WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface science letters

  1. Letter to European Science Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Département de Linguistique AppliquéeEt de Didactique des languesDirecteur : Claude Springerhttp://dladl.u-strasbg.fr Dr. Rüdiger KleinEUROCORES Programme CoordinatorEuropean Science Foundation1, quai Lezay MarnésiaBP 90015F-67080 Strasbourg Cedex Strasbourg, le 22 mai 2006 Dear colleague, The Editorial Board of the journal ALSIC (Apprentissage des langues et système d’information et de communication which comprises 45 people from universities in 9 different countries was astonished to note...

  2. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  3. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  4. Letter to the Editor | Joob | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to the Editor. B Joob, V Wiwanitkit. Abstract. Ebola outbreak in west Africa ...

  5. Letter to Editor | Kieran | Annals of Medical and Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to Editor. W Kieran. Abstract.

  6. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics Today, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Presents eight readers' letters and one editor's reply in which discussions are related to effects of zero-population growth on scientific creativity, employment crisis of industrial physicists, efficiency of ionic pumps, and the naming system of laws and effects in physics. (CC)

  7. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  8. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  9. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  10. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  11. Surface science and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Modern surface science studies have explored a large number of metal catalyst systems. Three classes of catalytic reactions can be identified: (1) those that occur over the metal surface; (2) reactions that take place on top of a strongly adsorbed overlayer and (3) reactions that occur on co-adsorbate modified surfaces. Case histories for each class are presented. 44 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Surface science an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, John

    1991-01-01

    The whole field of surface science is covered in this work. Starting with a description of the structure and thermodynamics of clean surfaces, the book goes on to discuss kinetic theory of gases and molecular beam formation. This is followed by a largesection on gas-surface interactions, and another major section on energetic particle-surface interactions. The final chapter provides the background to crystal nucleation and growth. The approach adopted is interdisciplinary and slanted towards theexperimental side, with practical analytical techniques being used to illustrate general princi

  13. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  14. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  15. Response to the Letter to the Editor of Crop Science from Donald R. Davis regarding our research article published in Crop Science (2011: 51:2721-2727)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...

  16. Solvay Conference on Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The articles collected in this volume give a broad overview of the current state of surface science. Pioneers in the field and researchers met together at this Solvay Conference to discuss important new developments in surface science, with an emphasis on the common area between solid state physics and physical chemistry. The contributions deal with the following subjects: structure of surfaces, surface science and catalysis, two-dimensional physics and phase transitions, scanning tunneling microscopy, surface scattering and surface dynamics, chemical reactions at surfaces, solid-solid interfaces and superlattices, and surface studies with synchrotron radiation. On each of these subjects an introductory review talk and a number of short research contributions are followed by extensive discussions, which appear in full in the text. This nineteenth Solvay Conference commemorates the 75th anniversary of the Solvay Institutes.

  17. Undergraduate Laboratory for Surface Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Mitchio; Beauchamp, Jesse L.; Dickert, Jeffrey M.; Essy, Blair R.; Claypool, Christopher L.

    1996-02-01

    Surface science has developed into a multidisciplinary field of research with applications ranging from heterogeneous catalysis to semiconductor etching (1). Aspects of surface chemistry are now included in physical chemistry textbooks (2) and undergraduate curricula (3), but the perceived cost and complexity of equipment has deterred the introduction of surface science methods in undergraduate laboratories (4). Efforts to expose chemistry undergraduates to state-of-the-art surface instrumentation have just begun (5). To provide our undergraduates with hands-on experience in using standard techniques for characterizing surface morphology, adsorbates, kinetics, and reaction mechanisms, we have developed a set of surface science experiments for our physical chemistry laboratory sequence. The centerpiece of the laboratory is an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for studies of single crystal surfaces. This instrument, shown in the figure, has surface analysis capabilities including low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The laboratory exercises involve experiments on the well-studied Pt(111) surface. Students prepare a previously mounted single crystal sample by sputtering it with an argon ion gun and heating it under O2. Electron diffraction patterns from the cleaned surface are then obtained with a reverse view LEED apparatus (Princeton Instruments). Images are captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera interfaced to a personal computer for easy downloading and subsequent analysis. Although the LEED images from a Pt(111) surface can be readily interpreted using simple diffraction arguments, this lab provides an excellent context for introducing Miller indices and reciprocal lattices (6). The surface chemical composition can be investigated by Auger spectroscopy, using the LEED apparatus as a simple energy analyzer. The temperature programmed desorption experiment, which is nearly complete, will be

  18. The surface science of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    One of the largest challenges to science in the coming years is to find the relation between enzyme structure and function. Can we predict which reactions an enzyme catalyzes from knowledge of its structure-or from its amino acid sequence? Can we use that knowledge to modify enzyme function......? To solve these problems we must understand in some detail how enzymes interact with reactants from its surroundings. These interactions take place at the surface of the enzyme and the question of enzyme function can be viewed as the surface science of enzymes. In this article we discuss how to describe...... catalysis by enzymes, and in particular the analogies between enzyme catalyzed reactions and surface catalyzed reactions. We do this by discussing two concrete examples of reactions catalyzed both in nature (by enzymes) and in industrial reactors (by inorganic materials), and show that although analogies...

  19. Modern techniques of surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, D Phil

    2016-01-01

    This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation tec...

  20. How old is surface science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paparazzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces

  1. How old is surface science?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparazzo, E. E-mail: paparazzo@ism.cnr.it

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces.

  2. Letter to the editor | Goyal | Annals of Medical and Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to the editor. JP Goyal, VB Shah. Abstract. Pustulovesicular Skin Eruption as Presenting Feature of Incomplete Kawasaki Disease. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Augmentation Award for Surface Science Research Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sibener, Steven

    1996-01-01

    This AASERT grant provided augmentation funds that helped support US citizen graduate student research in the area of surface science as it pertains to gas-surface reactions, collisional energy transfer...

  4. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 6 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the progress in surface and membrane science; the solid state chemistry of the silver halide surface; and the experimental and theoretical aspects of the double layer at the mercury-solution interface. The text also describes contact-angle hysteresis; ion binding and ion transport produced by neutral lipid-soluble molecules; and the biophysical interactions of blood proteins with polymeric and artificial surfaces. Physical chemists, biophysicists, and phys

  5. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1977-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 11 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the quantum theory of surface phenomena; some fundamental aspects of electrocrystallization; and exoelectric emission. The text also describes the surface of titanium dioxide; and the prospects for atomic resolution electron microscopy in membranology. Chemists, physicists, and people involved in the electrochemical power laboratory will find the book useful.

  6. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved beyond being a sub-field of chemistry or physics and has now become an underpinning science. The Third Edition of this book incorporates extensive worked solutions, as well as details on how problem solving relevant to surface science should be performed. It contextualizes the exercises and their solutions to further explicate the methods of problem solving, application of scientific principles and to deliver a deeper understanding of the field of surface science. Solutions will be accompanied by figures and/or graphs of data, as appropriate.

  7. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved from being a sub-field of chemistry or physics, and has now established itself as an interdisciplinary topic. Knowledge has developed sufficiently that we can now understand catalysis from a surface science perspective. No-where is the underpinning nature of surface science better illustrated than with nanoscience. Now in its third edition, this successful textbook aims to provide students with an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces. The chapters build from simple to more advanced principles with each featuring exerc

  8. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1972-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 5 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the Mössbauer effect in surface science; the surface functional groups on carbon and silica; and the wetting phenomena pertaining to adhesion. The text also describes the physical state of phospholipids and cholesterol in monolayers, bilayers, and membranes; the characteristics of heterocoagulation; and the effects of calcium on excitable membranes and neurotransmitter action. Chemists, physiologists, biophysicists, and civil engineers will find the book i

  9. European Society for the History of Science - Letter from the future president

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrbáňová, Soňa

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2010), s. 361-362 ISSN 0008-8994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520; CEZ:AV0Z80770509 Keywords : history of science and technology * European Society for the History of Science Subject RIV: AB - History

  10. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1979-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 12 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the topographical differentiation of the cell surface; the NMR studies of model biological membrane system; and an irreversible thermodynamic approach to energy coupling in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The text also describes water at surfaces; the nature of microemulsions; and the energy principle in the stability of interfaces. Biochemists, physicists, chemical engineers, and people involved in surface and coatings research will find the book invaluable.

  11. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 4 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses waves at interfaces; recent investigations on the thickness of surface layers; and surface analysis by low-energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The text also describes the anode electrolyte interface; the interactions of adsorbed proteins and polypeptides at interfaces; and peptide-induced ion transport in synthetic and biological membranes. The monolayer adsorption on crystalline surfaces is also considered. Chemists and metallurgi

  12. Topics in theoretical surface science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, R.

    1991-10-25

    The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  14. Recent progress in surface science v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Riddiford, A C

    1964-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 2 is a 10-chapter text that covers the significant advances in some aspects of surface science, including in catalysis, genetic control of cell surface, and cell membrane. The opening chapter deals with the major factors affecting adsorption at the gas-solid interface. The subsequent chapters explore the advances in understanding of heterogeneous catalysis in terms of fundamental surface processes, as well as the concept of dynamic contact angles. These topics are followed by discussions on emulsions, flotation, and the extraordinary complexity of cel

  15. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1974-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the applications of statistical mechanics to physical adsorption; the impact of electron spectroscopy and cognate techniques on the study of solid surfaces; and the ellipsometric studies of thin films. The text also describes the interfacial photochemistry of bilayer lipid membranes; cell junctions and their development; and the composition and function of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The role of the cell surface in contact inhibition of cell division

  16. Current trends of surface science and catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong Young

    2014-01-01

    Including detail on applying surface science in renewable energy conversion, this book covers the latest results on model catalysts including single crystals, bridging "materials and pressure gaps", and hot electron flows in heterogeneous catalysis.

  17. Report of the surface science workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized. (GHT)

  18. Report of the surface science workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized

  19. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1975-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 9 covers the developments in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the physical adsorption of gases and vapors in micropores; the chemisorption theory; and the role of radioisotopes in the studies of chemisorption and catalysis. The text also describes the interaction of ions with monolayers; and the isolation and characterization of mycoplasma membranes. Chemists, physical chemists, and microbiologists will find the book useful.

  20. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  1. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1976-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 10 covers the advances in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the selective changes of cellular particles influencing sedimentation properties; and the rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes in investigations of surface phenomena at the metal-electrolyte interface. The text also describes the membrane potential of phospholipid bilayer and biological membranes; the adsorption of surfactant monolayers at gas/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces; and the enzymes immobilized on glass. Chemists and people involved in electrochemistry will

  2. Technical activities, 1990: Surface Science Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The report summarizes technical activities and accomplishments of the NIST Surface Science Division during Fiscal Year 1990. Overviews are presented of the Division and of its three constituent groups: Surface Dynamical Processes, Thin Films and Interfaces, and Surface Spectroscopies and Standards. These overviews are followed by reports of selected technical accomplishments during the year. A summary is given of Division outputs and interactions that includes lists of publications, talks, committee assignments, seminars (including both Division seminars and Interface Science seminars arranged through the Division), conferences organized, and a standard reference material certified. Finally, lists are given of Division staff and of guest scientists who have worked in the Division during the past year

  3. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the theoretical and experimental aspects of the van der Waals forces; the electric double layer on the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; and the long-range and short-range order in adsorbed films. The text also describes the hydrodynamical theory of surface shear viscosity; the structure and properties of monolayers of synthetic polypeptides at the air-water interface; and the structure and molecular dynamics of water. The role of glycoproteins in cell

  4. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1981-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 14 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses statistical thermodynamics of monolayer adsorption from gas and liquid mixtures on homogeneous and heterogeneous solid surfaces; and the structure of the boundary layers of liquids and its influence on the mass transfer in fine pores. The text then describes the coupling of ionic and non-electrolyte fluxes in ion selective membranes; the electrocatalytic properties of matalloporphins at the interface; and the adsorption from binary gas and liquid phases. Phas

  5. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  6. Practical guide to surface science and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2001-01-01

    Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to surface science as well as describes the basic analytical techniques that researchers use to understand what occurs at the surfaces of materials and at their interfaces. These techniques include auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, inelastic scattering of electrons and ions, low energy electron diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and interfacial segregation. Understanding the behavior of materials at their surfaces is essential for materials scientists and engineers as they design and fabricate microelectronics and semiconductor devices. The book gives over 100 examples, discussion questions and problems with varying levels of difficulty. Included with this book is a CD-ROM, which not only contains the same information, but also provides many elements of animation and interaction that are not easily emulated on paper. In diverse subject matters ranging from the operation of ion pumps, computer-...

  7. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The imaginary Sun? Harold Aspden Energy Science Ltd, PO Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, UK Difficult physics? Tim Akrill Chief Examiner, A-level Physics, Edexcel Foundation Was it a dream? Bill Jarvis 6 Peggy's Mill Road, Edinburgh EH4 6JY

  8. Surface science principles and current applications

    CERN Document Server

    Taglauer, E; Wandelt, K

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies increasingly rely on low-dimensional physics at interfaces and in thin-films and nano-structures. Surface science holds a key position in providing the experimental methods and theoretical models for a basic understanding of these effects. This book includes case studies and status reports about research topics such as: surface structure determination by tensor-LEED and surface X-ray diffraction; the preparation and detection of low-dimensional electronic surface states; quantitative surface compositional analysis; the dynamics of adsorption and reaction of adsorbates, e.g. kinetic oscillations; the characterization and control of thin-film and multilayer growth including the influence of surfactants; a critical assessment of the surface physics approach to heterogeneous catalysis.

  9. When Islamic Spirituality Meets Magic: Aḥmad ibn ‘alī al-būnī (d. 622/1225 and the Science of Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Iffah Naf'atu Fina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a balanced and comprehensive reading of al-Būnī, who is mainly known as a scholar of Islamic magic, instead of a Sufi. This is because his name and works are widely known and referred in the Islamic world even into the present, including in Indonesia. To accomplish this agenda, this paper examines al-Būnī’s ideas on the science of letters across his works in order to determine how they are rooted in the principles of Islamic spiritualy. From the examination of al-Būnī’s science of letters, it can be seen that Islamic spirituality underlies his works: in the centrality of God and in sober Sufi devotions such as dhikr and fasting, as the complement of the magical materials. Furthermore, while he was a respectable Sufi at that time, he also wrote books in which he explored the Arabic letters primarily from an Islamic spirituality approach. By combining magical practice and Islamic spirituality, al-Būnī provided practical Sufism for the masses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i2.814

  10. The surface science of titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature on rutile (1 1 0), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), and anatase surfaces is reviewed. This paper starts with a summary of the wide variety of technical fields where TiO 2 is of importance. The bulk structure and bulk defects (as far as relevant to the surface properties) are briefly reviewed. Rules to predict stable oxide surfaces are exemplified on rutile (1 1 0). The surface structure of rutile (1 1 0) is discussed in some detail. Theoretically predicted and experimentally determined relaxations of surface geometries are compared, and defects (step edge orientations, point and line defects, impurities, surface manifestations of crystallographic shear planes—CSPs) are discussed, as well as the image contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The controversy about the correct model for the (1×2) reconstruction appears to be settled. Different surface preparation methods, such as reoxidation of reduced crystals, can cause a drastic effect on surface geometries and morphology, and recommendations for preparing different TiO 2(1 1 0) surfaces are given. The structure of the TiO 2(1 0 0)-(1×1) surface is discussed and the proposed models for the (1×3) reconstruction are critically reviewed. Very recent results on anatase (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces are included. The electronic structure of stoichiometric TiO 2 surfaces is now well understood. Surface defects can be detected with a variety of surface spectroscopies. The vibrational structure is dominated by strong Fuchs-Kliewer phonons, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectra often need to be deconvoluted in order to render useful information about adsorbed molecules. The growth of metals (Li, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) as well as some metal oxides on TiO 2 is reviewed. The tendency to 'wet' the overlayer, the growth morphology, the

  11. Recent progress in surface science 3

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Rosenberg, M D

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 3 covers topics on the structure and mechanisms of the cell membranes. The book discusses the incorporation of chemisorbed species; the recent developments in the study of epitaxy; and the ""diffusion"" or ""hydride"" component of overpotential at cathodes of the ""platinum metals"". The text also describes the mechanism of hydrogen exchange in proteins; the nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipids, lipoproteins, and cell membranes; and the monolayers of synthetic phospholipids. The formation, electrical properties, transport, and excitability cha

  12. Letter: Meyerhofer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This letter confirms that the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was an important part of the FY10 NIF Polar Drive Exploding Pusher experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments were designed by LLE to produce requested neutron yields to calibrate and qualify nuclear diagnostics. LLE built a deuterium-tritium filling system for the glass shells and provided them to LLNL for mounting. In FY10, four exploding pusher implosions were performed with measured neutron yields within a factor of two of requested and ion temperatures within 20% of requested. These implosions are proving to be an ideal platform for commissioning the nuclear diagnostic suite on the NIF and are achieving all of the objectives planned for this campaign.

  13. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    cover image of this issue honors this achievement. It shows 27 chiral heptahelicene molecules arranged by one of the guest editors (KHE) with the very same STM at IBM Almaden Research Center, San José that was used for moving xenon atoms more than 20 years ago. Karl-Heinz Rieder's career, as briefly outlined in the biography by G Benedek in this issue, reflected this paradigm shift in surface science from reciprocal to real space investigations: initially focusing on helium scattering as a superior technique for the investigation of delicate surfaces, his group at the Freie University in Berlin became the second in the world to rearrange atoms and molecules at surfaces in a controlled way and they generated much of the foundational work of low temperature STM investigations. Besides his saxophone skills and many other hobbies, Karl-Heinz is a real poet and loves composing funny limericks and spoonerisms. He wrote the following poem (passed on to us by W-D Schneider) at the International School of Solid State Physics in 1998 in Erice, Italy. It is a real masterpiece, beautifully summarizing us all, the 'Surface Science Society'. The top atom sheetSome become real slaves is important and neat.looking at standing waves. Therefore there is a strong raceThe producers of coatings in the science of surface.get really good quotings. To clean it you needStill others use new ways ions and heat.with electrons and x-rays. Then the atoms arrangeAnd all has to be in some ways that are strange,in good UHV—except theory, they relax, reconstructwhich thinks on extensions as a matter of fact.to still lower dimensions, And reacting with gasesand with lots of computing they form quite new phasestries to get solid footing. with large unit cellsSo everybody with joy as diffraction tells.plays his own special toy. Some people use lightAnd all think they are better from a synchrotron brightshould get published a letter. and claim it is bestBut before there's more cluster to do this in

  14. Editorial Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vitor Lemos Cravo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest edition of the journal Fronteiras 2015: Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science, is available with the welcome news of being approved on the assessment done by Scopus Title Evaluation Support to compose the indexed periodicals by Elsevier / Scopus. Scopus represents one of the most important scientific journal data bases, with a comprehensive view of the world's research output in science, technology, medicine, social sciences and arts and humanities. In a time where science communication becomes increasingly global, interdisciplinary and collaborative, this recognition helps guide us ever more greatly in seeking out this mission and vision for Fronteiras. It is in this sense that the volume 4, number 3 (2015 proposes to accomplish a part of this mission, now with the backing of another important database reference in scientific dissemination that is Scopus

  15. Thermochemical Surface Engineering: A Playground for Science and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    at the surface. Current research and innovation activities are used to exemplify thermochemical surface engineering and the interplay of science and innovation. The examples given encompass aspects of the synthesis of extremely porous materials, low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel, surface...

  16. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on quantum field theory and symmetries in nuclear physics, multifractal analysis of AFM images of Nb thin film surfaces, the fast-acting memory for multichannel converters of time to digital, an analysis of the anomalous Cherenkov radiation obtained in the relativistic lead ion beam at CERN SPS, the problem of consistency of the thermal-spike model with experimentally determined electron temperature, ATLAS calorimeter performance for charged pion as well as on collective flow in multifragmentation induced by relativistic helium and carbon ions variation of the coulomb repulsion in multifragmentation

  17. Workshop on surface and interface science at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.; Schmidt, S.; Hufner, S.; Moritz, W.; Fedley, Ch.S.; Rossi, G.; Durr Hermann, A.; Rohlsberger, R.; Dalmas, J.; Oughaddou, H.; Leandri, Ch.; Gay, J.M.; Treglia, G.; Le Lay, G.; Aufray, B.; Bunk, O.; Johnson, R.L.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Lucas, C.A.; Bauer, G.; Zhong, Z.; Springholz, G.; Lechner, R.; Stang, J.; Schulli, T.; Metzger, T.H.; Holy, V.; Woodruff, D.P.; Dellera, C.; Zegenhagen, J.; Robinson, I.; Malachias, A.; Schulli, T.U.; Magalhaes-Paniago, R.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Valbusa, U.; Felici, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Van der Veen, J.F

    2004-07-01

    The main aim of the workshop is to reflect the future of surface and interface research at the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source ESRF taking into account experimental facilities which are becoming available at new synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe. 6 sessions have been organized: 1) surface and interface research and synchrotron radiation - today and tomorrow -, 2) aspects of surface and interface research, 3) real surfaces and interfaces, 4) synchrotron techniques in surface and interface research, 5) new directions in surface and interface research, and 6) surface and interface science at ESRF. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  18. Workshop on surface and interface science at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.; Schmidt, S.; Hufner, S.; Moritz, W.; Fedley, Ch.S.; Rossi, G.; Durr Hermann, A.; Rohlsberger, R.; Dalmas, J.; Oughaddou, H.; Leandri, Ch.; Gay, J.M.; Treglia, G.; Le Lay, G.; Aufray, B.; Bunk, O.; Johnson, R.L.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Lucas, C.A.; Bauer, G.; Zhong, Z.; Springholz, G.; Lechner, R.; Stang, J.; Schulli, T.; Metzger, T.H.; Holy, V.; Woodruff, D.P.; Dellera, C.; Zegenhagen, J.; Robinson, I.; Malachias, A.; Schulli, T.U.; Magalhaes-Paniago, R.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Valbusa, U.; Felici, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Van der Veen, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the workshop is to reflect the future of surface and interface research at the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source ESRF taking into account experimental facilities which are becoming available at new synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe. 6 sessions have been organized: 1) surface and interface research and synchrotron radiation - today and tomorrow -, 2) aspects of surface and interface research, 3) real surfaces and interfaces, 4) synchrotron techniques in surface and interface research, 5) new directions in surface and interface research, and 6) surface and interface science at ESRF. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  19. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  20. Van: An Open Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  1. ["The Society for letters and natural science" The young Ole H. Mynster and the chemical revolution around 1800].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    Ole H. Mynster (1772-1818) was a stepson of the leading physician at the Royal Frederik Hospital in Copenhagen. At an early age he became fond of zoology and mineralogy. He created "societies" in Enlightenment-style for boys and young people with lectures and collections. Later on a circle of talented young students, scientists and poets met in his small room at the hospital. Some of them with Ole Mynster as the head set up a modern scientific journal, Physicalsk, oeconomisk og medicochirurgisk Bibliotek for Danmark og Norge which encouraged the introduction of antiphlogistic chemistry. Ole Mynster became physician at the Royal Frederik Hospital and lecturer in clinical pharmacology. He wrote the first book in Danish on pharmacology based upon chemistry. In their memoirs, prominent members of his circle have told about him, and his son F.L. Mynster has written a draft for a biography. An overview of the activities within natural science and medicine of the young Ole Hieronymus Mynster is presented.

  2. Learning in Science: A Comparison of Deep and Surface Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Christine; Brown, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the differences between deep and surface approaches to learning science. Findings indicate that the deep-surface learning differences fall into five categories: (1) generative thinking; (2) nature of explanations; (3) asking questions; (4) metacognitive activity; and (5) approach to tasks. Suggests that teachers can encourage a deep…

  3. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on liquid argon pollution tests of the ATLAS detector materials at IBR-2 reactor in Dubna, irradiation tests of readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters, study of neutron induced outgassing from tungsten alloy for ATLAS FCAL, yields of nuclear reaction products from a thick beryllium target bombarded by beams of 7 Li, 11 B and 15 N ions as well as on the mass surface and the properties of nuclides close to hypothetic doubly magic lead-164, the Web-site of information-diagnostic system of IBR-2 pulsed neutron source state, discovery of η-mesic nuclei and calculation of the ion angular distributions after the ionization in ion-atom collisions

  4. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on status of 116 Cd double β decay study with 116 CdWO 4 scintillators, new limits on 2β processes in 40 Ca and 46 Ca by using low radioactive CaF 2 (Eu) crystal scintillators, the single state dominance in 2νββ-decay transitions to excited 0 + and 2 + final states, present status of the MONOLITH project, technique of neutrino-induced muon detection on the Earth surface, high-sensitive spectrometer of fast neutrons and the results of fast neutron background flux measurements at the gallium-germanium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE), new experimental limits on the electron stability and excitation of nuclear levels in 23 Na, 127 I and 129 Xe induced by the electron decay on the atomic shell and element-loaded organic scintillators for neutron and neutrino physics

  5. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy analytical, biophysical and life science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlücker, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Covering everything from the basic theoretical and practical knowledge to new exciting developments in the field with a focus on analytical and life science applications, this monograph shows how to apply surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for solving real world problems. From the contents: * Theory and practice of SERS * Analytical applications * SERS combined with other analytical techniques * Biophysical applications * Life science applications including various microscopies Aimed at analytical, surface and medicinal chemists, spectroscopists, biophysicists and materials scientists. Includes a Foreword by the renowned Raman spectroscopist Professor Wolfgang Kiefer, the former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.

  6. 7th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains review articles which were written by the invited speak­ ers of the seventh International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS), held at the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee in July 1985. The form of ISISS is a set of tutorial review lectures presented over a one-week period by internationally recognized experts on various aspects of surface science. Each speaker is asked, in addition, to write a review article on his lecture topic. No single volume in the series Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the entire field of modern surface science. However, the series as a whole is intended to provide experts and students alike with a comprehensive set of reviews and literature references, particularly empha­ sizing the gas-solid interface. The collected articles from previous Summer Institutes have been published under the following titles: Surface Science: Recent Progress and Perspectives, Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 4, 125-559 (1974) Chemistry and Physics of ...

  7. The development of surface science in China: Retrospect and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xide (Fudan University, Shanghai (China))

    1994-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the year of 1977 marked the birth of surface science in China, therefore the length of its history of development is only half of that shown in the title of this volume. Since 1977 laboratories with modern facilities for surface studies have been established in various universities and research institutes. Three open laboratories better equipped than others have been set up in Beijing, Xiamen and Shanghai for surface physics, surface chemistry and applied surface physics, respectively. Five National Conferences on Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces were held in 1982, 1984, 1985, 1988 and 1991. In 1993 China is going to host the Fourth International Conference on the Structure of Surfaces in Shanghai August 16-19 which will serve as a milestone in the history of development of surface science in China. With the access to many overseas laboratories, quite a number of Chinese scientists and students have had opportunities to work and study abroad and have brought back with them experiences acquired. During the Conferences just mentioned, one could witness a number of steady progresses made over the years. In the present review, a brief description about the establishment of some major research facilities and progresses of some of the research is given with emphasis on work related to semiconductor surfaces, interfaces, superlattices, heterojunctions and quantum wells. Although the review nominally covers the development of research in surface science in China, due to the limitation of the capabilities of the author, mostly work done at Fudan University is included. For this the author would like to express her deep apology to many Chinese colleagues whose works have not been properly mentioned

  8. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH 3 synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures

  9. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH/sub 3/ synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures. (DLC)

  10. A molecular surface science study of the structure of adsorbates on surfaces: Importance to lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mate, C.M.

    1986-09-01

    The interaction and bonding of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces is explored under ultra-high vacuum conditions using a variety of surface science techniques: high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), work function measurements, and second harmonic generation (SHG). 164 refs., 51 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Chemical beam epitaxy — a child of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüth, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) or MOMBE is currently one of the major deposition techniques in semiconductor technology. The growth process is performed in a UHV chamber under low pressure conditions and the source material is supplied by molecular beams, such that only surface kinetics are determining the chemical reactions leading to growth of the epilayer. This paper intends to give a review on the development of this deposition technique. After considering the early period, where this epitaxy method started to develop, partially from ideas being born in surface science, some milestones in the further development and basic understanding are presented. The mutual interaction between CBE/MOMBE as a deposition technique and other fields of surface science is described as well as the impact on the deposition technology of other semiconductors (e.g. for Si-based material systems). Future prospects of CBE are finally discussed, particularly in comparison with the competing techniques MBE and MOCVD (metal-organic chemical vapor deposition).

  12. Relative Width and Height of Handwritten Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizega Rika, Joseba

    2018-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the height of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the height of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. 8th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains review articles written by the invited speakers at the eighth International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS 1987), held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in August of 1987. During the course of ISISS, invited speakers, all internationally recognized experts in the various fields of surface science, present tutorial review lectures. In addition, these experts are asked to write review articles on their lecture topic. Former ISISS speakers serve as advisors concerning the selection of speakers and lecture topics. Em­ phasis is given to those areas which have not been covered in depth by recent Summer Institutes, as well as to areas which have recently gained in significance and in which important progress has been made. Because of space limitations, no individual volume of Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the whole area of modem surface science, or even give a complete survey of recent pro­ gress in the field. However, an attempt is made to pres...

  14. Agnes Pockels: Life, Letters and Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Christiane A.

    2004-03-01

    Agnes Pockels (1862 - 1935) was a German woman, whose studies pioneered surface science. She was born in malaria infected North Italy while her father served in the Austrian army. Because he suffered adverse health effects, the family moved in1871 to Braunschweig (North Germany). There, Pockels went to high school. She was interested in science, but formal training was not available for girls. She took on the role of household manager and nurse as her parents' health deteriorated further. Her diary illustrates the difficulties she faced in trying to maintain her own health, the health of her parents and her scientific research at the same time. When Pockels was 18 or 19, she designed a ring tensiometer. Additionally, she found a new method to introduce water-insoluble compounds to the water surface by dissolving them in an organic solvent, and applying drops of the solution. Her surface film balance technique from 1882 is the basis for the method later developed by Langmuir. Since her experimental work was highly original and in a new field, she failed to get it recognized in her own country. When she was 28, she wrote to Lord Rayleigh, since she had read about his recent experiments in surface physics. Rayleigh was so impressed with her experimental methods and results that he had her letter translated from German and published it in Nature (1891). She continued her research on surface films, interactions of solutions and contact angles (more papers, 3 in Nature). Still, she did all experiments at home. With the death of her brother in 1913 and the onset of the war, she retired into private life. Thus she was surprised when she was awarded in her late 60ies with a honorary doctorate by the TU Braunschweig (1932) and the annual prize of the German Colloid Society (1931).

  15. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Kuheli; Pfaff, Danielle L.; Bernstein, Ariel F.; Dillard, Joseph S.; Block, Caryn J.

    2016-11-01

    Gender disparities in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, including the geosciences, are well documented and widely discussed. In the geosciences, despite receiving 40% of doctoral degrees, women hold less than 10% of full professorial positions. A significant leak in the pipeline occurs during postdoctoral years, so biases embedded in postdoctoral processes, such as biases in recommendation letters, may be deterrents to careers in geoscience for women. Here we present an analysis of an international data set of 1,224 recommendation letters, submitted by recommenders from 54 countries, for postdoctoral fellowships in the geosciences over the period 2007-2012. We examine the relationship between applicant gender and two outcomes of interest: letter length and letter tone. Our results reveal that female applicants are only half as likely to receive excellent letters versus good letters compared to male applicants. We also find no evidence that male and female recommenders differ in their likelihood to write stronger letters for male applicants over female applicants. Our analysis also reveals significant regional differences in letter length, with letters from the Americas being significantly longer than any other region, whereas letter tone appears to be distributed equivalently across all world regions. These results suggest that women are significantly less likely to receive excellent recommendation letters than their male counterparts at a critical juncture in their career.

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  18. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 62 of 62 ... Sudan JMS is published every three months. High-quality papers written in English or Arabic language dealing with aspects of medical sciences are welcomed. Sudan JMS publishes original articles, case reports, Letter to the Editor, commentaries and peer reviews. Other websites related to this journal: ...

  19. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public and allied health sciences. Furthermore the DMSJ endeavours to disseminate research findings mainly of medical ...

  20. Surface science in hernioplasty: The role of plasma treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Magnacca, Giuliana; Martorana, Selanna

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this review is to clarify the importance of surface modifications induced in biomaterials for hernia-repair application. Starting from the pioneering experiences involving proto-materials as ancient prosthesis, a historical excursus between the biomaterials used in hernioplasty was realized. Subsequently, after the revolutionary discovery of stereoregular polymerization followed by the PP application in the biomedical field performed by the surgeon F. Usher, a comparative study on different hernia-repair meshes available was realized in order to better understand all the outstanding problems and possible future developments. Furthermore, since many unsolved problems on prosthetic devices implantation are linked to phenomena occurring at the interface between the biomaterials surface and the body fluids, the importance of surface science in hernioplasty was highlighted and case studies of new surface-modified generations of prosthesis presented. The results discussed in the following evidence how the surface study are becoming increasingly important for a proper knowledge of issues related to the interaction between the living matter and the artificial prostheses.

  1. Reducing Motional Decoherence in Ion Traps with Surface Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Many trapped ions experiments ask for low motional heating rates while trapping the ions close to trapping electrodes. However, in practice small ion-electrode distances lead to unexpected high heating rates. While the mechanisms for the heating is still unclear, it is now evident that surface contamination of the metallic electrodes is at least partially responsible for the elevated heating rates. I will discuss heating rate measurements in a microfabricated surface trap complemented with basic surface science studies. We monitor the elemental surface composition of the Cu-Al alloy trap with an Auger spectrometer. After bake-out, we find a strong Carbon and Oxygen contamination and heating rates of 200 quanta/s at 1 MHz trap frequency. After removing most of the Carbon and Oxygen with Ar-Ion sputtering, the heating rates drop to 4 quanta/s. Interestingly, we still measure the decreased heating rate even after the surface oxidized from the background gas throughout a 40-day waiting time in UHV.

  2. Letterer siwe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Anuja

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old boy presented with recurrent pyoderma-like lesions and purulent ear discharge of 6 months duration. The biopsy helped to confirm Letterer Siwe disease. Purpuric lesion on palms and soles which is a reputedly lethal sign of the disease was also present in the child who died within a few days.

  3. Letters From Peplau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Ann R

    2018-03-01

    Dr. Hildegard Peplau, considered to be our first modern Nurse theorist and the Mother of Psychiatric Nursing, was a prolific writer, engaging in correspondence with colleagues and students who sought her professional and theoretical expertise. Through these letters, she influenced psychiatric nursing while maintaining a broad international network of professional colleagues. An analysis of letters, written between 1990 and 1998, provides insights into Peplau's last decade of professional life and a model of how to support the next generation of nurse scholars. Using content analysis, 24 letters received between 1990 and 1998 were read, reread, and coded. Recurring themes were identified. Three themes were identified. These include Peplau, the Person: Living a Life of Professional Balance; Lighting a Spark: Investing in the Next Generation; and Work in the Vineyards of Nursing: Maintaining a Life of Scholarship. The letters depict Peplau's keen intellect, her wide professional network, her leisure time spent with family and friends, and her own work to assure that her theoretical legacy continued. Peplau's insights continue to be relevant as psychiatric mental health nursing leaders engage in activities to support the next generation of scholars and leaders.

  4. Surface and catalysis science in the Materials and Molecular Research Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Surface science studies at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are detailed. Subject areas include: structure of surfaces and adsorbed monolayers; reduction and oxidation of surfaces; catalytic chemistry; and structure of interfaces and thin films

  5. What can numerical computation do for the history of science? (a study of an orbit drawn by Newton in a letter to Hooke)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Penha Maria Cardozo; Stuchi, T J

    2013-01-01

    In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing. (paper)

  6. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  7. EPA Void Letter for Suzuki

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a certificate is voided, EPA issues a void letter to the manufacturer.November 30, 2016, letter from Byron Bunker to Suzuki Motor America Inc., voiding certificate of conformity for highway motorcycle engine family CSKXC.652VR1.

  8. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  9. Designing high-temperature steels via surface science and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Cameron T.; Jiang, Zilin; Mathai, Allan; Chung, Yip-Wah

    2016-06-01

    Electricity in many countries such as the US and China is produced by burning fossil fuels in steam-turbine-driven power plants. The efficiency of these power plants can be improved by increasing the operating temperature of the steam generator. In this work, we adopted a combined surface science and computational thermodynamics approach to the design of high-temperature, corrosion-resistant steels for this application. The result is a low-carbon ferritic steel with nanosized transition metal monocarbide precipitates that are thermally stable, as verified by atom probe tomography. High-temperature Vickers hardness measurements demonstrated that these steels maintain their strength for extended periods at 700 °C. We hypothesize that the improved strength of these steels is derived from the semi-coherent interfaces of these thermally stable, nanosized precipitates exerting drag forces on impinging dislocations, thus maintaining strength at elevated temperatures.

  10. Particles and Nuclei, Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the ν e → ν e neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129 I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks

  11. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  12. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    -support bonding and structure, which identify the supports as ligands with electron-donor properties that influence reactivity and catalysis. Each of the catalyst design variables has been varied independently, illustrated by mononuclear and tetranuclear iridium on zeolite HY and on MgO and by isostructural rhodium and iridium (diethylene or dicarbonyl) complexes on these supports. The data provide examples resolving the roles of the catalyst design variables and place the catalysis science on a firm foundation of organometallic chemistry linked with surface science. Supported molecular catalysts offer the advantages of characterization in the absence of solvents and with surface-science methods that do not require ultrahigh vacuum. Families of supported metal complexes have been made by replacement of ligands with others from the gas phase. Spectroscopically identified catalytic reaction intermediates help to elucidate catalyst performance and guide design. The methods are illustrated for supported complexes and clusters of rhodium, iridium, osmium, and gold used to catalyze reactions of small molecules that facilitate identification of the ligands present during catalysis: alkene dimerization and hydrogenation, H-D exchange in the reaction of H2 with D2, and CO oxidation. The approach is illustrated with the discovery of a highly active and selective MgO-supported rhodium carbonyl dimer catalyst for hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to give butenes.

  13. Translating Biotechnology to Knowledge-Based Innovation, Peace, and Development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps—An Open Letter to World Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Alaa H.; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O.; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S.; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Karaömerlioğlu, M. Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Şardaş, Semra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of “one health”—encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health—thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21st century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21st century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed

  14. Translating biotechnology to knowledge-based innovation, peace, and development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps--an open letter to world leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekim, Nezih; Coşkun, Yavuz; Sınav, Ahmet; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Karaömerlioğlu, M Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Sardaş, Şemra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit; Özdemir, Vural

    2014-07-01

    Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of "one health"--encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health--thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21(st) century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21(st) century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed, "nearly

  15. Allographic agraphia for single letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS's performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way.

  16. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  17. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  18. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the interaction of high energy Λ 6 He hypernuclear beams with atomic nuclei, the position-sensitive detector of a high spatial resolution on the basis of a multiwire gas electron multiplier, pseudorapidity hadron density at the LHC energy, high precision laser control of the ATLAS tile-calorimeter module mass production at JINR, a new approach to ECG's features recognition involving neural network, subcriticity of a uranium target enriched in 235 U, beam space charge effects in high-current cyclotron injector CI-5, a homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

  19. Sea Surface Height, Absolute, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Absolute Sea Surface Height is the Sea Surface Height Deviation plus the long term mean dynamic height. This is Science Quality data.

  20. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  1. Allographic Agraphia for Single letters

    OpenAIRE

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a se...

  2. 3S'83 Symposium on surface science. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Betz, G.; Husinsky, W.; Soellner, E.; Stoeri, H.; Varga, P.

    1983-01-01

    This symposium included the topics: electronic structure; ion-surface-interaction; surface structure; adsorption and reactivity; surface analysis; 60 papers were presented, only part of which pertain to INIS. (G.Q.)

  3. 52nd colloid and surface science symposium. Proceedings volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Corbett, H.G.

    1978-05-01

    Abstracts are presented under the headings: cell/surface interactions, surface properties and reactions of catalysts, solution chemistry of surfactants, dynamic systems, microorganism/surface interactions, gas-solid interactions, biological surfaces, solid sorbents, lung surfactant and intestinal absorption, pigments, and liquid systems. (DLC)

  4. Letters in Biographies and Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterra, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This is an annotated bibliography of biographies, historical fiction, contemporary stories, and discussion questions related to letter writing. A sidebar suggests an activity that involves reading a book about Ludwig van Beethoven, listening to Beethoven's music, and discussing letters in the story. (DGM)

  5. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  6. Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometers for Mars Surface Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenar, D. A.; Blaney, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's long term plan for Mars sample collection and return requires a highly streamlined approach for spectrally characterizing a landing site, documenting the mineralogical make-up of the site and guiding the collections of samples which represent the diversity of the site. Ideally, image data should be acquired at hundreds of VIS and IR wavelengths, in order to separately distinguish numerous anticipated species, using principal component analysis and linear unmixing. Cameras with bore-sighted point spectrometers can acquire spectra of isolated scene elements, but it requires 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 2) successive motions and precise relative pointing knowledge in order to create a single data cube which qualifies as a spectral map. These and other competing science objectives have to be accomplished within very short lander/rover operational lifetime (a few sols). True, 2-D imaging spectroscopy greatly speeds up the data acquisition process, since the spectra of all pixels in the scene are collected at once. This task can be accomplished with cameras that use electronically tunable acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) as the optical tuning element. AOTFs made from TeO2 are now a mature technology, and operate at wavelengths from near-UV to about 5 microns. Because of incremental improvements in the last few years, present generation devices are rugged, radiation-hard and operate at temperatures down to at least 150K so they can be safely integrated into the ambient temperature optics of in-situ instruments such as planetary or small-body landers. They have been used for ground-based astronomy, and were also baselined for the ST-4 Champollion IR comet lander experiment (CIRCLE), prior to cancellation of the ST-4 mission last year. AIMS (for Acousto-optic Imaging spectrometer), is a prototype lander instrument which is being built at GSFC with support by the NASA OSS Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies, Mars Instrument Definition and Development Program (MIDP

  7. Letters From Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura U. Marks

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2006 I returned to Lebanon for a third time. I had lived in Beirut for almost a year in 2002–2003, during which time I fell in love with the city, as so many people do—the generosity, resilience and joie de vivre of so many Lebanese people, the lively artistic scene, the intensity with which so many historical and international forces cross this small country. I built strong friendships then. I returned in 2004, and again in June 2006, this time to study Arabic at the American University of Beirut. On 14 July, in response to Hizballah’s action of taking two Israeli soldiers hostage and shooting across the Lebanese–Israeli border, Israel began an intense bombardment of Lebanese infrastructure, starting with the airport, as well as places where Hizballah supporters lived. A privileged outsider waiting to be evacuated, I was also helpless, afraid, and furious at the pro-Israeli tone of the international media. So I wrote daily letters to family, friends, and a growing email list of interested people. This is an edited version.

  8. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A Local Physics Teachers Day: an amateur model for INSET Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School Secretary, loP Education Group Determining a Slinky's spring constant Eric Kincanon Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258-0051, USA Word Juxtapoz: an interesting tool for promoting physics education R Subramaniam, N K Goh and L S Chia Singapore Science Centre, Science Centre Road, Singapore 609081 Division of Chemistry, Nanyang Technological University, 469 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259756

  9. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    OpenAIRE

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-01-01

    A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subj...

  10. Letters that made a journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-06-01

    "Here is the first issue of Physical Review Letters. We hope that it will gain the approval of authors and readers." It was with these words that Sam Goudsmit began his first editorial on 1 July 1958 in a new scientific-research journal published by the American Physical Society (APS). But with a small hint of caution, Goudsmit - a physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory - went on to say that "Physical Review Letters is an experiment... if we fail, we can return to the old 'Letters to the Editor' column in Physical Review".

  11. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  12. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  13. Science synergism study for EOS on evolution of desert surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Tom G.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of EOS data as a basis for the study of desert surfaces' evolution is presently evaluated for both long and short term geomorphic evolution. Attention is given to the usefulness of such sensor systems planned for EOS as MODIS for regional vegetation distribution/variability monitoring, HIRIS for visible-near IR observations, TIMS for lithological identification, HMMR and SSMI for soil characteristics, LASA for atmospheric profiles, SAR for surface roughness, ALT for two-dimensional topography, ACR for the calibration of imaging sensors, and ERBE for climate modeling and regional surface albedo variation determinations.

  14. Surface science studies on titania for solar fuel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadsell, Courtney Sara Mathews

    Titanium dioxide (titania) is a well-studied material for various applications including but not limited to, paint, sunscreen, pharmaceuticals and solar cell applications (photocatalysis.) It can be found in three main crystal forms; rutile, anatase, and brookite and this work will focus on the anatase form which has been heavily studied for its potential in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs.) I propose that aqueous and photo dye stability can be improved by taking special care to the exposed surface of anatase. Additionally, the theoretical maximum open circuit voltage of a DSSC is dependent upon which surface is exposed to the electrolyte. Previous works in this area have not been rigorous with respect to the surface and morphology of titania being used. Standard synthesis techniques of anatase lead to a crystal that generally has 94% of the titania (101) surface exposed, and the other 6% is the higher energy (001) surface. The (101) surface has 5 & 6-fold coordinated titania whereas the (001) surface only has 5-fold (under) coordinated titania. This under-coordination leads to enhanced reactivity of the (001) surface which has been demonstrated by dissassociative adsorption of water, and catalysis applications. Much theoretical work has focused on the minority (001) surface because up until recently synthesizing anatase with enhanced exposure of the (001) surface has been difficult. The initial materials for this study will be multilayer titania nanotubes (TiNTs) and nanosheets (TiNS) which have been previously characterized by my predecessor. The TiNTs and TiNS have 100% exposed (001)-like surface. Both of these materials show enhanced stability of phosphonated dye binding as compared to the current standard of anatase nanoparticles (NPs) however, due to their limited thermal stability the potential of incorporating the TiNTs and TiNSs into devices has been eliminated in this study. To overcome the device limitations I will synthesis a novel titania nanotile

  15. Writing Beyond the Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küster, Marc Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe ability to write, hence to preserve and share arbitrary words and thoughts, was one of the most important breakthroughs in the history of mankind. It laid the technological basis for what we perceive today as culture, science and, in good part, economy. Nonetheless, writing can

  16. Record bid for Einstein letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-06-01

    A letter written by Albert Einstein the year before his death has sold for the staggering amount of £170 000 at an auction in London last month. The previously unrecorded letter, which has spent the past 50 years in a private collection, includes a discussion of Einstein's views on religion, bringing new material to the debate about whether or not he believed in God. The lot had been expected to fetch between £6000-£8000.

  17. Density functional theory in surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Scheffler, M.; Toulhoat, H.

    2006-01-01

    Solid surfaces are used extensively as catalysts throughout the chemical industry, in the energy sector, and in environmental protection. Recently, density functional theory has started providing new insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of heterogeneous catalysis, helping to interpret the large...... amount of experimental data gathered during the last decades. This article shows how density functional theory can be used to describe the state of the surface during reactions and the rate of catalytic reactions. It will also show how we are beginning to understand the variation in catalytic activity...

  18. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  19. Unit 2: Application Letters & The Job Interview

    OpenAIRE

    Aleson Carbonell, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Unit 2a_ Letters of Application and the CV: Reading the employment section. Unit 2b_Letters of Application and the CV:Writing Letters and the Job Hunting Process. Unit 2c_ Letters of Application and the CV: The Job Interview.

  20. The letter knowledge assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cassandra; Lousada, Marisa; Pereira, Rita; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-10-10

    There is a need to develop letter knowledge assessment tools to characterise the letter knowledge in Portuguese pre-schoolers and to compare it with pre-schoolers from other countries, but there are no tools for this purpose in Portugal. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation procedures of the Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia (PACPL), which assesses letter knowledge. This study includes data that has been gathered in two phases: pilot and main study. In the pilot study, an expert panel of six speech and language pathologists analysed the instrument. Children (n = 216) aged 5;0-7;11 participated in the main study that reports data related to the psychometric characteristics of the PACPL. Content validity, internal consistency, reliability and contributing factors to performance were examined statistically. A modified Bland-Altman method revealed good agreement amongst evaluators. The main study showed that the PACPL has a very good internal consistency and high inter-rater (96.2% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.92) and intra-rater (95.6% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.91) agreement. Construct validity of the PCAPL was also assured (Cronbach's α of 0.982). Significant differences were found between age groups with children increasing their letter knowledge with age. In addition, they were better at identifying than at producing both letter names and letter sounds. The PACPL is a valid and reliable instrument to assess letter knowledge in Portuguese children.

  1. Mineral Surface Reactivity in teaching of Science Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In the last fifty years, science materials issues has required the study of air pollution, water and soil to prevent and remedy the adverse effects of waste originating from anthropogenic activity and the development of new energies and new materials. The teaching of this discipline has been marked by lectures on general lines, materials, disciplines, who explained biased objects of reality, but often forgot the task of reconstruction and integration of such visions. Moving from that model, otherwise quite static, to a dynamic relational model, would in our view, a real revolution in education. This means taking a systematic approach to complex both in interpreting reality and in favor when learning. Children relationships are as important or more than single objects, and it is to discover fundamental organizational principles of phenomena we seek to interpret or in other words, find the pattern that connects. Thus, we must work on relationships and also take into account the relation between the observer and the observed. Educate about relationships means that studies should always be considered within a framework of probabilities, not absolute certainties. This model of systemic thinking, dealing with complexity, is a possibility to bring coherence to our educational work, because the complexity is not taught, complexity is live, so that complex thinking is extended (and fed) in a form educate complex. It is the task of teaching to help people move from level to level of decision reviews. This means that systems thinking should be extended in a local action, action that engages the individual and the environment. Science Materials has emerged as a discipline of free choice for pupils attending chemical engineering which has been assigned 6.0 credits. The chemical engineer's professional profile within the current framework is defined as a professional knowledge as a specialization technical / functional, working in a learning organization and the formation of

  2. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  3. Thermochemical Surface Engineering: A Playground for Science and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Surface engineering by thermochemical processing is the intentional change of the composition of a material at elevated temperature with the purpose to improve materials performance. In thermochemical processing components from the starting material are essential in the development of the phases ...... hardening of titanium alloys, as well as thermo-reactive diffusion for extreme wear resistance...

  4. Surface science studies of model fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, N. M.; Ross, P. N.

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss progress in the understanding of electrocatalytic reactions through the study of model systems with surface spectroscopies. Pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys have been used quite successfully as models for real (commercial) electrocatalysts. Given the sheer volume of all work in electrocatalysis that is on fuel cell reactions, we will focus on electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Since Pt is the model fuel cell electrocatalyst, we will focus entirely on studies of pure Pt and Pt bimetallic alloys. The electrode reactions discussed include hydrogen oxidation/evolution, oxygen reduction, and the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide, formic acid, and methanol. Surface spectroscopies emphasized are FTIR, STM/AFM and surface X-ray scattering (SXS). The discussion focuses on the relation between the energetics of adsorption of intermediates and the reaction pathway and kinetics, and how the energetics and kinetics relate to the extrinsic properties of the model system, e.g. surface structure and/or composition. Finally, we conclude by discussing the limitations that are reached by using pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys as models for real catalysts, and suggest some directions for developing more realistic systems.

  5. Improving the letter of recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Jeremy D; Myer, Charles M; Pensak, Myles L

    2010-09-01

    The selection of applicants to otolaryngology training programs is a challenging task. Applicants and their evaluators rely on objective and subjective data to facilitate the selection process. Unfortunately, data are often less helpful than either side assumes, suffering from poor validity and reliability in predicting future performance. The traditional resume-based letter of recommendation bears some responsibility in this. It is often a lengthy reiteration of already available objective data and contains nonstandardized, superlative evaluations of personal attributes. As a result, many letters are similar, describing "excellent" candidates who have done well on previous examinations and clerkships. Research has indicated improved reliability and satisfaction as well as decreased time expenditure using standardized letters of recommendation. These letters demonstrate how basic, easy-to-implement improvements can create letters that provide accurate information, separate applicants, and improve the selection process. Consideration should be given to adopting these improvements at the program director and/or educational committee level. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface Chemistry of CWAs for Decon Enabling Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Ultraviolet and Visible Photochemistry of Methanol at 3D Mesoporous Networks: TiO, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, (07 2013): 15035. doi...A for none) Presentations since most recent interim report for this project: " Photochemistry of Methanol at 3-D Networked Aerogels of TiO2 and...evaporation • Studied the uptake, thermal, and photochemistry of agent simulants on TiO2 surfaces • Initiated experiments on the uptake and

  7. Surface science. Adhesion and friction in mesoscopic graphite contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Elad; Lörtscher, Emanuel; Rawlings, Colin; Knoll, Armin W; Duerig, Urs

    2015-05-08

    The weak interlayer binding in two-dimensional layered materials such as graphite gives rise to poorly understood low-friction characteristics. Accurate measurements of the adhesion forces governing the overall mechanical stability have also remained elusive. We report on the direct mechanical measurement of line tension and friction forces acting in sheared mesoscale graphite structures. We show that the friction is fundamentally stochastic in nature and is attributable to the interaction between the incommensurate interface lattices. We also measured an adhesion energy of 0.227 ± 0.005 joules per square meter, in excellent agreement with theoretical models. In addition, bistable all-mechanical memory cell structures and rotational bearings have been realized by exploiting position locking, which is provided solely by the adhesion energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  9. Intense positron beam and its application to surface science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Hirose, M.; Kanazawa, I.; Sueoka, O.; Takamura, S.; Okada, S.

    1992-01-01

    Intense pulsed slow positron beam has been produced using the 100 MeV electron LINAC of JAERI · Tokai. In order to use the beam for surface studies such as positron diffraction and positron microscopy, it was transferred from the solenoid magnetic field to field free region and then was brightness-enhanced. The beam size was reduced from 10 mmφ (in the magnetic field) to 0.5 mmφ after two stages of re-moderation. Using the intense brightness-enhanced positron beam we have observed for the first time RHEPD (Reflection High-Energy Positron Diffraction) patterns. A design of re-emission positron microscopy is also described. (author)

  10. Therapeutic letters as relationally responsive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Nathan R

    2009-02-01

    Therapeutic letters have become a practice adopted by many clinicians as an adjunct to therapeutic conversations. This article presents selected findings from a larger study that examined both the letter-writing practices of nine clinicians as well as the experiences of seven adult clients who received a therapeutic letter or letters during the course of individual or family therapy. A novel aspect of this study is that data from clients were gathered in the form of letters-eight letters written by the clients to the researcher about their experience of receiving a therapeutic letter or letters from their clinician. Thematic analysis guided the analysis of the data. Findings are placed within the context of relationally responsive (or relationally engaged) practice. An invitation is extended to conceptualize letters not as monologic documents but as a means of dialogically relating to clients and to the "goings-on" of therapeutic conversations.

  11. Resource Letter N-1: Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Devin; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Helen Zeng, Tingying; Terrones, Mauricio; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Ferreira, Odair P.

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on Nanotechnology. Journal articles, books, websites, and other documents are cited on the following topics: attributes of various types of nanomaterials, nanotechnology in the context of different academic fields, and the effects of nanotechnology on society.

  12. EAMJ-March Scientific letter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iMac User

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... affluence has been linked with high mental health burden and alcohol use in adolescents (l-2). ... hungry owing to not enough food being present in home; we used data from the Global School-based .... Conflict of interest:Authors of original articles, reviews and letters to the editor should intimate a conflict ...

  13. Mapping Letters through Interaction Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iturrioz, T.; Cano, J.; Wachowicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of text documents (e.g. newspapers, reports and letters) provide a potential source of geo-referenced information that is often underutilized. In interaction design, the use of dynamic icons and animation plays an important role in creating a sense of interactivity and feedback with

  14. Letters from a Nightingale nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, E

    1996-01-01

    Mary Cadbury was one of six daughters in a wealthy Birmingham family, all of whom took up professional or unpaid philanthropic work. In 1873 Mary began nurse training at the Nightingale School, St Thomas's Hospital, and regularly sent letters to family and friends, which provide a graphic account of the experience of a nurse in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

  15. Surface science study of selective ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by the Ag(110) surface: Structural sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide (C 2 H 4 +1/2O 2 →C 2 H 4 O) over Ag is the simplest example of kinetically controlled, selective heterogeneous catalysis. We have studied the steady-state kinetics and selectivity of this reaction for the first time on a clean, well-characterized Ag(110) surface by using a special apparatus which allows rapid (approx.20 s) transfer between a high-pressure catalytic microreactor and an ultrahigh vacuum surface analysis (AES, XPS, LEED, TDS) chamber. The effects of temperature and reactant pressures upon the rate and selectivity are virtually identical on Ag(110) and supported, high surface area Ag catalysts. The absolute specific rate (per Ag surface atom) is, however, some 100-fold higher for Ag(110) than for high surface area catalysts. This is related to the well-known structural sensitivity of this reaction. It is postulated that a small percentage of (110) planes (or [110]-like sites) are responsible for most of the catalytic activity of high surface area catalysts. The high activity of the (110) plane is attributed to its high sticking probability for dissociative oxygen adsorption, since the rate of ethylene epoxidation is shown in a related work [Ref. 1: C. T. Campbell and M. T. Paffett, Surf. Sci. (in press)] to be proportional to the coverage of atomically adsorbed oxygen at constant temperature and ethylene pressure

  16. EDITORIAL: Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    Three decades ago, with a tiny tip of platinum, the scientific world saw the real space imaging of single atoms with unprecedented spatial resolution. This signalled the birth of one of the most versatile surface probes, based on the physics of quantum mechanical tunnelling: the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Invented in 1981 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of IBM, Zurich, it led to their award of the 1986 Nobel Prize. Atoms, once speculated to be abstract entities used by theoreticians for mere calculations, can be seen to exist for real with the nano-eye of an STM tip that also gives real-space images of molecules and adsorbed complexes on surfaces. From a very fundamental perspective, the STM changed the course of surface science and engineering. STM also emerged as a powerful tool to study various fundamental phenomena relevant to the properties of surfaces in technological applications such as tribology, medical implants, catalysis, sensors and biology—besides elucidating the importance of local bonding geometries and defects, non-periodic structures and the co-existence of nano-scale phases. Atom-level probing, once considered a dream, has seen the light with the evolution of STM. An important off-shoot of STM was the atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface mapping of insulating samples. Then followed the development of a flurry of techniques under the general name of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These techniques (STM, AFM, MFM, PFM etc) designed for atomic-scale-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, have led to brand new developments in surface analysis. All of these novel methods enabled researchers in recent years to image and analyse complex surfaces on microscopic and nanoscopic scales. All of them utilize a small probe for sensing the surface. The invention of AFM by Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christopher Gerber opened up new opportunities for characterization of a variety of materials, and various industrial applications could be

  17. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  18. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... grammatical theory, there has been no comprehensive study of its innovative methods and radical proposals for a new national curriculum. Its challenge to Latin and French is analyzed in a historical perspective, and the impact of Lane's ideas during the eighteenth century is traced. The article shows...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  19. Maker of patterns an autobiography through letters

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman

    2018-01-01

    While recognizing that quantum mechanics demands serious attention, Albert Einstein in 1926 admonished fellow physicist Max Born that the theory does not bring us closer to the secrets of the Old One. Aware that there are deep mysteries that Nature intends to keep for herself, Freeman Dyson, the 94-year-old theoretical physicist, has nonetheless chronicled the stories of those who were engaged in solving some of the most challenging quandaries of twentieth-century physics. Written between 1940and the early 1980s, these letters to relatives form an historic account of modern science and its greatest players, including J.Robert Oppenheimer, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking,and Hans Bethe. Whether reflecting on the horrors of World War II, the moral dilemmas of nuclear development, the challenges of the space program, or the considerable demands of raising six children, Dyson offers a firsthand account of one of the greatest periods of scientific discovery of our modern age.

  20. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  1. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  3. Open letter to the Vatican.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An open letter was published by Latin American and Caribbean women during the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the International Conference on Population and Development. The letter generally focused on the Church¿s stand on women's reproductive rights. In particular, it questioned the Church on the following aspects of reproductive health, which include: 1) maternal death related to lack of access to reproductive health care; 2) Vatican representatives insisting that only parents can supervise their children education and health, which also lead to many cases of sexual abuse and incest; 3) women's sexual inequality and daily violence; 4) the Vatican delegation blocking the advances of contraception, sexual education, and HIV prevention; 5) problems of migrants and allocation of resources; and 6) the Church failing to recognize the capacity of young people to make decisions based on their own conscience.

  4. Earth System Science at NASA: Teleconnections Between Sea Surface Temperature and Epidemics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    2000-01-01

    The research carried out in the Earth Sciences in NASA and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will be the focus of the presentations. In addition, one research project that links sea surface temperature to epidemics in Africa will be highlighted. At GSFC research interests span the full breath of disciplines in Earth Science. Branches and research groups focus on areas as diverse as planetary geomagnetics and atmospheric chemistry. These organizations focus on atmospheric sciences (atmospheric chemistry, climate and radiation, regional processes, atmospheric modeling), hydrological sciences (snow, ice, oceans, and seasonal-to-interannual prediction), terrestrial physics (geology, terrestrial biology, land-atmosphere interactions, geophysics), climate modeling (global warming, greenhouse gases, climate change), on sensor development especially using lidar and microwave technologies, and on information technologies, that enable support of scientific and technical research.

  5. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  6. Near-Surface Geophysics: Advancing Earth Science Through Advances in Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.

    2006-05-01

    The near-surface of Earth (the top ~100 m) is the region that supports human infrastructure, provides water and mineral resources, and is the interface between solid Earth and atmosphere for many of the biogeochemical cycles that sustain life. Developing an understanding of the processes and properties that occur here is essential for advancing our understanding of many parts of the Earth system. Yet our ability to study, sample, or probe this zone is remarkably primitive. Many investigations rely on drilling, trenching, and direct sampling. But given the pervasive spatial heterogeneity of the region, such methods yield information that is inadequate in terms of the spatial extent and density of sampling. As a result, the Earth science community is turning to geophysical imaging. The area of research that is focused on developing and applying geophysical methods to study this region of Earth is referred to as near-surface geophysics. Near-surface geophysics, as an area of research, includes many types of research, and many types of researchers. Some researchers are drawn to near-surface geophysics due to an interest in specific properties, processes, or applications, which can range from applied to basic science. As examples, near-surface geophysical methods are used for resource exploration and extraction, for the characterization of contaminated sites, for the assessment and design of built infrastructure; and to address scientific questions in neotectonics, volcanology, glaciology, hydrology, sedimentology, archaeology, geochemistry and biogeochemistry. Other researchers are drawn to near-surface geophysics due to an interest in the science of imaging as the driving scientific question. Advances in imaging require investigating the ways in which physical sensors can (or cannot) capture the complexity of a natural system, determining how best to quantify and enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of a measurement, developing new methods for the inversion of

  7. Parafoveal letter-position coding in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Bertrand, Daisy; Grainger, Jonathan

    2018-01-08

    The masked-priming lexical decision task has been the paradigm of choice for investigating how readers code for letter identity and position. Insight into the temporal integration of information between prime and target words has pointed out, among other things, that readers do not code for the absolute position of letters. This conception has spurred various accounts of the word recognition process, but the results at present do not favor one account in particular. Thus, employing a new strategy, the present study moves out of the arena of temporal- and into the arena of spatial information integration. We present two lexical decision experiments that tested how the processing of six-letter target words is influenced by simultaneously presented flanking stimuli (each stimulus was presented for 150 ms). We manipulated the orthographic relatedness between the targets and flankers, in terms of both letter identity (same/different letters based on the target's outer/inner letters) and letter position (intact/reversed order of letters and of flankers, contiguous/noncontiguous flankers). Target processing was strongly facilitated by same-letter flankers, and this facilitatory effect was modulated by both letter/flanker order and contiguity. However, when the flankers consisted of the target's inner-positioned letters alone, letter order no longer mattered. These findings suggest that readers may code for the relative position of letters using words' edges as spatial points of reference. We conclude that the flanker paradigm provides a fruitful means to investigate letter-position coding in the fovea and parafovea.

  8. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  9. The legibility of letters and words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The saying made famous by Mathew Carter that "type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters”, highlights the fact that although a typeface consists of a number of letters it is when the letters are assembled in a word that they become type. However, research indicates...... that what makes letters legible in isolation is not necessarily the same as what makes them legible in words. Is it possible to create a typeface where both letters and words have a high level of legibility or are those factors so different that they cannot be combined? Through a literature review...... on relevant experimental investigations, I will in this talk present examples of when the legibility findings on letters and words correlate and when they differ....

  10. Resource letter for Accelerated Matter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.

    1989-07-01

    This resource letter covers diverse literature(400 titles) relevant to the Accelerated Matter Program in the Particles and Fields Group at the University of Melbourne. Specifically, the research areas covered are: inertia induced electric fields in accelerated matter; strain induced contact potentials; the patch effect/surface potentials. There are no claims made for completeness. The areas of gravity, acceleration and strain induced effects in matter, and drift tube experiments with matter/antimatter are extensively covered, if not complete. The literature on acceleration/inertia induced effects in metals has a long history dating back to the 19th century and the reader is referred to the review by Barnett (1935) for an extensive list of references not included here. All other work following this 1935 review, has been included here. The literature on surface physics is very extensive and no attempt has been made to cover it all. Every major paper on metal surfaces has been cited. Several other references have been included which fall only loosely into the above areas and they represent useful and/or interesting material for this research program

  11. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  12. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  13. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: S.I. Vavilov's manuscript letter to Stalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonosov, Yurii I.

    2000-09-01

    A letter from S I Vavilov, then President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, to Stalin has been discovered in the archives of the Science Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which is concerned with the problem of secrecy in physics and suggests criteria by which classified and nonclassified studies may be distinguished. The letter is not only of interest to physicists and science historians, but also is a telling document of the totalitarian times, when it took no less than the states's top leaders to resolve issues as this.

  14. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  15. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  16. An Open Letter to Tomorrow's Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The article takes the form of a letter written to pre-service or beginning teachers at the secondary level in the public school system. The letter acknowledges the attributes they bring to the profession (enthusiasm, optimism, creativity, and open-mindedness) and calls on them to make the most of and work to sustain these traits as they begin…

  17. Genre Analysis of Business Letters of Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, V. B. M. Pinto

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey on genre analysis of 117 commercial letters in English exchanged by fax between a Brazilian company and two European companies. The letters were analyzed in terms of shared communicative purposes and rhetorical features that together contribute to the building-up of the resulting generic structure named "Business…

  18. Cognitive Determinants of Early Letter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Suha; Weil-Barais, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the general cognitive determinants of alphabetic letter knowledge. It involved 60 French kindergarten children (mean age: five years six months). Two test batteries were used: the CMS to evaluate general cognitive abilities (memory, attention, and learning), and the LKT to assess letter knowledge and its various…

  19. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  20. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  1. PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these

  2. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for surface science and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Salmeron, Miquel; Schlogl, Robert

    2008-03-12

    Progress in science often follows or parallels the development of new techniques. The optical microscope helped convert medicine and biology from a speculative activity in old times to today's sophisticated scientific disciplines. The telescope changed the study and interpretation of heavens from mythology to science. X-ray diffraction enabled the flourishing of solid state physics and materials science. The technique object of this review, Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy or APPES for short, has also the potential of producing dramatic changes in the study of liquid and solid surfaces, particularly in areas such as atmospheric, environment and catalysis sciences. APPES adds an important missing element to the host of techniques that give fundamental information, i.e., spectroscopy and microscopy, about surfaces in the presence of gases and vapors, as encountered in industrial catalysis and atmospheric environments. APPES brings electron spectroscopy into the realm of techniques that can be used in practical environments. Decades of surface science in ultra high vacuum (UHV) has shown the power of electron spectroscopy in its various manifestations. Their unique property is the extremely short elastic mean free path of electrons as they travel through condensed matter, of the order of a few atomic distances in the energy range from a few eV to a few thousand eV. As a consequence of this the information obtained by analyzing electrons emitted or scattered from a surface refers to the top first few atomic layers, which is what surface science is all about. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and other such techniques have been used for decades and provided some of the most fundamental knowledge about surface crystallography, composition and electronic structure available today. Unfortunately the high interaction cross section of

  3. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  4. The effect of letter string length and report condition on letter recognition accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Karmazinaite, Berta; Rossow, Andrea S

    Letter sequence recognition accuracy has been postulated to be limited primarily by low-level visual factors. The influence of high level factors such as visual memory (load and decay) has been largely overlooked. This study provides insight into the role of these factors by investigating the interaction between letter sequence recognition accuracy, letter string length and report condition. Letter sequence recognition accuracy for trigrams and pentagrams were measured in 10 adult subjects for two report conditions. In the complete report condition subjects reported all 3 or all 5 letters comprising trigrams and pentagrams, respectively. In the partial report condition, subjects reported only a single letter in the trigram or pentagram. Letters were presented for 100ms and rendered in high contrast, using black lowercase Courier font that subtended 0.4° at the fixation distance of 0.57m. Letter sequence recognition accuracy was consistently higher for trigrams compared to pentagrams especially for letter positions away from fixation. While partial report increased recognition accuracy in both string length conditions, the effect was larger for pentagrams, and most evident for the final letter positions within trigrams and pentagrams. The effect of partial report on recognition accuracy for the final letter positions increased as eccentricity increased away from fixation, and was independent of the inner/outer position of a letter. Higher-level visual memory functions (memory load and decay) play a role in letter sequence recognition accuracy. There is also suggestion of additional delays imposed on memory encoding by crowded letter elements. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards an atomic level understanding of niobia based catalysts and catalysis by combining the science of catalysis with surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The science of catalysis and surface science have developed, independently, key information for understanding catalytic processes. One might argue: is there anything fundamental to be discovered through the interplay between catalysis and surface science? Real catalysts of monometallic and bimetallic Co/Nb2O5 and Pd-Co/Nb2O5 catalysts showed interesting selectivity results on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Noronha et al. 1996, Rosenir et al. 1993. The presence of a noble metal increased the C+5 selectivity and decreased the methane formation depending of the reduction temperature. Model catalyst of Co-Pd supported on niobia and alumina were prepared and characterized at the atomic level, thus forming the basis for a comparison with "real" support materials. Growth, morphology and structure of both pure metal and alloy particles were studied. It is possible to support the strong metal support interaction suggested by studies on real catalysts via the investigation of model systems for niobia in comparison to alumina support in which this effect does not occur. Formation of Co2+ penetration into the niobia lattice was suggested on the basis of powder studies and can be fully supported on the basis of model studies. It is shown for both real catalysts and model systems that oxidation state of Co plays a key role in controlling the reactivity in Fischer-Tropsch reactions systems and that the addition of Pd is a determining factor for the stability of the catalyst. It is demonstrated that the interaction with unsaturated hydrocarbons depends strongly on the state of oxidation.As ciências da catálise e da superfície têm desenvolvido independentemente temas básicos para o entendimento de processos catalíticos. Pode-se até questionar se há ainda algo fundamental para ser descoberto através da interface entre catálise eciência da superfície? Catalisadores mono e bimetálicos de Co/Nb2O5 e Pd-Co/ Nb2O5 apresentaram resultados interessantes de

  6. Adsorption of DNA onto gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide: surface science and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juewen

    2012-08-14

    The interaction between DNA and inorganic surfaces has attracted intense research interest, as a detailed understanding of adsorption and desorption is required for DNA microarray optimization, biosensor development, and nanoparticle functionalization. One of the most commonly studied surfaces is gold due to its unique optical and electric properties. Through various surface science tools, it was found that thiolated DNA can interact with gold not only via the thiol group but also through the DNA bases. Most of the previous work has been performed with planar gold surfaces. However, knowledge gained from planar gold may not be directly applicable to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for several reasons. First, DNA adsorption affinity is a function of AuNP size. Second, DNA may interact with AuNPs differently due to the high curvature. Finally, the colloidal stability of AuNPs confines salt concentration, whereas there is no such limit for planar gold. In addition to gold, graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as a new material for interfacing with DNA. GO and AuNPs share many similar properties for DNA adsorption; both have negatively charged surfaces but can still strongly adsorb DNA, and both are excellent fluorescence quenchers. Similar analytical and biomedical applications have been demonstrated with these two surfaces. The nature of the attractive force however, is different for each of these. DNA adsorption on AuNPs occurs via specific chemical interactions but adsorption on GO occurs via aromatic stacking and hydrophobic interactions. Herein, we summarize the recent developments in studying non-thiolated DNA adsorption and desorption as a function of salt, pH, temperature and DNA secondary structures. Potential future directions and applications are also discussed.

  7. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  8. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  9. Letter detection in very familiar texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S N; Tai, J

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether patterns of letter detection for function and content words in texts are affected by the familiarity of the material being read. In Experiment 1, subjects searched for target letters in sentences that had been rehearsed prior to performing the letter detection on them as well as on unfamiliar sentences. In Experiment 2, subjects searched for target letters in highly familiar verses (e.g., nursery rhymes) and in unfamiliar sentences that were matched to the familiar verses. A disadvantage in letter detection for function as compared with content words consistently found with unfamiliar passages was reduced significantly with the familiar material in both experiments. Specifically, letter detection for content words grew worse in familiar text, but letter detection for function words showed a contrasting modest, though nonsignificant, improvement. The results are consistent with the proposition that in very familiar texts, parafoveal analysis permits the identification of generally less familiar content words. Simultaneously, the normal pattern of weighing the structure and content elements of text changes so that more fixations on function words occur than when one is reading unfamiliar texts.

  10. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; hide

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  11. Mars in Motion: An online Citizen Science platform looking for changes on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinks, James Christopher; Wardlaw, Jessica; Houghton, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    The European FP7 iMars project has developed tools and 3D models of the Martian surface through the co-registration of NASA and ESA mission data dating from the Viking missions of the 1970s to the present day, for a much more comprehensive interpretation of the geomorphological and climatic processes that have taken and do take place. We present the Citizen Science component of the project, 'Mars in Motion', created through the Zooniverse's Panoptes framework to allow volunteers to look for and identify changes on the surface of Mars over time. 'Mars in Motion', as with many other current citizen science platforms of a planetary or other disciplinary focus, has been developed to compliment the results of automated data mining analysis software, both by validation through the creation of training data and by adding context - gathering more in-depth data on the type and metrics of change initially detected.Through the analysis of initial volunteer results collected in the second half of 2016, the accuracy and ability of untrained participants to identify geomorphological changes is considered, as well as the impact of their position in the system. Volunteer contribution, either as a filter for poor quality imagery pre-algorithm, validation of algorithmic analysis, or adding context to pre-detected change, and their awareness and interpretation of its importance, can directly influence engagement with the platform and therefore ultimately its success. Understanding the effect of the volunteer and software's role in the system on both the results of and engagement with planetary science citizen science platforms will be an important lesson for the future, especially as the next generation of planetary missions will likely collect data orders of magnitude greater in volume. To deal with the data overload, it is likely that human or software solutions alone will not be sufficient, and that a combination of the two working together in a complimentary system that combines

  12. Carl Von Clausewitz: Two Letters on Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paret, Peter; Moran, Daniel

    1984-01-01

    This edition of Carl von Clausewitz's Two Letters on Strategy was made possible by the Army War College Foundation and by the Art of War Colloquium of the Army War College, which sponsors the volume...

  13. Open letter to children going to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of things you should know and which I will explain in this small letter. To learn what you should do in school, and what you should ask them, their teachers and classmates.

  14. Jose Maria Arguedas’ letters to Abelardo Oquendo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María Pinilla Cisneros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Four letters are included in this publication that Jose Maria Arguedas addressed to Abelardo Oquendo. They document Arguedas’ interest in choosing persons of great literary talent and solid judgemente as editors for his writings. These letters also reveal his personal interpretation of certain practices of Lima intellectual groups, as well as his committed defense in protecting the authenticity of artistic expressions of the Andean world.

  15. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them...... and language. Thus the teaching approach for writing depends crucially on the status of the learners, and to teach lexical phrases is particularly important for non-natives....

  16. Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Keomany, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In her article "Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters" Melanie Keomany discusses the contents of William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg's The Yage Letters which could be dismissed as openly bigoted and racist. Keomany posits that the text reveals valuable connections between the colonial expansion of the eighteenth century and 1950s USA and Latin America. By re-shaping Burroughs's lived experiences in the Amazon into a text where the narrator William Lee mimics sardonically an...

  17. Structured printed referral letter (form letter; saves time and improves communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.J.C. Ramanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Referral of patients to hospitals, specialists and other institutions is an essential part of primary health care. Patients are referred to specialists when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care or when opinion or advice is needed from them. Referral has considerable implications for patients, health care system and health care costs. Good communication between primary and secondary care is essential for the smooth running of any health care system. Referral and reply letters are the sole means of communication between doctors most of the time and breakdown in communication could lead to poor continuity of care, delayed diagnoses, polypharmacy, increased litigation risk and unnecessary testing. A referral letter also helps to avoid patient dissatisfaction and loss of confidence in family physician. Studies of referral letters have reported that specialists are dissatisfied with their quality and content. Inclusion of letter writing skills in the medical curriculum, peer assessment and feedback have shown to improve the quality of referral letters. . Form letters have shown to enhance information content and communication in referral process. In Sri Lanka referral letters are usually hand written and frequent complaints are that these letters do not contain adequate information and retrieval of information is a problem due to poor legibility and clarity. Sometimes Primary care doctors refer patients to hospitals and specialists with only verbal instructions. To address these short comings this form letter was introduced. Based on the guidelines and systematic review of published articles, items of information to be included were decided. Printed forms of the letter are kept in the practice and the doctor has to just fill up relevant information under each heading. The objectives of introducing this structured referral letter was to improve the quality and standard of referral letters and save time for both general

  18. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  19. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  20. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2010, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal and look ahead to 2011. As many of you are no doubt aware, our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) is currently 1.317. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization (Thomson ISI) agreeing with my own assessment. Measurement Science and Technology is a journal with a broad scope covering new measurement techniques in all fields of science and engineering. I therefore find it particularly enjoyable to read summaries of recent research in our strong topical review programme as these cover many varied topics of interest. In 2010 several interesting articles by international leaders in their field were published, for example: Single-photon generation and detection, by G S Buller and R J Collins of Heriot-Watt University [1]. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in life sciences, by Jan Willem Borst and Antonie J W G Visser, from the Microspectroscopy Centre of Wageningen University [2]. Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis, by Elfriede Simon of Siemens AG [3]. I hope that these articles, and the others published in 2010 and now in 2011, will provide a useful overview for our readers, and be helpful to new researchers. When speaking to young researchers I am particularly aware that having their articles published in a timely fashion is important, and I am pleased that our publication times are highly competitive, with most authors receiving a

  1. Surface science and electrochemical studies of metal-modified carbides for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas Glenn

    Carbides of the early transition metals have emerged as low-cost catalysts that are active for a wide range of reactions. The surface chemistry of carbides can be altered by modifying the surface with small amounts of admetals. These metal-modified carbides can be effective replacements for Pt-based bimetallic systems, which suffer from the drawbacks of high cost and low thermal stability. In this dissertation, metal-modified carbides were studied for reactions with applications to renewable energy technologies. It is demonstrated that metal-modified carbides possess high activity for alcohol reforming and electrochemical hydrogen production. First, the surface chemistry of carbides towards alcohol decomposition is studied using density functional theory (DFT) and surface science experiments. The Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used to calculate the binding energies of alcohols and decomposition intermediates on metal-modified carbides. The calculated binding energies were then correlated to reforming activity determined experimentally using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the case of methanol decomposition, it was found that tungsten monocarbide (WC) selectively cleaved the C-O bond to produce methane. Upon modifying the surface with a single layer of metal such as Ni, Pt, or Rh, the selectivity shifted towards scission of the C-H bonds while leaving the C-O bond intact, producing carbon monoxide (CO) and H2. High resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to examine the bond breaking sequence as a function of temperature. From HREELS, it was shown that the surfaces followed an activity trend of Rh > Ni > Pt. The Au-modified WC surface possessed too low of a methanol binding energy, and molecular desorption of methanol was the most favorable pathway on this surface. Next, the ability of Rh-modified WC to break the C-C bond of C2 and C3 alcohols was demonstrated. HREELS showed that ethanol decomposed through an acetaldehyde

  2. Surface and interface sciences of Li-ion batteries. -Research progress in electrode-electrolyte interface-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The application potential of Li-ion batteries is growing as demand increases in different fields at various stages in energy systems, in addition to their conventional role as power sources for portable devices. In particular, applications in electric vehicles and renewable energy storage are increasing for Li-ion batteries. For these applications, improvements in battery performance are necessary. The Li-ion battery produces and stores electric power from the electrochemical redox reactions between the electrode materials. The interface between the electrodes and electrolyte strongly affects the battery performance because the charge transfer causing the electrode redox reaction begins at this interface. Understanding of the surface structure, electronic structure, and chemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface is necessary to improve battery performance. However, the interface is located between the electrode and electrolyte materials, hindering the experimental analysis of the interface; thus, the physical properties and chemical processes have remained poorly understood until recently. Investigations of the physical properties and chemical processes at the interface have been performed using advanced surface science techniques. In this review, current knowledge and future research prospects regarding the electrode-electrolyte interface are described for the further development of Li-ion batteries.

  3. Innovations from the “ivory tower”: Wilhelm Barthlott and the paradigm shift in surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neinhuis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable. Among the various fields of interest not mentioned here (e.g., systematics of Cactaceae, diversity and evolution of epiphytes, the unique natural history of isolated rocky outcrops called inselbergs, or the global distribution of biodiversity, plant surfaces and especially the tremendous diversity of minute structures on leaves, fruits, seeds and other parts of plants represent a common thread through 40 years of scientific career of Wilhelm Barthlott. Based on research that was regarded already old-fashioned in the 1970s and 1980s, systematic botany, results and knowledge were accumulated that, some 20 years later, initiated a fundamental turnover in how surfaces were recognized not only in biology, but even more evident in materials science.

  4. Surface science approach to Pt/carbon model catalysts: XPS, STM and microreactor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Abdul Md.; Haunold, Thomas; Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V.; Bera, Abhijit; Rameshan, Christoph; Rupprechter, Günther

    2018-05-01

    Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon are an important technological catalyst. A corresponding model catalyst was prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Pt on sputtered HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite). The carbon substrate before and after sputtering as well as the Pt/HOPG system before and after Pt deposition and annealing were examined by XPS and STM. This yielded information on the surface density of defects, which serve as nucleation centres for Pt, and on the size distribution (mean size/height) of the Pt nanoparticles. Two different model catalysts were prepared with mean sizes of 2.0 and 3.6 nm, both turned out to be stable upon UHV-annealing to 300 °C. After transfer into a UHV-compatible flow microreactor and subsequent cleaning in UHV and under mbar pressure, the catalytic activity of the Pt/HOPG model system for ethylene hydrogenation was examined under atmospheric pressure flow conditions. This enabled to determine temperature-dependent conversion rates, turnover frequencies (TOFs) and activation energies. The catalytic results obtained are in line with the characteristics of technological Pt/C, demonstrating the validity of the current surface science based model catalyst approach.

  5. Disentangling the developmental trajectories of letter position and letter identity coding using masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A; Castles, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position development: the lexical tuning hypothesis and the multiple-route model. One factor that may be contributing to these discrepancies is the use of baseline primes that substitute letters in the target word, which may confound the effect of changes in letter position processing over development with those of letter identity. The present study included an identity prime (e.g., listen-LISTEN), in addition to the standard two-substituted-letter (2SL; e.g., lidfen-LISTEN) and all-letter-different (ALD; e.g., rodfup-LISTEN) baselines, to remove the potential confound between letter position and letter identity information in determining the effect of the TL prime. Priming effects were measured in a lexical decision task administered to children aged 7-12 and a group of university students. Using inverse transformed response times, targets preceded by a TL prime were responded to significantly faster than those preceded by 2SL and ALD primes, and priming remained stable across development. In contrast, targets preceded by a TL prime were responded to significantly slower than those preceded by an ID prime, and this reaction-time cost increased significantly over development, with adults showing the largest cost. These findings are consistent with a lexical tuning account of letter position development, and are inconsistent with the multiple-route model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Neural Correlates of Top-Down Letter Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongchuan; Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.; Li, Wu; Lee, Kang; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. Participants responded whether one of a number of different possible letters was present in a very noisy image. After initial training that became increasingly difficult, they continued to detect letters even though the images consisted of pure noise,…

  7. 48 CFR 816.7001 - Letters of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of availability... availability. (a) Description. A letter of availability (sometimes inappropriately called a letter of intent... delivery schedule for long lead-time items. A letter of availability usually indicates products or services...

  8. Science and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marylu Shore; Zimmerman, Judith Moss

    1980-01-01

    Described is how the utilization of the science classroom for the development of language skills, particularly in the area of writing. Suggested activities include crossword puzzles, poetry, puppet shows, comic books and letter writing. (Author/DS)

  9. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  10. Letter and symbol identification: No evidence for letter-specific crowding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Eric; Descamps, Marine; Denis-Noël, Ambre; Colé, Pascale

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding. We therefore removed the involvement of short-term memory by precueing target-item position and compared SPFs with precueing and postcueing. Perimetric complexity was stringently matched between letters and symbols. In postcueing conditions similar to previous studies, we did not reproduce the inverted V shape for symbols: Clear-cut W shapes were observed with an overall smaller accuracy for symbols compared to letters. This letter/symbol difference was dramatically reduced in precueing conditions in keeping with our prediction. Our results are not consistent with the claim that letter strings trigger specialized crowding processes. We argue that PR procedures are not fit to isolate crowding processes.

  11. Recognition of letters in words and nonwords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, C L; Puglisi, J T

    1982-07-01

    Two visual search experiments were conducted to clarify the processes underlying the "word superiority" effect. Ss in both experiments (18 college students in Experiment 1; 18 college students and 18 older adults in Experiment 2) searched six, 50-item stimulus lists for the letters "a" and "r". Each item consisted of a string of four letters forming either a word or a nonword anagram of that word. Items were printed in either uppercase letters, lowercase letters, or mixed-cased letters (e.g., wOrD), resulting in the six stimulus lists. Significant main effects were obtained in the two experiments. Search times were shorter for words than for nonwords, regardless of case. Thus, the word superiority effect was demonstrated even when the visual configuration of the word was disrupted. Search times were also shorter for uppercase and lowercase items (i.e., same-case items) than for mixed-case items, regardless of the word/nonword condition. In addition, older persons (Experiment 2) evidenced slower processing than college students in all stimulus conditions, and their processing was differentially slowed in conditions which prevented automatic (as opposed to effortful) processing. Results were interpreted in terms of automatic information processing.

  12. Particles and nuclei, letters, in Russian, pt.3

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the role of the complanar emission of particles in nuclear interaction for E sub 0 >10 sup 1 sup 6 eV detected in the stratosphere, sup 1 sup 0 B nucleus fragment yields, nuclear teleportation (proposal for an experiment), invisible 'glue' bosons in model field theory, calculation of the ionization differential effective cross sections in fast ion-atom collisions, interactions of ultracold neutrons near surface of solids, g factors as a probe for high-spin structure of neutron-rich Dy isotopes, search for periodicities in experimental data by the autoregressive model methods

  13. An Open Letter to President Barack Obama from C. Frederick Risinger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an open letter to President Barack Obama written by the author to express his concerns about the increasing emphasis on mathematics and science education along with the continued emphasis on reading/language arts while a fourth major curriculum area--social studies--is being marginalized by lack of funding and reduced…

  14. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  15. Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

    2008-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

  16. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  17. A surface science compatible epifluorescence microscope for inspection of samples under ultra high vacuum and cryogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Rohbohm, Nils; Merkel, Rudolf; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2017-08-01

    We modified an epi-illumination light microscope and mounted it on an ultra high vacuum chamber for investigating samples used in a surface science experiment. For easy access and bake out, all optical components are placed outside the vacuum and the sample is imaged through a glass window. The microscope can be operated in reflection brightfield or epifluorescence mode to image the sample surface or fluorescent dye molecules adsorbed on it. The homemade sample mounting was made compatible for the use under the microscope; sample temperatures as low as 6 K can be achieved. The performance of the microscope is demonstrated on two model samples: Brightfield-images of a well-prepared Ag(100) surface show a macroscopic corrugation of the surface, although low energy electron diffraction data indicate a highly ordered crystalline surface. The surface shows macroscopic protrusions with flat regions, about 20-200 μm in diameter, in between. Fluorescence images of diluted 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylicacid dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules adsorbed on an ultrathin epitaxial KCl film on the Ag(100) surface show a shading effect at surface protrusions due to an inclined angle of incidence of the PTCDA beam during deposition. For some preparations, the distribution of the fluorescence intensity is inhomogeneous and shows a dense network of bright patches about 5 μm in diameter related to the macroscopic corrugation of the surface. We propose that such a light microscope can aid many surface science experiments, especially those dealing with epitaxial growth or fluorescent materials.

  18. A surface science compatible epifluorescence microscope for inspection of samples under ultra high vacuum and cryogenic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Rohbohm, Nils; Merkel, Rudolf; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2017-08-01

    We modified an epi-illumination light microscope and mounted it on an ultra high vacuum chamber for investigating samples used in a surface science experiment. For easy access and bake out, all optical components are placed outside the vacuum and the sample is imaged through a glass window. The microscope can be operated in reflection brightfield or epifluorescence mode to image the sample surface or fluorescent dye molecules adsorbed on it. The homemade sample mounting was made compatible for the use under the microscope; sample temperatures as low as 6 K can be achieved. The performance of the microscope is demonstrated on two model samples: Brightfield-images of a well-prepared Ag(100) surface show a macroscopic corrugation of the surface, although low energy electron diffraction data indicate a highly ordered crystalline surface. The surface shows macroscopic protrusions with flat regions, about 20-200 μm in diameter, in between. Fluorescence images of diluted 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylicacid dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules adsorbed on an ultrathin epitaxial KCl film on the Ag(100) surface show a shading effect at surface protrusions due to an inclined angle of incidence of the PTCDA beam during deposition. For some preparations, the distribution of the fluorescence intensity is inhomogeneous and shows a dense network of bright patches about 5 μm in diameter related to the macroscopic corrugation of the surface. We propose that such a light microscope can aid many surface science experiments, especially those dealing with epitaxial growth or fluorescent materials.

  19. An Open Letter to Lawrence H. Summers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This letter to Harvard University's new president compares what he pledged in his inaugural address to what has actually occurred, noting that the true tests of his leadership will be his handling of ROTC, grade inflation, and affirmative action and suggesting that the greatest threat to the university is balkanization into warring factions…

  20. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  1. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue of the information letter consists of two articles, "Music Therapy" and "Research and Applications of Psychomusical Techniques"; a review of the book, "La musicotherapie et les methods nouvelles d'association des techniques" by Guilhot and Cecourt, and a bibliography of books on music therapy written in…

  2. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  3. Text legibility and the letter superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheedy, James E; Subbaram, Manoj V; Zimmerman, Aaron B; Hayes, John R

    2005-01-01

    Effects of font design and electronic display parameters upon text legibility were determined using a threshold size method. Participants' visual acuity (inverse of the minimum detection size, representing the threshold legibility for each condition) was measured using upper- and lowercase letters and lowercase words in combinations of 6 fonts, 3 font-smoothing modes, 4 font sizes, 10 pixel heights, and 4 stroke widths. Individual lowercase letters were 10% to 20% more legible than lowercase words (i.e., lowercase words must be 10%-20% larger to have the same threshold legibility). This letter superiority effect suggests that individual letters play a large role and word shape plays a smaller role, if any, in word identification at threshold. Pixel height, font, stroke width, and font smoothing had significant main effects on threshold legibility. Optimal legibility was attained at 9 pixels (10 points). Verdana and Arial were the most legible fonts; Times New Roman and Franklin were least legible. Subpixel rendering (ClearType) improved threshold legibility for some fonts and, in combination with Verdana, was the most legible condition. Increased stroke width (bold) improved threshold legibility but only at the thinnest width tested. Potential applications of this research include optimization of font design for legibility and readability.

  4. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley,

  5. Samuel Beckett: Color, Letter, and Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Through a bilingual reading of Beckett's "Mal vu mal dit," the illusion of painted relief for printed letters is created. Colors manifest themselves through the continual process of translation. The French translation adds color to the black and white English text. (DF)

  6. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H.; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  7. DISCERNMENT IN THE LETTER TO THE GALATIANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... “discernment” reached by the. “pillars” in Jerusalem. He uses this within the situation that he addresses in his letter as an argument to demonstrate why his gospel is true, and why that of his opponents should be rejected. final result of this process of thinking, since, according to him, this excludes reflective thought as such.

  8. The anthrax letters: a medical detective story

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Leonard A

    2003-01-01

    .... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cole, Leonard A., 1933The anthrax letters : a medical detective story / Leonard A. Cole. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08881-X - ISBN 0-309-52584-5 (PDF) 1. Bioterrorism- United States. 2. Anthrax- United States. 3. Postal service- United States. 4. Victims of...

  9. Letters to a Young Education Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2017-01-01

    In "Letters to a Young Education Reformer," Frederick M. Hess distills knowledge from twenty-five years of working in and around school reform. Inspired by his conversations with young, would-be reformers who are passionate about transforming education, the book offers a window into Hess's thinking about what education reform is and…

  10. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from

  11. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  12. A letter to the Master Clinician

    OpenAIRE

    Jhaveri, Kenar D.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author writes a letter to the Master Clinician about his concerns regarding the teaching responsibilities of current faculty members during ward rounds. This short essay highlights the transition that has been noticed in medical training in the last decade.

  13. A letter to the Master Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author writes a letter to the Master Clinician about his concerns regarding the teaching responsibilities of current faculty members during ward rounds. This short essay highlights the transition that has been noticed in medical training in the last decade.

  14. Season Spotter: Using Citizen Science to Validate and Scale Plant Phenology from Near-Surface Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kosmala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a rapidly changing climate on the biosphere is an urgent area of research for mitigation policy and management. Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change and regulates the seasonality of carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the land surface and the climate system, making it an important tool for studying biosphere–atmosphere interactions. To monitor plant phenology at regional and continental scales, automated near-surface cameras are being increasingly used to supplement phenology data derived from satellite imagery and data from ground-based human observers. We used imagery from a network of phenology cameras in a citizen science project called Season Spotter to investigate whether information could be derived from these images beyond standard, color-based vegetation indices. We found that engaging citizen science volunteers resulted in useful science knowledge in three ways: first, volunteers were able to detect some, but not all, reproductive phenology events, connecting landscape-level measures with field-based measures. Second, volunteers successfully demarcated individual trees in landscape imagery, facilitating scaling of vegetation indices from organism to ecosystem. And third, volunteers’ data were used to validate phenology transition dates calculated from vegetation indices and to identify potential improvements to existing algorithms to enable better biological interpretation. As a result, the use of citizen science in combination with near-surface remote sensing of phenology can be used to link ground-based phenology observations to satellite sensor data for scaling and validation. Well-designed citizen science projects targeting improved data processing and validation of remote sensing imagery hold promise for providing the data needed to address grand challenges in environmental science and Earth observation.

  15. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-02-19

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure highquality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  16. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  17. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center.

  18. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    green revolution". — seemed to confirm the value of science and technology to international development. Yet studies showed that, at that time, only about two percent of ... gap in science and technology between the Third World and the industrial- ..... Finance; Treasury Board; Industry, Trade and Commerce; Agriculture;.

  19. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  20. Letters to the editor in response to studies of guns in the home and homicide and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Flynn, Kalen; Branas, Charles C

    2017-12-01

    ; author responses meet a higher standard for science and civility, as do letters to the editor regarding research topics other than firearms. The scientific study of firearm violence could be better served with more letters containing greater scientific commentary and dissent.

  1. When writing impairs reading: letter perception's susceptibility to motor interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin H; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-08-01

    The effect of writing on the concurrent visual perception of letters was investigated in a series of studies using an interference paradigm. Participants drew shapes and letters while simultaneously visually identifying letters and shapes embedded in noise. Experiments 1-3 demonstrated that letter perception, but not the perception of shapes, was affected by motor interference. This suggests a strong link between the perception of letters and the neural substrates engaged during writing. The overlap both in category (letter vs. shape) and in the perceptual similarity of the features (straight vs. curvy) of the seen and drawn items determined the amount of interference. Experiment 4 demonstrated that intentional production of letters is not necessary for the interference to occur, because passive movement of the hand in the shape of letters also interfered with letter perception. When passive movements were used, however, only the category of the drawn items (letters vs. shapes), but not the perceptual similarity, had an influence, suggesting that motor representations for letters may selectively influence visual perception of letters through proprioceptive feedback, with an additional influence of perceptual similarity that depends on motor programs.

  2. 7 CFR 1737.80 - Description of characteristics letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description of characteristics letter. 1737.80... TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Characteristics Letter § 1737.80 Description of characteristics letter. (a) After all of the... shall inform the borrower, in writing, of the characteristics of the proposed loan. The purpose of the...

  3. Student Teacher Letters of Reference: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Letters of reference are commonly used in acquiring a job in education. Despite serious issues of validity and reliability in writing and evaluating letters, there is a dearth of research that systematically examines the evaluation process and defines the constructs that define high quality letters. The current study used NVivo to examine 160…

  4. 48 CFR 871.201-4 - Letter contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-4 Letter contracts. Letter contracts are authorized for use in... formal contract with an approved educational institution before the enrollment of eligible veterans for...

  5. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  7. The Scarlet Letter: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Littlefield, D.; Sara, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorn’s 19th century romance The Scarlet Letter centres on the simple transgression of adultery and its social consequences. Hawthorn’s narrative and story-telling skill, however, is far from simple; the author manages to subtly and cleverly set the tale within a framework of other transgressions. Ideas of space and other social constructions such including language and belief systems are tested and subverted in this description of a 17th century Puritan settlement. In this paper...

  8. Fifty years of Chemical Physics Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, A. David

    2017-09-01

    Chemical Physics Letters was born in 1967. In the first Number, published in February that year, the Founding Editors, Jan Hoytink and Laurens Jansen, stipulated that the journal would be truly international and that all submitted papers will be refereed. The aim was to provide a convenient means for the rapid dissemination of research results in the field of chemical physics. There would be an emphasis on theoretical interpretation. This article reviews the progress of the journal over its first fifty years.

  9. Osterc's letters to Milojević

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence between two of the most important composers in Yugoslavia during the period between the two world wars: Miloje Milojević (1884-1946, a Serb living in Belgrade, and Slavko Osterc (1895-1946, Slovene living in Ljubljana, gives us valuable insight into their musical aspirations ambitions, relations to other colleagues, the functioning of musical institutions and the cultural and even political climate of the times. The stylistic features of their works are basically different, Milojević being a modernist with late romantic roots, while Osterc was inclined to objectivity of the neoclassical and "constructive expressionist type. The main topics of their correspondence include: the activities of the Yugoslav section of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in which they were very much involved, and the efforts they made to have their works performed both in the country and abroad. Milojević and Osterc maintained very good relations throughout the period covered by this exchange of letters, that is from 1933-1941 (Osterc's last letter was sent three months before his death in May 1941 and their correspondence provides evidence of several instances of the mutual generosity, as they helped each other in their careers. The portion of this correspondence that is kept in Ljubljana - Milojević's letters to Osterc - has already been published and analyzed by Dragotin Cvetko. As such, the edition of the remaining correspondence, Osterc's letters to Milojević, that is kept in the private archive of Milojević's grandson Vlastimir Trajković in Belgrade, completes the picture. The language Osterc used was his mother tongue, Slovenian, with "borrowings" from the Serbian, the result being an often amusing mixture of the two.

  10. Essay: Reflections on Physical Review Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David

    2008-08-01

    During my tenure as APS Editor-in-Chief Physical Review Letters changed from a journal whose authors were mostly from the U.S. to one whose authors were mostly from abroad. I encouraged authors to publicize their work even before their papers were accepted for publication. And I sought to raise the quality of the papers that were published even higher than before.

  11. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  12. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Elena; Marolf, Don

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stabil...

  13. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  14. Seventh BES [Basic Energy Sciences] catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  15. Constraining the JULES land-surface model for different land-use types using citizen-science generated hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, H. K.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Community land surface models such as JULES are increasingly used for hydrological assessment because of their state-of-the-art representation of land-surface processes. However, a major weakness of JULES and other land surface models is the limited number of land surface parameterizations that is available. Therefore, this study explores the use of data from a network of catchments under homogeneous land-use to generate parameter "libraries" to extent the land surface parameterizations of JULES. The network (called iMHEA) is part of a grassroots initiative to characterise the hydrological response of different Andean ecosystems, and collects data on streamflow, precipitation, and several weather variables at a high temporal resolution. The tropical Andes are a useful case study because of the complexity of meteorological and geographical conditions combined with extremely heterogeneous land-use that result in a wide range of hydrological responses. We then calibrated JULES for each land-use represented in the iMHEA dataset. For the individual land-use types, the results show improved simulations of streamflow when using the calibrated parameters with respect to default values. In particular, the partitioning between surface and subsurface flows can be improved. But also, on a regional scale, hydrological modelling was greatly benefitted from constraining parameters using such distributed citizen-science generated streamflow data. This study demonstrates the modelling and prediction on regional hydrology by integrating citizen science and land surface model. In the context of hydrological study, the limitation of data scarcity could be solved indeed by using this framework. Improved predictions of such impacts could be leveraged by catchment managers to guide watershed interventions, to evaluate their effectiveness, and to minimize risks.

  16. Letter to the Editor | Mandal | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school children in Lagos, Nigeria. Due to errors in the previous PDF especially in the 'Cite as' authors names, the PDF fulltext has been reloaded. This information is now correct. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  17. Letter to Editor | Selvaraj | Annals of Medical and Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing Adherence in Cardiac Clinic Versus General Outpatient Clinic: Few Concerns and Way Forward. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  18. Letter to the editor | Akodu | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Due to errors in the previous PDF especially in the 'Cite as' authors names, the PDF fulltext has been reloaded. This information is now correct. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i3.34.

  19. Letter to Editor | Ozdemir | Annals of Medical and Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Any defining role of mast cell or mast cell density in oral squamous cell carcinoma? Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  20. Letter to the editor: Science-Policy Interface: Beyond Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulme, M.; Mahony, M.; Beck, S.; Görg, C.; Hansjürgens, B.; Hauck, J.; Nesshöver, C.; Paulsch, A.; Vandewalle, M.; Wittmer, H.; Böschen, S.; Bridgewater, P.; Diaw, M.C.; Fabre, P.; Figueroa, A.; Heong, K.L.; Korn, H.; Leemans, R.; Lövbrand, E.; Hamid, M.N.; Monfreda, C.; Pielke, R.; Settele, J.; Winter, de M.; Vadrot, A.B.M.; Hove, van den S.; Sluijs, van der J.P.

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of our inability to halt damaging ecosystem change (1–4), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was asked in December 2010 to convene a meeting “to determine modalities and institutional arrangements” of a new assessment body, akin to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

  1. COMETARY SCIENCE. CHO-bearing organic compounds at the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko revealed by Ptolemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I P; Sheridan, S; Barber, S J; Morgan, G H; Andrews, D J; Morse, A D

    2015-07-31

    The surface and subsurface of comets preserve material from the formation of the solar system. The properties of cometary material thus provide insight into the physical and chemical conditions during their formation. We present mass spectra taken by the Ptolemy instrument 20 minutes after the initial touchdown of the Philae lander on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Regular mass distributions indicate the presence of a sequence of compounds with additional -CH2- and -O- groups (mass/charge ratios 14 and 16, respectively). Similarities with the detected coma species of comet Halley suggest the presence of a radiation-induced polymer at the surface. Ptolemy measurements also indicate an apparent absence of aromatic compounds such as benzene, a lack of sulfur-bearing species, and very low concentrations of nitrogenous material. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Surface science approach to heterogeneous catalysis: CO hydrogenation on transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzel, H. P.; Krebs, H. J.

    1982-05-01

    Modern surface sensitive electron spectroscopies and other surface analytical techniques have in recent years been extensively applied to the study of H 2 and CO adorption on transition metals. This work has now been extended to include the heterogeneous reaction between adsorbed H 2 and CO on these metals. The combination of surface analysis (carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions) and reaction rate measurements in the range of 100 mbar to 1 bar total pressure is being practiced. This approach yields information on changes of the surface composition of the catalyst as well as data on reaction kinetics and the possible time dependence of the reaction rate. Low surface area samples — either single or polycrystalline - are used for these studies. In the present paper the results obtained by this approach will be reviewed and discussed in the light of the adsorption data. Recent advances in the direction of studying either poisoned or promoted catalytic surfaces will also be mentioned.

  3. Multifunctional magnetite and silica-magnetite nanoparticles: Synthesis, surface activation and applications in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Aranzazu del; Sen, Tapas; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Bruce, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    A method for the introduction of amine groups onto the surface of magnetite and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles has been established based on the condensation of aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Amine-modified particles were grafted with an oligonucleotide and used in the capture of a complimentary sequence. The particles' efficiency at capture was observed to correlate directly with amine group surface density

  4. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A review of recent applications in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikiet, Marisia A.; Khandasammy, Shelby R.; Mistek, Ewelina; Ahmed, Yasmine; Halámková, Lenka; Bueno, Justin; Lednev, Igor K.

    2018-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy has many advantages over its parent technique of Raman spectroscopy. Some of these advantages such as increased sensitivity and selectivity and therefore the possibility of small sample sizes and detection of small concentrations are invaluable in the field of forensics. A variety of new SERS surfaces and novel approaches are presented here on a wide range of forensically relevant topics.

  5. On the implications of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission for hydrologic science and applications (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    The SWOT mission will provide surface water elevation and extent information with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution globally. All of the implications of thedata that SWOT will produce for the hydrologic science and applications communities are not yet apparent. The SWOT data will, however, certainly offer groundbreaking opportunities for estimation of two key terms in the land surface water budget: surface water storage (in almost all water bodies with surface area exceeding about 1 km2) and derived discharge for many of the world’s large rivers (widths greater than roughly 100-250 m). Among just a few of the science questions that the observations should allow us to address are a) what are the dynamics of floods and overbank flows in large rivers? b) what is the contribution of long-term, seasonal, and interannual storage in reservoirs, lakes, and wetlands to sea level? c) what is the magnitude of surface water storage changes at seasonal to decadal time scales and continental spatial scales relative to soil moisture and groundwater? d) what will be the implications of SWOT-based estimates of reservoir storage and storage change to the management of transboundary rivers? These quite likely are among just a few of the questions that SWOT will help elucidate. Others no doubt will arise from creative analyses of SWOT data in combination with data from other missions I conclude with a discussion of mechanisms that will help foster a community to investigate these and other questions, and the implications of a SWOT data policy.

  6. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  7. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  8. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  9. Spectral Feature Analysis of Minerals and Planetary Surfaces in an Introductory Planetary Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Using an ALTA II reflectance spectrometer, the USGS digital spectral library, graphs of planetary spectra, and a few mineral hand samples, one can teach how light can be used to study planets and moons. The author created the hands-on, inquiry-based activity for an undergraduate planetary science course consisting of freshman to senior level…

  10. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore Indian National Science ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2012-09-28

    Sep 28, 2012 ... FORMAT FOR LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION (to be typed on a separate sheet). Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad. Summer Research Fellowships 2013. TO BE USED ONLY FOR STUDENT ...

  11. Indian Academy of Sciences Indian National Science Academy The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FORMAT FOR LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION (to be typed on a separate sheet). 1032. Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian National Science Academy. The National Academy of Sciences, India. Summer Research Fellowships 2010. TO BE USED ONLY FOR STUDENT APPLICANTS*. Name of applicant ...

  12. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A review of recent applications in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikiet, Marisia A; Khandasammy, Shelby R; Mistek, Ewelina; Ahmed, Yasmine; Halámková, Lenka; Bueno, Justin; Lednev, Igor K

    2018-05-15

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy has many advantages over its parent technique of Raman spectroscopy. Some of these advantages such as increased sensitivity and selectivity and therefore the possibility of small sample sizes and detection of small concentrations are invaluable in the field of forensics. A variety of new SERS surfaces and novel approaches are presented here on a wide range of forensically relevant topics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  14. Open letter to Mr Christian Bataille, Deputy of Nord region, France. Open letter on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix P

    2007-02-01

    The author, by means of a letter to the deputy Christian Bataille, presents arguments to the shutdown of old nuclear power plants. He points out the environmental and economical arguments in favor of a decrease of the nuclear power use in France. (A.L.B.)

  15. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  16. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  17. A simplified model of saltcake moisture distribution. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    This letter report describes the formulation of a simplified model for finding the moisture distribution in a saltcake waste profile that has been stabilized by pumping out the drainable interstitial liquid. The model is based on assuming that capillarity mainly governs the distribution of moisture in the porous saltcake waste. A stead upward flow of moisture driven by evaporation from the waste surface is conceptualized to occur for isothermal conditions. To obtain hydraulic parameters for unsaturated conditions, the model is calibrated or matched to the relative saturation distribution as measured by neutron probe scans. The model is demonstrated on Tanks 104-BY and 105-TX as examples. A value of the model is that it identifies the key physical parameters that control the surface moisture content in a waste profile. Moreover, the model can be used to estimate the brine application rate at the waste surface that would raise the moisture content there to a safe level. Thus, the model can be applied to help design a strategy for correcting the moisture conditions in a saltcake waste tank

  18. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shutthanandan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  19. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess

    2012-06-01

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  20. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  1. Interaction of oxygen and carbon monoxide with Pt(111) at intermediate pressure and temperature : revisiting the fruit fly of surface science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashlakov, Dmytro

    2014-01-01

    This thesis uses the surface science approach to address questions regarding the interaction of oxygen with platinum and its subsequent reaction with carbon monoxide. A Pt(111) single crystal surface is used as a model for the catalyst. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the literature on the

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarkson, R B; Odintsov, B M; Ceroke, P J

    1998-01-01

    ; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the nuclear spin population...

  3. Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Cliff S.; Breviere, Emilie; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Garcon, Veronique; Guieu, Cecile; Kieber, David J.; Kontradowitz, Stefan; Paulmier, Aurelien; Quinn, Patricia K.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Stefels, Jacqueline; von Glasow, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on critical issues in ocean-atmosphere exchange that will be addressed by new research strategies developed by the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) research community. Eastern boundary upwelling systems are important sites for CO2 and trace gas emission

  4. The application of surface science in the solution of aircraft materials problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There is now a tendency for both commercial and military aircraft to be maintained and operated for several decades. Indeed some of our front-line defence aircraft have programme withdrawal lives approaching half a century. This places significant demands on the materials used in engines and airframes. The properties and performance of the materials can degrade with time leading to an increase in the importance of repair and maintenance technologies. As most materials problems start at a surface or an interface, it is not surprising that surface sensitive tools are used to resolve many degradation problems. In some cases, the resolution of problems can lead to life-enhancing improvements for the aircraft. This paper will examine some of the practical issues in the use of surface analytical tools for the examination and resolution of practical aircraft problems. Illustrations will be drawn from the application of surface analysis in the areas of corrosion, fracture and adhesive bonding. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  5. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  6. Letter contrast sensitivity function of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1998-06-01

    To provide empirical data of letter CSF for various levels of defocus under controlled conditions of luminance and age. Corrected distance visual acuities were tested at different levels of contrast and defocus. An experiment was conducted using the Medmont visual acuity tester on 10 young subjects and under normal room lighting. Empirical data of visual acuity were obtained for 7 levels of contrast (5, 10, 15, 25, 40, 60, 80%) and defocus levels of 0, +1 and +2D. A mathematical model was derived (R2=0.995) and this can be used to estimate visual acuity at various contrast levels for defocus of < or =+2D. This information is useful for the clinician as normative data and for further development of optical models to predict visual performance of the eye.

  7. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  8. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on copyright in the Digital Single Market) and soft law initiatives (the EU Internet Forum against Terrorism and the Code of Conduct on Countering Illegal Hate Speech Online) seriously put at risk the consistency and integrity of the EU acquis related...... to the information society. A key component of this acquis is the prohibition of general monitoring obligations to the benefit of providers of intermediary services. It is a means to achieve at least two central objectives: the encouragement of innovation as well as the protection of fundamental rights of all...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...

  9. Leibniz's Observations on Hydrology: An Unpublished Letter on the Great Lombardy Flood of 1705.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Lloyd; Church, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although the historical reputation of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) largely rests on his philosophical and mathematical work, it is widely known that he made important contributions to many of the emerging but still inchoate branches of natural science of his day. Among the many scientific papers Leibniz published during his lifetime are ones on the nascent science we now know as hydrology. While Leibniz's other scientific work has become of increasing interest to scholars in recent years, his thinking about hydrology has been neglected, despite being relatively broad in extent, including as it does papers on the 'raising of vapours' and the formation of ice, as well as the separation of salt and fresh water. That list can now be extended still further following the discovery of a previously unpublished letter of Leibniz's on the causes of the devastating Lombardy flood of October and November 1705. This letter, which will be the focus of our paper, reveals the depth of Leibniz's understanding of key hydrological processes. In it, he considers various mechanisms for the flood, such as heavy rains on high ground, underwater earthquakes, and a mountain collapse. Over the course of the paper we examine each of these mechanisms in depth, and show that Leibniz was in the vanguard of hydrological thinking. We also show that the letter contains one of the first scholarly attempts to apply aspects of the still-forming notion of the hydrological cycle to account for a flood event.

  10. Monitoring surface water quality using social media in the context of citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Hong, Yang; Long, Di; Jing, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Surface water quality monitoring (SWQM) provides essential information for water environmental protection. However, SWQM is costly and limited in terms of equipment and sites. The global popularity of social media and intelligent mobile devices with GPS and photography functions allows citizens to monitor surface water quality. This study aims to propose a method for SWQM using social media platforms. Specifically, a WeChat-based application platform is built to collect water quality reports from volunteers, which have been proven valuable for water quality monitoring. The methods for data screening and volunteer recruitment are discussed based on the collected reports. The proposed methods provide a framework for collecting water quality data from citizens and offer a primary foundation for big data analysis in future research.

  11. Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    OpenAIRE

    Law, CS; Brévière, E; De Leeuw, G; Garçon, V; Guieu, C; Kieber, DJ; Kontradowitz, S; Paulmier, A; Quinn, PK; Saltzman, ES; Stefels, J; Von Glasow, R

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on critical issues in ocean-atmosphere exchange that will be addressed by new research strategies developed by the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) research community. Eastern boundary upwelling systems are important sites for CO 2 and trace gas emission to the atmosphere, and the proposed research will examine how heterotrophic processes in the underlying oxygen-deficient waters interact with the climate system. The second regional research focu...

  12. Microplastic distribution in global marine surface waters: results of an extensive citizen science study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, A.; Petersen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic is a major pollutant throughout the world. The majority of the 322 million tons produced annually is used for single-use packaging. What makes plastic an attractive packaging material: cheap, light-weight and durable are also the features that help make it a common and persistent pollutant. There is a growing body of research on microplastic, particles less than 5 mm in size. Microfibers are the most common microplastic in the marine environment. Global estimates of marine microplastic surface concentrations are based on relatively small sample sizes when compared to the vast geographic scale of the ocean. Microplastic residence time and movement along the coast and sea surface outside of the gyres is still not well researched. This five-year project utilized global citizen scientists to collect 1,628 1-liter surface grab samples in every major ocean. The Artic and Southern oceans contained highest average of particles per liter of surface water. Open ocean samples (further than 12 nm from land, n = 686) contained a higher particle average (17 pieces L-1) than coastal samples (n = 723) 6 pieces L-1. Particles were predominantly 100 µm- 1.5 mm in length (77%), smaller than what has been captured in the majority of surface studies. Utilization of citizen scientists to collect data both in fairly accessible regions of the world as well as from areas hard to reach and therefore under sampled, provides us with a wider perspective of global microplastics occurrence. Our findings confirm global microplastic accumulation zone model predictions. The open ocean and poles have sequestered and trapped plastic for over half a century, and show that not only plastics, but anthropogenic fibers are polluting the environment. Continuing to fill knowledge gaps on microplastic shape, size and color in remote ocean areas will drive more accurate oceanographic models of plastic accumulation zones. Incorporation of smaller-sized particles in these models, which has previously

  13. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  14. Exploring Nonfiction through Depression-Era Letter Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Denise M.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that by exploring Depression-era teens' letter writing, language arts teachers can enjoy more fruitful uses of nonfiction with their students. Discusses how reading, analyzing, and responding to the letters could help minimize the widening gap between the 1930s and the twenty-first century. Concludes that researching everyday Americans'…

  15. Why Doctors Do Not Answer Referral Letters | Smith | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to treatment by specialists at secondary and tertiary service levels and communicate reasons for ...

  16. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies. Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are ...

  17. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of ruling letters. 177.9 Section 177.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.9 Effect of ruling letters. (a...

  18. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  19. Strengthening the Ethics and Visual Rhetoric of Sales Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Stallworth

    2008-01-01

    This article provides details about a comprehensive assignment for teaching sales letters in a business communication course. During the past 5 years, this assignment has evolved, moving beyond one that focused almost exclusively on strategies for making the letter persuasive, and therefore effective, to an expanded form that devotes time and…

  20. Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self-damaging behavior mandating neurosurgery. A Aghabiklooei, R Aghabiklooei, N Zamani. Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Analysis of Letter Name Knowledge Using Rasch Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the…

  2. Transhuman Education? Sloterdijk's Reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fiachra

    2017-01-01

    Peter Sloterdijk presented a reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism" at a conference held at Elmau in 1999. Reinterpreting the meaning of humanism in the light of Heidegger's "Letter," Sloterdijk focused his presentation on the need to redefine education as a form of genetic "taming" and proposed what seemed to be…

  3. Integrated pictorial mnemonics and stimulus fading: Teaching kindergartners letter sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, S.E.H. de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Hasselman, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. The conclusion from a vast literature on literacy acquisition is that letter knowledge is one of the best predictors of literacy development. The question of the best way to teach children letter sounds has not, as yet, been answered satisfactorily. Aims. The aim of this study was the

  4. Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…

  5. Intertextuality in Ba's So Long a Letter and Umunnakwe's Dear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertextuality takes for granted the interdependence of literary texts because every artistic creation is a re-echoing of past knowledge. Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter and Ndubisi Umunnakwe's Dear Ramatoulaye are African examples. This work examines how Ba's So Long A Letter intertextualises with Umunnakwe's Dear ...

  6. Trends in the Employment Process: Resumes and Job Application Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)

  7. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.99 Letter of credit. (a) An owner or operator may satisfy the... brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted: Irrevocable Standby.... We certify that the wording of this letter of credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR...

  8. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  9. Surface Science in an MOCVD Environment: Arsenic on Vicinal Ge(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.M.; McMahon, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of arsine-exposed vicinal Ge(100) surfaces show that most As/Ge steps are reconstructed, and that a variety of different step structures exist. The entire family of reconstructed As/Ge steps can be divided into two types, which we have chosen to call ''single-row'' steps and ''double-row'' steps. In this paper we propose a model for a double-row step created by annealing a vicinal Ge(100) substrate under an arsine flux in a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) chamber

  10. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-06-01

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology-based society.

  11. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter N

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 57 ... It serves scientists in the field of Agriculture, Food science and Technology; Animal science, Agriculture Economy and Extension, Fisheries and Aquiculture, Biotechnology, Breeding and Veterinarians. Other websites associated with this journal: http://biotechsocietynigeria.org/index.php/journals/11-current.

  12. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major

  13. Ordering by the numbers in anatomy and by letters Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Paul E; Baud, Robert; Sprumont, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Here, new rules of Latin anatomical nomenclature are proposed to deal with cases not covered by existing or other recommended rules. Determiners (e.g., numerals, letters, alphanumeric strings, and Latin names of Greek letters) should follow the noun they specify or limit, just as it is recommended that adjectives should follow the noun they modify. In general, Roman numerals, Latin letters, and Latin names of Greek letters are preferable to Arabic numerals and Greek letters in Latin anatomical terms. It is also noted that the word typus (type) appears to be superfluous and unnecessary in the Latin anatomical nomenclature. Clin. Anat. 30:700-702, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Raman Under Water - Nonlinear and Nearfield Approaches for Electrochemical Surface Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sabanés, Natalia; Domke, Katrin F

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemistry is re-gaining attention among scientists because the complex interplay between electronic and chemical interfacial processes lies at the bottom of a broad range of important research disciplines like alternative energy conversion or green catalysis and synthesis. While rapid progress has been made in recent years regarding novel technological applications, the community increasingly recognizes that the understanding of the molecular processes that govern macroscopic device properties is still rather limited - which hinders a systematic and more complete exploration of novel material and functionality space. Here, we discuss advanced Raman spectroscopies as valuable analysis tools for electrochemists. The chemical nature of a material and its interaction with the environment is contained in the label-free vibrational fingerprint over a broad energy range so that organic species, solid-state materials, and hybrids thereof can be investigated alike. For surface studies, the inherently small Raman scattering cross sections can be overcome with advanced nonlinear or nearfield-based approaches that provide signal enhancements between three and seven orders of magnitude, sufficient to detect few scatterers in nano-confined spaces or adsorbate (sub)monolayers. Our article highlights how advanced Raman techniques with extreme chemical, spatial and temporal resolution constitute valuable alternative surface analysis tools and provide otherwise inaccessible information about complex interfacial (electro)chemical processes.

  15. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  16. Electron/positron measurements obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector on the surface of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Appel, J. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Experimental and Applied Physics; and others

    2016-04-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars. Although charged and neutral particle spectra have been investigated in detail, the electron and positron spectra have not been investigated yet. The reason for that is that they are difficult to separate from each other and because of the technical challenges involved in extracting energy spectra from the raw data. We use GEANT4 to model the behavior of the RAD instrument for electron/positron measurements.We compare Planetocosmics predictions for different atmospheric pressures and different modulation parameters Φ with the obtained RAD electron/positron measurements.We find that the RAD electron/positron measurements agree well with the spectra predicted by Planetocosmics. Both RAD measurements and Planetocosmics simulation show a dependence of the electron/positron fluxes on both atmospheric pressure and solar modulation potential.

  17. Peer assessment of outpatient consultation letters – feasibility and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojeiji Suzan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Written correspondence is one of the most important forms of communication between health care providers, yet there is little feedback provided to specialists. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and satisfaction of a peer assessment program on consultation letters and to determine inter-rater reliability between family physicians and specialists. Methods A rating scale of nine 5-point Likert scale items including specific content, style items, education value of the letter and an overall rating was developed from a previous validated tool. Nine Internal Medicine specialists/subspecialists from two tertiary care centres submitted 10 letters with patient and physician identifiers removed. Two Internal Medicine specialists, and 2 family physicians from the other centre rated each letter (to protect writer anonymity. A satisfaction survey was sent to each writer and rater after collation of the results. A follow-up survey was sent 6–8 months later. Results There was a high degree of satisfaction with the process and feedback. The rating scale information was felt to be useful and appropriate for evaluating the quality of consultation letters by 6/7 writers. 5/7 seven writers felt that the feedback they received resulted in immediate changes to their letters. Six months later, 6/9 writers indicated they had maintained changes in their letters. Raters rank ordered letters similarly (Cronbach's alpha 0.57–0.84 but mean scores were highly variant. At site 1 there were significant differences in scoring brevity (p Conclusion Most participants found peer assessment of letters feasible and beneficial and longstanding changes occurred in some individuals. Family physicians and specialists appear to have different expectations on some items. Further studies on reliability and validity, with a larger sample, are required before high stakes professional assessments include consultation letters.

  18. Integrated pictorial mnemonics and stimulus fading: Teaching kindergartners letter sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Saskia; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M T; Hasselman, Fred

    2007-09-01

    The conclusion from a vast literature on literacy acquisition is that letter knowledge is one of the best predictors of literacy development. The question of the best way to teach children letter sounds has not, as yet, been answered satisfactorily. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a computer training program using integrated-picture mnemonics combined with a fading procedure to teach children letter sounds. Thirty-nine kindergartners attending mainstream primary education participated in this study. A within-subject design was used. Each kindergartner learned letters under three conditions: (a) a fading condition in which letters are taught using a picture-supported first-sound mnemonics procedure in combination with a fading procedure; (b) an embedded condition in which letters are taught using the picture-supported first-sound-mnemonics procedure only and (c) a without-picture condition in which letters are taught using a first-sound procedure without-picture support. Dependent measures included a productive and receptive letter-sound test, and a first-sound isolation task. Productive letter-sound knowledge in the fading condition was better than in the other two conditions. In addition, kindergartners with good and those with poor first-sound isolation ability performed equally well in the fading condition. However, in the embedded and in the without-picture conditions, the kindergartners with good first-sound isolation ability outperformed those with poor isolation ability. These findings indicate that an integrated-picture mnemonics procedure combined with a fading procedure is effective in teaching kindergartners letter sounds and that the success of such a procedure does not depend on their initial first-sound isolation ability.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.; Ceroke, P.J.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J.H.; Fruianu, M.; Belford, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon chars have been synthesized in our laboratory from a variety of starting materials, by means of a highly controlled pyrolysis technique. These chars exhibit electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line shapes which change with the local oxygen concentration in a reproducible and stable fashion; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the 1 H nuclear spin population in conjunction with electron Zeeman pumping. Low-frequency EPR, DNP and DNP-enhanced MRI all show promise as oximetry methods when used with carbon chars. (author)

  20. Biomimetics Bioinspired Hierarchical-Structured Surfaces for Green Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the general field of biomimetics - lessons from nature. It presents various examples of biomimetics, including roughness-induced superomniphobic surfaces which provide functionality of commercial interest. The major focus in the book is on lotus effect, rose petal effect, shark skin effect, and gecko adhesion.  For each example, the book first presents characterization of an object to understand how a natural object provides functionality, followed by modeling and then fabrication of structures in the lab using nature’s route to verify one’s understanding of nature and provide guidance for development of optimum structures. Once it is understood how nature does it, examples of fabrication of optimum structures using smart materials and fabrication techniques, are presented. Examples of nature inspired objects are also presented throughout.

  1. The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

  2. NASA's MODIS/VIIRS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Products: Asssessment of Accuracy, Continuity and Science Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, G. C.; Malakar, N.; Islam, T.

    2017-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) are an important Earth System Data Record (ESDR) and Environmental Climate Variable (ECV) defined by NASA and GCOS respectively. LST&E data are key variables used in land cover/land use change studies, in surface energy balance and atmospheric water vapor retrieval models and retrievals, and in climate research. LST&E products are currently produced on a routine basis using data from the MODIS instruments on the NASA EOS platforms and by the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi-NPP platform that serves as a bridge between NASA EOS and the next-generation JPSS platforms. Two new NASA LST&E products for MODIS (MxD21) and VIIRS (VNP21) are being produced during 2017 using a new approach that addresses discrepancies in accuracy and consistency between the current suite of split-window based LST products. The new approach uses a Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm, originally developed for the ASTER instrument, to physically retrieve both LST and spectral emissivity consistently for both sensors with high accuracy and well defined uncertainties. This study provides a rigorous assessment of accuracy of the MxD21/VNP21 products using temperature- and radiance-based validation strategies and demonstrates continuity between the products using collocated matchups over CONUS. We will further demonstrate potential science use of the new products with studies related to heat waves, monitoring snow melt dynamics, and land cover/land use change.

  3. Density functionals for surface science: Exchange-correlation model development with Bayesian error estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorff, Jess; Lundgård, Keld Troen; Møgelhøj, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A methodology for semiempirical density functional optimization, using regularization and cross-validation methods from machine learning, is developed. We demonstrate that such methods enable well-behaved exchange-correlation approximations in very flexible model spaces, thus avoiding the overfit......A methodology for semiempirical density functional optimization, using regularization and cross-validation methods from machine learning, is developed. We demonstrate that such methods enable well-behaved exchange-correlation approximations in very flexible model spaces, thus avoiding...... the energetics of intramolecular and intermolecular, bulk solid, and surface chemical bonding, and the developed optimization method explicitly handles making the compromise based on the directions in model space favored by different materials properties. The approach is applied to designing the Bayesian error...... estimation functional with van der Waals correlation (BEEF-vdW), a semilocal approximation with an additional nonlocal correlation term. Furthermore, an ensemble of functionals around BEEF-vdW comes out naturally, offering an estimate of the computational error. An extensive assessment on a range of data...

  4. Application and outlook of the pulsed neutron beam at J-PARC (3). Introduction of high-pressure science and surface/interface analysis at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takanori; Akutsu, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    At the MLF (Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility) of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex), eighteen neutron beam lines equipped with experimental apparatus are in operation and deliver the world highest intensity pulsed neutron beam for fundamental sciences such as solid state physics, materials science, life science, elementary particle physics, nuclear science, and for industrial applications. We introduce studies using an ultra-high pressure neutron diffractometer 'PLANET' for the structure analysis under high-pressure surroundings and a polarized neutron reflectometer 'SHARAKU' for the analysis of surface/interface structure with scales ranging from nano- to submicron-meter. We also introduce briefly all the apparatus for neuron experiments at the MLF. (J.P.N.)

  5. Anonymous letters? DNA and fingerprints technologies combined to solve a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, A; Cormaci, P; Teatino, A; La Marca, A; Barbaro, A

    2004-12-02

    Two brothers, living in two different cities, received two different anonymous letters. We performed latent prints development and DNA research on the letters and also on a glass used by a cousin suspected to be the letters' sender.

  6. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  7. About illegality determination of the validity of evidence through forensic examination Information letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova S.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This letter prepared in connection with a growing number of complaints of investigators and making decisions on the appointment of psychological examination of the credibility of the video recording of interrogations and dictated by the need to arrange expert practice on the study of video footage of carrying out certain investigative actions with various actors in the criminal process. The newsletter discusses the purpose of such examinations and grounds the studies, in accordance with scientific principles of professional activity of experts. The letter was prepared under the supervision of the Director of the FBI, Federal center of forensic expertise under the Ministry of justice of Russia, doctor of legal Sciences, Professor, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation, honorary worker of justice of Russia of S. A. Smirnova, Deputy General Director for science of Federal State Budgetary Institution "V. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology" of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, doctor of medical Sciences, Professor E. V., Makushkina (doctor of juridical science A. Ya. Asnis, doctor of psychological Sciences, Vaske E. V., doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor E. G. Dozortseva, doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor F. S. Safuanov, PhD, associate Professor S. N. Shishkov, PhD, Professor S. S. Shipshin, PhD, associate Professor D. S. Oshevsky, PhD V. Berdnikov, PhD, associate Professor T. N. Sekerazh, PhD A. N. Kalinin. For investigators, judges, prosecutors, heads of Federal budgetary establishments of the Ministry of justice, judicial psychologists. For investigators, judges, prosecutors, heads of Federal budgetary establishments of the Ministry of justice, judicial psychologists.

  8. Submittal of SWMU Assessment Report for Building 9960 Surface Discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-purpose engineering and science laboratory owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration and managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. This Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Assessment Report (SAR) for the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), Coyote Test Field, Building 9960 Surface Discharge, has been prepared in accordance with Section V of the Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order) between the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia (NMED April 2004). The DOE and Sandia formally notified the NMED of this newly identified or suspected SWMU or Area of Concern (AOC) by letter dated December 9, 2014. This SAR is being submitted in accordance with the NMED Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB) letter dated February 16, 2015 letter (Kieling February 2015). This SAR presents the available information for the Building 9960 Surface Discharge, including location, designation of type and function, a general description, the operational dates, waste characteristics, and a summary of existing analytical wastewater and soil data

  9. Computer science: Data analysis meets quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Steven

    2017-10-01

    A technique that combines machine learning and quantum computing has been used to identify the particles known as Higgs bosons. The method could find applications in many areas of science. See Letter p.375

  10. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  11. Students letters to patients as a part of education in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrduljaš-Đjujic, Nataša; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušic, Ana; Marušic, Matko

    2012-01-01

    Family medicine fosters holistic approach to patient-centered practice. Current medical curriculum in Croatia does not have well-structured courses or tools to prepare medicals students for successful communication with the patient and for building lasting and beneficial doctor- patient relationship. We explored the value of students practice in writing letters to patients about their illness as a way of building personal and compassionate relationship with patients. Sixth year students at the School of Medicine in Split wrote letters to the patients from consultations under the supervision of the supervisor in a family medicine practice. Structured teaching of communication with the patient brings family medicine back to what has actually always been its main part- communication and doctor-patient relationship. Our future aim is to develop students letters to patients as a new tool in the family medicine course examination. Moreover, we will investigate how they can be used in everyday practice of family medicine. Copyright 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  13. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeck, Holger; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  14. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pélagie M. Beeson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge.

  15. Letter to Congressional Leaders on Top Defense Management Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This is in reply to the joint letter of October 12, 2000, from the Chairmen of the Senate Committee on the Budget and Committee on Governmental Affairs, the House Government Reform Committee, House...

  16. Contemporary trends in the research of the Letter to Philemon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Adamczewski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period of last two or three decades interpretation of the Letter to Philemon has undergone significant changes. Exegetes applying the historical-critical method proposed recently several new ways of reconstructing the situation that occasioned Paul’s writing the letter. It has been suggested e.g. that Onesimus was no runaway, but probably an envoy from Colossae, or Philemon’s estranged brother, or a slave justifiably seeking intercession, or a roamer. Synchronic methods applied by many exegetes (structural, rhetorical, narrative and pragmatic criticism elucidate various kinds of influence of the letter upon the reader. More and more popular becomes also nowadays manifold liberationist approach. However, beyond applying these various hermeneutic procedures there is also, at least for believing exegetes, an important task of adequate explaining the significance of the Letter to Philemon as an inspired writing.

  17. Dear authors: We do read your cover letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an editorial written as Editor-in-Chief (EIC) for the Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (JAOCS) describing the importance of writing a cover letter for the submission of manuscripts to JAOCS....

  18. Approval Letter for an Alternative Renewable Biomass Tracking Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This January 27, 2015 letter and decision document from EPA approves the Argentine Chamber of Biofuel's (CARBIO) Alternate Biomass Traking Program meeting all the requirements outlined in 40 CFR § 80.1454, including elements determined necessary to achieve

  19. Award Letter: Furbearers and snow: Monitoring using camera traps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Award letter in response to Alaska Region Inventory and Monitoring 2017 request for proposals. Issued to Yukon Flats NWR for project “Furbearers and snow: Monitoring...

  20. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  1. Letter to the editor The number of urine specimens for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult-with-asymptomatic- bacteriuria. Letter to the editor. The number of urine specimens for bacteriological examination in women. Ertugrul Guclu, Tuba Damar, Oguz Karabay. 1. Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, ...

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter G

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 22 of 22 ... Original contributions in the following broad areas are suitable for publication in the Ghana mining journal: Geology and Mineral Exploration, Mining, Quarrying, Geomechanics, Groundwater Studies, Hydrocarbon Development, Mineral Processing, Metallurgy, Material Science, Mineral Management ...

  3. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... It particularly welcomes work of an interdisciplinary nature that brings together history, religion, politics, culture and law. The Journal has a ... The Journal for Juridical Science is an accredited national professional journal which publishes original research articles in law in Afrikaans and English. Multi and ...

  4. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers and disseminates scientific and technological information to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development ...

  5. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 62 ... Scientia Africana seeks to encourage communication among scientists all over the world through regular publication of their research findings. The journal publishes results of original research in all aspects of biological, chemical, earth, mathematical, physical and applied sciences including basic medical ...

  6. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter O

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this ...

  7. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... Specifically, the journal is interested in environmental and disease epidemiology, basic sciences as well as inter-disciplinary studies that enhance and ... We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Humanity, Physics, Geography, ...

  8. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. The Journal aim is to satisfy the goal of ensuring rapid and wide dissemination of results of scientific researches that could finally trigger the advancement of human kind in all its ramifications. The Journal's scope is wide in that it reported findings in the areas of ...

  9. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... The Journal for Islamic Studies (JIS) is a peer-reviewed journal and is included in the list of Approved Journals compiled by the Department of Education ..... The journal will consider research from within the fields of consumer studies, consumer science, home economics, family studies, consumer education ...

  10. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 93 ... Besides academic research, the journal provides an avenue for sharing information on national-level food and nutrition programs. .... by the African Association of Political Science (AAPS), with the aim of providing a platform for African perspectives on issues of politics, economy and society in Africa.

  11. [Billroth and his time; selected passages from his letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budernik, A

    1986-04-18

    Billroth's life and work are illustrated by selected excerpts from his letters written to outstanding personalities and colleagues. Not only his medical activities, but also his initiative in the planning of the Rudolfinerhaus hospital, and the reconstruction of his own department and the building of the Medical Association house in the Frankgasse are described. In addition, his love of music and his deep friendship with Johannes Brahms are demonstrated by these letters.

  12. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  13. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  14. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  15. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important source for the study of the historical development of the Malay language. This essay looks at the language characters of such letters which came from the court of Buton in Southeast Sulawesi. It aims to sketch the linguistic variety of the classical Malay language represented in its eighteenth century letter-writing tradition. Having specific diction and features that confirm local influences, the language of the letters shows distinctiveness in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax.

  16. Response Surface Methodology Using a Fullest Balanced Model: A Re-Analysis of a Dataset in theKorean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheem, Sungsue; Rheem, Insoo; Oh, Sejong

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) is a useful set of statistical techniques for modeling and optimizing responses in research studies of food science. In the analysis of response surface data, a second-order polynomial regression model is usually used. However, sometimes we encounter situations where the fit of the second-order model is poor. If the model fitted to the data has a poor fit including a lack of fit, the modeling and optimization results might not be accurate. In such a case, using a fullest balanced model, which has no lack of fit, can fix such problem, enhancing the accuracy of the response surface modeling and optimization. This article presents how to develop and use such a model for the better modeling and optimizing of the response through an illustrative re-analysis of a dataset in Park et al. (2014) published in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources .

  17. Towards optimizing the name letter test as a measure of implicit self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, L.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijksterhuis, A.

    2009-01-01

    A common measure for implicit self-esteem is the name letter effect, traditionally calculated as the rated attractiveness of someone’s initials or name letters minus the average attractiveness of those same letters rated by people not having those initial or name letters. We present evidence showing

  18. Towards Optimizing the Name Letter Test as a Measure of Implicit Self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, L.W.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    A common measure for implicit self-esteem is the name letter effect, traditionally calculated as the rated attractiveness of someone's initials or name letters minus the average attractiveness of those same letters rated by people not having those initial or name letters. We present evidence showing

  19. The Correspondence of Mary Stuart, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (currently 352 letters)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysman, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Currently this catalogue contains the metadata for 352 letters, 273 of which are conserved in the Royal Collections at The Hague. The letters are written in German, French, and Dutch, and they date from 1641 to 1660. Mary’s outgoing letters are kept in a letter book which is held at the Dutch Royal

  20. 12 CFR 960.5 - Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... letters of credit. 960.5 Section 960.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT § 960.5 Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit. (a) Requirements. Each standby letter of credit issued or...

  1. 12 CFR 960.4 - Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT § 960.4 Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit. (a) Obligation to reimburse. A Bank may issue or confirm a standby letter of credit... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of...

  2. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  3. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  4. Surface Ozone Measured at GLOBE Schools in the Czech Republic: A Demonstration of the Importance of Student Contribution to the Larger Science Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret R.; Creilson, John K.; Henderson, Bryana L.; Ladd, Irene H.; Fishman, Jack; Votapkova, Dana; Krpcova, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based education and science program, developed to give students a chance to perform real science by making measurements, analyzing data, and participating in research in collaboration with scientists. As part of the GLOBE Surface Ozone Protocol and with the assistance of the TEREZA Association in the Czech Republic, schools in the Czech Republic have been making and reporting daily measurements of surface ozone and surface meteorological data since 2001. Using a hand-held ozone monitor developed for GLOBE, students at several Czech schools have generated multiyear data records of surface ozone from 2001 to 2005. Analysis of the data shows surface ozone levels were anomalously high during the summer of 2003 relative to other summers. These findings are consistent with measurements by the European Environment Agency that highlights the summer of 2003 as having exceptionally long-lasting and spatially extensive episodes of high surface ozone, especially during the first half of August. Further analysis of the summer s prevailing meteorology shows not only that it was one of the hottest on record, a finding also seen in the student data, but the conditions for production of ozone were ideal. Findings such as these increase student, teacher, and scientist confidence in the utility of the GLOBE data for engaging budding scientists in the collection, analysis, and eventual interpretation of the data for inquiry-based education.

  5. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... This includes: water resource development; the hydrological cycle; surface hydrology; geohydrology, hydropedology and hydrometeorology; limnology; freshwater and estuarine ecology; salinisation; treatment and management of municipal and industrial water and wastewater; treatment and disposal of ...

  6. A letter from a concerned AGU Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    I apologize for the delay in responding to AGU's request for support. The campaign started shortly after I had made a major adjustment in my estate that essentially limited my discretionary funds to living expenses and minor contributions. However, over the past year some of my assets have been released and I am able to make the enclosed contribution.AGU has afforded me an opportunity to serve the scientific community and to develop professionally. Now that I am in the twilight of my career, I am indeed pleased to assist in the furtherance of the sciences the AGU encourages.

  7. Direct and Indirect Written Corrective Feedback in the Context of Genre-based Instruction on Job Application Letter Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mirzaii

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that a considerable proportion of today’s writing programs operate according to the principles of genre-based instruction, research has not adequately dealt with the teaching of various genres (e.g., job application letters. Nor has research, to date, attempted to address the issue of written corrective feedback in conjunction with genre-based instruction. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the impact of written corrective feedback in the context of genre-based instruction on job application letters. To this end, 120 Iranian advanced-level EFL learners at Kish Institute of Science and Technology participated in the present study. After administering the TOEFL test, 80 students scoring within ±1 SD of the mean score were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups?namely, Direct Feedback Group or Indirect Feedback Group. Having sat a writing pretest, the participants received genre-based instruction on how to compose job application letters. Meanwhile, they were supplied with direct or indirect feedback on their writing. Following this instruction, a writing posttest was administered, the results of which showed that direct corrective feedback was more effective than indirect corrective feedback in the context of genre-based instruction on letters of job application.

  8. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more—a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible. PMID:22665803

  9. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  10. Letter Report for Characterization of Biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.

    2013-04-09

    On 27 November 2012, a bulk biochar sample was received for characterization of selected physical and chemical properties. The main purpose of the characterization was to help determine the degree to which biochar would be suitable as a soil amendment to aid in growth of plants. Towards this end, analyses to determine specific surface, pH, cation-exchange capacity, water retention, and wettability (i.e. surface tension) were conducted. A second objective was to determine how uniform these properties were in the sample. Towards this end, the sample was separated into fractions based on initial particle size and on whether the material was from the external surface or the internal portion of the particle. Based on the results, the biochar has significant liming potentials, significant cation-retention capacities, and highly variable plant-available moisture retention properties that, under the most favorable circumstances, could be helpful to plants. As a consequence, it would be quite suitable for addition to acidic soils and should enhance the fertility of those soils.

  11. Editorial first issue: Letter from the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Nasirinezhad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first issue of Journal of Medical Physiology! Journal of Medical Physiology is a high-quality, peer reviewed, open access journal which will focus on physiology, biology, and neuroscience and their applications in clinic from the molecular levels to the levels of organs and systems.  In recent years knowledge of physiology has been under a great progress and is being taught as one of the major courses in medicine and allied fields in the universities. Many researchers are doing research in this field and try to find the basic mechanism and appropriate solution for diseases which are difficult to treat. The editorial board wants to create a balanced journal to help the researchers in the field of medicine and physiology to share the results of their research work. Like all good science, medical physiology has no national boundaries. Although we each have found our own niche where we work and feel most comfortable, science language is a common language and by this language scientist can learn from each other. We want Journal of Medical Physiology to be an international forum for sharing the best ideas. It will help researcher in the field of medicine and physiology to keep up with the science. We hope that this journal plays a major role in the development of the physiological sciences and contribute to the diffusion of scientific knowledge and to promote discussion among scientist. The journal will include original researches that are practical applications of known techniques as well as theoretical advances at the physiological sciences and medicine. I consider it a great honor being as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Medical Physiology and I will do my best to face all challenges that confront the journal and striving to increase the quality and impact of the journal's content. Despite the inevitable push towards publishing in the highest impact factor journals possible, the other side of the coin is ensuring that your work is

  12. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of letter name knowledge using Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the measurement of LNK. In this study, we analyze responses from 909 children on measures of LNK using the Rasch model and its extensions, and consider two contextual factors: the format of assessment and the own-name advantage, which states that children are more likely to know letters in their own first names. Results indicate that both contextual factors have important impacts on measurement and that LNK does not meet the requirements of Rasch measurement even when accounting for the contextual factors. These findings introduce philosophical concerns for measurement of constrained skills which have limited content for assessment.

  14. Romanian letter-writing: a cultural-rhetorical perspective (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Iuliana Morcov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at revealing the features of Romanian letter-writing during its stages of formation and consolidation. The structural and the stylistic analysis of letters is carried out with regard to the composition of the documents written in Old Romanian according to the requirements imposed by the Slavonic template and with regard to the rhetorical division of the three styles: the simple style, the middle style and the grand style. The description of the Old Romanian epistolary style is based on a taxonomy inspired by Roman Jakobson’s functional communicative model (1964. Following the six factors identified by Jakobson, letters are classified according to the socio-cultural status and the communicative competence of the addresser and of the addressee and in line with the context, the channel and the linguistic code used to write them.

  15. Letters from ainsworth: contesting the 'organization' of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-05-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, 'she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.' These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth's intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours.

  16. Combining low-energy electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy techniques for surface science: development of a novel sample-holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynis, F; Leroy, F; Ranguis, A; Detailleur, B; Bindzi, P; Veit, C; Bon, W; Müller, P

    2014-04-01

    We introduce an experimental facility dedicated to surface science that combines Low-Energy Electron Microscopy/Photo-Electron Emission Microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) and variable-temperature Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques. A technical challenge has been to design a sample-holder that allows to exploit the complementary specifications of both microscopes and to preserve their optimal functionality. Experimental demonstration is reported by characterizing under ultrahigh vacuum with both techniques: Au(111) surface reconstruction and a two-layer thick graphene on 6H-SiC(0001). A set of macros to analyze LEEM/PEEM data extends the capabilities of the setup.

  17. Standardized Letter of Recommendation for Otolaryngology Residency Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan N.; Liang, Conan; McFann, Kim; Abaza, Mona M.; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Develop a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) for otolaryngology residency application that investigates the qualities desired in residents and letter writer’s experience. Compare this SLOR to narrative letters of recommendation (NLOR). Study Design Prospective SLOR/NLOR Comparison. Methods The SLOR was sent to a NLOR writer for each applicant. The applicant’s NLOR/SLOR pair was blinded and ranked in seven categories by three reviewers. Inter-rater reliability and NLOR/SLOR rankings were compared. Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores were compared to our departmental rank list. Results Thirty-one SLORs (66%) were collected. The SLORs had higher inter-rater reliability for applicant’s qualifications for otolaryngology, global assessment, summary statement, and overall letter ranking. Writer’s background, comparison to contemporaries/predecessors, and letter review ease had higher inter-rater reliability on the NLORs. Mean SLOR rankings were higher for writer’s background (p=0.0007), comparison of applicant to contemporaries/predecessors (p=0.0031), and letter review ease (p<0.0001). Mean SLOR writing time was 4.17±2.18 minutes. Mean ranking time was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for the SLORs (39.24±23.45 seconds) compared to the NLORs (70.95±40.14 seconds). Means of cumulative SLOR scores correlated with our rank list (p=0.004), whereas means of cumulative NLOR scores did not (p=0.18). Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores did not correlate (p=0.26). Conclusions SLORs require little writing time, save reviewing time, and are easier to review compared to NLORs. Our SLOR had higher inter-rater reliability in 4 of 7 categories and was correlated with our rank list. This tool conveys standardized information in an efficient manner. PMID:23172646

  18. The medical palimpsest of The Scarlet Letter: an interdisciplinary reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, J

    2005-06-01

    The multiple historical layers of Roger Chillingworth's character have been overlooked in criticism of The Scarlet Letter. By considering the possible influence of Robert Browning's dramatic poem Paracelsus (1835) on Hawthorne's romance (1850), as well as the ways in which overtones of both herbalism and clinical medicine complicate Chillingworth's character, one rediscovers Chillingworth as Hawthorne's audience likely experienced him: as a fictional palimpsest bearing multiple inscriptions of medical history that reveal an interplay between integrity and corruption. Thus, an interdisciplinary reading of The Scarlet Letter challenges the conventional critical assessment of Chillingworth as a satanic or Faustian figure.

  19. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars.

  20. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  1. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  2. Proceedings of the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center In-House Laboratory Independent Research and Surface Science Initiative Programs FY12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE "Designing Strongly Repellant Surfaces via Molecular Dynamics Simulations" (PI: Cabalo ). This study used atomistic simulations...from Metallic Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Surfaces Jason Guicheteau, Ashish Tripathi, Erik Emmons, Jerry Cabalo , Craig Knox, Brandon Scott...Surfaces via Molecular Dynamics Simulations Craig Knox, Jerry Cabalo , Stephanie Ihejirika, Gary Kilper 116 Vll APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Vlll

  3. How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? Investigating double letter representation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2014-05-01

    How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? We examined whether the orthographic representations that the writing system activates have a specific coding for letters when these are doubled in a word. French participants wrote words on a digitizer. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a double letter (e.g., LISSER/LISTER). The results on latencies, letter and inter-letter interval durations revealed that L and I are slower to write when followed by a doublet (SS) than when not (ST). Doublet processing constitutes a supplementary cognitive load that delays word production. This suggests that word representations code letter identity and quantity separately. The data also revealed that the central processes that are involved in spelling representation cascade into the peripheral processes that regulate movement execution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma rich in growth factors had limited effect on early bone formation in extraction sockets: Response to "Anitua, E., Alkhraisat, M.H. & Orive, G. (2013) Letter to the Editor: Rigorous methodology is the school of coherent conclusions in science. European Journal of Oral Implantology 6: 9-11.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Bressan, Eriberto; Taut, Andrei; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    To address the criticisms raised by Anitua et al. (European Journal of Oral Implantology, 6, 2013, 9-11) to the article "Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) in Human Post-Extraction Sockets: an Histological and Histomorphometric Study.", recently published by Farina and colleagues (Clinical Oral Implants Research 2012; doi: 10.1111/clr.12033). All the methodological aspects criticized in the letter by Anitua et al. were thoroughly reconsidered and discussed in a structured short communication. When indicated, pertinent, additional material was included to reinforce our considerations. As most clinical studies in implant dentistry, including previous studies evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness of PRGF, the study by Farina et al. has some limitations. However, it is currently the only published controlled trial using quantitative parameters related to PRGF-induced early bone formation. Despite all limitations, the results of the study by Farina et al., which were based on different quantitative parameters (micro-CT scan, immunohistochemical markers of wound healing and bone deposition), indicated a limited effect of PRGF on early bone formation in extraction sockets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Underlying Cause(s) of Letter Perseveration Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Rapp, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Perseverations, the inappropriate intrusion of elements from a previous response into a current response, are commonly observed in individuals with acquired deficits. This study specifically investigates the contribution of failure-to activate and failure-to-inhibit deficit(s) in the generation of letter perseveration errors in acquired…

  6. Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the 21st Century. George N. Ngugi ... The relevance of planning education is questioned from the theoretical and philosophical perspectives on one hand, the professional and practical stance on the other. Its goals are scrutinized and its structure argued about.

  7. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... competent judicial authorities of the American jurisdiction where the proceedings are held, subject to the applicable laws of that jurisdiction. See § 92.66 for procedures in the use of letters rogatory requesting... serving of a summons, subpoena, or other legal notice, or the execution of a civil judgment. In United...

  8. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause... completion of any warranty period; or (C) For payment bonds only, until resolution of all claims filed...

  9. Army Response Letter & Analysis - signed January 19, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response to the letter, which requested a review of the proposed decision by the Army Corps of Engineers Baltimore District to issue four Department of the Army permits to Baltimore County (3 permits) and Anne Arundel County (1 permit), MD.

  10. Blind Rage: An Open Letter to Helen Keller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleege, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    In a letter addressed to Helen Keller, the author discusses the frustrations of being blind in the modern-day world. She reflects on the seeming pettiness of her complaints next to the difficulties Keller would have faced, especially given all of the new technologies and accommodations available to the blind. She wonders how Keller dealt with her…

  11. Canadian bishops' letter presents theology of healing, suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigeler, H W

    1984-11-01

    With board input from theologians, health personnel, patients, and others interested in health care, the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops released its pastoral letter on sickness and healing in September 1983. Acknowledging that suffering and healing are mysteries beyond complete understanding, the letter illuminates the connection between caring for one's own health, helping the sick, and following Christ. The letter's first major section reviews suffering and healing as presented in the Bible, and asserts that the act of healing should help to restore not only the body but also the sufferer's relationship with God and with the community. The letter's second section surveys the history of the healing tradition within the Church and notes that, because the great healers often suffered themselves, their example can help people to integrate suffering into their own quest for wholeness and spiritual growth. In the pastoral's third section the bishops suggest attitudes and practices for those who wish to be healers today. They apply theological teaching to five practical levels of pastoral concern: individual actions, parish communities, Catholic and other health care institutions, and the social, economic, and political community. Each level, the bishops stress, must play an important role in healing and salvation.

  12. 78 FR 2407 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY... Act of 1997 established the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller... General of the United States. [FR Doc. 2013-00335 Filed 1-10-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1610-02-M ...

  13. 76 FR 81503 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY... Act of 1997 established the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller... the United States. [FR Doc. 2011-33226 Filed 12-27-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1610-02-M ...

  14. 76 FR 5591 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY... Act of 1997 established the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller... Doc. 2011-2057 Filed 1-31-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1610-02-M ...

  15. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 614.4810 Section 614.4810 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4810 Standby...

  16. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4720 Letters of credit. Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors...

  17. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    2004-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  18. Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2004-01-01

    Most people acquire literacy skills with remarkable ease, even though the human brain is not evolutionarily adapted to this relatively new cultural phenomenon. Associations between letters and speech sounds form the basis of reading in alphabetic scripts. We investigated the functional neuroanatomy

  19. Standardized letters of recommendation and successful match into otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Adam J; McClurg, Stanley W; Del Signore, Anthony G; Tomoum, Mohamed O; Lin, Feng-Chang; Senior, Brent A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, narrative letters of recommendation have been utilized in the selection of applicants for otolaryngology residency programs. In the last two application cycles, our specialty adopted a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR). The intent was to decrease time burden for letter writers and to provide readers with an objective evaluation of applicants. The objective of this study was to determine attributes in the SLOR that correlate with matching into a residency program. We performed a retrospective study using SLOR, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores, and matched outcomes of applicants who applied to our institution for the 2013 and 2014 match cycle. We included the following variables from the SLOR in the statistical analysis to determine which ones were associated with matching: patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, procedural skills, research, initiative and drive, commitment to otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, match potential, and USMLE1 scores. We identified 532 applicants and 963 SLOR. In successful applicants, scores for patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, initiative and drive, and match potential were statistically higher (P otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, and USMLE step 1 scores were not higher among successfully matched applicants. Although SLOR can save time for letter writers and provide an objective description of applicants, the utility of individual domains within the SLOR is questionable. Additionally, it is concerning that applicants' professionalism and procedural skills are not correlated with matching in our specialty. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1071-1076, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Letter to Daniel Gilligan of Petroleum Marketers Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A letter in response to a request for the Agency’s view regarding whether several approaches would satisfy 40 CFR §112.7(a)(2)’s “equivalent environmental protection” provision and for clarification of the scope of the requirements in 40 CFR §112.

  1. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David

  2. Letter to The Hindu Daily Newspaper | Dasan | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letter to The Hindu Daily Newspaper. S. Bharathi Dasan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong | Hampton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 55, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong. M I Hampton ...

  4. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  5. 15 CFR 700.63 - Letters of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Letters of Understanding. 700.63 Section 700.63 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  6. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  7. Speed of Lexical Access to Arabic and English Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasali, Hesham H.; Aljomaa, Suliman S.

    2015-01-01

    To examining the role of cultural differences in speed of lexical access, we employed two types of Posner (1967) name matching task: Arabic and English types. We have conducted an experiment on 30 native Arabic speakers from King Saud University. The results showed that the lexical access to physically identical letters is faster than lexical…

  8. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    François J. Tool to assess the quality of consultation and referral request letters in family medicine. Can Fam. Physician. 2011; 57(5): 574 -5. 12. Newton J, Hutchinson A, Hayes V, McColl E, Mack- ee I, Holland C. Do clinicians tell each other enough? An analysis of referral communications in two specialties. Fam Pract.

  9. Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al Hufuf, Saudi Arabia. Hamed Abd Allah Al Wadaani, Magdy Hassan Balaha. Abstract. Background: In surgical wards, it is of paramount importance to communicate with other health care providers, mostly physicians, referring patients to them for their ...

  10. Reversing Letters and Reading Transformed Text in Dyslexia: A Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peter H.; Melngailis, Ilze

    1996-01-01

    Reexamines whether probands and affected relatives in dyslexia families reverse easily confused letters more frequently under experimental conditions than normal readers from the same families and whether they show unusual facility in reading geometrically transformed text. Indicates that young dyslexia students reverse easily confused letters…

  11. Comradely Greetings: The Prison Letters of Nadya and Slavoj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Briziarelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Žižek and Tolokonnikova’s exchange letters provides the reader with the suggestive image and evocative words of two intellectuals speaking from very different contexts. This article discusses the relevance of this volume in the context of localized global capitalism and an equally localized global struggle against it.

  12. Language Arts/Arts: Adopt-a-Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Rhoda K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a five-week project in which elementary students chose a favorite letter as the main character of a 25- to 30-page book for practice in language skills. The book each child made was composed of more than 20 learning activities that stimulated students to review and practice skills, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms and alliteration as…

  13. When "Slime" Becomes "Smile": Developmental Letter Position Dyslexia in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne; Friedmann, Naama; McArthur, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    We report the first three cases of selective developmental letter position dyslexia in English. Although the parents and teachers of the children were concerned about these children's reading, standard tests did not reveal their deficit. It was only when the appropriate target words were presented, in this case, migratable words, that their letter…

  14. The letter of submission: avoiding the promotional genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    1998-01-01

    Functionally the letter of submission accompanying an article submitted to a journal is promotional, but it does not have the form one would expect from e.g. Bhatia 1993. Instead it is extremely brief and uninformative. This reflects the so-called Utilitarian Discourse which is a shared feature...

  15. Region 8: Colorado Springs Adequate Letter (8/17/2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This March 3, 2011 letter from EPA to Chistopher E. Urbina M.D., MPH, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment states that EPA has found that the Colorado Springs, CO second 10 year Limited Maintenance Plan (LMP) adequate for transportation

  16. Letter from the editor | Tawe | Jos Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jos Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter from the editor. G.S Tawe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  17. Letters to the Editor: Poor complementary feeding practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters to the Editor: Poor complementary feeding practices among young children in Cameroon. Samuel Nambile Cumber, Nancy Bongkiynuy, Shalom Jaila, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  18. Letter to Editor | Acharya | Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to Editor. S Acharya, A Gupta, C Kulkarni, SN ...

  19. Letter to the Editor: Polluting the well | Rodseth | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to the Editor: Polluting the ...

  20. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Case, L.; Gosavi, R.; Ramachandran, V.

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language

  1. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  2. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  3. 26 CFR 601.201 - Rulings and determinations letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excise tax questions if a request is for a determination of a constructive sales price under section 4216... constructive sales price under section 4216(b) or 4218(e) of the Code. (e) Instructions to taxpayers. (1) A... the practice of the Service to process requests for rulings, opinion letters, and determination...

  4. "Letter-Space": Typographic Translations of Urban Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Jacqueline; O'Sullivan, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a Bachelor of Design honours year typography project in the medium of letterpress. The "Letter-space" project positioned letterpress as a textual, spatial and structural visual language, through which the experiences and meanings of a local urban place were translated, mapped and given form through typographic design. We…

  5. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited

  6. Predatory Journals and Perished Articles; a Letter to Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Narimani, Mashallah; Dadkhah, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, academic publishing has been faced with many destructive phenomena. “Predatory publishers” (or journals) are one challenge for  cholarly publishing. This term was introduced to academic societies for the first time by Jeffrey Beall in 2010. This letter to editor is about predatory journals and perished articles in the field of emergency medicine.

  7. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-12-01

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Cold-induced vasodilation : letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactie op: Flouris, et al. Effect of body temperature on cold induced vasodilationa. Eur J Applied Phys 2008;104:491-499. De aurteurs hebben daar weer een reply op geschreven; Flouris AD, Cheung SS (2009) Authors’ response to H. Daanen’s ‘cold-induced vasodilation’ letter. Eur J Appl Physiol

  9. Sentence Patterns in Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter | Chukwukaelo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to isolate, describe and evaluate sentence patterns in Ba's So Long a Letter with a view to determining their stylistic significance. Such stylistic devices as foregrounding, sentence fragmentation pattern repetition and category rule violation. The emphasis is on determining how the author's sentences ...

  10. Silent Letters Are Activated in Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments are reported that investigate processing of mispronounced words for which the phonological form is inconsistent with the graphemic form (words spelled with silent letters). Words produced as mispronunciations that are consistent with their spelling were more confusable with their citation form counterpart than mispronunciations…

  11. 48 CFR 49.601-2 - Letter notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter notice. 49.601-2 Section 49.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... immediate complete spoilage of work-in-process having a definite commercial value, or (D) to prevent any...

  12. Alternatives to Greek-Letter Organizations Warrant a Second Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marc C.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the discriminatory practices and lack of appeal of many predominantly White Greek-letter organizations, students of color sought the development of their own. Alpha Phi Alpha, Rho Psi, MALIK Sigma Psi, Lambda Theta Phi, and Alpha Pi Omega set the stage for later African American, Asian, African, Latino and American Indian Greek-letter…

  13. A letter addressed by Gustav Hertz to James Franck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, C.

    1987-01-01

    A letter from Gustav Hertz is published which he sent from Copenhagen on 23 March 1938 to James Franck asking him to help Lise Meitner. The threat to her of the Nazi regime and the relations between the three physicists are described in the introduction. (author)

  14. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: letter in response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil AL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Neil,1 Vaughan J Carr2,31Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 2Research Unit for Schizophrenia Epidemiology, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaIn reference to the recent systematic review by Chong et al1 on cost-of-illness studies in schizophrenia, we seek to highlight the limited scope and apparent inconsistencies embedded within this review. The review utilizes the term schizophrenia alone as the identifying disorder-related variable within its search strategy. Schizophrenia is the prototypical and most prevalent among the psychotic disorders, and schizophrenia is certainly used as a generic term in reference to the “schizophrenia-related disorders”, International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 codes F20–F29. The most well-known example of such use is in the Global Burden of Disease studies.2–4 However, the reliance on this term as being all-inclusive is diminishing, as reflected in the chapter heading change from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV to DSM-V, namely “Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders” to “Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders”. Further, the overarchingterm psychotic disorders are increasingly being used in the recognition of the substantial clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic overlap between disorders within this group. Authors' reply Huey Yi Chong,1 Siew Li Teoh,1 David Bin-Chia Wu,1 Chiun-Fang Chiou,2 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,3–51School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Asia Pacific, Singapore; 3Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4School of

  15. A Deep Learning Model of Perception in Color-Letter Synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a psychological phenomenon where sensory signals become mixed. Input to one sensory modality produces an experience in a second, unstimulated modality. In “grapheme-color synesthesia”, viewed letters and numbers evoke mental imagery of colors. The study of this condition has implications for increasing our understanding of brain architecture and function, language, memory and semantics, and the nature of consciousness. In this work, we propose a novel application of deep learning to model perception in grapheme-color synesthesia. Achromatic letter images, taken from database of handwritten characters, are used to train the model, and to induce computational synesthesia. Results show the model learns to accurately create a colored version of the inducing stimulus, according to a statistical distribution from experiments on a sample population of grapheme-color synesthetes. To the author’s knowledge, this work represents the first model that accurately produces spontaneous, creative mental imagery characteristic of the synesthetic perceptual experience. Experiments in cognitive science have contributed to our understanding of some of the observable behavioral effects of synesthesia, and previous models have outlined neural mechanisms that may account for these observations. A model of synesthesia that generates testable predictions on brain activity and behavior is needed to complement large scale data collection efforts in neuroscience, especially when articulating simple descriptions of cause (stimulus and effect (behavior. The research and modeling approach reported here provides a framework that begins to address this need.

  16. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  17. The number of occurrences of letters versus their distribution in some EOL languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenfeucht, A.; Rozenberg, G.

    1974-01-01

    A characterization theorem is given for a class of developmental languages. The theorem binds together the number of occurrences of letters in the words of the given language with the distribution of these letters.

  18. 78 FR 73450 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012... the letter of offer and acceptance for a foreign military sales program that will require an... implementing agency in preparation of [[Page 73451

  19. An audit of letters of referral to a prosthodontic department in a dental teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Michael R; Glick, Shiri; Sherriff, Martyn

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality and number of letters of referral for new patients received in the Prosthodontics Department of a Dental Teaching Hospital. Letters received during the month of May 2006 were included. Each letter of referral was tested against five criteria which might be expected in an appropriate letter of referral. These were information on the following: relevant dental history, relevant medical history, teeth present, diagnosis, and treatment plan. The results showed that only 8% of letters met all five criteria and 11% met none of them. Letters requesting better information were sent to referring practitioner as a result of this audit. However a re-audit in May 2007 showed that 9% of letters met all five criteria and 15% met none of them. A need has been identifiedfor better referral letters and ways of achieving this were discussed.

  20. Classe di Lettere | Gendre | Italian Studies in Southern Africa/Studi d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Memorie dell'Istituto Lombardo- Accademia di Scienze e Lettere. Classe di Lettere, Scienze morali e storiche”. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Magnocellular involvement in flanked-letter identification relates to the allocation of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that the magnocellular system is important to flanked-letter identification [Neuropsychologia 40 (2002) 1881] because it subserves attention allocation, we conducted three letter-naming experiments in which we manipulated magnocellular involvement (colour vs. luminance

  2. Associateship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: AIMD Simulation, X-ray Science, Ultrafast Science, Surface Science, Molecular Beam Experiments Address: IPC Department, Indian Institute of Science, .... Specialization: Game Theory & Optimisation, Stochastic Control, Information Theory Address: Systems & Control Engineering, Indian Institute of ...

  3. Insights from developmental and acquired letter position dyslexia on morphological decomposition in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We explored morphological decomposition in reading, the locus in the reading process in which it takes place and its nature, comparing different types of morphemes. We assessed these questions through the analysis of letter position errors in readers with letter position dyslexia(LPD. LPD is a selective impairment to letter position encoding in the early stage of word reading, which results in letter migrations (cloud-could. We used the fact that migrations in LPD occur mainly in word-interior letters, whereas exterior letters rarely migrate.The rationale was that if morphological decomposition occurs prior to letter position encoding and strips off affixes, word-interior letters adjacent to an affix (signs-signs would become exterior following affix-stripping and hence exhibit fewer migrations.We tested 11 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD and 1 with acquired LPD in 6 experiments of reading aloud, lexical decision, and comprehension, at the single word and sentence levels. We examined migrations next to inflectional,derivational,or bound function morphemes compared with exterior letters.Root letters adjacent to inflectional and derivational morphemes were treated like middle letters, and migrated frequently, whereas root letters adjacent to bound function morphemes patterned with exterior letters, and almost never migrated. Given that LPD is a pre-lexical deficit, these results indicate that morphological decomposition takes place in an early, pre-lexical stage. Morphologically complex nonwords showed the same pattern, indicating that this decomposition is structurally, rather than lexically, driven.We suggest that letter position encoding takes place before morphological analysis, but in some cases, as with bound function morphemes, the complex word is re-analyzed as two separate words. In this reanalysis, letter positions in each constituent word are encoded separately,and hence the exterior letters of the root are treated as exterior and

  4. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  5. We Were There: Letters from the Battle Front. Postal Pack for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Postal Museum, Washington, DC. Education Dept.

    This curriculum guide includes letters and postal history from three U.S. wars: the Civil War, World War II, and the Vietnam War. The postal pack was developed with the idea that letters and stamps present personal perspectives that enable students to comprehend the past better. Letters in the postal pack are printed in both the original…

  6. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  7. The Contributions of Vocabulary and Letter Writing Automaticity to Word Reading and Spelling for Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…

  8. The Correspondence of Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (119 letters)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysman, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Currently the catalogue contains metadata of 119 letters conserved at the Royal Collections in The Hague. The letters were written in German, French, and Dutch, and they date between 1677 and 1693. Each letter record in this EMLO catalogue contains a link (labelled ‘manuscript image’) to a digitized

  9. 76 FR 69294 - Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating... public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. The public... for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors to...

  10. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing draft Generic Letter 2011-XX, ``Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk...

  11. Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, A. H.

    1942-09-01

    This letter from Compton to Fermi describes developments bearing on the establishment of site X (which, as of the letter date, is definitely determined as at the Tennessee Valley) for the construction of a pile and associated pilot plant buildings, describes the situation as of the letter date, and offers counsel as to how to proceed.

  12. 78 FR 28793 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012... the letter of offer and acceptance for a foreign military sales program that will require an... to assist the DoD implementing activity in preparing the letter of offer and acceptance for a foreign...

  13. Quality of Referral Letters to the Paediatric Department of a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More interhospital letters had information on findings on physical examination, treatment, urgency of referral and request for feed-back from the receiving specialists. Referral letters to the clinics were more likely than letters to emergency centre to contain information on presenting complaints, history of the presenting ...

  14. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal for use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or...

  15. Epistolary and Emotional Education: The Letters of an Irish Father to His Daughter, 1747-1752

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberg, Willemijn

    2008-01-01

    The letters Bishop Edward Synge (1691-1762) wrote to his daughter Alicia (1733-1807) in 1747-1752 are discussed to show how correspondence from a father to a daughter could be used to teach a teenage girl how to spell and write letters. Moreover, these letters are an excellent source to show how emotional behaviour was taught. Instructions on…

  16. 19 CFR 181.100 - Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters; modification and revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters... Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.100 Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters; modification and revocation. (a) Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters—(1) General. An advance ruling letter issued by Customs...

  17. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  18. 30 CFR 1.3 - Use of letters and acronym MSHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of letters and acronym MSHA. 1.3 Section 1.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND...; ESTABLISHMENT AND USE OF OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.3 Use of letters and acronym MSHA. The letters and acronym MSHA may...

  19. Letter report: Evaluation of dryer/calciner technologies for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.

    1996-02-01

    This letter report describes some past experiences on the drying and calcination of radioactive materials or corresponding simulants; and the information needed from testing. The report also includes an assessment of informational needs including possible impacts to a full-scale plant. This includes reliability, maintenance, and overall size versus throughput. Much of the material was previously compiled and reported by Mike Elliott of PNL open-quotes Melter Performance Assessmentclose quotes and Larry Eisenstatt of SEG on contract to WHC in a letter to Rod Powell. Also, an annotated bibliography was prepared by Reagan Seymour of WHC. Descriptions of the drying and calciner technologies, development status, advantages and disadvantages of using a WFE or calciner, and recommendations for future testing are discussed in this report

  20. Quantity versus quality: Effects of argumentation in bad news letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Jansen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Do the quality and the quantity of arguments have an impact on the evaluation of bad news messages? To answer this question, two experiments were carried out using bad news letters in which the quality and the quantity of the arguments were manipulated in a contextually realistic way. The results of both experiments show that adding argumentation has a positive impact on the perceived politeness and the persuasive force of the letters. Furthermore, the studies show that the impact of strong arguments is greater than that of weak arguments. The effect of adding successive arguments is positive as well. However, the results indicate that one or two arguments are sufficient. Adding a third argument only minimally contributes to better evaluations.

  1. Information letter: occupational health and safety of light hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers developed this Information Letter to assist member companies develop methods to increase awareness and to minimize the hazards to workers of exposure to light hydrocarbons. The letter outlines methods for handling, detecting, training, labeling and emergency response to methane, ethane, butane, isomers and propane. It deals only with sweet light hydrocarbons. Light hydrocarbons accumulating in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas may create certain hazards. At lower concentrations, narcosis may cause dizziness and/or headaches and may result in unconsciousness. These symptoms may lead to errors in judgment. At higher concentrations, the worker may suffer the effects of oxygen deficiency, which can lead to dizziness, unconsciousness, and or death. Explosive concentrations may build up which, when ignited, can cause serious burns or death to involved workers. Significant loss of equipment and product may also occur. 3 tabs.

  2. literature and language teaching reinvention: Letters trainee students proposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Maria Morales Marins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The job, here presented, is a literacy practices result, in special, developed during the letters students trainee, through a extension project called Experiences of reading/writing: the readers/writers formation. This text  has as objective relate two teaching proposals, bringing a specific methodology which tries to show, to the future letters professionals, a fertile possibility of working with language and literature at school.  Also, bring a brief theoretical approaching about literacy, to situate the lector about the meaning of this term.  Through practices developed during the trainee results, was possible to realize the diversity and richness of actions which has the potential of overarching the language and literature classroom, transforming this space in a pleasure space, of significant learning which mobilize the creativity, the criticality and the development of the reading and writing pleasure.

  3. How Many Letters Should Preschoolers in Public Programs Know? The Diagnostic Efficiency of Various Preschool Letter-Naming Benchmarks for Predicting First-Grade Literacy Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Review of current federal and state standards indicates little consensus or empirical justification regarding appropriate goals, often referred to as benchmarks, for preschool letter-name learning. The present study investigated the diagnostic efficiency of various letter-naming benchmarks using a longitudinal database of 371 children who attended publicly funded preschools. Children’s uppercase and lowercase letter-naming abilities were assessed at the end of preschool, and their literacy ac...

  4. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  5. Resource Letter PoD-1: The Physics of Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Kenneth; Lott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the physics of dance. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: General references for dance, physics of dance, research methods in physics of human movement and in biomechanics, using dance in the physics classroom; anatomy and injuries; physics applied to specific dance movements or styles of dance; equipment (dance shoes, flooring, the barre); and dance of physics.

  6. Letter to Freud: on the plight of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Dinah M

    2011-12-01

    In the form of a letter, the writer communicates to Freud her appreciation for the incomparable richness and complexity of the psychoanalytic enterprise in its century-long evolution from classical, Freudian origins to new developments in theory and technique. At the same time, concern is expressed about the continuity and survival of psychoanalysis in a cultural milieu that has absorbed its once radical ideas about sexuality and unconscious motivation while resisting its viability as a method of treatment.

  7. Child's Letter to President John F. Kennedy about Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNatt, Missy

    2009-01-01

    On March 3, 1963, nine-year-old Jack Chase of Torrance, California, wrote a letter to President John F. Kennedy. In his single-page note, featured in this article, Jack described his plans for staying physically fit. He said he would walk to school, the store, and the library "because I know a strong boy makes a strong man and a strong man makes a…

  8. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  9. Response to the Letter to the Editor by Rob Armstrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Young, David R; Myers, Melanie R; Mahabir, Sean P

    2017-04-26

    In a recent Letter to the Editor, Armstrong raises concern that the design of the study reported by Six et al. was not consistent with the product label for treatment of Amblyomma americanum, since fluralaner was not re-administered 56 days after the initial treatment. The Authors disagree with this assessment and confirm that the design was appropriate, and therefore the results and conclusions for the entire study period are valid.

  10. Discerning Calvin’s pastoral care from his letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Potgieter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The same acuity that is evident in John Calvin’s theological writings accompanied his correspondence. Calvin’s mission was not to support God, but to honour him. Divine revelation and the glory of God underlie the content of his letters. The audacious confidence with which he writes, reveals his utter reliance upon the veracity of Scripture, which understanding must be conveyed through sound teaching. Yet, his letters are not inundated with scriptural references or quotes in the fashion of a medical prescription. Rather the connection between Scripture and writing for Calvin were twofold: it lies in the foundations of sound theology applied pastorally. This undergirded his pastoral care. To bring that across in his correspondence with Duchess Renata Ferrara, he followed basic doctrinal principles, evident from many of his letters applied pastorally to the recipient(s of the letter. Calvyn se pastorale benadering soos waargeneem in sy briewe. Dieselfde pastorale noukeurigheid wat duidelik in Johannes Calvyn se teologiese geskrifte waarneembaar is, kom ook in sy korrespondensie voor. Calvyn se oogmerk was nie bloot om God te eer nie, maar om Hom te verheerlik. Die inhoud van sy briewe reflekteer sowel die openbaring as die heerlikheid van God. Hy skryf met waagmoed en ’n selfversekerdheid wat sy vertroue in die waarheid van die Skrif weerspieël en wat deur Skrifgetroue onderrig oorgedra moet word. Tog maak hy nie in sy briewe op oordrewe wyse van teksverwysings of aanhalings gebruik om sy teologiete staaf nie. Die verband tussen die Skrif en sy skryfwerk was eerder vir Calvyn ’n tweeledige saak: dit berus naamlik op gesonde teologie wat pastoraal toegepas word. Dit blyk derhalwe uit baie van sy briewe, soos dié aan die Hertogin Renata Ferrara, dat hy die metode volg ombasiese dogmatiese leerstellings in sy korrespondensie uit te lê en met pastorale sorg toe te pas.

  11. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  12. Letters of Marcus Antonius Kappus from colonial America III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The letter of Marcus Antonius Kappus (1657-1717 from Cucurpe in Sonora (Mexico, dated 20. January 1691, which is now published for the first time in the present study, is historically important, because it speaks in considerable detail o the revolt of the Tarahumara Indians in 1690. It is one of the few contemporary accounts of this revolt and brings a number of facts unknown so far.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    OpenAIRE

    Elian Iwi Afifah; Triyono Triyono; Yuliati Hotifah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development...

  14. transformation in love in paul's letter to the galatians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul's Letter to the Galatians is known as a bitter defence of his “true” gospel of faith against opponents who wish to impose their “false” gospel of works on the faith community. This focus on the faith-works controversy has not been conducive to attempts to read it in terms of the notion of love. This article seeks to reconsider ...

  15. Eigenvalues of Words in Two Positive Definite Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Hillar, Christopher J; Johnson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether all words in two real positive definite letters have only positive eigenvalues is addressed and settled (negatively). This question was raised some time ago in connection with a long-standing problem in theoretical physics. A large class of words that do guarantee positive eigenvalues is identified, and considerable evidence is given for the conjecture that no other words do. In the process, a fundamental question about solvability of symmetric word equations is encoun...

  16. The Carnivalesque in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pirnajmuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sets to examine the applicability of Bakhtin's theory of the carnivalesque to Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. The canonical novel of the American literature published in the middle of the nineteenth century portrays the genesis of the American Puritan culture, while the polyphonic nature of the novel, it is argued, exposes the rifts of and the grotesqueness of this culture.

  17. Metropolitan (Im)migrants in the "Lettered City"

    OpenAIRE

    Balkan, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Metropolitan (Im)migrants in the 'Lettered City'" Stacey Balkan employs Ángel Rama's discussion of audience as a means of analyzing a Latin American diaspora that exists beyond the "rational periphery" of the state. Herein, the term diaspora is redefined as a translocal phenomenon wherein the metropolitan (im)migrant moves from rural margin to urban center. Normative definitions of exile — persons displaced from autonomous nation-states — are likewise scrutinized in the contex...

  18. [The Republic of Letters and French physicians on the eve of the French Revolution: the case of Esprit Calvet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockliss, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    In the broad Republic of Letters of the second half of the eighteenth century, physicians played an important but singular role. The majority of them were forced to earn their daily bread, so only belonged to the Republic in their leisure hours. Inhabiting a double universe--the everyday world of their profession and the more refined world of their intellectual hobbies--they had to negotiate continually between the two. This liminal position of the citizen-physician is recaptured in this article through the example of a physician of the Midi, Esprit Calvet of Avignon (1728--1810). Calvet left a huge correspondence, thanks to which this duality between the practising physician and the citizen of the Republic of Letters can be studied in detail. On the one hand, this is a correspondence between the physician and his patients, augmented by letters between the physician and other physicians on medical topics. On the other hand, it is a correspondence between the physician and other men of science on non-medical subjects (archaeology, botany, bibliophily, poetry, etc.).

  19. Decoding English Alphabet Letters Using EEG Phase Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YiYan; Wang, Pingxiao; Yu, Yuguo

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG) contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen. We applied support vector machine (SVM) with gradient descent method to learn the potential features for classification. It was observed that the EEG phase signals have a higher decoding accuracy than the oscillation power information. Low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations have phase information with higher accuracy than do other bands. The decoding performance was best when the analysis period began from 180 to 380 ms after stimulus presentation, especially in the lateral occipital and posterior temporal scalp regions (PO7 and PO8). These results may provide a new approach for brain-computer interface techniques (BCI) and may deepen our understanding of EEG oscillations in cognition. PMID:29467615

  20. Letters from Ainsworth: Contesting the ‘Organization’ of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, ‘she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.’ These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth’s intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours. PMID:23667365

  1. Gender Differences in Iranian EFL Students’ Letter Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Hamdi asl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding gender differences in EFL context have been done for many years. However, it seems that writing, which is a vital skill in academic issues, has gained much less attention in this area. In addition, not having enough knowledge of gender differences for teachers is one of the main barriers of language learning. The current study examines gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing in terms of 13 linguistic features mentioned in Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons (2001. The results of this study showed significant differences toward the use of some linguistic features. Female participants tended to use more “I” references, references to quantity, references to emotions, uncertainty verbs, sentence initial adverbials and judgmental adjectives. In addition, the results showed than women tended to be wordier than men in terms of total number of words. Men, on the other hand, exceeded women on a number of linguistic dimensions including locatives, mean length sentence and dependent clauses. Moreover, elliptical sentences were not used by female participants at all and few male participants used them in their letters. Therefore, this study demonstrated gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing. These dissimilarities between genders in EFL can be contributed to many aspects such as educational instructions, teachers, and cultural differences. It also illustrated teachers’ perspectives of gender regarding students’ writing.

  2. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  3. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade and Improvement of Surface Diagnostic Capabilities at STAR Facility for Enhancing Tritium and Nuclear PMI Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M.; Taylor, C. N.; Pawelko, R. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Merrill, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials with tritium [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. The plasma-material-interaction (PMI) determines a boundary condition for diffusing tritium into bulk PFCs, and the tritium PMI is crucial for enhancing fundamental sciences that dictate tritium fuel cycles and safety and are high importance to an FNSF and DEMO. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  4. The renaissance of Peiresc: Aubin-Louis Millin and the postrevolutionary republic of letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, G Matthew

    2008-12-01

    This essay argues for the emergence of a cultural and epistemological divide between amateur savants and members of the Royal Academy of the Sciences in late Old Regime and revolutionary France and suggests that the amateur ideal rose in significance even as intellectual activity came to be increasingly centralized in the postrevolutionary era. At the crux of the tensions between the amateur ideal and the professionalizing reality in the immediate postrevolutionary period stood Aubin-Louis Millin and his journal, the Magasin Encyclopédique. The essay examines, in particular, the revival in the pages of the Magasin Encyclopédique of interest in Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, the seventeenth-century icon of an amateur ideal in which investigations in the natural sciences and scholarship were private, decentralized, often provincial activities. Although the sciences in the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras were often perceived as forward looking and dismissive of the past, this essay finds that a sentimental and nostalgic attachment to the past-to a myth of Peiresc-continued to play an important role in the identity of postrevolutionary men of letters.

  5. Unraveling the Role of Transport, Electrocatalysis, and Surface Science in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Srikanth [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This final report for project FE0009656 covers the period from 10/01/2012 to 09/30/2015 and covers research accomplishments on the effects of carbon dioxide on the surface composition and structure of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), specifically La1-xSrxFeyCo1- yO3-δ (LSCF). Epitaxially deposited thin films of LSCF on various single-crystal substrates have revealed the selective segregation of strontium to the surface thereby resulting in a surface enrichment of strontium. The near surface compositional profile in the films have been measured using total x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and show that the kinetics of strontium segregation are higher at higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide. Once the strontium segregates to the surface, it leads to the formation of precipitates of SrO which convert to SrCO3 in the presence of even modest concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This has important implications for the performance of SOFCs which is discussed in this report. These experimental observations have also been verified by Density Functional Theory calculations (DFT) which predict the conditions under which SrO and SrCO3 can occur in LSCF. Furthermore, a few cathode compositions which have received attention in the literature as alternatives to LSCF cathodes have been studied in this work and shown to be thermodynamically unstable under the operating conditions of the SOFCs.

  6. Strategy for Ranking the Science Value of the Surface of Asteroid 101955 Bennu for Sample Site Selection for Osiris-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    OSRIS-REx is NASA's New Frontiers 3 sample return mission that will return at least 60 g of pristine surface material from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. The scientific value of the sample increases enormously with the amount of knowledge captured about the geological context from which the sample is collected. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is highly maneuverable and capable of investigating the surface of Bennu at scales down to the sub-cm. The OSIRIS-REx instruments will characterize the overall surface geology including spectral properties, microtexture, and geochemistry of the regolith at the sampling site in exquisite detail for up to 505 days after encountering Bennu in August 2018. The mission requires at the very minimum one acceptable location on the asteroid where a touch-and-go (TAG) sample collection maneuver can be successfully per-formed. Sample site selection requires that the follow-ing maps be produced: Safety, Deliverability, Sampleability, and finally Science Value. If areas on the surface are designated as safe, navigation can fly to them, and they have ingestible regolith, then the scientific value of one site over another will guide site selection.

  7. Not all visual features are created equal: early processing in letter and word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Sophie N; Risko, Evan F; Stolz, Jennifer A; Besner, Derek

    2009-02-01

    In four experiments, we investigated the effect of deleting specific features of letters on letter and word recognition in the context of reading aloud. Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the relative importance of vertices versus midsegments in letter recognition. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the relative importance of vertices versus midsegments in word recognition. The results demonstrate that deleting vertices is more detrimental to letter and word identification than is deleting midsegments of letters. These results converge with those of previous research on the role of vertices in object identification. Theoretical implications for early processing in reading are noted.

  8. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  9. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  10. Development of Early Handwriting: Visual-Motor Control During Letter Copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Jennifer E.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Hunt, Sarah C.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of handwriting for school readiness and early academic progress, prior research on the development of handwriting has focused primarily on the product rather than the process by which young children write letters. In contrast, in the present work, early handwriting is viewed as involving a suite of perceptual, motor and cognitive abilities, which must work in unison if children are to write letters efficiently. To study such coordination, head-mounted eye-tracking technology was used to investigate the process of visual-motor coordination while kindergarten children (N=23) and adults (N=11) copied individual letters and strings of letters that differed in terms of their phonemic properties. Results indicated that kindergarten children were able to copy single letters efficiently, as did adults. When the cognitive demands of the task increased and children were presented with strings of letters, however, their ability to copy letters efficiently was compromised: children frequently interrupted their writing mid-letter, whereas they did not do so on single letter trials. Yet, with increasing age, children became more efficient in copying letter strings, in part by using vision more prospectively when writing. Taken together, the results illustrate how the coordination of perceptual, motor and cognitive processes contributes to advances in the development of letter writing skill. PMID:26029821

  11. Factors affecting the long-term response of surface waters to acidic deposition: state-of-the-science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.S.; Johnson, D.W.; Elwood, J.N.; Van Winkle, W.; Clapp, R.B.; Jones, M.L.; Marmarek, D.R.; Thornton, K.W.; Gherinig, S.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Recent intensive study of the causes of surface water acidification has led to numerous hypothesized controlling mechanisms. Among these are the salt-effect reduction of alkalinity, the base cation buffering and sulfate adsorption capacities of soils, availability of weatherable minerals (weathering rates), depth of till, micropore flow, and type of forest cover. Correlative and predictive models have been developed to show the relationships (if any) between hypothesized controlling mechanisms and surface water acidity, and to suggest under what conditions additional surface water might become acid. This document (Part A) is a review of our current knowledge of factors and processes controlling soil and surface water acidification, as well as an assessment of the adequacy of that knowledge for making predictions of future acidification. Section 2 is a data extensive, conceptual overview of how watersheds function. Section 3 is a closer look at the theory and evidence for the key hypotheses. Section 4 is a review of existing methods of assessing system response to acidic deposition.

  12. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter......Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both...... tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...

  13. Learning Letters With the Whole Body: Visuomotor Versus Visual Teaching in Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Bonneton-Botté, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    What constitutes effective teaching of letter learning in early school years is still uncertain. We assessed the impact of a teacher-implemented visuomotor intervention program to teach 5-year-olds' cursive letter knowledge. We compared a program in which letters were explored with the arm and whole body, with a typical visual training program. Children were tested before and after the intervention with different measures of letter knowledge. We showed a greater improvement in letter recognition following the visuomotor intervention, compared with the visual intervention. Results were mixed for letter handwriting for which we found higher scores on stroke direction and overall quality, but lower scores on fluency following whole body visuomotor teaching. We discuss our results in terms of the link between action and perception, the interaction between the different components of letter knowledge, and the link between fine and gross motor development and handwriting.

  14. UO2 Fuel pellet impurities, pellet surface roughness and n(18O)/n(16O) ratios, applied to nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajo, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, law enforcement has faced the problem of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic science is a new branch of science that enables the identification of seized nuclear material. The identification is not based on a fixed scheme, but further identification parameters are decided based on previous identification results. The analysis is carried out by using traditional analysis methods and applying modern measurement technology. The parameters are generally not unambiguous and not self-explanatory. In order to have a full picture about the origin of seized samples, several identification parameters should be used together and the measured data should be compared to corresponding data from known sources. A nuclear material database containing data from several fabrication plants is installed for the purpose. In this thesis the use of UO 2 fabrication plant specific parameters, fuel impurities, fuel pellet surface roughness and oxygen isotopic ratio in UO 2 were investigated for identification purposes in nuclear forensic science. The potential use of these parameters as 'fingerprints' is discussed for identification purposes of seized nuclear materials. Impurities of the fuel material vary slightly according to the fabrication method employed and a plant environment. Here the impurities of the seized UO 2 were used in order to have some clues about the origin of the fuel material by comparing a measured data to nuclear database information. More certainty in the identification was gained by surface roughness of the UO 2 fuel pellets, measured by mechanical surface profilometry. Categories in surface roughness between a different fuel element type and a producer were observed. For the time oxygen isotopic ratios were determined by Thermal Ionisation Mass Speckometry (TIMS). Thus a TIMS measurement method, using U 16 O + and U 18 0 + ions, was developed and optimised to achieve precise oxygen isotope ratio measurements for the

  15. The importance of the first and last letter in words during sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca L; Eisler, Morgan E

    2012-11-01

    Previous research suggests that the first and last letters of words are more important than the interior letters during reading. A question that has yet to be fully studied is why this is so. The current study reports four experiments in which participants read sentences containing words with transposed letters occurring at the beginning of the word, near the middle of the word, or at the end of the word. Experiments 1 and 2 also included some sentences where the spaces were removed and replaced with hash marks (#) to equate all letters on their degree of lateral interference from adjacent letter positions. In Experiment 3, equating was done by adding an additional space between all of the letters, so that no letter position received lateral interference from any letter. In Experiment 4, readers read sentences from right to left so that word-initial letters were presented furthest into the parafovea. The results indicate that although the first letter of a word has a privileged role over interior letters regardless of the degree of lateral interference it receives or its location in the parafovea (suggesting that it is intrinsically related to how we process, store, or access lexical information), the last letter of a word is more important than interior letters only when it receives less lateral interference or when its parafoveal location was close to the fovea (suggesting that it is privileged only due to low-level visual factors). These findings have important implications for current theories and computational models regarding the roles of various letter positions in reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How Many Letters Should Preschoolers in Public Programs Know? The Diagnostic Efficiency of Various Preschool Letter-Naming Benchmarks for Predicting First-Grade Literacy Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Review of current federal and state standards indicates little consensus or empirical justification regarding appropriate goals, often referred to as benchmarks, for preschool letter-name learning. The present study investigated the diagnostic efficiency of various letter-naming benchmarks using a longitudinal database of 371 children who attended…

  17. The shortcomings of semi-local and hybrid functionals: what we can learn from surface science studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, A; Kresse, G

    2008-01-01

    A study of the adsorption of CO on late 4d and 5d transition metal (111) surfaces (Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Os, Ir and Pt) considering atop and hollow site adsorption is presented. The applied functionals include the gradient-corrected Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) functionals, and the corresponding hybrid Hartree-Fock density functionals HSE and B3LYP. We find that PBE-based hybrid functionals (specifically HSE) yield, with the exception of Pt, the correct site order on all considered metals, but they also considerably overestimate the adsorption energies compared to experiment. On the other hand, the semi-local BLYP functional and the corresponding hybrid functional B3LYP yield very satisfactory adsorption energies and the correct adsorption site for all surfaces. We are thus faced with a Procrustean problem: the B3LYP and BLYP functionals seem to be the overall best choice for describing adsorption on metal surfaces, but they simultaneously fail to account well for the properties of the metal, vastly overestimating the equilibrium volume and underestimating the atomization energies. Setting out from these observations, general conclusions are drawn on the relative merits and drawbacks of various semi-local and hybrid functionals. The discussion includes a revised version of the PBE functional specifically optimized for bulk properties and surface energies (PBEsol), a revised version of the PBE functional specifically optimized to predict accurate adsorption energies (rPBE), as well as the aforementioned BLYP functional. We conclude that no semi-local functional is capable of describing all aspects properly, and including non-local exchange also only improves some but worsens other properties

  18. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti < 1) at 40-50 nm below the grain surface [1,3]. These compositional changes are not observed in the radiation-processed rims on silicates [4]. Several mechanism(s) to explain the overall relations in the ilmenite grain rims by radiation processing and/or additional space weathering processes were proposed by [1], and remain under current consideration [3]. A key issue has concerned the ability of ion radiation processing alone to produce some of the deeper- penetrating compositional changes. In order to provide some experimental constraints on these questions, we have performed a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emission scanning transmission electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  19. Micrometer-sized Water Ice Particles for Planetary Science Experiments: Influence of Surface Structure on Collisional Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gärtner, S.; Fraser, H. J. [School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Gundlach, B.; Ratte, J.; Blum, J. [Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Headen, T. F.; Youngs, T. G. A.; Bowron, D. T. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Oesert, J.; Gorb, S. N., E-mail: sabrina.gaertner@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: helen.fraser@open.ac.uk [Zoologisches Institut, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 1-9, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2017-10-20

    Models and observations suggest that ice-particle aggregation at and beyond the snowline dominates the earliest stages of planet formation, which therefore is subject to many laboratory studies. However, the pressure–temperature gradients in protoplanetary disks mean that the ices are constantly processed, undergoing phase changes between different solid phases and the gas phase. Open questions remain as to whether the properties of the icy particles themselves dictate collision outcomes and therefore how effectively collision experiments reproduce conditions in protoplanetary environments. Previous experiments often yielded apparently contradictory results on collision outcomes, only agreeing in a temperature dependence setting in above ≈210 K. By exploiting the unique capabilities of the NIMROD neutron scattering instrument, we characterized the bulk and surface structure of icy particles used in collision experiments, and studied how these structures alter as a function of temperature at a constant pressure of around 30 mbar. Our icy grains, formed under liquid nitrogen, undergo changes in the crystalline ice-phase, sublimation, sintering and surface pre-melting as they are heated from 103 to 247 K. An increase in the thickness of the diffuse surface layer from ≈10 to ≈30 Å (≈2.5 to 12 bilayers) proves increased molecular mobility at temperatures above ≈210 K. Because none of the other changes tie-in with the temperature trends in collisional outcomes, we conclude that the surface pre-melting phenomenon plays a key role in collision experiments at these temperatures. Consequently, the pressure–temperature environment, may have a larger influence on collision outcomes than previously thought.

  20. The shear-force/ultrasonic near-field microscope: a nanometrology tool for surface science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, A.; Li, N.; Asante, K.

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained with the Ultrasonic/Shear-Force Microscope (SUNM), an analytical tool suitable for investigating the quite different dynamic displayed by fluid-like films when subjected to mesoscopic confinement and while in intimate contact with two sliding solid boundaries. The SUNM uses two sensory modules to concurrently but independently monitor the effects that fluid-mediated interactions exert on two sliding bodies: the microscope's sharp probe (attached to a piezoelectric sensor) and the analyzed sample (attached to an ultrasonic transducer). This dual capability allows correlating the fluid-like film's viscoelastic properties with changes in the probe's resonance frequency and the generation of sound. A detailed monitoring of sliding friction by ultrasonic means and with nanometer resolution is unprecedented, which opens potential uses of the versatile microscope as a surface and subsurface material characterization tool. As a surface metrology tool, the SUNM presents a potential impact in diverse areas ranging from fundamental studies of nanotribology, confinement-driven solid to liquid phase transformation of polymer films, characterization of industrial lubricants, and the study of elastic properties of bio-membranes. As a sub-surface metrology tool, the SUNM can be used in the investigation of the elastic properties of low- and high-k dielectric materials, piezoelectric and ferroelectric films, as well as quality control in the construction of micro- and nano-fluidics devices.

  1. Letter naming and letter writing reversals in children with dyslexia: momentary inefficiency in the phonological and orthographic loops of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Allison D; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Given mounting evidence for working memory impairments in dyslexia, letter reversals during rapid automatic letter naming (phonological loop) or rapid automatic letter writing (orthographic loop) may reflect momentary inefficiency of working memory. Few of the children, with or without dyslexia, in a multi-generational family genetics study, produced reversals, but those with dyslexia produced more than those without dyslexia. Working-memory component predictors (word storing and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and executive functions) in regressions differentiated children with dyslexia (average age 11) who did and did not make reversals, predicted the number of reversals on specific letter naming or letter writing tasks, and explained unique variance in reading and writing outcomes. Although reversals are not a hallmark defining feature of dyslexia, children who produce reversals may benefit from instruction designed to develop specific working memory components and their efficient coordination in time.

  2. Charles Dickens and the Cat Paw Letter Opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Pyke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the sensory expectations around Victorian taxidermy, beginning with Charles Dickens’s letter opener made from the paw of his favourite cat and moving to a discussion of 'Our Mutual Friend'. I suggest that in a mid-Victorian moment in which work and laziness are polarized as the available moral, economic, and social categories, a desire for stillness, a space that is neither work nor laziness, exists in the encounter with taxidermied animals. The taxidermied animal allows energy and stillness to coexist.

  3. Resource Letter PFBi-1: Physical frontiers in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Eugenie Vorburger

    2006-05-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on physical frontiers in biology. Books and review articles are cited as well as journal articles for the following topics: cells and cellular mats; conformational dynamics/folding; electrostatics; enzymes, proteins, and molecular machines; material-biomineralization; miscellaneous topics; nanoparticles and nanobiotechnology; neuroscience; photosynthesis; quantum mechanics theory; scale and energy; spectroscopy and microscopy: experiments and instrumentation; single-molecule dynamics; and water and hydrogen-bonded solvents. A list of web resources and videotapes is also given.

  4. EDITORIAL: Celebrating one year of Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2008-03-01

    The one-year anniversary is a critical milestone for a new journal. At that point there are enough articles published to begin to define the scope and readership, yet generally not enough of a track-record for the full community to regard the new entrant as a fixture and a source of 'must read' material. Environmental Research Letters (ERL) has set itself a particularly large and interesting challenge: to help connect the vast community of environmental researchers, practitioners, activists, and interested informed observers. ERL and its partner online resource base and community website, environmentalresearchweb, fills a major void: a single locus for rapid publication of peer-reviewed and highly interdisciplinary material spanning literally every aspect of environmental research and thought. The wide range of material that falls squarely into the purview of ERL—from restoration ecology to global change science and politics, to toxicology and environmental justice, to environmental and social impacts of energy conversion—illustrate just how diverse a 'community' we hope to serve. Thanks to an exceptional editorial staff and board, and a diverse range of fascinating contributed papers, ERL is off to a particularly fast start. ERL has both a small advisory board and a larger editorial board. The board serves several functions, beginning with the traditional one of taking the lead on reviews of papers in such a dizzying array of areas. This task alone is a challenge because of the commitment ERL has made to exceptionally rapid publication: a goal of 90 days from submission to online publication for accepted papers. This goal, which we have generally met, includes the publication of complementary (but not always complimentary) 500 1000 word commentaries on a number of papers. To accomplish this alone the editorial board, and the reviewers, have been heroic, and deserve a huge round of applause. IOP Publishing too, has been truly wonderful in making this happen

  5. Helicon plasma generator-assisted surface conversion ion source for the production of H(-) ion beams at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O; Rouleau, G; Keller, R; Geros, E; Stelzer, J; Ferris, J

    2008-02-01

    The converter-type negative ion source currently employed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H(-) ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. In this kind of an ion source the extracted H(-) beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which deposits on the H(-) converter surface and degrades its performance. Therefore, we have started an ion source development project focused on replacing these thermionic cathodes (filaments) of the converter source by a helicon plasma generator capable of producing high-density hydrogen plasmas with low electron energy. In our studies which have so far shown that the plasma density of the surface conversion source can be increased significantly by exciting a helicon wave in the plasma, and we expect to improve the performance of the surface converter H(-) ion source in terms of beam brightness and time between services. The design of this new source and preliminary results are presented, along with a discussion of physical processes relevant for H(-) ion beam production with this novel design. Ultimately, we perceive this approach as an interim step towards our long-term goal, combining a helicon plasma generator with an SNS-type main discharge chamber, which will allow us to individually optimize the plasma properties of the plasma cathode (helicon) and H(-) production (main discharge) in order to further improve the brightness of extracted H(-) ion beams.

  6. The Letter of Jude and Graeco-Roman Invective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J. Batten

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many have attempted to identify the opponents in Jude and have addressed the manner in which the author characterises this group. Moreover, scholars have expended considerable energy on the analysis and explication of Jude’s rhetorical structure and style, and there is wide consensus that as a text, Jude is a sophisticated letter. However, less work has attended to the evaluation of Jude within the tradition of Graeco-Roman invective. In comparing verses from Jude to some examples from such literature, we find similar themes. In particular, the letter of Jude and some Graeco-Roman moralists engage in a particular tactic to undermine, even destroy, the character of their opponents. They both present them as effeminates, which, although a stereotype, is one of the worst insults a writer or orator could wage against an adversary. This article argues that Jude engages in such character assassination, invoking effeminacy in the manner that he describes his opponents’ behaviour, and placing them in a long line of debauched and condemned figures from ages past.

  7. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Iwi Afifah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development result showed that this product has the criteria of usefulness, feasibility, accuracy, and attractiveness and appropriate when used to facilitate students to express communication skills in writing. Abstrak: Keterampilan komunikasi merupakan hal yang terpenting bagi remaja. Terdapat kecenderungan bahwa remaja yang memiliki keterampilan komunikasi yang rendah dapat dikatakan sebagai seseorang yang berkepribadian introvert. Orang yang berkepribadian introvert cenderung sulit berkomunikasi dan sulit mengungkapkan secara lisan. Pengembangan media letter sharing ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan komunikasi siswa introvert. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan dengan  mengadopsi model penelitian Borg and Gall. Hasil pengembangan menunjukkan bahwa produk ini mempunyai kriteria kegunaan, kelayakan, ketepatan, kemenarikan dan sesuai apabila digunakan untuk memfasilitasi siswa dalam mengekspresikan keterampilan komunikasi secara tertulis.

  9. Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 20, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    In Jan. 1996, the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) provided recommendations to DOE on how to restructure the fusion program in light of compressional guidance and budget realities. DOE endorsed these recommendations and prepared a strategic plan. The FEAC report concluded that the goals of the restructured program could most effectively be accomplished at a funding level of $275 million per year, including Federal government management costs. DOE requested that Congress appropriate $255.6 million in FY97 for the fusion energy sciences program exclusive of Federal government management costs (about $8 million). On Sept. 11, 1996, the Energy and Water Development Conference Committee settled on a FY97 appropriation for the fusion energy sciences program of $232.5 million. This report contains the response to the charge letter, on how the program described in the strategic plan could be changed to make it consistent with the $232.5 million appropriation

  10. Can governments use Get Out The Vote letters to solve Europe’s turnout crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2017-01-01

    Declining levels of turnout are a problem in European elections. Are Get Out The Vote campaigns the solution to the problem? While many studies have investigated such campaigns in the US, little is known about their effect in Europe. The article presents a field experiment in which encouragement...... to vote in an upcoming Danish election is delivered to more than 60,000 first-time voters using direct personal letters. Eight different letters are designed, based on the calculus of voting and prospect theory. The sample is randomly divided into treatment groups or the control group. Using validated...... turnout, small positive effects of receiving a letter on turnout are found, with little difference across letters. The letters mostly mobilised voters with a low propensity to vote and thus increased equality in participation. In sum, while letters have some effect, they are not likely to be a panacea...

  11. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The contributions of vocabulary and letter writing automaticity to word reading and spelling for kindergartners

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge. These questions were addressed using data from 242 English-speaking kindergartners and employing structural equation modeling. Results showed le...

  13. Dependence of reading speed on letter spacing in central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2012-09-01

    Crowding, the difficulty in recognizing a letter in close proximity with other letters, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in people with central vision loss. The goals of this study were (1) to examine whether increased letter spacing in words, which presumably reduces crowding among letters, would benefit reading for people with central vision loss and (2) to relate our finding to the current account of faulty feature integration of crowding. Fourteen observers with central vision loss read aloud single sentences, one word at a time, using rapid serial visual presentation. Reading speeds were calculated based on the rapid serial visual presentation exposure durations yielding 80% accuracy. Letters were rendered in Courier, a fixed-width font. Observers were tested at 1.4× the critical print size (CPS), three were also tested at 0.8× CPS. Reading speed was measured for five center-to-center letter spacings (range: 0.5-2× the standard spacing). The preferred retinal locus for fixation was determined for nine of the observers, from which we calculated the horizontal dimension of the integration field for crowding. All observers showed increased reading speed with letter spacing for small spacings, until an optimal spacing, beyond which reading speed either showed a plateau, or dropped as letter spacing further increased. The optimal spacing averaged 0.95 ± 0.06× [±95% confidence interval] the standard spacing for 1.4× CPS (similar for 0.8× CPS), which was not different from the standard. When converted to angular size, the measured values of the optimal letter spacing for reading show a good relationship with the calculated horizontal dimension of the integration field. Increased letter spacing beyond the standard size, which presumably reduces crowding among letters in text, does not improve reading speed for people with central vision loss. The optimal letter spacing for reading can be predicted based on the preferred retinal locus.

  14. The Long and Short of Genetic Counseling Summary Letters: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, J; Temme, R; Pond, D; Baker, J; Jarvis, K; Liu, M; Dugan, S; Mendelsohn, N J

    2015-08-01

    Genetic counseling summary letters are intended to reinforce information received during genetic counseling, but little information is available on patient/family responses to these letters. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effectiveness of two different letter formats. Parents of children receiving a new diagnosis were enrolled. The control group (n = 85) received a genetic counseling summary letter in a narrative format, 4-5 pages in length. After the control enrollment period, genetic counselors were trained by a professional medical writer to develop a concise letter format. The case group (n = 64) received a concise letter, approximately 1.5 pages in length, utilizing simple sentences, lay terms, and lists/bullet points. Parents completed a survey 4 weeks after the visit to rate the letter's format, usefulness, and their emotional reaction. Results show that parents in the case group rated the letter more highly (p = 0.023), particularly in the emotional response dimension (rating changes in anxiety, depression, fear, ability to cope, and confidence in response to the letter). Parents in the case group also rated the genetic counseling session more highly (p = 0.039). In the control group, parents without a college degree were more likely to rate the letter as too long and the level of medical detail as too high. In the case group, no significant differences were seen between parents with or without a college degree. These data suggest that a short genetic counseling summary letter is rated higher by parents, and is particularly associated with a more positive emotional reaction. A short letter format highlighting the basic facts related to the genetic condition may be more useful to parents of diverse educational backgrounds, and may support a positive emotional adaptation at the time of a new diagnosis. Genetic counselors may benefit from specific instruction in medical and educational writing.

  15. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  16. National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    .... These National Security Letters (NSLs) seek customer and consumer transaction information in national security investigations from communications providers, financial institutions, and credit agencies...

  17. An open letter from a Catholic birth mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolch, M J

    1996-01-01

    This open letter was written in response to a reply from a priest to a woman's initial letter describing her experience in giving up a baby for adoption. The mother described how wrenching the experience remains for her, 10 years after the fact. She became pregnant when she was a 23-year-old, unmarried student. Her strong allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church precluded abortion, so she bore the child and reluctantly gave her up for adoption. The mother condemns the pro-life sentiments that label the assessment she made about her inability to keep her child as "courageous, unselfish, and loving" while condemning as an "excuse" the same process undertaken by women who arrive at a different decision (to abort). During her pregnancy, the mother moved from a strongly pro-life stance to one in which she knew she would never tell another woman what choice to make. The mother noted that the Church agencies working toward adoption pushed mothers to do what is "best" for the child but never addressed the problems which caused the mothers to become pregnant in the first place or the damage to the mother caused by the loss of her child. When the mother became pregnant again soon after her loss, she decided to abort and found that experience one of the most peaceful of her life and one which made her face the problems in her life. While she is not glad she had an abortion, the pain of the abortion was much less than the pain of adoption. The mother tells the priest that there are many devastating experiences connected with child bearing, and that the Church should attempt to reach out to women who have been hurt and need healing. The letter ends by referring to a 17-year-old valedictorian who was banned from speaking at her graduation from a Catholic High School because she had a 16-month-old daughter at home. She was punished for choosing not to abort.

  18. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  19. Refuting feminism: Brazilian lettered culture's complacency/complicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Terezinha Schmidt

    Full Text Available In appraising the power of antifeminist discourse in Brazil, I examine how this discourse appears in the realm of cultural journalism in order to make some connections to Brazilian social history, in the light of which it may be possible to understand why feminism as transforming praxis seems so alien to the habits of the country. To sustain my arguments I draw on the readings of Brazilian historical and cultural thinkers considered "leftists". At the same time, I point out the limits of their analyses, that is, their silence regarding women's oppression and gender issues. Finally, I examine the persistence of various forms of antifeminism in the lettered milieu so as to understand the statute of feminist critique in the field of literary studies and the reasons for its invisibility, including considerations on its achievements and the limitations of its practices.

  20. Communicating Trust and Trusting Science Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan; Horst, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Written in response to a previous article by Weingart and Guenther [2016] in JCOM, this letter aims to open up some critical issues concerning the ‘new ecology of communication’. It is argued that this evolving ecology needs to be openly explored without looking back to a previous idyll of ‘un......-tainted’ science....