probability, with no information on pressure or...generated in the MESOX test facility in the PROMES-CNRS laboratory on a variety of ceramic materials.47-50 The MESOX facility uses a flow tube

  12. UV surface habitability of the TRAPPIST-1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley-James, Jack T.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2017-07-01

    With the discovery of rocky planets in the temperate habitable zone (HZ) of the close-by cool star TRAPPIST-1, the question of whether such planets could harbour life arises. Habitable planets around red dwarf stars can orbit in radiation environments that can be life-sterilizing. Ultraviolet (UV) flares from these stars are more frequent and intense than solar flares. Additionally, their temperate HZs are closer to the star. Here we present UV surface environment models for TRAPPIST-1's HZ planets and explore the implications for life. TRAPPIST-1 has high X-ray/extreme-ultraviolet activity, placing planetary atmospheres at risk from erosion. If a dense Earth-like atmosphere with a protective ozone layer existed on planets in the HZ of TRAPPIST-1, UV surface environments would be similar to the present-day Earth. However, an eroded or an anoxic atmosphere would allow more UV to reach the surface, making surface environments hostile even to highly UV tolerant terrestrial extremophiles. If future observations detect ozone in the atmospheres of any of the planets in the HZ of TRAPPIST-1, these would be interesting targets for the search for surface life. We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for in-depth exploration of stellar and atmospheric observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets to constrain their UV surface habitability.

  13. Role of the surface in the critical behavior of finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duflot, V.; Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, LPC-ISMRa, CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France)

    2000-07-01

    The role of surfaces in a finite system undergoing a critical phenomenon is discussed in a canonical lattice-gas model. Surfaces are constrained by a mean volume defined via a La grange multiplier. We show that critical fragment size distributions are conserved even in very small systems with surfaces. This implies that critical signals are still relevant in the study of phase transitions in finite systems. (authors)

  14. Reducing an attack surface of an operating system

    OpenAIRE

    VALKONEN, VILLE

    2012-01-01

    Certain security choices done on the operating system level can mitigate harm done by an malicious attacker or a program. The main focus in the thesis is on open source operating systems. Asiasanat: software security, operating system security

  15. Bulk and surface characterization of novel photoresponsive polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Shivshankar

    This dissertation presents a detailed characterization of two important classes of photoresponsive polymers-polydiacetylenes (PDAs) and azopolymers. Bulk and surface characterization techniques were used to evaluate the structure-property relationships of the PDAs and surface characterization, in particular-atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the azopolymers. PDAs from bis-alkylurethanes of 5,7 dodecadiyn 1,12-diol (viz.,) ETCD, IPUDO and PUDO are of particular interest in view of reports of reversible thermochromic and photochromic phase transitions in these materials. Thermochromism in the above PDAs is associated with a first order phase transition involving expansion of the crystallographic unit cell, the preservation of the urethane hydrogen bonding and possibly some relief of mechanical strain upon heating. Insights into thermochromism obtained from studies of nonthermochromic forms of PDA-ETCD are discussed. Some of the bulk characterization experiments reported In the literature are repeated. The motivation to investigate the surface morphology of the PDA single crystals using AFM was derived from Raman spectroscopy studies of various PDAs in which dispersion of the Raman spectrum indicating surface heterogeneity was observed. Micron scale as well as molecularly resolved images were obtained The micron scale images indicated a variable surface of the crystals. The molecularly resolved images showed a well defined 2-D lattice and are interpreted in terms of known crystallographic data. The surface parameters obtained from AFM measurements are similar to those determined from X-ray diffraction. During an attempt of AFM imaging of IPUDO crystals exposed to 254 nm ultraviolet light, it was observed that these crystals undergo a "macroscopic shattering". In the interest of rigorously defining conditions for photochromism, this research has undertaken a combined study of the surface morphology of the above mentioned PDA crystals by AFM and the

  16. Surface-PlasmonoDielectric-polaritonic devices and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    There is provided a structure for supporting propagation of surface plasmon polaritons. The structure includes a plasmonic material region and a dielectric material region, disposed adjacent to a selected surface of the plasmonic material region. At least one of the plasmonic material region and the dielectric material region have a dielectric permittivity distribution that is specified as a function of depth through the corresponding material region. This dielectric permittivity distribution is selected to impose prespecified group velocities, v.sub.gj, on a dispersion relation for a surface polaritonic mode of the structure for at least one of a corresponding set of prespecified frequencies, .omega..sub.j, and corresponding set of prespecified wavevectors, where j=1 to N.

  17. Review of ‘Sculpture Victorious: Art in an Age of Invention, 1837–1901’ at Tate Britain, 25 February to 25 May 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Walker Gore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the exhibition ‘Sculpture Victorious’, which ran at Tate Britain from 25 February to 25 May 2015. It describes the exhibition, considers the curators’ approach in the wider context of nineteenth-century studies, and assesses its implications for the field.

  18. Computer Instructional Approach and Students' Creative Ability in Sculpture Education in Nigeria Universities: Obafemi Awolowo University as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Bada Tayo

    2011-01-01

    This paper assessed the use of computer assisted instruction in enhancing students' creative ability in sculpture education in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. The study adopted non- randomized pretest, posttest control group. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The mean score were used in…

  19. Beating the wavelength limit: three-dimensional imaging of buried subwavelength fractures in sculpture and construction materials by terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, M; Castro-Camus, E; Krügener, K; Viöl, W; Koch, M

    2013-01-20

    We use reflection terahertz spectroscopy to locate and produce three-dimensional images of air gaps between stones that resemble fractures, even of subwavelength thicknesses. This technique is found to be promising tool for sculpture and building damage evaluation as well as structural quality control in other dielectric materials.

  20. Benefits of Using a Mars Forward Strategy for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David; Maples, Dauphne

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies potential risk reduction, cost savings and programmatic procurement benefits of a Mars Forward Lunar Surface System architecture that provides commonality or evolutionary development paths for lunar surface system elements applicable to Mars surface systems. The objective of this paper is to identify the potential benefits for incorporating a Mars Forward development strategy into the planned Project Constellation Lunar Surface System Architecture. The benefits include cost savings, technology readiness, and design validation of systems that would be applicable to lunar and Mars surface systems. The paper presents a survey of previous lunar and Mars surface systems design concepts and provides an assessment of previous conclusions concerning those systems in light of the current Project Constellation Exploration Architectures. The operational requirements for current Project Constellation lunar and Mars surface system elements are compared and evaluated to identify the potential risk reduction strategies that build on lunar surface systems to reduce the technical and programmatic risks for Mars exploration. Risk reduction for rapidly evolving technologies is achieved through systematic evolution of technologies and components based on Moore's Law superimposed on the typical NASA systems engineering project development "V-cycle" described in NASA NPR 7120.5. Risk reduction for established or slowly evolving technologies is achieved through a process called the Mars-Ready Platform strategy in which incremental improvements lead from the initial lunar surface system components to Mars-Ready technologies. The potential programmatic benefits of the Mars Forward strategy are provided in terms of the transition from the lunar exploration campaign to the Mars exploration campaign. By utilizing a sequential combined procurement strategy for lunar and Mars exploration surface systems, the overall budget wedges for exploration systems are reduced and the

  1. Integrability of Liouville system on high genus Riemann surface: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixin; Gao Hongbo

    1992-01-01

    By using the theory of uniformization of Riemann-surfaces, we study properties of the Liouville equation and its general solution on a Riemann surface of genus g>1. After obtaining Hamiltonian formalism in terms of free fields and calculating classical exchange matrices, we prove the classical integrability of Liouville system on high genus Riemann surface

  2. Theory of aberration fields for general optical systems with freeform surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P; Thompson, Kevin P

    2014-11-03

    This paper utilizes the framework of nodal aberration theory to describe the aberration field behavior that emerges in optical systems with freeform optical surfaces, particularly φ-polynomial surfaces, including Zernike polynomial surfaces, that lie anywhere in the optical system. If the freeform surface is located at the stop or pupil, the net aberration contribution of the freeform surface is field constant. As the freeform optical surface is displaced longitudinally away from the stop or pupil of the optical system, the net aberration contribution becomes field dependent. It is demonstrated that there are no new aberration types when describing the aberration fields that arise with the introduction of freeform optical surfaces. Significantly it is shown that the aberration fields that emerge with the inclusion of freeform surfaces in an optical system are exactly those that have been described by nodal aberration theory for tilted and decentered optical systems. The key contribution here lies in establishing the field dependence and nodal behavior of each freeform term that is essential knowledge for effective application to optical system design. With this development, the nodes that are distributed throughout the field of view for each aberration type can be anticipated and targeted during optimization for the correction or control of the aberrations in an optical system with freeform surfaces. This work does not place any symmetry constraints on the optical system, which could be packaged in a fully three dimensional geometry, without fold mirrors.

  3. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  4. Shedding light on surface-assembled photosynthetic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, Johan Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The interfacing of biomolecules to nanostructures, electrode surfaces and/or optical components constitutes the new discipline of bioelectronics. It is based on electron transfer between a protein and an electrode, and can be monitored by amperometric techniques. The integration of biomolecules with

  5. The radiologic decontamination of metal surfaces with new emulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stjepanovic, N.; Mladenovic, V.; Lukovic, Z.; Ivkovic, S.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiencies of the emulsion FN-10 and FN-6 and detergent DV-60 in the radiological decontamination were investigated. The metal surfaces, clean and dirty, were contaminated with Cs-137, and decontaminated with water and appropriate solution. The most efficiency of DV-60 in both cases, was obtained. (author)

  6. Surface analysis of DLC coating on cam-tappet system

    OpenAIRE

    FOUVRY, Siegfried; PAGNOUX, Geoffrey; PEIGNEY, Michael; DELATTRE, Benoit; MERMAT-ROLLET, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Tribomechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings make them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. But although DLC coatings show a generally high wear resistance, they sometimes can exhibit severe multiple wear. In this study, a surface analysis of worn coated tappets is performed, leading to a complete coupled wear scenario.

  7. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  8. A Multi-Agent System for Tracking the Intent of Surface Contacts in Ports and Waterways

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Kok S

    2005-01-01

    ...) and employ them to identify asymmetric maritime threats in port and waterways. Each surface track is monitored by a compound multi-agent system that comprise of the several intent models, each containing a nested multi-agent system...

  9. Improvement to surface lagging systems in a nuclear reactor, particularly of the fast neutron type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1979-01-01

    Improvements to surface lagging systems in a nuclear reactor, particularly of the fast neutron kind. This system is composed of an assembly of panels each formed of a stack of metal fabric or trellis held against the surface to be protected, by a double fixing system comprising (a) a tubular component passing through a hole in the panel and applying it against the surface through a bearing plate, and (b) a bolt fitted in the centre of the tubular component, also secured to the surface and holding a washer capable of preventing the fall of the tubular component and the panel should the tubular component fracture [fr

  10. Hydrodynamic systems for assessing surface fouling, soil adherence and cleaning in laboratory installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detry JG.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hydrodynamic systems are presented in this short review: the parallel plate flow cell, the impinging jet, the radial flow cell, the rotating disk and fluid dynamic gauging. These systems are of particular relevance to study surface fouling, surface cleaning or adhesion onto solid surfaces in laboratory environment. The key features of their hydrodynamics are given as well as their practical advantages and drawbacks. Examples of applications fields are also listed.

  11. Computational challenges about nano structures and bio systems at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Felice, R.; Corni, S.; Molinari, E.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between nano-objects and extended solid surfaces is of paramount importance in the context of nano science and nano technology. It plays a role both in investigating the properties of nano scale materials and in exploiting such properties. We overview selected examples inspired by experimental facts. We focus on bio-nano cases such as the adsorption of small polypeptides and nucleotides on metal surfaces, including the role of an aqueous environment. We highlight evidences that call for interpretation, computational approaches based on density functional theory and molecular dynamics that are currently available to face the open problems, and desired theoretical/ computational developments that may increase the potentialities of theory to guide and interpret technology progress.

  12. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.

    2007-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail: ingo@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Barbosa, A.F. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bauleo, P. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Civit, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Escobar, C.O. [Departamento de Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6165, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Garcia, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Guedes, G. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Av. Universitaria Km 03 da BR 116, Campus Universitario, 44031-460 Feira de Santana BA (Brazil); Gomez Berisso, M. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Harton, J.L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Healy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Newman-Holmes, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL (United States); Pepe, I. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Odina, 40210-340 Salvador BA (Brazil); Rodriguez-Cabo, I. [Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Salazar, H. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Ap. Postal J-48, 72500 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Smetniansky-De Grande, N. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Warner, D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19}eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  14. Technical validation of the Di3D stereophotogrammetry surface imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winder, R.J.; Darvann, Tron Andre; McKnight, W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the technical performance of a three-dimensional surface imaging system for geometric accuracy and maximum field of view. The system was designed for stereophotogrammetry capture of digital images from three-dimensional surfaces of the head, face, and neck...

  15. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  16. Terracotta polychrome sculptures examined before and after their conservation work: contributions from non-invasive in situ analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, C; Bevilacqua, F; Brambilla, L; Conti, C; Realini, M; Striova, J; Zerbi, G

    2011-08-01

    The potential of non-invasive in situ analytical techniques such as portable Raman, portable X-ray fluorescence, portable optical microscope and fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy has been shown studying painted layers of Renaissance terracotta polychrome sculptures belonging to the statuary of Santo Sepolcro Church in Milan. The results obtained allowed pointing out the contribution of these techniques to the compositional diagnostic, providing complete information, in some cases, better than micro-destructive techniques, on the kind of pigments used on the external painted layers. Moreover, a comparison with the results obtained before the last conservation work (2009) with micro-destructive techniques allowed ascertaining the removal of the external painted layers during the conservation operations.

  17. Comparative Research to Surface Aeration and Blasting Aeration System Based on LCC Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liai, CHEN; Hongxun, HOU; Weibiao, FEI; Eryan, ZHAO

    2017-05-01

    It is difficult to select the suitable aeration system for the designers of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In this paper, taking two WWTPs with surface aeration systems and blasting aeration respectively for an example, LCC theory was adapted to analysis the cost of consumption and the environmental impact, which caused by the different aeration system. Research results showed that: (1) In the 20-year life cycle, the LCC mainly depended on the cost of energy consumption whatever blasting aeration system or surface aeration, while the LCC of blasting aeration system affected by the equipment maintenance cost, maintenance cost, economic losses caused by wastewater loss and environmental load in maintenance period. (2) The LCC of blasting aeration system was lower than the surface aeration in general, on the premise of the standard discharge; (3) the blasting aeration system estimated a saving of 60,0000RMB annually in costs compared with the surface aeration.

  18. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapernick, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James [INL; Qualls, Louis [ORNL; Radel, Ross [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  19. Evaluation of MuSyQ land surface albedo based on LAnd surface Parameters VAlidation System (LAPVAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, B.; Wen, J.; Xinwen, L.; Zhiming, F.; Wu, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    satellite derived Land surface albedo is an essential climate variable which controls the earth energy budget and it can be used in applications such as climate change, hydrology, and numerical weather prediction. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of surface albedo products should be evaluated with a reliable reference truth data prior to applications. A new comprehensive and systemic project of china, called the Remote Sensing Application Network (CRSAN), has been launched recent years. Two subjects of this project is developing a Multi-source data Synergized Quantitative Remote Sensin g Production System ( MuSyQ ) and a Web-based validation system named LAnd surface remote sensing Product VAlidation System (LAPVAS) , which aims to generate a quantitative remote sensing product for ecosystem and environmental monitoring and validate them with a reference validation data and a standard validation system, respectively. Land surface BRDF/albedo is one of product datasets of MuSyQ which has a pentad period with 1km spatial resolution and is derived by Multi-sensor Combined BRDF Inversion ( MCBI ) Model. In this MuSyQ albedo evaluation, a multi-validation strategy is implemented by LAPVAS, including directly and multi-scale validation with field measured albedo and cross validation with MODIS albedo product with different land cover. The results reveal that MuSyQ albedo data with a 5-day temporal resolution is in higher sensibility and accuracy during land cover change period, e.g. snowing. But results without regard to snow or changed land cover, MuSyQ albedo generally is in similar accuracy with MODIS albedo and meet the climate modeling requirement of an absolute accuracy of 0.05.

  20. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou

    2016-05-16

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  1. Design and simulation of the surface shape control system for membrane mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengsheng; Tang, Minxue

    2009-11-01

    The surface shape control is one of the key technologies for the manufacture of membrane mirror. This paper presents a design of membrane mirror's surface shape control system on the basis of fuzzy logic control. The system contains such function modules as surface shape design, surface shape control, surface shape analysis, and etc. The system functions are realized by using hybrid programming technology of Visual C# and MATLAB. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the surface shape control of membrane mirror. The finite element analysis model is established through ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). ANSYS software kernel is called by the system in background running mode when doing the simulation. The controller is designed by means of controlling the sag of the mirror's central crosssection. The surface shape of the membrane mirror and its optical aberration are obtained by applying Zernike polynomial fitting. The analysis of surface shape control and the simulation of disturbance response are performed for a membrane mirror with 300mm aperture and F/2.7. The result of the simulation shows that by using the designed control system, the RMS wavefront error of the mirror can reach to 142λ (λ=632.8nm), which is consistent to the surface accuracy of the membrane mirror obtained by the large deformation theory of membrane under the same condition.

  2. Linear systems formulation of scattering theory for rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattering angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywonos, Andrey; Harvey, James E; Choi, Narak

    2011-06-01

    Scattering effects from microtopographic surface roughness are merely nonparaxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected or transmitted wavefront. Rayleigh-Rice, Beckmann-Kirchhoff. or Harvey-Shack surface scatter theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. Smooth-surface and/or paraxial approximations have severely limited the range of applicability of each of the above theoretical treatments. A recent linear systems formulation of nonparaxial scalar diffraction theory applied to surface scatter phenomena resulted first in an empirically modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff surface scatter model, then a generalized Harvey-Shack theory that produces accurate results for rougher surfaces than the Rayleigh-Rice theory and for larger incident and scattered angles than the classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff and the original Harvey-Shack theories. These new developments simplify the analysis and understanding of nonintuitive scattering behavior from rough surfaces illuminated at arbitrary incident angles.

  3. Polyphosphate nanoparticles on the platelet surface trigger contact system activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Johan J F; Barendrecht, Arjan D; Nickel, Katrin F; Dijkxhoorn, Kim; Kenne, Ellinor; Labberton, Linda; McCarty, Owen J T; Schiffelers, Raymond; Heijnen, Harry F G; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Schellekens, Huub; Fens, Marcel H; de Maat, Steven; Renné, Thomas; Maas, Coen

    2017-01-01

    Polyphosphate is an inorganic polymer that can potentiate several interactions in the blood coagulation system. Blood platelets contain polyphosphate, and the secretion of platelet-derived polyphosphate has been associated with increased thrombus formation and activation of coagulation factor XII.

  4. Earth System Research Laboratory Long-Term Surface Aerosol Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerosol measurements began at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) baseline observatories in the mid-1970's with the...

  5. A Comet Surface Sample Return System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase II investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal...

  6. Unmanned Surface Sea Vehicle Power System Design and Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritpal, Singh

    2005-01-01

    .... The power system of the USV is chosen to be a hybrid power source comprising a diesel generator and a lithium-ion battery pack Optimal sizing of the diesel generator and battery pack is important...

  7. An expert system to characterize the surface morphological properties according to their functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerelle, M; Mathia, T; Iost, A; Correvits, T; Anselme, K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new methodology to characterize the morphological properties of a surface in relation with its functionality (tribological properties, surface coating adhesion, brightness, wettability...). We create a software based on experimental design and surface profile recording. Using an appropriate database structure, the roughness parameters are automatically computed at different scales. The surface files are saved in a hard disk directory and roughness parameters are computed at different scales. Finally, a statistical analysis system proposes the roughness parameter (or the pair of roughness parameters) that better describe(s) the functionality of the surface and the spatial scales at which the parameter(s) is (are) the more relevant.

  8. An expert system to characterize the surface morphological properties according to their functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigerelle, M [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 6253, UTC/CNRS, UTC Centre de Recherches de Royallieu BP 20529, 60205 Compiegne France stol BS1 6BE (United Kingdom); Mathia, T [Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR 5513, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Av Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Iost, A [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107, Arts et Metiers ParisTech - Lille, 8, boulevard Louis XIV 59046 Lille (France); Correvits, T [Laboratoire de Metrologie. Arts et Metiers ParisTech, ENSAM, 8 boulevard Louis XIV, 59046 LILLE Cedex (France); Anselme, K, E-mail: maxence.bigerelle@utc.fr [Institut De Sciences Des Materiaux De Mulhouse, CNRS LRC 7228, 15, rue Jean Starcky, Universite De Haute-Alsace, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France)

    2011-08-19

    In this paper we propose a new methodology to characterize the morphological properties of a surface in relation with its functionality (tribological properties, surface coating adhesion, brightness, wettability...). We create a software based on experimental design and surface profile recording. Using an appropriate database structure, the roughness parameters are automatically computed at different scales. The surface files are saved in a hard disk directory and roughness parameters are computed at different scales. Finally, a statistical analysis system proposes the roughness parameter (or the pair of roughness parameters) that better describe(s) the functionality of the surface and the spatial scales at which the parameter(s) is (are) the more relevant.

  9. Experimental High-Resolution Land Surface Prediction System for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, S.; Bernier, N.; Tong, L.; Mailhot, J.

    2008-05-01

    The 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will take place in Vancouver, Canada, from 12 to 28 February 2010 and from 12 to 21 March 2010, respectively. In order to provide the best possible guidance achievable with current state-of-the-art science and technology, Environment Canada is currently setting up an experimental numerical prediction system for these special events. This system consists of a 1-km limited-area atmospheric model that will be integrated for 16h, twice a day, with improved microphysics compared with the system currently operational at the Canadian Meteorological Centre. In addition, several new and original tools will be used to adapt and refine predictions near and at the surface. Very high-resolution two-dimensional surface systems, with 100-m and 20-m grid size, will cover the Vancouver Olympic area. Using adaptation methods to improve the forcing from the lower-resolution atmospheric models, these 2D surface models better represent surface processes, and thus lead to better predictions of snow conditions and near-surface air temperature. Based on a similar strategy, a single-point model will be implemented to better predict surface characteristics at each station of an observing network especially installed for the 2010 events. The main advantage of this single-point system is that surface observations are used as forcing for the land surface models, and can even be assimilated (although this is not expected in the first version of this new tool) to improve initial conditions of surface variables such as snow depth and surface temperatures. Another adaptation tool, based on 2D stationnary solutions of a simple dynamical system, will be used to produce near-surface winds on the 100-m grid, coherent with the high- resolution orography. The configuration of the experimental numerical prediction system will be presented at the conference, together with preliminary results for winter 2007-2008.

  10. Natural fracture systems on planetary surfaces: Genetic classification and pattern randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    One method for classifying natural fracture systems is by fracture genesis. This approach involves the physics of the formation process, and it has been used most frequently in attempts to predict subsurface fractures and petroleum reservoir productivity. This classification system can also be applied to larger fracture systems on any planetary surface. One problem in applying this classification system to planetary surfaces is that it was developed for ralatively small-scale fractures that would influence porosity, particularly as observed in a core sample. Planetary studies also require consideration of large-scale fractures. Nevertheless, this system offers some valuable perspectives on fracture systems of any size.

  11. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced occlusions. The authors have

  12. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  13. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  14. Surface Roughness and Gloss of Actual Composites as Polished With Different Polishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Chemin, P; Piaia, P P; Ferracane, J L

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing with different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of commercial composites. One hundred disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm thick) were made with Filtek P-90, Filtek Z350 XT, Opallis, and Grandio. The specimens were manually finished with #400 sandpaper and polished by a single operator using three multistep systems (Superfix, Diamond Pro, and Sof-lex), one two-step system (Polidores DFL), and one one-step system (Enhance), following the manufacturer's instructions. The average surface roughness (μm) was measured with a surface profilometer (TR 200 Surface Roughness Tester), and gloss was measured using a small-area glossmeter (Novo-Curve, Rhopoint Instrumentation, East Sussex, UK). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were identified by varying the polishing systems (pGrandio when polished with Sof-Lex and Filtek Z250 and Opallis when polished with Enhance. Gloss was influenced by the composites (p<0.0001), the polishing systems (p<0.0001), and the interaction between them (p<0.0001). The one-step system, Enhance, produced the lowest gloss for all composites. Surface roughness and gloss were affected by composites and polishing systems. The interaction between both also influenced these surface characteristics, meaning that a single polishing system will not behave similarly for all composites. The multistep systems produced higher gloss, while the one-step system produced the highest surface roughness and the lowest gloss of all.

  15. Her Excellency Mrs Sarah Gillett Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Swiss Confederation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the occasion of the Antony Gormley sculpture unveiling ceremony Wednesday 7th December 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Her Excellency Mrs Sarah Gillett Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Swiss Confederation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the occasion of the Antony Gormley sculpture unveiling ceremony Wednesday 7th December 2011

  16. A proton microbeam deflection system to scan target surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, D.

    1978-12-01

    A system to deflect the proton beam within the Karlsruhe microbeam setup is described. The deflection is achieved whithin a transverse electrical field generated between parallel electrodes. Their tension is controlled by a pattern generator, thus enabling areal and line scans with a variable number of scan points at variable scan speed. The application is demonstrated at two different examples. (orig.) [de

  17. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Harms, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars

  19. A Gas-Cooled Reactor Surface Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, G.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.

    1998-11-09

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life- cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitide clad in Nb 1 %Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-I 00 program The fiel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fbel and stabilizing the geometty against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality cannot occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

  20. Control system of reverse side bead width by surface temperature monitoring of TIG weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozono, Yuzoo; Kokura, Satoshi; Onuma, Akira

    1986-01-01

    An experimental model of a reverse side bead width control system which employs a fiber-optic thermal sensor and a microcomputer has been developed. The system is worked by monitoring infrared radiation emitted from the surface of the workpiece. In this system, infrared rays emitted from the surface of the weld are picked up and transmitted via optical fiber to a photodiode which converts them into electrical signals. The welding current is controlled by an 8-bit microcomputer in accordance with fluctuations in these signals so as to ensure the optimum surface temperature is obtained for a high quality reverse side bead. (author)

  1. Numerical generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.; Miki, K.; Chen, B.C.J.; Sha, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    A new method is presented for numerically generating boundary-fitted coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces. The three-dimensional surface has been expressed by functions of two parameters using the geometrical modeling techniques in computer graphics. This leads to new quasi-one- and two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations for coordinate transformation. Since the equations involve the derivatives of the surface expressions, the grids geneated by the equations distribute on the surface depending on its slope and curvature. A computer program GRID-CS based on the method was developed and applied to a surface of the second order, a torus and a surface of a primary containment vessel for a nuclear reactor. These applications confirm that GRID-CS is a convenient and efficient tool for grid generation on arbitrarily curved surfaces

  2. Cell-surface display of the active mannanase in Yarrowia lipolytica with a novel surface-display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Song; Jiang, Zheng-Bing; Song, Hui-Ting; Jiang, Si-Jing; Madzak, Catherine; Ma, Li-Xin

    2009-10-13

    A novel surface-display system was constructed using the cell-wall anchor protein Flo1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mannanase (man1) from Bacillus subtilis fused with the C-terminus of Flo1p and the 6xHis tag was inserted between Flo1p and man1. The fusion protein was displayed on the cell surface of Yarrowia lipolytica successfully, and it was confirmed by immunofluorescence. In succession, the surface-displayed mannanase was characterized. The optimum catalytic conditions for the recombinant mannanase were 55 degrees C at pH 6.0, and it exhibited high stability against pH variation. The highest activity of the recombinant mannanase reached 62.3 IU/g (dry cell weight) after the recombinant was cultivated for 96 h in YPD medium [1% (w/v) yeast extract/2% (w/v) peptone/2% (w/v) glucose]. To our knowledge, the present paper is the first to report that high-activity mannanase is displayed on the cell surface of Y. lipolytica with Flo1p.

  3. Evaluation of the roughness of the surface of porcelain systems with the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarria Rodriguez, Bernal

    2013-01-01

    The surface of a dental ceramic was evaluated and compared with an atomic force microscope after being treated with different systems of polishing. 14 identical ceramic Lava® Zirconia discs were used to test the different polishing systems. 3 polishing systems from different matrix houses were used to polish dental porcelain. The samples were evaluated quantitatively with an atomic force microscope in order to study the real effectiveness of each system, on the roughness average (Ra) and the maximum peak to valley roughness (Ry) of the ceramic surfaces. A considerable reduction of the surface roughness was obtained by applying different polishing systems on the surface of dental ceramics. Very reliable values of Ra and Ry were obtained by making measurements on the structure reproduced by the atomic force microscope. The advanced ceramics of zirconium oxide presented the best physical characteristics and low levels of surface roughness. A smoother surface was achieved with the application of polishing systems, thus demonstrating the reduction of the surface roughness of a dental ceramic [es

  4. Autofocus system and autofocus method for focusing on a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary Morabito

    2017-05-23

    An autofocus system includes an imaging device, a lens system and a focus control actuator that is configured to change a focus position of the imaging device in relation to a stage. The electronic control unit is configured to control the focus control actuator to a plurality of predetermined focus positions, and activate the imaging device to obtain an image at predetermined positions and then apply a spatial filter to the obtained images. This generates a filtered image for the obtained images. The control unit determines a focus score for the filtered images such that the focus score corresponds to a degree of focus in the obtained images. The control unit identifies a best focus position by comparing the focus score of the filtered images, and controls the focus control actuator to the best focus position corresponding to the highest focus score.

  5. Miniature photometric stereo system for textile surface structure reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Kampouris, Christos; Malassiotis, Sotiris

    2013-04-01

    In this work a miniature photometric stereo system is presented, targeting the three-dimensional structural reconstruction of various fabric types. This is a supportive module to a robot system, attempting to solve the well known "laundry problem". The miniature device has been designed for mounting onto the robot gripper. It is composed of a low-cost off-the-shelf camera, operating in macro mode, and eight light emitting diodes. The synchronization between image acquisition and lighting direction is controlled by an Arduino Nano board and software triggering. The ambient light has been addressed by a cylindrical enclosure. The direction of illumination is recovered by locating the reflection or the brightest point on a mirror sphere, while a flatfielding process compensates for the non-uniform illumination. For the evaluation of this prototype, the classical photometric stereo methodology has been used. The preliminary results on a large number of textiles are very promising for the successful integration of the miniature module to the robot system. The required interaction with the robot is implemented through the estimation of the Brenner's focus measure. This metric successfully assesses the focus quality with reduced time requirements in comparison to other well accepted focus metrics. Besides the targeting application, the small size of the developed system makes it a very promising candidate for applications with space restrictions, like the quality control in industrial production lines or object recognition based on structural information and in applications where easiness in operation and light-weight are required, like those in the Biomedical field, and especially in dermatology.

  6. Dental implant surfaces after insertion in bone: an in vitro study in four commercial implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Herbert; Wolff, Carolina; Bauer, Florian; Ruthenberg, Ricarda; Sculean, Anton; Mücke, Thomas

    2017-10-24

    Primary healing of dental implants is influenced by their surface morphology. However, little is known about any alterations in morphology during their insertion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the surface morphology of four different implant systems, following their insertion in porcine jaw bones. Four fresh porcine mandible specimens were used. Six new implants of four systems (Ankylos® 4.5 × 14 mm, Frialit Synchro® 4.5 × 15 mm, NobelReplace ® Tapered Groovy RP 4.3 × 13 mm, Straumann SLA® Bone Level 3.3 × 14 mm) were inserted, whereas one implant of each system served as a control. After their removal, implants were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath. All 28 implants were examined quantitatively by 3D confocal microscopy for surface characteristics. In the evaluated zones, implants of the Ankylos, Frialit, and Straumann systems showed mostly a reduction of the mean surface roughness Sa, the maximal surface roughness Sz, and the developed surface area ratio Sdr; Nobel implants showed an increase in these parameters. With respect to all three parameters Sa, Sz, and Sdr, statistical analysis revealed that differences between the four systems were highly significant in the apical region of implants. Controls showed no morphologic alterations. The insertion process had an impact on the surface of all four implant systems. Anodized implant surface modification seems to result in more alterations compared with subtractive surface modifications. Therefore, surgical planning should take into consideration the choice of surface treatment because the characteristics of the implants may be modified during the installation process. The given information is of value for daily implantation practice and the course of osseointegration.

  7. Interviews with Apollo Lunar Surface Astronauts in Support of EVA Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean

    2010-01-01

    A 3-person team interviewed 8 of the 11 surviving Apollo crewmembers in a series of focused interviews to discuss their experiences on the lunar surface. Eppler presented the results of these interviews, along with recommendations for the design of future lunar surface systems.

  8. Modelling evapotranspiration using the surface energy balance systems (sebs) and landsat tm data (rabat region, morocco)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwast, J. van der; Jong, S.M. de

    2004-01-01

    Modelling and understanding the surface energy balance is important for assessing the re-distribution of moisture and heat in soil and atmosphere. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) estimates turbulent heat fluxes using satellite earth observation data in the visible, near infrared, and

  9. Surface states of a system of Dirac fermions: A minimal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V. A.; Enaldiev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    A brief survey is given of theoretical works on surface states (SSs) in Dirac materials. Within the formalism of envelope wave functions and boundary conditions for these functions, a minimal model is formulated that analytically describes surface and edge states of various (topological and nontopological) types in several systems with Dirac fermions (DFs). The applicability conditions of this model are discussed.

  10. Invariant description of solutions of hydrodynamic-type systems in hodograph space: hydrodynamic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferapontov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrodynamic surfaces are solutions of hydrodynamic-type systems viewed as non-parametrized submanifolds of the hodograph space. We propose an invariant differential-geometric characterization of hydrodynamic surfaces by expressing the curvature form of the characteristic web in terms of the reciprocal invariants. (author)

  11. NONLINEAR MODEL OF STABILITY STUDY OF SYSTEM "SURFACE CONTROL – ACTUATOR" OF MANEUVERABLE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Akimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of the designing of maneuverable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV is to ensure aeroelastic stability with automatic control system (ACS. One of the possible types of aeroelastic instability of UAV with ACS is loss of stability in the system "surface control – actuator".  A nonlinear model for the study of the stability of the system "surface control – actuator" is designed for solving problems of joint design of airframe and ACS with the requirements of aeroelasticity. The electric actuator is currently the most widely used on highly maneuverable UAV. The wide bandwidth and the availability of frequency characteristic lifts are typical for the modern electric actuator. This exacerbates the problem of providing aeroelastic stability of the UAV with ACS, including the problem of ensuring the stability of the system "surface control – actuator". In proposed model the surface control, performing bending-torsion oscillations in aerodynamic flow, in fact, is the loading for the actuator. Experimental frequency characteristics of the isolated actuator, obtained for different levels of the control signal, are used for the mathematical description of the actuator, then, as dynamic hinge moment, which is determined by aeroelastic vibrations of the surface control in the air flow, is calculated. Investigation of the stability of the system "surface control – actuator" is carried out by frequency method using frequency characteristics of the open-loop system. The undeniable advantage of the proposed model is the simplicity of obtaining the transfer functions of the isolated actuator. The experiment by its definition is a standard method of determining frequency characteristics of the actuator in contrast to time-consuming experiments for determining the dynamic stiffness of the actuator (with the surface control or the transfer function of the actuator using electromechanical simulation of aeroelastic loading of the

  12. A positioning and data logging system for surface geophysical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Blair, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) developed at ORNL is being adapted to work with two commercially available geophysical instruments: a magnetometer and an EM31 terrain conductivity meter. Geophysical surveys have proven an important preliminary step in investigating hazardous waste sites. Magnetometers and terrain conductivity meters are used to locate buried drums, trenches, conductive contaminant plumes and map regional changes in geology. About half the field time of a typical geophysical investigation is spent surveying the position of the grid points at which the measurements will be made. Additional time is lost and errors may be made recording instrument values in field notebooks and transcribing the data to a computer. Developed for gamma radiation surveys, the USRAD system keeps track of the surveyor's position automatically by triangulating on an ultrasonic transmitter carried in a backpack. The backpack also contains a radio transmitter that sends the instrument's reading coincident with the ultrasonic pulse. The surveyor's position and the instrument's reading are recorded by a portable computer which can plot the data to check the survey's progress. Electronic files are stored in a form compatible with AutoCAD to speed report writing. 7 refs., 3 figs

  13. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency...

  14. Comparison of dynamic isotope power systems for distributed planetary surface applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bents, D.J.; McKissock, B.I.; Withrow, C.A.; Hanlon, J.C.; Schmitz, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative, a study was performed to investigate and characterize dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) alternatives for the surface mission elements associated with a lunar base and subsequent manned Mars expedition

  15. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems are anticipated for various planetary surface human base applications with power levels of 30-100+ kWe. The development of high...

  16. Ultra-Compact Heat Rejection System for Fission Surface Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiator panels are the baseline approach for rejecting waste heat from NASA Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems. The required panels are very large, which makes...

  17. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency heat...

  18. Influence of surface treatments on the surface properties of different zirconia cores and adhesion of zirconia-veneering ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of surface treatments on the surface characteristics of different zirconia cores and the adhesion of the zirconia-veneering ceramic systems by means of strain energy release rate (G-value, J/m(2)). Three types of zirconia cores (NANOZR (NZ), Vita In-Ceram YZ (VZ), and IPS e.max ZirCAD (IZ)) were used. The specimens were divided into four groups in each test according to the surface treatment used; Gr 1 (control; no treatment), Gr 2 (sandblasted), Gr 3 (CH2Cl2 for 60min), and Gr 4 (experimental hot etching solution for 60min). AFM, SEM, EDS, and XRD were carried out. Two types of veneering ceramics (Vita VM9 (V9) and IPS e.max Ceram (IC)) were used for testing the adhesion. The G-value (J/m(2)) was measured with a four-point bending configuration. Following fracture testing specimens were examined with SEM. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. NZ treated with the experimental hot etching solution showed the highest Ra values (206.06±9.98nm) compared with the other groups (Pveneering ceramic systems. The experimental hot etching solution could be considered as alternative treatment modality to sandblasting for zirconia cores to avoid phase transition at the surface from tetragonal to monoclinic that may be detrimental for the longevity of the zirconia-veneering ceramic restoration. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PATHOS – the bodies of Christ on the Cross. Rhetoric of suffering in wooden sculpture found in Portugal, twelfth-fourteenth centuries. A few examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes, Carla Varela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Portuguese medieval art, freestanding wooden sculptures representing Christ on the Cross are among the less studied typologies. For this reason, it is important to discuss and question some of the most representative works of aesthetic values and/or iconographic models that characterised this European production between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The option for the Christus patiens typology is justified by the fact that it includes a large number of sculptures, some still requiring analysis and reflection, with the possibility of bringing to light new elements through fresh comparisons or using laboratory-based findings. The examples analysed here demonstrate the existence of artistic models reflecting the importance offoreign formal and iconographic references, which in turn raise the issues of the import and/or reinterpretation by Portuguese sculptors of these ideas, and of the itinerancy of foreign sculptors through Portugal, locating this corpus within an international historiographical discussion.

  20. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles...... and the incidence angle modifier were measured for a flat-plate solar collector with the two cover plates. The collector efficiency was increased by 4–6%-points due to the antireflection surfaces, depending on the incidence angle. The thermal advantage with using a glass cover with antireflection surfaces...... was determined for different solar heating systems. Three systems were investigated: solar domestic hot water systems, solar heating systems for combined space heating demand and domestic hot water supply, and large solar heating plants. The yearly thermal performance of the systems was calculated by detailed...

  1. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Jorge ALMILHATTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm were cast and subjected to polishing (P or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB or 250 mm (250SB Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP, Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP, Targis Link (TL, and one surface modification system Siloc (S, were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7. All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05, while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05. No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05. Conclusion: Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi.

  2. Pyro-expanded black slate in sculptural art Ardósia piroexpandida em arte escultórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. e Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Black slate transformed through a pyroplastic process named pyro-expansion or exfoliation has been explored in the present work in order to be used as sculptural material. Black slate is a highly fissile, fine grained and organic matter rich rock that is the product of the action of low-grade regional metamorphism on black shale (a sedimentary clay and organic matter rich, also fissile and fine grained rock. Black slate if fired at an adequate firing rate up to the temperature range 1000 ºC-1240 ºC shows great potential for the manufacture of sculptural pieces. The technical possibilities of the shaping or conformation of pyro-expanded black slate have also been studied, including the reactions that take place when two different black slate pieces are closely associated with each other, or when black slate pieces are closely associated to other materials, such as metals and ceramics. These interactions, while associating different materials that react with each other, emphasize the unique characteristics of new sculptural compositions increasing the plastic capacities of the pyro-expanded black slate. Some examples of the associations referred to will be shown, which highlight the close functional relationship between art and science; research involves the approach to new techniques and materials, looking at the development of unique plastic configurations.No presente artigo são divulgados os resultados da investigação do comportamento para fins escultóricos da ardósia (rocha de cor negra, granularidade fina e clivagem fina que resulta da acção de metamorfismo regional de baixo grau sobre rocha sedimentar, argilito laminado rico em matéria orgânica transformada piroplasticamente. O material resultante é denominado ardósia piro-expandida ou exfoliada, depois da ardósia natural ser tratada termicamente a temperaturas até 1000 °C-1240 ºC. A investigação subjacente fez uso e desenvolveu conhecimentos do domínio da geologia, mais

  3. Measurement system for special surface mapping using miniature displacement sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zowade Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to design a special system for measurements of elements with repetitive geometry or assemblies with repeating components, set in a linear patterns. The main focus was based on developing a computer program for signal analysis from variable number of miniature displacement sensors. It was set that the response for displacement of measuring tip from each sensor was a 0-5 V voltage signal with possibility of using different type of sensors. Requirements were determined based on projected measurement method. A special design of sensor was made for testing the computer program. If the characteristics of the sensor is known, it is possible to compute the type A evaluation of uncertainty. The results are presented in XY chart on computer screen. The program allows the user to choose any number of the sensors and determine the distance between them. Also, the possibility of calibration of sensors’ set was provided. The test were conducted on a prototype handle for sensors, made on a 3D printer.

  4. A Pulse Power Modulator System for Commercial High Power Ion Beam Surface Treatment Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, D.M.; Cockreham, B.D.; Dragt, A.J.; Ives, H.C.; Neau, E.L.; Reed, K.W.; White, F.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (lBESTrM) process utilizes high energy pulsed ion beams to deposit energy onto the surface of a material allowing near instantaneous melting of the surface layer. The melted layer typically re-solidifies at a very rapid rate which forms a homogeneous, fine- grained structure on the surface of the material resulting in significantly improved surface characteristics. In order to commercialize the IBESTTM process, a reliable and easy-to-operate modulator system has been developed. The QM-I modulator is a thyratron-switched five-stage magnetic pulse compression network which drives a two-stage linear induction adder. The adder provides 400 kV, 150 ns FWHM pulses at a maximum repetition rate of 10 pps for the acceleration of the ion beam. Special emphasis has been placed upon developing the modulator system to be consistent with long-life commercial service

  5. Overview of systems and techniques for surface display of recombinant proteins in yeast S. cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Teparic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade much effort has been devoted to the development of new expression systems and novel techniques for the surface display of heterologous proteins in yeast in order to improve their applications in biotechnology, food technology, pharmacology and medicine. Heterologous protein-encoding genes are generally fused with genes coding for yeast cell wall proteins or their fragments required for anchoring. The variety of reactions by which a protein can be displayed at the cell surface enables finding the appropriate one for each individual protein. However, it is still challenging how to improve the efficiency of display of protein complexes and increase the quantity of protein displayed on the yeast surface. Recently, synthetic protein chimeras that self-assemble into the scaffolds on the yeast surface displaying different proteins have been constructed. This review focuses on systems and techniques for display of recombinant proteins on the yeast cell surfaces and applications afforded by this technology.

  6. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  7. Phase Retrieval System for Assessing Diamond Turning and Optical Surface Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce; Maldonado, Alex; Bolcar, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    An optical design is presented for a measurement system used to assess the impact of surface errors originating from diamond turning artifacts. Diamond turning artifacts are common by-products of optical surface shaping using the diamond turning process (a diamond-tipped cutting tool used in a lathe configuration). Assessing and evaluating the errors imparted by diamond turning (including other surface errors attributed to optical manufacturing techniques) can be problematic and generally requires the use of an optical interferometer. Commercial interferometers can be expensive when compared to the simple optical setup developed here, which is used in combination with an image-based sensing technique (phase retrieval). Phase retrieval is a general term used in optics to describe the estimation of optical imperfections or aberrations. This turnkey system uses only image-based data and has minimal hardware requirements. The system is straightforward to set up, easy to align, and can provide nanometer accuracy on the measurement of optical surface defects.

  8. Capability of LEP-type surfaces to describe noncollinear reactions 2 - Polyatomic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Garcia, Joaquin

    2001-01-01

    In this second article of the series, the popular LEP-type surface for collinear reaction paths and a "bent" surface, which involves a saddle point geometry with a nonlinear central angle, were used to examine the capacity of LEP-type surfaces to describe the kinetics and dynamics of noncollinear reaction paths in polyatomic systems. Analyzing the geometries, vibrational frequencies, curvature along the reaction path (to estimate the tunneling effect and the reaction coordinate-bound modes coupling), and the variational transition- state theory thermal rate constants for the NH//3 + O(**3P) reaction, we found that the "collinear" LEP-type and the "bent" surfaces for this polyatomic system show similar behavior, thus allowing a considerable saving in time and computational effort. This agreement is especially encouraging for this polyatomic system because in the Cs symmetry the reaction proceeds via two electronic states of symmetries **3A prime and **3A double prime , which had to be independently calibrated....

  9. Surface treatment systems for concrete in marine environment: Effect of concrete cover thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Farias de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract There are some ways to extend the service life of a reinforced concrete structure. This paper focuses on the extension of the service life by treating the surface of reinforced concrete, specifically on the effect of the concrete cover thickness on the surface treatment system efficacy. Thus, chloride migration tests were performed and diffusion chloride coefficients were calculated. The service life of each case (treated or non-treated concrete was estimated using these data and Fick's second law of diffusion. Results indicated that the thicker the concrete cover is, the greater the efficacy of the concrete surface treatment system will be. The dissemination of this information is important, since it is almost intuitive to think that the effect of a surface treatment system depends only on itself and this study shows the opposite.

  10. Soil surface roughness decay in contrasting climates, tillage types and management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Bertol, Ildegardis; Tondello Barbosa, Fabricio; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface roughness describes the variations in the elevation of the soil surface. Such variations define the soil surface microrelief, which is characterized by a high spatial variability. Soil surface roughness is a property affecting many processes such as depression storage, infiltration, sediment generation, storage and transport and runoff routing. Therefore the soil surface microrelief is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes at different spatial scales as for example at the plot, field or catchment scale. In agricultural land soil surface roughness is mainly created by tillage operations, which promote to different extent the formation of microdepressions and microelevations and increase infiltration and temporal retention of water. The decay of soil surface roughness has been demonstrated to be mainly driven by rain height and rain intensity, and to depend also on runoff, aggregate stability, soil reface porosity and soil surface density. Soil roughness formation and decay may be also influenced by antecedent soil moisture (either before tillage or rain), quantity and type of plant residues over the soil surface and soil composition. Characterization of the rate and intensity of soil surface roughness decay provides valuable information about the degradation of the upper most soil surface layer before soil erosion has been initiated or at the very beginning of soil runoff and erosion processes. We analyzed the rate of decay of soil surface roughness from several experiments conducted in two regions under temperate and subtropical climate and with contrasting land use systems. The data sets studied were obtained both under natural and simulated rainfall for various soil tillage and management types. Soil surface roughness decay was characterized bay several parameters, including classic and single parameters such as the random roughness or the tortuosity and parameters based on advanced geostatistical methods or on the fractal theory. Our

  11. System architecture and operational analysis of medium displacement unmanned surface vehicle sea hunter as a surface warfare component of distributed lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS OF MEDIUM DISPLACEMENT UNMANNED SURFACE VEHICLE SEA HUNTER AS A SURFACE WARFARE...traceability, requirements and capabilities while determining the architecture framework in accordance with the Department of Defense Architectural

  12. Intraoperative Evaluation of Body Surface Improvement by an Augmented Reality System That a Clinician Can Modify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuno, Daisuke; Ueda, Koichi; Itamiya, Tomoki; Nuri, Takashi; Otsuki, Yuki

    2017-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology that can combine computer-generated images with a real scene has been reported in the medical field recently. We devised the AR system for evaluation of improvements of the body surface, which is important for plastic surgery. We constructed an AR system that is easy to modify by combining existing devices and free software. We superimposed the 3-dimensional images of the body surface and the bone (obtained from VECTRA H1 and CT) onto the actual surgical field by Moverio BT-200 smart glasses and evaluated improvements of the body surface in 8 cases. In all cases, the 3D image was successfully projected on the surgical field. Improvement of the display method of the 3D image made it easier to distinguish the different shapes in the 3D image and surgical field, making comparison easier. In a patient with fibrous dysplasia, the symmetrized body surface image was useful for confirming improvement of the real body surface. In a patient with complex facial fracture, the simulated bone image was useful as a reference for reduction. In a patient with an osteoma of the forehead, simultaneously displayed images of the body surface and the bone made it easier to understand these positional relationships. This study confirmed that AR technology is helpful for evaluation of the body surface in several clinical applications. Our findings are not only useful for body surface evaluation but also for effective utilization of AR technology in the field of plastic surgery.

  13. Surface roughness of novel resin composites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Z; Türkün, L S

    2007-01-01

    This study: 1) analyzed the surface roughness of five novel resin composites that contain nanoparticles after polishing with three different one-step systems and 2) evaluated the effectiveness of these polishers and their possible surface damage using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The resin composites evaluated in this study include CeramX, Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 100 discs (20/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Five specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The samples were polished for 30 seconds with PoGo, OptraPol and One Gloss discs at 15,000 rpm using a slow speed handpiece. The surfaces were tested for roughness (Ra) with a surface roughness tester and examined with SEM. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (p = 0.05). For all the composites tested, differences between the polishing systems were found to be significant (p Grandio, Mylar and PoGo created equally smooth surfaces, while OptraPol and One Gloss produced equally rougher surfaces. Tetric EvoCeram exhibited the roughest surface with OptraPol, while no significant differences were found between Premise and CeramX. According to SEM images, OptraPol and One Gloss scratched and plucked the particles away from the surface, while PoGo created a uniform finish, although the roughness values were not the same for each composite. Effectiveness of the polishers seems to be material dependent.

  14. Effect of polishing systems on stain susceptibility and surface roughness of nanocomposite resin material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakah, Haifa M; Taher, Nadia M

    2014-09-01

    Different polishing systems vary in their effect on reducing surface roughness and stain susceptibility of dental composite resin materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 3 polishing systems on the stain susceptibility and surface roughness of 2 nanocomposite resins and a microhybrid composite resin. Forty-five disks (2×10 mm) each were fabricated of 2 nanocomposite resins (Filtek Supreme XT and Tetric EvoCeram) and 1 microhybrid composite resin (Z250). Both sides of the disks were wet finished, and 1 side was polished with PoGo, Astropol, or Hi-Shine (n=5). Unpolished surfaces served as controls. The average roughness (Ra, μm) was measured with a profilometer, and the baseline color was recorded with a spectrophotometer. All specimens were incubated while soaking in a staining solution of coffee, green tea, and berry juice for 3 weeks. The color was recorded again, and the data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA at α=.05 and Tukey multiple comparison tests. All polishing systems improved the staining resistance of Filtek Supreme XT and Z250 but did not affect that of Tetric EvoCeram. The surface color of Filtek Supreme XT was changed significantly and was the smoothest after polishing with PoGo, whereas Hi-Shine produced significantly rougher surfaces but with the lowest color change. Hi-Shine produced the highest color change in Z250. The surface roughness did not differ significantly between the other polishing systems. Tetric EvoCeram showed no significant differences in color change or surface roughness. Staining susceptibility and surface roughness depend mainly on material composition and on the polishing procedures. Polishing improves the staining resistance of composite resins. Nanocomposite resins did not exhibit better staining resistance or surface roughness than microhybrid composite resin. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  16. Novel surface display system for proteins on non-genetically modified gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, T; Kanninga, R; Neef, J; Audouy, SAL; van Roosmalen, ML; Steen, A; Buist, G; Kok, J; Kuipers, OP; Robillard, G; Leenhouts, K

    A novel display system is described that allows highly efficient immobilization of heterologous proteins on bacterial surfaces in applications for which the use of genetically modified bacteria is less desirable. This system is based on nonliving and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial

  17. One-step polymer surface modification for minimizing drug, protein, and DNA adsorption in microanalytical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2013-01-01

    The non-specific adsorption of dissolved analytes strongly reduces the sensitivity and reliability in polymer microanalytical systems. Here, a one-step aqueous phase procedure modifies polymer material surfaces to strongly reduce their non-specific adsorption of a broad range of organic analytes ...... systems, including polystyrene (PS), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), and polyimide (PI)....

  18. Characterization Test Report for the Mnemonics-UCS Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Joshua J.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this testing includes the Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor System delivered to KSC: two interrogator (transceiver) systems, four temperature sensors, with wooden mounting blocks, two antennas, two power supplies, network cables, and analysis software. Also included are a number of additional temperature sensors and newly-developed hydrogen sensors

  19. “TEMPORIBUS DOMINI IOHANNIS EPISCOPI...” – On the Beginnings of Pre-Romanesque Sculpture in Boka Kotorska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Zornija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a series of pre-Romanesque fragments found in Kotor and several other localities in Boka Kotorska, which can be linked to an early phase in the formation of the pre-Romanesque style. Chronological orientation points provided by the triple mention of Bishop Ivan, who was present at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, have served as a framework dating the fragments to the last quarter of the 8th and the early 9th century. They are considered to be work of a highly skilful stonemason workshop, for which the name Stonemason Workshop from the Time of Bishop Ivan of Kotor has been proposed. The reliefs have been compared to analogous sculptural decoration adorning the cathedrals of other cities in the Eastern Adriatic based on similar stylistic and iconographic features,as well as masterful stonemasonry in high-quality marble. These analogies indicate a common visual language used by the masters active in the broad belt stretching from Istria to Boka Kotorska, who brought to our coast the spirit of new, pre-Romanesque art at the turn of the 9th century.

  20. Reflection and transmission of obliquely incident light by chiral sculptured thin films fabricated using asymmetric serial-bideposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Patrick D.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-10-01

    Chiral sculptured thin films (STFs) were grown using the asymmetric serial-bideposition (ASBD) technique, whereby (i) two subdeposits of unequal heights are separated by a substrate rotation of 180 deg about the central normal axis, and (ii) consecutive subdeposit pairs are separated by a small substrate rotation δ on the order of a few degrees. Eight samples were prepared with subdeposit heights in ratios of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, 5:1, 7:1, and 9:1. A finely ambichiral STF was also grown. All nine samples were grown with the same vapor flux direction and to have 10 periods with the same thickness. The spectrums of all eight circular remittances of every sample were measured over a wide range of incidence angle θinc. Redshifting and narrowing of the circular Bragg regime was observed with increasing subdeposit-height ratio for all values of θinc, arriving at a limit with the 9:1 sample. The finely ambichiral sample has a circular Bragg regime similar to that of the 9:1 sample, but the latter exhibits much better discrimination between incident left circularly polarized light and right circularly polarized light than the former for θinc larger than about 20 deg.

  1. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics ampersand Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness

  2. Coalbed Methane Production System Simulation and Deliverability Forecasting: Coupled Surface Network/Wellbore/Reservoir Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an unconventional energy, coalbed methane (CBM mainly exists in coal bed with adsorption, whose productivity is different from conventional gas reservoir. This paper explains the wellbore pressure drop, surface pipeline network simulation, and reservoir calculation model of CBM. A coupled surface/wellbore/reservoir calculation architecture was presented, to coordinate the gas production in each calculation period until the balance of surface/wellbore/reservoir. This coupled calculation method was applied to a CBM field for predicting production. The daily gas production increased year by year at the first time and then decreased gradually after several years, while the daily water production was reduced all the time with the successive decline of the formation pressure. The production of gas and water in each well is almost the same when the structure is a star. When system structure is a dendritic surface system, the daily gas production ranked highest at the well which is the nearest to the surface system collection point and lowest at the well which is the farthest to the surface system collection point. This coupled calculation method could be used to predict the water production, gas production, and formation pressure of a CBM field during a period of time.

  3. A photogrammetry-based system for 3D surface reconstruction of prosthetics and orthotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-kun; Gao, Fan; Wang, Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative close range digital photogrammetry (CRDP) system using the commercial digital SLR cameras to measure and reconstruct the 3D surface of prosthetics and orthotics. This paper describes the instrumentation, techniques and preliminary results of the proposed system. The technique works by taking pictures of the object from multiple view angles. The series of pictures were post-processed via feature point extraction, point match and 3D surface reconstruction. In comparison with the traditional method such as laser scanning, the major advantages of our instrument include the lower cost, compact and easy-to-use hardware, satisfactory measurement accuracy, and significantly less measurement time. Besides its potential applications in prosthetics and orthotics surface measurement, the simple setup and its ease of use will make it suitable for various 3D surface reconstructions.

  4. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System. Topical report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 1 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large tacks of concern to both government and industry. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean materials can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmatory process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible. Aware of the shortcomings of traditional surface characterization technology, GE, with DOE support has undertaken a 12-month effort to complete Phase 1 of a proposed four-phase program to develop the RSSAR system. The objectives of this work are to provide instrumentation to cost-effectively sample concrete and steel surfaces, provide a quick-look indication for the presence or absence of contaminants, and collect samples for later, more detailed analysis in a readily accessible and addressable form. The Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System will be a modular instrument made up of several components: (1) sampling heads for concrete surfaces, steel surfaces, and bulk samples; (2) quick-look detectors for photoionization and ultraviolet; (3) multisample trapping module to trap and store vaporized contaminants in a manner suitable for subsequent detailed lab-based analyses.

  5. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System. Topical report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 1 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large tacks of concern to both government and industry. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean materials can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmatory process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible. Aware of the shortcomings of traditional surface characterization technology, GE, with DOE support has undertaken a 12-month effort to complete Phase 1 of a proposed four-phase program to develop the RSSAR system. The objectives of this work are to provide instrumentation to cost-effectively sample concrete and steel surfaces, provide a quick-look indication for the presence or absence of contaminants, and collect samples for later, more detailed analysis in a readily accessible and addressable form. The Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System will be a modular instrument made up of several components: (1) sampling heads for concrete surfaces, steel surfaces, and bulk samples; (2) quick-look detectors for photoionization and ultraviolet; (3) multisample trapping module to trap and store vaporized contaminants in a manner suitable for subsequent detailed lab-based analyses

  6. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  7. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  8. The significance of surface complexation reactions in hydrologic systems: a geochemist's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, C.

    2000-05-01

    Complexation reactions at the mineral-water interface affect the transport and transformation of metals and organic contaminants, nutrient availability in soils, formation of ore deposits, acidification of watersheds and the global cycling of elements. Such reactions can be understood by quantifying speciation reactions in homogeneous aqueous solutions, characterizing reactive sites at mineral surfaces and developing models of the interactions between aqueous species at solid surfaces. In this paper, the application of thermodynamic principles to quantify aqueous complexation reactions is described. This is followed by a brief overview of a few of the methods that have been used to characterize reactive sites on mineral surfaces. Next, the application of empirical and semi-empirical models of adsorption at the mineral-water interface, including distribution coefficients, simple ion exchange models, and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the limitations of such models in providing an adequate representation of adsorption in hydrological systems. These limitations arise because isotherms do not account for the structure of adsorbed species, nor do they account for the development of surface charge with adsorption. This is contrasted with more sophisticated models of adsorption, termed 'surface complexation models', which include the constant capacitance model, the diffuse layer model, the triple layer model and the MUSIC model. In these models, speciation reactions between surface functional groups and dissolved species control the variable surface charge build-up and the specific adsorption properties of minerals in aqueous solutions. Next, the influence of mineral surface speciation on the reactivity of adsorbed species and on far from equilibrium dissolution rates of minerals is discussed. Finally, the applicability of microscopic models of surface complexation to field-scale systems is explored and the need to integrate

  9. Electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective plasmon driven surface catalysis in metal nanowire-film systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liang; Huang, Yingzhou; Yang, Yanna; Xiong, Wen; Chen, Guo; Su, Xun; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia

    2015-11-25

    For the novel interpretation of Raman spectrum from molecule at metal surface, the plasmon driven surface catalysis (PDSC) reactions have become an interesting topic in the research field of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, the selective PDSC reactions of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) or 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT) were demonstrated in the Ag nanowires dimer-Au film systems. The different SERS spectra collected at individual part and adjacent part of the same nanowire-film system pointed out the importance of the electromagnetic field redistribution induced by image charge on film in this selective surface catalysis, which was confirmed by the simulated electromagnetic simulated electro- magnetic field distributions. Our result indicated this electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective surface catalysis was largely affected by the polarization and wavelength of incident light but slightly by the difference in diameters between two nanowires. Our work provides a further understanding of PDSC reaction in metal nanostructure and could be a deep support for the researches on surface catalysis and surface analysis.

  10. Thermodynamic study of preventing the corrosion of plutonium surface with CO and H2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan; Gao Tao; Wang Hongyan; Jiang Gang; Zhu Zhenghe

    1999-08-01

    The calculated results of the temperature dependence of standard Gibbs free energy change ΔG 0 of the reactions of CO and H 2 with Pu, PuO, Pu 2 O 3 , PuO 2 , respectively, show that the CO-H 2 system enables a passive surface film to be formed on the compact and stable crystal surface of Pu 2 O 3 to prevent the metallic plutonium from further corrosion by the inward diffusive CO and H 2 gas. It is presumably like the protecting aluminum surface with its oxidized layer

  11. Path integral molecular dynamics with surface hopping for thermal equilibrium sampling of nonadiabatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Zhennan

    2017-04-21

    In this work, a novel ring polymer representation for a multi-level quantum system is proposed for thermal average calculations. The proposed representation keeps the discreteness of the electronic states: besides position and momentum, each bead in the ring polymer is also characterized by a surface index indicating the electronic energy surface. A path integral molecular dynamics with surface hopping (PIMD-SH) dynamics is also developed to sample the equilibrium distribution of the ring polymer configurational space. The PIMD-SH sampling method is validated theoretically and by numerical examples.

  12. How to take absorptive surfaces into account when designing outdoor sound reinforcement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten bo

    1996-01-01

    When sound reinforcement systems are used outdoors, absorptive surfaces are usually present along the propagation path of the sound. This may lead to a very significant colouration of the spectrum received by the audience. The colouration depends on the location and directivity of the loudspeaker......, the nature of the absorptive surface (eg grass) and the location of the audience. It is discussed how this effect may be calculated and numerical examples are shown. The results show a significant colouration and attenuation of the sound due to grass-covered surfaces....

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of ultra thin films of functional supramolecular systems on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Spampinato, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis is the development of new metodologies for surface anchoring of molecular and supramolecular systems for applications in molecular electronics and photonics, and for preparation of devices for molecular recognition. The systems are made up, as usually, of hybrid systems, divided in two parts, a molecular one and a solid support. The molecular part performs the desired function, while the solid support (metal or semiconductor on which the molecules are bound) all...

  14. Sculpturing patterns of plasmonic silver nanoprisms by means of photocatalytic lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Guido; Soliveri, Guido; Marra, Gianluigi; Meda, Laura; Savoini, Alberto; Ardizzone, Silvia; Salvalaggio, Mario

    2017-04-01

    The controlled shaping of nanoparticles’ morphology is one of the pillars of nanotechnology. Here, we demonstrate that photocatalytic lithography, a technique already proved to be useful in materials science, can act as a dry etching technique for noble metal nanoparticles. Triangular silver nanoprisms are self-assembled on titanium dioxide films and photocatalytically shaped into discoidal particles upon irradiation with near-UV light. The obtained patterned surfaces show a dramatically different surface-enhanced Raman scattering response, suggesting the utility of our approach for the development of sensors. The photocatalytic nature of the particle shaping is demonstrated and a plausible mechanism drawn by performing photocatalysis in different configurations (direct and remote) and by irradiating in different solvents.

  15. Bony surface registration of navigation system in the lateral or prone position: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Nagm, Alhusain; Yamamoto, Yasunaga; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Navigation systems have become essential tools in neurosurgery. Precise registration is indispensable for the accuracy of navigation. The rapid and precise registration by surface matching on the facial skin is possible using the landmarks of the face in the supine position. On the other hand, incomplete registration often occurs in the lateral or prone position due to the direction of the face and displacement of the skin by headpins and obscuring of the skin by the bispectral index monitor and many electrodes on the forehead as well as the eye patch. Surface matching on the occipital scalp is not suitable for registration because the shape of the occipital scalp is flat and it is compressed in the supine position when obtaining preoperative neuroimaging. To overcome this problem, the authors have developed a new method of registration designated as "bony surface registration" in which surface matching is achieved using the bony surface of the skull after exposure. Between June and December 2014, this technique was used in 23 patients and its effectiveness was examined. Registration time was markedly shortened and useful navigation was achieved due to accurate registration in all patients. This is the first report of a registration methodology for a navigation system in the lateral or prone position. This bony surface registration method is useful for navigation system image-guided surgery in the lateral or prone position.

  16. Calcium Oxalate: A Surface Treatment for Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tody M. Cezar

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the artificially induced surface conversion of calcium carbonate to the more durable calcium oxalate. Extensive research is being carried out on wall paintings and marble sculpture at the Opicificio delle Pietre Dure e Laboratori di Restauro in Florence, Encouraged by their work, I have researched the effectiveness of the conversion on English limestones. The treated samples have been compared to untreated samples for appearance, hardness, resistance to acid and alkali, porosity, and durability. The results have been assessed considering ease of use, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the treatment.

  17. First-principles study of the surface properties of U-Mo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Zhi-Gang; Liang, Linyun; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2018-02-01

    U-Mo alloys are promising fuels for future high-performance research reactors with low enriched uranium. Surface properties, such as surface energy, are important inputs for mesoscale simulations (e.g., phase field method) of fission gas bubble behaviors in irradiated nuclear fuels. The lack of surface energies of U-Mo alloys prevents an accurate modeling of the morphology of gas bubbles and gas bubble-induced fuel swelling. To this end, we study the surface properties of U-Mo system, including bcc Mo, alpha-U, gamma-U, and gamma U-Mo alloys. All surfaces up to a maximum Miller index of three and two are calculated for cubic Mo and gamma-U and non-cubic alpha-U, respectively. The equilibrium crystal shapes of bcc Mo, alpha-U and gamma-U are constructed using the calculated surface energies. The dominant surface orientations and the area fraction of each facet are determined from the constructed equilibrium crystal shape. The disordered gamma U-Mo alloys are simulated using the Special Quasirandom Structure method. The (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) surface energies of gamma U-7Mo and U-10Mo alloys are predicted to lie between those of gamma-U and bcc Mo, following a linear combination of the two constituents' surface energies. To better compare with future measurements of surface energies, the area fraction weighted surface energies of alpha-U, gamma-U and gamma U-7Mo and U-10Mo alloys are also predicted. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Characterizing Mediterranean Land Surfaces as Component of the Regional Climate System by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Koslowsky, D.; Menenti, M.; Nerry, F.; Otterman, Joseph; Starr, D.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive areas in the Mediterranean region are subject to land degradation and desertification. The high variability of the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere affects the regional climate. Relevant surface characteristics, such as spectral reflectance, surface emissivity in the thermal-infrared region, and vegetation indices, serve as "primary" level indicators for the state of the surface. Their spatial, seasonal and interannual variability can be monitored from satellites. Using relationships between these primary data and combining them with prior information about the land surfaces (such as topography, dominant soil type, land use, collateral ground measurements and models), a second layer of information is built up which specifies the land surfaces as a component of the regional climate system. To this category of parameters which are directly involved in the exchange of energy, momentum and mass between the surface and the atmosphere, belong broadband albedo, thermodynamic surface temperature, vegetation types, vegetation cover density, soil top moisture, and soil heat flux. Information about these parameters finally leads to the computation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The methodology was tested with pilot data sets. Full resolution, properly calibrated and normalized NOAA-AVHRR multi-annual primary data sets are presently compiled for the whole Mediterranean area, to study interannual variability and longer term trends.

  19. Application of MIMO Techniques in sky-surface wave hybrid networking sea-state radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Wu, X.; Yue, X.; Liu, J.; Li, C.

    2016-12-01

    The sky-surface wave hybrid networking sea-state radar system contains of the sky wave transmission stations at different sites and several surface wave radar stations. The subject comes from the national 863 High-tech Project of China. The hybrid sky-surface wave system and the HF surface wave system work simultaneously and the HF surface wave radar (HFSWR) can work in multi-static and surface-wave networking mode. Compared with the single mode radar system, this system has advantages of better detection performance at the far ranges in ocean dynamics parameters inversion. We have applied multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) techniques in this sea-state radar system. Based on the multiple channel and non-causal transmit beam-forming techniques, the MIMO radar architecture can reduce the size of the receiving antennas and simplify antenna installation. Besides, by efficiently utilizing the system's available degrees of freedom, it can provide a feasible approach for mitigating multipath effect and Doppler-spread clutter in Over-the-horizon Radar. In this radar, slow-time phase-coded MIMO method is used. The transmitting waveforms are phase-coded in slow-time so as to be orthogonal after Doppler processing at the receiver. So the MIMO method can be easily implemented without the need to modify the receiver hardware. After the radar system design, the MIMO experiments of this system have been completed by Wuhan University during 2015 and 2016. The experiment used Wuhan multi-channel ionospheric sounding system(WMISS) as sky-wave transmitting source and three dual-frequency HFSWR developed by the Oceanography Laboratory of Wuhan University. The transmitter system located at Chongyang with five element linear equi-spaced antenna array and Wuhan with one log-periodic antenna. The RF signals are generated by synchronized, but independent digital waveform generators - providing complete flexibility in element phase and amplitude control, and waveform type and parameters

  20. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  1. Candida albicans aspects of novel silane system-coated titanium and zirconia implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Chaminda; Tsoi, James Kit Hon; Heinonen, Markku; Matinlinna, Jukka

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of novel silane system coatings on zirconia and titanium implant surfaces and the attachment of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Titanium and zirconia specimens were silica-coated and silanized either with a commercial silane primer (RelyX Ceramic Primer™, 3M ESPE) or a novel silane system primer. The novel silane system primer was a blend of 1.0 vol% 3-acryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 0.3 vol% bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane diluted in acidified ethanol-water solvent. The surface roughness (Ra ), the surface free energy and the chemical composition of substrate surfaces after treatments were evaluated. C. albcans biofilms were developed on silica-coated + silanized surfaces during 48 h of incubation time. Colony forming units (CFU) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) quantified the cells on the material surfaces. Statistical analyses were carried out by 1-way ANOVA, Tukey post hoc and Games Howell post hoc test at 5% significance level (p). On zirconia and titanium surfaces, the Ra and the chemical composition of the specimens were equal (P silanization. CFU of C. albicans was significantly lower on zirconia coated with RelyX Ceramic Primer™, (P silanes (P = 0.002). RT-PCR revealed no differences between the mean quantities of C. albicans (P ≥ 0.067). Silica-coating and silanization had modified the titanium and zirconia surfaces significantly. Both the control and experimental silane primers might inhibit the biofilm formation of C. albicans. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Estimation of Surface CO2 Flux Using a Carbon Tracking System Based on Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. M.; Cho, C. H.; Boo, K. O.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of the surface CO2 flux is crucial to understand the mechanism of surface carbon source and sink. In Asia, there are large uptake regions such as forests in boreal and temperate regions. In this study, to diagnose the surface CO2 flux in the globe and Asia, CO2 observations were assimilated in the CarbonTracker developed by NOAA. The CarbonTracker is an inverse modeling system that estimates the surface CO2 flux using an ensemble Kalman filter with atmospheric CO2 measurements as a constraint. First, the capability of CarbonTracker as an analysis tool for estimating surface CO2 flux in Asia was investigated. Different from the CarbonTracker developed by NOAA, a nesting domain centered on Asia was used with additional observations in Asia. In addition, a diagnostic tool to calculate the effect of individual CO2 observations on estimating the surface CO2 flux was developed using the analysis sensitivity to observation and information content in the CarbonTracker framework. The results showed that CarbonTracker works appropriately for estimating surface CO2 flux. The nesting domain centered in Asia produces a detailed estimate of the surface CO2 fluxes and exhibited better agreement with the CO2 observations in Asia. Additional observations provide beneficial impact on the estimated surface CO2 flux in Asia and Europe. The analysis sensitivity showed seasonal variations with greater sensitivities in summer and lower sensitivities in winter. Strong correlation exists between the information content and the optimized surface CO2 flux.

  3. Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savaloni, Hadi; Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30 o and 70 o incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles (φ). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the φ angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths ( o incidence angle.

  4. The Effect of Images on Surface Potential and Resistance Calculation of Grounding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS, A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the grounding systems with a two layers soil, the calculation of the surface potential using the image method is sometimes impossible due to singularities, avoiding researchers to use the method for electrodes in the bottom layer. In the literature this problem solution is refereed as unreliable or solved with other more complex methods. This paper presents a new approach to calculate the surface potentials in a two. layer soil, for electrodes in the bottom layer, when images are at surface. The singularities in computing surface voltage, when the first image upwards lies at surface, are analysed and it's shown that a small change in top layer thickness allows an approximate solution. Surface potentials due to grid conductor are also considered and the values of resistance are compared with those from other methodologies. Singularities for a ground rod that crosses the two layers are also treated. The obtained values of resistance are not satisfactory, due to lower segments images that overlap the upper segments. This paper also proposes shifting the surface of the upper part of the ground rod, in the upper layer, or taking the modulus of the mutual resistance, to overcome this difficulty.

  5. Effect of one-step polishing systems on surface roughness of different flowable restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Emre; Korkmaz, Yonca; Attar, Nuray; Karabulut, Erdem

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of one-step polishing systems on the surface roughness of different flowable composites and a microhybrid composite. A total of 120 disks were fabricated and divided into six groups according to the different composite restorative materials tested (n = 20). Each group was further divided into four subgroups according to the polishing system (n = 5). For the control group, samples were left undisturbed after removal of Mylar strip. For the other three subgroups, samples were polished with PoGo, OptraPol, or Sof-Lex disks. Surface roughness was determined using a profilometer and observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test. For Tetric Flow, Grandio Flow, Filtek Supreme XT Flow, and Admira Flow, their lowest surface roughness values were obtained in Mylar Strip and PoGo groups. For Compoglass Flow, there were no significant differences between Mylar Strip, PoGo, and OptraPol. For Filtek Z250, the lowest surface roughness value was obtained with Mylar Strip. In light of the surface roughness results obtained, one-step polishing systems seemed to be a good choice for polishing flowable composites.

  6. Validity and repeatability of a depth camera-based surface imaging system for thigh volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullas, Alice M; Choppin, Simon; Heller, Ben; Wheat, Jon

    2016-10-01

    Complex anthropometrics such as area and volume, can identify changes in body size and shape that are not detectable with traditional anthropometrics of lengths, breadths, skinfolds and girths. However, taking these complex with manual techniques (tape measurement and water displacement) is often unsuitable. Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are quick and accurate alternatives to manual techniques but their use is restricted by cost, complexity and limited access. We have developed a novel low-cost, accessible and portable 3D surface imaging system based on consumer depth cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and repeatability of the system in the measurement of thigh volume. The thigh volumes of 36 participants were measured with the depth camera system and a high precision commercially available 3D surface imaging system (3dMD). The depth camera system used within this study is highly repeatable (technical error of measurement (TEM) of <1.0% intra-calibration and ~2.0% inter-calibration) but systematically overestimates (~6%) thigh volume when compared to the 3dMD system. This suggests poor agreement yet a close relationship, which once corrected can yield a usable thigh volume measurement.

  7. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System for Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph; MacDowell, Louis; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem for the Kennedy Space Center, government agencies, and the general public. Existing corrosion protection systems on the market are costly, complex, and time-consuming to install, require continuous maintenance and monitoring, and require specialized skills for installation. NASA's galvanic liquid-applied coating offers companies the ability to conveniently protect embedded steel rebar surfaces from corrosion. Liquid-applied inorganic galvanic coating contains one ore more of the following metallic particles: magnesium, zinc, or indium and may contain moisture attracting compounds that facilitate the protection process. The coating is applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete so that electrical current is established between metallic particles and surfaces of embedded steel rebar; and electric (ionic) current is responsible for providing the necessary cathodic protection for embedded rebar surfaces.

  8. Design of measurement system of 3D surface profile based on chromatic confocal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-su; Xie, Bin; Liu, Zi-wei

    2018-01-01

    Chromatic confocal 3D profilometer has widely used in science investigation and industry fields recently for its high precision, great measuring range and numerical surface characteristic. It can provide exact and omnidirectional solution for manufacture and research by 3D non-contact surface analysis technique. The article analyzes the principle of surface measurement with chromatic confocal technology, and provides the designing indicators and requirements of the confocal system. As the key component, the dispersive objective used to achieve longitudinal focus vibration with wavelength was designed. The objective disperses the focus of wavelength between 400 700 nm to 15 mm longitudinal range. With selected spectrometer, the resolution of chromatic confocal 3D profilometer is no more than 5 μm, which can meet needs for the high precision non-contact surface profile measurement.

  9. Nutrient supply, surface currents, and plankton dynamics predict zooplankton hotspots in coastal upwelling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messié, Monique; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2017-09-01

    A simple combination of wind-driven nutrient upwelling, surface currents, and plankton growth/grazing equations generates zooplankton patchiness and hotspots in coastal upwelling regions. Starting with an initial input of nitrate from coastal upwelling, growth and grazing equations evolve phytoplankton and zooplankton over time and space following surface currents. The model simulates the transition from coastal (large phytoplankton, e.g., diatoms) to offshore (picophytoplankton and microzooplankton) communities, and in between generates a large zooplankton maximum. The method was applied to four major upwelling systems (California, Peru, Northwest Africa, and Benguela) using latitudinal estimates of wind-driven nitrate supply and satellite-based surface currents. The resulting zooplankton simulations are patchy in nature; areas of high concentrations coincide with previously documented copepod and krill hotspots. The exercise highlights the importance of the upwelling process and surface currents in shaping plankton communities.

  10. An ethical lesson learned from the equestrian sculpture, "The Torch Bearers," at the University of Madrid Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2007-01-01

    As dental professionals, we continue to learn ethical lessons throughout our careers and beyond. We may experience them in our day-to-day involvements with peers and patients, or they may present themselves under more unusual circumstances. In October, 1974, at the University of Madrid Dental School, the senior author had a deeply impressionable experience minutes before he helped to present a course to Spanish dentists in operative dentistry. His co-presenter was Dr. Miles R. Markley of Denver, Colorado, a National Consultant in Restorative Dentistry for the U.S. Air Force. Their ethics teacher that day was Dr. Gerardo Zabalo, Dean of the dental school. His object lesson was delivered at the base of an equestrian, aluminum, larger-than-life sculpture, "The Torch Bearers" which faced the school. The sculptor shows an old, wrinkled man, lying prostrate, with only enough strength left to raise a lighted torch upward. Reaching down to receive the torch is a robust, energized young man, who is sitting upon a sturdy stallion. The lesson which Dean Zabalo taught that day was simple but profound. The lit torch of ethics, learning and values is essentially transmitted from generation to generation, as young students learn from their elders, accept the torch from their retiring leaders, keep the torch brightly lit as they mature in their profession, and, then in turn, hand it over to those young professionals who will replace them. This process will continue, age after age. Thus the torch of learning and thinking is passed on. In the world of education, human contact and the continued sanctity of the scientific written word must be paramount. Students must be taught how to read, learn and think. Computer technology used exclusively as a mode of teaching and learning can never become a viable substitute for our traditional interactive methods which emphasize human to human interaction.

  11. Simulating the Near-Surface Environments of Solar System Bodies in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) emissivity measurements are sensitive to a planetary body's near-surface (upper hundreds of microns) environment, porosity and particle size, which make the interpretation of thermal infrared remote sensing observations of planetary surfaces challenging. Thus, well-constrained laboratory TIR measurements of analogue samples for a range of particle sizes, porosities and near-surface environments are needed. Near-surface environments and porosities for a range of solar system bodies can be simulated using facilities within University of Oxford's Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF). The Simulated Lunar Environment Chamber (SLEC) within Oxford's PSF is a vacuum chamber capable of simulating near-surface conditions for a range of solar system bodies by varying atmospheric pressure and incident solar irradiation. By varying the near-surface environment, the thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of the sample is varied, which can affect the position and contrast of diagnostic features in TIR spectra. The atmospheric pressure inside the chamber is varied between 1000, 5 and < 10-4 mbar to simulate Earth, Mars and airless bodies (e.g. the Moon, Mars' moons and asteroids) conditions. The solar-like irradiation is varied by adjusting the power of the halogen lamp until the brightness temperature of the sample is similar to the brightness temperature of the simulated planetary body. Varying the sample packing in the sample cup simulates a range of near-surface porosities. Here we present laboratory emissivity spectra of a suite of well-characterized rock, soil and mineral samples (< 25 mm in particle size) measured under a range of simulated planetary conditions including Earth, Mars, Moon and asteroids. These well-controlled laboratory measurements enable the interpretation of remote sensing observations, which help in determining a planet's surface composition as well as the consolidated nature of its regolith.

  12. Simulating Near-Surface Environments of Solar System Bodies in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Bowles, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) emissivity measurements are sensitive to a planetary body's near-surface (upper hundreds of microns) environment, porosity and particle size, which make the interpretation of thermal infrared remote sensing observations of planetary surfaces challenging. Thus, well-constrained laboratory TIR measurements of analogue samples for a range of particle sizes, porosities and near-surface environments are needed. Near-surface environments and porosities for a range of solar system bodies can be simulated using facilities within University of Oxford's Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF). The Simulated Lunar Environment Chamber (SLEC) within Oxford's PSF is a vacuum chamber capable of simulating near-surface conditions for a range of solar system bodies by varying atmospheric pressure and incident solar irradiation. By varying the near-surface environment, the thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of the sample is varied, which can affect the position and contrast of diagnostic features in TIR spectra. The atmospheric pressure inside the chamber is varied between 1000, 5 and < 10-4 mbar to simulate Earth, Mars and airless bodies (e.g. the Moon, Mars' moons and asteroids) conditions. The solar-like irradiation is varied by adjusting the power of the halogen lamp until the brightness temperature of the sample is similar to the brightness temperature of the simulated planetary body. Varying the sample packing in the sample cup simulates a range of near-surface porosities. Here we present laboratory emissivity spectra of a suite of well-characterized rock, soil and mineral samples (< 25 microns in particle size) measured under a range of simulated planetary conditions including Earth, Mars, Moon and asteroids. These well-controlled laboratory measurements enable the interpretation of remote sensing observations, which help in determining a planet's surface composition as well as the consolidated nature of its regolith.

  13. Design and verification of the miniature optical system for small object surface profile fast scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sheng; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Jen, Jen-Yu; Lai, Ti-Yu; Jan, Chia-Ming; Hu, Po-Chi

    2016-04-01

    As the progress of optical technologies, different commercial 3D surface contour scanners are on the market nowadays. Most of them are used for reconstructing the surface profile of mold or mechanical objects which are larger than 50 mm×50 mm× 50 mm, and the scanning system size is about 300 mm×300 mm×100 mm. There are seldom optical systems commercialized for surface profile fast scanning for small object size less than 10 mm×10 mm×10 mm. Therefore, a miniature optical system has been designed and developed in this research work for this purpose. Since the most used scanning method of such system is line scan technology, we have developed pseudo-phase shifting digital projection technology by adopting projecting fringes and phase reconstruction method. A projector was used to project a digital fringe patterns on the object, and the fringes intensity images of the reference plane and of the sample object were recorded by a CMOS camera. The phase difference between the plane and object can be calculated from the fringes images, and the surface profile of the object was reconstructed by using the phase differences. The traditional phase shifting method was accomplished by using PZT actuator or precisely controlled motor to adjust the light source or grating and this is one of the limitations for high speed scanning. Compared with the traditional optical setup, we utilized a micro projector to project the digital fringe patterns on the sample. This diminished the phase shifting processing time and the controlled phase differences between the shifted phases become more precise. Besides, the optical path design based on a portable device scanning system was used to minimize the size and reduce the number of the system components. A screwdriver section about 7mm×5mm×5mm has been scanned and its surface profile was successfully restored. The experimental results showed that the measurement area of our system can be smaller than 10mm×10mm, the precision reached to

  14. Application of instrument transfer function to a fringe projection system for measuring rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Davies, Angela; Ziegert, John; Evans, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    When fringe projection profilometry is used for measuring rough/textured surfaces, the fidelity of the measurement is subject to the spatial frequency response. The instrument transfer function (ITF) is one appealing approach to characterize this property. The foundation of ITF analysis is based on the linear theory; only linear systems are appropriate for ITF analysis. A fringe projection system is intrinsically nonlinear, but it can be approximated as a linear system when certain conditions are met. Here we investigate the linear conditions of a custom fringe projection system designed for an additive manufacturing application. The applicability of ITF is discussed through mathematical analysis and simulations.

  15. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  16. Low-energy ion-beam deposition apparatus equipped with surface analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Hideki; Aoki, Yasushi; Nagai, Siro.

    1994-10-01

    A sophisticated apparatus for low energy ion beam deposition (IBD) was installed at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of JAERI in March 1991. The apparatus is composed of an IBD system and a real time/in-situ surface analysis system for diagnosing deposited thin films. The IBD system provides various kinds of low energy ion down to 10 eV with current density of 10 μA/cm 2 and irradiation area of 15x15 mm 2 . The surface analysis system consists of RHEED, AES, ISS and SIMS. This report describes the characteristics and the operation procedure of the apparatus together with some experimental results on depositing thin carbon films. (author)

  17. A Wireless Monitoring System for Cracks on the Surface of Reactor Containment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring with wireless sensor networks has been increasingly popular in recent years because of the convenience. In this paper, a real-time monitoring system for cracks on the surface of reactor containment buildings is presented. Customized wireless sensor networks platforms are designed and implemented with sensors especially for crack monitoring, which include crackmeters and temperature detectors. Software protocols like route discovery, time synchronization and data transfer are developed to satisfy the requirements of the monitoring system and stay simple at the same time. Simulation tests have been made to evaluate the performance of the system before full scale deployment. The real-life deployment of the crack monitoring system is carried out on the surface of reactor containment building in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station during the in-service pressure test with 30 wireless sensor nodes.

  18. Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaloni, Hadi, E-mail: savaloni@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30{sup o} and 70{sup o} incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles ({phi}). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the {phi} angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths (<450 nm) is observed in the s-polarization spectra, while in addition to this peak a broad peak at longer wavelengths (i.e., LM) observed in the p-polarization spectra, which is more dominant for 70{sup o} incidence angle.

  19. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    Background For the precise and accurate measurement of surface topography a whole range of surface detection systems is available. With their application in research and production problems arise due to the lack of traceable standard artefacts for the instrument calibration in X, Y and Z directions...... to be replicated during all stages of the replication processes. Procedures for cleaning glass, PVC, PC, PMM and Ni-surfaces have been developed and tested. Calibration procedures for calibration standards and for calibrating instruments in X-, Y- and Z-direction have been developed and tested. Proposals...... in industries ranging from automotive manufacture to ultraprecision manufacture of data storage systems and compact discs. Objectives The project is concerned with developing calibration standards including their production methods and calibration procedures as a consistent means of calibrating different types...

  20. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  1. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Holfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the new miniaturized alpha/beta spectroscopic system is a Smart Card MCA having a 12 bit resolution and a 32 bit memory for each channel with the size of a cheque card. The system consists of a single or up to 12 alpha spectrometers in a battery powered casing with connectors for direct detector/amplifier module plugging. Surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm 2 of 239 Pu can be measured. (M.D.)

  2. Surface analysis of model systems: From a metal-graphite interface to an intermetallic catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwolek, Emma J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    This thesis summarizes research completed on two different model systems. In the first system, we investigate the deposition of the elemental metal dysprosium on highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and its resulting nucleation and growth. The goal of this research is to better understand the metal-carbon interactions that occur on HOPG and to apply those to an array of other carbon surfaces. This insight may prove beneficial to developing and using new materials for electronic applications, magnetic applications and catalysis.

  3. Surface tension of light rare earth fluoride molten salts electrolyte system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoping [School of Materials & Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Sun, Shuchen, E-mail: sunsc@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Materials & Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lu, Shuaidan; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Kuanhe; Tu, Ganfeng [School of Materials & Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Huang, Xiaowei [National Engineering Research Center for Rare Earth Materials, General Research Institute for Non-Ferrous Metals, and Grirem Advanced Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100088 (China); Huang, Shaodong [School of Materials & Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel Rare-earth (Group) Hi-tech. Co., Ltd. Inner Mongolia, Baotou 014030 (China)

    2016-07-20

    Highlights: • The surface tensions of typical RE fluoride melts were systematically studied. • The temperature and composition dependences of the surface tensions were discussed. • Surface tension factor of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied and the solubility was the key point. • Results of this study are novel and well supplement data base of RE fluoride melts. - Abstract: The surface tensions of REF{sub 3}-LiF (RE = La and Nd) molten salts (REF{sub 3} mol% = 20-40%) were measured using the slide method over the temperature range1223–1423 K which was specifically chosen for meeting the actual electrolysis temperature (about 1323 K). The temperature and composition dependences of the surface tensions were investigated. The results showed that the surface tension decreased linearly with the increasing of temperature and increased nonlinearly with the increasing mole fraction of REF{sub 3}. At 1323 K (near the practical electrolysis temperature), the surface tension of REF{sub 3}-LiF-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} molten salts firstly increased with the increasing RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} and reached the maximum value near the solubility of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (2–3 g) in REF{sub 3}-LiF molten salts, and then decreased with the continuously adding RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The accurate knowledge of the surface tension factor of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be useful for well understanding the solubilizing mechanisms of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} in REF{sub 3}-LiF molten salts system. Results of this study well supplemented the experimental data of physiochemical property on surface tension of rare earth fluoride electrolytes.

  4. [Manolo Hugué: from sculpture to painting due to arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, María Antonia; Díaz-Torné, Cesar; Azevedo, Valderilio F

    2011-01-01

    There are several artists that have suffered rheumatic diseases. Even then, they continued their creative activity. Paul Klee suffered from systemic sclerosis, Dufy and Renoir suffered from rheumatoid arthritis and Gaudí and Boticelli had systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The famous noucentism sculptor, Manolo Hugué, presented chronic polyarthritis that suggested rheumatoid arthritis. Although he underwent several treatments, such as hydrotherapy or diathermic therapy, he had to stop sculpting. Using the chisel was too painful for his hands. He began, then, painting and composing poetry. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of surface radiation on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel-chimney system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Zied; Derouich, Youssef; Laatar, Ali Hatem; Balti, Jalloul

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a more realistic numerical approach that takes into account the effect of surface radiation on the laminar air flow induced by natural convection in a channel-chimney system asymmetrically heated at uniform heat flux is used. The aim is to enrich the results given in Nasri et al. (Int J Therm Sci 90:122-134, 2015) by varying all the geometric parameters of the system and by taking into account the effect of surface radiation on the flows. The numerical results are first validated against experimental and numerical data available in the literature. The computations have allowed the determination of optimal configurations that maximize the mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer and minimize the heated wall temperatures. The analysis of the temperature fields with the streamlines and the pressure fields has helped to explain the effects of surface radiation and of the different thermo-geometrical parameters on the system performances to improve the mass flow rate and the heat transfer with respect to the simple channel. It is shown that the thermal performance of the channel-chimney system in terms of lower heated wall temperatures is little affected by the surface radiation. At the end, simple correlation equations have been proposed for quickly and easily predict the optimal configurations as well as the corresponding enhancement rates of the induced mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer.

  6. Methods to Use Surface Infiltration Tests in Permeable Pavement Systems to Determine Maintenance Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, there is limited guidance on selecting test sites to measure surface infiltration rates in permeable pavement systems to determine maintenance frequency. The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete suggest to either (1) p...

  7. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF NANOPARTICLES TO OPPOSE UPTAKE BY THE MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STORM, G; BELLIOT, SO; DAEMEN, T; LASIC, DD

    1995-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in the surface modification of colloidal particles to oppose uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is presented. First, we describe the colloidal particles and hydrophilic coating materials investigated, with particular focus on the literature concerning

  8. Primary biodegradation of veterinary antibiotics in aerobic and anaerobic surface water simulation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Flemming; Toräng, Lars; Loke, M.-L.

    2001-01-01

    The primary aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability at intermediate concentrations (50-5000 mug/l) of the antibiotics olaquindox (OLA), metronidazole (MET), tylosin (TYL) and oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied in a simple shake flask system simulating the conditions in surface waters. The purpose...

  9. System DECON - an innovative solution for the decontamination of surfaces in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T.; Schlag, J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important tasks in decommissioning nuclear facilities is, in disposal-oriented dismantling, the removal of contaminated surfaces. These coatings are traditionally removed manually by chiseling, abrasive blasting or sanding. With these processes it is often the case that the dust particles are then released into the air and settle on surrounding surfaces (secondary contamination); the material lands on the floor. The time limits set by the Nuclear Energy Withdrawal Act increase the demand by the industry for a suitable system for decontamination work. Since the end of 2000 the tool-head DECON 300 is being used in connection with a powerful DECON vacuum system from HOCHTIEF for decontamination work. The initial experiences were gained in the pilot nuclear plant Kahl (VAK) and in the former fuel rods factory NUKEM-Alt, Hanau, and the performance specifications determined. The system was used for both the removal of concrete as well as for the removal of the decontamination coating, bricks and plaster. With the DECON system the entire range of contaminated surfaces on floors, masonries and ceilings can be handled ''in situ''. The efficiency of this mechanical removal process is proven by the total of the removal performance, the quality of the surface, the lack of dust and handling, while simultaneously meeting the requirements of the StrSchV (German Radiation Protection Ordinance). (orig.)

  10. The impact of surface chemistry on the performance of localized solar-driven evaporation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; Duan, Haoze; Liu, Yanming; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This report investigates the influence of surface chemistry (or wettability) on the evaporation performance of free-standing double-layered thin film on the surface of water. Such newly developed evaporation system is composed of top plasmonic light-to-heat conversion layer and bottom porous supporting layer. Under solar light illumination, the induced plasmonic heat will be localized within the film. By modulating the wettability of such evaporation system through the control of surface chemistry, the evaporation rates are differentiated between hydrophilized and hydrophobized anodic aluminum oxide membrane-based double layered thin films. Additionally, this work demonstrated that the evaporation rate mainly depends on the wettability of bottom supporting layer rather than that of top light-to-heat conversion layer. The findings in this study not only elucidate the role of surface chemistry of each layer of such double-layered evaporation system, but also provide additional design guidelines for such localized evaporation system in applications including desalination, distillation and power generation.

  11. Microgel-based surface modifying system for stimuli-responsive functional finishing of cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.N.; Tourrette, A.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Jocic, D.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative strategy for functional finishing of textile materials is based on the incorporation of a thin layer of surface modifying systems (SMS) in the form of stimuli-sensitive microgels or hydrogels. Since the copolymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with an ionizable polymer, such as

  12. Surface N Balances in Agricultural Crop production systems in China for the period 1980-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, B.; Shen, R.P.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface nitrogen (N) balances for China's crop production systems were estimated using statistical data collected from 1980 to 2004 at the national and provincial scale and from 1994 to 1999 at the county level. There was a surplus N balance throughout these periods, but the surplus was nearly

  13. A high performance GPU implementation of Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) based on CUDA-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abouali, Mohammad; Timmermans, J.; Castillo, Jose E.; Su, Zhongbo

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new implementation of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) algorithm harnessing the many cores available on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). This new implementation uses Compute Unified Device Architecture C (CUDA-C) programming model and is designed to be executed on a

  14. 75 FR 69369 - Walking-Working Surfaces and Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... transmitting facsimile copies of attachments that supplement these documents (e.g., studies, journal articles...- Working Surfaces and Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems) in general industry on... is an informal administrative proceeding convened to gather information and clarify the record. OSHA...

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A. E.; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane...

  16. A flexible system for the estimation of infiltration and hydraulic resistance parameters in surface irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical to the use of modeling tools for the hydraulic analysis of surface irrigation systems is characterizing the infiltration and hydraulic resistance process. Since those processes are still not well understood, various formulations are currently used to represent them. A software component h...

  17. Bond strength durability of direct and indirect composite systems following surface conditioning for repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Ozcan, Mutlu; Vanderlei, Aleska Dias; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa Pereira; Kimpara, Estevao Tomomitsu; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of surface conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between a resin composite and an indirect composite system in order to test the repair bond strength. Materials and Methods: Eighteen blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of indirect resin composite

  18. Surface profile measurement by using the integrated Linnik WLSI and confocal microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Shen, Ming-Hsing; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Yu, Yun-Ting; Wang, Tzu-Fong

    2017-06-01

    The white-light scanning interferometer (WLSI) and confocal microscope (CM) are the two major optical inspection systems for measuring three-dimensional (3D) surface profile (SP) of micro specimens. Nevertheless, in practical applications, WLSI is more suitable for measuring smooth and low-slope surfaces. On the other hand, CM is more suitable for measuring uneven-reflective and low-reflective surfaces. As for aspect of surface profiles to be measured, the characteristics of WLSI and CM are also different. WLSI is generally used in semiconductor industry while CM is more popular in printed circuit board industry. In this paper, a self-assembled multi-function optical system was integrated to perform Linnik white-light scanning interferometer (Linnik WLSI) and CM. A connecting part composed of tubes, lenses and interferometer was used to conjunct finite and infinite optical systems for Linnik WLSI and CM in the self-assembled optical system. By adopting the flexibility of tubes and lenses, switching to perform two different optical measurements can be easily achieved. Furthermore, based on the shape from focus method with energy of Laplacian filter, the CM was developed to enhance the on focal information of each pixel so that the CM can provide all-in-focus image for performing the 3D SP measurement and analysis simultaneously. As for Linnik WLSI, eleven-step phase shifting algorithm was used to analyze vertical scanning signals and determine the 3D SP.

  19. Localized surface plasmon modes in a system of two interacting metallic cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Vergeles, Sergey S.; Vorobev, Petr E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an optical response of a system of two parallel close metallic cylinders having nanoscale dimensions. Surface plasmon excitation in the gap between the cylinders are specifically analyzed. In particular, resonance frequencies and field enhancement were investigated as functions of geomet...

  20. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  1. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A.E; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane ...

  2. The impact of surface chemistry on the performance of localized solar-driven evaporation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; Duan, Haoze; Liu, Yanming; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-09-04

    This report investigates the influence of surface chemistry (or wettability) on the evaporation performance of free-standing double-layered thin film on the surface of water. Such newly developed evaporation system is composed of top plasmonic light-to-heat conversion layer and bottom porous supporting layer. Under solar light illumination, the induced plasmonic heat will be localized within the film. By modulating the wettability of such evaporation system through the control of surface chemistry, the evaporation rates are differentiated between hydrophilized and hydrophobized anodic aluminum oxide membrane-based double layered thin films. Additionally, this work demonstrated that the evaporation rate mainly depends on the wettability of bottom supporting layer rather than that of top light-to-heat conversion layer. The findings in this study not only elucidate the role of surface chemistry of each layer of such double-layered evaporation system, but also provide additional design guidelines for such localized evaporation system in applications including desalination, distillation and power generation.

  3. Raydet non-electric blast initiation system for efficient and environment-friendly surface blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, M.O. [IDL Chemicals Ltd., Hyderabad (India). Technical Services Cell

    1995-08-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using the Raydet shock tube based blast initiation system and reviews research work carried out on release of explosive energy in the drillhole, effect of stemming retention (stemming effectiveness) and advantages of `true bottom hole initiation` of drillholes in surface blasting. Some case studies are presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 75 FR 28861 - Walking-Working Surfaces and Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Benefits and Cost Effectiveness of the Proposed Revision to OSHA's Walking-Working Standards Annualized... Part II Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Walking... Walking-Working Surfaces and Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems) AGENCY: Occupational...

  5. Infrared surface analysis using a newly developed thin-sample preparation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naoto; Nishiyama, Itsuo; Kishima, Yoshio; Iida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a new sampling system, the Nano Catcher, for measuring the surface chemical structure of polymers or industrial products and we evaluated the performance of the system. The system can directly pick up surface species whose depth is on the order of approximately 100 nm and can easily provide a sample for a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system without the necessity of passing it over to a measurement plate. The FT-IR reflection data obtained from the Nano Catcher were compared with those obtained using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method and sampling by hand. Chemical structural analysis of a depth region from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers can be directly performed using this system. Such depths are beyond the scope of conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ATR methods. We can expect the use of the Nano Catcher system to lead to a great improvement in the detection of signals of surface species in these depth regions.

  6. The Virtual Steel Sculpture--Limit State Analyses and Applications of Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Karen C.; Moaveni, Saeed; Sapp, James D.

    2017-01-01

    The integrity of a structural system depends on the strength of materials, shape of the individual member and the elements used to hold the members together. In most undergraduate civil engineering curricula, a structural steel and/or reinforced concrete design course is required. Usually, the main focus of these courses is on member selection…

  7. Power System Mass Analysis for Hydrogen Reduction Oxygen Production on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    The production of oxygen from the lunar regolith requires both thermal and electrical power in roughly similar proportions. This unique power requirement is unlike most applications on the lunar surface. To efficiently meet these requirements, both solar PV array and solar concentrator systems were evaluated. The mass of various types of photovoltaic and concentrator based systems were calculated to determine the type of power system that provided the highest specific power. These were compared over a range of oxygen production rates. Also a hybrid type power system was also considered. This system utilized a photovoltaic array to produce the electrical power and a concentrator to provide the thermal power. For a single source system the three systems with the highest specific power were a flexible concentrator/Stirling engine system, a rigid concentrator/Stirling engine system and a tracking triple junction solar array system. These systems had specific power values of 43, 34, and 33 W/kg, respectively. The hybrid power system provided much higher specific power values then the single source systems. The best hybrid combinations were the triple junction solar array with the flexible concentrator and the rigid concentrator. These systems had a specific power of 81 and 68 W/kg, respectively.

  8. Prosthetically guided bone sculpturing for a maxillary complete-arch implant-supported monolithic zirconia fixed prosthesis based on a digital smile design: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Vizcaya, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    A digital smile design was used to create an average smile and to develop a removable interim restoration for an edentulous patient with a high smile line and different bone levels in the maxilla. The interim restoration was used as a guide to perform bone sculpturing to create space for the biological width and to restore a monolithic zirconia implant-supported fixed restoration. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system for investigating surface chemistry reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmer, Michael M.; Ham, Jason E.; Wells, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel system [field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) automation and control system] has been developed to deliver ozone to a surface utilizing the FLEC to simulate indoor surface chemistry. Ozone, humidity, and air flow rate to the surface were continuously monitored using an ultraviolet ozone monitor, humidity, and flow sensors. Data from these sensors were used as feedback for system control to maintain predetermined experimental parameters. The system was used to investigate the chemistry of ozone with α-terpineol on a vinyl surface over 72h. Keeping all other experimental parameters the same, volatile organic compound emissions from the vinyl tile with α-terpineol were collected from both zero and 100ppb(partsper109) ozone exposures. System stability profiles collected from sensor data indicated experimental parameters were maintained to within a few percent of initial settings. Ozone data from eight experiments at 100ppb (over 339h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.65ppb and a 95% tolerance of 3.3ppb. Humidity data from 17 experiments at 50% relative humidity (over 664h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.38% and a 95% tolerance of 2.77%. Data of the flow rate of air flowing through the FLEC from 14 experiments at 300ml/min (over 548h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 3.02ml/min and a 95% tolerance range of 6.03ml/min. Initial experimental results yielded long term emissions of ozone/α-terpineol reaction products, suggesting that surface chemistry could play an important role in indoor environments.

  10. Integration of CubeSat Systems with Europa Surface Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoǧan, Enes; Inalhan, Gokhan; Kemal Üre, Nazım

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies show that there is a high probability that a liquid ocean exists under thick icy surface of Jupiter's Moon Europa. The findings also show that Europa has features that are similar to Earth, such as geological activities. As a result of these studies, Europa has promising environment of being habitable and currently there are many missions in both planning and execution level that target Europa. However, these missions usually involve extremely high budgets over extended periods of time. The objective of this talk is to argue that the mission costs can be reduced significantly by integrating CubeSat systems within Europa exploration missions. In particular, we introduce an integrated CubeSat-micro probe system, which can be used for measuring the size and depth of the hypothetical liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa. The systems consist of an entry module that houses a CubeSat combined with driller measurement probes. Driller measurement probes deploy before the system hits the surface and penetrate the surface layers of Europa. Moreover, a micro laser probe could be used to examine the layers. This process enables investigation of the properties of the icy layer and the environment beneath the surface. Through examination of different scenarios and cost analysis of the components, we show that the proposed CubeSat systems has a significant potential to reduce the cost of the overall mission. Both subsystem requirements and launch prices of CubeSats are dramatically cheaper than currently used satellites. In addition, multiple CubeSats may be used to dominate wider area in space and they are expandable in face of potential failures. In this talk we discuss both the mission design and cost reduction aspects.

  11. Modeling Surface Processes Occurring on Moons of the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umurhan, O. M.; White, O. L.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, P.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of processes, some with familiar terrestrial analogs, are known to take place on moon surfaces in the outer solar system. In this talk, we discuss the observed features of mass wasting and surface transport seen on both Jupiter's moon Calisto and one of Saturn's Trojan moons Helene. We provide a number of numerical models using upgraded version of MARSSIM in support of several hypotheses suggested on behalf of the observations made regarding these objects. Calisto exhibits rolling plains of low albedo materials surrounding relatively high jutting peaks harboring high albedo deposits. Our modeling supports the interpretation that Calisto's surface is a record of erosion driven by the sublimation of CO2 and H2O contained in the bedrock. Both solar insolation and surface re-radiation drives the sublimation leaving behind debris which we interpret to be the observed darkened regolith and, further, the high albedo peaks are water ice deposits on surface cold traps. On the other hand, the 45 km scale Helene, being a milligravity environment, exhibits mysterious looking streaks and grooves of very high albedo materials extending for several kilometers with a down-sloping grade of 7o-9o. Helene's cratered terrain also shows evidence of narrowed septa. The observed surface features suggest some type of advective processes are at play in this system. Our modeling lends support to the suggestion that Helene's surface materials behave as a Bingham plastic material - our flow modeling with such rheologies can reproduce the observed pattern of streakiness depending upon the smoothness of the underlying bedrock; the overall gradients observed; and the narrowed septa of inter-crater regions.

  12. Expansion Hamiltonian model for a diatomic molecule adsorbed on a surface: Vibrational states of the CO/Cu(100) system including surface vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingyong, E-mail: mengqingyong@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, 116023 Dalian (China); Meyer, Hans-Dieter, E-mail: hans-dieter.meyer@pci.uni-heidelberg.de [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-10-28

    Molecular-surface studies are often done by assuming a corrugated, static (i.e., rigid) surface. To be able to investigate the effects that vibrations of surface atoms may have on spectra and cross sections, an expansion Hamiltonian model is proposed on the basis of the recently reported [R. Marquardt et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)] SAP potential energy surface (PES), which was built for the CO/Cu(100) system with a rigid surface. In contrast to other molecule-surface coupling models, such as the modified surface oscillator model, the coupling between the adsorbed molecule and the surface atoms is already included in the present expansion SAP-PES model, in which a Taylor expansion around the equilibrium positions of the surface atoms is performed. To test the quality of the Taylor expansion, a direct model, that is avoiding the expansion, is also studied. The latter, however, requests that there is only one movable surface atom included. On the basis of the present expansion and direct models, the effects of a moving top copper atom (the one to which CO is bound) on the energy levels of a bound CO/Cu(100) system are studied. For this purpose, the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree calculations are carried out to obtain the vibrational fundamentals and overtones of the CO/Cu(100) system including a movable top copper atom. In order to interpret the results, a simple model consisting of two coupled harmonic oscillators is introduced. From these calculations, the vibrational levels of the CO/Cu(100) system as function of the frequency of the top copper atom are discussed.

  13. Influence of roughness of machined surface on adhesion of anticorrosion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this experiment is to analyse dependence of roughness of machined surface on adhesion performance of various anticorrosion systems. In order to prepare samples for the experiment, samples were milled on a knee and column type of a horizontal milling machine. Depending on cutting conditions and machining tool, there were set intervals of roughness of machined surface which are commonly achievable on this type of machine. It is a roughness in the interval of 0.4–1.6 µm (finishing, 1.6–6.3 µm (standard milling a 6.3–12.5 µm (roughening. Removable cutting tips were used as a machining tool and for roughening, a shell end milling cutter NAREX 63x40 HSS 90 was used. Three types of anticorrosion systems were used in order to analyse the adhesion, that is a water-thinnable system Eternal, synthetic single layer coating Hostagrund and a duplex system, whose first layer is formed by dipped zinc and a top layer by a single-layer acrylate system Zinorex. Testing of the influence of surface roughness (anchoring system on adhesion of the individual anticorrosion systems were processed in compliance with the norm ČSN EN ISO 4624, a tearing test. The main criterion of adhesion of anticorrosion system is defined as a power which needed for tear-off testing object stuck to a tested sample. This analysis was processed also during the corrosion test in the salt spray environment according to the norm ČSN EN ISO 9227. In order to better identify the adhesion of the individual anticorrosion systems, the analysis of undercorrosion according to the norm ISO 4628-8 was processed.

  14. Agricultural contamination in soil-groundwater-surface water systems in the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje

    of China’s main agricultural production zones, accounting for about one third of the national grain output. The dominant crop system is a winter wheat and summer maize rotation. Beginning in the 1980s, in an effort to increase agricultural productivity, China’s government heavily promoted the use....... Additionally, nitrate was infiltrating from the surface of the field into the aquifer. Anammox, denitrification, and cation exchange were the suggested dominant removal processes in the soil-surface water-groundwater system examined in this study, which showed a very high nitrogen removal capacity. However......, if the composition of the river water were to change (if, for instance, the ammonium concentration were to decrease) the removal processes in the system would also be altered. Consequently, further monitoring of nitrate pollution is suggested. Regarding pesticides, a literature review and data assessment revealed...

  15. The Northeastern Brazil and Gabon Basins: a Double Rifting System Associated with Multiple Crustal Detachment Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Augusto Canellas M., Jr.

    1987-12-01

    Analysis of structural, stratigraphic, and gravimetric data from the Reconcavo, Tucano, and Sergipe-Alagoas basins in northeastern Brazil and the Gabon basin in Africa shows that these basins originated in a double rifting system associated with multiple crustal detachment surfaces and that the direction of dip of the detachment surfaces was reversed at the Vaza-Barris fault system. This geometry is in agreement with models and data from modern rifts, but it requires the existence of a predominantly extensional stress regime in the northern part of the South Atlantic during the early stages of oceanic evolution. Evidence for the existence of such a stress regime is given by application of kinematic constraints to Early Cretaceous reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean. Interpretation of the regional geologic setting suggests that the double rifting system and the point of final continental rupture were controlled by the preexisting structural orientation of the tectonic provinces in the Precambrian basement.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of an Au film system deposited on silicone oil surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Bo; Jin Jin Sheng; Ye Quan Lin; Lao Yan Feng; Jiao Zheng Kuan; Ye Gao Xiang

    2002-01-01

    An Au thin film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by the thermal deposition method, has been fabricated and its structure as well as electrical properties has been studied. A web-shaped characteristic surface morphology of the films is observed. The dc sheet resistance R of the metal films on the liquid surfaces is measured during and after deposition in situ by the four-probe method. The time dependence of the sheet resistance can be explained in terms of the film growth mechanism on the oil surface. The anomalous I-V characteristics of the film system can be interpreted as a competition among the local Joule heating, hopping and tunnelling effects. It is found that the dc third-harmonic coefficient B sub 0 and the zero-power resistance R sub 0 satisfy the power-law relation B sub 0 propor to R sub 0 sup 2 sup + sup w and the exponent w is close to zero. This result indicates that the hopping and tunnelling effects in the samples are much stronger than those of the other film systems. We also find I...

  17. Implant Surface Temperature Changes during Er:YAG Laser Irradiation with Different Cooling Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monzavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems.Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture.In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (P<0.001.Based on the results, no thermal damage was observed during implant surface decontamination by Er:YAG laser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.

  18. Surface-active and electrophysical semiconductors properties of the CdTe-CdSe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Bukashkina, T. L.; Ekkert, R. V.; Ushakov, O. V.; Kolesnikov, L. V.; Matyash, Yu I.

    2018-01-01

    Surface properties (acid-base, adsorptive, electrophysical) of binary and multicomponent semiconductors of the CdTe-CdSe system have been holistically studied. Changing patterns of the studied surface properties correlated among themselves and with changing patterns of the bulk physical and chemical properties have been revealed. The nature of active centers, acid-base, adsorptive and electronic interactions mechanisms have been determined with due account for local and collective factors The most active discovered adsorbents are recommended as primary transducers of CO trace impurities measuring cells.

  19. A Bacterial Surface Display System Expressing Cleavable Capsid Proteins of Human Norovirus: A Novel System to Discover Candidate Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the dominant cause of food-borne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. However, fundamental researches on HuNoVs, such as identification of viral receptors have been limited by the currently immature system to culture HuNoVs and the lack of efficient small animal models. Previously, we demonstrated that the recombinant protruding domain (P domain of HuNoVs capsid proteins were successfully anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with a plasmid expressing HuNoVs P protein fused with bacterial transmembrane anchor protein. The cell-surface-displayed P proteins could specifically recognize and bind to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, receptors of HuNoVs. In this study, an upgraded bacterial surface displayed system was developed as a new platform to discover candidate receptors of HuNoVs. A thrombin-susceptible “linker” sequence was added between the sequences of bacterial transmembrane anchor protein and P domain of HuNoV (GII.4 capsid protein in a plasmid that displays the functional P proteins on the surface of bacteria. In this new system, the surface-displayed HuNoV P proteins could be released by thrombin treatment. The released P proteins self-assembled into small particles, which were visualized by electron microscopy. The bacteria with the surface-displayed P proteins were incubated with pig stomach mucin which contained HBGAs. The bacteria-HuNoV P proteins-HBGAs complex could be collected by low speed centrifugation. The HuNoV P proteins-HBGAs complex was then separated from the recombinant bacterial surface by thrombin treatment. The released viral receptor was confirmed by using the monoclonal antibody against type A HBGA. It demonstrated that the new system was able to capture and easily isolate receptors of HuNoVs. This new strategy provides an alternative, easier approach for isolating unknown receptors/ligands of HuNoVs from different samples

  20. Low energy ion beam systems for surface analytical and structural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of low energy ion beam systems for surface analytical and structural studies. Areas where analytical methods which utilize ion beams can provide a unique insight into materials problems are discussed. The design criteria of ion beam systems for performing materials studies are described and the systems now being used by a number of laboratories are reviewed. Finally, several specific problems are described where the solution was provided at least in part by information provided by low energy ion analysis techniques

  1. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  2. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: Antonella.Fogliata@humanitas.it; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient's face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms' position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3 cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3 mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3 mm for displacement up to 1 cm and 1°, and 0.5 mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4 mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5 mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system.

  3. Automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling for therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuki, T

    2013-01-01

    An automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling was developed for therapeutic hypothermia, which is increasingly recommended for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest and neonatal asphyxia in several guidelines pertinent to resuscitation. Currently, water-surface cooling is the most widespread cooling method in therapeutic hypothermia. However, it requires large electric power for precise control and also needs water-cooling blankets which have potential for compression of patients by its own weight and for water leakage in ICU. Air-surface cooling does not have such problems and is more suitable for clinical use than water-surface cooling, because air has lower specific heat and density as well as the impossibility of the contamination in ICU by its leakage. In the present system, brain temperature of patients is automatically controlled by suitable adjustment of the temperature of the air blowing into the cooling blankets. This adjustment is carried out by the regulation of mixing cool and warm air using proportional control valves. The computer in the developed control apparatus suitably calculates the air temperature and rotation angle of the valves every sampling time on the basis of the optimal-adaptive control algorithm. Thus, the proposed system actualizes automatic control of brain temperature by the inputting only the clinically desired temperature of brain. The control performance of the suggested system was verified by the examination using the mannequin in substitution for an adult patient. In the result, the control error of the head temperature of the mannequin was 0.12 °C on average in spite of the lack of the production capacity of warm air after the re-warming period. Thus, this system serves as a model for the clinically applied system.

  4. Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices

  5. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions

  6. Activity of processes on the visible surface of planets of Solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    According to modern concepts bodies of the solar system formed from a single cloud of gas and dust. Calculations show that in the protoplanetary nebula where the temperature is lowered to 1600 K - appeared the first type of metal (aluminum and titanium) and metal oxides in the form of dust particles. With further decreasing temperature of the nebula to 1400 K - appeared also dust of iron and iron-nikel alloy; at 1300 K - appear solid silicates; magnesium minerals formed at T 1200 K. These components are material for the formation of basaltic rocks. At temperatures T 300 K begins to form water molecules. At 100-200 K in a remote part of the nebula - ammonia, methane and their ice are formed. In the outer part of Solar system this ices are now preserved in comet nuclei and in the icy satellites of giant planets. During T 400 million years after the formation of the Sun, at first - from dust component of the protoplanetary cloud was formed many intermediate bodies with the size of hundreds kilometers. Their gravitational interaction was reinforced in process of their grow. The bodies, which were growing fastest, they became the embryos of the future planets. All bodies of the solar system in different degrees show manifestations of different types of activity processes on the surface or at the level of the visible clouds. This activity depends on the distance of a particular body from the Sun, surface chemical composition, physical conditions at the surface and so on. The farther away from the Sun is the object, the temperature of its visible surface is lower, and by that more interesting is the set of processes, of chemical and physical transformations that there is possible to register. The surface of each planets of Solar system is very active in a variety of set temperature and chemical composition

  7. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions.

  8. A Novel Active Imaging Model to Design Visual Systems: A Case of Inspection System for Specular Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azorin-Lopez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual information is a very well known input from different kinds of sensors. However, most of the perception problems are individually modeled and tackled. It is necessary to provide a general imaging model that allows us to parametrize different input systems as well as their problems and possible solutions. In this paper, we present an active vision model considering the imaging system as a whole (including camera, lighting system, object to be perceived in order to propose solutions to automated visual systems that present problems that we perceive. As a concrete case study, we instantiate the model in a real application and still challenging problem: automated visual inspection. It is one of the most used quality control systems to detect defects on manufactured objects. However, it presents problems for specular products. We model these perception problems taking into account environmental conditions and camera parameters that allow a system to properly perceive the specific object characteristics to determine defects on surfaces. The validation of the model has been carried out using simulations providing an efficient way to perform a large set of tests (different environment conditions and camera parameters as a previous step of experimentation in real manufacturing environments, which more complex in terms of instrumentation and more expensive. Results prove the success of the model application adjusting scale, viewpoint and lighting conditions to detect structural and color defects on specular surfaces.

  9. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  10. Asymptotic solutions for MHD systems with a rapid jump near a moving surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allilueva, Anna I.; Shafarevich, Andrei I.

    2018-02-01

    We study the Cauchy problem for a nonlinear system of Magnetohydrodynamics. The viscosity and conductivity are assumed to be small and the initial fields are assumed to jump rapidly near certain smooth 2D-surface in 3D-space. We construct formal asymptotic solution for this Cauchy problem. We study the spatial structure and time behavior of the solution. In particular, we derive free boundary problem for the limit values of the magnetic field and the velocity field of the fluid. This problem also governs the evolution of the surface of the jump. We derive equations on the moving surface, describing the evolution of the field profile. In particular, we prove that the effect of the instantaneous growth of the magnetic field takes place only for degenerate asymptotic modes.

  11. Application of diffractive elements for improving the efficiency of systems for cylindrical surface inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavyalov, P. S.; Karlin, V. E.; Kravchenko, M. S.; Finogenov, L. V.; Khakimov, D. R.

    2017-09-01

    An improved method of structural lighting for increasing the efficiency of inspection of the cylindrical object surface appearance is considered. The method is based on using a diffractive optical element to reduce the amount of recorded data due to illuminating the test object at an angle to the image recording plane, which is normal to the inspected surface. Implementation of the proposed method implies the use of several identical channels. For this reason, one channel is considered in the present study. Calculations of diffractive elements, a description of the experimental setup, and results of experiments aimed at determining the depth of surface defects on objects simulating fuel pellets and fuel elements are presented. Implementation of the investigated method with defect depth determination in industrial systems of inspection of fuel pellets and fuel elements is expected to improve the quality of the fuel for atomic power stations.

  12. Impacts of surface gold mining on land use systems in Western Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Vivian; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Schröder, Hilmar

    2011-07-01

    Land use conflicts are becoming increasingly apparent from local to global scales. Surface gold mining is an extreme source of such a conflict, but mining impacts on local livelihoods often remain unclear. Our goal here was to assess land cover change due to gold surface mining in Western Ghana, one of the world's leading gold mining regions, and to study how these changes affected land use systems. We used Landsat satellite images from 1986-2002 to map land cover change and field interviews with farmers to understand the livelihood implications of mining-related land cover change. Our results showed that surface mining resulted in deforestation (58%), a substantial loss of farmland (45%) within mining concessions, and widespread spill-over effects as relocated farmers expand farmland into forests. This points to rapidly eroding livelihood foundations, suggesting that the environmental and social costs of Ghana's gold boom may be much higher than previously thought.

  13. Surface inspection system for industrial components based on shape from shading minimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotan, Muhammed; Öz, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    An inspection system using estimated three-dimensional (3-D) surface characteristics information to detect and classify the faults to increase the quality control on the frequently used industrial components is proposed. Shape from shading (SFS) is one of the basic and classic 3-D shape recovery problems in computer vision. In our application, we developed a system using Frankot and Chellappa SFS method based on the minimization of the selected basis function. First, the specialized image acquisition system captured the images of the component. To eliminate noise, wavelet transform is applied to the taken images. Then, estimated gradients were used to obtain depth and surface profiles. Depth information was used to determine and classify the surface defects. Also, a comparison made with some linearization-based SFS algorithms was discussed. The developed system was applied to real products and the results indicated that using SFS approaches is useful and various types of defects can easily be detected in a short period of time.

  14. Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escola, George

    2007-01-17

    Recuperators have been identified as key components of advanced gas turbines systems that achieve a measure of improvement in operating efficiency and lead the field in achieving very low emissions. Every gas turbine manufacturer that is studying, developing, or commercializing advanced recuperated gas turbine cycles requests that recuperators operate at higher temperature without a reduction in design life and must cost less. The Solar Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems Program is directed towards meeting the future requirements of advanced gas turbine systems by the following: (1) The development of advanced alloys that will allow recuperator inlet exhaust gas temperatures to increase without significant cost increase. (2) Further characterization of the creep and oxidation (dry and humid air) properties of nickel alloy foils (less than 0.13 mm thick) to allow the economical use of these materials. (3) Increasing the use of advanced robotic systems and advanced in-process statistical measurement systems.

  15. Evaluation of two microwave surface distribution systems designed for substratum and agricultural soil disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez Martí, B.; Gracia López, C.

    2004-01-01

    Heat treatment by microwave for soil disinfection may represent an alternative to chemical treatments. One of the main problems in the design of microwave applicators for agricultural soil disinfection is to achieve a homogeneous surface energy distribution. This work has been carried out in order to evaluate two systems which can solve this problem: the first one is based on the use of a slotted waveguide and the other is based on overlapping the radiation of several magnetrons working simultaneously. Initially, the systems were modelled using an algorithm based on Maxwell equations in order to give a first overview of the system functioning. In a second step, the models were validated by comparison with thermal maps obtained empirically. As a consequence of this work we propose a redesign of the slotted waveguide system to improve the homogeneity of the temperature distribution over a large radiation area. The overlapping system gave adequate homogeneity for commercial purposes [es

  16. Impact of surface coated magnetite used in magnetic drug delivery system on immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaku, Yoshihiro; Tamada, Junya; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a technique to effectively accumulate drugs, which are combined with ferromagnetic particles, into the affected area using magnetic force control. This study intends to apply MDDS for immunotherapy by enhancing immune responses by a surface treatment of a ferromagnetic particle. The objective of this study is to give the adjuvant effect to a ferromagnetic particle by the surface treatment with alum, which is known as one of the common adjuvants that activates inflammasome pathway. First, magnetite was prepared as a ferromagnetic particle and coated with alum. Alum-coated magnetite increased the expression of caspase-1, which is an activated indicator of inflammasome, in the culture of human monocyte cell (THP-1 cell). To evaluate the potential of the surface coated particles, the particles were subcutaneously injected to mice with a peptide vaccine. As a result, the antibody titer was increased by the surface coated particles as assessed by ELISA. Although a magnetic force has not yet applied in this study, the administration experiment to mice using magnetic force control is our next step. In conclusion, we modified the immune response to magnetite by coating the surface with alum. This can lead to a clinical application for vaccine therapy in future.

  17. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995 - May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible

  18. A Visual Detection System for Determining Tritium Surface Deposition Employing Phosphor Coated Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Young, K.M.; Zweben, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    A method for visually observing tritium deposition on the surface of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) deuterium-tritium (D-T) tiles is being investigated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A green phosphor (P31, zinc sulfide: copper) similar to that used in oscilloscope screens with a wavelength peak of 530 nm was positioned on the surface of a TFTR D-T tile. The approximately 600 gram tile, which contains approximately 1.5 Ci of tritium located on the top approximately 1-50 microns of the surface, was placed in a two liter lexan chamber at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP). The phosphor plates and phosphor powder were placed on the surface of the tile which resulted in visible light being observed, the consequence of tritium betas interacting with the phosphor. This technique provides a method of visually observing varying concentrations of tritium on the surface of D-T carbon tiles, and may be employed (in a calibrated system) to obtain quantitative data

  19. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible.

  20. Application of the functional surface/interface of Nano/Micro systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiping

    Investigation of the surface/ interface of Nano/Micro systems plays an essential role in lots of areas, include the synthesis and assembly of nanostructures, evaporation of liquid, etc. Through studying the interaction between the polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and the surface of the silver nanowires (AgNWs), it was found that the PVP, serving as a capping agent, has a great impact on the morphology and structure of AgNWs. By means of a series of experiments, the critical minimum PVP chain length for successful formation of uniform nanowires was discovered, below which, only nanoparticles or short Nano rods can be obtained. Surprisingly, a core-shell structure of nanowire with a polycrystal was observed when the PVP with very long chain length was employed in the processing. By controlling the interaction between the Ag NWs and the surface of the substrates, a one-step method was developed for the fabrication of electrodes with patterns. Such film comprising Ag NWs were only self-growing or grafted on a hydrophilic surface area instead of the hydrophobic one. Thus, the selective patterning of the conducting film on the hybrid substrate surface can be realized, which is etching-free method for metal removal usually for the fabrication of electrodes by lithographic process or laser cutting. Therefore, such technique for producing conducting film is green and environmental friendly. A biochip based silver nano dendritic structures was fabricated to detect Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is a common tumor marker in clinical tests. Results show that the Raman signal of the CEA enhanced by about 10 4 times compared with silver nanowires, which is capable of detecting CEA at 1 fg/mL. The surface of liquid water, especial the hydration of ions on the surface, which are of fundamental interest and have potential applications, remain unclear. A fantastic and extraordinary phenomenon was observed during the evaporation of a water droplet doped with manganese chloride. As