WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface science letters

  1. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  2. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  3. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  4. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  5. Interfacial and Surface Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science group within the Material Science Center. He oversees research studies of surfaces and interfaces Interfacial and Surface Science Interfacial and Surface Science Image of irregular-outlined, light address a broad range of fundamental and applied issues in surface and interfacial science that are

  6. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  7. Surface science and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Modern surface science studies have explored a large number of metal catalyst systems. Three classes of catalytic reactions can be identified: (1) those that occur over the metal surface; (2) reactions that take place on top of a strongly adsorbed overlayer and (3) reactions that occur on co-adsorbate modified surfaces. Case histories for each class are presented. 44 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Surface science an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, John

    1991-01-01

    The whole field of surface science is covered in this work. Starting with a description of the structure and thermodynamics of clean surfaces, the book goes on to discuss kinetic theory of gases and molecular beam formation. This is followed by a largesection on gas-surface interactions, and another major section on energetic particle-surface interactions. The final chapter provides the background to crystal nucleation and growth. The approach adopted is interdisciplinary and slanted towards theexperimental side, with practical analytical techniques being used to illustrate general princi

  9. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  10. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  11. Response to the Letter to the Editor of Crop Science from Donald R. Davis regarding our research article published in Crop Science (2011: 51:2721-2727)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...

  12. Solvay Conference on Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The articles collected in this volume give a broad overview of the current state of surface science. Pioneers in the field and researchers met together at this Solvay Conference to discuss important new developments in surface science, with an emphasis on the common area between solid state physics and physical chemistry. The contributions deal with the following subjects: structure of surfaces, surface science and catalysis, two-dimensional physics and phase transitions, scanning tunneling microscopy, surface scattering and surface dynamics, chemical reactions at surfaces, solid-solid interfaces and superlattices, and surface studies with synchrotron radiation. On each of these subjects an introductory review talk and a number of short research contributions are followed by extensive discussions, which appear in full in the text. This nineteenth Solvay Conference commemorates the 75th anniversary of the Solvay Institutes.

  13. Surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-05-01

    The catalytic reactions studied include hydrocarbon conversion over platinum, the transition metal-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and the photocatalyzed dissociation of water over oxide surfaces. The method of combined surface science and catalytic studies is similar to those used in synthetic organic chemistry. The single-crystal models for the working catalyst are compared with real catalysts by comparing the rates of cyclopropane ring opening on platinum and the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on rhodium single crystal surface with those on practical commercial catalyst systems. Excellent agreement was obtained for these reactions. This document reviews what was learned about heterogeneous catalysis from these surface science approaches over the past 15 years and present models of the active catalyst surface

  14. The surface science of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    One of the largest challenges to science in the coming years is to find the relation between enzyme structure and function. Can we predict which reactions an enzyme catalyzes from knowledge of its structure-or from its amino acid sequence? Can we use that knowledge to modify enzyme function......? To solve these problems we must understand in some detail how enzymes interact with reactants from its surroundings. These interactions take place at the surface of the enzyme and the question of enzyme function can be viewed as the surface science of enzymes. In this article we discuss how to describe...... catalysis by enzymes, and in particular the analogies between enzyme catalyzed reactions and surface catalyzed reactions. We do this by discussing two concrete examples of reactions catalyzed both in nature (by enzymes) and in industrial reactors (by inorganic materials), and show that although analogies...

  15. Modern techniques of surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, D Phil

    2016-01-01

    This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation tec...

  16. How old is surface science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paparazzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces

  17. Republic of Letters, Academies and Scientific Societies in the 18th Century: Leiden jar and science in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Tadeu Jardim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the panorama that underpins the construction of the first electric condenser, known as the Leiden Jar, will be presented. Besides, the themes about the construction of science which are relevant to be discussed in Physics classes that concerns the development of this apparatus will be pointed. For this purpose, a historical narrative was constructed from primary and secondary sources, and it was inspired by the historiographical strand called Cultural History of Science. Thus, we seek to emphasize how ways of spreading knowledge in the context of Scientific Academies, Scientific Societies and what has been called Republic of Letters in the eighteenth century, constitute substantial extra-laboratory scientific practices for an understanding of the development of the Leiden Jar. Finally, in accordance with results from researches in the area of Science Teaching, we present some thoughts upon which elements of this narrative could be taken to the classroom.

  18. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 6 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the progress in surface and membrane science; the solid state chemistry of the silver halide surface; and the experimental and theoretical aspects of the double layer at the mercury-solution interface. The text also describes contact-angle hysteresis; ion binding and ion transport produced by neutral lipid-soluble molecules; and the biophysical interactions of blood proteins with polymeric and artificial surfaces. Physical chemists, biophysicists, and phys

  19. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1977-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 11 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the quantum theory of surface phenomena; some fundamental aspects of electrocrystallization; and exoelectric emission. The text also describes the surface of titanium dioxide; and the prospects for atomic resolution electron microscopy in membranology. Chemists, physicists, and people involved in the electrochemical power laboratory will find the book useful.

  20. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved beyond being a sub-field of chemistry or physics and has now become an underpinning science. The Third Edition of this book incorporates extensive worked solutions, as well as details on how problem solving relevant to surface science should be performed. It contextualizes the exercises and their solutions to further explicate the methods of problem solving, application of scientific principles and to deliver a deeper understanding of the field of surface science. Solutions will be accompanied by figures and/or graphs of data, as appropriate.

  1. European Society for the History of Science - Letter from the future president

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrbáňová, Soňa

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2010), s. 361-362 ISSN 0008-8994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520; CEZ:AV0Z80770509 Keywords : history of science and technology * European Society for the History of Science Subject RIV: AB - History

  2. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved from being a sub-field of chemistry or physics, and has now established itself as an interdisciplinary topic. Knowledge has developed sufficiently that we can now understand catalysis from a surface science perspective. No-where is the underpinning nature of surface science better illustrated than with nanoscience. Now in its third edition, this successful textbook aims to provide students with an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces. The chapters build from simple to more advanced principles with each featuring exerc

  3. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1972-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 5 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the Mössbauer effect in surface science; the surface functional groups on carbon and silica; and the wetting phenomena pertaining to adhesion. The text also describes the physical state of phospholipids and cholesterol in monolayers, bilayers, and membranes; the characteristics of heterocoagulation; and the effects of calcium on excitable membranes and neurotransmitter action. Chemists, physiologists, biophysicists, and civil engineers will find the book i

  4. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  5. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1979-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 12 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the topographical differentiation of the cell surface; the NMR studies of model biological membrane system; and an irreversible thermodynamic approach to energy coupling in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The text also describes water at surfaces; the nature of microemulsions; and the energy principle in the stability of interfaces. Biochemists, physicists, chemical engineers, and people involved in surface and coatings research will find the book invaluable.

  6. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 4 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses waves at interfaces; recent investigations on the thickness of surface layers; and surface analysis by low-energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The text also describes the anode electrolyte interface; the interactions of adsorbed proteins and polypeptides at interfaces; and peptide-induced ion transport in synthetic and biological membranes. The monolayer adsorption on crystalline surfaces is also considered. Chemists and metallurgi

  7. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1974-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the applications of statistical mechanics to physical adsorption; the impact of electron spectroscopy and cognate techniques on the study of solid surfaces; and the ellipsometric studies of thin films. The text also describes the interfacial photochemistry of bilayer lipid membranes; cell junctions and their development; and the composition and function of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The role of the cell surface in contact inhibition of cell division

  8. Recent progress in surface science v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Riddiford, A C

    1964-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 2 is a 10-chapter text that covers the significant advances in some aspects of surface science, including in catalysis, genetic control of cell surface, and cell membrane. The opening chapter deals with the major factors affecting adsorption at the gas-solid interface. The subsequent chapters explore the advances in understanding of heterogeneous catalysis in terms of fundamental surface processes, as well as the concept of dynamic contact angles. These topics are followed by discussions on emulsions, flotation, and the extraordinary complexity of cel

  9. Current trends of surface science and catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong Young

    2014-01-01

    Including detail on applying surface science in renewable energy conversion, this book covers the latest results on model catalysts including single crystals, bridging "materials and pressure gaps", and hot electron flows in heterogeneous catalysis.

  10. Report of the surface science workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized

  11. Report of the surface science workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized. (GHT)

  12. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1975-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 9 covers the developments in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the physical adsorption of gases and vapors in micropores; the chemisorption theory; and the role of radioisotopes in the studies of chemisorption and catalysis. The text also describes the interaction of ions with monolayers; and the isolation and characterization of mycoplasma membranes. Chemists, physical chemists, and microbiologists will find the book useful.

  13. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  14. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Phase transition in a random fragmentation problem with applications to computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David S.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2002-08-01

    We study a fragmentation problem where an initial object of size x is broken into m random pieces provided x > x0 where x0 is an atomic cut-off. Subsequently, the fragmentation process continues for each of those daughter pieces whose sizes are bigger than x0. The process stops when all the fragments have sizes smaller than x0. We show that the fluctuation of the total number of splitting events, characterized by the variance, generically undergoes a nontrivial phase transition as one tunes the branching number m through a critical value m = mc. For m mc they are anomalously large and non-Gaussian. We apply this general result to analyse two different search algorithms in computer science.

  15. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1976-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 10 covers the advances in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the selective changes of cellular particles influencing sedimentation properties; and the rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes in investigations of surface phenomena at the metal-electrolyte interface. The text also describes the membrane potential of phospholipid bilayer and biological membranes; the adsorption of surfactant monolayers at gas/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces; and the enzymes immobilized on glass. Chemists and people involved in electrochemistry will

  16. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1981-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 14 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses statistical thermodynamics of monolayer adsorption from gas and liquid mixtures on homogeneous and heterogeneous solid surfaces; and the structure of the boundary layers of liquids and its influence on the mass transfer in fine pores. The text then describes the coupling of ionic and non-electrolyte fluxes in ion selective membranes; the electrocatalytic properties of matalloporphins at the interface; and the adsorption from binary gas and liquid phases. Phas

  17. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the theoretical and experimental aspects of the van der Waals forces; the electric double layer on the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; and the long-range and short-range order in adsorbed films. The text also describes the hydrodynamical theory of surface shear viscosity; the structure and properties of monolayers of synthetic polypeptides at the air-water interface; and the structure and molecular dynamics of water. The role of glycoproteins in cell

  18. Technical activities, 1990: Surface Science Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The report summarizes technical activities and accomplishments of the NIST Surface Science Division during Fiscal Year 1990. Overviews are presented of the Division and of its three constituent groups: Surface Dynamical Processes, Thin Films and Interfaces, and Surface Spectroscopies and Standards. These overviews are followed by reports of selected technical accomplishments during the year. A summary is given of Division outputs and interactions that includes lists of publications, talks, committee assignments, seminars (including both Division seminars and Interface Science seminars arranged through the Division), conferences organized, and a standard reference material certified. Finally, lists are given of Division staff and of guest scientists who have worked in the Division during the past year

  19. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The imaginary Sun? Harold Aspden Energy Science Ltd, PO Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, UK Difficult physics? Tim Akrill Chief Examiner, A-level Physics, Edexcel Foundation Was it a dream? Bill Jarvis 6 Peggy's Mill Road, Edinburgh EH4 6JY

  20. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  1. Practical guide to surface science and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2001-01-01

    Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to surface science as well as describes the basic analytical techniques that researchers use to understand what occurs at the surfaces of materials and at their interfaces. These techniques include auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, inelastic scattering of electrons and ions, low energy electron diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and interfacial segregation. Understanding the behavior of materials at their surfaces is essential for materials scientists and engineers as they design and fabricate microelectronics and semiconductor devices. The book gives over 100 examples, discussion questions and problems with varying levels of difficulty. Included with this book is a CD-ROM, which not only contains the same information, but also provides many elements of animation and interaction that are not easily emulated on paper. In diverse subject matters ranging from the operation of ion pumps, computer-...

  2. Surface science principles and current applications

    CERN Document Server

    Taglauer, E; Wandelt, K

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies increasingly rely on low-dimensional physics at interfaces and in thin-films and nano-structures. Surface science holds a key position in providing the experimental methods and theoretical models for a basic understanding of these effects. This book includes case studies and status reports about research topics such as: surface structure determination by tensor-LEED and surface X-ray diffraction; the preparation and detection of low-dimensional electronic surface states; quantitative surface compositional analysis; the dynamics of adsorption and reaction of adsorbates, e.g. kinetic oscillations; the characterization and control of thin-film and multilayer growth including the influence of surfactants; a critical assessment of the surface physics approach to heterogeneous catalysis.

  3. Letter Dice. Technical Note No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Jock

    Letter and syllable dice devised for a project in rural Ecuador provide inexpensive, easily reproducible learning materials for practice in basic literary skills. Eleven wooden cubes with six letters on each cube are cast onto a surface and the player constructs words from the letters on the top side of the dice. After a word is formed and…

  4. Recent progress in surface science 3

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Rosenberg, M D

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 3 covers topics on the structure and mechanisms of the cell membranes. The book discusses the incorporation of chemisorbed species; the recent developments in the study of epitaxy; and the ""diffusion"" or ""hydride"" component of overpotential at cathodes of the ""platinum metals"". The text also describes the mechanism of hydrogen exchange in proteins; the nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipids, lipoproteins, and cell membranes; and the monolayers of synthetic phospholipids. The formation, electrical properties, transport, and excitability cha

  5. Letter: Meyerhofer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This letter confirms that the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was an important part of the FY10 NIF Polar Drive Exploding Pusher experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments were designed by LLE to produce requested neutron yields to calibrate and qualify nuclear diagnostics. LLE built a deuterium-tritium filling system for the glass shells and provided them to LLNL for mounting. In FY10, four exploding pusher implosions were performed with measured neutron yields within a factor of two of requested and ion temperatures within 20% of requested. These implosions are proving to be an ideal platform for commissioning the nuclear diagnostic suite on the NIF and are achieving all of the objectives planned for this campaign.

  6. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  7. Letters on nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Maier-Leibnitz, H.

    1982-01-01

    Heinz Maier-Leibnitz a well-known scientist, nuclear physicist, for 50 years, who publicily supported the idea not to overrate the dangers of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, has grown tired of talking only to colleagues. He invites a junior fellow physicist, who held engaged speeches against the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf, to an exchange of thoughts. Peter Kafka, an astro-physicist studied the self organisation of the universe from the big bang to the economic crisis and encountered the question of which conditions have to be fulfilled to prevent progress from becoming caranogenous. He became one of the spokesmen of 'political ecology' and called for resistance again large-scale technological use of scientific knowledge. He was enthusiastic about the idea of an exchange of letters, because he - just like his partner - believes in gaining knowledge by discussion. The variety of subjects is sketched briefly in form of three lectures. In the letters both scientists discuss intensly about: - Freedom of science and responsibility of science. - Decisions on energy questions under time-pressure. - Risks of nuclear plants. - Large scale technology and large-scale research or decentralization. - Energy utilization and energy waste. - Nuclear energy and alternatives. - Sense and nonsense of detailed future planning. In the end no one has convinced the other. The reader however finds a lot of new incentives in the letters - printed in unabridged form - a lot of new and significant arguments for a discussion which has only just started. (orig.) [de

  8. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    cover image of this issue honors this achievement. It shows 27 chiral heptahelicene molecules arranged by one of the guest editors (KHE) with the very same STM at IBM Almaden Research Center, San José that was used for moving xenon atoms more than 20 years ago. Karl-Heinz Rieder's career, as briefly outlined in the biography by G Benedek in this issue, reflected this paradigm shift in surface science from reciprocal to real space investigations: initially focusing on helium scattering as a superior technique for the investigation of delicate surfaces, his group at the Freie University in Berlin became the second in the world to rearrange atoms and molecules at surfaces in a controlled way and they generated much of the foundational work of low temperature STM investigations. Besides his saxophone skills and many other hobbies, Karl-Heinz is a real poet and loves composing funny limericks and spoonerisms. He wrote the following poem (passed on to us by W-D Schneider) at the International School of Solid State Physics in 1998 in Erice, Italy. It is a real masterpiece, beautifully summarizing us all, the 'Surface Science Society'. The top atom sheetSome become real slaves is important and neat.looking at standing waves. Therefore there is a strong raceThe producers of coatings in the science of surface.get really good quotings. To clean it you needStill others use new ways ions and heat.with electrons and x-rays. Then the atoms arrangeAnd all has to be in some ways that are strange,in good UHV—except theory, they relax, reconstructwhich thinks on extensions as a matter of fact.to still lower dimensions, And reacting with gasesand with lots of computing they form quite new phasestries to get solid footing. with large unit cellsSo everybody with joy as diffraction tells.plays his own special toy. Some people use lightAnd all think they are better from a synchrotron brightshould get published a letter. and claim it is bestBut before there's more cluster to do this in

  9. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the role of the complanar emission of particles in nuclear interaction for E 0 >10 16 eV detected in the stratosphere, 10 B nucleus fragment yields, nuclear teleportation (proposal for an experiment), invisible 'glue' bosons in model field theory, calculation of the ionization differential effective cross sections in fast ion-atom collisions, interactions of ultracold neutrons near surface of solids, g factors as a probe for high-spin structure of neutron-rich Dy isotopes, search for periodicities in experimental data by the autoregressive model methods

  10. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on quantum field theory and symmetries in nuclear physics, multifractal analysis of AFM images of Nb thin film surfaces, the fast-acting memory for multichannel converters of time to digital, an analysis of the anomalous Cherenkov radiation obtained in the relativistic lead ion beam at CERN SPS, the problem of consistency of the thermal-spike model with experimentally determined electron temperature, ATLAS calorimeter performance for charged pion as well as on collective flow in multifragmentation induced by relativistic helium and carbon ions variation of the coulomb repulsion in multifragmentation

  11. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on the DELPHI experiment at LEP, the Fermi-surface dynamics of rotating nuclei, production of large samples of the silica dioxide aerogel in the 37-litre autoclave and test of its optical properties, preliminary radiation resource results on scintillating fibers, a new algorithm for the direct transformation method of time to digital with the high time resolution and development and design of analogue read-out electronics for HADES drift chamber system

  12. Thermochemical Surface Engineering: A Playground for Science and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Surface engineering by thermochemical processing is the intentional change of the composition of a material at elevated temperature with the purpose to improve materials performance. In thermochemical processing components from the starting material are essential in the development of the phases...... at the surface. Current research and innovation activities are used to exemplify thermochemical surface engineering and the interplay of science and innovation. The examples given encompass aspects of the synthesis of extremely porous materials, low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel, surface...

  13. Spin polarized electrons in surface science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The potentialities of spin-polarised electron beams as a probe of surface magnetic properties are outlined. Elastic as well as inelastic scattering of electrons from solid surfaces are considered. (G.Q.)

  14. Surface Science at the Solid Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-06

    prominent experimental avenue, developed originally by Hubbard et al,_ involves emersing monocrystalline elec- As for metal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum...reliable means of both preparing and dosateizn ordered monocrystalline metal surfaces in UHV has led to ing appropriate molecular components of...surface atoms in place of bottom panel of Fig. 2, equal intensity contours are shown 23 underlying surface atoms, the compression is 24/23 - I in the

  15. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  16. Workshop on surface and interface science at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.; Schmidt, S.; Hufner, S.; Moritz, W.; Fedley, Ch.S.; Rossi, G.; Durr Hermann, A.; Rohlsberger, R.; Dalmas, J.; Oughaddou, H.; Leandri, Ch.; Gay, J.M.; Treglia, G.; Le Lay, G.; Aufray, B.; Bunk, O.; Johnson, R.L.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Lucas, C.A.; Bauer, G.; Zhong, Z.; Springholz, G.; Lechner, R.; Stang, J.; Schulli, T.; Metzger, T.H.; Holy, V.; Woodruff, D.P.; Dellera, C.; Zegenhagen, J.; Robinson, I.; Malachias, A.; Schulli, T.U.; Magalhaes-Paniago, R.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Valbusa, U.; Felici, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Van der Veen, J.F

    2004-07-01

    The main aim of the workshop is to reflect the future of surface and interface research at the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source ESRF taking into account experimental facilities which are becoming available at new synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe. 6 sessions have been organized: 1) surface and interface research and synchrotron radiation - today and tomorrow -, 2) aspects of surface and interface research, 3) real surfaces and interfaces, 4) synchrotron techniques in surface and interface research, 5) new directions in surface and interface research, and 6) surface and interface science at ESRF. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  17. Workshop on surface and interface science at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.; Schmidt, S.; Hufner, S.; Moritz, W.; Fedley, Ch.S.; Rossi, G.; Durr Hermann, A.; Rohlsberger, R.; Dalmas, J.; Oughaddou, H.; Leandri, Ch.; Gay, J.M.; Treglia, G.; Le Lay, G.; Aufray, B.; Bunk, O.; Johnson, R.L.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Lucas, C.A.; Bauer, G.; Zhong, Z.; Springholz, G.; Lechner, R.; Stang, J.; Schulli, T.; Metzger, T.H.; Holy, V.; Woodruff, D.P.; Dellera, C.; Zegenhagen, J.; Robinson, I.; Malachias, A.; Schulli, T.U.; Magalhaes-Paniago, R.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Valbusa, U.; Felici, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Van der Veen, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the workshop is to reflect the future of surface and interface research at the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source ESRF taking into account experimental facilities which are becoming available at new synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe. 6 sessions have been organized: 1) surface and interface research and synchrotron radiation - today and tomorrow -, 2) aspects of surface and interface research, 3) real surfaces and interfaces, 4) synchrotron techniques in surface and interface research, 5) new directions in surface and interface research, and 6) surface and interface science at ESRF. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  18. Suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of upstream oil and gas facilities : informational letter IL 98-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This release of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is intended to clarify the jurisdictional roles of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) and the EUB with regard to their respective responsibilities for the regulation of the suspension, abandonment, decontamination and surface land reclamation of active and inactive upstream oil and gas facilities. The EUB, AEP and industrial operators all have separate roles and responsibilities when active and inactive upstream facilities are suspended or reclaimed. In the future, industry operators will have more interaction with the AEP during the decontamination of a site, while the EUB will concentrate on pollution prevention and abandonment of non-economic facilities. All oilfield waste generated from suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of an active or inactive upstream oil and gas facility will fall under the jurisdiction of the EUB. Contaminated soils, sludges, and waters that are physically removed as a result of decontamination activities are considered to be oilfield wastes. The regulatory responsibility between the AEP and the EUB remains unchanged for the reclamation process of on-lease and off-lease spills, releases or pipeline breaks. Industry operators are no longer allowed to discharge any produced liquid to earthen pits or ponds and are encouraged to reclaim existing ones. 3 figs

  19. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on status of 116 Cd double β decay study with 116 CdWO 4 scintillators, new limits on 2β processes in 40 Ca and 46 Ca by using low radioactive CaF 2 (Eu) crystal scintillators, the single state dominance in 2νββ-decay transitions to excited 0 + and 2 + final states, present status of the MONOLITH project, technique of neutrino-induced muon detection on the Earth surface, high-sensitive spectrometer of fast neutrons and the results of fast neutron background flux measurements at the gallium-germanium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE), new experimental limits on the electron stability and excitation of nuclear levels in 23 Na, 127 I and 129 Xe induced by the electron decay on the atomic shell and element-loaded organic scintillators for neutron and neutrino physics

  20. Surface science models of CoMoS hydrodesulfurisation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.M.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Veen, van J.A.R.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Froment, G.F.; Delmon, B.; Grange, P.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of supported catalysts with surface spectroscopic techniques is often limited due to restraints imposed by the support material. The use of flat conducting substrates as a model support offers a way to apply these techniques to their full potential. Such surface science models of

  1. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy analytical, biophysical and life science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlücker, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Covering everything from the basic theoretical and practical knowledge to new exciting developments in the field with a focus on analytical and life science applications, this monograph shows how to apply surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for solving real world problems. From the contents: * Theory and practice of SERS * Analytical applications * SERS combined with other analytical techniques * Biophysical applications * Life science applications including various microscopies Aimed at analytical, surface and medicinal chemists, spectroscopists, biophysicists and materials scientists. Includes a Foreword by the renowned Raman spectroscopist Professor Wolfgang Kiefer, the former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.

  2. Letter to the parliament:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This piece was a letter directed towards various ministers in the parliament, targeted at raising a discussion on the values in the education of architects in Denmark and various related topics.......This piece was a letter directed towards various ministers in the parliament, targeted at raising a discussion on the values in the education of architects in Denmark and various related topics....

  3. 7th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains review articles which were written by the invited speak­ ers of the seventh International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS), held at the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee in July 1985. The form of ISISS is a set of tutorial review lectures presented over a one-week period by internationally recognized experts on various aspects of surface science. Each speaker is asked, in addition, to write a review article on his lecture topic. No single volume in the series Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the entire field of modern surface science. However, the series as a whole is intended to provide experts and students alike with a comprehensive set of reviews and literature references, particularly empha­ sizing the gas-solid interface. The collected articles from previous Summer Institutes have been published under the following titles: Surface Science: Recent Progress and Perspectives, Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 4, 125-559 (1974) Chemistry and Physics of ...

  4. Surface science of single-site heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong H.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the surface science of the heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts. The specific focus is on how to prepare and characterize stereochemically specific heterogeneous model catalysts for the Ziegler–Natta polymerization. Under clean, ultra-high vacuum conditions, low-energy electron irradiation during the chemical vapor deposition of model Ziegler–Natta catalysts can be used to create a “single-site” catalyst film with a surface structure that produces only isotactic ...

  5. Surface science station of the infrared beamline at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, M.; Moriwaki, T.; Kimura, H.; Nishida, S.; Nanba, T.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental station for surface science has been constructed at the infrared beamline (BL43IR) of SPring-8, Japan. The station utilizes synchrotron radiation in the energy range of 100-20000 cm -1 to perform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of surfaces. It consists of an experimental section, a preparation chamber, gas handling equipment and a pair of focusing optics. In situ observation of vibrational spectra is possible using both IRAS and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

  6. The development of surface science in China: Retrospect and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xide (Fudan University, Shanghai (China))

    1994-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the year of 1977 marked the birth of surface science in China, therefore the length of its history of development is only half of that shown in the title of this volume. Since 1977 laboratories with modern facilities for surface studies have been established in various universities and research institutes. Three open laboratories better equipped than others have been set up in Beijing, Xiamen and Shanghai for surface physics, surface chemistry and applied surface physics, respectively. Five National Conferences on Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces were held in 1982, 1984, 1985, 1988 and 1991. In 1993 China is going to host the Fourth International Conference on the Structure of Surfaces in Shanghai August 16-19 which will serve as a milestone in the history of development of surface science in China. With the access to many overseas laboratories, quite a number of Chinese scientists and students have had opportunities to work and study abroad and have brought back with them experiences acquired. During the Conferences just mentioned, one could witness a number of steady progresses made over the years. In the present review, a brief description about the establishment of some major research facilities and progresses of some of the research is given with emphasis on work related to semiconductor surfaces, interfaces, superlattices, heterojunctions and quantum wells. Although the review nominally covers the development of research in surface science in China, due to the limitation of the capabilities of the author, mostly work done at Fudan University is included. For this the author would like to express her deep apology to many Chinese colleagues whose works have not been properly mentioned

  7. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH 3 synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures

  8. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH/sub 3/ synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures. (DLC)

  9. A molecular surface science study of the structure of adsorbates on surfaces: Importance to lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mate, C.M.

    1986-09-01

    The interaction and bonding of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces is explored under ultra-high vacuum conditions using a variety of surface science techniques: high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), work function measurements, and second harmonic generation (SHG). 164 refs., 51 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Letter to Carl Niigeli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We reproduce an english translation of one of these letters below, in which ... contemporary scientific knowledge, and that under the circumstances ... generation it became necessary to limit the numbers because of lack of space, so that, in.

  11. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  12. Agnes Pockels: Life, Letters and Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Christiane A.

    2004-03-01

    Agnes Pockels (1862 - 1935) was a German woman, whose studies pioneered surface science. She was born in malaria infected North Italy while her father served in the Austrian army. Because he suffered adverse health effects, the family moved in1871 to Braunschweig (North Germany). There, Pockels went to high school. She was interested in science, but formal training was not available for girls. She took on the role of household manager and nurse as her parents' health deteriorated further. Her diary illustrates the difficulties she faced in trying to maintain her own health, the health of her parents and her scientific research at the same time. When Pockels was 18 or 19, she designed a ring tensiometer. Additionally, she found a new method to introduce water-insoluble compounds to the water surface by dissolving them in an organic solvent, and applying drops of the solution. Her surface film balance technique from 1882 is the basis for the method later developed by Langmuir. Since her experimental work was highly original and in a new field, she failed to get it recognized in her own country. When she was 28, she wrote to Lord Rayleigh, since she had read about his recent experiments in surface physics. Rayleigh was so impressed with her experimental methods and results that he had her letter translated from German and published it in Nature (1891). She continued her research on surface films, interactions of solutions and contact angles (more papers, 3 in Nature). Still, she did all experiments at home. With the death of her brother in 1913 and the onset of the war, she retired into private life. Thus she was surprised when she was awarded in her late 60ies with a honorary doctorate by the TU Braunschweig (1932) and the annual prize of the German Colloid Society (1931).

  13. 8th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains review articles written by the invited speakers at the eighth International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS 1987), held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in August of 1987. During the course of ISISS, invited speakers, all internationally recognized experts in the various fields of surface science, present tutorial review lectures. In addition, these experts are asked to write review articles on their lecture topic. Former ISISS speakers serve as advisors concerning the selection of speakers and lecture topics. Em­ phasis is given to those areas which have not been covered in depth by recent Summer Institutes, as well as to areas which have recently gained in significance and in which important progress has been made. Because of space limitations, no individual volume of Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the whole area of modem surface science, or even give a complete survey of recent pro­ gress in the field. However, an attempt is made to pres...

  14. Revolution in Field Science: Apollo Approach to Inaccessible Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.

    2010-07-01

    The extraordinary challenge mission designers, scientists, and engineers, faced in planning the first human expeditions to the surface of another solar system body led to the development of a distinctive and even revolutionary approach to field work. Not only were those involved required to deal effectively with the extreme limitation in resources available for and access to a target as remote as the lunar surface; they were required to developed a rigorous approach to science activities ranging from geological field work to deploying field instruments. Principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work are discussed here, including the highly integrated, intensive, and lengthy science planning, simulation, and astronaut training; the development of a systematic scheme for description and documentation of geological sites and samples; and a flexible yet disciplined methodology for site documentation and sample collection. The capability for constant communication with a ‘backroom’ of geological experts who make requests and weigh in on surface operations was innovative and very useful in encouraging rapid dissemination of information to the greater community in general. An extensive archive of the Apollo era science activity related documents provides evidence of the principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work. The Apollo Surface Journal allows analysis of the astronaut’s performance in terms of capability for traveling on foot, documentation and sampling of field stations, and manual operation of tools and instruments, all as a function of time. The application of these analysis as ‘lessons learned’ for planning the next generation of human or robotic field science activities on the Moon and elsewhere are considered here as well.

  15. Letter Names, Letter Sounds and Phonological Awareness: An Examination of Kindergarten Children across Letters and of Letters across Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Bell, Michelle; Shaw, Deborah; Moretti, Shelley; Page, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and…

  16. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public and allied health sciences. Furthermore the DMSJ endeavours to disseminate research findings mainly of medical ...

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  18. Surface science in hernioplasty: The role of plasma treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Magnacca, Giuliana; Martorana, Selanna

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this review is to clarify the importance of surface modifications induced in biomaterials for hernia-repair application. Starting from the pioneering experiences involving proto-materials as ancient prosthesis, a historical excursus between the biomaterials used in hernioplasty was realized. Subsequently, after the revolutionary discovery of stereoregular polymerization followed by the PP application in the biomedical field performed by the surgeon F. Usher, a comparative study on different hernia-repair meshes available was realized in order to better understand all the outstanding problems and possible future developments. Furthermore, since many unsolved problems on prosthetic devices implantation are linked to phenomena occurring at the interface between the biomaterials surface and the body fluids, the importance of surface science in hernioplasty was highlighted and case studies of new surface-modified generations of prosthesis presented. The results discussed in the following evidence how the surface study are becoming increasingly important for a proper knowledge of issues related to the interaction between the living matter and the artificial prostheses.

  19. Reducing Motional Decoherence in Ion Traps with Surface Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Many trapped ions experiments ask for low motional heating rates while trapping the ions close to trapping electrodes. However, in practice small ion-electrode distances lead to unexpected high heating rates. While the mechanisms for the heating is still unclear, it is now evident that surface contamination of the metallic electrodes is at least partially responsible for the elevated heating rates. I will discuss heating rate measurements in a microfabricated surface trap complemented with basic surface science studies. We monitor the elemental surface composition of the Cu-Al alloy trap with an Auger spectrometer. After bake-out, we find a strong Carbon and Oxygen contamination and heating rates of 200 quanta/s at 1 MHz trap frequency. After removing most of the Carbon and Oxygen with Ar-Ion sputtering, the heating rates drop to 4 quanta/s. Interestingly, we still measure the decreased heating rate even after the surface oxidized from the background gas throughout a 40-day waiting time in UHV.

  20. Letters From Peplau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Ann R

    2018-03-01

    Dr. Hildegard Peplau, considered to be our first modern Nurse theorist and the Mother of Psychiatric Nursing, was a prolific writer, engaging in correspondence with colleagues and students who sought her professional and theoretical expertise. Through these letters, she influenced psychiatric nursing while maintaining a broad international network of professional colleagues. An analysis of letters, written between 1990 and 1998, provides insights into Peplau's last decade of professional life and a model of how to support the next generation of nurse scholars. Using content analysis, 24 letters received between 1990 and 1998 were read, reread, and coded. Recurring themes were identified. Three themes were identified. These include Peplau, the Person: Living a Life of Professional Balance; Lighting a Spark: Investing in the Next Generation; and Work in the Vineyards of Nursing: Maintaining a Life of Scholarship. The letters depict Peplau's keen intellect, her wide professional network, her leisure time spent with family and friends, and her own work to assure that her theoretical legacy continued. Peplau's insights continue to be relevant as psychiatric mental health nursing leaders engage in activities to support the next generation of scholars and leaders.

  1. Letters in this Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  2. What can Numerical Computation do for the History of Science? (Study of an Orbit Drawn by Newton on a Letter to Hooke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchi, Teresa; Cardozo Dias, P.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): On a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. How he drew the orbit may indicate how and when he developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove geometrically: Hooke’s method is a second order symplectic area preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done exploring geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first order method. A fourth order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.

  3. What can numerical computation do for the history of science? (a study of an orbit drawn by Newton in a letter to Hooke)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Penha Maria Cardozo; Stuchi, T J

    2013-01-01

    In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing. (paper)

  4. What can numerical computation do for the history of science? (a study of an orbit drawn by Newton in a letter to Hooke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo Dias, Penha Maria; Stuchi, T. J.

    2013-11-01

    In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.

  5. Letters of Map Change (LOMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Documents, including different types of Letters of MAP Revision (LOMR) and Letters of Map Amendment (LOMA), which are issued by FEMA to revise or amend the flood...

  6. Surface and catalysis science in the Materials and Molecular Research Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Surface science studies at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are detailed. Subject areas include: structure of surfaces and adsorbed monolayers; reduction and oxidation of surfaces; catalytic chemistry; and structure of interfaces and thin films

  7. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate letters on data on elastic (p,n) charge exchange: compilation, the potentialities of δ-electron control of luminosity in experiments with internal targets at the Nuclotron, pion broadening and low-mass dilepton production, fluctuation of electromagnetic cascade axis in dense amorphous segmented media, the forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Tracking system and its use in data analysis, quantum field theory with three-dimensional vector time, curvature decomposition and the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations, an integral equation for the spinor amplitude of a massive neutral Dirac particle in a curved space time with arbitrary geometry and surprising resonances in 147 Sm(nα) 144 Nd reaction

  8. Particles and Nuclei, Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the ν e → ν e neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129 I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks

  9. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate letters on nonlocal chiral quark model with confinement, perturbation of finite-lattice spectral levels by nearby nuclear resonances, on the application of 'Z 0 + jet' events for determining the gluon distribution in a proton at the LHC, account of light velocity constancy in the Galilean problem on the free movement of a particle and its fall onto the ground, first results of crystal deflector investigations at the Nuclotron external beams, decay parameters of K mesons, measured at proton synchrotron U-70 using 'Hyperon' set-up and modern world data, prototype of atomic-emission spectrometer on the basis of one-electrode impulse RF discharge for analytical measurements, polarimeter for Nuclotron internal beam and primordial bubbles of colour superconducting quark matter

  10. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains thirteen separate letters on start-to-end simulations of SASE FEL at the TESLA test facility, possible ways of improvement of the FEM oscillator with a Bragg resonator, the status and perspectives of the electron cooling method development, crystalline ion beams in storage rings, latest results of modeling of LHC beam injection, charge exchange injection in a synchrotron equipped with an electron cooling system, fringe and hysteresis effects in electron guns, nonstationary regimes of electron flow formation in secondary emission inverse coaxial diodes, a proposal of the experiment testing of the fine structure of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, computer simulation of the electron beam dynamics at the accelerator structure and the injector of S-band linac with energies of 3 and 10 MeV, calculation of the electron beam dynamics of the accelerator LUE-200, the accelerator-accumulation facility ITEP-TWAC and accelerators-drivers of electronuclear facilities

  11. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  12. Surface science models of CoMoS hydrodesulfurisation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, A.M.; De Beer, V.H.J.; Van Veen, J.A.R.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W. [Schuit Institute of Catalysis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    Characterization of supported catalysts with surface spectroscopic techniques is often limited due to restraints imposed by the support material. The use of flat conducting substrates as a model support offers a way to apply these techniques to their full potential. Such surface science models of silica and alumina supported CoMoS catalysts have been made by impregnating thin SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with a solution of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes of cobalt and molybdenum. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra indicate that the order in which cobalt and molybdenum transfer to the sulfided state is reversed with respect to oxidic Co and Mo systems prepared by conventional methods, implying that NTA complexation retards the sulfidation of cobalt to temperatures where MoS{sub 2} is already formed. Catalytic tests show that the CoMoS model catalysts exhibit activities for thiophene desulfurisation and product distributions similar to those of their high surface area counterparts. 25 refs.

  13. Translating Biotechnology to Knowledge-Based Innovation, Peace, and Development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps—An Open Letter to World Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Alaa H.; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O.; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S.; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Karaömerlioğlu, M. Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Şardaş, Semra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of “one health”—encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health—thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21st century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21st century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed

  14. Translating biotechnology to knowledge-based innovation, peace, and development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps--an open letter to world leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekim, Nezih; Coşkun, Yavuz; Sınav, Ahmet; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Karaömerlioğlu, M Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Sardaş, Şemra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit; Özdemir, Vural

    2014-07-01

    Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of "one health"--encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health--thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21(st) century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21(st) century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed, "nearly

  15. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  16. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    -support bonding and structure, which identify the supports as ligands with electron-donor properties that influence reactivity and catalysis. Each of the catalyst design variables has been varied independently, illustrated by mononuclear and tetranuclear iridium on zeolite HY and on MgO and by isostructural rhodium and iridium (diethylene or dicarbonyl) complexes on these supports. The data provide examples resolving the roles of the catalyst design variables and place the catalysis science on a firm foundation of organometallic chemistry linked with surface science. Supported molecular catalysts offer the advantages of characterization in the absence of solvents and with surface-science methods that do not require ultrahigh vacuum. Families of supported metal complexes have been made by replacement of ligands with others from the gas phase. Spectroscopically identified catalytic reaction intermediates help to elucidate catalyst performance and guide design. The methods are illustrated for supported complexes and clusters of rhodium, iridium, osmium, and gold used to catalyze reactions of small molecules that facilitate identification of the ligands present during catalysis: alkene dimerization and hydrogenation, H-D exchange in the reaction of H2 with D2, and CO oxidation. The approach is illustrated with the discovery of a highly active and selective MgO-supported rhodium carbonyl dimer catalyst for hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to give butenes.

  17. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the interaction of high energy Λ 6 He hypernuclear beams with atomic nuclei, the position-sensitive detector of a high spatial resolution on the basis of a multiwire gas electron multiplier, pseudorapidity hadron density at the LHC energy, high precision laser control of the ATLAS tile-calorimeter module mass production at JINR, a new approach to ECG's features recognition involving neural network, subcriticity of a uranium target enriched in 235 U, beam space charge effects in high-current cyclotron injector CI-5, a homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

  18. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei, dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion, VACTIV-DELPHI graphical dialog based program for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra, irradiation of nuclear emulsions in relativistic beams of 6 He and 3 H nuclei, optical and structural investigations of PLZT x/65/35 (x = 4, 8 %) ferroelectric ceramics irradiated by a high-current pulsed electron beam, the oscillating charge and first evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay

  19. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on physics from extra dimensions, new physics in the new millennium with GENIUS: double beta decay, dark matter, solar neutrinos, the (μ - , e + ) conversion in nuclei mediated by light Majorana neutrinos, exotic muon-to-positron conversion in nuclei: partial transition sum evaluation by using shell model, solar neutrino problem accounting for self consistent magnetohydrodynamics solution for solar magnetic fields, first neutrino observations from the Sudbury neutrino observatory and status report on BOREXINO and results of the muon-background measurements at CERN

  20. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  1. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  2. Hydrogenation of nitriles on a well-characterized nickel surface: From surface science studies to liquid phase catalytic activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardin, Denis Emmanuel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Nitrile hydrogenation is the most commonly used method for preparing diverse amines. This thesis is aimed at the mechanism and factors affecting the performance of Ni-based catalysts in nitrile hydrogenations. Surface science techniques are used to study bonding of nitriles and amines to a Ni(111) surface and to identify surface intermediates. Liquid-phase hydrogenations of cyclohexene and 1-hexene on a Pt foil were carried out successfully. Finally, knowledge about the surface structure, surface chemical bond, dynamics of surface atoms (diffusion, growth), and reactivity of metal surfaces from solid-gas interface studies, is discussed.

  3. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  4. Sea Surface Height, Absolute, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Absolute Sea Surface Height is the Sea Surface Height Deviation plus the long term mean dynamic height. This is Science Quality data.

  5. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on the new results on simulation of the nuclotron beam extraction with a bent crystal, the Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field, the e/h ratio of the electromagnetic calorimeter, a new approach to develop hadronic event generators in HEP, an algebraic description of multilayer systems with resonances, a high-voltage module for photomultipliers, an estimation of the spin-flip contribution to the np→pn process from the charge exchange reaction on the deuteron, a measurement of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→ 3 Hp reactions at RIKEN as well as on calibration of SPES4-π set-up in experiments on SATURNE-II

  6. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on the monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth, solar neutrino results from SAGE, the present and future oscillation experiments at reactors, as well as on the possibilities to test the LSND parameters at reactors, the energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and searches for new physics (recent developments), angular distribution of radiative gamma quanta in radiative beta decay of neutrons, an 37 Ar based neutrino source for calibration of the iodine solar neutrino detector, detector LENS as a new tool for solar neutrino spectroscopy, limits on different Majoron decay modes of 100 Mo, 116 Cd, 82 Se, and 96 Zr for neutrinoless double beta decays in the NEMO-2 experiment as well as on the search for 76 Ge and 150 Nd double beta decay to excited states

  7. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on Wien filter using in exploring on low-energy radioactive nuclei, memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision, topological charge and topological susceptibility in connection with translation and gauge invariance, solutions of the multitime Dirac equation, the maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description, the charged conductor inside dielectric. Solution of boundary condition by means of auxiliary charges and the method of linear algebraic equations, optical constants of the TGS single crystal irradiated by power pulsed electron beam, interatomic pair potential and n-e amplitude from slow neutron scattering by noble gases, the two-coordinate multiwire proportional chamber of the high spatial resolution and neutron drip line in the region of O-Mg isotopes

  8. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on the integral representation for structure functions and target mass effects, multiscale properties of DNA primary structure including cross-scale correlations, dissipative evolution of the elementary act, the fine structure of the M T =1 Gamow-Teller resonance in 147g Tb→ 147 Gd β + /EC decay, the behaviour of the TVO temperature sensors in the magnetic fields, a fast method for searching for tracks in multilayer drift chambers of HADES spectrometer, a novel approach to particle track etching including surfactant enhanced control of pore morphology, azimuthal correlations of secondary particles in 32 S induced interactions with Ag(Br) nuclei at 4.5 GeV/ c/ nucleon

  9. 3S'83 Symposium on surface science. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Betz, G.; Husinsky, W.; Soellner, E.; Stoeri, H.; Varga, P.

    1983-01-01

    This symposium included the topics: electronic structure; ion-surface-interaction; surface structure; adsorption and reactivity; surface analysis; 60 papers were presented, only part of which pertain to INIS. (G.Q.)

  10. Letter from the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Vargas Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    Humbly, from the Earth Sciences Research Journal, we want to adhere the same message: “It’s not magic, it’s science!” We present to you this new volume, is not so so much, but we hope every little bit helps.

  11. Letter-Sound Knowledge: Exploring Gender Differences in Children When They Start School Regarding Knowledge of Large Letters, Small Letters, Sound Large Letters, and Sound Small Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermundur Sigmundsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether there is a gender difference in letter-sound knowledge when children start at school. 485 children aged 5–6 years completed assessment of letter-sound knowledge, i.e., large letters; sound of large letters; small letters; sound of small letters. The findings indicate a significant difference between girls and boys in all four factors tested in this study in favor of the girls. There are still no clear explanations to the basis of a presumed gender difference in letter-sound knowledge. That the findings have origin in neuro-biological factors cannot be excluded, however, the fact that girls probably have been exposed to more language experience/stimulation compared to boys, lends support to explanations derived from environmental aspects.

  12. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  13. 52nd colloid and surface science symposium. Proceedings volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Corbett, H.G.

    1978-05-01

    Abstracts are presented under the headings: cell/surface interactions, surface properties and reactions of catalysts, solution chemistry of surfactants, dynamic systems, microorganism/surface interactions, gas-solid interactions, biological surfaces, solid sorbents, lung surfactant and intestinal absorption, pigments, and liquid systems. (DLC)

  14. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Surface passivation of (100) InP by organic thiols and polyimide as characterized by steady-state photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartzman, M.; Sidorov, V.; Ritter, D.; Paz, Y.

    2001-10-01

    A method for the passivation of indium phosphide, based on thiolated organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) that form highly ordered, close-packed structures on the semiconductor surface, is presented. It is shown that the intensity of steady-state photoluminescence (PL) of n-type InP wafers covered with the thiolated SAMs increases significantly (as much as 14-fold) upon their covering with the monolayers. The ease with which one can tailor the outer functional groups of the SAMs provides a way to connect this new class of passivators with standard encapsulators, such as polyimide. Indeed, the PL intensity of SAM-coated InP wafers was not altered upon their overcoating with polyimide, despite the high curing temperature of the polymer (200 °C).

  15. A Letter to Ahmad Khan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Mirgaleev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We bring to attention of specialists an undated letter of Ottoman ruler Mehmed II Fatih to the Great Horde khan Ahmad from the collection of famous collector of Ottoman charters Feridun-bey [1, S. 289]. The addressee is the famous ruler of the Great Horde, khan Ahmad. Daulat Khan mentioned in the letter is Nur-Davlet. He was connected with khan Ahmad, and, as indicated by the letter, he had also set in close contact with the Ottomans whose ruler openly declares in a letter that “our sight of benevolence and patronage is directed toward him”. Thereby the Sultan made it clear to the “principal” Tatar khan Akhmad that Nur-Davlet was under the patronage of the Ottoman Empire. Considering the period of activity of Nur-Davlet in Crimea, presumably the letter was written in 1477. Famous researcher of the Crimean Khanate V.D. Smirnov had already examined the letter and the question of why Ahmad Khan was named the Crimean khan in the title of the letter [2, p. 221–222].

  16. Role of surface studies in science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkhanavala, M D [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.

    1977-01-01

    Reactivity of solids is influenced by the surface properties such as structure, dislocations and composition. Corrosion and erosion are essentially surface phenomena. Surface studies, therefore, assume importance in prevention and minimization of corrosion and erosion. Discussion is illustrated with examples drawn from the field of nuclear power reactor technology.

  17. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  18. The Complaint Letter and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which students write a letter of complaint, and discusses how this assignment aids students in seeing the importance of effective written communication to their daily lives. (SR)

  19. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  20. Scientific Letter: Monosymptomatic Hypochondriacal Psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Monosymptomatic Hypochondriacal Psychosis (somatic delusional disorder): A report of two cases. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  1. Letter to the Editor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. July-Sep 2013 ... onion is highly beneficial for women to prevent ovarian cancer where white onions are not effective for ... of agent that acts at specific molecular targets with respect to cancer ...

  2. Letter from the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. Prieto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Letter from the editor Our first issue of 2018 is available now. We have 9 articles in this issue, in topics ranging from soil characterization, petrophysical properties of rocks, signal processing of images and GNSS station to asteroid impact effects. Mechanical soil properties in sandy-pebble soil are studied as a function of grain size content in Lu et al. Satellite-derived soil moisture estimation is discussed in Thanabalan and Vidhya, based on a semi-empirical approach and backscattering images. Macroscopic mechanical characteristics of rocks depend on a number of factors, including microstructure damage. Under changing temperature conditions (freeze-thaw rock samples studied by Jiang show significant strength decrease, which has important consequences in engineering. Advanced signal processing methods are used in Zeng et al. for image retrieval applied to remote sensing data, using a Bayesian network approach. Similarly, Oktar and Erdogan use linear trend and wavelet analysis to continuous GNSS data showing both displacements due to tectonic as well as atmospheric and hydrologic effects. Debris flows can in some cases become serious hazards because they can block river flow as a debris flow dam. Chen et al. propose a method to identify the formation of such dams, with an example from the Er river in Taiwan. Mamaseni et al. study the petrophysical properties of three formations in the Duhok Basin, northern Iran, based on well-log data. Results suggest a significant thickness with good moveable hydrocarbons in the study area. Methane adsorption and gas content are strongly influenced by shale composition. Zhu et al. show that Total Organic Content has a stronger influence on methane adsorption and gas content than the mineral composition, studying samples from the southern Sichuan Basin. Our last contribution in this issue discussed a large asteroid impact in eastern Colombia. The impact would have affected the environment and landscape, but

  3. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  4. Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.

  5. Letter from the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Vargas J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Times of change wind this year for Earth Sciences Research Journal. The hard work of the last years have resulted in a significant advance for this journal, and now we want to announce our four volumes to be published since 2016 every year. The objective of being a top-quality journal is in the North of our compass, and it will be inspiring the daily work of the people making this publication possible. Several conferences have called our journal for special issues, and we expect to fit into their requests to keep providing the users with novel contents in the earth sciences field. In this open-access issuing, there is room for all scientific papers looking for a worldwide site to publish. But not only in Earth Sciences Research Journal challenge winds are moving the kite. The petroleum market in the world is facing one of the most critical times of the history, playing on an unexpected stage where no many actors were ready for. Management of resources are in the spotlight of the political world; energy and water, as well as the environment, turned into subjects of the first line. Fracking has resulted in thousands of discussions inside and outside of the academic world. We want to encourage everyone involved in the scientific research on earth sciences to submit us their papers. Nowadays, we substantially revised every one of the works sent and pay strict attention to the review processes, reducing periods and improving experiences of authors in the editorial world. We intend to collaborate with other professional organizations interested in geology scientific communication. Find in the ESRJ a friendly hand to work with. For the volume 20, number 1, we are presenting 18 selected papers in different areas of study; original contents we hope will be of your complete usability. Comments, claims, and suggestions are always welcomed in Earth Sciences Research Journal through the mail account earthjour_fcbog@unal.edu.co. Thanks for reading and

  6. Proportional Reasoning Ability and Concepts of Scale: Surface Area to Volume Relationships in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy; Jones, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The "National Science Education Standards" emphasise teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale. Scale influences science processes and phenomena across the domains. One of the big ideas of scale is that of surface area to volume. This study explored whether or not there…

  7. The letter knowledge assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cassandra; Lousada, Marisa; Pereira, Rita; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-10-10

    There is a need to develop letter knowledge assessment tools to characterise the letter knowledge in Portuguese pre-schoolers and to compare it with pre-schoolers from other countries, but there are no tools for this purpose in Portugal. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation procedures of the Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia (PACPL), which assesses letter knowledge. This study includes data that has been gathered in two phases: pilot and main study. In the pilot study, an expert panel of six speech and language pathologists analysed the instrument. Children (n = 216) aged 5;0-7;11 participated in the main study that reports data related to the psychometric characteristics of the PACPL. Content validity, internal consistency, reliability and contributing factors to performance were examined statistically. A modified Bland-Altman method revealed good agreement amongst evaluators. The main study showed that the PACPL has a very good internal consistency and high inter-rater (96.2% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.92) and intra-rater (95.6% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.91) agreement. Construct validity of the PCAPL was also assured (Cronbach's α of 0.982). Significant differences were found between age groups with children increasing their letter knowledge with age. In addition, they were better at identifying than at producing both letter names and letter sounds. The PACPL is a valid and reliable instrument to assess letter knowledge in Portuguese children.

  8. Mineral Surface Reactivity in teaching of Science Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In the last fifty years, science materials issues has required the study of air pollution, water and soil to prevent and remedy the adverse effects of waste originating from anthropogenic activity and the development of new energies and new materials. The teaching of this discipline has been marked by lectures on general lines, materials, disciplines, who explained biased objects of reality, but often forgot the task of reconstruction and integration of such visions. Moving from that model, otherwise quite static, to a dynamic relational model, would in our view, a real revolution in education. This means taking a systematic approach to complex both in interpreting reality and in favor when learning. Children relationships are as important or more than single objects, and it is to discover fundamental organizational principles of phenomena we seek to interpret or in other words, find the pattern that connects. Thus, we must work on relationships and also take into account the relation between the observer and the observed. Educate about relationships means that studies should always be considered within a framework of probabilities, not absolute certainties. This model of systemic thinking, dealing with complexity, is a possibility to bring coherence to our educational work, because the complexity is not taught, complexity is live, so that complex thinking is extended (and fed) in a form educate complex. It is the task of teaching to help people move from level to level of decision reviews. This means that systems thinking should be extended in a local action, action that engages the individual and the environment. Science Materials has emerged as a discipline of free choice for pupils attending chemical engineering which has been assigned 6.0 credits. The chemical engineer's professional profile within the current framework is defined as a professional knowledge as a specialization technical / functional, working in a learning organization and the formation of

  9. Density functional theory in surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Scheffler, M.; Toulhoat, H.

    2006-01-01

    Solid surfaces are used extensively as catalysts throughout the chemical industry, in the energy sector, and in environmental protection. Recently, density functional theory has started providing new insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of heterogeneous catalysis, helping to interpret the large...

  10. Surface science studies of ethene containing model interstellar ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puletti, F.; Whelan, M.; Brown, W. A.

    2011-05-01

    The formation of saturated hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium (ISM) is difficult to explain only by taking into account gas phase reactions. This is mostly due to the fact that carbonium ions only react with H_2 to make unsaturated hydrocarbons, and hence no viable route to saturated hydrocarbons has been postulated to date. It is therefore likely that saturation processes occur via surface reactions that take place on interstellar dust grains. One of the species of interest in this family of reactions is C_2H_4 (ethene) which is an intermediate in several molecular formation routes (e.g. C_2H_2 → C_2H_6). To help to understand some of the surface processes involving ethene, a study of ethene deposited on a dust grain analogue surface (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) held under ultra-high vacuum at 20 K has been performed. The adsorption and desorption of ethene has been studied both in water-free and water-dominated model interstellar ices. A combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) have been used to identify the adsorbed and trapped species and to determine the kinetics of the desorption processes. In all cases, ethene is found to physisorb on the carbonaceous surface. As expected water has a very strong influence on the desorption of ethene, as previously observed for other model interstellar ice systems.

  11. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  12. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 2, March-April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Money and Motivation: New Initiatives Rekindle Debate over the Link between Rewards and Student Achievement (David McKay Wilson); (2) An Inexact Science: What Are the Technical…

  13. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 4, July-August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Learning Progressions in Science: A New Approach Emphasizes Sustained Instruction in Big Ideas (Patti Hartigan); (2) Putting the "Boy Crisis" in…

  14. Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    As of 2007, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes has reached its all-time high regarding the ISI journal impact factor, with an impressive increase of 60% compared to 2005. We now rank at 1,461, as shown in the statistics below. This is solely due to the increased quality of the published articles: In 2006, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes published 208 research papers and received 1,033 citations -- five citations per paper on average. In 2007, we have published 177 research papers with roughly the same number of citations. In co-operation with Wiley InterScience we have achieved an average online publication time of just 4.5 months. We hope that the year 2008 will be comparably prosperous. As in the past, publication in Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes continues to be free of charge. Also, all articles of the first issue of each volume can be downloaded free of charge, as can all articles labelled ``Editor's Choice'', which are additionally featured with a color image on the front cover.

  15. Modelling episodic acidification of surface waters: the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, K N; Wigington, P J; Davies, T D; Tranter, M

    1992-01-01

    Field studies of chemical changes in surface waters associated with rainfall and snowmelt events have provided evidence of episodic acidification of lakes and streams in Europe and North America. Modelling these chemical changes is particularly challenging because of the variability associated with hydrological transport and chemical transformation processes in catchments. This paper provides a review of mathematical models that have been applied to the problem of episodic acidification. Several empirical approaches, including regression models, mixing models and time series models, support a strong hydrological interpretation of episodic acidification. Regional application of several models has suggested that acidic episodes (in which the acid neutralizing capacity becomes negative) are relatively common in surface waters in several regions of the US that receive acid deposition. Results from physically based models have suggested a lack of understanding of hydrological flowpaths, hydraulic residence times and biogeochemical reactions, particularly those involving aluminum. The ability to better predict episodic chemical responses of surface waters is thus dependent upon elucidation of these and other physical and chemical processes.

  16. Surface science. Adhesion and friction in mesoscopic graphite contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Elad; Lörtscher, Emanuel; Rawlings, Colin; Knoll, Armin W; Duerig, Urs

    2015-05-08

    The weak interlayer binding in two-dimensional layered materials such as graphite gives rise to poorly understood low-friction characteristics. Accurate measurements of the adhesion forces governing the overall mechanical stability have also remained elusive. We report on the direct mechanical measurement of line tension and friction forces acting in sheared mesoscale graphite structures. We show that the friction is fundamentally stochastic in nature and is attributable to the interaction between the incommensurate interface lattices. We also measured an adhesion energy of 0.227 ± 0.005 joules per square meter, in excellent agreement with theoretical models. In addition, bistable all-mechanical memory cell structures and rotational bearings have been realized by exploiting position locking, which is provided solely by the adhesion energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Letters from a Nightingale nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, E

    1996-01-01

    Mary Cadbury was one of six daughters in a wealthy Birmingham family, all of whom took up professional or unpaid philanthropic work. In 1873 Mary began nurse training at the Nightingale School, St Thomas's Hospital, and regularly sent letters to family and friends, which provide a graphic account of the experience of a nurse in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

  18. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  19. Credit Card Debt Hardship Letter Samples

    OpenAIRE

    lissa coffey

    2016-01-01

    Having trouble with your credit card debt? Below you will find examples of hardship letters. There are several things to consider when writing a credit card hardship letter. A hardship letter is the first step to letting the credit card company know that things are bad. This free credit card hardship letter sample is only a guide in order to start the negotiation. Credit card debt hardship letter example, hardship letter to credit card. If you are having trouble paying off your debt and need ...

  20. Intense positron beam and its application to surface science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Hirose, M.; Kanazawa, I.; Sueoka, O.; Takamura, S.; Okada, S.

    1992-01-01

    Intense pulsed slow positron beam has been produced using the 100 MeV electron LINAC of JAERI · Tokai. In order to use the beam for surface studies such as positron diffraction and positron microscopy, it was transferred from the solenoid magnetic field to field free region and then was brightness-enhanced. The beam size was reduced from 10 mmφ (in the magnetic field) to 0.5 mmφ after two stages of re-moderation. Using the intense brightness-enhanced positron beam we have observed for the first time RHEPD (Reflection High-Energy Positron Diffraction) patterns. A design of re-emission positron microscopy is also described. (author)

  1. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  2. Surface science study of selective ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by the Ag(110) surface: Structural sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide (C 2 H 4 +1/2O 2 →C 2 H 4 O) over Ag is the simplest example of kinetically controlled, selective heterogeneous catalysis. We have studied the steady-state kinetics and selectivity of this reaction for the first time on a clean, well-characterized Ag(110) surface by using a special apparatus which allows rapid (approx.20 s) transfer between a high-pressure catalytic microreactor and an ultrahigh vacuum surface analysis (AES, XPS, LEED, TDS) chamber. The effects of temperature and reactant pressures upon the rate and selectivity are virtually identical on Ag(110) and supported, high surface area Ag catalysts. The absolute specific rate (per Ag surface atom) is, however, some 100-fold higher for Ag(110) than for high surface area catalysts. This is related to the well-known structural sensitivity of this reaction. It is postulated that a small percentage of (110) planes (or [110]-like sites) are responsible for most of the catalytic activity of high surface area catalysts. The high activity of the (110) plane is attributed to its high sticking probability for dissociative oxygen adsorption, since the rate of ethylene epoxidation is shown in a related work [Ref. 1: C. T. Campbell and M. T. Paffett, Surf. Sci. (in press)] to be proportional to the coverage of atomically adsorbed oxygen at constant temperature and ethylene pressure

  3. 48 CFR 42.504 - Postaward letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Postaward Orientation 42.504 Postaward letters. In some circumstances, a letter or other written form of communication to the contractor may be adequate postaward...

  4. Maker of patterns an autobiography through letters

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman

    2018-01-01

    While recognizing that quantum mechanics demands serious attention, Albert Einstein in 1926 admonished fellow physicist Max Born that the theory does not bring us closer to the secrets of the Old One. Aware that there are deep mysteries that Nature intends to keep for herself, Freeman Dyson, the 94-year-old theoretical physicist, has nonetheless chronicled the stories of those who were engaged in solving some of the most challenging quandaries of twentieth-century physics. Written between 1940and the early 1980s, these letters to relatives form an historic account of modern science and its greatest players, including J.Robert Oppenheimer, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking,and Hans Bethe. Whether reflecting on the horrors of World War II, the moral dilemmas of nuclear development, the challenges of the space program, or the considerable demands of raising six children, Dyson offers a firsthand account of one of the greatest periods of scientific discovery of our modern age.

  5. Open letter to the Vatican.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An open letter was published by Latin American and Caribbean women during the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the International Conference on Population and Development. The letter generally focused on the Church¿s stand on women's reproductive rights. In particular, it questioned the Church on the following aspects of reproductive health, which include: 1) maternal death related to lack of access to reproductive health care; 2) Vatican representatives insisting that only parents can supervise their children education and health, which also lead to many cases of sexual abuse and incest; 3) women's sexual inequality and daily violence; 4) the Vatican delegation blocking the advances of contraception, sexual education, and HIV prevention; 5) problems of migrants and allocation of resources; and 6) the Church failing to recognize the capacity of young people to make decisions based on their own conscience.

  6. Written Communications Simulation: Write Me a Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This simulation is intended for use as a culminating activity after students have been exposed to personal and/or business letter writing, use of reference manuals, typing of letters, mailing procedures, typing of numbers, punctuation practice, and filing procedures. Stated objectives are to enable students to type a mailable letter; to inspect,…

  7. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  9. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  10. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  11. EDITORIAL: Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    Three decades ago, with a tiny tip of platinum, the scientific world saw the real space imaging of single atoms with unprecedented spatial resolution. This signalled the birth of one of the most versatile surface probes, based on the physics of quantum mechanical tunnelling: the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Invented in 1981 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of IBM, Zurich, it led to their award of the 1986 Nobel Prize. Atoms, once speculated to be abstract entities used by theoreticians for mere calculations, can be seen to exist for real with the nano-eye of an STM tip that also gives real-space images of molecules and adsorbed complexes on surfaces. From a very fundamental perspective, the STM changed the course of surface science and engineering. STM also emerged as a powerful tool to study various fundamental phenomena relevant to the properties of surfaces in technological applications such as tribology, medical implants, catalysis, sensors and biology—besides elucidating the importance of local bonding geometries and defects, non-periodic structures and the co-existence of nano-scale phases. Atom-level probing, once considered a dream, has seen the light with the evolution of STM. An important off-shoot of STM was the atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface mapping of insulating samples. Then followed the development of a flurry of techniques under the general name of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These techniques (STM, AFM, MFM, PFM etc) designed for atomic-scale-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, have led to brand new developments in surface analysis. All of these novel methods enabled researchers in recent years to image and analyse complex surfaces on microscopic and nanoscopic scales. All of them utilize a small probe for sensing the surface. The invention of AFM by Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christopher Gerber opened up new opportunities for characterization of a variety of materials, and various industrial applications could be

  12. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio‐degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser‐print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running‐in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  13. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  14. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  15. Mineral Surface-Templated Self-Assembling Systems: Case Studies from Nanoscience and Surface Science towards Origins of Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Gillams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence relates the wide range of benefits mineral surfaces offer for the development of early living systems, including adsorption of small molecules from the aqueous phase, formation of monomeric subunits and their subsequent polymerization, and supramolecular assembly of biopolymers and other biomolecules. Each of these processes was likely a necessary stage in the emergence of life on Earth. Here, we compile evidence that templating and enhancement of prebiotically-relevant self-assembling systems by mineral surfaces offers a route to increased structural, functional, and/or chemical complexity. This increase in complexity could have been achieved by early living systems before the advent of evolvable systems and would not have required the generally energetically unfavorable formation of covalent bonds such as phosphodiester or peptide bonds. In this review we will focus on various case studies of prebiotically-relevant mineral-templated self-assembling systems, including supramolecular assemblies of peptides and nucleic acids, from nanoscience and surface science. These fields contain valuable information that is not yet fully being utilized by the origins of life and astrobiology research communities. Some of the self-assemblies that we present can promote the formation of new mineral surfaces, similar to biomineralization, which can then catalyze more essential prebiotic reactions; this could have resulted in a symbiotic feedback loop by which geology and primitive pre-living systems were closely linked to one another even before life’s origin. We hope that the ideas presented herein will seed some interesting discussions and new collaborations between nanoscience/surface science researchers and origins of life/astrobiology researchers.

  16. Mineral Surface-Templated Self-Assembling Systems: Case Studies from Nanoscience and Surface Science towards Origins of Life Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillams, Richard J; Jia, Tony Z

    2018-05-08

    An increasing body of evidence relates the wide range of benefits mineral surfaces offer for the development of early living systems, including adsorption of small molecules from the aqueous phase, formation of monomeric subunits and their subsequent polymerization, and supramolecular assembly of biopolymers and other biomolecules. Each of these processes was likely a necessary stage in the emergence of life on Earth. Here, we compile evidence that templating and enhancement of prebiotically-relevant self-assembling systems by mineral surfaces offers a route to increased structural, functional, and/or chemical complexity. This increase in complexity could have been achieved by early living systems before the advent of evolvable systems and would not have required the generally energetically unfavorable formation of covalent bonds such as phosphodiester or peptide bonds. In this review we will focus on various case studies of prebiotically-relevant mineral-templated self-assembling systems, including supramolecular assemblies of peptides and nucleic acids, from nanoscience and surface science. These fields contain valuable information that is not yet fully being utilized by the origins of life and astrobiology research communities. Some of the self-assemblies that we present can promote the formation of new mineral surfaces, similar to biomineralization, which can then catalyze more essential prebiotic reactions; this could have resulted in a symbiotic feedback loop by which geology and primitive pre-living systems were closely linked to one another even before life’s origin. We hope that the ideas presented herein will seed some interesting discussions and new collaborations between nanoscience/surface science researchers and origins of life/astrobiology researchers.

  17. Earth System Science at NASA: Teleconnections Between Sea Surface Temperature and Epidemics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    2000-01-01

    The research carried out in the Earth Sciences in NASA and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will be the focus of the presentations. In addition, one research project that links sea surface temperature to epidemics in Africa will be highlighted. At GSFC research interests span the full breath of disciplines in Earth Science. Branches and research groups focus on areas as diverse as planetary geomagnetics and atmospheric chemistry. These organizations focus on atmospheric sciences (atmospheric chemistry, climate and radiation, regional processes, atmospheric modeling), hydrological sciences (snow, ice, oceans, and seasonal-to-interannual prediction), terrestrial physics (geology, terrestrial biology, land-atmosphere interactions, geophysics), climate modeling (global warming, greenhouse gases, climate change), on sensor development especially using lidar and microwave technologies, and on information technologies, that enable support of scientific and technical research.

  18. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment. PMID:25598577

  19. Writing more informative letters of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-05-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess "intangibles" that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference.

  20. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions

  1. To Domingos: letters, friends, literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse Ribas Bastos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The object for studying and analysis in this work is a set of letters received by Domingos Carvalho da Silva, which points to the constitution of a scene consisted of friendship and dissidences around a common literary and intellectual perspective. The objective of this work is to map the heterogeneity of the group as well as the problematic project involving the literary production in that moment, in order to find, thus, the means and ways of permanence of literature as it was configured between the 1940s and the 1960s.

  2. The "One-Letter-War"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peder

    2017-01-01

    The resolve of the naming dispute between Denmark, Norway and Sweden over the sea name Skagerrak has always been hailed as a prime example of how a naming dispute between countries over joint geographical name features should be handled and solved. This is a search into the story behind the scenes...... by the national mapping agencies. Practical Implications: Useful for institutions seeking name dispute resolution. Building on the extensive correspondence of almost fifty letters in the Danish Place-Name Commission’s journal archive, this naming dispute is shown to be of a rather different nature and resolve...

  3. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  4. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Iain P

    2015-12-01

    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade.

  5. The legibility of letters and words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The saying made famous by Mathew Carter that "type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters”, highlights the fact that although a typeface consists of a number of letters it is when the letters are assembled in a word that they become type. However, research indicates...... that what makes letters legible in isolation is not necessarily the same as what makes them legible in words. Is it possible to create a typeface where both letters and words have a high level of legibility or are those factors so different that they cannot be combined? Through a literature review...... on relevant experimental investigations, I will in this talk present examples of when the legibility findings on letters and words correlate and when they differ....

  6. Surface science and model catalysis with ionic liquid-modified materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinrück, H-P; Libuda, J; Wasserscheid, P; Cremer, T; Kolbeck, C; Laurin, M; Maier, F; Sobota, M; Schulz, P S; Stark, M

    2011-06-17

    Materials making use of thin ionic liquid (IL) films as support-modifying functional layer open up a variety of new possibilities in heterogeneous catalysis, which range from the tailoring of gas-surface interactions to the immobilization of molecularly defined reactive sites. The present report reviews recent progress towards an understanding of "supported ionic liquid phase (SILP)" and "solid catalysts with ionic liquid layer (SCILL)" materials at the microscopic level, using a surface science and model catalysis type of approach. Thin film IL systems can be prepared not only ex-situ, but also in-situ under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions using atomically well-defined surfaces as substrates, for example by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Due to their low vapor pressure, these systems can be studied in UHV using the full spectrum of surface science techniques. We discuss general strategies and considerations of this approach and exemplify the information available from complementary methods, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy and surface vibrational spectroscopy. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Beam line 4: A dedicated surface science facility at Daresbury Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanak, V.R.; Robinson, A.W.; van der Laan, G.; Thornton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a beam line currently under construction at the Daresbury Laboratory which forms part of a surface science research facility for the Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Surface Science. The beam line has three branches, two of which are described here. The first branch covers the high-energy range 640 eV≤hν≤10 keV, being equipped with a double-crystal monochromator and a novel multicoated premirror system. The second branch line is optimized for the energy range 15≤hν≤250 eV, using cylindrical focusing mirrors, a spherical diffraction grating and an ellipsoidal refocusing mirror to achieve high resolution with a small spot size

  8. Resource letter for Accelerated Matter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.

    1989-07-01

    This resource letter covers diverse literature(400 titles) relevant to the Accelerated Matter Program in the Particles and Fields Group at the University of Melbourne. Specifically, the research areas covered are: inertia induced electric fields in accelerated matter; strain induced contact potentials; the patch effect/surface potentials. There are no claims made for completeness. The areas of gravity, acceleration and strain induced effects in matter, and drift tube experiments with matter/antimatter are extensively covered, if not complete. The literature on acceleration/inertia induced effects in metals has a long history dating back to the 19th century and the reader is referred to the review by Barnett (1935) for an extensive list of references not included here. All other work following this 1935 review, has been included here. The literature on surface physics is very extensive and no attempt has been made to cover it all. Every major paper on metal surfaces has been cited. Several other references have been included which fall only loosely into the above areas and they represent useful and/or interesting material for this research program

  9. Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan for the USGS Georgia Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    data-collection activi- ties through offices in Atlanta, Albany, Savannah, and Tifton . A Field Office Chief Technician, under the supervision of the...Roswell, GA (02335450) on May 19, 2004, will have the file- name 040519_02335450_555.txt and will be placed in the /sw/edldata/02335450/555/WY2004...letters of the stream and the first three letters of the nearest location. EXAMPLE: The transect prefix for Chattahoochee River near Norcross, GA

  10. Writing More Informative Letters of Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-01-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter...

  11. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  12. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Expected Performance in Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Woods, W. W.; Tyler, G. L.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Strobel, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for investigating key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the upcoming flyby in July 2015. REX flight equipment augments the NH radio transceiver used for spacecraft communications and tracking. The REX hardware implementation requires 1.6 W and 160 g. This presentation will focus on the final design and the predicted performance of two high-priority observations. First, REX will receive signals from a pair of 70-m antennas on Earth - each transmitting 20 kW at 4.2-cm wavelength - during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. The data recorded by REX will reveal the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius. Second, REX will measure the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2-cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the nightside are visible, allowing the surface temperature and its spatial variations to be determined. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of about 10 pixels; one bisects Pluto whereas the second crosses the winter pole. We will illustrate the capabilities of REX by reviewing the method of analysis and the precision achieved in a lunar occultation observed by New Horizons in May 2011. Re-analysis of radio occultation measurements by Voyager 2 at Triton is also under way. More generally, REX objectives include a radio occultation search for Pluto's ionosphere; examination of Charon through both radio occultation and radiometry; a search for a radar echo from Pluto's surface; and improved knowledge of the Pluto system mass and the Pluto-Charon mass ratio from a combination of two-way and one-way Doppler frequency measurements.

  13. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  14. Assessment of environments for Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Chen, Allen; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Cantor, Bruce A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Fergason, Robini L.; Hinson, David P.; Justh, Hilary L.; Kass, David M.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Mischna, Michael A.; Murphy, James R.; Rafkin, Scot C.R.; Tyler, Daniel; Withers, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission aims to land a car-sized rover on Mars' surface and operate it for at least one Mars year in order to assess whether its field area was ever capable of supporting microbial life. Here we describe the approach used to identify, characterize, and assess environmental risks to the landing and rover surface operations. Novel entry, descent, and landing approaches will be used to accurately deliver the 900-kg rover, including the ability to sense and "fly out" deviations from a best-estimate atmospheric state. A joint engineering and science team developed methods to estimate the range of potential atmospheric states at the time of arrival and to quantitatively assess the spacecraft's performance and risk given its particular sensitivities to atmospheric conditions. Numerical models are used to calculate the atmospheric parameters, with observations used to define model cases, tune model parameters, and validate results. This joint program has resulted in a spacecraft capable of accessing, with minimal risk, the four finalist sites chosen for their scientific merit. The capability to operate the landed rover over the latitude range of candidate landing sites, and for all seasons, was verified against an analysis of surface environmental conditions described here. These results, from orbital and model data sets, also drive engineering simulations of the rover's thermal state that are used to plan surface operations.

  15. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  16. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  17. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Performance and Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscott, I.; Hinson, D. P.; Bird, M. K.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Olkin, C.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.

    2015-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) spacecraft payload contained the Radio Science Experiment (REX) for determining key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the July 14, 2015, flyby of the Pluto/Charon system. The REX flight equipment augments the NH X-band radio transceiver by providing a high precision, narrow band recording of high power uplink transmissions from Earth stations, as well as a record of broadband radiometric power. This presentation will review the performance and initial results of two high- priority observations. First, REX received two pair of 20-kW signals, one pair per polarization, transmitted from the DSN at 4.2-cm wavelength during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. REX recorded these uplink signals and determined precise measurement of the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius of Pluto. The ingress portion of one polarization was played back from the spacecraft in July and processed to obtain the pressure and temperature structure of Pluto's atmosphere. Second, REX measured the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2- cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the night side are visible. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of one-tenth Pluto's disk and temperature resolution of 0.1 K. Occultation and radiometric temperature results presented here will encompass additional data scheduled for playback in September.

  18. Sixty-Minute Review of Letter Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Donald H.; Graham, Louise

    1974-01-01

    The article describes a one-hour presentation which provides a basic stereotyped pattern of letter organization for the four types of letters (order, request, claim, and reply) the business of secretarial student is most likely to have to write. The four paragraphs of the pattern are: purpose, explanation, optional, and closing. (AG)

  19. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them with ef...

  20. When Do First Letters Mnemonics Aid Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. E.; Cook, N.

    1978-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of the first letter mnemonic technique is confused. There are at least three studies showing no effect, and one where an improvement in recall occurred. Reports two experiments which attempted to locate the conditions under which the first letter mnemonic is effective. (Author/RK)

  1. The Indirect Empathic Approach to Claim Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James D.

    1985-01-01

    In discussing letter-writing methods for business communication classes, the article explains that claim letter formats other than the direct approach are not only legitimate, but also effective, and suggests that the approach selected should depend upon the circumstances surrounding the claim. (CT)

  2. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  3. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  4. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  5. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  6. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  7. The effect of letter string length and report condition on letter recognition accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Karmazinaite, Berta; Rossow, Andrea S

    Letter sequence recognition accuracy has been postulated to be limited primarily by low-level visual factors. The influence of high level factors such as visual memory (load and decay) has been largely overlooked. This study provides insight into the role of these factors by investigating the interaction between letter sequence recognition accuracy, letter string length and report condition. Letter sequence recognition accuracy for trigrams and pentagrams were measured in 10 adult subjects for two report conditions. In the complete report condition subjects reported all 3 or all 5 letters comprising trigrams and pentagrams, respectively. In the partial report condition, subjects reported only a single letter in the trigram or pentagram. Letters were presented for 100ms and rendered in high contrast, using black lowercase Courier font that subtended 0.4° at the fixation distance of 0.57m. Letter sequence recognition accuracy was consistently higher for trigrams compared to pentagrams especially for letter positions away from fixation. While partial report increased recognition accuracy in both string length conditions, the effect was larger for pentagrams, and most evident for the final letter positions within trigrams and pentagrams. The effect of partial report on recognition accuracy for the final letter positions increased as eccentricity increased away from fixation, and was independent of the inner/outer position of a letter. Higher-level visual memory functions (memory load and decay) play a role in letter sequence recognition accuracy. There is also suggestion of additional delays imposed on memory encoding by crowded letter elements. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Density functionals for surface science: Exchange-correlation model development with Bayesian error estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorff, Jess; Lundgård, Keld Troen; Møgelhøj, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A methodology for semiempirical density functional optimization, using regularization and cross-validation methods from machine learning, is developed. We demonstrate that such methods enable well-behaved exchange-correlation approximations in very flexible model spaces, thus avoiding the overfit......A methodology for semiempirical density functional optimization, using regularization and cross-validation methods from machine learning, is developed. We demonstrate that such methods enable well-behaved exchange-correlation approximations in very flexible model spaces, thus avoiding...... the energetics of intramolecular and intermolecular, bulk solid, and surface chemical bonding, and the developed optimization method explicitly handles making the compromise based on the directions in model space favored by different materials properties. The approach is applied to designing the Bayesian error...... sets validates the applicability of BEEF-vdW to studies in chemistry and condensed matter physics. Applications of the approximation and its Bayesian ensemble error estimate to two intricate surface science problems support this....

  9. Alphabetical: How Every Letter Tells a Story

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    From minding your Ps and Qs to wondering why X should mark the spot, Alphabetical is a book for everyone who loves words and language. Whether it's how letters are arranged on keyboards or Viking runes, textspeak or zip codes, this book will change the way you think about letters for ever. How on Earth did we fix upon our twenty-six letters, what do they really mean, and how did we come to write them down in the first place? Michael Rosen takes you on an unforgettable adventure through the hi...

  10. Towards an atomic level understanding of niobia based catalysts and catalysis by combining the science of catalysis with surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The science of catalysis and surface science have developed, independently, key information for understanding catalytic processes. One might argue: is there anything fundamental to be discovered through the interplay between catalysis and surface science? Real catalysts of monometallic and bimetallic Co/Nb2O5 and Pd-Co/Nb2O5 catalysts showed interesting selectivity results on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Noronha et al. 1996, Rosenir et al. 1993. The presence of a noble metal increased the C+5 selectivity and decreased the methane formation depending of the reduction temperature. Model catalyst of Co-Pd supported on niobia and alumina were prepared and characterized at the atomic level, thus forming the basis for a comparison with "real" support materials. Growth, morphology and structure of both pure metal and alloy particles were studied. It is possible to support the strong metal support interaction suggested by studies on real catalysts via the investigation of model systems for niobia in comparison to alumina support in which this effect does not occur. Formation of Co2+ penetration into the niobia lattice was suggested on the basis of powder studies and can be fully supported on the basis of model studies. It is shown for both real catalysts and model systems that oxidation state of Co plays a key role in controlling the reactivity in Fischer-Tropsch reactions systems and that the addition of Pd is a determining factor for the stability of the catalyst. It is demonstrated that the interaction with unsaturated hydrocarbons depends strongly on the state of oxidation.As ciências da catálise e da superfície têm desenvolvido independentemente temas básicos para o entendimento de processos catalíticos. Pode-se até questionar se há ainda algo fundamental para ser descoberto através da interface entre catálise eciência da superfície? Catalisadores mono e bimetálicos de Co/Nb2O5 e Pd-Co/ Nb2O5 apresentaram resultados interessantes de

  11. Why doctors do not answer referral letters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to ... Methods: A qualitative study method was used, as the purpose of this study was to .... The total list of topics ..... Research design: qualitative and quantitative approaches.

  12. Advice letter on policy instruments renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In a letter of July 2010 the Energy Council made recommendations for a policy framework with more obligations and fewer subsidies. This included the Energy Council's advice to investigate whether the introduction of a supplier obligation could play a major role in the realisation of the CO2 emission target of the Netherlands and increase the share of renewable energy in line with European agreements. This advice letter deals with one aspect of the broader considerations: the share of renewable electricity and the kind of incentive framework that is needed to achieve the target concerned. In this letter we will examine the possibilities of the SDE+ support (financial incentive for renewable energy) scheme and the supplier obligation, the effects on the market and the consequences for achieving the target. This letter closes with conclusions and recommendations. [nl

  13. The letter of submission: avoiding the promotional genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    1998-01-01

    Functionally the letter of submission accompanying an article submitted to a journal is promotional, but it does not have the form one would expect from e.g. Bhatia 1993. Instead it is extremely brief and uninformative. This reflects the so-called Utilitarian Discourse which is a shared feature...... of American culture and the subculture of science. Research published elsewhere (Okamura and Shaw 1999, ESPJ) shows that neither native speakers of English nor non-natives who were not practising scientists could produce the appropriate genre, while NNS scientists produced texts which only deviated slightly...

  14. Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1 Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report Authors: Irene Gonin and Gregory...Johnson   Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. July 2016 Report No. CG-D-10-16 Maritime Geo-Fence...United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report 1

  15. Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Keomany, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In her article "Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters" Melanie Keomany discusses the contents of William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg's The Yage Letters which could be dismissed as openly bigoted and racist. Keomany posits that the text reveals valuable connections between the colonial expansion of the eighteenth century and 1950s USA and Latin America. By re-shaping Burroughs's lived experiences in the Amazon into a text where the narrator William Lee mimics sardonically an...

  16. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  17. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  18. Structured printed referral letter (form letter; saves time and improves communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.J.C. Ramanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Referral of patients to hospitals, specialists and other institutions is an essential part of primary health care. Patients are referred to specialists when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care or when opinion or advice is needed from them. Referral has considerable implications for patients, health care system and health care costs. Good communication between primary and secondary care is essential for the smooth running of any health care system. Referral and reply letters are the sole means of communication between doctors most of the time and breakdown in communication could lead to poor continuity of care, delayed diagnoses, polypharmacy, increased litigation risk and unnecessary testing. A referral letter also helps to avoid patient dissatisfaction and loss of confidence in family physician. Studies of referral letters have reported that specialists are dissatisfied with their quality and content. Inclusion of letter writing skills in the medical curriculum, peer assessment and feedback have shown to improve the quality of referral letters. . Form letters have shown to enhance information content and communication in referral process. In Sri Lanka referral letters are usually hand written and frequent complaints are that these letters do not contain adequate information and retrieval of information is a problem due to poor legibility and clarity. Sometimes Primary care doctors refer patients to hospitals and specialists with only verbal instructions. To address these short comings this form letter was introduced. Based on the guidelines and systematic review of published articles, items of information to be included were decided. Printed forms of the letter are kept in the practice and the doctor has to just fill up relevant information under each heading. The objectives of introducing this structured referral letter was to improve the quality and standard of referral letters and save time for both general

  19. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; hide

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  20. Mars in Motion: An online Citizen Science platform looking for changes on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinks, James Christopher; Wardlaw, Jessica; Houghton, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    The European FP7 iMars project has developed tools and 3D models of the Martian surface through the co-registration of NASA and ESA mission data dating from the Viking missions of the 1970s to the present day, for a much more comprehensive interpretation of the geomorphological and climatic processes that have taken and do take place. We present the Citizen Science component of the project, 'Mars in Motion', created through the Zooniverse's Panoptes framework to allow volunteers to look for and identify changes on the surface of Mars over time. 'Mars in Motion', as with many other current citizen science platforms of a planetary or other disciplinary focus, has been developed to compliment the results of automated data mining analysis software, both by validation through the creation of training data and by adding context - gathering more in-depth data on the type and metrics of change initially detected.Through the analysis of initial volunteer results collected in the second half of 2016, the accuracy and ability of untrained participants to identify geomorphological changes is considered, as well as the impact of their position in the system. Volunteer contribution, either as a filter for poor quality imagery pre-algorithm, validation of algorithmic analysis, or adding context to pre-detected change, and their awareness and interpretation of its importance, can directly influence engagement with the platform and therefore ultimately its success. Understanding the effect of the volunteer and software's role in the system on both the results of and engagement with planetary science citizen science platforms will be an important lesson for the future, especially as the next generation of planetary missions will likely collect data orders of magnitude greater in volume. To deal with the data overload, it is likely that human or software solutions alone will not be sufficient, and that a combination of the two working together in a complimentary system that combines

  1. Analysis of reliability of professor recommendation letters based on concordance with self-introduction letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between a checklist's categories of professor recommendation letters and characteristics of the self-introduction letter. Checklists of professor recommendation letters were analyzed and classified into cognitive, social, and affective domains. Simple correlation was performed to determine whether the characteristics of the checklists were concordant with those of the self-introduction letter. The difference in ratings of the checklists by pass or fail grades was analyzed by independent sample t-test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether a pass or fail grade was influenced by ratings on the checklists. The Cronbach alpha value of the checklists was 0.854. Initiative, as an affective domain, in the professor's recommendation letter was highly ranked among the six checklist categories. Self-directed learning in the self-introduction letter was influenced by a pass or fail grade by logistic regression analysis (pprofessor recommendation letters and the sum of all characteristics in the self-introduction letter.

  2. Can "CANISO" Activate "CASINO"? Transposed-Letter Similarity Effects with Nonadjacent Letter Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonwords created by transposing two "adjacent" letters (i.e., transposed-letter (TL) nonwords like "jugde") are very effective at activating the lexical representation of their base words. This fact poses problems for most computational models of word recognition (e.g., the interactive-activation model and its extensions), which assume that exact…

  3. Letter and symbol identification: No evidence for letter-specific crowding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Eric; Descamps, Marine; Denis-Noël, Ambre; Colé, Pascale

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding. We therefore removed the involvement of short-term memory by precueing target-item position and compared SPFs with precueing and postcueing. Perimetric complexity was stringently matched between letters and symbols. In postcueing conditions similar to previous studies, we did not reproduce the inverted V shape for symbols: Clear-cut W shapes were observed with an overall smaller accuracy for symbols compared to letters. This letter/symbol difference was dramatically reduced in precueing conditions in keeping with our prediction. Our results are not consistent with the claim that letter strings trigger specialized crowding processes. We argue that PR procedures are not fit to isolate crowding processes.

  4. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  5. Adhesion, friction, wear, and lubrication research by modern surface science techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D. V., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The field of surface science has undergone intense revitalization with the introduction of low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and other surface analytical techniques which have been sophisticated within the last decade. These developments have permitted submono- and monolayer structure analysis as well as chemical identification and quantitative analysis. The application of a number of these techniques to the solution of problems in the fields of friction, lubrication, and wear are examined in detail for the particular case of iron; and in general to illustrate how the accumulation of pure data will contribute toward the establishment of physiochemical concepts which are required to understand the mechanisms that are operational in friction systems. In the case of iron, LEED, Auger and microcontact studies have established that hydrogen and light-saturated organic vapors do not establish interfaces which prevent iron from welding, whereas oxygen and some oxygen and sulfur compounds do reduce welding as well as the coefficient of friction. Interpretation of these data suggests a mechanism of sulfur interaction in lubricating systems.

  6. Surface and interface sciences of Li-ion batteries. -Research progress in electrode-electrolyte interface-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The application potential of Li-ion batteries is growing as demand increases in different fields at various stages in energy systems, in addition to their conventional role as power sources for portable devices. In particular, applications in electric vehicles and renewable energy storage are increasing for Li-ion batteries. For these applications, improvements in battery performance are necessary. The Li-ion battery produces and stores electric power from the electrochemical redox reactions between the electrode materials. The interface between the electrodes and electrolyte strongly affects the battery performance because the charge transfer causing the electrode redox reaction begins at this interface. Understanding of the surface structure, electronic structure, and chemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface is necessary to improve battery performance. However, the interface is located between the electrode and electrolyte materials, hindering the experimental analysis of the interface; thus, the physical properties and chemical processes have remained poorly understood until recently. Investigations of the physical properties and chemical processes at the interface have been performed using advanced surface science techniques. In this review, current knowledge and future research prospects regarding the electrode-electrolyte interface are described for the further development of Li-ion batteries.

  7. Innovations from the “ivory tower”: Wilhelm Barthlott and the paradigm shift in surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neinhuis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable. Among the various fields of interest not mentioned here (e.g., systematics of Cactaceae, diversity and evolution of epiphytes, the unique natural history of isolated rocky outcrops called inselbergs, or the global distribution of biodiversity, plant surfaces and especially the tremendous diversity of minute structures on leaves, fruits, seeds and other parts of plants represent a common thread through 40 years of scientific career of Wilhelm Barthlott. Based on research that was regarded already old-fashioned in the 1970s and 1980s, systematic botany, results and knowledge were accumulated that, some 20 years later, initiated a fundamental turnover in how surfaces were recognized not only in biology, but even more evident in materials science.

  8. Surface science approach to Pt/carbon model catalysts: XPS, STM and microreactor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Abdul Md.; Haunold, Thomas; Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V.; Bera, Abhijit; Rameshan, Christoph; Rupprechter, Günther

    2018-05-01

    Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon are an important technological catalyst. A corresponding model catalyst was prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Pt on sputtered HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite). The carbon substrate before and after sputtering as well as the Pt/HOPG system before and after Pt deposition and annealing were examined by XPS and STM. This yielded information on the surface density of defects, which serve as nucleation centres for Pt, and on the size distribution (mean size/height) of the Pt nanoparticles. Two different model catalysts were prepared with mean sizes of 2.0 and 3.6 nm, both turned out to be stable upon UHV-annealing to 300 °C. After transfer into a UHV-compatible flow microreactor and subsequent cleaning in UHV and under mbar pressure, the catalytic activity of the Pt/HOPG model system for ethylene hydrogenation was examined under atmospheric pressure flow conditions. This enabled to determine temperature-dependent conversion rates, turnover frequencies (TOFs) and activation energies. The catalytic results obtained are in line with the characteristics of technological Pt/C, demonstrating the validity of the current surface science based model catalyst approach.

  9. An Open Letter to President Barack Obama from C. Frederick Risinger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an open letter to President Barack Obama written by the author to express his concerns about the increasing emphasis on mathematics and science education along with the continued emphasis on reading/language arts while a fourth major curriculum area--social studies--is being marginalized by lack of funding and reduced…

  10. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  11. The impact of familiarization strategies on the missing-letter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Andréanne; Roy-Charland, Annie; Chamberland, Justin; Quenneville, Joannie; Laforge, Christian

    2017-08-01

    When reading a text and searching for a target letter, readers make more omissions of the target letter if it is embedded in frequent function words than if it is in rare content words. While word frequency effects are consistently found, few studies have examined the impacts of passage familiarity on the missing-letter effect and studies that have present conflicting evidence. The present study examines the effects of passage familiarity, as well as the impacts of passage familiarization strategy promoting surface or deep encoding, on the missing-letter effect. Participants were familiarized with a passage by retyping a text, replacing all common nouns with synonyms, or generating a text on the same topic as that of the original text, and then completed a letter search task on the familiar passage as well as an unfamiliar passage. In Experiment 1, when both familiar and unfamiliar passages use the same words, results revealed fewer omissions for the retyping and synonyms conditions. However, in Experiment 2, when different words are used in both types of texts, no effect of familiarization strategy was observed. Furthermore, the missing-letter effect is maintained in all conditions, adding support to the robustness of the effect regardless of familiarity with the text.

  12. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2006, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal this year. As many of you are no doubt aware our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has remained above 1 for the second year in a row. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. This year we have welcomed several new faces to our Editorial Board and International Advisory Board. We are delighted to welcome Professor Hirofumi Yamada of the University of Kyoto as a representative from Japan. From China we have been joined by Professor Xuzong Chen of Peking University and Professor Zhiyi Wei of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Professor Ivan Marusic from University of Minnesota and Dr Paul Williams of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder have joined as North American representatives. As usual you will be able to submit your articles through them or direct to the Editorial Office in Bristol, UK. As part of our ongoing initiative to give our authors' work the highest visibility, all articles are freely available online for 30 days from the date of publication, allowing all researchers to read and view the latest research as soon as it is published, and this year there have been many interesting articles to read! As regular readers are aware, Measurement Science and Technology publishes special issues and features, which highlight an area of current interest. This year's topics included

  13. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  14. Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    In this open letter, Eve Tuck calls on communities, researchers, and educators to reconsider the long-term impact of "damage-centered" research--research that intends to document peoples' pain and brokenness to hold those in power accountable for their oppression. This kind of research operates with a flawed theory of change: it is often used to…

  15. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  16. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  17. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue of the information letter consists of two articles, "Music Therapy" and "Research and Applications of Psychomusical Techniques"; a review of the book, "La musicotherapie et les methods nouvelles d'association des techniques" by Guilhot and Cecourt, and a bibliography of books on music therapy written in…

  18. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley,

  19. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H.; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  20. 46 CFR 28.60 - Exemption letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS General Provisions § 28.60 Exemption letter. (a) Types of exemptions. (1) Specific exemption means... for an exemption of either type must be in writing, have specific reasons for the request, and be sent... vessel to which any exemption applies. (e) Right of appeal. Any person directly affected by a decision or...

  1. The anthrax letters: a medical detective story

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Leonard A

    2003-01-01

    .... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cole, Leonard A., 1933The anthrax letters : a medical detective story / Leonard A. Cole. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08881-X - ISBN 0-309-52584-5 (PDF) 1. Bioterrorism- United States. 2. Anthrax- United States. 3. Postal service- United States. 4. Victims of...

  2. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  3. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T ... and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna. ... Les principaux thèmes qui y sont abordés recouvrent les axes de recherche ...

  4. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  5. On-Orbit Planetary Science Laboratories for Simulating Surface Conditions of Planets and Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelautham, J.; Asphaug, E.; Schwartz, S.

    2017-02-01

    Our work has identified the use of on-orbit centrifuge science laboratories as a key enabler towards low-cost, fast-track physical simulation of off-world environments for future planetary science missions.

  6. Water Adsorption on Clean and Defective Anatase TiO2 (001) Nanotube Surfaces: A Surface Science Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmoe, Stephane; Lisovski, Oleg; Piskunov, Sergei; Bocharov, Dmitry; Zhukovskii, Yuri F; Spohr, Eckhard

    2018-04-11

    We use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to study the adsorption of thin water films with 1 and 2 ML coverage on anatase TiO 2 (001) nanotubes. The nanotubes are modeled as 2D slabs, which consist of partially constrained and partially relaxed structural motifs from nanotubes. The effect of anion doping on the adsorption is investigated by substituting O atoms with N and S impurities on the nanotube slab surface. Due to strain-induced curvature effects, water adsorbs molecularly on defect-free surfaces via weak bonds on Ti sites and H bonds to surface oxygens. While the introduction of an S atom weakens the interaction of the surface with water, which adsorbs molecularly, the presence of an N impurity renders the surface more reactive to water, with a proton transfer from the water film and the formation of an NH group at the N site. At 2 ML coverage, a further surface-assisted proton transfer takes place in the water film, resulting in the formation of an OH - group and an NH 2 + cationic site on the surface.

  7. Two sides of the coin. Part 2. Colloid and surface science meets real biointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninham, Barry W; Larsson, Kåre; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea

    2017-11-01

    Part 1 revisited developments in lipid and surfactant self assembly over the past 40 years [1]. New concepts emerged. Here we explore how these developments can be used to make sense of and bring order to a range of complex biological phenomena. Together with Part 1, this contribution is a fundamental revision of intuition at the boundaries of Colloid Science and Biological interfaces from a perspective of nearly 50 years. We offer new insights on a unified treatment of self assembly of lipids, surfactants and proteins in the light of developments presented in Part 1. These were in the enabling disciplines in molecular forces, hydration, oil and electrolyte specificity; and in the role of non Euclidean geometries-across the whole gammut of physical, colloid and surface chemistry, biophysics and membrane biology and medicine. It is where the early founders of the cell theory of biology and the physiologists expected advances to occur as D'Arcy Thompson predicted us 100 years ago. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The New Horizons Bistatic Radio Science Experiment to Measure Pluto's Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscott, I.; Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.; Vincent, M.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for principally occultation and radiometric measurement of Pluto and Charon during the flyby in July 2015. The REX subsystem is contained, together with the NH X-Band radio, in the Integrated Electronics Module (IEM) in the New Horizons spacecraft. REX samples and records in two polarizations both total RF power in a 4.5 MHz bandwidth, and radio signal waveforms in a narrow, 1.25 kHz band. During the encounter, and at closest approach to Pluto, the spacecraft's high gain antenna (HGA) will scan Pluto's equatorial latitudes, intercepting the specular zone, a region near Pluto's limb that geometrically favors reflection from the earth's direction. At the same time, a powerful 80 kW uplink beacon will have been transmitted from earth by the DSN to arrive at Pluto during spacecraft closest approach. Reflection from the specular zone is expected to be sufficiently strong to observe the bistatic uplink in the REX narrowband record. Measurements in both polarizations will then be combined to yield surface reflectivity, roughness and limits on the dielectric constant in the specular zone.

  9. The visibility of The lettered city Angel Rama in mainstream literature (WOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exequiel Aarón Fontans Alvarez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Angel Rama (1926-1986 is noted by some specialized as one of the precursors of the current cultural studies in Latin authors; The lettered city is one of the most cited works and has written stating this influence. However it has not been approached from the Metric Information Studies. The aim of this paper is to highlight the visibility of the lettered city in mainstream literature collected by the Web based of Science (WOS, Thomson Reuters. A brief introduction to the British Cultural Studies (Birmingham School is performed, with the understanding that they represent a history of Latin American Cultural Studies, where this work is framed. Areas, institutions and sources where this work is cited and co-cited authors are presented. Finally low visibility reflected WOS noted in the Latin American production considering that "lettered city" is a theoretical concept coined in the region.

  10. A surface science compatible epifluorescence microscope for inspection of samples under ultra high vacuum and cryogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Rohbohm, Nils; Merkel, Rudolf; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2017-08-01

    We modified an epi-illumination light microscope and mounted it on an ultra high vacuum chamber for investigating samples used in a surface science experiment. For easy access and bake out, all optical components are placed outside the vacuum and the sample is imaged through a glass window. The microscope can be operated in reflection brightfield or epifluorescence mode to image the sample surface or fluorescent dye molecules adsorbed on it. The homemade sample mounting was made compatible for the use under the microscope; sample temperatures as low as 6 K can be achieved. The performance of the microscope is demonstrated on two model samples: Brightfield-images of a well-prepared Ag(100) surface show a macroscopic corrugation of the surface, although low energy electron diffraction data indicate a highly ordered crystalline surface. The surface shows macroscopic protrusions with flat regions, about 20-200 μm in diameter, in between. Fluorescence images of diluted 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylicacid dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules adsorbed on an ultrathin epitaxial KCl film on the Ag(100) surface show a shading effect at surface protrusions due to an inclined angle of incidence of the PTCDA beam during deposition. For some preparations, the distribution of the fluorescence intensity is inhomogeneous and shows a dense network of bright patches about 5 μm in diameter related to the macroscopic corrugation of the surface. We propose that such a light microscope can aid many surface science experiments, especially those dealing with epitaxial growth or fluorescent materials.

  11. Letter-transposition effects are not universal: The impact of transposing letters in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of letter transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that transposed-letter (TL) root primes inhibited responses to targets derived from the non-transposed root letters, and that this inhibition was unrelated to relative root frequency. Experiment 2 replicated this result and showed that if the transposed letters of the root created a nonsense-root that had no lexical representation, then no inhibition and no facilitation were obtained. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that in contrast to English, French, or Spanish, TL nonword primes did not facilitate recognition of targets, and when the root letters embedded in them consisted of a legal root morpheme, they produced inhibition. These results suggest that lexical space in alphabetic orthographies may be structured very differently in different languages if their morphological structure diverges qualitatively. In Hebrew, lexical space is organized according to root families rather than simple orthographic structure, so that all words derived from the same root are interconnected or clustered together, independent of overall orthographic similarity.

  12. Season Spotter: Using Citizen Science to Validate and Scale Plant Phenology from Near-Surface Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kosmala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a rapidly changing climate on the biosphere is an urgent area of research for mitigation policy and management. Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change and regulates the seasonality of carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the land surface and the climate system, making it an important tool for studying biosphere–atmosphere interactions. To monitor plant phenology at regional and continental scales, automated near-surface cameras are being increasingly used to supplement phenology data derived from satellite imagery and data from ground-based human observers. We used imagery from a network of phenology cameras in a citizen science project called Season Spotter to investigate whether information could be derived from these images beyond standard, color-based vegetation indices. We found that engaging citizen science volunteers resulted in useful science knowledge in three ways: first, volunteers were able to detect some, but not all, reproductive phenology events, connecting landscape-level measures with field-based measures. Second, volunteers successfully demarcated individual trees in landscape imagery, facilitating scaling of vegetation indices from organism to ecosystem. And third, volunteers’ data were used to validate phenology transition dates calculated from vegetation indices and to identify potential improvements to existing algorithms to enable better biological interpretation. As a result, the use of citizen science in combination with near-surface remote sensing of phenology can be used to link ground-based phenology observations to satellite sensor data for scaling and validation. Well-designed citizen science projects targeting improved data processing and validation of remote sensing imagery hold promise for providing the data needed to address grand challenges in environmental science and Earth observation.

  13. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center.

  14. Use of Standard Guidelines for Department of Medicine Summary Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Matthew; La Rochelle, Jeffrey; Lang, Valerie; DeWaay, Deborah; Adams, William; Nasraty, Farah

    2018-04-12

    Phenomenon: Fourth-year medical students obtain Department of Medicine (DOM) letters ("Chair" letters) to support their residency applications. Writing and interpreting DOM letters are challenging. There is heterogeneity in the letters that makes it difficult to both write and read these letters. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of new guidelines developed by a task force of clerkship directors and program directors in internal medicine and assess the implementation of these guidelines. The Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine performed a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine clerkship directors at U.S. and Canadian medical schools in 2014. In addition, the primary author's institution reviewed 1,347 DOM letters between 2012 and 2014 to assess the implementation of these guidelines. The survey response rate was 78%. DOM letter writers reported the guidelines were better, easier to implement, and more compatible with the purpose of DOM letters than previously. Most letter readers reported that letters using the guidelines were more credible. Writers of DOM letters in lower academic ranks rated the letters with guidelines higher in several domains than those in higher academic ranks. Readers of DOM letters in higher academic ranks rated the letters with guidelines higher in several domains than those in lower academic ranks. In the DOM letters examined, the odds of meeting each guideline increased with each additional year. However, for 3 guidelines there was an initial decline in adherence from 2012 to 2013 before increasing again in 2014-the recommended length, clerkship description, and detailed narrative guidelines. Letters solely written by a chair were less likely to incorporate the guidelines. Insights: Clerkship directors often write the DOM letters and identify with the purpose of the guidelines. As writers, lower ranking academic faculty value the guidelines more than higher ranking academic faculty. As readers of DOM letters

  15. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  16. Exploring Corporate Rhetoric: Metadiscourse in the CEO's Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Examines how metadiscourse is used to create a positive corporate image in 137 CEOs' letters, showing how CEOs use nonpropositional material to realize rational, credible, and affective appeals. Reveals the essentially rhetorical nature of CEOs' letters by comparing the frequency and distribution of metadiscourse in their letters and directors'…

  17. Return to sender: Constantijn Huygens as a man of letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, L.; Blom, F.; Leerintveld, A.

    2013-01-01

    Return to Sender takes as its starting point Constantijn Huygens’ letters and shows us the author in his different guises: intimus of René Descartes, translator of John Donne, collector of art, writer of flirtatious love letters and the author of a long consolatory letter-poem for an ailing friend

  18. Student Teacher Letters of Reference: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Letters of reference are commonly used in acquiring a job in education. Despite serious issues of validity and reliability in writing and evaluating letters, there is a dearth of research that systematically examines the evaluation process and defines the constructs that define high quality letters. The current study used NVivo to examine 160…

  19. The Predictive Validity of Teacher Candidate Letters of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Letters of reference are widely used as an essential part of the hiring process of newly licensed teachers. While the predictive validity of these letters of reference has been called into question it has never been empirically studied. The current study examined the predictive validity of the quality of letters of reference for forty-one student…

  20. Evidence for magnocellular involvement in the identification of flanked letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the magno system in reading. One important hypothesis is that this system is involved in the allocation of attention. We reasoned that the presentation of a single letter automatically draws attention to this letter, whereas in the case of a flanked letter, an

  1. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  2. Hamlet and Japanese Men of Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawachi Yoshiko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare has exerted a powerful influence on Japanese literature since he was accepted in the second half of the nineteenth century. Particularly Hamlet has had a strong impact on Japanese men of letters and provided them with the impetus to revive the play in contemporary literature. In this paper I discuss how they have utilized Hamlet for their creative activity and enriched Japanese literature.

  3. Letters of credit getting more expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, J

    1991-09-02

    Hospital executives who haven't been in the market recently for a new or renewed letter of credit will find it a more expensive way to back their variable-rate debt. Annual fees are surging, for reasons ranging from an international banking agreement that goes into effect next year to more conservative fee structures being instituted because of bad loans made by some banks in the past decade.

  4. Thomas Birch's 'Weekly Letter' (1741-66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-09-20

    Thomas Birch (1705-66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720-90), wrote a 'Weekly Letter' from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396-400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the 'Hardwicke circle' gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the 'Weekly Letter' constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science.

  5. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  6. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  7. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seventh BES [Basic Energy Sciences] catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  9. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  10. Constraining the JULES land-surface model for different land-use types using citizen-science generated hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, H. K.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Community land surface models such as JULES are increasingly used for hydrological assessment because of their state-of-the-art representation of land-surface processes. However, a major weakness of JULES and other land surface models is the limited number of land surface parameterizations that is available. Therefore, this study explores the use of data from a network of catchments under homogeneous land-use to generate parameter "libraries" to extent the land surface parameterizations of JULES. The network (called iMHEA) is part of a grassroots initiative to characterise the hydrological response of different Andean ecosystems, and collects data on streamflow, precipitation, and several weather variables at a high temporal resolution. The tropical Andes are a useful case study because of the complexity of meteorological and geographical conditions combined with extremely heterogeneous land-use that result in a wide range of hydrological responses. We then calibrated JULES for each land-use represented in the iMHEA dataset. For the individual land-use types, the results show improved simulations of streamflow when using the calibrated parameters with respect to default values. In particular, the partitioning between surface and subsurface flows can be improved. But also, on a regional scale, hydrological modelling was greatly benefitted from constraining parameters using such distributed citizen-science generated streamflow data. This study demonstrates the modelling and prediction on regional hydrology by integrating citizen science and land surface model. In the context of hydrological study, the limitation of data scarcity could be solved indeed by using this framework. Improved predictions of such impacts could be leveraged by catchment managers to guide watershed interventions, to evaluate their effectiveness, and to minimize risks.

  11. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  12. The Jamaica Letter and its intellectual genealogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. de la Reza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the fundamental objectives of The Jamaica Letter is the reflection on the features that should have the international order after the fall of the Spanish Empire. For its organization, Simon Bolívar appeals to the amphictyonic assemblies of classical Greece and invokes the Pan-European project of the Abbe Saint Pierre. This article traces the documentary sources from which Bolivar derives his notion of confederal union and inspires the unions treaties from 1822 to 1826.

  13. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  15. Science and engineering of nanodiamond particle surfaces for biological applications (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenderova, Olga A; McGuire, Gary E

    2015-09-05

    Diamond has outstanding bulk properties such as super hardness, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, luminescence, to name just a few. In the nanoworld, in order to exploit these outstanding bulk properties, the surfaces of nanodiamond (ND) particles must be accordingly engineered for specific applications. Modification of functional groups on the ND's surface and the corresponding electrostatic properties determine their colloidal stability in solvents, formation of photonic crystals, controlled adsorption and release of cargo molecules, conjugation with biomolecules and polymers, and cellular uptake. The optical activity of the luminescent color centers in NDs depends on their proximity to the ND's surface and surface termination. In order to engineer the ND surface, a fundamental understanding of the specific structural features and sp(3)-sp(2) phase transformations on the surface of ND particles is required. In the case of ND particles produced by detonation of carbon containing explosives (detonation ND), it should also be taken into account that its structure depends on the synthesis parameters and subsequent processing. Thus, for development of a strategy of surface modification of detonation ND, it is imperative to know details of its production. In this review, the authors discuss ND particles structure, strategies for surface modification, electrokinetic properties of NDs in suspensions, and conclude with a brief overview of the relevant bioapplications.

  16. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A review of recent applications in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikiet, Marisia A.; Khandasammy, Shelby R.; Mistek, Ewelina; Ahmed, Yasmine; Halámková, Lenka; Bueno, Justin; Lednev, Igor K.

    2018-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy has many advantages over its parent technique of Raman spectroscopy. Some of these advantages such as increased sensitivity and selectivity and therefore the possibility of small sample sizes and detection of small concentrations are invaluable in the field of forensics. A variety of new SERS surfaces and novel approaches are presented here on a wide range of forensically relevant topics.

  17. Investigation of Anti-Relaxation Coatings for Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells using Surface Science Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    addition to the inside surface of the cells. In order to avoid exposure to air, the cells were broken open inside a glovebag containing an argon ...unsaturated bonds increase the polar- izability of the surface, and effective coatings have long been assumed to require low polarizability to enable

  18. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  19. Open letter to Mr Christian Bataille, Deputy of Nord region, France. Open letter on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix P

    2007-02-01

    The author, by means of a letter to the deputy Christian Bataille, presents arguments to the shutdown of old nuclear power plants. He points out the environmental and economical arguments in favor of a decrease of the nuclear power use in France. (A.L.B.)

  20. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ''next generation'' melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area

  1. Resource letter SH-1: superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    The resource letter covers the general subject of superfluid helium and treats 3 He and 3 He-- 4 He mixtures as well as 4 He. No effort has been made to include the fascinating experiments on either solid helium or the equally fascinating work on adsorbed helium where the helium coverage is below that necessary for superfluidity. An earlier resource letter by C. T. Lane [Am. J. Phys. 35, 367 (1967)] may be consulted for additional comments on some of the cited earlier manuscripts, but the present work is self-contained and may be used independently. Many high-quality research reports have not been cited here. Rather, the author has tried in most cases to include works particularly readable or relevant. There is a relatively heavy emphasis on experimental references. The primary reason is that these works tend to be more generally readable. No doubt some works that might have been included, have not, and for this the author takes responsibility with apology. Articles selected for incorporation in a reprint volume (to be published separately by the American Association of Physics Teachers) are marked with an asterisk(*). Following each referenced work the general level of difficulty is indicated by E, I, or A for elementary, intermediate, or advanced

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original ... The objects of the Association journal shall be the advancement of the science and art of ..... Economics, Business Management, and Public Administration and ...

  3. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  4. From the correspondence of M. P. Drahomanov: two unknown letters to M. V. Vodovozov of 1894

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirzhaiev S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication introduces into scientific discourse little-known letters of prominent Ukrainian scholar, politician and publicist M. P. Drahomanov (1841-1895, discovered in the fond of V. I. Vernadsky in the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. Two letters written in the latest period of the life of M. P. Drahomanov, which are addressed to young economist and publicist Mykola Vasyliovych Vodovozov (1870-1896, expand the source base not only for M. P. Drahomanov’s biographers. They show his ties with Russian liberals, who later formed the core of the party of constitutional democrats. A preface to the publication contains a biography of M. V. Vodovozov, and the author makes a hypothesis on the history of an acquaintance of the correspondent and the addressee, which could be connected with M. V. Vodovozov’s brother, V. V. Vodovozov, and members of the “Shelter Fraternity”, and through them with M. P. Drahomanov. The analysis of the published letters proves that M. P. Drahomanov endeavored to widen through the “Shelter Fraternity” members his contacts with democratic circles in Russia, and also to find financial support for publishing letters of Bakunin and Struve.

  5. On the implications of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission for hydrologic science and applications (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    The SWOT mission will provide surface water elevation and extent information with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution globally. All of the implications of thedata that SWOT will produce for the hydrologic science and applications communities are not yet apparent. The SWOT data will, however, certainly offer groundbreaking opportunities for estimation of two key terms in the land surface water budget: surface water storage (in almost all water bodies with surface area exceeding about 1 km2) and derived discharge for many of the world’s large rivers (widths greater than roughly 100-250 m). Among just a few of the science questions that the observations should allow us to address are a) what are the dynamics of floods and overbank flows in large rivers? b) what is the contribution of long-term, seasonal, and interannual storage in reservoirs, lakes, and wetlands to sea level? c) what is the magnitude of surface water storage changes at seasonal to decadal time scales and continental spatial scales relative to soil moisture and groundwater? d) what will be the implications of SWOT-based estimates of reservoir storage and storage change to the management of transboundary rivers? These quite likely are among just a few of the questions that SWOT will help elucidate. Others no doubt will arise from creative analyses of SWOT data in combination with data from other missions I conclude with a discussion of mechanisms that will help foster a community to investigate these and other questions, and the implications of a SWOT data policy.

  6. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Also, areas of Laboratory Science, Technology, Mathematical Sciences, Microbiology, Physics, Medical Sciences and Zoology form part of the contents of the Journal. Scientists in the academia, research institutes and industries are therefore encouraged to participate actively in the propagation of their works ...

  7. Spectral Feature Analysis of Minerals and Planetary Surfaces in an Introductory Planetary Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Using an ALTA II reflectance spectrometer, the USGS digital spectral library, graphs of planetary spectra, and a few mineral hand samples, one can teach how light can be used to study planets and moons. The author created the hands-on, inquiry-based activity for an undergraduate planetary science course consisting of freshman to senior level…

  8. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  9. A simplified model of saltcake moisture distribution. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    This letter report describes the formulation of a simplified model for finding the moisture distribution in a saltcake waste profile that has been stabilized by pumping out the drainable interstitial liquid. The model is based on assuming that capillarity mainly governs the distribution of moisture in the porous saltcake waste. A stead upward flow of moisture driven by evaporation from the waste surface is conceptualized to occur for isothermal conditions. To obtain hydraulic parameters for unsaturated conditions, the model is calibrated or matched to the relative saturation distribution as measured by neutron probe scans. The model is demonstrated on Tanks 104-BY and 105-TX as examples. A value of the model is that it identifies the key physical parameters that control the surface moisture content in a waste profile. Moreover, the model can be used to estimate the brine application rate at the waste surface that would raise the moisture content there to a safe level. Thus, the model can be applied to help design a strategy for correcting the moisture conditions in a saltcake waste tank

  10. Implied reading direction and prioritization of letter encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Alex O; Nguyen, Elizabeth H L; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Capacity limits hinder processing of multiple stimuli, contributing to poorer performance for identifying two briefly presented letters than for identifying a single letter. Higher accuracy is typically found for identifying the letter on the left, which has been attributed to a right-hemisphere dominance for selective attention. Here, we use rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of letters in two locations at once. The letters to be identified are simultaneous and cued by rings. In the first experiment, we manipulated implied reading direction by rotating or mirror-reversing the letters to face to the left rather than to the right. The left-side performance advantage was eliminated. In the second experiment, letters were positioned above and below fixation, oriented such that they appeared to face downward (90° clockwise rotation) or upward (90° counterclockwise rotation). Again consistent with an effect of implied reading direction, performance was better for the top position in the downward condition, but not in the upward condition. In both experiments, mixture modeling of participants' report errors revealed that attentional sampling from the two locations was approximately simultaneous, ruling out the theory that the letter on one side was processed first, followed by a shift of attention to sample the other letter. Thus, the orientation of the letters apparently controls not when the letters are sampled from the scene, but rather the dynamics of a subsequent process, such as tokenization or memory consolidation. Implied reading direction appears to determine the letter prioritized at a high-level processing bottleneck. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    to the information society. A key component of this acquis is the prohibition of general monitoring obligations to the benefit of providers of intermediary services. It is a means to achieve at least two central objectives: the encouragement of innovation as well as the protection of fundamental rights of all...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...... urge the European Commission to take into account the human rights dimension of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive, as made explicit by the Court of the Justice of the European Union, and to make sure its implications are carefully examined across sectors. Authors: Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon Eleonora...

  12. Commentary to the Letter of Robert Arasimowicz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author in his letter to the editor presents his own vision of carrying out archives’ tasks that arise from the public principle of archives. He is concerned especially with stagnation and passive role of archives in promoting their collections. To justify his theses the author conducted a survey among a group of his friends. He asked them four questions that tested their knowledge of archives and archival collections. Answers proved earlier conjectures to be true and were similar to the author’s experience; they showed that the society has poor knowledge of archives and their collections. The author proposed some general solutions, referring especially to actions taken by museums.

  13. Letter contrast sensitivity function of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1998-06-01

    To provide empirical data of letter CSF for various levels of defocus under controlled conditions of luminance and age. Corrected distance visual acuities were tested at different levels of contrast and defocus. An experiment was conducted using the Medmont visual acuity tester on 10 young subjects and under normal room lighting. Empirical data of visual acuity were obtained for 7 levels of contrast (5, 10, 15, 25, 40, 60, 80%) and defocus levels of 0, +1 and +2D. A mathematical model was derived (R2=0.995) and this can be used to estimate visual acuity at various contrast levels for defocus of < or =+2D. This information is useful for the clinician as normative data and for further development of optical models to predict visual performance of the eye.

  14. Application of surface science to the study of the corrosion of PWR primary circuit materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.J.

    1989-04-01

    This thesis describes a study of the corrosion and oxidation of PWR primary circuit materials using surface sensitive spectroscopic techniques. An X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) study of a number of mixed oxides of known composition is described and the information obtained is related to XPS measurements made on the surface of iron and nickel based alloys oxidised under controlled conditions. A secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMA) study on these mixed transition metal oxides is also described. The gaseous oxidation of stainless steel 3041 and Inconel-690 is examined. Both alloys were oxidised at 600K in air with the composition of the oxide films formed studied by a range of surface spectroscopic methods. Further experimental work was performed on Inconel-690 to examine the effects of surface pretreatment and the effects of low oxygen partial pressures on the formation of oxide films at 600 K. The incorporation of the radionuclide, cobalt-60, into the oxide films formed on structural components of a PWR, result in the build up of radiation fields. A method of pretreating the surface of the alloy stainless steel 3041, in order to reduce the level of cobalt adsorbed into the oxide film formed under simulated primary coolant conditions is examined and contrasts with treatments which have been developed to release cobalt adsorbed in existing oxide layers under reactor conditions are discussed. (author)

  15. Ethers on Si(001): A Prime Example for the Common Ground between Surface Science and Molecular Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2017-11-20

    By using computational chemistry it has been shown that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions can be understood with classical concepts of organic chemistry. Detailed analysis of the two-step reaction mechanism-1) formation of a dative bond between the ether oxygen atom and a Lewis acidic surface atom and 2) nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom-shows that it mirrors acid-catalyzed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is the strongest of its kind, and the reactivity in step 2 defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during C-O bond cleavage has been visualized with a newly developed method for analyzing bonding, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular S N 2 reactions. Our findings illustrate how surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit from each other and unexpected insight can be gained. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. [Progress in the application of laser ablation ICP-MS to surface microanalysis in material science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Yun-hai; Chen, Ji-wen; Shen, Xue-jing; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Leiz; Li, Dong-ling; Hang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Zhen; Fan, Wan-lun; Wang, Hai-zhou

    2014-08-01

    In the present paper, apparatus and theory of surface analysis is introduced, and the progress in the application of laser ablation ICP-MS to microanalysis in ferrous, nonferrous and semiconductor field is reviewed in detail. Compared with traditional surface analytical tools, such as SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrum), EPMA (electron probe microanalysis analysis), AES (auger energy spectrum), etc. the advantage is little or no sample preparation, adjustable spatial resolution according to analytical demand, multi-element analysis and high sensitivity. It is now a powerful complementary method to traditional surface analytical tool. With the development of LA-ICP-MS technology maturing, more and more analytical workers will use this powerful tool in the future, and LA-ICP-MS will be a super star in elemental analysis field just like LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy).

  17. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shutthanandan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  18. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  19. Into the Curriculum. Interdisciplinary: Celebrating Our Animal Friends: An Across-the-Curriculum Unit for Middle Level Students [and] Music: Program Notes [and] Reading-Language Arts: Letters: Written, Licked, and Stamped [and] Science: Plants in Families [and] Science: Physics and Holiday Toys (Gravity) [and] Social Studies: Learning about Geography through Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Rose; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents six curriculum guides for elementary and secondary education. Subjects include interdisciplinary instruction, music, reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Each guide provides library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, a…

  20. Letters on nuclear controversy. Streitbriefe ueber Kernenergie. Zwei Physiker ueber Wissenschaft, Fortschritt und die Folgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Maier-Leibnitz, H

    1982-01-01

    Heinz Maier-Leibnitz a well-known scientist, nuclear physicist, for 50 years, who publicily supported the idea not to overrate the dangers of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, has grown tired of talking only to colleagues. He invites a junior fellow physicist, who held engaged speeches against the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf, to an exchange of thoughts. Peter Kafka, an astro-physicist studied the self organisation of the universe from the big bang to the economic crisis and encountered the question of which conditions have to be fulfilled to prevent progress from becoming caranogenous. He became one of the spokesmen of 'political ecology' and called for resistance again large-scale technological use of scientific knowledge. He was enthusiastic about the idea of an exchange of letters, because he - just like his partner - believes in gaining knowledge by discussion. The variety of subjects is sketched briefly in form of three lectures. In the letters both scientists discuss intensly about: - Freedom of science and responsibility of science. - Decisions on energy questions under time-pressure. - Risks of nuclear plants. - Large scale technology and large-scale research or decentralization. - Energy utilization and energy waste. - Nuclear energy and alternatives. - Sense and nonsense of detailed future planning. In the end no one has convinced the other. The reader however finds a lot of new incentives in the letters - printed in unabridged form - a lot of new and significant arguments for a discussion which has only just started.

  1. Leibniz's Observations on Hydrology: An Unpublished Letter on the Great Lombardy Flood of 1705.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Lloyd; Church, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although the historical reputation of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) largely rests on his philosophical and mathematical work, it is widely known that he made important contributions to many of the emerging but still inchoate branches of natural science of his day. Among the many scientific papers Leibniz published during his lifetime are ones on the nascent science we now know as hydrology. While Leibniz's other scientific work has become of increasing interest to scholars in recent years, his thinking about hydrology has been neglected, despite being relatively broad in extent, including as it does papers on the 'raising of vapours' and the formation of ice, as well as the separation of salt and fresh water. That list can now be extended still further following the discovery of a previously unpublished letter of Leibniz's on the causes of the devastating Lombardy flood of October and November 1705. This letter, which will be the focus of our paper, reveals the depth of Leibniz's understanding of key hydrological processes. In it, he considers various mechanisms for the flood, such as heavy rains on high ground, underwater earthquakes, and a mountain collapse. Over the course of the paper we examine each of these mechanisms in depth, and show that Leibniz was in the vanguard of hydrological thinking. We also show that the letter contains one of the first scholarly attempts to apply aspects of the still-forming notion of the hydrological cycle to account for a flood event.

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarkson, R B; Odintsov, B M; Ceroke, P J

    1998-01-01

    ; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the nuclear spin population...

  3. The application of surface science in the solution of aircraft materials problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There is now a tendency for both commercial and military aircraft to be maintained and operated for several decades. Indeed some of our front-line defence aircraft have programme withdrawal lives approaching half a century. This places significant demands on the materials used in engines and airframes. The properties and performance of the materials can degrade with time leading to an increase in the importance of repair and maintenance technologies. As most materials problems start at a surface or an interface, it is not surprising that surface sensitive tools are used to resolve many degradation problems. In some cases, the resolution of problems can lead to life-enhancing improvements for the aircraft. This paper will examine some of the practical issues in the use of surface analytical tools for the examination and resolution of practical aircraft problems. Illustrations will be drawn from the application of surface analysis in the areas of corrosion, fracture and adhesive bonding. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  4. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  5. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter Z

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Zede is a scientific journal on engineering science and application, produced ... of engineering knowledge and methodologies in solving engineering problems. ... in African Educational Institution; Research Methods and Ethics in Africa ... Epidemiology, Immunology, Environmental science, Hydrobiology ...

  6. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter H

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... Health SA Gesondheid - Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences is an open ... to public health, including implications for practical applications and service ... to showcase their work whilst upholding the standards of health science ... improvement of health safety and service delivery; management and ...

  7. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words.Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters.We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities.The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  8. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  9. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  10. Pirates at Parties: Letter Position Processing in Developing Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in letter position coding in adults, but little is known about the development of this process in children learning to read. Here, the letter position coding abilities of 127 children in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (aged 7-10 years) were examined by comparing their performance in reading aloud "migratable" words (e.g.,…

  11. Letters to a Young Baller: Exploring Epistolary Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansky, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of epistolary criticism within the realm of sport studies and aspires to encourage scholars to consider the use of non-traditional sport memorabilia and source materials when telling emotive stories about sport and sport practices. The use of letters and the letter-writing format to tell a personal narrative…

  12. Analyzing International Letters in a Business Communication Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Shows how students can use persuasive principles of communication (format and writer's purpose) and of classical rhetoric (organization, ethos, pathos, logos, and style) to improve their ability to analyze business letters. Shows how applying these principles to the analysis of business letters from other countries helps students write better and…

  13. Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self-damaging behavior mandating neurosurgery. A Aghabiklooei, R Aghabiklooei, N Zamani. Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. The Syntax of Persuasion: Two Business Letters of Request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Mohan R.

    1983-01-01

    Business letter-writers are advised to develop reader empathy and benefit before they ask a favor. The author analyzed two model 16th century letters of request to determine if similar advice was given in the past, and found that the request was subordinate to building a mutually beneficial relationship. (PD)

  15. 22 CFR 201.71 - Terms of letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not be inconsistent with or contrary to the terms of the letter of commitment. Any such letter of credit or agreement may be modified or extended at any time in such a manner and to such extent as is acceptable to the approved applicant and the bank: Provided, That such modification or extension may not be...

  16. Why Doctors Do Not Answer Referral Letters | Smith | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to treatment by specialists at secondary and tertiary service levels and communicate reasons for ...

  17. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies. Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are ...

  18. Intertextuality in Ba's So Long a Letter and Umunnakwe's Dear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertextuality takes for granted the interdependence of literary texts because every artistic creation is a re-echoing of past knowledge. Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter and Ndubisi Umunnakwe's Dear Ramatoulaye are African examples. This work examines how Ba's So Long A Letter intertextualises with Umunnakwe's Dear ...

  19. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  20. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    history, may not be elements that non-psychiatrist phy- sicians routinely collect during their examinations and, therefore, one would not expect such information to be available to be included in referral letters. Conclusion. Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are common.

  1. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or revoked...

  2. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.258 Renewal of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization...

  3. Open letter to EU Commission about proposed EDC Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågerstrand, Marlene; Bero, Lisa; Beronius, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Open letter in response to the proposed criteria for identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals, under the PPP and Biocides Regulations......Open letter in response to the proposed criteria for identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals, under the PPP and Biocides Regulations...

  4. Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…

  5. Experimental test of contemporary mathematical models of visual letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J T; Ashby, F G

    1982-12-01

    A letter confusion experiment that used brief durations manipulated payoffs across the four stimulus letters, which were composed of line segments equal in length. The observers were required to report the features they perceived as well as to give a letter response. The early feature-sampling process is separated from the later letter-decision process in the substantive feature models, and predictions are thus obtained for the frequencies of feature report as well as letter report. Four substantive visual feature-processing models are developed and tested against one another and against three models of a more descriptive nature. The substantive models predict the decisional letter report phase much better than they do the feature-sampling phase, but the best overall 4 X 4 letter confusion matrix fits are obtained with one of the descriptive models, the similarity choice model. The present and other recent results suggest that the assumption that features are sampled in a stochastically independent manner may not be generally valid. The traditional high-threshold conceptualization of feature sampling is also falsified by the frequent reporting by observers of features not contained in the stimulus letter.

  6. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  7. 7 CFR 1737.80 - Description of characteristics letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the amount of the proposed loan, its purposes, rate of interest, loan security requirements, and other... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Characteristics Letter § 1737.80 Description of characteristics letter. (a) After all of the...

  8. 32 CFR 884.17 - Commander's instruction letter to member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... instruction letter to member. Subject: Instructions in Case of Release on Bail or Personal Recognizance 1. You... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander's instruction letter to member. 884.17... civilian custody on bail or on your own recognizance, report immediately in person or by telephone to the...

  9. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.99 Letter of credit. (a) An owner or operator may satisfy the... brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted: Irrevocable Standby.... We certify that the wording of this letter of credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR...

  10. Trends in the Employment Process: Resumes and Job Application Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)

  11. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  12. Overt use of a tactile-kinesthetic strategy shifts to covert processing in rehabilitation of letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Carney, Aimee Syms; Glezer, Laurie S; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2010-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Letter-by-letter readers identify each letter of the word they are reading serially in left to right order before recognizing the word. When their letter naming is also impaired, letter-by-letter reading is inaccurate and can render even single word reading very poor. Tactile and/or kinesthetic strategies have been reported to improve reading in these patients, but only under certain conditions or for a limited set of stimuli. AIMS: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether a tactile/kinesthetic treatment could significantly improve reading specifically under normal reading conditions, i.e. reading untrained words presented in free vision and read without overt use of the strategy. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three chronic letter-by-letter readers participated in a tactile/kinesthetic treatment aimed at first improving letter naming accuracy (phase 1) and then letter-by-letter reading speed (phase 2). In a multiple case series design, accuracy and speed of reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy was assessed before phase 1, after phase 1 and again after phase 2. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: All three patients significantly improved both their speed and accuracy reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy. All three patients required the additional practice in phase 2 to achieve significant improvement. Treatment did not target sentence level reading, yet two of the three patients became so adept that they could read entire sentences. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates previous findings on the efficacy of tactile/kinesthetic treatment for letter-by-letter readers with poor letter naming. It further demonstrates that this treatment can alter cognitive processing such that words never specifically trained can be read in free vision without overtly using the trained strategy. The data suggest that an important element in achieving

  13. Monitoring surface water quality using social media in the context of citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Hong, Yang; Long, Di; Jing, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Surface water quality monitoring (SWQM) provides essential information for water environmental protection. However, SWQM is costly and limited in terms of equipment and sites. The global popularity of social media and intelligent mobile devices with GPS and photography functions allows citizens to monitor surface water quality. This study aims to propose a method for SWQM using social media platforms. Specifically, a WeChat-based application platform is built to collect water quality reports from volunteers, which have been proven valuable for water quality monitoring. The methods for data screening and volunteer recruitment are discussed based on the collected reports. The proposed methods provide a framework for collecting water quality data from citizens and offer a primary foundation for big data analysis in future research.

  14. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major

  15. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  16. Microplastic distribution in global marine surface waters: results of an extensive citizen science study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, A.; Petersen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic is a major pollutant throughout the world. The majority of the 322 million tons produced annually is used for single-use packaging. What makes plastic an attractive packaging material: cheap, light-weight and durable are also the features that help make it a common and persistent pollutant. There is a growing body of research on microplastic, particles less than 5 mm in size. Microfibers are the most common microplastic in the marine environment. Global estimates of marine microplastic surface concentrations are based on relatively small sample sizes when compared to the vast geographic scale of the ocean. Microplastic residence time and movement along the coast and sea surface outside of the gyres is still not well researched. This five-year project utilized global citizen scientists to collect 1,628 1-liter surface grab samples in every major ocean. The Artic and Southern oceans contained highest average of particles per liter of surface water. Open ocean samples (further than 12 nm from land, n = 686) contained a higher particle average (17 pieces L-1) than coastal samples (n = 723) 6 pieces L-1. Particles were predominantly 100 µm- 1.5 mm in length (77%), smaller than what has been captured in the majority of surface studies. Utilization of citizen scientists to collect data both in fairly accessible regions of the world as well as from areas hard to reach and therefore under sampled, provides us with a wider perspective of global microplastics occurrence. Our findings confirm global microplastic accumulation zone model predictions. The open ocean and poles have sequestered and trapped plastic for over half a century, and show that not only plastics, but anthropogenic fibers are polluting the environment. Continuing to fill knowledge gaps on microplastic shape, size and color in remote ocean areas will drive more accurate oceanographic models of plastic accumulation zones. Incorporation of smaller-sized particles in these models, which has previously

  17. Teaching Complaint and Adjustment Letters--And Tact (My Favorite Assignment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deimling, Paula

    1992-01-01

    Describes a three-part assignment in which each student writes a complaint letter and an adjustment letter responding to another student's complaint letter. Discusses how the third part of the assignment--journal entries--allows students to formulate their own criteria for excellent letters based upon their reactions to the letters they receive.…

  18. Peer assessment of outpatient consultation letters – feasibility and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojeiji Suzan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Written correspondence is one of the most important forms of communication between health care providers, yet there is little feedback provided to specialists. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and satisfaction of a peer assessment program on consultation letters and to determine inter-rater reliability between family physicians and specialists. Methods A rating scale of nine 5-point Likert scale items including specific content, style items, education value of the letter and an overall rating was developed from a previous validated tool. Nine Internal Medicine specialists/subspecialists from two tertiary care centres submitted 10 letters with patient and physician identifiers removed. Two Internal Medicine specialists, and 2 family physicians from the other centre rated each letter (to protect writer anonymity. A satisfaction survey was sent to each writer and rater after collation of the results. A follow-up survey was sent 6–8 months later. Results There was a high degree of satisfaction with the process and feedback. The rating scale information was felt to be useful and appropriate for evaluating the quality of consultation letters by 6/7 writers. 5/7 seven writers felt that the feedback they received resulted in immediate changes to their letters. Six months later, 6/9 writers indicated they had maintained changes in their letters. Raters rank ordered letters similarly (Cronbach's alpha 0.57–0.84 but mean scores were highly variant. At site 1 there were significant differences in scoring brevity (p Conclusion Most participants found peer assessment of letters feasible and beneficial and longstanding changes occurred in some individuals. Family physicians and specialists appear to have different expectations on some items. Further studies on reliability and validity, with a larger sample, are required before high stakes professional assessments include consultation letters.

  19. Rover exploration on the lunar surface; a science proposal for SELENE-B mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Akiyama, H.; Hirata, N.; Kunii, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Okada, T.; Otake, M.; Saiki, K.; Sugihara, T.

    LUNARSURFACE:ASCIENCES. Sasaki (1), T. Kubota (2) , H. Akiyama (1) , N. Hirata (3), Y. Kunii (4), K. Matsumoto (5), T. Okada (2), M. Otake (3), K. Saiki (6), T. Sugihara (3) (1) Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Univ. Tokyo, (2) Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, (3) National Space Development Agency of Japan, (4) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chuo Univ., (5) National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, (6) Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita Univ. sho@eps.s.u -tokyo.ac.jp/Fax:+81-3-5841-4569 A new lunar landing mission (SELENE-B) is now in consideration in Japan. Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed. To clarify the origin and evolution of the moon, the early crustal formation and later mare volcanic processes are still unveiled. We proposed two geological investigation plans: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of dome-cone structures on young mare region. We propose multi-band macro/micro camera using AOTF, X-ray spectrometer/diffractometer and gamma ray spectrometer. Since observation of rock fragments in brecciaed rocks is necessary, the rover should have cutting or scraping mechanism of rocks. In our current scenario, landing should be performed about 500m from the main target (foot of a crater central peak or a cone/dome). After the spectral survey by multi-band camera on the lander, the rover should be deployed for geological investigation. The rover should make a short (a few tens meter) round trip at first, then it should perform traverse observation toward the main target. Some technological investigations on SELENE-B project will be also presented.

  20. Surface Science in an MOCVD Environment: Arsenic on Vicinal Ge(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.M.; McMahon, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of arsine-exposed vicinal Ge(100) surfaces show that most As/Ge steps are reconstructed, and that a variety of different step structures exist. The entire family of reconstructed As/Ge steps can be divided into two types, which we have chosen to call ''single-row'' steps and ''double-row'' steps. In this paper we propose a model for a double-row step created by annealing a vicinal Ge(100) substrate under an arsine flux in a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) chamber

  1. Open letter to Pope John Paul II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F

    1991-01-01

    In an Open Letter to Pope John Paul II, written on World Population Day (July 11) 1991, Dr. Fred Sai, President of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), called for a dialogue on voluntary family planning as a means of avoiding unwanted pregnancy. A half million women die each year from pregnancy-related causes--a death toll that could be dramatically reduced by universal access to low cost, effective contraception. Family planning further represents the best protection against abortion. The Catholic Church's vehement opposition to abortion and family planning methods other than periodic abstinence is in marked contrast to its support to human rights in other settings. The Church has supported struggles for economic ju stice in and among nations, sided with the poor, and advocated for transitions to democracy. At the same time, the family planning movement--which has as its overall objective the protection of the health and welfare of women, children, and families--is viewed by the Vatican as a vehicle for the enslavement rather than liberation of women. The opening of a sensitive dialogue between the Catholic Church and supporters of voluntary family planning could help couples make sound moral decisions about their families and contribute to saving the lives of millions of women, most of them poor.

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research is published by the College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin to encourage research into ... for 2013 as per Global Impact Factors (http://globalimpactfactor.com).

  3. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Science (TAJAS) is a peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes original and scholarly research articles ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719.

  4. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... (Technical accounts involving application of well-known techniques, and situation ... management sciences and engineering, industry chemistry, general ... The West African Journal of Radiology is an annual publication and the ...

  5. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 93 of 93 ... The African Journal of Social Work is an international refereed journal ... Articles should be of sustainable development interest and include full- ..... in all the fields of sciences and biological technology, ecology, biochemistry, ...

  6. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  7. Metal/metal-oxide interfaces: A surface science approach to the study of adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peden, C.H.F.; Kidd, K.B.; Shinn, N.D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800 (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Metal-oxide/metal interfaces play an important role, for example, in the joining of an oxide ceramic to a metal for sealing applications. In order to probe the chemical and physical properties of such an interface, we have performed Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) and temperature programed desorption (TPD) experiments on a model system composed of very thin films of Cr, Fe, Ni, or Cu evaporated onto a very thin thermally grown oxide on a W single crystal. Monolayer films of Fe and Cr were found (by AES) to completely wet the oxide surface upon deposition, and were stable up to temperatures at which the films desorbed ({approx}1300 K). In contrast, monolayer Ni and Cu films formed three-dimensional islands exposing the oxidized W surface either upon annealing (Ni) or even upon room-temperature deposition (Cu). The relative interfacial interaction between the overlayer metal and the oxide, as assessed by TPD, increases in the series Cu{lt}Ni{lt}Fe{lt}Cr. This trend follows the heats of formation of the various oxides of these metals.

  8. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  9. Electron/positron measurements obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector on the surface of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Appel, J. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Experimental and Applied Physics; and others

    2016-04-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars. Although charged and neutral particle spectra have been investigated in detail, the electron and positron spectra have not been investigated yet. The reason for that is that they are difficult to separate from each other and because of the technical challenges involved in extracting energy spectra from the raw data. We use GEANT4 to model the behavior of the RAD instrument for electron/positron measurements.We compare Planetocosmics predictions for different atmospheric pressures and different modulation parameters Φ with the obtained RAD electron/positron measurements.We find that the RAD electron/positron measurements agree well with the spectra predicted by Planetocosmics. Both RAD measurements and Planetocosmics simulation show a dependence of the electron/positron fluxes on both atmospheric pressure and solar modulation potential.

  10. Biomimetics Bioinspired Hierarchical-Structured Surfaces for Green Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the general field of biomimetics - lessons from nature. It presents various examples of biomimetics, including roughness-induced superomniphobic surfaces which provide functionality of commercial interest. The major focus in the book is on lotus effect, rose petal effect, shark skin effect, and gecko adhesion.  For each example, the book first presents characterization of an object to understand how a natural object provides functionality, followed by modeling and then fabrication of structures in the lab using nature’s route to verify one’s understanding of nature and provide guidance for development of optimum structures. Once it is understood how nature does it, examples of fabrication of optimum structures using smart materials and fabrication techniques, are presented. Examples of nature inspired objects are also presented throughout.

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.; Ceroke, P.J.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J.H.; Fruianu, M.; Belford, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon chars have been synthesized in our laboratory from a variety of starting materials, by means of a highly controlled pyrolysis technique. These chars exhibit electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line shapes which change with the local oxygen concentration in a reproducible and stable fashion; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the 1 H nuclear spin population in conjunction with electron Zeeman pumping. Low-frequency EPR, DNP and DNP-enhanced MRI all show promise as oximetry methods when used with carbon chars. (author)

  12. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  13. Anonymous letters? DNA and fingerprints technologies combined to solve a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, A; Cormaci, P; Teatino, A; La Marca, A; Barbaro, A

    2004-12-02

    Two brothers, living in two different cities, received two different anonymous letters. We performed latent prints development and DNA research on the letters and also on a glass used by a cousin suspected to be the letters' sender.

  14. About illegality determination of the validity of evidence through forensic examination Information letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova S.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This letter prepared in connection with a growing number of complaints of investigators and making decisions on the appointment of psychological examination of the credibility of the video recording of interrogations and dictated by the need to arrange expert practice on the study of video footage of carrying out certain investigative actions with various actors in the criminal process. The newsletter discusses the purpose of such examinations and grounds the studies, in accordance with scientific principles of professional activity of experts. The letter was prepared under the supervision of the Director of the FBI, Federal center of forensic expertise under the Ministry of justice of Russia, doctor of legal Sciences, Professor, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation, honorary worker of justice of Russia of S. A. Smirnova, Deputy General Director for science of Federal State Budgetary Institution "V. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology" of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, doctor of medical Sciences, Professor E. V., Makushkina (doctor of juridical science A. Ya. Asnis, doctor of psychological Sciences, Vaske E. V., doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor E. G. Dozortseva, doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor F. S. Safuanov, PhD, associate Professor S. N. Shishkov, PhD, Professor S. S. Shipshin, PhD, associate Professor D. S. Oshevsky, PhD V. Berdnikov, PhD, associate Professor T. N. Sekerazh, PhD A. N. Kalinin. For investigators, judges, prosecutors, heads of Federal budgetary establishments of the Ministry of justice, judicial psychologists. For investigators, judges, prosecutors, heads of Federal budgetary establishments of the Ministry of justice, judicial psychologists.

  15. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  16. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  17. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeck, Holger; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  18. NASA's MODIS/VIIRS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Products: Asssessment of Accuracy, Continuity and Science Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, G. C.; Malakar, N.; Islam, T.

    2017-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) are an important Earth System Data Record (ESDR) and Environmental Climate Variable (ECV) defined by NASA and GCOS respectively. LST&E data are key variables used in land cover/land use change studies, in surface energy balance and atmospheric water vapor retrieval models and retrievals, and in climate research. LST&E products are currently produced on a routine basis using data from the MODIS instruments on the NASA EOS platforms and by the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi-NPP platform that serves as a bridge between NASA EOS and the next-generation JPSS platforms. Two new NASA LST&E products for MODIS (MxD21) and VIIRS (VNP21) are being produced during 2017 using a new approach that addresses discrepancies in accuracy and consistency between the current suite of split-window based LST products. The new approach uses a Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm, originally developed for the ASTER instrument, to physically retrieve both LST and spectral emissivity consistently for both sensors with high accuracy and well defined uncertainties. This study provides a rigorous assessment of accuracy of the MxD21/VNP21 products using temperature- and radiance-based validation strategies and demonstrates continuity between the products using collocated matchups over CONUS. We will further demonstrate potential science use of the new products with studies related to heat waves, monitoring snow melt dynamics, and land cover/land use change.

  19. Cometary science. The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioni, F; Coradini, A; Filacchione, G; Erard, S; Arnold, G; Drossart, P; De Sanctis, M C; Bockelee-Morvan, D; Capria, M T; Tosi, F; Leyrat, C; Schmitt, B; Quirico, E; Cerroni, P; Mennella, V; Raponi, A; Ciarniello, M; McCord, T; Moroz, L; Palomba, E; Ammannito, E; Barucci, M A; Bellucci, G; Benkhoff, J; Bibring, J P; Blanco, A; Blecka, M; Carlson, R; Carsenty, U; Colangeli, L; Combes, M; Combi, M; Crovisier, J; Encrenaz, T; Federico, C; Fink, U; Fonti, S; Ip, W H; Irwin, P; Jaumann, R; Kuehrt, E; Langevin, Y; Magni, G; Mottola, S; Orofino, V; Palumbo, P; Piccioni, G; Schade, U; Taylor, F; Tiphene, D; Tozzi, G P; Beck, P; Biver, N; Bonal, L; Combe, J-Ph; Despan, D; Flamini, E; Fornasier, S; Frigeri, A; Grassi, D; Gudipati, M; Longobardo, A; Markus, K; Merlin, F; Orosei, R; Rinaldi, G; Stephan, K; Cartacci, M; Cicchetti, A; Giuppi, S; Hello, Y; Henry, F; Jacquinod, S; Noschese, R; Peter, G; Politi, R; Reess, J M; Semery, A

    2015-01-23

    The VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft has provided evidence of carbon-bearing compounds on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very low reflectance of the nucleus (normal albedo of 0.060 ± 0.003 at 0.55 micrometers), the spectral slopes in visible and infrared ranges (5 to 25 and 1.5 to 5% kÅ(-1)), and the broad absorption feature in the 2.9-to-3.6-micrometer range present across the entire illuminated surface are compatible with opaque minerals associated with nonvolatile organic macromolecular materials: a complex mixture of various types of carbon-hydrogen and/or oxygen-hydrogen chemical groups, with little contribution of nitrogen-hydrogen groups. In active areas, the changes in spectral slope and absorption feature width may suggest small amounts of water-ice. However, no ice-rich patches are observed, indicating a generally dehydrated nature for the surface currently illuminated by the Sun. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Submittal of SWMU Assessment Report for Building 9960 Surface Discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-purpose engineering and science laboratory owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration and managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. This Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Assessment Report (SAR) for the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), Coyote Test Field, Building 9960 Surface Discharge, has been prepared in accordance with Section V of the Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order) between the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia (NMED April 2004). The DOE and Sandia formally notified the NMED of this newly identified or suspected SWMU or Area of Concern (AOC) by letter dated December 9, 2014. This SAR is being submitted in accordance with the NMED Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB) letter dated February 16, 2015 letter (Kieling February 2015). This SAR presents the available information for the Building 9960 Surface Discharge, including location, designation of type and function, a general description, the operational dates, waste characteristics, and a summary of existing analytical wastewater and soil data

  1. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pélagie M. Beeson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge.

  2. Computer science: Data analysis meets quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Steven

    2017-10-01

    A technique that combines machine learning and quantum computing has been used to identify the particles known as Higgs bosons. The method could find applications in many areas of science. See Letter p.375

  3. How to write effective business letters: scribing information for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C W

    1993-11-01

    Pharmacists frequently write letters but lack specific training on how to do it well. This review summarizes strategies for improving business correspondence, emphasizes basic writing guidelines, and offers practical advice for pharmacists. The first steps for effective communication are careful planning and identifying the main message to be conveyed. The purpose for writing should be stated in the opening paragraph of the letter. To ensure a successful outcome, actions needed should be clearly summarized and visually highlighted. The tone of the letter should reflect a reasonable speech pattern, not the cryptic writing found in many scientific papers. The layout of the letter should be inviting, which is readily achievable through judicious use of word processing. Many delivery options are available, such as traditional postal services, express mail, and facsimile transmission. Readers are encouraged to test these basic writing principles and decide for themselves whether these recommendations affect the success of business correspondence.

  4. The Quasi-Business Letter: Passport to Foreign Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests having foreign language students write business letters to stimulate interest in developing writing skills. This project gives the students the opportunity of travelling abroad vicariously and to collect souvenirs while improving their communication skills in the foreign language. (CFM)

  5. Region 6: Texas Austin Adequate Letter (11/23/2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA letter approves the Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets contained in the latest revision to Dallas/Fort Worth 2008 8-hour Ozone State Implementation Plan, finding them adequate for transportation conformity purposes to be announced in the Federal Register.

  6. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  7. Letter to Congressional Leaders on Top Defense Management Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This is in reply to the joint letter of October 12, 2000, from the Chairmen of the Senate Committee on the Budget and Committee on Governmental Affairs, the House Government Reform Committee, House...

  8. Letter to Congressional Leaders on Top Defense Management Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... Budget Committee and you on Department of Defense (DoD) management challenges. The joint letter requested that we update our previous assessments of the most significant management problems facing the DoD...

  9. Contemporary trends in the research of the Letter to Philemon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Adamczewski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period of last two or three decades interpretation of the Letter to Philemon has undergone significant changes. Exegetes applying the historical-critical method proposed recently several new ways of reconstructing the situation that occasioned Paul’s writing the letter. It has been suggested e.g. that Onesimus was no runaway, but probably an envoy from Colossae, or Philemon’s estranged brother, or a slave justifiably seeking intercession, or a roamer. Synchronic methods applied by many exegetes (structural, rhetorical, narrative and pragmatic criticism elucidate various kinds of influence of the letter upon the reader. More and more popular becomes also nowadays manifold liberationist approach. However, beyond applying these various hermeneutic procedures there is also, at least for believing exegetes, an important task of adequate explaining the significance of the Letter to Philemon as an inspired writing.

  10. The publication lapse of papers in Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.; Nagydiosi-Kocsis, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    The time needed for passing through journal editorial and publication processing has been examined for the papers published in Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters for the years 1969-1981. (author)

  11. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  12. medication history documentation in referral letters of children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHILDREN PRESENTING AT THE EMERGENCY UNIT OF A TEACHING. HOSPITAL IN LAGOS ... infrequently reported in referral letters to a tertiary care hospital in Lagos,. Nigeria. .... researcher, a pharmacist and clinical pharmacologist.

  13. Scientific Letter: Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of borderline personality disorder: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  14. Scientific Letter: Self-inflicted bilateral orchidectomy precipitated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Self-inflicted bilateral orchidectomy precipitated by erotic bizarre delusions: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home ...

  15. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  16. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... It particularly welcomes work of an interdisciplinary nature that brings together history, religion, politics, culture and law. The Journal has a ... The Journal for Juridical Science is an accredited national professional journal which publishes original research articles in law in Afrikaans and English. Multi and ...

  17. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a ... Therefore, the thrust of the EPR is to provide readers with ideas that help them ... The Egyptian Journal of Biology is now closed to all new submissions

  18. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter O

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this ...

  19. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... Its scope covers the fields of the geosciences, mining, metallurgy, materials science and geoenvironmental studies. ..... and it publishes original research papers, technical reports, state-of-the-art reviews and applied analyses of topical issues on all aspects of engineering practice in Ghana and abroad.

  20. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 62 of 62 ... The Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine is a medical journal focused on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention and related topics relevant to clinical and public health practice. The purpose of ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science is one of the leading forestry journals in the Southern Hemisphere.

  1. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The Journal acts as a medium of improving the quality of health care and medical ... and Heritage, Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing, Semantic Web ... case reports; editorials; seminar and congress reports in relation to human health ... Rwanda Journal, Series D: Life and Natural Sciences.

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 93 ... African Journal of AIDS Research (AJAR) is a peer-reviewed ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal ... Later, the need to expand the horizon of the journal led to the formation of a group (Biomedical Communications ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology.

  3. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... However, there is also room for issues of the larger international order or ... The journal is an initiative of the Phenomenology Research Group .... clinical chemistry, hydrochemistry, agrochemistry, geochemistry and biogeochemistry. .... Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology and Faculty of Dentistry.

  4. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  5. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  6. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  7. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  8. Electron/positron measurements obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector on the surface of Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Köhler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD, on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL rover Curiosity, measures the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars. Although charged and neutral particle spectra have been investigated in detail, the electron and positron spectra have not been investigated yet. The reason for that is that they are difficult to separate from each other and because of the technical challenges involved in extracting energy spectra from the raw data. We use GEANT4 to model the behavior of the RAD instrument for electron/positron measurements. We compare Planetocosmics predictions for different atmospheric pressures and different modulation parameters Φ with the obtained RAD electron/positron measurements. We find that the RAD electron/positron measurements agree well with the spectra predicted by Planetocosmics. Both RAD measurements and Planetocosmics simulation show a dependence of the electron/positron fluxes on both atmospheric pressure and solar modulation potential.

  9. Towards a long-term Science Exploitation Plan for the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer on Sentinel-3 and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, John J.; Llewellyn-Jones, David

    2014-05-01

    The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on Sentinel-3 is the latest satellite instrument in a series of dual-angle optical and thermal sensors, the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs). Operating on Sentinel-3, the SLSTR has a number of significant improvements compared to the original ATSRs including wider swaths for nadir and dual angles, emphasis on all surface temperature domains, dedicated fire channels and additional cloud channels. The SLSTR therefore provides some excellent opportunities to extend science undertaken with the ATSRs whilst also providing long-term data sets to investigate climate change. The European Space Agency, together with the Department of Energy and Climate Change, sponsored the production of an Exploitation Plan for the ATSRs. In the last year, this been extended to cover the SLSTR also. The plan enables UK and European member states to plan activities related to SLSTR in a long-term context. Covering climate change, oceanography, land surface, atmosphere and cryosphere science, particular attention is paid to the exploitation of long-term data sets. In the case of SLSTR, relevant products include sea, land, lake and ice surface temperatures; aerosols and clouds; fires and gas flares; land surface reflectances. In this presentation, the SLSTR and ATSR science Exploitation Plan will be outlined with emphasis on SLSTR science opportunities, on appropriate co-ordinating mechanisms and on example implementation plans. Particular attention will be paid to the challenges of linking ATSR records with SLSTR to provide consistent long-term data sets, and on the international context of such data sets. The exploitation plan approach to science may prove relevant and useful for other Sentinel instruments.

  10. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  11. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  12. DISCERNMENT IN THE LETTER TO THE GALATIANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need for discernment, as a process of critical reflection, is rooted in fundamental ... seem to surface recurrently in the selection of the definitions provided above. ... final result of this process of thinking, since, according to him, this excludes reflective ... view, there were deeper, more fundamental, aspects to the matter. It was.

  13. How To Write a Business Letter. Power of the Printed Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Malcolm

    Business letters should turn people on rather than turning them off. To write a good business letter, know what the goal is before starting to write, call the reader by name, tell what the letter is about in the first paragraph, refer to dates when answering letters, and write from the reader's point of view. Be positive, be nice, and be natural.…

  14. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  15. Letters of Marcus Antonius Kappus from colonial America IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The letter of Marcus Antonius Kappus which we publish in our present the fourth - continuation of his letters from Colonial America, is not preserved - as the first three letters are - in a manuscript. Instead we find it published in the famous contemporary collection of Jesuitic letters which appeared from 1728 till 1758 under the editorship of Joseph Stöcklein and his successors in Augsburg and Graz under the title Der neue Welt-Bott mit Allerhand Nachrichten derer Missionariorum Soc. Jesu. Kappus' letter can be found in vol. I, part II, p. 86-88 under the number 56. It has never since 1728 been reprinted in German, neither has it ever been published in an English translation. Our reprint of the German text is justified because Stöcklein's collection is generally not available even in the largest libraries, especially in America. An English translation can be useful because of the difficulties the old form of its German with its localisms can cause to its readers.

  16. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more—a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible. PMID:22665803

  17. [Representation of letter position in visual word recognition process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, S

    1994-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the representation of letter position in visual word recognition process. In Experiment 1, subjects (12 undergraduates and graduates) were asked to detect a target word in a briefly-presented probe. Probes consisted of two kanji words. The latters which formed targets (critical letters) were always contained in probes. (e.g. target: [symbol: see text] probe: [symbol: see text]) High false alarm rate was observed when critical letters occupied the same within-word relative position (left or right within the word) in the probe words as in the target word. In Experiment 2 (subject were ten undergraduates and graduates), spaces adjacent to probe words were replaced by randomly chosen hiragana letters (e.g. [symbol: see text]), because spaces are not used to separate words in regular Japanese sentences. In addition to the effect of within-word relative position as in Experiment 1, the effect of between-word relative position (left or right across the probe words) was observed. These results suggest that information about within-word relative position of a letter is used in word recognition process. The effect of within-word relative position was explained by a connectionist model of word recognition.

  18. Letter Report for Characterization of Biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.

    2013-04-09

    On 27 November 2012, a bulk biochar sample was received for characterization of selected physical and chemical properties. The main purpose of the characterization was to help determine the degree to which biochar would be suitable as a soil amendment to aid in growth of plants. Towards this end, analyses to determine specific surface, pH, cation-exchange capacity, water retention, and wettability (i.e. surface tension) were conducted. A second objective was to determine how uniform these properties were in the sample. Towards this end, the sample was separated into fractions based on initial particle size and on whether the material was from the external surface or the internal portion of the particle. Based on the results, the biochar has significant liming potentials, significant cation-retention capacities, and highly variable plant-available moisture retention properties that, under the most favorable circumstances, could be helpful to plants. As a consequence, it would be quite suitable for addition to acidic soils and should enhance the fertility of those soils.

  19. Editorial first issue: Letter from the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Nasirinezhad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first issue of Journal of Medical Physiology! Journal of Medical Physiology is a high-quality, peer reviewed, open access journal which will focus on physiology, biology, and neuroscience and their applications in clinic from the molecular levels to the levels of organs and systems.  In recent years knowledge of physiology has been under a great progress and is being taught as one of the major courses in medicine and allied fields in the universities. Many researchers are doing research in this field and try to find the basic mechanism and appropriate solution for diseases which are difficult to treat. The editorial board wants to create a balanced journal to help the researchers in the field of medicine and physiology to share the results of their research work. Like all good science, medical physiology has no national boundaries. Although we each have found our own niche where we work and feel most comfortable, science language is a common language and by this language scientist can learn from each other. We want Journal of Medical Physiology to be an international forum for sharing the best ideas. It will help researcher in the field of medicine and physiology to keep up with the science. We hope that this journal plays a major role in the development of the physiological sciences and contribute to the diffusion of scientific knowledge and to promote discussion among scientist. The journal will include original researches that are practical applications of known techniques as well as theoretical advances at the physiological sciences and medicine. I consider it a great honor being as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Medical Physiology and I will do my best to face all challenges that confront the journal and striving to increase the quality and impact of the journal's content. Despite the inevitable push towards publishing in the highest impact factor journals possible, the other side of the coin is ensuring that your work is

  20. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  1. Analysis of letter name knowledge using Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the measurement of LNK. In this study, we analyze responses from 909 children on measures of LNK using the Rasch model and its extensions, and consider two contextual factors: the format of assessment and the own-name advantage, which states that children are more likely to know letters in their own first names. Results indicate that both contextual factors have important impacts on measurement and that LNK does not meet the requirements of Rasch measurement even when accounting for the contextual factors. These findings introduce philosophical concerns for measurement of constrained skills which have limited content for assessment.

  2. Standardized Letter of Recommendation for Otolaryngology Residency Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan N.; Liang, Conan; McFann, Kim; Abaza, Mona M.; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Develop a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) for otolaryngology residency application that investigates the qualities desired in residents and letter writer’s experience. Compare this SLOR to narrative letters of recommendation (NLOR). Study Design Prospective SLOR/NLOR Comparison. Methods The SLOR was sent to a NLOR writer for each applicant. The applicant’s NLOR/SLOR pair was blinded and ranked in seven categories by three reviewers. Inter-rater reliability and NLOR/SLOR rankings were compared. Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores were compared to our departmental rank list. Results Thirty-one SLORs (66%) were collected. The SLORs had higher inter-rater reliability for applicant’s qualifications for otolaryngology, global assessment, summary statement, and overall letter ranking. Writer’s background, comparison to contemporaries/predecessors, and letter review ease had higher inter-rater reliability on the NLORs. Mean SLOR rankings were higher for writer’s background (p=0.0007), comparison of applicant to contemporaries/predecessors (p=0.0031), and letter review ease (p<0.0001). Mean SLOR writing time was 4.17±2.18 minutes. Mean ranking time was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for the SLORs (39.24±23.45 seconds) compared to the NLORs (70.95±40.14 seconds). Means of cumulative SLOR scores correlated with our rank list (p=0.004), whereas means of cumulative NLOR scores did not (p=0.18). Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores did not correlate (p=0.26). Conclusions SLORs require little writing time, save reviewing time, and are easier to review compared to NLORs. Our SLOR had higher inter-rater reliability in 4 of 7 categories and was correlated with our rank list. This tool conveys standardized information in an efficient manner. PMID:23172646

  3. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  4. Una lettera a Sylos Labini. (A letter to Sylos Labini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Modigliani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The letter, dated 14 September 1956, starts a decade long correspondence between Franco Modigliani and Paolo Sylos Labini. Here Modigliani discusses at length a first draft of Sylos Labini’s book on oligopoly theory. Differently from Modigliani’s well known 1958 review of the book, Modigliani focuses here not mainly on the structure of oligopoly industries, but especially on the macroeconomic implications of Sylos Labini’s model. The letter is reproduced with Sylos Labini’s annotated comments on Modigliani’s remarks. JEL codes: B31, D43, E13

  5. Teaching braille letters, numerals, punctuation, and contractions to sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also numerals, punctuation, symbols, and contractions; we evaluated this program with 4 sighted undergraduate participants. Exposure to this program resulted in mastery of all braille-to-print relations for each participant. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars.

  7. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  8. A Combined Approach to Classifying Land Surface Cover of Urban Domestic Gardens Using Citizen Science Data and High Resolution Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Baker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Domestic gardens are an important component of cities, contributing significantly to urban green infrastructure (GI and its associated ecosystem services. However, domestic gardens are incredibly heterogeneous which presents challenges for quantifying their GI contribution and associated benefits for sustainable urban development. This study applies an innovative methodology that combines citizen science data with high resolution image analysis to create a garden dataset in the case study city of Manchester, UK. An online Citizen Science Survey (CSS collected estimates of proportional coverage for 10 garden land surface types from 1031 city residents. High resolution image analysis was conducted to validate the CSS estimates, and to classify 7 land surface cover categories for all garden parcels in the city. Validation of the CSS land surface estimations revealed a mean accuracy of 76.63% (s = 15.24%, demonstrating that citizens are able to provide valid estimates of garden surface coverage proportions. An Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA classification achieved an estimated overall accuracy of 82%, with further processing required to classify shadow objects. CSS land surface estimations were then extrapolated across the entire classification through calculation of within image class proportions, to provide the proportional coverage of 10 garden land surface types (buildings, hard impervious surfaces, hard pervious surfaces, bare soil, trees, shrubs, mown grass, rough grass, cultivated land, water within every garden parcel in the city. The final dataset provides a better understanding of the composition of GI in domestic gardens and how this varies across the city. An average garden in Manchester has 50.23% GI, including trees (16.54%, mown grass (14.46%, shrubs (9.19%, cultivated land (7.62%, rough grass (1.97% and water (0.45%. At the city scale, Manchester has 49.0% GI, and around one fifth (20.94% of this GI is contained within domestic

  9. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  10. Applications of surface analysis in the environmental sciences: dehalogenation of chlorocarbons with zero-valent iron and iron-containing mineral surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Molly M.; Carlson, Daniel L.; Vikesland, Peter J.; Kohn, Tamar; Grenier, Adam C.; Langley, Laura A.; Roberts, A. Lynn; Fairbrother, D. Howard

    2003-10-31

    Halogenated organic compounds are common pollutants in groundwater. Consequently, there is widespread interest in understanding the reactions of these compounds in the environment and developing remediation strategies. One area of ongoing research involves the reductive dechlorination of organohalides with zero-valent metals or metal sulfide minerals. These processes have been studied almost exclusively from the perspective of the aqueous phase. In this paper we illustrate the utility of surface analysis techniques, including electron spectroscopies, vibrational spectroscopies, and atomic force microscopy in elucidating the roles played by the surface. A dual analysis approach to the study of reductive dechlorination, combining traditional solution phase analysis with surface analytical techniques, also is demonstrated using a liquid cell coupled to an ultrahigh vacuum surface analysis chamber.

  11. "Letter-Space": Typographic Translations of Urban Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Jacqueline; O'Sullivan, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a Bachelor of Design honours year typography project in the medium of letterpress. The "Letter-space" project positioned letterpress as a textual, spatial and structural visual language, through which the experiences and meanings of a local urban place were translated, mapped and given form through typographic design. We…

  12. Effects of Grammatical Categories on Letter Detection in Continuous Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucambert, Denis; Zuniga, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on the interplay between the linguistic principles and the psycholinguistic processes involved in reading. Results from 56 participants on a letter detection task reveal that readers do not process all function words in the same manner. Omission rates were highest for function words occupying the head of maximal…

  13. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  14. A Letter from a Black Mom to Her Son

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    An African American mother and teacher educator uses examples from her own childhood to describe how she hopes her child will be treated by teachers, and what she fears. In her letter to her son, the African American mom expresses how she want teachers to know her son's journey to school--metaphorically and physically. She wants them to know that…

  15. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong | Hampton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 55, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong. M I Hampton ...

  16. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David

  17. Predatory Journals and Perished Articles; a Letter to Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Narimani, Mashallah; Dadkhah, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, academic publishing has been faced with many destructive phenomena. “Predatory publishers” (or journals) are one challenge for  cholarly publishing. This term was introduced to academic societies for the first time by Jeffrey Beall in 2010. This letter to editor is about predatory journals and perished articles in the field of emergency medicine.

  18. Comradely Greetings: The Prison Letters of Nadya and Slavoj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Briziarelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Žižek and Tolokonnikova’s exchange letters provides the reader with the suggestive image and evocative words of two intellectuals speaking from very different contexts. This article discusses the relevance of this volume in the context of localized global capitalism and an equally localized global struggle against it.

  19. Letter to Daniel Gilligan of Petroleum Marketers Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A letter in response to a request for the Agency’s view regarding whether several approaches would satisfy 40 CFR §112.7(a)(2)’s “equivalent environmental protection” provision and for clarification of the scope of the requirements in 40 CFR §112.

  20. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited

  1. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4720 Letters of credit. Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors...

  2. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  3. Transposed-letter priming of prelexical orthographic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A prime generated by transposing two internal letters (e.g., jugde) produces strong priming of the original word (judge). In lexical decision, this transposed-letter (TL) priming effect is generally weak or absent for nonword targets; thus, it is unclear whether the origin of this effect is lexical or prelexical. The authors describe the Bayesian Reader theory of masked priming (D. Norris & S. Kinoshita, 2008), which explains why nonwords do not show priming in lexical decision but why they do in the cross-case same-different task. This analysis is followed by 3 experiments that show that priming in this task is not based on low-level perceptual similarity between the prime and target, or on phonology, to make the case that priming is based on prelexical orthographic representation. The authors then use this task to demonstrate equivalent TL priming effects for nonwords and words. The results are interpreted as the first reliable evidence based on the masked priming procedure that letter position is not coded absolutely within the prelexical, orthographic representation. The implications of the results for current letter position coding schemes are discussed.

  4. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... party in the performance of an obligation. (b) As a matter of sound banking practice, banks for... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 614.4810 Section 614.4810 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks...

  5. Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al Hufuf, Saudi Arabia. Hamed Abd Allah Al Wadaani, Magdy Hassan Balaha. Abstract. Background: In surgical wards, it is of paramount importance to communicate with other health care providers, mostly physicians, referring patients to them for their ...

  6. Friday Letters: Connecting Students, Teachers, and Families through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Terry H.; Bizzarri, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of student success in school is the involvement of families. However, the communication between students and families regarding school is often sparse at best and caregivers can feel left out as to what is happening. Friday letters improve communication between students and families and also provide a myriad of instructional…

  7. Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the 21st Century. George N. Ngugi ... The relevance of planning education is questioned from the theoretical and philosophical perspectives on one hand, the professional and practical stance on the other. Its goals are scrutinized and its structure argued about.

  8. 78 FR 19288 - Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R7-FHC-2013-N047; FF07CAMM00.FX.FR133707PB000] Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Fairweather, LLC........ Exploration........ Beaufort Sea Acoustic Monitoring July 15, 2012. Recorder...

  9. [Patients' letters and pre-modern medical lay-culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Consulting by letter was fairly common practice among the educated, upper classes of early modern Europe. Surviving letters of consultation written by patients, relatives or friends count among the most valuable source for the analysis of pre-modern experiences of disease and the body. This essay gives a brief overview of the various types of consultation letters and related documents which resulted from this practice before tracing the historical development of epistolary consultations from the late Middle Ages through the heyday medical correspondence in the 18th c. before its decline in the 19th c. It presents "experience", "self-fashioning" and "discourse" as three particularly fruitful levels of analysis on which patients' letters can be used within the wider framework of a cultural history of medicine. These three levels of analysis, or three distinct approaches, enable historians to access a greater awareness of the ways in which the experience of illness and the body is culturally framed with an analysis of the performative effects of patients' narratives and the influence of medical discourse among the wider society.

  10. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take...

  11. 50 CFR 216.259 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.259 Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as provided in...

  12. 50 CFR 216.218 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.218 Letters of...

  13. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-12-01

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. THE SPIRITUALITY OF THE LETTER TO THE GALATIANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attention. In fact, I am aware of only two studies that focus on Galatians in .... does not explicitly use the term “coming age” here or elsewhere in his letters, .... framework according to which history is divided into the period before and the.

  15. Adolescent Suidice--An Open Letter to Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jane

    1988-01-01

    A mother of a 16 year-old suicide victim writes to school counselors who let her down by not informing her of important changes in her son's activities, personality, and choice of friends at school. The letter also addresses two psychologists in a psychiatric hospital who suppressed information about the boy's suicidal intentions and his…

  16. 48 CFR 49.601-2 - Letter notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter notice. 49.601-2 Section 49.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... immediate complete spoilage of work-in-process having a definite commercial value, or (D) to prevent any...

  17. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  18. Model business letters, emails and other business documents

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.

  19. Standardized letters of recommendation and successful match into otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Adam J; McClurg, Stanley W; Del Signore, Anthony G; Tomoum, Mohamed O; Lin, Feng-Chang; Senior, Brent A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, narrative letters of recommendation have been utilized in the selection of applicants for otolaryngology residency programs. In the last two application cycles, our specialty adopted a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR). The intent was to decrease time burden for letter writers and to provide readers with an objective evaluation of applicants. The objective of this study was to determine attributes in the SLOR that correlate with matching into a residency program. We performed a retrospective study using SLOR, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores, and matched outcomes of applicants who applied to our institution for the 2013 and 2014 match cycle. We included the following variables from the SLOR in the statistical analysis to determine which ones were associated with matching: patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, procedural skills, research, initiative and drive, commitment to otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, match potential, and USMLE1 scores. We identified 532 applicants and 963 SLOR. In successful applicants, scores for patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, initiative and drive, and match potential were statistically higher (P otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, and USMLE step 1 scores were not higher among successfully matched applicants. Although SLOR can save time for letter writers and provide an objective description of applicants, the utility of individual domains within the SLOR is questionable. Additionally, it is concerning that applicants' professionalism and procedural skills are not correlated with matching in our specialty. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1071-1076, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. 15 CFR 700.63 - Letters of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Letters of Understanding. 700.63 Section 700.63 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  1. Language Arts/Arts: Adopt-a-Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Rhoda K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a five-week project in which elementary students chose a favorite letter as the main character of a 25- to 30-page book for practice in language skills. The book each child made was composed of more than 20 learning activities that stimulated students to review and practice skills, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms and alliteration as…

  2. Rock 'n' Roll Heroes: Letter to President Eisenhower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jean W., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This primary source document can be used to teach secondary students about the rock 'n' roll era that emerged in the 1950's. The document is a letter written in 1958 by three teenagers to President Eisenhower concerning the induction of Elvis Presley into the U.S. Army. Class activities are also suggested. (RM)

  3. transformation in love in paul's letter to the galatians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This focus on the faith-works controversy has not been conducive to attempts to read it ... explosion of such studies on the meaning of the letter for contemporary life. .... often love has been studied in terms of a particular word rather than in terms of ..... and affectionate character.25 There is more, however: In Christ, humanity.

  4. LETTERS OF MARIA KUNCEWICZOWA TO HER LATE HUSBAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wzorek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the last book of Maria Kuncewiczowa – a set of twenty-three letters (provided with a postscript addressed to her deceased husband. The uniqueness of this correspondence, presented in literary form, lies in the fact that the recipient is dead, treated by the sender as someone constantly present in the real world and still associated with the temporality. "Listy do Jerzego" ("Letters to Jerzy" are – as Tadeusz Swat, one of the reviewers say – “an attempt at denial of death, to save Jerzy by love, memory, and literature.” The analysis of the work highlights the occurring axiological categories. It has been demonstrated that "Letters to Jerzy" is a book about eternal love reaching beyond the grave (in this respect, in stark contrast with "Tristan" 1946, felt with dignity of old age, and finally transcending into faith. "Letters to Jerzy" is also an attempt to reduce the suffering of the writer over the loss of her beloved husband. To some extent, therefore, they correspond to her earlier work "Cudzoziemka" ("Foreigner" in which Kuncewiczowa liberates from the negative emotions associated with the death of her mother.

  5. “YOUR P.C.W.” THE UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF PAUL SCHEERBART TO ERICH MÜHSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Belarev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The archive of a German writer and anarchist Erich Mühsam (1878– 1934 is a significant but “unexplored” part of the manuscript collection of the A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences. I publish three letters of a German science fiction writer Paul Scheerbart (1863– 1915 to Mühsam and a postcard that Scheerbart sent to a German writer Hans Heinz Ewers. The letters to Mühsam record negotiations with publishing houses in Munich and Berlin about the publication of Scheerbart’s manuscripts (1909. In the postcard to Ewers, Sheerbart writes about the progress in his work on the perpetual motion machine that he tried to construct in 1908–1909. The letters are published in German with Russian translation and commentary. The introductory article gives an overview of Scheerbart’s life and career, the specificity of his works, their problematics and poetics and especially focuses on Scheerbart’s epistolary heritage. These letters are the token of friendship and professional collaboration of the two writers that is reflected in their mutual work on the unrealized project of publishing a satirical newspaper “Vaterland.” The IWL archives contain the unpublished manuscripts of Scheerbart and Mühsam related to this project as well. The history and the structure of the Mühsam archive is another aspect covered in the introductory article. Both Erich and Zenzl Mühsam were victims of totalitarian regimes. Erich was killed by the Nazis and his spouse Zenzl spent many years in Soviet labor camps. The history of the Mühsam manuscripts became intertwined with Zenzl’s life. That is why the article devotes space to Zenzl’s biography and attempts to answer the following questions connected to the archive: how did the manuscripts get to the Soviet Union? Why is the archive uncomplete? Finally, I discuss the publication history of Scheerbart letters from the IWL collection. Keywords: Paul Scheerbart, Erich

  6. MDD Status Letter Report (AFCI CETE Milestone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

    2009-09-01

    Current flow sheets for processing used nuclear fuels do not produce separated streams of all of the actinides. These aqueous processing streams must be converted into solid forms suitable for recycle (fuel/target fabrication), storage, or disposal, necessitating co-conversion. A process developed at ORNL in the 1980s to make UO{sub 3} suitable as fuel feedstock was studied for preparation of mixed actinide oxides with similarly favorable ceramic properties. The process, Modified Direct Denitration (MDD), uses ammonium nitrate to alter the thermal decomposition behavior of metal nitrates and improve the ceramic properties of the resulting solid oxide. Since plutonium (IV) and neptunium(IV) form compounds similar to uranium with the ammonium ion [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Np(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}], MDD-conversion of these metals was considered to be applicable. Co-conversion has advantages for making mixed oxides over individual element conversions that are followed by dry mixing of the oxide powders. Issues associated with preparing a mixture from individual oxides include use of additional equipment, dusting associated with feeding and milling, time requirements for milling, blending to obtain a uniform mixture, and inhomogenity at higher plutonium concentrations. These issues can be partially or wholly avoided by using MDD coconversion in which the mixing of the individual metals occurs in liquid solution; thus, adjusting relative metal concentrations is simpler and the resulting mixed oxide is more uniform than that produced by blending the individual oxides. Utilizing MDD also eliminates the need for mechanical treatment of the powder to obtain the desired ceramic properties, such as surface area and particle size distribution, since these characteristics are acceptable as-produced. The original MDD development work established that uranium oxide with good ceramic properties could be made. Following the discovery, a more fundamental

  7. MDD Status Letter Report (AFCI CETE Milestone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedder, Raymond James; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Current flow sheets for processing used nuclear fuels do not produce separated streams of all of the actinides. These aqueous processing streams must be converted into solid forms suitable for recycle (fuel/target fabrication), storage, or disposal, necessitating co-conversion. A process developed at ORNL in the 1980s to make UO 3 suitable as fuel feedstock was studied for preparation of mixed actinide oxides with similarly favorable ceramic properties. The process, Modified Direct Denitration (MDD), uses ammonium nitrate to alter the thermal decomposition behavior of metal nitrates and improve the ceramic properties of the resulting solid oxide. Since plutonium (IV) and neptunium(IV) form compounds similar to uranium with the ammonium ion [(NH 4 ) 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 , (NH 4 ) 2 Np(NO 3 ) 6 ], MDD-conversion of these metals was considered to be applicable. Co-conversion has advantages for making mixed oxides over individual element conversions that are followed by dry mixing of the oxide powders. Issues associated with preparing a mixture from individual oxides include use of additional equipment, dusting associated with feeding and milling, time requirements for milling, blending to obtain a uniform mixture, and inhomogenity at higher plutonium concentrations. These issues can be partially or wholly avoided by using MDD coconversion in which the mixing of the individual metals occurs in liquid solution; thus, adjusting relative metal concentrations is simpler and the resulting mixed oxide is more uniform than that produced by blending the individual oxides. Utilizing MDD also eliminates the need for mechanical treatment of the powder to obtain the desired ceramic properties, such as surface area and particle size distribution, since these characteristics are acceptable as-produced. The original MDD development work established that uranium oxide with good ceramic properties could be made. Following the discovery, a more fundamental understanding of the chemistry of the

  8. A Deep Learning Model of Perception in Color-Letter Synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a psychological phenomenon where sensory signals become mixed. Input to one sensory modality produces an experience in a second, unstimulated modality. In “grapheme-color synesthesia”, viewed letters and numbers evoke mental imagery of colors. The study of this condition has implications for increasing our understanding of brain architecture and function, language, memory and semantics, and the nature of consciousness. In this work, we propose a novel application of deep learning to model perception in grapheme-color synesthesia. Achromatic letter images, taken from database of handwritten characters, are used to train the model, and to induce computational synesthesia. Results show the model learns to accurately create a colored version of the inducing stimulus, according to a statistical distribution from experiments on a sample population of grapheme-color synesthetes. To the author’s knowledge, this work represents the first model that accurately produces spontaneous, creative mental imagery characteristic of the synesthetic perceptual experience. Experiments in cognitive science have contributed to our understanding of some of the observable behavioral effects of synesthesia, and previous models have outlined neural mechanisms that may account for these observations. A model of synesthesia that generates testable predictions on brain activity and behavior is needed to complement large scale data collection efforts in neuroscience, especially when articulating simple descriptions of cause (stimulus and effect (behavior. The research and modeling approach reported here provides a framework that begins to address this need.

  9. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  10. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Small, M.J.; Kingston, J.C.; Bernert, J.A.; Thomas, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition

  11. Magnocellular involvement in flanked-letter identification relates to the allocation of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that the magnocellular system is important to flanked-letter identification [Neuropsychologia 40 (2002) 1881] because it subserves attention allocation, we conducted three letter-naming experiments in which we manipulated magnocellular involvement (colour vs. luminance

  12. Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent scale: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ... Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available ...

  13. Insights from developmental and acquired letter position dyslexia on morphological decomposition in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We explored morphological decomposition in reading, the locus in the reading process in which it takes place and its nature, comparing different types of morphemes. We assessed these questions through the analysis of letter position errors in readers with letter position dyslexia(LPD. LPD is a selective impairment to letter position encoding in the early stage of word reading, which results in letter migrations (cloud-could. We used the fact that migrations in LPD occur mainly in word-interior letters, whereas exterior letters rarely migrate.The rationale was that if morphological decomposition occurs prior to letter position encoding and strips off affixes, word-interior letters adjacent to an affix (signs-signs would become exterior following affix-stripping and hence exhibit fewer migrations.We tested 11 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD and 1 with acquired LPD in 6 experiments of reading aloud, lexical decision, and comprehension, at the single word and sentence levels. We examined migrations next to inflectional,derivational,or bound function morphemes compared with exterior letters.Root letters adjacent to inflectional and derivational morphemes were treated like middle letters, and migrated frequently, whereas root letters adjacent to bound function morphemes patterned with exterior letters, and almost never migrated. Given that LPD is a pre-lexical deficit, these results indicate that morphological decomposition takes place in an early, pre-lexical stage. Morphologically complex nonwords showed the same pattern, indicating that this decomposition is structurally, rather than lexically, driven.We suggest that letter position encoding takes place before morphological analysis, but in some cases, as with bound function morphemes, the complex word is re-analyzed as two separate words. In this reanalysis, letter positions in each constituent word are encoded separately,and hence the exterior letters of the root are treated as exterior and

  14. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  15. Mathematics: Number Systems around the World [and] Reading/Language Arts: The Little Red Hen [and] Use Book-Making, Art, Research, Word-Processing Skills, and Language Arts Skills to Create Original "Ancient Greek" Myths [and] Electronic Author Studies [and] Science: Inspecting the Wide World of Insects on the Web [and] Social Studies: Civil War Letters [and] Pizarro and the Incas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Provides seven fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in mathematics, reading and language arts, science, and social studies for elementary and secondary education. Library media skills, objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, evaluation, and follow-up are described for…

  16. Letter report: Evaluation of dryer/calciner technologies for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.

    1996-02-01

    This letter report describes some past experiences on the drying and calcination of radioactive materials or corresponding simulants; and the information needed from testing. The report also includes an assessment of informational needs including possible impacts to a full-scale plant. This includes reliability, maintenance, and overall size versus throughput. Much of the material was previously compiled and reported by Mike Elliott of PNL open-quotes Melter Performance Assessmentclose quotes and Larry Eisenstatt of SEG on contract to WHC in a letter to Rod Powell. Also, an annotated bibliography was prepared by Reagan Seymour of WHC. Descriptions of the drying and calciner technologies, development status, advantages and disadvantages of using a WFE or calciner, and recommendations for future testing are discussed in this report

  17. The A.I.D.A. Plan and the Writing of Sales Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rowena

    A study based on textual analysis of sales letters is reported that evaluates the Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA) approach to teaching the writing of sales letters. Thirty business letters written by undergraduate business students and executives were analyzed. The forms of cohesion, voice pattern, and information focus of the…

  18. Readability of "Dear Patient" device advisory notification letters created by a device manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Luke A; Sharma, Arjun; Ottenberg, Abigale L; Mueller, Paul S

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) recommended that cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) manufacturers use advisory notification letters to communicate with affected patients. To evaluate the readability of the HRS sample "patient device advisory notification" letter and those created by 1 CIED manufacturer. The HRS sample letter and 25 Boston Scientific Corporation letters dated from 2005 through 2011 were evaluated by using 6 readability tests. Readability (Flesch-Kincaid score) of the HRS sample letter was grade level 12.5, and median readability of the device manufacturer letters was grade level 12.8 (range 10.8-18.9). Similar results were obtained by using other readability scales. No letters had readability scores at the National Work Group on Literacy and Health's recommended reading level-fifth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this recommended level by an average of 7.7 grades (95% confidence interval 6.9-8.5; Preadability scores at the average reading level of US adults-eighth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this level by an average of 4.7 grades (95% confidence interval 3.9-5.5; Preadability of the HRS sample letter and those created by a CIED manufacturer significantly exceeded the recommended and average US adults' reading skill levels. Such letters are unlikely to be informative to many patients. CIED manufacturers should ensure that advisory letters are comprehensible to most affected patients. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal for use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or...

  20. 24 CFR 242.49 - Funds and finances: deposits and letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... collection under the letter of credit. In the event a demand for payment thereunder is not immediately met... letters of credit. 242.49 Section 242.49 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...: deposits and letters of credit. (a) Deposits. Where HUD requires the mortgagor to make a deposit of cash or...

  1. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  2. 30 CFR 1.3 - Use of letters and acronym MSHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of letters and acronym MSHA. 1.3 Section 1.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND...; ESTABLISHMENT AND USE OF OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.3 Use of letters and acronym MSHA. The letters and acronym MSHA may...

  3. Performance of the Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Rover Heat Rejection System Used for Thermal Control of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.; Miller, Jennifer; Karlmann, Paul; Liu, Yuanming; Anderson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The challenging range of landing sites for which the Mars Science Laboratory Rover was designed, required a rover thermal management system that is capable of keeping temperatures controlled across a wide variety of environmental conditions. On the Martian surface where temperatures can be as cold as -123 C and as warm as 38 C, the Rover relies upon a Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) Rover Heat Rejection System (RHRS) and external radiators to maintain the temperature of sensitive electronics and science instruments within a -40 C to +50 C range. The RHRS harnesses some of the waste heat generated from the Rover power source, known as the Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), for use as survival heat for the rover during cold conditions. The MMRTG produces 110 Watts of electrical power while generating waste heat equivalent to approximately 2000 Watts. Heat exchanger plates (hot plates) positioned close to the MMRTG pick up this survival heat from it by radiative heat transfer and supply it to the rover. This design is the first instance of use of a RHRS for thermal control of a rover or lander on the surface of a planet. After an extremely successful landing on Mars (August 5), the rover and the RHRS have performed flawlessly for close to an earth year (half the nominal mission life). This paper will share the performance of the RHRS on the Martian surface as well as compare it to its predictions.

  4. Eigenvalues of Words in Two Positive Definite Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Hillar, Christopher J; Johnson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether all words in two real positive definite letters have only positive eigenvalues is addressed and settled (negatively). This question was raised some time ago in connection with a long-standing problem in theoretical physics. A large class of words that do guarantee positive eigenvalues is identified, and considerable evidence is given for the conjecture that no other words do. In the process, a fundamental question about solvability of symmetric word equations is encoun...

  5. Letter concerning Li2B4O7 thermoluminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    This letter reports the comparison of two commercially available types of lithium borate thermoluminesence dosimeters: one in which crystalline lithium borate was pressed into chips, and the other in which lithium borate was dispersed in a glass matrix. When irradiated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation, the response of a single sample of each type was reproducible to within 1%. However, differences between the two samples were apparent in their long term storage characteristics

  6. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  7. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  8. Letter to Freud: on the plight of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Dinah M

    2011-12-01

    In the form of a letter, the writer communicates to Freud her appreciation for the incomparable richness and complexity of the psychoanalytic enterprise in its century-long evolution from classical, Freudian origins to new developments in theory and technique. At the same time, concern is expressed about the continuity and survival of psychoanalysis in a cultural milieu that has absorbed its once radical ideas about sexuality and unconscious motivation while resisting its viability as a method of treatment.

  9. Letter to my children about sex and the catholic church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, R J

    1994-09-01

    This essay is directed to a younger generation. It summarizes the conflicting traditions in the Catholic community today: official Church teaching (represented by "Humanae Vitae" and "Veritatis Splendor"), liberal theologians like Charles Curran (who occasioned this letter), and ordinary Catholics struggling in an imperfect world. The paper attempts to integrate values from three traditions, those associated with respect for new life, a loving relationship, and playfulness. The resulting synthesis offers a spiritually and psychologically viable option worth considering, the author believes.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    OpenAIRE

    Elian Iwi Afifah; Triyono Triyono; Yuliati Hotifah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development...

  11. Editorial team for the CERN Computer News Letter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Computer News Letter (CNL) informs the users of CERN computing facilities about changes and trends in this area. The CNL can also include some conference or meeting reports and technical briefs which can --as they are not necessarily CERN specific-- be helpful to non-CERN users. From left to right: W. von Rueden, Nicole Crémel and François Grey

  12. Decoding English Alphabet Letters Using EEG Phase Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiYan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen. We applied support vector machine (SVM with gradient descent method to learn the potential features for classification. It was observed that the EEG phase signals have a higher decoding accuracy than the oscillation power information. Low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations have phase information with higher accuracy than do other bands. The decoding performance was best when the analysis period began from 180 to 380 ms after stimulus presentation, especially in the lateral occipital and posterior temporal scalp regions (PO7 and PO8. These results may provide a new approach for brain-computer interface techniques (BCI and may deepen our understanding of EEG oscillations in cognition.

  13. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  14. [The Republic of Letters and French physicians on the eve of the French Revolution: the case of Esprit Calvet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockliss, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    In the broad Republic of Letters of the second half of the eighteenth century, physicians played an important but singular role. The majority of them were forced to earn their daily bread, so only belonged to the Republic in their leisure hours. Inhabiting a double universe--the everyday world of their profession and the more refined world of their intellectual hobbies--they had to negotiate continually between the two. This liminal position of the citizen-physician is recaptured in this article through the example of a physician of the Midi, Esprit Calvet of Avignon (1728--1810). Calvet left a huge correspondence, thanks to which this duality between the practising physician and the citizen of the Republic of Letters can be studied in detail. On the one hand, this is a correspondence between the physician and his patients, augmented by letters between the physician and other physicians on medical topics. On the other hand, it is a correspondence between the physician and other men of science on non-medical subjects (archaeology, botany, bibliophily, poetry, etc.).

  15. Verse Letter from Gregory of Nazianzus to Vitalianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Brodňanská

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a complex view of the poetic letter of Gregory of Nazianzus II, II, 3 Ad Vitalianum, which has not yet been the subject of modern criticism. The letter is a plea by Vitalianus’ banished sons for their father to take them back. Based on the manuscript tradition, the article’s author concludes that the fictional author of the letter is the son Phocas rather than Peter. The disrupted relationship between father and sons is reflected in both the content of the poem and the forms of salutations used: the seemingly positive epithets φέριστε, μακάρτατε, and φίλε; forms of address which directly express a certain distance and coldness (μέγα φέρτατε, ὦ ἄνα, or even animosity towards the father (ὀλοώτατε δαῖμον, ὦ κακόβουλε. The poetic letter has a concentric structure (A; B; C; D; E; F; G; F´; E´; D´; C´; B´; A´, with individual com­ponents linked for the most part thematically. The letter is written in dactylic hexameter. The most frequently used metre in the verses is the holodactyl, and the most frequent caesura is the caesura post tertium trochaeum. As far as the breach of Hermann’s bridge in verses is concerned, and based on the understanding of the term ‘word’ in metrics, the author of the article concludes that in the majority of cases the breach is only ‘visual’, and cannot be detected when listened to. Gregory did not avoid three true hiatuses; and in two verses, in order to keep the rhythm of dactylic hexameter, it is essential to measure a long syllable as a short one. However, metric errors may be related to prosodic licence.

  16. Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    microscopy and imaging science, interfacial and surface science, materials discovery, and thin-film material Science Materials Science Illustration with bottom row showing a ball-and-stick model and top row dense black band. State-of-the-art advances in materials science come from a combination of experiments

  17. Letter processing and font information during reading: beyond distinctiveness, where vision meets design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Dyson, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Letter identification is a critical front end of the reading process. In general, conceptualizations of the identification process have emphasized arbitrary sets of distinctive features. However, a richer view of letter processing incorporates principles from the field of type design, including an emphasis on uniformities across letters within a font. The importance of uniformities is supported by a small body of research indicating that consistency of font increases letter identification efficiency. We review design concepts and the relevant literature, with the goal of stimulating further thinking about letter processing during reading.

  18. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  19. Involuntary attention with uncertainty: peripheral cues improve perception of masked letters, but may impair perception of low-contrast letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzel, Dirk; Gauch, Angélique; Buetti, Simona

    2010-10-01

    Improvements of perceptual performance following the presentation of peripheral cues have been ascribed to accelerated accrual of information, enhanced contrast perception, and decision bias. We investigated effects of peripheral cues on the perception of Gabor and letter stimuli. Non-predictive, peripheral cues improved perceptual accuracy when the stimuli were masked. In contrast, peripheral cues degraded perception of low-contrast letters and did not affect the perception of low-contrast Gabors. The results suggest that involuntary attention accelerates accrual of information but are not entirely consistent with the idea that involuntary attention enhances subjective contrast. Rather, peripheral cues may cause crowding with single letter targets of low contrast. Further, we investigated the effect of the amount of uncertainty on involuntary attention. Cueing effects were (initially) larger when there were more possible target locations. In addition, cueing effects were larger when error feedback was absent and observers had no knowledge of results. Despite these strategic factors, location uncertainty was not sufficient to produce cueing effects, showing that location uncertainty paired with non-predictive cues reveals perceptual and not (only) decisional processes.

  20. The elaboration of motor programs for the automation of letter production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibon, Laurence Séraphin; Gerber, Silvain; Kandel, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    We investigated how children learn to write letters. Letter writing evolves from stroke-by-stroke to whole-letter programming. Children of ages 6 to 9 (N=98) wrote letters of varying complexity on a digitizer. At ages 6 and 7 movement duration, dysfluency and trajectory increased with stroke number. This indicates that the motor program they activated mainly coded information on stroke production. Stroke number affected the older children's production much less, suggesting that they programmed stroke chunks or the whole letter. The fact that movement duration and dysfluency decreased from ages 6 to 8, and remained stable at ages 8 and 9 suggests that automation of letter writing begins at age 8. Automation seems to require the elaboration of stroke chunks and/or letter-sized motor programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 77 FR 45411 - Letters of Interest for Credit Assistance Under the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...Pursuant to the recently enacted Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), DOT announces the availability of funding authorized in the amount of $1.75 billion ($750 million in Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 funds and $1 billion in FY 2014 funds (and any funds that may be available from prior fiscal years)) to provide TIFIA credit assistance for eligible projects. The FY 2013 and FY 2014 funds are subject to an annual obligation limitation that may be established in appropriations law. The amount of TIFIA budget authority available in a given year may be less than the amount authorized for that fiscal year. Under TIFIA, DOT provides secured (direct) loans, lines of credit, and loan guarantees to public and private applicants for eligible surface transportation projects. Projects must meet statutorily specified eligibility criteria to receive credit assistance. This notice outlines the process that project sponsors must follow in seeking TIFIA credit assistance. DOT is publishing this notice to give project sponsors an opportunity to submit Letters of Interest for the newly authorized funding as soon as possible. However, in addition to authorizing more funding for TIFIA credit assistance, MAP-21 made some significant changes to the TIFIA program's structure, including the terms and conditions pursuant to which DOT can provide TIFIA credit assistance. While this notice provides guidance about how DOT will implement some of the changes made by MAP-21, it does not provide guidance about how DOT will implement all of these changes. Further information about the changes made by MAP-21 and additional DOT guidance for implementation of these provisions is provided in Part VII below. Also, Part VII invites interested parties to submit comments about DOT's implementation of MAP-21 and DOT's guidance for awarding TIFIA credit assistance. Unless otherwise noted, statutory section references in this notice are to sections of title 23 of the U.S. Code, as

  2. Unraveling the Role of Transport, Electrocatalysis, and Surface Science in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Srikanth [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This final report for project FE0009656 covers the period from 10/01/2012 to 09/30/2015 and covers research accomplishments on the effects of carbon dioxide on the surface composition and structure of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), specifically La1-xSrxFeyCo1- yO3-δ (LSCF). Epitaxially deposited thin films of LSCF on various single-crystal substrates have revealed the selective segregation of strontium to the surface thereby resulting in a surface enrichment of strontium. The near surface compositional profile in the films have been measured using total x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and show that the kinetics of strontium segregation are higher at higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide. Once the strontium segregates to the surface, it leads to the formation of precipitates of SrO which convert to SrCO3 in the presence of even modest concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This has important implications for the performance of SOFCs which is discussed in this report. These experimental observations have also been verified by Density Functional Theory calculations (DFT) which predict the conditions under which SrO and SrCO3 can occur in LSCF. Furthermore, a few cathode compositions which have received attention in the literature as alternatives to LSCF cathodes have been studied in this work and shown to be thermodynamically unstable under the operating conditions of the SOFCs.

  3. Strategy for Ranking the Science Value of the Surface of Asteroid 101955 Bennu for Sample Site Selection for Osiris-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    OSRIS-REx is NASA's New Frontiers 3 sample return mission that will return at least 60 g of pristine surface material from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. The scientific value of the sample increases enormously with the amount of knowledge captured about the geological context from which the sample is collected. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is highly maneuverable and capable of investigating the surface of Bennu at scales down to the sub-cm. The OSIRIS-REx instruments will characterize the overall surface geology including spectral properties, microtexture, and geochemistry of the regolith at the sampling site in exquisite detail for up to 505 days after encountering Bennu in August 2018. The mission requires at the very minimum one acceptable location on the asteroid where a touch-and-go (TAG) sample collection maneuver can be successfully per-formed. Sample site selection requires that the follow-ing maps be produced: Safety, Deliverability, Sampleability, and finally Science Value. If areas on the surface are designated as safe, navigation can fly to them, and they have ingestible regolith, then the scientific value of one site over another will guide site selection.

  4. A surface science study of model catalysts : II metal-support interactions in Cu/SiO2 model catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oetelaar, van den L.C.A.; Partridge, A.; Toussaint, S.L.G.; Flipse, C.F.J.; Brongersma, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal stability of wet-chemically prepared Cu/SiO2 model catalysts containing nanometer-sized Cu particles on silica model supports was studied upon heating in hydrogen and ultrahigh vacuum. The surface and interface phenomena that occur are determined by the metal-support interactions.

  5. Factors affecting the long-term response of surface waters to acidic deposition: state-of-the-science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.S.; Johnson, D.W.; Elwood, J.N.; Van Winkle, W.; Clapp, R.B.; Jones, M.L.; Marmarek, D.R.; Thornton, K.W.; Gherinig, S.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Recent intensive study of the causes of surface water acidification has led to numerous hypothesized controlling mechanisms. Among these are the salt-effect reduction of alkalinity, the base cation buffering and sulfate adsorption capacities of soils, availability of weatherable minerals (weathering rates), depth of till, micropore flow, and type of forest cover. Correlative and predictive models have been developed to show the relationships (if any) between hypothesized controlling mechanisms and surface water acidity, and to suggest under what conditions additional surface water might become acid. This document (Part A) is a review of our current knowledge of factors and processes controlling soil and surface water acidification, as well as an assessment of the adequacy of that knowledge for making predictions of future acidification. Section 2 is a data extensive, conceptual overview of how watersheds function. Section 3 is a closer look at the theory and evidence for the key hypotheses. Section 4 is a review of existing methods of assessing system response to acidic deposition.

  6. ACCURATE 3D SCANNING OF DAMAGED ANCIENT GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FOR REVEALING WEATHERED LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Papadaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and ”hidden” letters.

  7. Accurate 3d Scanning of Damaged Ancient Greek Inscriptions for Revealing Weathered Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, A. I.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.; Prignitz, S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and "hidden" letters.

  8. UO2 Fuel pellet impurities, pellet surface roughness and n(18O)/n(16O) ratios, applied to nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajo, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, law enforcement has faced the problem of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic science is a new branch of science that enables the identification of seized nuclear material. The identification is not based on a fixed scheme, but further identification parameters are decided based on previous identification results. The analysis is carried out by using traditional analysis methods and applying modern measurement technology. The parameters are generally not unambiguous and not self-explanatory. In order to have a full picture about the origin of seized samples, several identification parameters should be used together and the measured data should be compared to corresponding data from known sources. A nuclear material database containing data from several fabrication plants is installed for the purpose. In this thesis the use of UO 2 fabrication plant specific parameters, fuel impurities, fuel pellet surface roughness and oxygen isotopic ratio in UO 2 were investigated for identification purposes in nuclear forensic science. The potential use of these parameters as 'fingerprints' is discussed for identification purposes of seized nuclear materials. Impurities of the fuel material vary slightly according to the fabrication method employed and a plant environment. Here the impurities of the seized UO 2 were used in order to have some clues about the origin of the fuel material by comparing a measured data to nuclear database information. More certainty in the identification was gained by surface roughness of the UO 2 fuel pellets, measured by mechanical surface profilometry. Categories in surface roughness between a different fuel element type and a producer were observed. For the time oxygen isotopic ratios were determined by Thermal Ionisation Mass Speckometry (TIMS). Thus a TIMS measurement method, using U 16 O + and U 18 0 + ions, was developed and optimised to achieve precise oxygen isotope ratio measurements for the

  9. A Finite Abelian Group of Two-Letter Inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Balbuena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In abstract algebra, the study of concrete groups is fundamentally important to beginners. Most commonly used groups as examples are integer addition modulo n, real number addition and multiplication, permutation groups, and groups of symmetry. The last two examples are finite non-abelian groups and can be investigated with the aid of concrete representations. This study presents a finite abelian group of inversions of two letter symbols with vertical and horizontal axes of symmetry and whose binary operation is established through motions like alternation, rotation, reflection, and a combination of two or all motions.

  10. EDITORIAL: Celebrating one year of Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2008-03-01

    The one-year anniversary is a critical milestone for a new journal. At that point there are enough articles published to begin to define the scope and readership, yet generally not enough of a track-record for the full community to regard the new entrant as a fixture and a source of 'must read' material. Environmental Research Letters (ERL) has set itself a particularly large and interesting challenge: to help connect the vast community of environmental researchers, practitioners, activists, and interested informed observers. ERL and its partner online resource base and community website, environmentalresearchweb, fills a major void: a single locus for rapid publication of peer-reviewed and highly interdisciplinary material spanning literally every aspect of environmental research and thought. The wide range of material that falls squarely into the purview of ERL—from restoration ecology to global change science and politics, to toxicology and environmental justice, to environmental and social impacts of energy conversion—illustrate just how diverse a 'community' we hope to serve. Thanks to an exceptional editorial staff and board, and a diverse range of fascinating contributed papers, ERL is off to a particularly fast start. ERL has both a small advisory board and a larger editorial board. The board serves several functions, beginning with the traditional one of taking the lead on reviews of papers in such a dizzying array of areas. This task alone is a challenge because of the commitment ERL has made to exceptionally rapid publication: a goal of 90 days from submission to online publication for accepted papers. This goal, which we have generally met, includes the publication of complementary (but not always complimentary) 500 1000 word commentaries on a number of papers. To accomplish this alone the editorial board, and the reviewers, have been heroic, and deserve a huge round of applause. IOP Publishing too, has been truly wonderful in making this happen

  11. Problems at the Leading Edge of Space Weathering as Revealed by TEM Combined with Surface Science Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Both transmission electron micros-copy (TEM) and surface analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were instrumen-tal in making the first characterizations of material generated by space weathering in lunar samples [1,2]. Without them, the nature of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe0) correlated with the surface of lunar regolith grains would have taken much longer to become rec-ognized and understood. Our groups at JSC and UVa have been using both techniques in a cross-correlated way to investigate how the solar wind contributes to space weathering [e.g., 3]. These efforts have identified a number of ongoing problems and knowledge gaps. Key insights made by UVa group leader Raul Barag-iola during this work are gratefully remembered.

  12. Exploring the science of thinking independently together: Faraday Discussion Volume 204 - Complex Molecular Surfaces and Interfaces, Sheffield, UK, July 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samperi, M; Hirsch, B E; Diaz Fernandez, Y A

    2017-11-23

    The 2017 Faraday Discussion on Complex Molecular Surfaces and Interfaces brought together theoreticians and experimentalists from both physical and chemical backgrounds to discuss the relevant applied and fundamental research topics within the broader field of chemical surface analysis and characterization. Main discussion topics from the meeting included the importance of "disordered" two-dimensional (2D) molecular structures and the utility of kinetically trapped states. An emerging need for new experimental tools to address dynamics and kinetic pathways involved in self-assembled systems, as well as the future prospects and current limitations of in silico studies were also discussed. The following article provides a brief overview of the work presented and the challenges discussed during the meeting.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti < 1) at 40-50 nm below the grain surface [1,3]. These compositional changes are not observed in the radiation-processed rims on silicates [4]. Several mechanism(s) to explain the overall relations in the ilmenite grain rims by radiation processing and/or additional space weathering processes were proposed by [1], and remain under current consideration [3]. A key issue has concerned the ability of ion radiation processing alone to produce some of the deeper- penetrating compositional changes. In order to provide some experimental constraints on these questions, we have performed a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emission scanning transmission electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  14. The shortcomings of semi-local and hybrid functionals: what we can learn from surface science studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, A; Kresse, G

    2008-01-01

    A study of the adsorption of CO on late 4d and 5d transition metal (111) surfaces (Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Os, Ir and Pt) considering atop and hollow site adsorption is presented. The applied functionals include the gradient-corrected Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) functionals, and the corresponding hybrid Hartree-Fock density functionals HSE and B3LYP. We find that PBE-based hybrid functionals (specifically HSE) yield, with the exception of Pt, the correct site order on all considered metals, but they also considerably overestimate the adsorption energies compared to experiment. On the other hand, the semi-local BLYP functional and the corresponding hybrid functional B3LYP yield very satisfactory adsorption energies and the correct adsorption site for all surfaces. We are thus faced with a Procrustean problem: the B3LYP and BLYP functionals seem to be the overall best choice for describing adsorption on metal surfaces, but they simultaneously fail to account well for the properties of the metal, vastly overestimating the equilibrium volume and underestimating the atomization energies. Setting out from these observations, general conclusions are drawn on the relative merits and drawbacks of various semi-local and hybrid functionals. The discussion includes a revised version of the PBE functional specifically optimized for bulk properties and surface energies (PBEsol), a revised version of the PBE functional specifically optimized to predict accurate adsorption energies (rPBE), as well as the aforementioned BLYP functional. We conclude that no semi-local functional is capable of describing all aspects properly, and including non-local exchange also only improves some but worsens other properties

  15. Micrometer-sized Water Ice Particles for Planetary Science Experiments: Influence of Surface Structure on Collisional Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gärtner, S.; Fraser, H. J. [School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Gundlach, B.; Ratte, J.; Blum, J. [Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Headen, T. F.; Youngs, T. G. A.; Bowron, D. T. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Oesert, J.; Gorb, S. N., E-mail: sabrina.gaertner@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: helen.fraser@open.ac.uk [Zoologisches Institut, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 1-9, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2017-10-20

    Models and observations suggest that ice-particle aggregation at and beyond the snowline dominates the earliest stages of planet formation, which therefore is subject to many laboratory studies. However, the pressure–temperature gradients in protoplanetary disks mean that the ices are constantly processed, undergoing phase changes between different solid phases and the gas phase. Open questions remain as to whether the properties of the icy particles themselves dictate collision outcomes and therefore how effectively collision experiments reproduce conditions in protoplanetary environments. Previous experiments often yielded apparently contradictory results on collision outcomes, only agreeing in a temperature dependence setting in above ≈210 K. By exploiting the unique capabilities of the NIMROD neutron scattering instrument, we characterized the bulk and surface structure of icy particles used in collision experiments, and studied how these structures alter as a function of temperature at a constant pressure of around 30 mbar. Our icy grains, formed under liquid nitrogen, undergo changes in the crystalline ice-phase, sublimation, sintering and surface pre-melting as they are heated from 103 to 247 K. An increase in the thickness of the diffuse surface layer from ≈10 to ≈30 Å (≈2.5 to 12 bilayers) proves increased molecular mobility at temperatures above ≈210 K. Because none of the other changes tie-in with the temperature trends in collisional outcomes, we conclude that the surface pre-melting phenomenon plays a key role in collision experiments at these temperatures. Consequently, the pressure–temperature environment, may have a larger influence on collision outcomes than previously thought.

  16. Faces in the Mist: Illusory Face and Letter Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Rieth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480 during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2 occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus.

  17. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Iwi Afifah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development result showed that this product has the criteria of usefulness, feasibility, accuracy, and attractiveness and appropriate when used to facilitate students to express communication skills in writing. Abstrak: Keterampilan komunikasi merupakan hal yang terpenting bagi remaja. Terdapat kecenderungan bahwa remaja yang memiliki keterampilan komunikasi yang rendah dapat dikatakan sebagai seseorang yang berkepribadian introvert. Orang yang berkepribadian introvert cenderung sulit berkomunikasi dan sulit mengungkapkan secara lisan. Pengembangan media letter sharing ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan komunikasi siswa introvert. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan dengan  mengadopsi model penelitian Borg and Gall. Hasil pengembangan menunjukkan bahwa produk ini mempunyai kriteria kegunaan, kelayakan, ketepatan, kemenarikan dan sesuai apabila digunakan untuk memfasilitasi siswa dalam mengekspresikan keterampilan komunikasi secara tertulis.

  19. Tribology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, George D., Comp.

    Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It incorporates a number of scientific fields, including friction, wear, lubrication, materials science, and various branches of surface physics and surface chemistry. Tribology forms a vital part of engineering science. The interacting surfaces may be on machinery…

  20. Micrometer-sized Water Ice Particles for Planetary Science Experiments: Influence of Surface Structure on Collisional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Sabrina; Gundlach, Bastian; Headen, Thomas F.; Ratte, Judy; Oesert, Joachim; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Youngs, Tristan G. A.; Bowron, Daniel T.; Blum, Jürgen; Fraser, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Models and observations suggest that particle aggregation at and beyond the snowline is aided by water ice. As icy particles play such a crucial role in the earliest stages of planet formation, many laboratory studies have exploited their collisional properties across a wide range of parameters (particle size, impact velocity, temperature T, and pressure P).However, not all of these parameters have always been varied systematically, leading to apparently contradictory results on collision outcomes. Previous experiments only agreed that a temperature dependence set in above ≈210 K. Open questions remain as to what extent the structural properties of the particles themselves dictate collision outcomes. The P–T gradients in protoplanetary disks mean that the ices are constantly processed, undergoing phase changes between different solid phases and the gas phase. To understand how effectively collision experiments reproduce protoplanetary disk conditions, environmental impacts on particle structure need to be investigated.We characterized the bulk and surface structure of icy particles used in collision experiments, exploiting the unique capabilities of the NIMROD neutron scattering instrument. Varying temperature at a constant pressure of around 30 mbar, we studied structural alterations to determine which of the observed properties matches the temperature dependencies observed in collisional behaviour.Our icy grains are formed under liquid nitrogen and heated from 103 to 247 K. As a result, they undergo changes in the crystalline ice-phase, sublimation, sintering and surface pre-melting. An increase in the thickness of the diffuse surface layer from ≈10 to ≈30 Å (≈2.5 to 12 bilayers) suggests increased molecular mobility at temperatures above ≈210 K.Because none of the other changes ties in with the temperature trends in collisional outcomes, we conclude that the diffuse interface plays a key role in collision experiments at these temperatures

  1. Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 20, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    In Jan. 1996, the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) provided recommendations to DOE on how to restructure the fusion program in light of compressional guidance and budget realities. DOE endorsed these recommendations and prepared a strategic plan. The FEAC report concluded that the goals of the restructured program could most effectively be accomplished at a funding level of $275 million per year, including Federal government management costs. DOE requested that Congress appropriate $255.6 million in FY97 for the fusion energy sciences program exclusive of Federal government management costs (about $8 million). On Sept. 11, 1996, the Energy and Water Development Conference Committee settled on a FY97 appropriation for the fusion energy sciences program of $232.5 million. This report contains the response to the charge letter, on how the program described in the strategic plan could be changed to make it consistent with the $232.5 million appropriation

  2. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The role of sensorimotor learning in the perception of letter-like forms: tracking the causes of neural specialization for letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin H; Atwood, Thea P

    2009-02-01

    Functional specialization in the brain is considered a hallmark of efficient processing. It is therefore not surprising that there are brain areas specialized for processing letters. To better understand the causes of functional specialization for letters, we explore the emergence of this pattern of response in the ventral processing stream through a training paradigm. Previously, we hypothesized that the specialized response pattern seen during letter perception may be due in part to our experience in writing letters. The work presented here investigates whether or not this aspect of letter processing-the integration of sensorimotor systems through writing-leads to functional specialization in the visual system. To test this idea, we investigated whether or not different types of experiences with letter-like stimuli ("pseudoletters") led to functional specialization similar to that which exists for letters. Neural activation patterns were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after three different types of training sessions. Participants were trained to recognize pseudoletters by writing, typing, or purely visual practice. Results suggested that only after writing practice did neural activation patterns to pseudoletters resemble patterns seen for letters. That is, neural activation in the left fusiform and dorsal precentral gyrus was greater when participants viewed pseudoletters than other, similar stimuli but only after writing experience. Neural activation also increased after typing practice in the right fusiform and left precentral gyrus, suggesting that in some areas, any motor experience may change visual processing. The results of this experiment suggest an intimate interaction among perceptual and motor systems during pseudoletter perception that may be extended to everyday letter perception.

  4. Helicon plasma generator-assisted surface conversion ion source for the production of H(-) ion beams at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O; Rouleau, G; Keller, R; Geros, E; Stelzer, J; Ferris, J

    2008-02-01

    The converter-type negative ion source currently employed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H(-) ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. In this kind of an ion source the extracted H(-) beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which deposits on the H(-) converter surface and degrades its performance. Therefore, we have started an ion source development project focused on replacing these thermionic cathodes (filaments) of the converter source by a helicon plasma generator capable of producing high-density hydrogen plasmas with low electron energy. In our studies which have so far shown that the plasma density of the surface conversion source can be increased significantly by exciting a helicon wave in the plasma, and we expect to improve the performance of the surface converter H(-) ion source in terms of beam brightness and time between services. The design of this new source and preliminary results are presented, along with a discussion of physical processes relevant for H(-) ion beam production with this novel design. Ultimately, we perceive this approach as an interim step towards our long-term goal, combining a helicon plasma generator with an SNS-type main discharge chamber, which will allow us to individually optimize the plasma properties of the plasma cathode (helicon) and H(-) production (main discharge) in order to further improve the brightness of extracted H(-) ion beams.

  5. Helicon plasma generator-assisted surface conversion ion source for the production of H- ion beams at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O.; Rouleau, G.; Keller, R.; Geros, E.; Stelzer, J.; Ferris, J.

    2008-02-01

    The converter-type negative ion source currently employed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H- ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. In this kind of an ion source the extracted H- beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which deposits on the H- converter surface and degrades its performance. Therefore, we have started an ion source development project focused on replacing these thermionic cathodes (filaments) of the converter source by a helicon plasma generator capable of producing high-density hydrogen plasmas with low electron energy. In our studies which have so far shown that the plasma density of the surface conversion source can be increased significantly by exciting a helicon wave in the plasma, and we expect to improve the performance of the surface converter H- ion source in terms of beam brightness and time between services. The design of this new source and preliminary results are presented, along with a discussion of physical processes relevant for H- ion beam production with this novel design. Ultimately, we perceive this approach as an interim step towards our long-term goal, combining a helicon plasma generator with an SNS-type main discharge chamber, which will allow us to individually optimize the plasma properties of the plasma cathode (helicon) and H- production (main discharge) in order to further improve the brightness of extracted H- ion beams.

  6. Helicon plasma generator-assisted surface conversion ion source for the production of H- ion beams at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Rouleau, G.; Keller, R.; Geros, E.; Stelzer, J.; Ferris, J.

    2008-01-01

    The converter-type negative ion source currently employed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H - ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. In this kind of an ion source the extracted H - beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which deposits on the H - converter surface and degrades its performance. Therefore, we have started an ion source development project focused on replacing these thermionic cathodes (filaments) of the converter source by a helicon plasma generator capable of producing high-density hydrogen plasmas with low electron energy. In our studies which have so far shown that the plasma density of the surface conversion source can be increased significantly by exciting a helicon wave in the plasma, and we expect to improve the performance of the surface converter H - ion source in terms of beam brightness and time between services. The design of this new source and preliminary results are presented, along with a discussion of physical processes relevant for H - ion beam production with this novel design. Ultimately, we perceive this approach as an interim step towards our long-term goal, combining a helicon plasma generator with an SNS-type main discharge chamber, which will allow us to individually optimize the plasma properties of the plasma cathode (helicon) and H - production (main discharge) in order to further improve the brightness of extracted H - ion beams

  7. Versatile piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source for gaseous compounds and organic molecules with femtomole accuracy for UHV and surface science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiesser, Alexander; Schaefer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the construction of a piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source based upon a design presented in an earlier work [D. Proch and T. Trickl, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 713 (1988)]. The design features significant modifications that permit the determination of the number of molecules in a beam pulse with an accuracy of 1x10 11 molecules per pulse. The 21 cm long plunger-nozzle setup allows the molecules to be brought to any point of the UHV chamber with very high intensity. Furthermore, besides typical gaseous compounds, also smaller organic molecules with a vapor pressure higher than 0.1 mbar at room temperature may serve as feed material. This makes the new design suitable for various applications in chemical and surface science studies.

  8. Consideration of the linguistic characteristics of letters makes the universal model of reading more universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungil; Lee, Chang H; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2012-10-01

    We suggest that the linguistic characteristics of letters also need to be considered to fully understand how a reader processes printed words. For example, studies in Korean showed that unambiguity in the assignment of letters to their appropriate onset, vowel, or coda slot is one of the main sources of the letter-transposition effect. Indeed, the cognitive system that processes Korean is tuned to the structure of the Korean writing system.

  9. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  10. The distributed neural system for top-down letter processing: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie

    2011-03-01

    This fMRI study used Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) to investigate top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. After an initial training that became increasingly difficult, participant was instructed to detect a letter from pure noise images where there was actually no letter. Such experimental paradigm allowed for isolating top-down components of letter processing and minimizing the influence of bottom-up perceptual input. A distributed cortical network of top-down letter processing was identified by analyzing the functional connectivity patterns of letter-preferential area (LA) within the left fusiform gyrus. Such network extends from the visual cortex to high level cognitive cortexes, including the left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left superior parietal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and left inferior occipital gyrus. These findings suggest that top-down letter processing contains not only regions for processing of letter phonology and appearance, but also those involved in internal information generation and maintenance, and attention and memory processing.

  11. National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    .... These National Security Letters (NSLs) seek customer and consumer transaction information in national security investigations from communications providers, financial institutions, and credit agencies...

  12. Turning Science Results into News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Do you want to get into the New York Times? Aside from writing an angry letter or robbing a bank, getting into the news (with your science result) requires a well-crafted press release. Reaching out to reporters is very different from reaching out to fellow scientists. Scientific significance is not the same as newsworthiness, but many science results can be molded into interesting stories that reporters can relate to their audience. This presentation will present examples of science stories that made it big and some that flopped. We will also examine what makes a story attractive to newspaper and magazine editors.

  13. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  14. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation

  15. Refuting feminism: Brazilian lettered culture's complacency/complicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Terezinha Schmidt

    Full Text Available In appraising the power of antifeminist discourse in Brazil, I examine how this discourse appears in the realm of cultural journalism in order to make some connections to Brazilian social history, in the light of which it may be possible to understand why feminism as transforming praxis seems so alien to the habits of the country. To sustain my arguments I draw on the readings of Brazilian historical and cultural thinkers considered "leftists". At the same time, I point out the limits of their analyses, that is, their silence regarding women's oppression and gender issues. Finally, I examine the persistence of various forms of antifeminism in the lettered milieu so as to understand the statute of feminist critique in the field of literary studies and the reasons for its invisibility, including considerations on its achievements and the limitations of its practices.

  16. Particles and nuclei, letters, in Russian, pt.4

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on thermal multifragmentation, nuclear fog and critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, topological and nontopological solutions for the chiral bag model with constituent quarks, comparison of ATLAS tilecal module No. 8 high-precision metrology measurement results obtained by laser (JINR) and photogrammetric (CERN) methods, calibration of the beam polarimeter at the JINR synchrophasotron, anomalous A-, t-dependence and the phase behaviour of partial wave of coherent production of radial state pi (1300), about some inverse problems of nuclear physics, the nuclear matter modification at intermediate energies, experimental research of the NN scattering with polarized particles at the VdG accelerator of Charles university. Project 'NN interactions' and the forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Scintillation and Cherenkov hodoscopes

  17. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  18. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  19. Lost and Found, Letters and Methods: Assessing Attitudes toward Chiropractic and Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kern

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward traditional and chiropractic medicine were compared using Milgram's lost letter technique. A total of 192 letters were placed on the windshields of vehicles in parking lots at six restaurants and department stores in each of four quadrants of a medium-sized, Southeastern city. These letters were addressed to "Admissions" at either a fictitious Institute of Medicine or Institute of Chiropractic Care. Return addresses included either a male or a female name. Thus, those who found a lost letter were faced with the option of returning or not returning a letter from either a male or a female, addressed to an Institute of traditional or non-traditional medicine. After examining previous studies which had used the lost letter technique, numerous methodological improvements were implemented. For example, letters were randomly assigned to potential drop spots for each of 24 study locations (six study locations in each of four city quadrants, and a Latin square design was used to control for possible order effects in the four study conditions that were implemented. Nearly 65% of the letters (124 of 192 were returned. We found: 1 letters addressed to a fictitious Institute of Chiropractic Care were just as likely to be returned as those addressed to a fictitious Institute of Medicine; 2 letters with female return addresses were as likely to be returned as those with male return addresses; 3 there was no interaction between study conditions; 4 based on what was essentially a replication study, a comparison of the pattern of returns using the first and second cycle of lost letters (n = 96 for each cycle revealed an equivalent pattern of no-difference findings. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.78

  20. The Structure and Infrastructure of Chinese Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Series C-Life Sciences 38 Theoretical And Applied Genetics 32 Journal Of Forensic Sciences 31 Febs Letters 31 Acta Botanica Sinica 30 Protein...A1-18 – Journals Containing Most Crops Papers JOURNAL #PAPERS Acta Botanica Sinica 233 Chinese Science Bulletin 128 Theoretical And Applied...physiological VEGETABLES; QUALITY; ACTA BOTANICA SINICA BIOLOGICAL & MEDICAL SCIENCES STRESS PHYSIOLOGY 6.3 5 2 19 16 212 To extract v Investiga