WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface science analysis

  1. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  2. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  3. Surface science and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Modern surface science studies have explored a large number of metal catalyst systems. Three classes of catalytic reactions can be identified: (1) those that occur over the metal surface; (2) reactions that take place on top of a strongly adsorbed overlayer and (3) reactions that occur on co-adsorbate modified surfaces. Case histories for each class are presented. 44 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Surface science an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, John

    1991-01-01

    The whole field of surface science is covered in this work. Starting with a description of the structure and thermodynamics of clean surfaces, the book goes on to discuss kinetic theory of gases and molecular beam formation. This is followed by a largesection on gas-surface interactions, and another major section on energetic particle-surface interactions. The final chapter provides the background to crystal nucleation and growth. The approach adopted is interdisciplinary and slanted towards theexperimental side, with practical analytical techniques being used to illustrate general princi

  5. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  6. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  7. Undergraduate Laboratory for Surface Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Mitchio; Beauchamp, Jesse L.; Dickert, Jeffrey M.; Essy, Blair R.; Claypool, Christopher L.

    1996-02-01

    Surface science has developed into a multidisciplinary field of research with applications ranging from heterogeneous catalysis to semiconductor etching (1). Aspects of surface chemistry are now included in physical chemistry textbooks (2) and undergraduate curricula (3), but the perceived cost and complexity of equipment has deterred the introduction of surface science methods in undergraduate laboratories (4). Efforts to expose chemistry undergraduates to state-of-the-art surface instrumentation have just begun (5). To provide our undergraduates with hands-on experience in using standard techniques for characterizing surface morphology, adsorbates, kinetics, and reaction mechanisms, we have developed a set of surface science experiments for our physical chemistry laboratory sequence. The centerpiece of the laboratory is an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for studies of single crystal surfaces. This instrument, shown in the figure, has surface analysis capabilities including low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The laboratory exercises involve experiments on the well-studied Pt(111) surface. Students prepare a previously mounted single crystal sample by sputtering it with an argon ion gun and heating it under O2. Electron diffraction patterns from the cleaned surface are then obtained with a reverse view LEED apparatus (Princeton Instruments). Images are captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera interfaced to a personal computer for easy downloading and subsequent analysis. Although the LEED images from a Pt(111) surface can be readily interpreted using simple diffraction arguments, this lab provides an excellent context for introducing Miller indices and reciprocal lattices (6). The surface chemical composition can be investigated by Auger spectroscopy, using the LEED apparatus as a simple energy analyzer. The temperature programmed desorption experiment, which is nearly complete, will be

  8. Modern techniques of surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, D Phil

    2016-01-01

    This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation tec...

  9. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shutthanandan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  10. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess

    2012-06-01

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  11. Solvay Conference on Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The articles collected in this volume give a broad overview of the current state of surface science. Pioneers in the field and researchers met together at this Solvay Conference to discuss important new developments in surface science, with an emphasis on the common area between solid state physics and physical chemistry. The contributions deal with the following subjects: structure of surfaces, surface science and catalysis, two-dimensional physics and phase transitions, scanning tunneling microscopy, surface scattering and surface dynamics, chemical reactions at surfaces, solid-solid interfaces and superlattices, and surface studies with synchrotron radiation. On each of these subjects an introductory review talk and a number of short research contributions are followed by extensive discussions, which appear in full in the text. This nineteenth Solvay Conference commemorates the 75th anniversary of the Solvay Institutes.

  12. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 4 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses waves at interfaces; recent investigations on the thickness of surface layers; and surface analysis by low-energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The text also describes the anode electrolyte interface; the interactions of adsorbed proteins and polypeptides at interfaces; and peptide-induced ion transport in synthetic and biological membranes. The monolayer adsorption on crystalline surfaces is also considered. Chemists and metallurgi

  13. Spectral Feature Analysis of Minerals and Planetary Surfaces in an Introductory Planetary Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Using an ALTA II reflectance spectrometer, the USGS digital spectral library, graphs of planetary spectra, and a few mineral hand samples, one can teach how light can be used to study planets and moons. The author created the hands-on, inquiry-based activity for an undergraduate planetary science course consisting of freshman to senior level…

  14. The surface science of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    One of the largest challenges to science in the coming years is to find the relation between enzyme structure and function. Can we predict which reactions an enzyme catalyzes from knowledge of its structure-or from its amino acid sequence? Can we use that knowledge to modify enzyme function......? To solve these problems we must understand in some detail how enzymes interact with reactants from its surroundings. These interactions take place at the surface of the enzyme and the question of enzyme function can be viewed as the surface science of enzymes. In this article we discuss how to describe...... catalysis by enzymes, and in particular the analogies between enzyme catalyzed reactions and surface catalyzed reactions. We do this by discussing two concrete examples of reactions catalyzed both in nature (by enzymes) and in industrial reactors (by inorganic materials), and show that although analogies...

  15. How old is surface science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paparazzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces

  16. How old is surface science?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparazzo, E. E-mail: paparazzo@ism.cnr.it

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces.

  17. Application and outlook of the pulsed neutron beam at J-PARC (3). Introduction of high-pressure science and surface/interface analysis at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takanori; Akutsu, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    At the MLF (Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility) of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex), eighteen neutron beam lines equipped with experimental apparatus are in operation and deliver the world highest intensity pulsed neutron beam for fundamental sciences such as solid state physics, materials science, life science, elementary particle physics, nuclear science, and for industrial applications. We introduce studies using an ultra-high pressure neutron diffractometer 'PLANET' for the structure analysis under high-pressure surroundings and a polarized neutron reflectometer 'SHARAKU' for the analysis of surface/interface structure with scales ranging from nano- to submicron-meter. We also introduce briefly all the apparatus for neuron experiments at the MLF. (J.P.N.)

  18. Surface science principles and current applications

    CERN Document Server

    Taglauer, E; Wandelt, K

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies increasingly rely on low-dimensional physics at interfaces and in thin-films and nano-structures. Surface science holds a key position in providing the experimental methods and theoretical models for a basic understanding of these effects. This book includes case studies and status reports about research topics such as: surface structure determination by tensor-LEED and surface X-ray diffraction; the preparation and detection of low-dimensional electronic surface states; quantitative surface compositional analysis; the dynamics of adsorption and reaction of adsorbates, e.g. kinetic oscillations; the characterization and control of thin-film and multilayer growth including the influence of surfactants; a critical assessment of the surface physics approach to heterogeneous catalysis.

  19. Response Surface Methodology Using a Fullest Balanced Model: A Re-Analysis of a Dataset in theKorean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheem, Sungsue; Rheem, Insoo; Oh, Sejong

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) is a useful set of statistical techniques for modeling and optimizing responses in research studies of food science. In the analysis of response surface data, a second-order polynomial regression model is usually used. However, sometimes we encounter situations where the fit of the second-order model is poor. If the model fitted to the data has a poor fit including a lack of fit, the modeling and optimization results might not be accurate. In such a case, using a fullest balanced model, which has no lack of fit, can fix such problem, enhancing the accuracy of the response surface modeling and optimization. This article presents how to develop and use such a model for the better modeling and optimizing of the response through an illustrative re-analysis of a dataset in Park et al. (2014) published in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources .

  20. Augmentation Award for Surface Science Research Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sibener, Steven

    1996-01-01

    This AASERT grant provided augmentation funds that helped support US citizen graduate student research in the area of surface science as it pertains to gas-surface reactions, collisional energy transfer...

  1. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 6 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the progress in surface and membrane science; the solid state chemistry of the silver halide surface; and the experimental and theoretical aspects of the double layer at the mercury-solution interface. The text also describes contact-angle hysteresis; ion binding and ion transport produced by neutral lipid-soluble molecules; and the biophysical interactions of blood proteins with polymeric and artificial surfaces. Physical chemists, biophysicists, and phys

  2. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1977-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 11 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the quantum theory of surface phenomena; some fundamental aspects of electrocrystallization; and exoelectric emission. The text also describes the surface of titanium dioxide; and the prospects for atomic resolution electron microscopy in membranology. Chemists, physicists, and people involved in the electrochemical power laboratory will find the book useful.

  3. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved beyond being a sub-field of chemistry or physics and has now become an underpinning science. The Third Edition of this book incorporates extensive worked solutions, as well as details on how problem solving relevant to surface science should be performed. It contextualizes the exercises and their solutions to further explicate the methods of problem solving, application of scientific principles and to deliver a deeper understanding of the field of surface science. Solutions will be accompanied by figures and/or graphs of data, as appropriate.

  4. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Surface science has evolved from being a sub-field of chemistry or physics, and has now established itself as an interdisciplinary topic. Knowledge has developed sufficiently that we can now understand catalysis from a surface science perspective. No-where is the underpinning nature of surface science better illustrated than with nanoscience. Now in its third edition, this successful textbook aims to provide students with an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces. The chapters build from simple to more advanced principles with each featuring exerc

  5. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1972-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 5 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the Mössbauer effect in surface science; the surface functional groups on carbon and silica; and the wetting phenomena pertaining to adhesion. The text also describes the physical state of phospholipids and cholesterol in monolayers, bilayers, and membranes; the characteristics of heterocoagulation; and the effects of calcium on excitable membranes and neurotransmitter action. Chemists, physiologists, biophysicists, and civil engineers will find the book i

  6. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1979-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 12 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the topographical differentiation of the cell surface; the NMR studies of model biological membrane system; and an irreversible thermodynamic approach to energy coupling in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The text also describes water at surfaces; the nature of microemulsions; and the energy principle in the stability of interfaces. Biochemists, physicists, chemical engineers, and people involved in surface and coatings research will find the book invaluable.

  7. Topics in theoretical surface science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, R.

    1991-10-25

    The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Recent progress in surface science v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Riddiford, A C

    1964-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 2 is a 10-chapter text that covers the significant advances in some aspects of surface science, including in catalysis, genetic control of cell surface, and cell membrane. The opening chapter deals with the major factors affecting adsorption at the gas-solid interface. The subsequent chapters explore the advances in understanding of heterogeneous catalysis in terms of fundamental surface processes, as well as the concept of dynamic contact angles. These topics are followed by discussions on emulsions, flotation, and the extraordinary complexity of cel

  9. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1974-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the applications of statistical mechanics to physical adsorption; the impact of electron spectroscopy and cognate techniques on the study of solid surfaces; and the ellipsometric studies of thin films. The text also describes the interfacial photochemistry of bilayer lipid membranes; cell junctions and their development; and the composition and function of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The role of the cell surface in contact inhibition of cell division

  10. Current trends of surface science and catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong Young

    2014-01-01

    Including detail on applying surface science in renewable energy conversion, this book covers the latest results on model catalysts including single crystals, bridging "materials and pressure gaps", and hot electron flows in heterogeneous catalysis.

  11. Report of the surface science workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized. (GHT)

  12. Report of the surface science workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized

  13. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1975-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 9 covers the developments in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the physical adsorption of gases and vapors in micropores; the chemisorption theory; and the role of radioisotopes in the studies of chemisorption and catalysis. The text also describes the interaction of ions with monolayers; and the isolation and characterization of mycoplasma membranes. Chemists, physical chemists, and microbiologists will find the book useful.

  14. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  15. From analysis to surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    In recent years, a significant body of research has focused on developing algorithms for computing analyses of mu- sical works automatically from encodings of these works' surfaces [3,4,7,10,11]. The quality of the output of such analysis algorithms is typically evaluated by comparing it with a “......In recent years, a significant body of research has focused on developing algorithms for computing analyses of mu- sical works automatically from encodings of these works' surfaces [3,4,7,10,11]. The quality of the output of such analysis algorithms is typically evaluated by comparing...... an effective (i.e., comput- able), correct and complete description of some aspect of the structure of the music. Generating the surface struc- ture of a piece from an analysis in this manner serves as a proof of the analysis' correctness, effectiveness and com- pleteness. We present a reductive analysis...

  16. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1976-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 10 covers the advances in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the selective changes of cellular particles influencing sedimentation properties; and the rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes in investigations of surface phenomena at the metal-electrolyte interface. The text also describes the membrane potential of phospholipid bilayer and biological membranes; the adsorption of surfactant monolayers at gas/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces; and the enzymes immobilized on glass. Chemists and people involved in electrochemistry will

  17. Technical activities, 1990: Surface Science Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The report summarizes technical activities and accomplishments of the NIST Surface Science Division during Fiscal Year 1990. Overviews are presented of the Division and of its three constituent groups: Surface Dynamical Processes, Thin Films and Interfaces, and Surface Spectroscopies and Standards. These overviews are followed by reports of selected technical accomplishments during the year. A summary is given of Division outputs and interactions that includes lists of publications, talks, committee assignments, seminars (including both Division seminars and Interface Science seminars arranged through the Division), conferences organized, and a standard reference material certified. Finally, lists are given of Division staff and of guest scientists who have worked in the Division during the past year

  18. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the theoretical and experimental aspects of the van der Waals forces; the electric double layer on the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; and the long-range and short-range order in adsorbed films. The text also describes the hydrodynamical theory of surface shear viscosity; the structure and properties of monolayers of synthetic polypeptides at the air-water interface; and the structure and molecular dynamics of water. The role of glycoproteins in cell

  19. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1981-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 14 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses statistical thermodynamics of monolayer adsorption from gas and liquid mixtures on homogeneous and heterogeneous solid surfaces; and the structure of the boundary layers of liquids and its influence on the mass transfer in fine pores. The text then describes the coupling of ionic and non-electrolyte fluxes in ion selective membranes; the electrocatalytic properties of matalloporphins at the interface; and the adsorption from binary gas and liquid phases. Phas

  20. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  1. Practical guide to surface science and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2001-01-01

    Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to surface science as well as describes the basic analytical techniques that researchers use to understand what occurs at the surfaces of materials and at their interfaces. These techniques include auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, inelastic scattering of electrons and ions, low energy electron diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and interfacial segregation. Understanding the behavior of materials at their surfaces is essential for materials scientists and engineers as they design and fabricate microelectronics and semiconductor devices. The book gives over 100 examples, discussion questions and problems with varying levels of difficulty. Included with this book is a CD-ROM, which not only contains the same information, but also provides many elements of animation and interaction that are not easily emulated on paper. In diverse subject matters ranging from the operation of ion pumps, computer-...

  2. Mainstreaming Gender Analysis Into Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebinger, Londa

    This essay considers the question, Has feminism changed science? After three decades of active research, what new insights, questions, and priorities have feminists - men or women - brought to the sciences? The author provides examples of change from three areas: women's health research, primatology, and archaeology. The essay concludes with a discussion of mainstreaming gender analysis into science.

  3. The surface science of titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature on rutile (1 1 0), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), and anatase surfaces is reviewed. This paper starts with a summary of the wide variety of technical fields where TiO 2 is of importance. The bulk structure and bulk defects (as far as relevant to the surface properties) are briefly reviewed. Rules to predict stable oxide surfaces are exemplified on rutile (1 1 0). The surface structure of rutile (1 1 0) is discussed in some detail. Theoretically predicted and experimentally determined relaxations of surface geometries are compared, and defects (step edge orientations, point and line defects, impurities, surface manifestations of crystallographic shear planes—CSPs) are discussed, as well as the image contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The controversy about the correct model for the (1×2) reconstruction appears to be settled. Different surface preparation methods, such as reoxidation of reduced crystals, can cause a drastic effect on surface geometries and morphology, and recommendations for preparing different TiO 2(1 1 0) surfaces are given. The structure of the TiO 2(1 0 0)-(1×1) surface is discussed and the proposed models for the (1×3) reconstruction are critically reviewed. Very recent results on anatase (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces are included. The electronic structure of stoichiometric TiO 2 surfaces is now well understood. Surface defects can be detected with a variety of surface spectroscopies. The vibrational structure is dominated by strong Fuchs-Kliewer phonons, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectra often need to be deconvoluted in order to render useful information about adsorbed molecules. The growth of metals (Li, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) as well as some metal oxides on TiO 2 is reviewed. The tendency to 'wet' the overlayer, the growth morphology, the

  4. Recent progress in surface science 3

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Rosenberg, M D

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 3 covers topics on the structure and mechanisms of the cell membranes. The book discusses the incorporation of chemisorbed species; the recent developments in the study of epitaxy; and the ""diffusion"" or ""hydride"" component of overpotential at cathodes of the ""platinum metals"". The text also describes the mechanism of hydrogen exchange in proteins; the nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipids, lipoproteins, and cell membranes; and the monolayers of synthetic phospholipids. The formation, electrical properties, transport, and excitability cha

  5. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  6. Thermochemical Surface Engineering: A Playground for Science and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    at the surface. Current research and innovation activities are used to exemplify thermochemical surface engineering and the interplay of science and innovation. The examples given encompass aspects of the synthesis of extremely porous materials, low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel, surface...

  7. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  8. Workshop on surface and interface science at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.; Schmidt, S.; Hufner, S.; Moritz, W.; Fedley, Ch.S.; Rossi, G.; Durr Hermann, A.; Rohlsberger, R.; Dalmas, J.; Oughaddou, H.; Leandri, Ch.; Gay, J.M.; Treglia, G.; Le Lay, G.; Aufray, B.; Bunk, O.; Johnson, R.L.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Lucas, C.A.; Bauer, G.; Zhong, Z.; Springholz, G.; Lechner, R.; Stang, J.; Schulli, T.; Metzger, T.H.; Holy, V.; Woodruff, D.P.; Dellera, C.; Zegenhagen, J.; Robinson, I.; Malachias, A.; Schulli, T.U.; Magalhaes-Paniago, R.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Valbusa, U.; Felici, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Van der Veen, J.F

    2004-07-01

    The main aim of the workshop is to reflect the future of surface and interface research at the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source ESRF taking into account experimental facilities which are becoming available at new synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe. 6 sessions have been organized: 1) surface and interface research and synchrotron radiation - today and tomorrow -, 2) aspects of surface and interface research, 3) real surfaces and interfaces, 4) synchrotron techniques in surface and interface research, 5) new directions in surface and interface research, and 6) surface and interface science at ESRF. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  9. Workshop on surface and interface science at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.; Schmidt, S.; Hufner, S.; Moritz, W.; Fedley, Ch.S.; Rossi, G.; Durr Hermann, A.; Rohlsberger, R.; Dalmas, J.; Oughaddou, H.; Leandri, Ch.; Gay, J.M.; Treglia, G.; Le Lay, G.; Aufray, B.; Bunk, O.; Johnson, R.L.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Lucas, C.A.; Bauer, G.; Zhong, Z.; Springholz, G.; Lechner, R.; Stang, J.; Schulli, T.; Metzger, T.H.; Holy, V.; Woodruff, D.P.; Dellera, C.; Zegenhagen, J.; Robinson, I.; Malachias, A.; Schulli, T.U.; Magalhaes-Paniago, R.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Valbusa, U.; Felici, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Van der Veen, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the workshop is to reflect the future of surface and interface research at the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source ESRF taking into account experimental facilities which are becoming available at new synchrotron radiation facilities in Europe. 6 sessions have been organized: 1) surface and interface research and synchrotron radiation - today and tomorrow -, 2) aspects of surface and interface research, 3) real surfaces and interfaces, 4) synchrotron techniques in surface and interface research, 5) new directions in surface and interface research, and 6) surface and interface science at ESRF. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  10. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to QuikSCAT and moored buoy winds. B N Goswami1 and E N Rajagopal2. 1Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 2National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Department of ...

  11. 3S'83 Symposium on surface science. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Betz, G.; Husinsky, W.; Soellner, E.; Stoeri, H.; Varga, P.

    1983-01-01

    This symposium included the topics: electronic structure; ion-surface-interaction; surface structure; adsorption and reactivity; surface analysis; 60 papers were presented, only part of which pertain to INIS. (G.Q.)

  12. Learning in Science: A Comparison of Deep and Surface Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Christine; Brown, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the differences between deep and surface approaches to learning science. Findings indicate that the deep-surface learning differences fall into five categories: (1) generative thinking; (2) nature of explanations; (3) asking questions; (4) metacognitive activity; and (5) approach to tasks. Suggests that teachers can encourage a deep…

  13. Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzari, Milad; White, Todd

    2017-01-01

    NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars on August 5th, 2012, was the largest and heaviest Mars entry vehicle representing a significant advancement in planetary entry, descent and landing capability. Hypersonic flight performance data was collected using MSLs on-board sensors called Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI). This talk will give an overview of MSL entry and a description of MEDLI sensors. Observations from flight data will be examined followed by a discussion of analysis efforts to reconstruct surface heating from heatshields in-depth temperature measurements. Finally, a brief overview of MEDLI2 instrumentation, which will fly on NASAs Mars2020 mission, will be presented with a discussion on how lessons learned from MEDLI data affected the design of MEDLI2 instrumentation.

  14. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy analytical, biophysical and life science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlücker, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Covering everything from the basic theoretical and practical knowledge to new exciting developments in the field with a focus on analytical and life science applications, this monograph shows how to apply surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for solving real world problems. From the contents: * Theory and practice of SERS * Analytical applications * SERS combined with other analytical techniques * Biophysical applications * Life science applications including various microscopies Aimed at analytical, surface and medicinal chemists, spectroscopists, biophysicists and materials scientists. Includes a Foreword by the renowned Raman spectroscopist Professor Wolfgang Kiefer, the former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.

  15. Surface Science at the Solid Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-06

    18 1002 T. iR Dillingham X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Analysis of Borate Substituted Polyaniline Thin Films 19 1050 Karl Robinson In-Situ X-Ray...Monreal, and P. Apell , Phys. Rev. B 42. 9210 (1990) processes. It is known the probability becomes higher as 20D. L. Mills, M. Weber, and B. Laks, in...in UHV and solu- 22B. Reihl, K. H. Frank, and A. Otto , Z. Phys. B 62. 473 (1986). tion, when the Ag electrode is held at the PZC. We are 23S. D

  16. 7th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains review articles which were written by the invited speak­ ers of the seventh International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS), held at the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee in July 1985. The form of ISISS is a set of tutorial review lectures presented over a one-week period by internationally recognized experts on various aspects of surface science. Each speaker is asked, in addition, to write a review article on his lecture topic. No single volume in the series Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the entire field of modern surface science. However, the series as a whole is intended to provide experts and students alike with a comprehensive set of reviews and literature references, particularly empha­ sizing the gas-solid interface. The collected articles from previous Summer Institutes have been published under the following titles: Surface Science: Recent Progress and Perspectives, Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 4, 125-559 (1974) Chemistry and Physics of ...

  17. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  18. The development of surface science in China: Retrospect and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xide (Fudan University, Shanghai (China))

    1994-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the year of 1977 marked the birth of surface science in China, therefore the length of its history of development is only half of that shown in the title of this volume. Since 1977 laboratories with modern facilities for surface studies have been established in various universities and research institutes. Three open laboratories better equipped than others have been set up in Beijing, Xiamen and Shanghai for surface physics, surface chemistry and applied surface physics, respectively. Five National Conferences on Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces were held in 1982, 1984, 1985, 1988 and 1991. In 1993 China is going to host the Fourth International Conference on the Structure of Surfaces in Shanghai August 16-19 which will serve as a milestone in the history of development of surface science in China. With the access to many overseas laboratories, quite a number of Chinese scientists and students have had opportunities to work and study abroad and have brought back with them experiences acquired. During the Conferences just mentioned, one could witness a number of steady progresses made over the years. In the present review, a brief description about the establishment of some major research facilities and progresses of some of the research is given with emphasis on work related to semiconductor surfaces, interfaces, superlattices, heterojunctions and quantum wells. Although the review nominally covers the development of research in surface science in China, due to the limitation of the capabilities of the author, mostly work done at Fudan University is included. For this the author would like to express her deep apology to many Chinese colleagues whose works have not been properly mentioned

  19. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH 3 synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures

  20. Molecular surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. History and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    A personal account is given of how the author became involved with modern surface science and how it was employed for studies of the chemistry of surfaces and heterogeneous catalysis. New techniques were developed for studying the properties of the surface monolayers: Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED, XPS, molecular beam surface scattering, etc. An apparatus was developed and used to study hydrocarbon conversion reactions on Pt, CO hydrogenation on Rh and Fe, and NH/sub 3/ synthesis on Fe. A model has been developed for the working Pt reforming catalyst. The three molecular ingredients that control catalytic properties are atomic surface structure, an active carbonaceous deposit, and the proper oxidation state of surface atoms. 40 references, 21 figures. (DLC)

  1. A molecular surface science study of the structure of adsorbates on surfaces: Importance to lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mate, C.M.

    1986-09-01

    The interaction and bonding of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces is explored under ultra-high vacuum conditions using a variety of surface science techniques: high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), work function measurements, and second harmonic generation (SHG). 164 refs., 51 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Surface analysis and techniques in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Smentkowski, Vincent S

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights state-of-the-art surface analytical instrumentation, advanced data analysis tools, and the use of complimentary surface analytical instrumentation to perform a complete analysis of biological systems.

  3. Chemical beam epitaxy — a child of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüth, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) or MOMBE is currently one of the major deposition techniques in semiconductor technology. The growth process is performed in a UHV chamber under low pressure conditions and the source material is supplied by molecular beams, such that only surface kinetics are determining the chemical reactions leading to growth of the epilayer. This paper intends to give a review on the development of this deposition technique. After considering the early period, where this epitaxy method started to develop, partially from ideas being born in surface science, some milestones in the further development and basic understanding are presented. The mutual interaction between CBE/MOMBE as a deposition technique and other fields of surface science is described as well as the impact on the deposition technology of other semiconductors (e.g. for Si-based material systems). Future prospects of CBE are finally discussed, particularly in comparison with the competing techniques MBE and MOCVD (metal-organic chemical vapor deposition).

  4. 8th International Summer Institute in Surface Science

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Russell

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains review articles written by the invited speakers at the eighth International Summer Institute in Surface Science (ISISS 1987), held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in August of 1987. During the course of ISISS, invited speakers, all internationally recognized experts in the various fields of surface science, present tutorial review lectures. In addition, these experts are asked to write review articles on their lecture topic. Former ISISS speakers serve as advisors concerning the selection of speakers and lecture topics. Em­ phasis is given to those areas which have not been covered in depth by recent Summer Institutes, as well as to areas which have recently gained in significance and in which important progress has been made. Because of space limitations, no individual volume of Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces can possibly cover the whole area of modem surface science, or even give a complete survey of recent pro­ gress in the field. However, an attempt is made to pres...

  5. Global Analysis of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Many properties of minimal surfaces are of a global nature, and this is already true for the results treated in the first two volumes of the treatise. Part I of the present book can be viewed as an extension of these results. For instance, the first two chapters deal with existence, regularity and uniqueness theorems for minimal surfaces with partially free boundaries. Here one of the main features is the possibility of 'edge-crawling' along free parts of the boundary. The third chapter deals with a priori estimates for minimal surfaces in higher dimensions and for minimizers of singular integ

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  7. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously be con...

  8. Thin film surface reconstruction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperatori, P.

    1996-01-01

    The study of the atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces is a fundamental step in the knowledge and the development of new materials. Among the several surface-sensitive techniques employed to characterise the atomic arrangements, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) is one of the most powerful. With a simple data treatment, based on the kinematical theory, and using the classical methods of x-ray bulk structure determination, it gives the atomic positions of atoms at a surface or an interface and the atomic displacements of subsurface layers for a complete determination of the structure. In this paper the main features of the technique will be briefly reviewed and selected of application to semiconductor and metal surfaces will be discussed

  9. Thin film surface reconstruction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperatori, P. [CNR, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Chimica dei materiali

    1996-09-01

    The study of the atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces is a fundamental step in the knowledge and the development of new materials. Among the several surface-sensitive techniques employed to characterise the atomic arrangements, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) is one of the most powerful. With a simple data treatment, based on the kinematical theory, and using the classical methods of x-ray bulk structure determination, it gives the atomic positions of atoms at a surface or an interface and the atomic displacements of subsurface layers for a complete determination of the structure. In this paper the main features of the technique will be briefly reviewed and selected of application to semiconductor and metal surfaces will be discussed.

  10. Surface science in hernioplasty: The role of plasma treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Magnacca, Giuliana; Martorana, Selanna

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this review is to clarify the importance of surface modifications induced in biomaterials for hernia-repair application. Starting from the pioneering experiences involving proto-materials as ancient prosthesis, a historical excursus between the biomaterials used in hernioplasty was realized. Subsequently, after the revolutionary discovery of stereoregular polymerization followed by the PP application in the biomedical field performed by the surgeon F. Usher, a comparative study on different hernia-repair meshes available was realized in order to better understand all the outstanding problems and possible future developments. Furthermore, since many unsolved problems on prosthetic devices implantation are linked to phenomena occurring at the interface between the biomaterials surface and the body fluids, the importance of surface science in hernioplasty was highlighted and case studies of new surface-modified generations of prosthesis presented. The results discussed in the following evidence how the surface study are becoming increasingly important for a proper knowledge of issues related to the interaction between the living matter and the artificial prostheses.

  11. Reducing Motional Decoherence in Ion Traps with Surface Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Many trapped ions experiments ask for low motional heating rates while trapping the ions close to trapping electrodes. However, in practice small ion-electrode distances lead to unexpected high heating rates. While the mechanisms for the heating is still unclear, it is now evident that surface contamination of the metallic electrodes is at least partially responsible for the elevated heating rates. I will discuss heating rate measurements in a microfabricated surface trap complemented with basic surface science studies. We monitor the elemental surface composition of the Cu-Al alloy trap with an Auger spectrometer. After bake-out, we find a strong Carbon and Oxygen contamination and heating rates of 200 quanta/s at 1 MHz trap frequency. After removing most of the Carbon and Oxygen with Ar-Ion sputtering, the heating rates drop to 4 quanta/s. Interestingly, we still measure the decreased heating rate even after the surface oxidized from the background gas throughout a 40-day waiting time in UHV.

  12. Autonomous Aerobraking Using Thermal Response Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jill L.; Dec, John A.; Tolson, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Aerobraking is a proven method of significantly increasing the science payload that can be placed into low Mars orbits when compared to an all propulsive capture. However, the aerobraking phase is long and has mission cost and risk implications. The main cost benefit is that aerobraking permits the use of a smaller and cheaper launch vehicle, but additional operational costs are incurred during the long aerobraking phase. Risk is increased due to the repeated thermal loading of spacecraft components and the multiple attitude and propulsive maneuvers required for successful aerobraking. Both the cost and risk burdens can be significantly reduced by automating the aerobraking operations phase. All of the previous Mars orbiter missions that have utilized aerobraking have increasingly relied on onboard calculations during aerobraking. Even though the temperature of spacecraft components has been the limiting factor, operational methods have relied on using a surrogate variable for mission control. This paper describes several methods, based directly on spacecraft component maximum temperature, for autonomously predicting the subsequent aerobraking orbits and prescribing apoapsis propulsive maneuvers to maintain the spacecraft within specified temperature limits. Specifically, this paper describes the use of thermal response surface analysis in predicting the temperature of the spacecraft components and the corresponding uncertainty in this temperature prediction.

  13. JEM-X science analysis software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Kretschmar, P.; Oxborrow, Carol Anne

    2003-01-01

    The science analysis of the data from JEM-X on INTEGRAL is performed through a number of levels including corrections, good time selection, imaging and source finding, spectrum and light-curve extraction. These levels consist of individual executables and the running of the complete analysis is c...

  14. JEM-X science analysis software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Kretschmar, P.; Oxborrow, Carol Anne

    2003-01-01

    The science analysis of the data from JEM-X on INTEGRAL is performed through a number of levels including corrections, good time selection, imaging and source finding, spectrum and light-curve extraction. These levels consist of individual executables and the running of the complete analysis...

  15. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    This issue is dedicated to Karl-Heinz Rieder on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It contains contributions written by his former students and colleagues from all over the world. Experimental techniques based on free electrons, such as photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy and low energy electron diffraction (LEED), were foundational to surface science. While the first revealed the band structures of materials, the second provided nanometer scale imagery and the latter elucidated the atomic scale periodicity of surfaces. All required an (ultra-)high vacuum, and LEED illustrated impressively that adsorbates, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen or oxygen, can markedly and periodically restructure surfaces from their bulk termination, even at pressures ten orders of magnitude or more below atmospheric. Yet these techniques were not generally able to reveal atomic scale surface defects, nor could they faithfully show adsorption of light atoms such as hydrogen. Although a complete atom, helium can also be regarded as a wave with a de Broglie wavelength that allows the study of surface atomic periodicities at a delicateness and sensitivity exceeding that of electrons-based techniques. In combination, these and other techniques generated insight into the periodicity of surfaces and their vibrational properties, yet were limited to simple and periodic surface setups. All that changed with the advent of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) roughly 30 years ago, allowing real space access to surface defects and individual adsorbates. Applied at low temperatures, not only can STM establish a height profile of surfaces, but can also perform spectroscopy and serve as an actuator capable of rearranging individual species at atomic scale resolution. The direct and intuitive manner in which STM provided access as a spectator and as an actor to the atomic scale was foundational to today's surface science and to the development of the concepts of nanoscience in general. The

  16. Surface computing and collaborative analysis work

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Judith; Gossage, Stevenson; Hack, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Large surface computing devices (wall-mounted or tabletop) with touch interfaces and their application to collaborative data analysis, an increasingly important and prevalent activity, is the primary topic of this book. Our goals are to outline the fundamentals of surface computing (a still maturing technology), review relevant work on collaborative data analysis, describe frameworks for understanding collaborative processes, and provide a better understanding of the opportunities for research and development. We describe surfaces as display technologies with which people can interact directly, and emphasize how interaction design changes when designing for large surfaces. We review efforts to use large displays, surfaces or mixed display environments to enable collaborative analytic activity. Collaborative analysis is important in many domains, but to provide concrete examples and a specific focus, we frequently consider analysis work in the security domain, and in particular the challenges security personne...

  17. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  18. Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometers for Mars Surface Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenar, D. A.; Blaney, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's long term plan for Mars sample collection and return requires a highly streamlined approach for spectrally characterizing a landing site, documenting the mineralogical make-up of the site and guiding the collections of samples which represent the diversity of the site. Ideally, image data should be acquired at hundreds of VIS and IR wavelengths, in order to separately distinguish numerous anticipated species, using principal component analysis and linear unmixing. Cameras with bore-sighted point spectrometers can acquire spectra of isolated scene elements, but it requires 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 2) successive motions and precise relative pointing knowledge in order to create a single data cube which qualifies as a spectral map. These and other competing science objectives have to be accomplished within very short lander/rover operational lifetime (a few sols). True, 2-D imaging spectroscopy greatly speeds up the data acquisition process, since the spectra of all pixels in the scene are collected at once. This task can be accomplished with cameras that use electronically tunable acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) as the optical tuning element. AOTFs made from TeO2 are now a mature technology, and operate at wavelengths from near-UV to about 5 microns. Because of incremental improvements in the last few years, present generation devices are rugged, radiation-hard and operate at temperatures down to at least 150K so they can be safely integrated into the ambient temperature optics of in-situ instruments such as planetary or small-body landers. They have been used for ground-based astronomy, and were also baselined for the ST-4 Champollion IR comet lander experiment (CIRCLE), prior to cancellation of the ST-4 mission last year. AIMS (for Acousto-optic Imaging spectrometer), is a prototype lander instrument which is being built at GSFC with support by the NASA OSS Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies, Mars Instrument Definition and Development Program (MIDP

  19. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  20. Surface and catalysis science in the Materials and Molecular Research Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Surface science studies at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are detailed. Subject areas include: structure of surfaces and adsorbed monolayers; reduction and oxidation of surfaces; catalytic chemistry; and structure of interfaces and thin films

  1. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  2. Designing high-temperature steels via surface science and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Cameron T.; Jiang, Zilin; Mathai, Allan; Chung, Yip-Wah

    2016-06-01

    Electricity in many countries such as the US and China is produced by burning fossil fuels in steam-turbine-driven power plants. The efficiency of these power plants can be improved by increasing the operating temperature of the steam generator. In this work, we adopted a combined surface science and computational thermodynamics approach to the design of high-temperature, corrosion-resistant steels for this application. The result is a low-carbon ferritic steel with nanosized transition metal monocarbide precipitates that are thermally stable, as verified by atom probe tomography. High-temperature Vickers hardness measurements demonstrated that these steels maintain their strength for extended periods at 700 °C. We hypothesize that the improved strength of these steels is derived from the semi-coherent interfaces of these thermally stable, nanosized precipitates exerting drag forces on impinging dislocations, thus maintaining strength at elevated temperatures.

  3. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    -support bonding and structure, which identify the supports as ligands with electron-donor properties that influence reactivity and catalysis. Each of the catalyst design variables has been varied independently, illustrated by mononuclear and tetranuclear iridium on zeolite HY and on MgO and by isostructural rhodium and iridium (diethylene or dicarbonyl) complexes on these supports. The data provide examples resolving the roles of the catalyst design variables and place the catalysis science on a firm foundation of organometallic chemistry linked with surface science. Supported molecular catalysts offer the advantages of characterization in the absence of solvents and with surface-science methods that do not require ultrahigh vacuum. Families of supported metal complexes have been made by replacement of ligands with others from the gas phase. Spectroscopically identified catalytic reaction intermediates help to elucidate catalyst performance and guide design. The methods are illustrated for supported complexes and clusters of rhodium, iridium, osmium, and gold used to catalyze reactions of small molecules that facilitate identification of the ligands present during catalysis: alkene dimerization and hydrogenation, H-D exchange in the reaction of H2 with D2, and CO oxidation. The approach is illustrated with the discovery of a highly active and selective MgO-supported rhodium carbonyl dimer catalyst for hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to give butenes.

  4. Behavior analysis: the science of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoody, Parvene

    2012-09-01

    Behavior analysis is a data-driven science dedicated to understanding the mechanisms of behavior. Applied behavior analysis is a branch of this scientific field that systematically applies scientific principles to real-world problems in an effort to improve quality of life. The use of the behavioral technology provides a way to teach human and nonhuman animals more effectively and efficiently and offers those using this technology increased success in achieving behavioral goals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social sciences via network analysis and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanduc, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    In recent years information and communication technologies have gained significant importance in the social sciences. Because there is such rapid growth of knowledge, methods and computer infrastructure, research can now seamlessly connect interdisciplinary fields such as business process management, data processing and mathematics. This study presents some of the latest results, practices and state-of-the-art approaches in network analysis, machine learning, data mining, data clustering and classifications in the contents of social sciences. It also covers various real-life examples such as t

  6. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy. The performance of Surface Renewal (SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux (H was analysed and evaluated in terms of correlation with H fluxes from the eddy covariance (EC method. Study revealed that the mean available energy (RN- G and latent heat flux (LE were of about 300 W m-2 and 237 W m-2, respectively, during dry periods and unstable-case atmospheric conditions. The estimated crop coefficient Kc values for the orchard crop averaged close to 0.80, which is considerably higher than previous FAO studies that found the value to be 0.65 for citrus with 70% of ground cover. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (LI PAR by the crop was measured and relationships between LAI and crop coefficient (Kc were established.

  7. Bayesian analysis for the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jackman, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian methods are increasingly being used in the social sciences, as the problems encountered lend themselves so naturally to the subjective qualities of Bayesian methodology. This book provides an accessible introduction to Bayesian methods, tailored specifically for social science students. It contains lots of real examples from political science, psychology, sociology, and economics, exercises in all chapters, and detailed descriptions of all the key concepts, without assuming any background in statistics beyond a first course. It features examples of how to implement the methods using WinBUGS - the most-widely used Bayesian analysis software in the world - and R - an open-source statistical software. The book is supported by a Website featuring WinBUGS and R code, and data sets.

  8. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  9. EDITORIAL: Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    Three decades ago, with a tiny tip of platinum, the scientific world saw the real space imaging of single atoms with unprecedented spatial resolution. This signalled the birth of one of the most versatile surface probes, based on the physics of quantum mechanical tunnelling: the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Invented in 1981 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of IBM, Zurich, it led to their award of the 1986 Nobel Prize. Atoms, once speculated to be abstract entities used by theoreticians for mere calculations, can be seen to exist for real with the nano-eye of an STM tip that also gives real-space images of molecules and adsorbed complexes on surfaces. From a very fundamental perspective, the STM changed the course of surface science and engineering. STM also emerged as a powerful tool to study various fundamental phenomena relevant to the properties of surfaces in technological applications such as tribology, medical implants, catalysis, sensors and biology—besides elucidating the importance of local bonding geometries and defects, non-periodic structures and the co-existence of nano-scale phases. Atom-level probing, once considered a dream, has seen the light with the evolution of STM. An important off-shoot of STM was the atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface mapping of insulating samples. Then followed the development of a flurry of techniques under the general name of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These techniques (STM, AFM, MFM, PFM etc) designed for atomic-scale-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, have led to brand new developments in surface analysis. All of these novel methods enabled researchers in recent years to image and analyse complex surfaces on microscopic and nanoscopic scales. All of them utilize a small probe for sensing the surface. The invention of AFM by Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christopher Gerber opened up new opportunities for characterization of a variety of materials, and various industrial applications could be

  10. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  11. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 35, Number 1, February 2015. 1 ... Department of Science and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, South Africa ... Keywords: Biology textbooks; Life Sciences textbooks; nature of science; school science curriculum; science textbook analysis.

  12. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry......, optical scanning techniques, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These methods, based on acquisition of topography data from point by point scans, give quantitative information of heights with respect to position. Based on a different approach, the so-called integral methods produce parameters...

  13. RISA: Remote Interface for Science Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C.; Ibarra, A.; de La Calle, I.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.; Tapiador, D.

    2008-08-01

    The Scientific Analysis System (SAS) is the package for interactive and pipeline data reduction of all XMM-Newton data. Freely distributed by ESA to run under many different operating systems, the SAS has been used by almost every one of the 1600 refereed scientific publications obtained so far from the mission. We are developing RISA, the Remote Interface for Science Analysis, which makes it possible to run SAS through fully configurable web service workflows, enabling observers to access and analyse data making use of all of the existing SAS functionalities, without any installation/download of software/data. The workflows run primarily but not exclusively on the ESAC Grid, which offers scalable processing resources, directly connected to the XMM-Newton Science Archive. A first project internal version of RISA was issued in May 2007, a public release is expected already within this year.

  14. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

    CERN Document Server

    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  15. Surface analysis with low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taglauer, E.; Heiland, W.

    1976-01-01

    Principles and applications of low energy ion scattering for surface analysis are presented. Basic features are the binary collision concept, the scattering cross-sections and the ion neutralization process. The potential and the limitations of the method are outlined. Some pertinent experimental aspects are considered. In a number of examples the performance of the technique is demonstrated for qualitative composition analysis and for studies of surface structures. Finally a few comparisons are made with other techniques, such as AES, LEED, or SIMS. (orig.) [de

  16. Sea Surface Height, Absolute, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Absolute Sea Surface Height is the Sea Surface Height Deviation plus the long term mean dynamic height. This is Science Quality data.

  17. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  18. Surface science study of selective ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by the Ag(110) surface: Structural sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide (C 2 H 4 +1/2O 2 →C 2 H 4 O) over Ag is the simplest example of kinetically controlled, selective heterogeneous catalysis. We have studied the steady-state kinetics and selectivity of this reaction for the first time on a clean, well-characterized Ag(110) surface by using a special apparatus which allows rapid (approx.20 s) transfer between a high-pressure catalytic microreactor and an ultrahigh vacuum surface analysis (AES, XPS, LEED, TDS) chamber. The effects of temperature and reactant pressures upon the rate and selectivity are virtually identical on Ag(110) and supported, high surface area Ag catalysts. The absolute specific rate (per Ag surface atom) is, however, some 100-fold higher for Ag(110) than for high surface area catalysts. This is related to the well-known structural sensitivity of this reaction. It is postulated that a small percentage of (110) planes (or [110]-like sites) are responsible for most of the catalytic activity of high surface area catalysts. The high activity of the (110) plane is attributed to its high sticking probability for dissociative oxygen adsorption, since the rate of ethylene epoxidation is shown in a related work [Ref. 1: C. T. Campbell and M. T. Paffett, Surf. Sci. (in press)] to be proportional to the coverage of atomically adsorbed oxygen at constant temperature and ethylene pressure

  19. Overview of Infrastructure Science and Analysis for Homeland Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-21

    This presentation offers an analysis of infrastructure science with goals to provide third-party independent science based input into complex problems of national concern and to use scientific analysis to "turn down the noise" around complex problems.

  20. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  1. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  2. Repository Surface Design Site Layout Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD (Reference 5.5), including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  3. The Nature of Science in Science Curricula: Methods and Concepts of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    The article shows methods and concepts of analysis of the nature of science in science curricula through an exemplary study made in Portugal. The study analyses the extent to which the message transmitted by the Natural Science curriculum for Portuguese middle school considers the nature of science. It is epistemologically and sociologically…

  4. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  5. Gyral Folding Pattern Analysis via Surface Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Faraco, Carlos; Cui, Guangbin; Zhao, Qun; Miller, L. Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2010-01-01

    Folding is an essential shape characteristic of the human cerebral cortex. Descriptors of cortical folding patterns have been studied for decades. However, many previous studies are either based on local shape descriptors such as curvature, or based on global descriptors such as gyrification index or spherical wavelets. This paper proposes a gyrus-scale folding pattern analysis technique via cortical surface profiling. Firstly, we sample the cortical surface into 2D profiles and model them using a power function. This step provides both the flexibility of representing arbitrary shape by profiling and the compactness of representing shape by parametric modeling. Secondly, based on the estimated model parameters, we extract affine-invariant features on the cortical surface, and apply the affinity propagation clustering algorithm to parcellate the cortex into cortical regions with strict hierarchy and smooth transitions among them. Finally, a second-round surface profiling is performed on the parcellated cortical surface, and the number of hinges is detected to describe the gyral folding pattern. We have applied the surface profiling method to two normal brain datasets and a Schizophrenia patient dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately classify human gyri into 2-hinge, 3-hinge and 4-hinge patterns. The distribution of these folding patterns on brain lobes and the relationship between fiber density and gyral folding patterns are further investigated. Results from the Schizophrenia dataset are consistent with commonly found abnormality in former studies by others, which demonstrates the potential clinical applications of the proposed technique. PMID:20472071

  6. Surface analysis with STM and AFM

    CERN Document Server

    Magonov, Sergi N

    1996-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful tools for surface examination. In the past, many STM and AFM studies led to erroneous conclusions due to lack of proper theoretical considerations and of an understanding of how image patterns are affected by measurement conditions. For this book, two world experts, one on theoretical analysis and the other on experimental characterization, have joined forces to bring together essential components of STM and AFM studies: The practical aspects of STM, the image simulation by surface electron density plot calculat

  7. 52nd colloid and surface science symposium. Proceedings volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Corbett, H.G.

    1978-05-01

    Abstracts are presented under the headings: cell/surface interactions, surface properties and reactions of catalysts, solution chemistry of surfactants, dynamic systems, microorganism/surface interactions, gas-solid interactions, biological surfaces, solid sorbents, lung surfactant and intestinal absorption, pigments, and liquid systems. (DLC)

  8. Microchemical surface analysis of two Numidian coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousser, Henia; Amri, Redha; Madani, Abdelghani; Darchen, Andre; Mousser, Abdelhamid

    2011-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the microchemical surface analysis of two Numidian coins. Numidia was an ancient kingdom of northern Algeria during 2nd and 1st century BC. Investigations were performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The identification of the coins was done thanks to the name initials and effigy of King Massinissa. SEM observations of coins showed heterogeneous surfaces. SEM and EDXRF analyses showed an alloy structure with copper (65%), antimony (19%) and lead (16%). The XRD identified a metal structure and corrosion products which were on the coin surfaces: Litharge (PbO), Hydrocerussite (Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 ), Bindheimite (Pb 2 Sb 2 O 7 ) and Bystromite (MgSb 2 O 6 ).

  9. Advanced wettability analysis of implant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennissen Herbert P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies are a major driving force of scientific progress. In this case the finding that contact angles can be expressed as complex numbers offers the possibility of a much refined analysis beyond zero degrees of rough ultra-/superhydrophilic, (now called hyperhydrophilic, metal surfaces, which play a distinct role in dental and orthopedic implantology. The approaches, a short theoretical introduction and examples from medical applications are given.

  10. Computer Science Papers in Web of Science: A Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dalibor Fiala; Gabriel Tutoky

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present a bibliometric study of 1.9 million computer science papers published from 1945 to 2014 and indexed in Web of Science. We analyze both the quantity and the impact of these publications according to document types, languages, disciplines, countries, institutions, and publication sources. The most frequent author keywords, cited references, and cited papers as well as the distribution of the number of references and citations per paper and of the age of cited referenc...

  11. Surface Properties of TNOs: Preliminary Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Fornasier, S.; Alvarez-Cantal, A.; de Bergh, C.; Merlin, F.; DeMeo, F.; Dumas, C.

    2009-09-01

    An overview of the surface properties based on the last results obtained during the Large Program performed at ESO-VLT (2007-2008) will be presented. Simultaneous high quality visible and near-infrared spectroscopy and photometry have been carried out on 40 objects with various dynamical properties, using FORS1 (V), ISAAC (J) and SINFONI (H+K bands) mounted respectively at UT2, UT1 and UT4 VLT-ESO telescopes (Cerro Paranal, Chile). For spectroscopy we computed the spectral slope for each object and searched for possible rotational inhomogeneities. A few objects show features in their visible spectra such as Eris, whose spectral bands are displaced with respect to pure methane-ice. We identify new faint absorption features on 10199 Chariklo and 42355 Typhon, possibly due to the presence of aqueous altered materials. The H+K band spectroscopy was performed with the new instrument SINFONI which is a 3D integral field spectrometer. While some objects show no diagnostic spectral bands, others reveal surface deposits of ices of H2O, CH3OH, CH4, and N2. To investigate the surface properties of these bodies, a radiative transfer model has been applied to interpret the entire 0.4-2.4 micron spectral region. The diversity of the spectra suggests that these objects represent a substantial range of bulk compositions. These different surface compositions can be diagnostic of original compositional diversity, interior source and/or different evolution with different physical processes affecting the surfaces. A statistical analysis is in progress to investigate the correlation of the TNOs’ surface properties with size and dynamical properties.

  12. Multi-scale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Surface roughness is an important geomorphological variable which has been used in the earth and planetary sciences to infer material properties, current/past processes and the time elapsed since formation. No single definition exists, however within the context of geomorphometry we use surface roughness as a expression of the variability of a topographic surface at a given scale, where the scale of analysis is determined by the size of the landforms or geomorphic features of interest. Six te...

  13. Analysis of cell surface antigens by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, Ivan; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2013-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is most commonly used to measure bio-molecular interactions. SPR is used significantly less frequent for measuring whole cell interactions. Here we introduce a method to measure whole cells label free using the specific binding of cell surface antigens expressed on

  14. History of Science Content Analysis of Chinese Science Textbooks from the Perspective of Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-01-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation,…

  15. Surface Preparation for Microdebonding Analysis of Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, Ramazan; Mandell, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    The bond strength between fibers and matrix is an essential property of all composite materials and it must be measured accurately to be able to correlate it with the composite behavior. There are several factors affecting its measurement. This paper discusses the polishing and load application aspects of the indentation test technique for fibre-matrix bond strength determination in polymer and ceramic matrix composites. Different polishing procedures are suggested for polymer and ceramic surfaces for obtaining a smooth surface which is a must for the test results to be reliable. The geometry of the fibers tested was also found to affect the analysis results. For best results, fibers with similar size and which are similarly surrounded by other fibers should be tested. Care should be taken during load application on a fiber for the loading probe not to approach the fiber circumference. The force should be applied in a small increments as possible, however starting from a high enough level to prevent fiber breakage due to surface damage from several loading steps. (Author)

  16. Science synergism study for EOS on evolution of desert surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Tom G.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of EOS data as a basis for the study of desert surfaces' evolution is presently evaluated for both long and short term geomorphic evolution. Attention is given to the usefulness of such sensor systems planned for EOS as MODIS for regional vegetation distribution/variability monitoring, HIRIS for visible-near IR observations, TIMS for lithological identification, HMMR and SSMI for soil characteristics, LASA for atmospheric profiles, SAR for surface roughness, ALT for two-dimensional topography, ACR for the calibration of imaging sensors, and ERBE for climate modeling and regional surface albedo variation determinations.

  17. Surface science studies on titania for solar fuel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadsell, Courtney Sara Mathews

    Titanium dioxide (titania) is a well-studied material for various applications including but not limited to, paint, sunscreen, pharmaceuticals and solar cell applications (photocatalysis.) It can be found in three main crystal forms; rutile, anatase, and brookite and this work will focus on the anatase form which has been heavily studied for its potential in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs.) I propose that aqueous and photo dye stability can be improved by taking special care to the exposed surface of anatase. Additionally, the theoretical maximum open circuit voltage of a DSSC is dependent upon which surface is exposed to the electrolyte. Previous works in this area have not been rigorous with respect to the surface and morphology of titania being used. Standard synthesis techniques of anatase lead to a crystal that generally has 94% of the titania (101) surface exposed, and the other 6% is the higher energy (001) surface. The (101) surface has 5 & 6-fold coordinated titania whereas the (001) surface only has 5-fold (under) coordinated titania. This under-coordination leads to enhanced reactivity of the (001) surface which has been demonstrated by dissassociative adsorption of water, and catalysis applications. Much theoretical work has focused on the minority (001) surface because up until recently synthesizing anatase with enhanced exposure of the (001) surface has been difficult. The initial materials for this study will be multilayer titania nanotubes (TiNTs) and nanosheets (TiNS) which have been previously characterized by my predecessor. The TiNTs and TiNS have 100% exposed (001)-like surface. Both of these materials show enhanced stability of phosphonated dye binding as compared to the current standard of anatase nanoparticles (NPs) however, due to their limited thermal stability the potential of incorporating the TiNTs and TiNSs into devices has been eliminated in this study. To overcome the device limitations I will synthesis a novel titania nanotile

  18. Mars in Motion: An online Citizen Science platform looking for changes on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinks, James Christopher; Wardlaw, Jessica; Houghton, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    The European FP7 iMars project has developed tools and 3D models of the Martian surface through the co-registration of NASA and ESA mission data dating from the Viking missions of the 1970s to the present day, for a much more comprehensive interpretation of the geomorphological and climatic processes that have taken and do take place. We present the Citizen Science component of the project, 'Mars in Motion', created through the Zooniverse's Panoptes framework to allow volunteers to look for and identify changes on the surface of Mars over time. 'Mars in Motion', as with many other current citizen science platforms of a planetary or other disciplinary focus, has been developed to compliment the results of automated data mining analysis software, both by validation through the creation of training data and by adding context - gathering more in-depth data on the type and metrics of change initially detected.Through the analysis of initial volunteer results collected in the second half of 2016, the accuracy and ability of untrained participants to identify geomorphological changes is considered, as well as the impact of their position in the system. Volunteer contribution, either as a filter for poor quality imagery pre-algorithm, validation of algorithmic analysis, or adding context to pre-detected change, and their awareness and interpretation of its importance, can directly influence engagement with the platform and therefore ultimately its success. Understanding the effect of the volunteer and software's role in the system on both the results of and engagement with planetary science citizen science platforms will be an important lesson for the future, especially as the next generation of planetary missions will likely collect data orders of magnitude greater in volume. To deal with the data overload, it is likely that human or software solutions alone will not be sufficient, and that a combination of the two working together in a complimentary system that combines

  19. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology ...

  20. A radiation analysis of lunar surface habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Wilson, J.W.; Tripathi, R.K.; Clowdsley, M.S.; Nealy, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to minimize the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time control the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process performs minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, considered in terms of time frame, equipment, location, crew characteristics and performance required, radiation exposure annual and career limit constraints (those proposed in NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle. In the lunar environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats, from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in detail (e.g. shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. The results for all scenarios clearly showed that the direct exposure to the space environment like in transfers and EVAs phases gives the most of the dose, with the proposed shielded habitats and shelters giving quite a good protection from radiation. Operational constraints on hardware and scenarios have all been considered by the optimization techniques. Within the limits of this preliminary analysis, the three Moon Base related mission scenarios are perfectly feasible from the astronaut radiation safety point of view with the currently adopted and proposed

  1. Surface renewal analysis for estimating turbulent surface fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellvi, F.

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, the need for a long-term surface monitoring was recognized to better understand the soil-vegetation-atmosphere scalar exchange and interaction processes. the AmeriFlux concept emerged in the IGBP workshop (La Thuile, IT, 1995). Continuous acquisition of surface fluxes for different species such as temperature, water vapour, CO x , halocarbon, ozone, etc.,) and momentum allows determination of the influence of local (canopy) exchanges, fossil fuel emission, large-scale biotic exchange on ambient concentrations which are crucial to take decisions for protecting natural environments and water resources, to develop new perspective for modern agriculture and forest management and to better understand the global climate change. (Author)

  2. Density functional theory in surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Scheffler, M.; Toulhoat, H.

    2006-01-01

    Solid surfaces are used extensively as catalysts throughout the chemical industry, in the energy sector, and in environmental protection. Recently, density functional theory has started providing new insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of heterogeneous catalysis, helping to interpret the large...... amount of experimental data gathered during the last decades. This article shows how density functional theory can be used to describe the state of the surface during reactions and the rate of catalytic reactions. It will also show how we are beginning to understand the variation in catalytic activity...

  3. Surface and interface analysis an electrochemists toolbox

    CERN Document Server

    Holze, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    A broad, almost encyclopedic overview of spectroscopic and other analytical techniques useful for investigations of phase boundaries in electrochemistry is presented. The analysis of electrochemical interfaces and interphases on a microscopic, even molecular level, is of central importance for an improved understanding of the structure and dynamics of these phase boundaries. The gained knowledge will be needed for improvements of methods and applications reaching from electrocatalysis, electrochemical energy conversion, biocompatibility of metals, corrosion protection to galvanic surface treatment and finishing. The book provides an overview as complete as possible and enables the reader to choose methods most suitable for tackling his particular task. It is nevertheless compact and does not flood the reader with the details of review papers.

  4. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  5. Mineral Surface Reactivity in teaching of Science Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In the last fifty years, science materials issues has required the study of air pollution, water and soil to prevent and remedy the adverse effects of waste originating from anthropogenic activity and the development of new energies and new materials. The teaching of this discipline has been marked by lectures on general lines, materials, disciplines, who explained biased objects of reality, but often forgot the task of reconstruction and integration of such visions. Moving from that model, otherwise quite static, to a dynamic relational model, would in our view, a real revolution in education. This means taking a systematic approach to complex both in interpreting reality and in favor when learning. Children relationships are as important or more than single objects, and it is to discover fundamental organizational principles of phenomena we seek to interpret or in other words, find the pattern that connects. Thus, we must work on relationships and also take into account the relation between the observer and the observed. Educate about relationships means that studies should always be considered within a framework of probabilities, not absolute certainties. This model of systemic thinking, dealing with complexity, is a possibility to bring coherence to our educational work, because the complexity is not taught, complexity is live, so that complex thinking is extended (and fed) in a form educate complex. It is the task of teaching to help people move from level to level of decision reviews. This means that systems thinking should be extended in a local action, action that engages the individual and the environment. Science Materials has emerged as a discipline of free choice for pupils attending chemical engineering which has been assigned 6.0 credits. The chemical engineer's professional profile within the current framework is defined as a professional knowledge as a specialization technical / functional, working in a learning organization and the formation of

  6. Thermochemical Surface Engineering: A Playground for Science and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Surface engineering by thermochemical processing is the intentional change of the composition of a material at elevated temperature with the purpose to improve materials performance. In thermochemical processing components from the starting material are essential in the development of the phases ...... hardening of titanium alloys, as well as thermo-reactive diffusion for extreme wear resistance...

  7. Surface science studies of model fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, N. M.; Ross, P. N.

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss progress in the understanding of electrocatalytic reactions through the study of model systems with surface spectroscopies. Pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys have been used quite successfully as models for real (commercial) electrocatalysts. Given the sheer volume of all work in electrocatalysis that is on fuel cell reactions, we will focus on electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Since Pt is the model fuel cell electrocatalyst, we will focus entirely on studies of pure Pt and Pt bimetallic alloys. The electrode reactions discussed include hydrogen oxidation/evolution, oxygen reduction, and the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide, formic acid, and methanol. Surface spectroscopies emphasized are FTIR, STM/AFM and surface X-ray scattering (SXS). The discussion focuses on the relation between the energetics of adsorption of intermediates and the reaction pathway and kinetics, and how the energetics and kinetics relate to the extrinsic properties of the model system, e.g. surface structure and/or composition. Finally, we conclude by discussing the limitations that are reached by using pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys as models for real catalysts, and suggest some directions for developing more realistic systems.

  8. Multidisciplinary design optimization using response surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit

    1992-01-01

    Aerospace conceptual vehicle design is a complex process which involves multidisciplinary studies of configuration and technology options considering many parameters at many values. NASA Langley's Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) has detailed computerized analysis capabilities in most of the key disciplines required by advanced vehicle design. Given a configuration, the capability exists to quickly determine its performance and lifecycle cost. The next step in vehicle design is to determine the best settings of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics. Typical approach to design optimization is experience based, trial and error variation of many parameters one at a time where possible combinations usually number in the thousands. However, this approach can either lead to a very long and expensive design process or to a premature termination of the design process due to budget and/or schedule pressures. Furthermore, one variable at a time approach can not account for the interactions that occur among parts of systems and among disciplines. As a result, vehicle design may be far from optimal. Advanced multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods are needed to direct the search in an efficient and intelligent manner in order to drastically reduce the number of candidate designs to be evaluated. The payoffs in terms of enhanced performance and reduced cost are significant. A literature review yields two such advanced MDO methods used in aerospace design optimization; Taguchi methods and response surface methods. Taguchi methods provide a systematic and efficient method for design optimization for performance and cost. However, response surface method (RSM) leads to a better, more accurate exploration of the parameter space and to estimated optimum conditions with a small expenditure on experimental data. These two methods are described.

  9. The Science of Transportation Analysis and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleibe, John

    2010-03-01

    Transportation Science focuses on methods developed to model and analyze the interaction between human behavior and transportation systems. From the human behavioral, or demand, perspective, we are interested in how person and households organize their activities across space and time, with travel viewed as an enabling activity. We have a particular interest in how to model the range of responses to public policy and transportation system changes, which leads to the consideration of both short- and long-term decision-making, interpersonal dependencies, and non-transportation-related opportunities and constraints, including household budgets, land use systems and economic systems. This has led to the development of complex structural econometric modeling systems as well as agent-based simulations. From the transportation systems, or supply, perspective we are interested in the level of service provide by transportation facilities, be it auto, transit or multi-modal systems. This has led to the development of network models and equilibrium concepts as well as hybrid simulation systems based on concepts borrowed from physics, such as fluid flow models, and cellular automata-type models. In this presentation, we review a representative sample of these methods and their use in transportation planning and public policy analysis.

  10. Surface Chemistry of CWAs for Decon Enabling Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Ultraviolet and Visible Photochemistry of Methanol at 3D Mesoporous Networks: TiO, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, (07 2013): 15035. doi...A for none) Presentations since most recent interim report for this project: " Photochemistry of Methanol at 3-D Networked Aerogels of TiO2 and...evaporation • Studied the uptake, thermal, and photochemistry of agent simulants on TiO2 surfaces • Initiated experiments on the uptake and

  11. Surface science. Adhesion and friction in mesoscopic graphite contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Elad; Lörtscher, Emanuel; Rawlings, Colin; Knoll, Armin W; Duerig, Urs

    2015-05-08

    The weak interlayer binding in two-dimensional layered materials such as graphite gives rise to poorly understood low-friction characteristics. Accurate measurements of the adhesion forces governing the overall mechanical stability have also remained elusive. We report on the direct mechanical measurement of line tension and friction forces acting in sheared mesoscale graphite structures. We show that the friction is fundamentally stochastic in nature and is attributable to the interaction between the incommensurate interface lattices. We also measured an adhesion energy of 0.227 ± 0.005 joules per square meter, in excellent agreement with theoretical models. In addition, bistable all-mechanical memory cell structures and rotational bearings have been realized by exploiting position locking, which is provided solely by the adhesion energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. A sociological Analysis on the Modes of Science Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani Khorasgani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was sociological Analysis on the modes of science, survey of new Approaches in this context, description of available Approaches relevant to Application of Indigenous paradigm in prodvetion of knowledge and conclusion to attain imitated Approaches from Analysis and mentioned discussions for planning in space of science production in society of Iran. After Analysis of propound Approaches in sociology of science concreted that sociology of science three generation transitioned yet : classic sociology of science (OSS [ Theories of Merton ] , New sociology of science ( NSS [Theories of Thomas kuhn and others ] and Third generation sociology of science that consisted of non - Marxist composinal and processive Approaches for example: Actor - Network theory (ANT, Triple Helix Theory life eyeles, mode 2 and Mode 3. On the other hand , because science production is encompass process in social structures and social communications , allowance for Analysis of Recent Development in mode of science production , three paradigm Analysis and critiqued titles mode 1 , 2 , 3 production of knowledge . Also, Application of Indigenous paradigm studied in production of knowledge and introduced two groups: A - External Approaches B - Internal Approaches that each of two groups propounded Ideas relevant to Indigenous knowledge and Indigenization of knowledge. In the final section, mode an efforted to answered this question that what doctrines can be concluded from these discourse in order to improve the conditions in Iran.

  13. Analysis of Fluid Flow over a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and computer program product for modeling heat radiated by a structure. The flow of a fluid over a surface of a model of the structure is simulated. The surface has a plurality of surface elements. Heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements in response to the fluid flowing over the surface of the model of the structure is identified. An effect of heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other is identified. A model of the heat radiated by the structure is created using the heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements and the effect of the heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other.

  14. Global Surface Warming Hiatus Analysis Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used to conduct the study of the global surface warming hiatus, an apparent decrease in the upward trend of global surface temperatures since 1998....

  15. Computer simulation, nuclear techniques and surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, A. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is about computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. The “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions is used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. Details of prediction stages are given for thick flat target yields. Predictions are made for non-flat targets having asymmetric triangular surface contours. The method is successfully applied to depth profiling of 12C and 18O nuclei in thick targets, by deuteron (d,p and proton (p,α induced reactions, respectively.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energía” para reacciones nucleares. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan con datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obtención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Se dan detalles de las etapas de las predicciones de espectros para muestras espesas y planas. Se hacen predicciones para muestras no planas que tienen contornos superficiales triangulares asimétricos. Este método se aplica con éxito en el cálculo de perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 18O en muestras espesas a través de reacciones (d,p y (p,α inducidas por deuterones y protones, respectivamente.

  16. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  17. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-02-19

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure highquality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  18. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  19. An Emerging New Risk Analysis Science: Foundations and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aven, Terje

    2017-09-07

    To solve real-life problems-such as those related to technology, health, security, or climate change-and make suitable decisions, risk is nearly always a main issue. Different types of sciences are often supporting the work, for example, statistics, natural sciences, and social sciences. Risk analysis approaches and methods are also commonly used, but risk analysis is not broadly accepted as a science in itself. A key problem is the lack of explanatory power and large uncertainties when assessing risk. This article presents an emerging new risk analysis science based on novel ideas and theories on risk analysis developed in recent years by the risk analysis community. It builds on a fundamental change in thinking, from the search for accurate predictions and risk estimates, to knowledge generation related to concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods, and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and (in a broad sense) manage risk. Examples are used to illustrate the importance of this distinct/separate risk analysis science for solving risk problems, supporting science in general and other disciplines in particular. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Computer science: Data analysis meets quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Steven

    2017-10-01

    A technique that combines machine learning and quantum computing has been used to identify the particles known as Higgs bosons. The method could find applications in many areas of science. See Letter p.375

  1. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  2. Intense positron beam and its application to surface science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Hirose, M.; Kanazawa, I.; Sueoka, O.; Takamura, S.; Okada, S.

    1992-01-01

    Intense pulsed slow positron beam has been produced using the 100 MeV electron LINAC of JAERI · Tokai. In order to use the beam for surface studies such as positron diffraction and positron microscopy, it was transferred from the solenoid magnetic field to field free region and then was brightness-enhanced. The beam size was reduced from 10 mmφ (in the magnetic field) to 0.5 mmφ after two stages of re-moderation. Using the intense brightness-enhanced positron beam we have observed for the first time RHEPD (Reflection High-Energy Positron Diffraction) patterns. A design of re-emission positron microscopy is also described. (author)

  3. Surface and interface sciences of Li-ion batteries. -Research progress in electrode-electrolyte interface-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The application potential of Li-ion batteries is growing as demand increases in different fields at various stages in energy systems, in addition to their conventional role as power sources for portable devices. In particular, applications in electric vehicles and renewable energy storage are increasing for Li-ion batteries. For these applications, improvements in battery performance are necessary. The Li-ion battery produces and stores electric power from the electrochemical redox reactions between the electrode materials. The interface between the electrodes and electrolyte strongly affects the battery performance because the charge transfer causing the electrode redox reaction begins at this interface. Understanding of the surface structure, electronic structure, and chemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface is necessary to improve battery performance. However, the interface is located between the electrode and electrolyte materials, hindering the experimental analysis of the interface; thus, the physical properties and chemical processes have remained poorly understood until recently. Investigations of the physical properties and chemical processes at the interface have been performed using advanced surface science techniques. In this review, current knowledge and future research prospects regarding the electrode-electrolyte interface are described for the further development of Li-ion batteries.

  4. The Nature of Science and the "Next Generation Science Standards": Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.; Nouri, Noushin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the inclusion of aspects of nature of science (NOS) in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS). In this new standards document, NOS elements in eight categories are discussed in Appendix H along with illustrative statements (called exemplars). Many, but not all, of these exemplars are…

  5. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  6. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  7. The Nature of Science in Science Curricula: Methods and concepts of analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.

    2013-11-01

    The article shows methods and concepts of analysis of the nature of science in science curricula through an exemplary study made in Portugal. The study analyses the extent to which the message transmitted by the Natural Science curriculum for Portuguese middle school considers the nature of science. It is epistemologically and sociologically grounded with particular emphasis on Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse and Ziman's conceptualization of science construction. The study used a mixed methodology and followed a dialectical process between the theoretical and the empirical. The results show that the nature of science has a low status in the curriculum with the exception of the external sociological dimension of science. Intra-disciplinary relations between scientific and metascientific knowledge are mostly absent. Recontextualization processes occurred between the two main parts of the curriculum. These results are discussed and their consequences in terms of scientific learning are explored. The mode of analysis used in the study has the potential of highlighting the level of a science curriculum, in terms of specific aspects of the nature of science.

  8. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  9. Rasch Analysis for Psychometric Improvement of Science Attitude Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Fan, Xitao

    2017-01-01

    Students' attitude towards science (SAS) is often a subject of investigation in science education research. Survey of rating scale is commonly used in the study of SAS. The present study illustrates how Rasch analysis can be used to provide psychometric information of SAS rating scales. The analyses were conducted on a 20-item SAS scale used in an…

  10. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  11. Neutron activation analysis - an aid to forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, N.; Basu, A.K.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Shukla, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a specialised technique to aid crime investigation has emerged and has been recognised

  12. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathomarco, R.V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C.N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-01-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle

  13. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathomarco, R.V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C.N.; Prioli, R

    2004-06-30

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 {mu}m, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 {mu}m. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  14. Political Science Courseware: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeremy R. T.

    This critical review of 13 political science software simulations and tutorials rates the programs both by quality of presentation and by educational content. Courseware does have a truly interactive nature yet allows the student to be in an active mode of control. The software programs reviewed feature a variety of graphic, textual, and…

  15. Invoking Thomas Kuhn: What Citation Analysis Reveals about Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Cathleen C.; Cobern, William W.

    This paper analyzes how Thomas Kuhn's writings are used by others, especially science education researchers. Previous research in citation analysis is used to frame questions related to who cites Kuhn, in what manner and why. Research questions first focus on the variety of disciplines invoking Kuhn and to what extent Structure of Scientific Revolutions (SSR) is cited. The Web of Science database provides material from 1982 for this analysis. The science education literature is analyzed using back issues from 1985 of the Journal of Research in Science Teaching and Science Education. An article analysis reveals trends in terms of what Kuhnian ideas are most frequently invoked. Results indicate a wide array of disciplines from beekeeping to law cite Kuhn - especially generic citations to SSR. The science education journal analysis reveals pervasive use of the term paradigm, although use is quite varied. The two areas of research in science education most impacted by Kuhn appear to be conceptual change theory and constructivist epistemologies. Additional uses of Kuhn are discussed. The degree to which Kuhn is invoked in ways supporting the theoretical framework of citation analysis, whether his work is misappropriated, and the impact of Kuhn are discussed.

  16. Science Learning: A path analysis of its links with reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires administered to 604 ninth-grade students, and the data collected were analysed using a correlational, cross-sectional design. Results of a path analysis indicated that (a) students' self-regulated and intentional knowledge-constructing activity (self-regulated strategy use, deep approach and knowledge-building) were what chiefly accounted for their question-asking in class; (b) question-asking (high and low levels) was related directly to reading comprehension and indirectly, through its contribution to the this, to academic achievement; (c) reading comprehension was directly and negatively associated with surface approach and indirectly and positively related to deep approach and knowledge-building; and (d) some of these variables, particularly reading comprehension, accounted for academic achievement in science. This model explained nearly 30% of the variance in academic achievement and provided a substantial and distinctive insight into the web of interrelationships among these variables. Implications for future research and science teaching and learning are discussed (e.g. the importance of supporting students' efforts to learn science in a meaningful, active and self-regulated way and of improving their reading comprehension).

  17. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  18. Propositional Analysis: A Tool for Library and Information Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the use of propositional analysis in library and information science research. Evidence that different analysts produce similar judgments about texts and use the method consistently over time is presented, and it is concluded that propositional analysis is a reliable and valid research method. An example of an analysis is appended. (32…

  19. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  20. 2nd international conference on ion beam surface layer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The papers of this conference are concerned with the fundamental aspects and with the application of surface layer analysis. It is reported amongst others about backscattering analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, channelling and microprobe. (HPOE) [de

  1. Earth System Science at NASA: Teleconnections Between Sea Surface Temperature and Epidemics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    2000-01-01

    The research carried out in the Earth Sciences in NASA and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will be the focus of the presentations. In addition, one research project that links sea surface temperature to epidemics in Africa will be highlighted. At GSFC research interests span the full breath of disciplines in Earth Science. Branches and research groups focus on areas as diverse as planetary geomagnetics and atmospheric chemistry. These organizations focus on atmospheric sciences (atmospheric chemistry, climate and radiation, regional processes, atmospheric modeling), hydrological sciences (snow, ice, oceans, and seasonal-to-interannual prediction), terrestrial physics (geology, terrestrial biology, land-atmosphere interactions, geophysics), climate modeling (global warming, greenhouse gases, climate change), on sensor development especially using lidar and microwave technologies, and on information technologies, that enable support of scientific and technical research.

  2. Modeling and analysis for surface roughness and material removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... A multiple objective utility model has been studied to optimize both the dependent parameters. ... Keywords: UD-GFRP composites, ANOVA, multi response optimization, utility concept, regression modeling, surface roughness, material removal rate, ...

  3. High school students presenting science: An interactional sociolinguistic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Robert

    Presenting science is an authentic activity of practicing scientists. Thus, effective communication of science is an important skill to nurture in high school students who are learning science. This study examines strategies employed by high school students as they make science presentations; it assesses students' conceptual understandings of particular science topics through their presentations and investigates gender differences. Data are derived from science presentation given by eight high school students, three females and five males who attended a summer science program. Data sources included videotaped presentations, ethnographic fieldnotes, interviews with presenters and members of the audience, and presenter notes and overheads. Presentations were transcribed and submitted to discourse analysis from an interactional sociolinguistic perspective. This article focuses on the methodology employed and how it helps inform the above research questions. The author argues that use of this methodology leads to findings that inform important social-communicative issues in the learning of science. Practical advice for teaching students to present science, implications for use of presentations to assess conceptual learning, and indications of some possible gender differences are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 February 1994;

  4. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

  5. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoven, Anne H; Russo, Pedro; Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people's social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers' attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields.

  6. Navigating nuclear science: Enhancing analysis through visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, N.H.; Berkel, J. van; Johnson, D.K.; Wylie, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    Data visualization is an emerging technology with high potential for addressing the information overload problem. This project extends the data visualization work of the Navigating Science project by coupling it with more traditional information retrieval methods. A citation-derived landscape was augmented with documents using a text-based similarity measure to show viability of extension into datasets where citation lists do not exist. Landscapes, showing hills where clusters of similar documents occur, can be navigated, manipulated and queried in this environment. The capabilities of this tool provide users with an intuitive explore-by-navigation method not currently available in today`s retrieval systems.

  7. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  8. Near-Surface Geophysics: Advancing Earth Science Through Advances in Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.

    2006-05-01

    The near-surface of Earth (the top ~100 m) is the region that supports human infrastructure, provides water and mineral resources, and is the interface between solid Earth and atmosphere for many of the biogeochemical cycles that sustain life. Developing an understanding of the processes and properties that occur here is essential for advancing our understanding of many parts of the Earth system. Yet our ability to study, sample, or probe this zone is remarkably primitive. Many investigations rely on drilling, trenching, and direct sampling. But given the pervasive spatial heterogeneity of the region, such methods yield information that is inadequate in terms of the spatial extent and density of sampling. As a result, the Earth science community is turning to geophysical imaging. The area of research that is focused on developing and applying geophysical methods to study this region of Earth is referred to as near-surface geophysics. Near-surface geophysics, as an area of research, includes many types of research, and many types of researchers. Some researchers are drawn to near-surface geophysics due to an interest in specific properties, processes, or applications, which can range from applied to basic science. As examples, near-surface geophysical methods are used for resource exploration and extraction, for the characterization of contaminated sites, for the assessment and design of built infrastructure; and to address scientific questions in neotectonics, volcanology, glaciology, hydrology, sedimentology, archaeology, geochemistry and biogeochemistry. Other researchers are drawn to near-surface geophysics due to an interest in the science of imaging as the driving scientific question. Advances in imaging require investigating the ways in which physical sensors can (or cannot) capture the complexity of a natural system, determining how best to quantify and enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of a measurement, developing new methods for the inversion of

  9. [Spectral analysis in nanometer material science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Sun, Shi-gang

    2002-06-01

    Spectral analysis is an important means in studies of nanometer scale systems, and is essential for deep understanding the structure and properties of nanometer materials. This paper reviews the recent progresses made in studies of nanometer materials using spectral analysis methods such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, positron annihilation and photoacoustic spectroscopy. The principle, characteristics and applications of most frequently employed spectral methods are introduced briefly and illustrated with typical examples. Future perspectives of spectral analysis in nanometer field are discussed. New directions of establishing spectral analysis methods at nanometer scale resolution and developing new spectroscopy technology in nanometer material studies are also emphasized.

  10. Analysis of Separated Flow over Blocked Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur YEMENİCİ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the separated flow over flat and blocked surfaces was investigated experimentally. Velocity and turbulence intensity measurements were carried out by a constanttemperature hot wire anemometer and static pressure measurements by a micro-manometer. The flow separations and reattachments were occurred before the first block, on the first block, between blocks and after the last block, and the presence of the blocks significantly increased the turbulent intensity

  11. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  12. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate th...

  13. Surface noise analysis using a single-ion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniilidis, N.; Gerber, S.; Bolloten, G.; Ramm, M.; Ransford, A.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Talukdar, I.; Häffner, H.

    2014-06-01

    We use a single-ion electric-field noise sensor in combination with in situ surface treatment and analysis tools, to investigate the relationship between electric-field noise from metal surfaces in vacuum and the composition of the surface. These experiments are performed in a setup that integrates ion trapping capabilities with surface analysis tools. We find that treatment of an aluminum-copper surface with energetic argon ions significantly reduces the level of room-temperature electric-field noise, but the surface does not need to be atomically clean to show noise levels comparable to those of the best cryogenic traps. The noise levels after treatment are low enough to allow fault-tolerant trapped-ion quantum information processing on a microfabricated surface trap at room temperature.

  14. Critical analysis of science textbooks evaluating instructional effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The critical analysis of science textbooks is vital in improving teaching and learning at all levels in the subject, and this volume sets out a range of academic perspectives on how that analysis should be done. Each chapter focuses on an aspect of science textbook appraisal, with coverage of everything from theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, methodological issues, and conceptual frameworks for critical analysis, to practical techniques for evaluation. Contributions from many of the most distinguished scholars in the field give this collection its sure-footed contemporary relevance, reflecting the international standards of UNESCO as well as leading research organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (whose Project 2061 is an influential waypoint in developing protocols for textbook analysis). Thus the book shows how to gauge aspects of textbooks such as their treatment of controversial issues, graphical depictions, scientific historiography, vocabulary usage, acc...

  15. Review of compartmental analysis in ecosystem science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    The compartment model has a large number of applications in ecosystem science. An attempt is made to outline the problem areas and objectives for which this type of model has particular advantages. The areas identified are an adequate model of tracer movement through an undisturbed but non-equilibrium ecosystem; an adequate model of the movement of material in greater than tracer quantity through an ecosystem near steady state; a minimal model based on limited data; a tool for extrapolating past trends; a framework for the summarization of large data sets; and a theoretical tool for exploring and comparing limited aspects of ecosystem dynamics. The review is set in an historical perspective which helps explain why these models were adopted in ecology. References are also provided to literature which documents available mathematical techniques in an ecological context

  16. Content Analysis in Library and Information Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bryce; Reser, David

    1990-01-01

    Describes ways in which content analysis is being used in library and information science research. Methodological concerns are addressed, including selection of target documents, selection of samples to be analyzed, selection of categories for analysis, and elimination of researcher bias to assure reliability. (35 references) (LRW)

  17. A Comparative Study of Science, Systems Analysis and Futurism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Hector

    1975-01-01

    The proper framework for studying different methods of problem-solving is to recognize that there are different approaches to the analysis of reality. Three approaches--science, systems analysis, and futurism--are considered within the framework of the "theory of knowledge." (Author/IRT)

  18. Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Anna Szajkowska and Bernd van der Meulen analyse in their contribution, Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis, the scope of application of risk analysis and the precautionary principle in EU food safety regulation. To what extent does this technocratic,

  19. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Jacob

    1988-01-01

    ... offers a unifying framework and some new data-analytic possibilities. 2. A new chapter (Chapter 11) considers some general topics in power analysis in more integrted form than is possible in the earlier...

  20. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Jacob

    1988-01-01

    .... A chapter has been added for power analysis in set correlation and multivariate methods (Chapter 10). Set correlation is a realization of the multivariate general linear model, and incorporates the standard multivariate methods...

  1. Plasma diagnostics surface analysis and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas and their interaction with materials have become subjects of major interest because of their importance in modern forefront technologies such as microelectronics, fusion energy, and space. Plasmas are used in microelectronics to process semiconductors (etching of patterns for microcircuits, plasma-induced deposition of thin films, etc.); plasmas produce deleterious erosion effects on surfaces of materials used for fusion devices and spaceships exposed to the low earth environment.Diagnostics of plasmas and materials exposed to them are fundamental to the understanding of the physical a

  2. Analysis of surface with low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to element analysis presents different characteristics depending on projectile energy. It can seen observed than an energy (E ≅ 1 MeV) exists which separate two regions for which sensitivity, information analysis and resolution in detection are different. For this work, we describe for the energy region E ≤ 1 MeV, the advantage of the three most used techniques which are PIXE, RBS y RNR. (Author)

  3. Research in health sciences library and information science: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroff, A

    1992-10-01

    A content analysis of research articles published between 1966 and 1990 in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association was undertaken. Four specific questions were addressed: What subjects are of interest to health sciences librarians? Who is conducting this research? How do health sciences librarians conduct their research? Do health sciences librarians obtain funding for their research activities? Bibliometric characteristics of the research articles are described and compared to characteristics of research in library and information science as a whole in terms of subject and methodology. General findings were that most research in health sciences librarianship is conducted by librarians affiliated with academic health sciences libraries (51.8%); most deals with an applied (45.7%) or a theoretical (29.2%) topic; survey (41.0%) or observational (20.7%) research methodologies are used; descriptive quantitative analytical techniques are used (83.5%); and over 25% of research is funded. The average number of authors was 1.85, average article length was 7.25 pages, and average number of citations per article was 9.23. These findings are consistent with those reported in the general library and information science literature for the most part, although specific differences do exist in methodological and analytical areas.

  4. Analysis of errors in forensic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of expert testimony is one of the foundations of judicial justice. Both expert bias and scientific errors affect the reliability of expert opinion, which in turn affects the trustworthiness of the findings of fact in legal proceedings. Expert bias can be eliminated by replacing experts; however, it may be more difficult to eliminate scientific errors. From the perspective of statistics, errors in operation of forensic science include systematic errors, random errors, and gross errors. In general, process repetition and abiding by the standard ISO/IEC:17025: 2005, general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, during operation are common measures used to reduce errors that originate from experts and equipment, respectively. For example, to reduce gross errors, the laboratory can ensure that a test is repeated several times by different experts. In applying for forensic principles and methods, the Federal Rules of Evidence 702 mandate that judges consider factors such as peer review, to ensure the reliability of the expert testimony. As the scientific principles and methods may not undergo professional review by specialists in a certain field, peer review serves as an exclusive standard. This study also examines two types of statistical errors. As false-positive errors involve a higher possibility of an unfair decision-making, they should receive more attention than false-negative errors.

  5. Ethnographic Discourse Analysis and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Macgilchrist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the perspectives of ethnography and discourse analysis, this paper first gives an overview of the emerging body of research bringing together the epistemologies and the methods of these two perspectives. It then presents a novel analytical framework for computer-assisted ethnographic discourse analysis. The paper outlines how close analysis of discursive practices—in this case journalistic writing practices—can provide insights into struggles over meaning and hegemony in contemporary knowledge work. The case study explores the production of a financial news story about the supply of gas to French consumers, and the way the practices in question subtly write Russia as a threat. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101183

  6. In situ surface-enhanced raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 mu L) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC

  7. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T

    2015-01-01

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 μL) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system

  8. Statistical analysis of the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, F.; Schmidt, F.; Lovejoy, S.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of the topography of Mars [10]. Planetary topographic fields are well known to exhibit (mono)fractal behavior. Indeed, fractal formalism is efficient to reproduce the variability observed in topography. Still, a single fractal dimension is not enough to explain the huge variability and intermittency. Previous study have shown that fractal dimensions might be different from a region to another, excluding a general description at the planetary scale. In this project, we are analyzing the Martian topographic data with a multifractal formalism to study the scaling intermittency. In the multifractal paradigm, the local variation of the fractal dimension is interpreted as a statistical property of multifractal fields. The results suggest a multifractal behaviour from planetary scale down to 10 km. From 10 km to 600 m, the topography seems to be simple monofractal. This transition indicates a significant in the geological processes governing the Red Planet's surface.

  9. Discourse Analysis: A Tool for Helping Educators to Teach Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Plakitsi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to a part of a collaborative action research project in three elementary science classrooms. The project aims at the transformation of the nature and type of teachers' discursive practices into more collaborative inquiries. The basic strategy is to give the teachers the opportunity to analyze their discourse using a three-dimensional context of analysis. The teachers analyzed their discursive repertoires when teaching science. They studied the companion meaning, i.e., the different layers of explicit and tacit messages they communicate about Nature of Science (NoS, Nature of Teaching (NoT, and Nature of Language (NoL. The question investigated is the following: Could an action research program, which involves teachers in the analysis of their own discursive practices, lead to the transformation of discourse modes that take place in the science classrooms to better communicate aspects of NoS, NoT and NoL in a collaborative, inquiry-based context? Results indicate that the teachers' involvement in their discourse analysis led to a transformation in the discursive repertoires in their science classrooms. Gradually, the teachers' companion meanings that were created, implicitly/explicitly, from the dialogues taking place during science lessons were more appropriate for the establishment of a productive collaborative inquiry learning context. We argue that discourse analysis could be used for research purposes, as a training medium or as a reflective tool on how teachers communicate science. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs170168

  10. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  11. Error analysis of aspheric surface with reference datum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanglin; Dai, Yifan; Chen, Shanyong; Song, Ci; Shi, Feng

    2015-07-20

    Severe requirements of location tolerance provide new challenges for optical component measurement, evaluation, and manufacture. Form error, location error, and the relationship between form error and location error need to be analyzed together during error analysis of aspheric surface with reference datum. Based on the least-squares optimization method, we develop a least-squares local optimization method to evaluate form error of aspheric surface with reference datum, and then calculate the location error. According to the error analysis of a machined aspheric surface, the relationship between form error and location error is revealed, and the influence on the machining process is stated. In different radius and aperture of aspheric surface, the change laws are simulated by superimposing normally distributed random noise on an ideal surface. It establishes linkages between machining and error analysis, and provides an effective guideline for error correcting.

  12. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time series data available for 240 hours in the month of May, 1999 were subjected to an auto-correlation analysis. The analysis indicates an exponential fall ...

  13. Multivariable modeling and multivariate analysis for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues.The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multip

  14. A readability analysis of elementary-level science textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Robyn

    Given both the unprecedented attention to the importance of providing children with the best possible science textbooks and the overwhelming evidence that students in the United States are severely lacking the most basic science knowledge, the decline in the number of students pursuing science degrees is alarming. In spite of all the efforts being made, a disparity still exists between (1) the wealth of science information available, (2) the apparent ease of access to scientific information, and (3) the lack of scientific academic progress being made in classrooms across the United States. A literature review was conducted which included the areas of textbook analysis and textbook readability levels, the fields of textbook analysis and readability, and findings from recently published books about textbook readability. The majority of the literature reflected an urgent need for science textbooks to be revised. Based on the information gathered during the literature review, the study examined the readability levels of elementary level science textbooks that were published by six textbook publishers. Results from the study revealed that when used properly, readability formulas provide an objective look at textbooks. After applying these formulas to the selected elementary level science textbooks, it became clear that very few changes were implemented between the most recent previous editions and the current editions. The textbooks remain too difficult for the students using them. The findings from this study will help science textbook publishers and textbook writers see that some changes need to be made in the way their textbooks are written. In order to maintain a competitive edge in the global marketplace, more students need to pursue science. In order for more students to do that, they need to pursue science degrees, but in order for them to pursue science degrees, they need to have a certain degree of confidence and level of interest in the subject matter. For

  15. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  16. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nature of the inherent temporal variability of surface winds is analyzed by comparison of winds obtained through different measurement methods. In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time ...

  17. Assessing ground compaction via time lapse surface wave analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Al-Arifi, N.; Moustafa, S.S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-256 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Full velocity spectrum (FVS) analysis * ground compaction * ground compaction * phase velocities * Rayleigh waves * seismic data inversion * surface wave dispersion * surface waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  18. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  19. Synthesis, Structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3

    lead to the formation of a three-dimensional architecture. Hirshfeld surface analysis for visually analyzing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular surface contours and 2D fingerprint plots have been used to scrutinize molecular shapes. The vibration properties of this structure were studied by IR ...

  20. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  1. Synthesis, structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional architecture. Hirshfeld surface analysis for visually analysing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular sur- face contours and 2D fingerprint plots has been used to scrutinize molecular shapes. The vibration ...

  2. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although a number of airportal surface models exist and have been successfully used for analysis of airportal operations, only recently has it become possible to...

  3. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The complexity and interdependence of operations on the airport surface motivate the need for a comprehensive and detailed, yet flexible and validated analysis and...

  4. Analysis of Terminal Metallic Armor Plate Free-Surface Bulging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapacki, Jr, E. J

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the bulge formed on the free-surface of the terminal metallic plate of an armor array is shown to lead to reasonable estimates of the armor array's remaining penetration/perforation resistance...

  5. The Nature of Science and the Next Generation Science Standards: Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.; Nouri, Noushin

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the inclusion of aspects of nature of science (NOS) in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). In this new standards document, NOS elements in eight categories are discussed in Appendix H along with illustrative statements (called exemplars). Many, but not all, of these exemplars are linked to the standards by their association with either the "practices of science" or "crosscutting concepts," but curiously not with the recommendations for science content. The study investigated all aspects of NOS in NGSS including the accuracy and inclusion of the supporting exemplar statements and the relationship of NOS in NGSS to other aspects of NOS to support teaching and learning science. We found that while 92 % of these exemplars are acceptable, only 78 % of those written actually appear with the standards. "Science as a way of knowing" is a recommended NOS category in NGSS but is not included with the standards. Also, several other NOS elements fail to be included at all grade levels thus limiting their impact. Finally, NGSS fails to include or insufficiently emphasize several frequently recommended NOS elements such as creativity and subjectivity. The paper concludes with a list of concerns and solutions to the challenges of NOS in NGSS.

  6. Journal rankings by citation analysis in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify objectively a hierarchical ranking of journals for health sciences librarians with faculty status. Such a guideline can indicate a journal's value for promotion and tenure consideration. Lists of recent research articles (1982-1986) in health sciences librarianship, and articles written by health sciences librarians, were compiled by searching Social SCISEARCH and MEDLINE. The journals publishing those articles are presented. Results show BMLA as the most prominent journal in the field. Therefore, citations from articles in BMLA from 1982 to 1986 were chosen as a sample for citation analysis. Citation analysis was employed to identify the most frequently cited journals. Some characteristics of the citations in BMLA are also discussed. The ranking of journals based on citation frequency, as a result, was identified. PMID:2655785

  7. Surface science approach to heterogeneous catalysis: CO hydrogenation on transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzel, H. P.; Krebs, H. J.

    1982-05-01

    Modern surface sensitive electron spectroscopies and other surface analytical techniques have in recent years been extensively applied to the study of H 2 and CO adorption on transition metals. This work has now been extended to include the heterogeneous reaction between adsorbed H 2 and CO on these metals. The combination of surface analysis (carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions) and reaction rate measurements in the range of 100 mbar to 1 bar total pressure is being practiced. This approach yields information on changes of the surface composition of the catalyst as well as data on reaction kinetics and the possible time dependence of the reaction rate. Low surface area samples — either single or polycrystalline - are used for these studies. In the present paper the results obtained by this approach will be reviewed and discussed in the light of the adsorption data. Recent advances in the direction of studying either poisoned or promoted catalytic surfaces will also be mentioned.

  8. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consumption, waste generation, and hazard generation including air pollution and greenhouse gases. In addition, the tools have been evaluated using four screening criteria: relevance to community decision making, tools in an appropriate developmental stage, tools that may be transferrable to situations useful for communities, and tools with requiring skill levels appropriate to communities. This document provides an initial gap analysis in the area of community sustainability decision support tools. It provides a reference to communities for existing decision support tools, and a set of gaps for those wishing to develop additional needed tools to help communities to achieve sustainability. It contributes to SHC 1.61.4

  9. Quantitation of Surface Coating on Nanoparticles Using Thermogravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongargaonkar, Alpana A; Clogston, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles are critical components in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutic applications. Some nanoparticles, such as metallic nanoparticles, consist of a surface coating or surface modification to aid in its dispersion and stability. This surface coating may affect the behavior of nanoparticles in a biological environment, thus it is important to measure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used to determine the amount of coating on the surface of the nanoparticle. TGA experiments run under inert atmosphere can also be used to determine residual metal content present in the sample. In this chapter, the TGA technique and experimental method are described.

  10. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  11. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  12. Science, transformation and society: a contextual analysis of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, transformation and society: a contextual analysis of South Africa's SANCOR-managed marine and coastal research programmes. D Scott. Abstract. The paper aims to describe and analyse three research programmes over the period 1995–2011 managed by the South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic ...

  13. A POST-MODERNIST ANALYSIS OF THE NEURO-SCIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support

    necessitate the decoupling of the memory system from other cognitive systems. It has been noted by some ... that although the majority of visual research has been on the macaque monkey (pragmatic expediency), ... of visual science becomes the analysis of processes involved in parsing the array of discrete objects and.

  14. An overview of animal science research 1945-2011 through science mapping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, A; Cobo, M J; Lopez-Pujalte, C; Herrera-Viedma, E

    2015-12-01

    The conceptual structure of the field of Animal Science (AS) research is examined by means of a longitudinal science mapping analysis. The whole of the AS research field is analysed, revealing its conceptual evolution. To this end, an automatic approach to detecting and visualizing hidden themes or topics and their evolution across a consecutive span of years was applied to AS publications of the JCR category 'Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science' during the period 1945-2011. This automatic approach was based on a coword analysis and combines performance analysis and science mapping. To observe the conceptual evolution of AS, six consecutive periods were defined: 1945-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2005 and 2006-2011. Research in AS was identified as having focused on ten main thematic areas: ANIMAL-FEEDING, SMALL-RUMINANTS, ANIMAL-REPRODUCTION, DAIRY-PRODUCTION, MEAT-QUALITY, SWINE-PRODUCTION, GENETICS-AND-ANIMAL-BREEDING, POULTRY, ANIMAL-WELFARE and GROWTH-FACTORS-AND-FATTY-ACIDS. The results show how genomic studies gain in weight and integrate with other thematic areas. The whole of AS research has become oriented towards an overall framework in which animal welfare, sustainable management and human health play a major role. All this would affect the future structure and management of livestock farming. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Aberration analysis for freeform surface terms overlay on general decentered and tilted optical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tong; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian

    2018-03-19

    Aberration theory helps designers to better understand the nature of imaging systems. However, the existing aberration theory of freeform surfaces has many limitations. For example, it only works in the special case when the central area of the freeform surface is used. In addition, the light footprint is limited to a circle, which does not match the case of an elliptical footprint for general systems. In this paper, aberrations generated by freeform surface term overlay on general decentered and tilted optical surfaces are analyzed. For the case when the off-axis section of a freeform surface is used, the aberration equation for using stop and nonstop surfaces is discussed, and the aberrations generated by Zernike terms up to Z 17/18 are analyzed in detail. To solve the problem of the elliptical light footprint for tilted freeform surfaces, the scaled pupil vector is used in the aberration analysis. The mechanism of aberration transformation is discovered, and the aberrations generated by different Zernike terms in this case are calculated. Finally we proposed aberration equations for freeform terms on general decentered and tilted freeform surfaces. The research result given in this paper offers an important reference for optical designers and engineers, and it is of great importance in developing analytical methods for general freeform system design, tolerance analysis, and system assembly.

  16. Multiscale analysis of surface morphologies by curvelet and contourlet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Linfu; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Hao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    The surface topographies of precision components are critical to their functionalities. However, it is challenging to characterize the topographies of complex surfaces, especially for structured surfaces. The wavelet families are promising for the multiscale geometry analysis of nonstochastic surfaces. The second-generation curvelet transform provides a sparse representation and good multiscale decomposition for curve singularities. However, the contourlet expansion, composed of bases oriented along various directions in multiple scales with smaller redundancy rates, has a remarkable capability of representing borderlines. In this paper they are both adopted for the characterization of surface topographies. Different components can be extracted according to their scales and morphological characteristics; as a result, the corresponding manufacturing processes and functionalities can be analyzed specifically. Numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in sparse representation and effective extraction of geometry features of different nonstochastic surfaces. (paper)

  17. Ion induced optical emission for surface and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Low-energy ion bombardment of solid surfaces results in the emission of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation produced by inelastic ion-solid collision processes. The emitted optical radiation provides important insight into low-energy particle-solid interactions and provides the basis for an analysis technique which can be used for surface and depth profile analysis with high sensitivity. The different kinds of collision induced optical radiation emitted as a result of low-energy particle-solid collisions are reviewed. Line radiation arising from excited states of sputtered atoms or molecules is shown to provide the basis for surface and depth profile analysis. The spectral characteristics of this type of radiation are discussed and applications of the ion induced optical emission technique are presented. These applications include measurements of ion implant profiles, detection sensitivities for submonolayer quantities of impurities on elemental surfaces, and the detection of elemental impurities on complex organic substrates

  18. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co--analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  19. Time series analysis in the social sciences the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Youseop

    2017-01-01

    Times Series Analysis in the Social Sciences is a practical and highly readable introduction written exclusively for students and researchers whose mathematical background is limited to basic algebra. The book focuses on fundamental elements of time series analysis that social scientists need to understand so they can employ time series analysis for their research and practice. Through step-by-step explanations and using monthly violent crime rates as case studies, this book explains univariate time series from the preliminary visual analysis through the modeling of seasonality, trends, and re

  20. Near surface stress analysis strategies for axisymmetric fretting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we develop design tools for Near Surface Analysis (NSA) for understanding axisymmetric fretting. Axisymmetric Fretting Analysis (AFA) becomes formidable owing to localised tractions that call for Fourier transform techniques. We develop two different NSA strategies based on two-dimensional plane strain ...

  1. Surface Ozone Measured at GLOBE Schools in the Czech Republic: A Demonstration of the Importance of Student Contribution to the Larger Science Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret R.; Creilson, John K.; Henderson, Bryana L.; Ladd, Irene H.; Fishman, Jack; Votapkova, Dana; Krpcova, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based education and science program, developed to give students a chance to perform real science by making measurements, analyzing data, and participating in research in collaboration with scientists. As part of the GLOBE Surface Ozone Protocol and with the assistance of the TEREZA Association in the Czech Republic, schools in the Czech Republic have been making and reporting daily measurements of surface ozone and surface meteorological data since 2001. Using a hand-held ozone monitor developed for GLOBE, students at several Czech schools have generated multiyear data records of surface ozone from 2001 to 2005. Analysis of the data shows surface ozone levels were anomalously high during the summer of 2003 relative to other summers. These findings are consistent with measurements by the European Environment Agency that highlights the summer of 2003 as having exceptionally long-lasting and spatially extensive episodes of high surface ozone, especially during the first half of August. Further analysis of the summer s prevailing meteorology shows not only that it was one of the hottest on record, a finding also seen in the student data, but the conditions for production of ozone were ideal. Findings such as these increase student, teacher, and scientist confidence in the utility of the GLOBE data for engaging budding scientists in the collection, analysis, and eventual interpretation of the data for inquiry-based education.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology Textbooks for Inclusion of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Padayachee, Keshni

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology textbooks that were written…

  3. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  4. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  5. PREFACE: 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan Bhatti, Javaid; Hussain, Talib; Khan, Wakil

    2013-06-01

    The Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA) conference series has been organized to create a new forum in Asia and Australia to discuss vacuum, surface and related sciences, techniques and applications. The conference series is officially endorsed by the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Application (IUVSTA). The International Steering Committee of VASSCAA is comprised of Vacuum Societies in seven countries: Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Pakistan. VASSCAA-1 was organized by the Vacuum Society of Japan in 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. VASSCAA-2 was held in 2002 in Hong Kong, VASSCAA-3 in Singapore in 2005. VASSCAA-4 was held in Matsue, Japan in 2008 and VASSCAA-5 in 2010 in Beijing, China. The 6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6) was held from 9-13 October 2012 in the beautiful city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The venue of the conference was the Pak-China Friendship Centre, Islamabad. More than six hundred local delgates and around seventy delegates from different countries participated in this mega event. These delegates included scientists, researchers, engineers, professors, plant operators, designers, vendors, industrialists, businessmen and students from various research organizations, technical institutions, universities, industries and companies from Pakistan and abroad. The focal point of the event was to enhance cooperation between Pakistan and the international community in the fields of vacuum, surface science and other applied technologies. At VASSCAA-6 85 oral presentations were delivered by local and foreign speakers. These were divided into different sessions according to their fields. A poster session was organized at which over 70 researchers and students displayed their posters. The best three posters won prizes. In parallel to the main conference sessions four technical short courses were held. The participants showed keen interest in all these

  6. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for surface science and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Salmeron, Miquel; Schlogl, Robert

    2008-03-12

    Progress in science often follows or parallels the development of new techniques. The optical microscope helped convert medicine and biology from a speculative activity in old times to today's sophisticated scientific disciplines. The telescope changed the study and interpretation of heavens from mythology to science. X-ray diffraction enabled the flourishing of solid state physics and materials science. The technique object of this review, Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy or APPES for short, has also the potential of producing dramatic changes in the study of liquid and solid surfaces, particularly in areas such as atmospheric, environment and catalysis sciences. APPES adds an important missing element to the host of techniques that give fundamental information, i.e., spectroscopy and microscopy, about surfaces in the presence of gases and vapors, as encountered in industrial catalysis and atmospheric environments. APPES brings electron spectroscopy into the realm of techniques that can be used in practical environments. Decades of surface science in ultra high vacuum (UHV) has shown the power of electron spectroscopy in its various manifestations. Their unique property is the extremely short elastic mean free path of electrons as they travel through condensed matter, of the order of a few atomic distances in the energy range from a few eV to a few thousand eV. As a consequence of this the information obtained by analyzing electrons emitted or scattered from a surface refers to the top first few atomic layers, which is what surface science is all about. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and other such techniques have been used for decades and provided some of the most fundamental knowledge about surface crystallography, composition and electronic structure available today. Unfortunately the high interaction cross section of

  7. Contribution of surface analysis spectroscopic methods to the lubrication field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, C.

    1979-01-01

    The analytical surface technics such as ESCA, AES and SIMS are tested to be applied to a particular lubrication field. One deals with a 100 C 6 steel surface innumered in tricresylphosphate at 110 0 C for 15 days. The nature of the first layers is studied after relevant solvant cleaning. An iron oxide layer is produced on the bearing surface, namely αFe 2 -O 3 . ESCA, AES and SIMS studies show an overlayer of iron phosphate. The exact nature of iron phosphate is not clearly established but the formation of a ferrous phosphate coating can be assumed from ESCA analysis [fr

  8. Doing gender/teaching science: A feminist poststructural analysis of middle school science teachers' identity negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Scott P.

    This research joins the gender equity conversation within science education by providing a feminist poststructural analysis of teachers' doing gender and teaching science. Feminist poststructuralism is used in recognition of the oppressive nature of dualistic modes of thought, which often reduce reality into a limiting either/or fallacy and can be theoretically constraining as research within any particular field becomes more sophisticated. By uprooting the concept of gendered identity from the unproductive grip of essentialism, and conceptualizing it instead as a shifting 'work in progress,' feminist poststructuralism provides an invigorating theoretical framework from which to conduct inquiries. From a this perspective, the identity of a teacher, as any identity, is not a fixed entity, but rather an unfinished project, swarmed upon by a variety of competing discourses. Situated in a rural middle school in the Florida panhandle, this research explores how numerous discourses compete to define what it means to be a female science teacher. More specifically, the aims of this research are to explore: (a) how the participants negotiated successful gendered identities within science and (b) how this taking up of subject positions crystallized into classroom practices which worked to reproduce and/or challenge commonsense notions of the heteropatriarchal gender dualism as well as the enmeshment of masculinity and science. Findings illustrate a wide array of classroom pedagogical practices, ranging from antioppressive emancipatory constructions of both gender and science to more traditional objectivist constructions that validated the patriarchal status quo. Explicating teacher identity as effects of these pedagogical approaches proved insightful in unveiling notions of resistance, frustration, enthusiasm, and agency as the teachers reflected on their practice.

  9. Autonomous Aerobraking: Thermal Analysis and Response Surface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Thornblom, Mark N.

    2011-01-01

    A high-fidelity thermal model of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was developed for use in an autonomous aerobraking simulation study. Response surface equations were derived from the high-fidelity thermal model and integrated into the autonomous aerobraking simulation software. The high-fidelity thermal model was developed using the Thermal Desktop software and used in all phases of the analysis. The use of Thermal Desktop exclusively, represented a change from previously developed aerobraking thermal analysis methodologies. Comparisons were made between the Thermal Desktop solutions and those developed for the previous aerobraking thermal analyses performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter during aerobraking operations. A variable sensitivity screening study was performed to reduce the number of variables carried in the response surface equations. Thermal analysis and response surface equation development were performed for autonomous aerobraking missions at Mars and Venus.

  10. Evaluating the performance and mapping of three fuel classification systems using Forest Inventory and Analysis surface fuel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Jason M. Herynk; Chris Toney; Shawn P. Urbanski; Duncan C. Lutes; Roger D. Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Fuel Loading Models (FLMs) and Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCSs) fuelbeds are used throughout wildland fire science and management to simplify fuel inputs into fire behavior and effects models, but they have yet to be thoroughly evaluated with field data. In this study, we used a large dataset of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) surface fuel...

  11. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Papancea, Adina [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites surface analysis by photographic method. • The composites are submitted to accelerated ageing by UV irradiation at 254 nm. • The UV irradiation promotes differences in the surface chemistry of the composites. • MB dye is differently adsorbed on surfaces with different degradation degrees. • Good correlation between the colouring degree and surface chemistry. - Abstract: The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  12. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Towards an atomic level understanding of niobia based catalysts and catalysis by combining the science of catalysis with surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The science of catalysis and surface science have developed, independently, key information for understanding catalytic processes. One might argue: is there anything fundamental to be discovered through the interplay between catalysis and surface science? Real catalysts of monometallic and bimetallic Co/Nb2O5 and Pd-Co/Nb2O5 catalysts showed interesting selectivity results on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Noronha et al. 1996, Rosenir et al. 1993. The presence of a noble metal increased the C+5 selectivity and decreased the methane formation depending of the reduction temperature. Model catalyst of Co-Pd supported on niobia and alumina were prepared and characterized at the atomic level, thus forming the basis for a comparison with "real" support materials. Growth, morphology and structure of both pure metal and alloy particles were studied. It is possible to support the strong metal support interaction suggested by studies on real catalysts via the investigation of model systems for niobia in comparison to alumina support in which this effect does not occur. Formation of Co2+ penetration into the niobia lattice was suggested on the basis of powder studies and can be fully supported on the basis of model studies. It is shown for both real catalysts and model systems that oxidation state of Co plays a key role in controlling the reactivity in Fischer-Tropsch reactions systems and that the addition of Pd is a determining factor for the stability of the catalyst. It is demonstrated that the interaction with unsaturated hydrocarbons depends strongly on the state of oxidation.As ciências da catálise e da superfície têm desenvolvido independentemente temas básicos para o entendimento de processos catalíticos. Pode-se até questionar se há ainda algo fundamental para ser descoberto através da interface entre catálise eciência da superfície? Catalisadores mono e bimetálicos de Co/Nb2O5 e Pd-Co/ Nb2O5 apresentaram resultados interessantes de

  14. Analysis of passive surface-wave noise in surface microseismic data and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, F.; Willis, M.; Haines, S.; Batzle, M.; Davidson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Tight gas reservoirs are projected to be a major portion of future energy resources. Because of their low permeability, hydraulic fracturing of these reservoirs is required to improve the permeability and reservoir productivity. Passive seismic monitoring is one of the few tools that can be used to characterize the changes in the reservoir due to hydraulic fracturing. Although the majority of the studies monitoring hydraulic fracturing exploit down hole microseismic data, surface microseismic monitoring is receiving increased attention because it is potentially much less expensive to acquire. Due to a broader receiver aperture and spatial coverage, surface microseismic data may be more advantageous than down hole microseismic data. The effectiveness of this monitoring technique, however, is strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. Cultural and ambient noise can mask parts of the waveform that carry information about the subsurface, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of surface microseismic analysis in identifying and locating the microseismic events. Hence, time and spatially varying suppression of the surface-wave noise ground roll is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. Here, we study a surface passive dataset that was acquired over a Barnett Shale Formation reservoir during two weeks of hydraulic fracturing, in order to characterize and suppress the surface noise in this data. We apply techniques to identify the characteristics of the passive ground roll. Exploiting those characteristics, we can apply effective noise suppression techniques to the passive data. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Adsorption of DNA onto gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide: surface science and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juewen

    2012-08-14

    The interaction between DNA and inorganic surfaces has attracted intense research interest, as a detailed understanding of adsorption and desorption is required for DNA microarray optimization, biosensor development, and nanoparticle functionalization. One of the most commonly studied surfaces is gold due to its unique optical and electric properties. Through various surface science tools, it was found that thiolated DNA can interact with gold not only via the thiol group but also through the DNA bases. Most of the previous work has been performed with planar gold surfaces. However, knowledge gained from planar gold may not be directly applicable to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for several reasons. First, DNA adsorption affinity is a function of AuNP size. Second, DNA may interact with AuNPs differently due to the high curvature. Finally, the colloidal stability of AuNPs confines salt concentration, whereas there is no such limit for planar gold. In addition to gold, graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as a new material for interfacing with DNA. GO and AuNPs share many similar properties for DNA adsorption; both have negatively charged surfaces but can still strongly adsorb DNA, and both are excellent fluorescence quenchers. Similar analytical and biomedical applications have been demonstrated with these two surfaces. The nature of the attractive force however, is different for each of these. DNA adsorption on AuNPs occurs via specific chemical interactions but adsorption on GO occurs via aromatic stacking and hydrophobic interactions. Herein, we summarize the recent developments in studying non-thiolated DNA adsorption and desorption as a function of salt, pH, temperature and DNA secondary structures. Potential future directions and applications are also discussed.

  16. Vector Field Visual Data Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computational Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garth, Christoph; Deines, Eduard; Joy, Kenneth I.; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank; Weber, Gunther; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave; Sanderson, Allen; Johnson, Chris

    2009-11-13

    State-of-the-art computational science simulations generate large-scale vector field data sets. Visualization and analysis is a key aspect of obtaining insight into these data sets and represents an important challenge. This article discusses possibilities and challenges of modern vector field visualization and focuses on methods and techniques developed in the SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) and deployed in the open-source visualization tool, VisIt.

  17. An Analysis of South African Grade 9 Natural Sciences Textbooks for Their Representation of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Chanetsa, Tarisai

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis and comparison of three South African Grade 9 (13-14 years) Natural Sciences textbooks for the representation of nature of science (NOS). The analysis was framed by an analytical tool developed and validated by Abd-El-Khalick and a team of researchers in a large-scale study on the high school textbooks in the…

  18. Generalized surface momentum balances for the analysis of surface dilatational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Dilatational rheological properties of interfaces are often determined using drop tensiometers, in which the interface of the droplet is subjected to oscillatory area changes. A dynamic surface tension is determined either by image analysis of the droplet profile or by measuring the capillary

  19. KDD for science data analysis: Issues and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyad, U.; Haussler, D.; Stolorz, P.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of the massive data sets collected by scientific instruments demands automation as a prerequisite to analysis. There is an urgent need to create an intermediate level at which scientists can operate effectively; isolating them from the massive sizes and harnessing human analysis capabilities to focus on tasks in which machines do not even remotely approach humans-namely, creative data analysis, theory and hypothesis formation, and drawing insights into underlying phenomena. We give an overview of the main issues in the exploitation of scientific datasets, present five case studies where KDD tools play important and enabling roles, and conclude with future challenges for data mining and KDD techniques in science data analysis

  20. Preliminary study on the effect of heated surfaces upon bloodstain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E

    2013-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) involves the interpretation of distinct blood patterns found at crime scenes following a violent act. In this paper, we explored for the first time the effects of surface temperatures upon blood impacting a horizontal surface (steel) with its implications in BPA explored. Specific surface temperatures were explored over the range 24-250°C which relate to the four major boiling regimes of liquid media; natural convection, nucleate boiling, transition boiling, and film boiling, where a series of blood drops tests were performed at varying impact velocities. Blood was found to separate into its components at temperatures of 50°C+, displayed as temperature induced blood rings, where a single secondary and a series of further inner rings are exhibited. This consequently led to the development of a new constant Cd heated expressing the decrease in spread factor (D(s)/D(o)) at the secondary ring. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Surface composition of biomedical components by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Baxter, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Materials used for replacement body parts must satisfy a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and mechanical ability to handle the task with regard to strength, wear and durability. When using a CVD coated carbon fibre reinforced carbon ball, the surface must be ion implanted with uniform dose of nitrogen ions in order to make it wear resistant. The mechanism by which the wear resistance is improved is one of radiation damage and the required dose of about 10 16 cm -2 can have a tolerance of about 20%. To implant a spherical surface requires manipulation of the sample within the beam and control system (either computer or manually operated) to enable uniform dose all the way from polar to equatorial regions on the surface. A manipulator has been designed and built for this purpose. In order to establish whether the dose is uniform, nuclear reaction analysis using the reaction 14 N(d,α) 12 C is an ideal method of profiling. By taking measurements at a number of points on the surface, the uniformity of nitrogen dose can be ascertained. It is concluded that both Rutherford Backscattering and Nuclear Reaction Analysis can be used for rapid analysis of surface composition of carbon based materials used for replacement body components. 2 refs., 2 figs

  2. Trend Analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Production in Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRUCOLO, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of scientific information volume and diversity brings new challenges in order to understand the reasons, the process and the real essence that propel this growth. This information can be used as the basis for the development of strategies and public politics to improve the education and innovation services. Trend analysis is one of the steps in this way. In this work, trend analysis of Brazilian scientific production of graduate programs in the computer science area is made to identify the main subjects being studied by these programs in general and individual ways.

  3. Surface analysis of graphite fiber reinforced polyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, D. L.; Progar, D. J.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Several techniques have been used to establish the effect of different surface pretreatments on graphite-polyimide composites. Composites were prepared from Celion 6000 graphite fibers and the polyimide LARC-160. Pretreatments included mechanical abrasion, chemical etching and light irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used in the analysis. Contact angle of five different liquids of varying surface tensions were measured on the composites. SEM results showed polymer-rich peaks and polymer-poor valleys conforming to the pattern of the release cloth used durng fabrication. Mechanically treated and light irradiated samples showed varying degrees of polymer peak removal, with some degradation down to the graphite fibers. Minimal changes in surface topography were observed on concentrations of surface fluorine even after pretreatment. The light irradiation pretreatment was most effective at reducing surface fluorine concentrations whereas chemical pretreatment was the least effective. Critical surface tensions correlated directly with the surface fluorine to carbon ratios as calculated from XPS.

  4. Analysis of surface degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Analysis of surface degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) insulation ... ammonium chloride as the contaminant, in high density polyethylene ..... liquid in the material. When diffusion is driven by the concentration gradient and if there is no chemical change between liquid and material, this would result in mass.

  5. Synthesis, structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hirshfeld surface analysis for visually analysing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular surfacecontours and 2D fingerprint plots has been used to scrutinize molecular shapes. The vibration properties of this structure were studied by IR spectroscopy and Raman scattering. Vibration spectra ...

  6. Difraction analysis of iron materials after surface machining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čerňanský, Marian; Ganev, N.; Barcal, J.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Kolařík, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, suppl. 23 (2006), s. 369-374 ISSN 0044-2968 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : iron materials * surface treatment * size-strain * residual stress * phase analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  7. Boundary surface and microstructure analysis of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woltersdorf, J.; Pippel, E.

    1992-01-01

    The article introduces the many possibilities of high voltage (HVEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) for boundary surface and microstructure analysis of ceramic materials. The investigations are limited to ceramic long fibre composites and a ceramic fibre/glass matrix system. (DG) [de

  8. Hirschfeld surface analysis of two new phosporothioic triamides structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alamdar, A.H.; Pourayoubi, M.; Saneei, A.; Dušek, Michal; Kučeráková, Monika; Henriques, Margarida Isabel Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 9 (2015), s. 824-833 ISSN 2053-2296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phosphorothioic triamide * Hirshfeld surface analysis * two-dimensional fingerprint plot * crystal structure * hydrogen-bonding pattern. Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2015

  9. Surface analysis of DLC coating on cam-tappet system

    OpenAIRE

    FOUVRY, Siegfried; PAGNOUX, Geoffrey; PEIGNEY, Michael; DELATTRE, Benoit; MERMAT-ROLLET, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Tribomechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings make them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. But although DLC coatings show a generally high wear resistance, they sometimes can exhibit severe multiple wear. In this study, a surface analysis of worn coated tappets is performed, leading to a complete coupled wear scenario.

  10. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis | Boyacioglu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow conditions, water ...

  11. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; hide

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  12. Corrected Debye-Hückel analysis of surface complexation. II. A theory of surface charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Magnus; Abbas, Zareen; Ahlberg, Elisabet; Gobom, Sylvia; Nordholm, Sture

    2002-05-01

    A theory of surface charging of colloidal particles suspended in an electrolyte solution is presented. The charging at the particle surface is assumed to originate from the adsorption and desorption of protons and is therefore strongly dependent on the acidity of the solution. The surface binding of protons occurs locally at sites of occupancy zero or one that are described by a binding energy u(0) and a three-dimensional vibration of frequency nu. The diffuse screening of ions at the surface is described by the corrected Debye-Hückel analysis assuming linear response. The model contains a capacitor layer close to the charged surface and the finite size of the electrolyte ions is taken into account. The theory has been applied to titrated surface charge data on goethite (alpha-FeOOH) at NaClO(4) background concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 M. The protonation mechanism used in the modeling of these data corresponds to the 1-pK approach. A very good description of the experimental data was obtained at the highest ionic strength. Close to the pH(pzc) the theory also gave a good description at lower ionic strengths. However, at low salt concentrations and pH values far away from the pH(pzc) the electrostatic potential outside the capacitor layer becomes so high that nonlinear electrostatic effects become important and the theory therefore underestimates the surface charge. These results were compared with model calculations obtained using existing surface complexation models.

  13. OSI in the NASA science internet: An analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Rebecca

    1990-01-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite is a result of a world-wide effort to develop international standards for networking. OSI is formalized through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The goal of OSI is to provide interoperability between network products without relying on one particular vendor, and to do so on a multinational basis. The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed a Government OSI Profile (GOSIP) that specified a subset of the OSI protocols as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS 146). GOSIP compatibility has been adopted as the direction for all U.S. government networks. OSI is extremely diverse, and therefore adherence to a profile will facilitate interoperability within OSI networks. All major computer vendors have indicated current or future support of GOSIP-compliant OSI protocols in their products. The NASA Science Internet (NSI) is an operational network, serving user requirements under NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications. NSI consists of the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) that uses the DECnet protocols and the NASA Science Network (NSN) that uses TCP/IP protocols. The NSI Project Office is currently working on an OSI integration analysis and strategy. A long-term goal is to integrate SPAN and NSN into one unified network service, using a full OSI protocol suite, which will support the OSSA user community.

  14. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  15. Applied Behavior Analysis is a Science and, Therefore, Progressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-02-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful progress for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe this approach as progressive. In a progressive approach to ABA, the therapist employs a structured yet flexible process, which is contingent upon and responsive to child progress. We will describe progressive ABA, contrast it to reductionist ABA, and provide rationales for both the substance and intent of ABA as a progressive scientific method for improving conditions of social relevance for individuals with ASD.

  16. SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY IN BIOMECHANICS: APPLICATIONS AND SIGNAL ANALYSIS ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEAK GRAłIELA-FLAVIA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography (SEMG is a technique for detecting and recording the electrical activity of the muscles using surface electrodes. The EMG signal is used in biomechanics mainly as an indicator of the initiation of muscle activation, as an indicator of the force produced by a contracting muscle, and as an index ofthe fatigue occurring within a muscle. EMG, used as a method of investigation, can tell us if the muscle is active or not, if the muscle is more or less active, when it is on or off, how much active is it, and finally, if it fatigues.The purpose of this article is to discuss some specific EMG signal analysis aspects with emphasis on comparison type analysis and frequency fatigue analysis.

  17. Multifunctional Collaborative Modeling and Analysis Methods in Engineering Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers are challenged to produce better designs in less time and for less cost. Hence, to investigate novel and revolutionary design concepts, accurate, high-fidelity results must be assimilated rapidly into the design, analysis, and simulation process. This assimilation should consider diverse mathematical modeling and multi-discipline interactions necessitated by concepts exploiting advanced materials and structures. Integrated high-fidelity methods with diverse engineering applications provide the enabling technologies to assimilate these high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary results rapidly at an early stage in the design. These integrated methods must be multifunctional, collaborative, and applicable to the general field of engineering science and mechanics. Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple-method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized. The multifunctional methodology presented provides an effective mechanism by which domains with diverse idealizations are

  18. A Probabilistic Analysis of Surface Water Flood Risk in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Katie; Hall, Jim; Glenis, Vassilis; Kilsby, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall, often characterized by short duration and high-intensity events, is known as "surface water flooding." Analyzing surface water flood risk is complex as it requires understanding of biophysical and human factors, such as the localized scale and nature of heavy precipitation events, characteristics of the urban area affected (including detailed topography and drainage networks), and the spatial distribution of economic and social vulnerability. Climate change is recognized as having the potential to enhance the intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events. This study develops a methodology to link high spatial resolution probabilistic projections of hourly precipitation with detailed surface water flood depth maps and characterization of urban vulnerability to estimate surface water flood risk. It incorporates probabilistic information on the range of uncertainties in future precipitation in a changing climate. The method is applied to a case study of Greater London and highlights that both the frequency and spatial extent of surface water flood events are set to increase under future climate change. The expected annual damage from surface water flooding is estimated to be to be £171 million, £343 million, and £390 million/year under the baseline, 2030 high, and 2050 high climate change scenarios, respectively. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. History of science content analysis of Chinese science textbooks from the perspective of acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjun; Wan, Yanlan

    2017-08-01

    Based on previous international studies, a content analysis scheme has been designed and used from the perspective of culture to study the history of science (HOS) in science textbooks. Nineteen sets of Chinese science textbooks have been analyzed. It has been found that there are noticeable changes in the quantity, content, layout, presentation, and writing intention of the HOS sections in textbooks from different time periods. What's more, the textbooks aim at presenting the scientific culture and aim to help students understand it better. However, the cultural associations of the HOS in textbooks is insufficient and significant differences exist among textbooks of different subjects. In order to explore the reasons why the presentation of HOS in various subjects is different, we made a specific comparison of curriculum standards of two subjects with great differences and interviewed the editors-in-chief of two textbooks. Results show that one of the most important reasons for the different writings of the HOS in textbooks is that different subject curriculum standards attach greater importance to the HOS. In addition, the attention to the HOS by editors-in-chief, the tradition of studying the HOS within the history of the discipline, and the reference textbooks in compiling textbooks are all important influence factors. Some suggestions for future textbooks compilation are given at the end.

  20. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  1. Analysis of leaf surfaces using scanning ion conductance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shaun C; Allen, Stephanie; Bell, Gordon; Roberts, Clive J

    2015-05-01

    Leaf surfaces are highly complex functional systems with well defined chemistry and structure dictating the barrier and transport properties of the leaf cuticle. It is a significant imaging challenge to analyse the very thin and often complex wax-like leaf cuticle morphology in their natural state. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and to a lesser extent Atomic force microscopy are techniques that have been used to study the leaf surface but their remains information that is difficult to obtain via these approaches. SEM is able to produce highly detailed and high-resolution images needed to study leaf structures at the submicron level. It typically operates in a vacuum or low pressure environment and as a consequence is generally unable to deal with the in situ analysis of dynamic surface events at submicron scales. Atomic force microscopy also possess the high-resolution imaging required and can follow dynamic events in ambient and liquid environments, but can over exaggerate small features and cannot image most leaf surfaces due to their inherent roughness at the micron scale. Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), which operates in a liquid environment, provides a potential complementary analytical approach able to address these issues and which is yet to be explored for studying leaf surfaces. Here we illustrate the potential of SICM on various leaf surfaces and compare the data to SEM and atomic force microscopy images on the same samples. In achieving successful imaging we also show that SICM can be used to study the wetting of hydrophobic surfaces in situ. This has potentially wider implications than the study of leaves alone as surface wetting phenomena are important in a range of fundamental and applied studies. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Earth Science Data Analysis in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K.-S.; Clune, T. L.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-01-01

    Anyone with even a cursory interest in information technology cannot help but recognize that "Big Data" is one of the most fashionable catchphrases of late. From accurate voice and facial recognition, language translation, and airfare prediction and comparison, to monitoring the real-time spread of flu, Big Data techniques have been applied to many seemingly intractable problems with spectacular successes. They appear to be a rewarding way to approach many currently unsolved problems. Few fields of research can claim a longer history with problems involving voluminous data than Earth science. The problems we are facing today with our Earth's future are more complex and carry potentially graver consequences than the examples given above. How has our climate changed? Beside natural variations, what is causing these changes? What are the processes involved and through what mechanisms are these connected? How will they impact life as we know it? In attempts to answer these questions, we have resorted to observations and numerical simulations with ever-finer resolutions, which continue to feed the "data deluge." Plausibly, many Earth scientists are wondering: How will Big Data technologies benefit Earth science research? As an example from the global water cycle, one subdomain among many in Earth science, how would these technologies accelerate the analysis of decades of global precipitation to ascertain the changes in its characteristics, to validate these changes in predictive climate models, and to infer the implications of these changes to ecosystems, economies, and public health? Earth science researchers need a viable way to harness the power of Big Data technologies to analyze large volumes and varieties of data with velocity and veracity. Beyond providing speedy data analysis capabilities, Big Data technologies can also play a crucial, albeit indirect, role in boosting scientific productivity by facilitating effective collaboration within an analysis environment

  3. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T

    2015-03-03

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system includes a nanostructured Au surface that serves dual roles as the electrochemical working electrode (WE) and SERS substrate, a microfabricated Pt counter electrode (CE), and an external Ag/AgCl reference electrode (RE). The nanostructured Au WE enables highly sensitive in situ SERS spectroscopy through large and reproducible SERS enhancements, which eliminates the need for resonant wavelength matching of the laser excitation source with the electronic absorption of the target molecule. The new SEC analysis system has the merits of wide applicability to target molecules, small sample volume, and a low detection limit. We demonstrate in situ SERS spectroelectrochemistry measurements of the metalloporphyrin hemin showing shifts of the iron oxidation marker band ν4 with the nanostructured Au working electrode under precise potential control.

  4. A description of the BNL active surface analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, J.W.

    1989-11-01

    Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories has a responsibility for the assessment of radioactive specimens arising both from post irradiation examination of power reactor components and structures and experimental programmes concerned with fission and activation product transport. Existing analytical facilities have been extended with the commissioning of an active surface analysis instrument (XSAM 800pci, Kratos Analytical). Surface analysis involves the characterisation of the outer few atomic layers of a solid surface/interface whose chemical composition and electronic structure will probably be different from the bulk. The new instrument consists three interconnected chambers positioned in series; comprising of a high vacuum sample introduction chamber, an ultra-high vacuum sample treatment/fracture chamber and an ultra-high vacuum sample analysis chamber. The sample analysis chamber contains the electron, X-ray and ion-guns and the electron and ion detectors necessary for performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The chamber also contains a high stability manipulator to enable sub-micron imaging of specimens to be achieved and provide sample heating and cooling between - 180 and 600 0 C. (author)

  5. Surface science and electrochemical studies of metal-modified carbides for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas Glenn

    Carbides of the early transition metals have emerged as low-cost catalysts that are active for a wide range of reactions. The surface chemistry of carbides can be altered by modifying the surface with small amounts of admetals. These metal-modified carbides can be effective replacements for Pt-based bimetallic systems, which suffer from the drawbacks of high cost and low thermal stability. In this dissertation, metal-modified carbides were studied for reactions with applications to renewable energy technologies. It is demonstrated that metal-modified carbides possess high activity for alcohol reforming and electrochemical hydrogen production. First, the surface chemistry of carbides towards alcohol decomposition is studied using density functional theory (DFT) and surface science experiments. The Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used to calculate the binding energies of alcohols and decomposition intermediates on metal-modified carbides. The calculated binding energies were then correlated to reforming activity determined experimentally using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the case of methanol decomposition, it was found that tungsten monocarbide (WC) selectively cleaved the C-O bond to produce methane. Upon modifying the surface with a single layer of metal such as Ni, Pt, or Rh, the selectivity shifted towards scission of the C-H bonds while leaving the C-O bond intact, producing carbon monoxide (CO) and H2. High resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to examine the bond breaking sequence as a function of temperature. From HREELS, it was shown that the surfaces followed an activity trend of Rh > Ni > Pt. The Au-modified WC surface possessed too low of a methanol binding energy, and molecular desorption of methanol was the most favorable pathway on this surface. Next, the ability of Rh-modified WC to break the C-C bond of C2 and C3 alcohols was demonstrated. HREELS showed that ethanol decomposed through an acetaldehyde

  6. Simultaneous-equations Analysis in Regional Science and Economic Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Stephan, Andreas

    This paper provides an overview over simultaneous equation models (SEM) in the context of analyses based on regional data. We describe various modelling approaches and highlight close link of SEMs to theory and also comment on the advantages and disadvantages of SEMs.We present selected empirical...... works using simultaneous-equations analysis in regional science and economic geography in or-der to show the wide scope for applications. We thereby classify the empirical contributions as either being structural model presentations or vector autoregressive (VAR) models. Finally, we provide the reader...

  7. Analysis of surface hardness of artificially aged resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of artificially accelerated aging (AAA on the surface hardness of eight composite resins: Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma, and Filtek Z100. Sixteen specimens were made from the test piece of each material, using an 8.0 × 2.0 mm teflon matrix. After 24 hours, eight specimens from each material were submitted to three surface hardness readings using a Shimadzu Microhardness Tester for 5 seconds at a load of 50 gf. The other eight specimens remained in the artificially accelerated aging machine for 382 hours and were submitted to the same surface hardness analysis. The means of each test specimen were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p > 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. With regard to hardness (F = 86.74, p < 0.0001 the analysis showed significant differences among the resin composite brands. But aging did not influence the hardness of any of the resin composites (F = 0.39, p = 0.53. In this study, there was interaction between the resin composite brand and the aging factors (F = 4.51, p < 0.0002. It was concluded that notwithstanding the type of resin, AAA did not influence surface hardness. However, with regard to hardness there was a significant difference among the resin brands.

  8. Satellite Based Analysis of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gémes Orsolya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most obvious characteristics of urban climate are higher air and surface temperatures compared to rural areas and large spatial variation of meteorological parameters within the city. This research examines the long term and seasonal development of urban surface temperature using satellite data during a period of 30 years and within a year. The medium resolution Landsat data were (preprocessed using open source tools. Besides the analysis of the long term and seasonal changes in land surface temperature within a city, also its relationship with changes in the vegetation cover was investigated. Different urban districts and local climate zones showed varying strength of correlation. The temperature difference between urban surfaces and surroundings is defined as surface urban heat island (SUHI. Its development shows remarkable seasonal and spatial anomalies. The satellite images can be applied to visualize and analyze the SUHI, although they were not collected at midday and early afternoon, when the phenomenon is normally at its maximum. The applied methodology is based on free data and software and requires minimal user interaction. Using the results new urban developments (new built up and green areas can be planned, that help mitigate the negative effects of urban climate.

  9. In Vitro Analysis of Fibronectin-Modified Titanium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Chang, Wei Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Glow discharge plasma (GDP) procedure is an effective method for grafting various proteins, including albumin, type I collagen, and fibronectin, onto a titanium surface. However, the behavior and impact of titanium (Ti) surface modification is yet to be unraveled. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the biological properties of fibronectin-grafted Ti surfaces treated by GDP. Materials and Methods Grade II Ti discs were initially cleaned and autoclaved to obtain original specimens. Subsequently, the specimens were GDP treated and grafted with fibronectin to form Ar-GDP (Argon GDP treatment only) and GDP-fib (fibronectin coating following GDP treatment) groups. Blood coagulation test and MG-63 cell culture were performed to evaluate the biological effects on the specimen. Results There was no significant difference between Ar-GDP and GDP-fib groups in blood compatibility analysis. While in the MTT test, cellular proliferation was benefited from the presence of fibronectin coating. The numbers of cells on Ar-GDP and GDP-fib specimens were greater than those in the original specimens after 24 h of culturing. Conclusions GDP treatment combined with fibronectin grafting favored MG-63 cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation on titanium surfaces, which could be attributed to the improved surface properties. PMID:26731536

  10. Innovations from the “ivory tower”: Wilhelm Barthlott and the paradigm shift in surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neinhuis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable. Among the various fields of interest not mentioned here (e.g., systematics of Cactaceae, diversity and evolution of epiphytes, the unique natural history of isolated rocky outcrops called inselbergs, or the global distribution of biodiversity, plant surfaces and especially the tremendous diversity of minute structures on leaves, fruits, seeds and other parts of plants represent a common thread through 40 years of scientific career of Wilhelm Barthlott. Based on research that was regarded already old-fashioned in the 1970s and 1980s, systematic botany, results and knowledge were accumulated that, some 20 years later, initiated a fundamental turnover in how surfaces were recognized not only in biology, but even more evident in materials science.

  11. Surface science approach to Pt/carbon model catalysts: XPS, STM and microreactor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Abdul Md.; Haunold, Thomas; Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V.; Bera, Abhijit; Rameshan, Christoph; Rupprechter, Günther

    2018-05-01

    Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon are an important technological catalyst. A corresponding model catalyst was prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Pt on sputtered HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite). The carbon substrate before and after sputtering as well as the Pt/HOPG system before and after Pt deposition and annealing were examined by XPS and STM. This yielded information on the surface density of defects, which serve as nucleation centres for Pt, and on the size distribution (mean size/height) of the Pt nanoparticles. Two different model catalysts were prepared with mean sizes of 2.0 and 3.6 nm, both turned out to be stable upon UHV-annealing to 300 °C. After transfer into a UHV-compatible flow microreactor and subsequent cleaning in UHV and under mbar pressure, the catalytic activity of the Pt/HOPG model system for ethylene hydrogenation was examined under atmospheric pressure flow conditions. This enabled to determine temperature-dependent conversion rates, turnover frequencies (TOFs) and activation energies. The catalytic results obtained are in line with the characteristics of technological Pt/C, demonstrating the validity of the current surface science based model catalyst approach.

  12. Automated analysis of damages for radiation in plastics surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C.; Camacho M, E.; Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.

    1990-02-01

    Analysis of damages done by the radiation in a polymer characterized by optic properties of polished surfaces, of uniformity and chemical resistance that the acrylic; resistant until the 150 centigrade grades of temperature, and with an approximate weight of half of the glass. An objective of this work is the development of a method that analyze in automated form the superficial damages induced by radiation in plastic materials means an images analyst. (Author)

  13. Market basket analysis visualization on a spherical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming C.; Hsu, Meichun; Dayal, Umeshwar; Wei, Shu F.; Sprenger, Thomas; Holenstein, Thomas

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the visualization of the relationships in e-commerce transactions. To date, many practical research projects have shown the usefulness of a physics-based mass- spring technique to layout data items with close relationships on a graph. We describe a market basket analysis visualization system using this technique. This system is described as the following: (1) integrates a physics-based engine into a visual data mining platform; (2) use a 3D spherical surface to visualize the cluster of related data items; and (3) for large volumes of transactions, uses hidden structures to unclutter the display. Several examples of market basket analysis are also provided.

  14. Analysis of polymer surfaces and thin-film coatings with Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    McAnally, G D

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the analysis and characterisation of polymer surfaces. The Raman and SERS spectra from a PET film are presented. The SERS spectra from the related polyester PBT and from the monomer DMT are identical to PET, showing that only the aromatic signals are enhanced. Evidence from other compounds is presented to show that loss of the carbonyl stretch (1725 cm sup - sup 1) from the spectra is due to a chemical interaction between the silver and surface carbonyl groups. The interaction of other polymer functional groups with silver is discussed. A comparison of Raman and SERS spectra collected from three faces of a single crystal shows the SERS spectra are depolarised. AFM images of the silver films used to obtain SERS are presented. They consist of regular islands of silver, fused together to form a complete film. The stability and reproducibility and of these surfaces is assessed. Band assignments for the SERS spectrum of PET are ...

  15. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses’ records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, N.; Hamilton, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles...... information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients......' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More...

  16. The application of surface science in the solution of aircraft materials problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There is now a tendency for both commercial and military aircraft to be maintained and operated for several decades. Indeed some of our front-line defence aircraft have programme withdrawal lives approaching half a century. This places significant demands on the materials used in engines and airframes. The properties and performance of the materials can degrade with time leading to an increase in the importance of repair and maintenance technologies. As most materials problems start at a surface or an interface, it is not surprising that surface sensitive tools are used to resolve many degradation problems. In some cases, the resolution of problems can lead to life-enhancing improvements for the aircraft. This paper will examine some of the practical issues in the use of surface analytical tools for the examination and resolution of practical aircraft problems. Illustrations will be drawn from the application of surface analysis in the areas of corrosion, fracture and adhesive bonding. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  17. International production on science oriented towards data: analysis of the terms data science and e-science in scopus and the web of science

    OpenAIRE

    Leilah Santiago Bufrem; Fábio Mascarenhas e Silva; Natanael Vitor Sobral; Anna Elizabeth Galvão Coutinho Correia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: current configuration in the dynamics of production and scientific communication reveals the role of Science Oriented Towards Data, a comprehensive conception represented, mainly, by terms such as "e-Science" and "Data Science". Objective: To present the global scientific production on Science Oriented Towards Data by using the terms "e-Science" and "Data Science" in Scopus and the Web of Science during 2006-2016. Methodology: The study is divided into five phases: a) sear...

  18. Analysis of the Current Literature of Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jerry B.

    Presented is a study designed to analyze nine journals that contain substantial material devoted to the field of science education for the period 1970 through 1971: "American Journal of Physics,""Chemistry,""Journal of Chemical Education,""Journal of Research in Science Teaching,""Physics Today,""School Science and Mathematics,""Science and…

  19. Analysis of polymer surfaces and thin-film coatings with Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAnally, Gerard David

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the analysis and characterisation of polymer surfaces. The Raman and SERS spectra from a PET film are presented. The SERS spectra from the related polyester PBT and from the monomer DMT are identical to PET, showing that only the aromatic signals are enhanced. Evidence from other compounds is presented to show that loss of the carbonyl stretch (1725 cm -1 ) from the spectra is due to a chemical interaction between the silver and surface carbonyl groups. The interaction of other polymer functional groups with silver is discussed. A comparison of Raman and SERS spectra collected from three faces of a single crystal shows the SERS spectra are depolarised. AFM images of the silver films used to obtain SERS are presented. They consist of regular islands of silver, fused together to form a complete film. The stability and reproducibility and of these surfaces is assessed. Band assignments for the SERS spectrum of PET are presented. A new band in the spectrum (1131 cm -1 ) is assigned to a complex vibration using a density functional calculation. Depth profiling through a polymer film on to the silver layer showed the SERS signals arise from the silver surface only. The profiles show the effects of refraction on the beam, and the adverse affect on the depth resolution. Silver films were used to obtain SERS spectra from a 40 nm thin-film coating on PET, without interference from the PET layer. The use of an azo dye probe as a marker to detect the coating is described. Finally, a novel method for the synthesis of a SERS-active vinyl-benzotriazole monomer is reported. The monomer was incorporated into a thin-film coating and the SERS spectrum obtained from the polymer. (author)

  20. Monitoring surface water quality using social media in the context of citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Hong, Yang; Long, Di; Jing, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Surface water quality monitoring (SWQM) provides essential information for water environmental protection. However, SWQM is costly and limited in terms of equipment and sites. The global popularity of social media and intelligent mobile devices with GPS and photography functions allows citizens to monitor surface water quality. This study aims to propose a method for SWQM using social media platforms. Specifically, a WeChat-based application platform is built to collect water quality reports from volunteers, which have been proven valuable for water quality monitoring. The methods for data screening and volunteer recruitment are discussed based on the collected reports. The proposed methods provide a framework for collecting water quality data from citizens and offer a primary foundation for big data analysis in future research.

  1. Contribution of Microchemical Surface Analysis of Archaeological Artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousser, H.; Madani, A.; Amri, R.; Mousser, A.; Darchen, A.

    2009-11-01

    Museum CIRTA of the town of Constantine has a collection of more than 35000 coins and statuettes going back to Numide, Roman, Republican, Vandal and Byzantine times and is struck in the name of the cities, of the kingdoms and the empires. Surface analysis of these coins gives information about the chemical composition and leads to recommendations for restoration and preservations. This work is a contribution of microchemical surface study of coin with the effigy of the Numide King Massinissa (Constantine between 3rd and 2nd century before Jesus Christ). The photographic and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM + EDS) and diffraction of X-ray (DRX) was used. The optic microscopy (OMP) and SEM pictures of coins showed heterogeneous surface. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry identified three basic metals copper (46.06%), antimony (17.74%) and lead (12.06%), (Weight Percentage). The DRX identifies stages (copper and lead) and their crystalline oxides Bindheimite (Pb2Sb2O7) and Bystromite (MgSb2O6) on the coin's surface.

  2. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  3. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  4. Concept analysis: examining the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupcey, Judith E; Penrod, Janice

    2005-01-01

    As methods for analyzing concepts have proliferated in nursing, a critical methodological issue has arisen. Analytic techniques for examining conceptual meaning have incorporated varied strategies for advancing the concept under the rubric of concept analysis, concept development, and theory building. The authors argue that this evolution has created methodological confusion. Following a discussion of a conceptualization of concepts and concept-theory-truth linkages, methods of concept analysis are critiqued in terms of the purpose and the nature of the findings produced by analyses using both traditional and emergent methods. The authors argue that concept analysis is a process of strategic examination of the scientific literature that results in an integrated perspective of the state of the science, or what is known about the concept. In contrast, concept advancement refers to techniques that emphasize the synthesis of new or deeper knowledge that is relevant to the discipline. The authors conclude that disentangling concept analysis from techniques for concept advancement is critical to enhancing the utility of concept-based research in nursing.

  5. Rate law analysis of water oxidation on a hematite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Formal, Florian; Pastor, Ernest; Tilley, S David; Mesa, Camilo A; Pendlebury, Stephanie R; Grätzel, Michael; Durrant, James R

    2015-05-27

    Water oxidation is a key chemical reaction, central to both biological photosynthesis and artificial solar fuel synthesis strategies. Despite recent progress on the structure of the natural catalytic site, and on inorganic catalyst function, determining the mechanistic details of this multiredox reaction remains a significant challenge. We report herein a rate law analysis of the order of water oxidation as a function of surface hole density on a hematite photoanode employing photoinduced absorption spectroscopy. Our study reveals a transition from a slow, first order reaction at low accumulated hole density to a faster, third order mechanism once the surface hole density is sufficient to enable the oxidation of nearest neighbor metal atoms. This study thus provides direct evidence for the multihole catalysis of water oxidation by hematite, and demonstrates the hole accumulation level required to achieve this, leading to key insights both for reaction mechanism and strategies to enhance function.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) On Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givi, Mehrdad; Tehrani, Alireza Fadaei; Mohammadi, Aminollah

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic assisted finishing is one of the nontraditional methods of polishing that recently has been attractive for the researchers. This paper investigates the effects of some parameters such as rotational speed of the permanent magnetic pole, work gap between the permanent pole and the work piece, number of the cycles and the weight of the abrasive particles on aluminum surface plate finishing. The three levels full factorial method was used as the DOE technique (design of experiments) for studying the selected factors. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been used to determine significant factors and also to obtain an equation based on data regression. Experimental results indicate that for a change in surface roughness ΔRa, number of cycles and working gap are found to be the most significant parameters followed by rotational speed and then weight of powders.

  7. Storage fee analysis for a retrievable surface storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, B.B.; Rosnick, C.K.

    1973-12-01

    Conceptual design studies are in progress for a Water Basin Concept (WBC) and an alternative Sealed Storage Cask Concept (SSCC) of a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) intended as a Federal government facility for storing high-level radioactive wastes until a permanent disposal method is established. The RSSF will be a man-made facility with a design life of at least 100 y, and will have capacity to store all of the high-level waste from the reprocessing of nuclear power plant spent fuels generated by the industry through the year 2000. This report is a basic version of ARH-2746, ''Retrievable Surface Storage Facility, Water Basin Concept, User Charge Analysis.'' It is concerned with the issue of establishing a fee to cover the cost of storing nuclear wastes both in the RSSF and at the subsequent disposal facility. (U.S.)

  8. Bio-inspired nanotechnology from surface analysis to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials, and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics, and materials assembly. This book also: ·          Covers the sustainable features of bio-inspired nanotechnology ·          Includes studies on the unique applications of biomimetic materials, such as energy harvesting and biomedical diagnostics Bio-Inspired Nanotechnology: From Surface Analysis to Applications is an ideal book for researchers, students, nanomaterials engineers, bioengineers, chemists, biologists, physicists, and medical researchers.

  9. Analysis and design of functional micro/nano structured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Kong, Lingbao; Xu, Min

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the bionic structure and functional materials. The theoretical research and fabricating ways of the Super-hydrophobic surface have sound achievements. However, the existing methods largely depend on the precision of the equipment and complex chemical substances, and it is hard to ensure the consistence of the material surface. Therefore, construction of microstructure on the surface of the material by using the method of mechanical processing to make the scale of the Super-hydrophobic surface to promote the popularization and application of Super-hydrophobic surface is of great significance. In order to put forward the innovative microstructure and to provide theoretical basis for the subsequent mechanical processing, based on the analysis of the classical theory of Super-hydrophobic, the super-hydrophobic film was by sol gel method. To explore the effects of different ratio of materials on the hydrophobicity, a micro/nano-structured super-hydrophobic coating was obtained by coating a film improved by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) after a film improved by polyethylene glycol (PEG) was coated. The microstructure of bilayer films is analyzed, and the double-layer film structure is simplified to design two kinds of microstructure models. For the design of the two models based on the Wenzel and Cassie equations, a roughness factor is adopted to establish the quantitative relationship between the contact angle and the microstructure parameters, and the microstructure parameters is also analyzed by using MATLAB software, and hence the optimized microstructure parameters is obtained.

  10. Morphological characteristics of primary enamel surfaces versus permanent enamel surfaces: SEM digital analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, A; Storti, E

    2011-09-01

    The morphology of permanent and primary enamel surface merits further analysis. The objective of this study was to illustrate a method of SEM digital image processing able to quantify and discriminate between the morphological characteristics of primary and permanent tooth enamel. Sixteen extracted teeth, 8 primary teeth and 8 permanent teeth, kept in saline solution, were analysed. The teeth were observed under SEM. The SEM images were analysed by means of digitally processed algorithms. The two algorithms used were: Local standard deviation to measure surface roughness with the roughness index (RI); Hough's theorem to identify linear structures with the linear structure index (LSI). The SEM images of primary teeth enamel show smooth enamel with little areas of irregularity. No linear structures are apparent. The SEM images of permanent enamel show a not perfectly smooth surface; there are furrows and irregularities of variable depth and width. In the clinical practice a number of different situations require the removal of a thin layer of enamel. Only a good morphological knowledge of both permanent and primary tooth enamel gives the opportunity to identify and exploit the effects of rotary tools on enamel, thus allowing for a correct finishing technique.

  11. Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Cheng, F. Mr; Xu, Z.; Wang, L.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Pan, Y.; Mi, B.; Hu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend in modernization of human society. In the end of 2013 the Chinese Central Government launched a national urbanization plan—"Three 100 Million People", which aggressively and steadily pushes forward urbanization. Based on the plan, by 2020, approximately 100 million people from rural areas will permanently settle in towns, dwelling conditions of about 100 million people in towns and villages will be improved, and about 100 million people in the central and western China will permanently settle in towns. China's urbanization process will run at the highest speed in the urbanization history of China. Environmentally friendly, non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical assessment method has played an important role in the urbanization process in China. Because human noise and electromagnetic field due to industrial life, geophysical methods already used in urban environments (gravity, magnetics, electricity, seismic) face great challenges. But humanity activity provides an effective source of passive seismic methods. Claerbout pointed out that wavefileds that are received at one point with excitation at the other point can be reconstructed by calculating the cross-correlation of noise records at two surface points. Based on this idea (cross-correlation of two noise records) and the virtual source method, we proposed Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS). MAPS mainly uses traffic noise recorded with a linear receiver array. Because Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves can produces a shear (S) wave velocity model with high resolution in shallow part of the model, MPAS combines acquisition and processing of active source and passive source data in a same flow, which does not require to distinguish them. MAPS is also of ability of real-time quality control of noise recording that is important for near-surface applications in urban environment. The numerical and real-world examples demonstrated that MAPS can be

  12. Adlayers of dimannoside thiols on gold: surface chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Paul M; Horlacher, Tim; Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc; Gross, Thomas; Lippitz, Andreas; Min, Hyegeun; Wirth, Thomas; Castelli, Riccardo; Seeberger, Peter H; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-04-19

    Carbohydrate films on gold based on dimannoside thiols (DMT) were prepared, and a complementary surface chemical analysis was performed in detail by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), FT-IR, and contact angle measurements in order to verify formation of ω-carbohydrate-functionalized alkylthiol films. XPS (C 1s, O 1s, and S 2p) reveals information on carbohydrate specific alkoxy (C-O) and acetal moieties (O-C-O) as well as thiolate species attached to gold. Angle-resolved synchrotron XPS was used for chemical speciation at ultimate surface sensitivity. Angle-resolved XPS analysis suggests the presence of an excess top layer composed of unbound sulfur components combined with alkyl moieties. Further support for DMT attachment on Au is given by ToF-SIMS and FT-IR analysis. Carbon and oxygen K-edge NEXAFS spectra were interpreted by applying the building block model supported by comparison to data of 1-undecanethiol, poly(vinyl alcohol), and polyoxymethylene. No linear dichroism effect was observed in the angle-resolved C K-edge NEXAFS. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  14. Surface proteome analysis and characterization of surface cell antigen (Sca or autotransporter family of Rickettsia typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandra T Sears

    Full Text Available Surface proteins of the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine or endemic typhus fever, comprise an important interface for host-pathogen interactions including adherence, invasion and survival in the host cytoplasm. In this report, we present analyses of the surface exposed proteins of R. typhi based on a suite of predictive algorithms complemented by experimental surface-labeling with thiol-cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and identification of labeled peptides by LC MS/MS. Further, we focus on proteins belonging to the surface cell antigen (Sca autotransporter (AT family which are known to be involved in rickettsial infection of mammalian cells. Each species of Rickettsia has a different complement of sca genes in various states; R. typhi, has genes sca1 thru sca5. In silico analyses indicate divergence of the Sca paralogs across the four Rickettsia groups and concur with previous evidence of positive selection. Transcripts for each sca were detected during infection of L929 cells and four of the five Sca proteins were detected in the surface proteome analysis. We observed that each R. typhi Sca protein is expressed during in vitro infections and selected Sca proteins were expressed during in vivo infections. Using biotin-affinity pull down assays, negative staining electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the Sca proteins in R. typhi are localized to the surface of the bacteria. All Scas were detected during infection of L929 cells by immunogold electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrate that Scas 1-3 and 5 are expressed in the spleens of infected Sprague-Dawley rats and Scas 3, 4 and 5 are expressed in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Sca proteins may be crucial in the recognition and invasion of different host cell types. In short, continuous expression of all Scas may ensure that rickettsiae are primed i to infect mammalian cells should the flea bite a host, ii to remain

  15. Using Science Fiction Movie Scenes to Support Critical Analysis of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Kafka, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses pedagogical advantages and challenges of using science-fiction movies and television shows in an introductory science class for elementary teachers. The authors describe two instructional episodes in which scenes from the movies "Red Planet" and "The Core" were used to engage students in critiquing science as presented in…

  16. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional 'Standard I', which has a paternalistic orientation, and 'Standard II', established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. An APOS analysis of natural science students' understanding of derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneshkumar Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study which used the APOS (action-process-object-schema theoretical framework to investigate university students' understanding of derivatives and their applications. Research was done at the Westville Campus of the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The relevant rules for finding derivatives and their applications were taught to undergraduate science students. This paper reports on the analysis of students' responses to six types of questions on derivatives and their applications. The findings of this study suggest that those students had difficulty in applying the rules for derivatives and this was possibly the result of many students not having appropriate mental structures at the process, object and schema levels.

  18. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional ‘Standard I’, which has a paternalistic orientation, and ‘Standard II’, established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being. PMID:27475751

  19. Moessbauer backscattering spectrometer for mineralogical analysis of the Mars surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Foh, J.; Held, P.; Jaeger, H.; Kankeleit, E.; Teucher, R.

    1992-01-01

    A Moessbauer spectrometer for the mineralogical analysis of the Mars surface is under development. This instrument will be installed on a Mars-Rover, included in the Soviet Union Mars-94/96 Mars mission. Due to power and mass restrictions the electromechanical drive and the electronic components have been extremely miniaturized in comparison to standard systems. Solid state detectors (PIN-diodes) are used for γ- and x-ray detection. The whole spectrometer is controlled by a microprocessor (transputer). An additional application as X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is proposed. (orig.)

  20. Doing Better: Illuminating a Framework of Equitable Science Pedagogy through a Cross- Case Analysis of Urban High School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Manali J.

    Students of color are routinely asked to participate in science education that is less intellectually rich and self-affirming. Additionally, teachers have trouble embarking on professional growth related to issues of equity and diversity in science. The purpose of this dissertation research is to develop a multi-dimensional framework for equitable science pedagogy (ESP) through analyzing the efforts and struggles of high school science teachers. This study is grounded in a conceptual framework derived from scholarship in science education, multicultural education, critical science studies, and teacher learning. The following questions guide this research: 1) What visions and enactments emerge in teachers' practices towards equitable science pedagogy? 2) How are teachers' practice decisions towards ESP influenced by their personal theories of race/culture, science, and learning and sociocultural contexts? 3) Why are there consistencies and variances across teachers' practices? This study employs a qualitative multiple case study design with ethnographic data collection to explore the practices of three urban high school science teachers who were identified as being committed to nurturing the science learning of students of color. Data include over 120 hours of classroom observation, 60 hours of teacher interviews, and 500 teacher- and student-generated artifacts. Data analysis included coding teachers' practices using theory- and participant generated codes, construction of themes based on emergent patterns, and cross-case analysis. The affordances and limitations of the participants' pedagogical approaches inform the following framework for equitable science pedagogy: 1) Seeing race and culture and sharing responsibility for learning form foundational dimensions. Practices from the other three dimensions--- nurturing students' identities, re-centering students' epistemologies, and critiquing structural inequities---emerge from the foundation. As emergent practices

  1. Temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect: a crop model ensemble analysis using impact response surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirttioja, N. K.; Carter, T. R.; Fronzek, S.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H. D.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, M.; Asseng, S.; Baranowski, P.; Basso, B.; Bodin, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Deligios, P.; Destain, M. F.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Francois, L.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, I.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lorite, I. J.; Minet, J.; Minquez, M. I.; Montesino, M.; Moriondo, M.; Müller, C.; Nendel, C.; Öztürk, I.; Perego, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruane, A. C.; Ruget, F.; Sanna, M.; Semenov, M. A.; Slawinski, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wu, L.; Zhao, Z.; Rötter, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 31 (2015), s. 87-105 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1310123; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Grant - others:German Federal Ministries of Education and Research, and Food and Agriculture(DE) 2812ERA115 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate * crop model * impact response surface * IRS * sensitivity analysis * wheat * yield Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.690, year: 2015

  2. One-Click Data Analysis Software for Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    One of the important activities of ESA Science Operations Centre is to provide Data Analysis Software (DAS) to enable users and scientists to process data further to higher levels. During operations and post-operations, Data Analysis Software (DAS) is fully maintained and updated for new OS and library releases. Nonetheless, once a Mission goes into the "legacy" phase, there are very limited funds and long-term preservation becomes more and more difficult. Building on Virtual Machine (VM), Cloud computing and Software as a Service (SaaS) technologies, this project has aimed at providing long-term preservation of Data Analysis Software for the following missions: - PIA for ISO (1995) - SAS for XMM-Newton (1999) - Hipe for Herschel (2009) - EXIA for EXOSAT (1983) Following goals have guided the architecture: - Support for all operations, post-operations and archive/legacy phases. - Support for local (user's computer) and cloud environments (ESAC-Cloud, Amazon - AWS). - Support for expert users, requiring full capabilities. - Provision of a simple web-based interface. This talk describes the architecture, challenges, results and lessons learnt gathered in this project.

  3. Raman Under Water - Nonlinear and Nearfield Approaches for Electrochemical Surface Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sabanés, Natalia; Domke, Katrin F

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemistry is re-gaining attention among scientists because the complex interplay between electronic and chemical interfacial processes lies at the bottom of a broad range of important research disciplines like alternative energy conversion or green catalysis and synthesis. While rapid progress has been made in recent years regarding novel technological applications, the community increasingly recognizes that the understanding of the molecular processes that govern macroscopic device properties is still rather limited - which hinders a systematic and more complete exploration of novel material and functionality space. Here, we discuss advanced Raman spectroscopies as valuable analysis tools for electrochemists. The chemical nature of a material and its interaction with the environment is contained in the label-free vibrational fingerprint over a broad energy range so that organic species, solid-state materials, and hybrids thereof can be investigated alike. For surface studies, the inherently small Raman scattering cross sections can be overcome with advanced nonlinear or nearfield-based approaches that provide signal enhancements between three and seven orders of magnitude, sufficient to detect few scatterers in nano-confined spaces or adsorbate (sub)monolayers. Our article highlights how advanced Raman techniques with extreme chemical, spatial and temporal resolution constitute valuable alternative surface analysis tools and provide otherwise inaccessible information about complex interfacial (electro)chemical processes.

  4. Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

  5. Surface recombination analysis in silicon-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, R.; Gandia, J.J.; Carabe, J.; Gonzalez, N.; Torres, I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Munoz, D.; Voz, C. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The origin of this work is the understanding of the correlation observed between efficiency and emitter-deposition temperature in single silicon-heterojunction solar cells prepared by depositing an n-doped hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon thin film onto a p-type crystalline-silicon wafer. In order to interpret these results, surface-recombination velocities have been determined by two methods, i.e. by fitting the current-voltage characteristics to a theoretical model and by means of the Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance Technique (QSSPC). In addition, effective diffusion lengths have been estimated from internal quantum efficiencies. The analysis of these data has led to conclude that the performance of the cells studied is limited by back-surface recombination rather than by front-heterojunction quality. A 12%-efficient cell has been prepared by combining optimum emitter-deposition conditions with back-surface-field (BSF) formation by vacuum annealing of the back aluminium contact. This result has been achieved without using any transparent conductive oxide. (author)

  6. Thermal Desorption Analysis of Effective Specific Soil Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagin, A. V.; Bashina, A. S.; Klyueva, V. V.; Kubareva, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    A new method of assessing the effective specific surface area based on the successive thermal desorption of water vapor at different temperature stages of sample drying is analyzed in comparison with the conventional static adsorption method using a representative set of soil samples of different genesis and degree of dispersion. The theory of the method uses the fundamental relationship between the thermodynamic water potential (Ψ) and the absolute temperature of drying ( T): Ψ = Q - aT, where Q is the specific heat of vaporization, and a is the physically based parameter related to the initial temperature and relative humidity of the air in the external thermodynamic reservoir (laboratory). From gravimetric data on the mass fraction of water ( W) and the Ψ value, Polyanyi potential curves ( W(Ψ)) for the studied samples are plotted. Water sorption isotherms are then calculated, from which the capacity of monolayer and the target effective specific surface area are determined using the BET theory. Comparative analysis shows that the new method well agrees with the conventional estimation of the degree of dispersion by the BET and Kutilek methods in a wide range of specific surface area values between 10 and 250 m2/g.

  7. Static stability analysis of embedded flexoelectric nanoplates considering surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, electromechanical buckling behavior of size-dependent flexoelectric nanoplates is investigated based on nonlocal and surface elasticity theories. Flexoelectricity represents the coupling between strain gradients and electrical polarizations. Flexoelectric nanoplates can tolerate higher buckling loads compared with conventional piezoelectric nanoplates, especially at lower thicknesses. The flexoelectric nanoplate is in contact with a two-parameter elastic foundation, which consists of infinite linear springs and a shear layer. Nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is applied in the analysis of flexoelectric nanoplates for the first time. The residual surface stresses which are usually neglected in the modeling of flexoelectric nanoplates are incorporated into nonlocal elasticity to provide better understanding of the physics of the problem. Applying an analytical solution which satisfies various boundary conditions, the governing equations obtained from Hamilton's principle are solved. The reliability of the present approach is verified by comparing the obtained results with those provided in literature. Finally, the influences of nonlocal parameter, surface effect, plate geometrical parameters, elastic foundation and boundary conditions on the buckling characteristics of flexoelectric nanoplates are explored.

  8. Tradespace Analysis Tool for Designing Earth Science Distributed Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ESTO 2030 Science Vision envisions the future of Earth Science to be characterized by 'many more distributed observations,' and 'formation-flying [missions that]...

  9. Longitudinal analysis of meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changtai; Jiang, Ting; Cao, Hao; Sun, Wenguang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    The meta-analysis is regarded as an important evidence for making scientific decision. The database of ISI Web of Science collected a great number of high quality literatures including meta-analysis literatures. However, it is significant to understand the general characteristics of meta-analysis literatures to outline the perspective of meta-analysis. In this present study, we summarized and clarified some features on these literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science. We retrieved the meta-analysis literatures in the database of ISI Web of Science including SCI-E, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, CCR-E, and IC. The annual growth rate, literature category, language, funding, index citation, agencies and countries/territories of the meta-analysis literatures were analyzed, respectively. A total of 95,719 records, which account for 0.38% (99% CI: 0.38%-0.39%) of all literatures, were found in the database. From 1997 to 2012, the annual growth rate of meta-analysis literatures was 18.18%. The literatures involved in many categories, languages, fundings, citations, publication agencies, and countries/territories. Interestingly, the index citation frequencies of the meta-analysis were significantly higher than that of other type literatures such as multi-centre study, randomize controlled trial, cohort study, case control study, and cases report (P<0.0001). The increasing numbers, intensively global influence and high citations revealed that the meta-analysis has been becoming more and more prominent in recent years. In future, in order to promote the validity of meta-analysis, the CONSORT and PRISMA standard should be continuously popularized in the field of evidence-based medicine.

  10. Intercomparison and Spatiotemporal Analysis of Four Gridded Surface Air Temperature Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the essential climate variables, surface air temperature (SAT) has been wildly used as the most important indicator for the global climate change. Currently, there are four widely used global SAT datasets, i.e., Berkley Earth Surface Temperature (BEST), NASA Goddard Institute of Space Sciences surface temperature (GISS), surface temperature developed by Climate Research Unit (CRU4), and NOAA Global Temperature dataset (NOAA). These four datasets are developed using similar source data (station measured air temperature for land and buoys/ships measured sea surface temperature). Previous studies suggested that global and hemispheric average SAT anomalies of these datasets have shown consistent surface warming trends. However, it is not clear how these four datasets compare with each other at grid scale (e.g., 5 degree) and what impacts are for the spatial patterns of estimated surface warming trends. In this study, a direct comparison for temperature anomalies at grid box scale shows that NOAA are consistently cooler than other three datasets across most grids over the land while GISS and BEST tend to be warmer than others over northern mid to high latitude land regions, Australia, southern Africa and South America. The differences are most notable over regions with sparse measurements such as Amazon region, north and central Africa, central Asia, Greenland, central Australia and Antarctic. Moreover, trend analysis (both linear and nonlinear) has been carried out using these four gridded datasets (1950-2015) separately. The result show a similar spatial pattern with previous comparison--notable differences for regions with sparse observations. Additionally, three leading modes from EOF analysis have also been compared to examine how they could capture the climate variability. The comparison results suggested that these datasets show notable differences in both spatial pattern and temporal trend in the leading modes. This inconsistency may lead to large

  11. Paired Expression Analysis of Tumor Cell Surface Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas J. Orentas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive immunotherapy with antibody-based therapy or with T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs is useful to the extent that the cell surface membrane protein being targeted is not expressed on normal tissues. The most successful CAR-based (anti-CD19 or antibody-based therapy (anti-CD20 in hematologic malignancies has the side effect of eliminating the normal B cell compartment. Targeting solid tumors may not provide a similar expendable marker. Beyond antibody to Her2/NEU and EGFR, very few antibody-based and no CAR-based therapies have seen broad clinical application for solid tumors. To expand the way in which the surfaceome of solid tumors can be analyzed, we created an algorithm that defines the pairwise relative overexpression of surface antigens. This enables the development of specific immunotherapies that require the expression of two discrete antigens on the surface of the tumor target. This dyad analysis was facilitated by employing the Hotelling’s T-squared test (Hotelling–Lawley multivariate analysis of variance for two independent variables in comparison to a third constant entity (i.e., gene expression levels in normal tissues. We also present a unique consensus scoring mechanism for identifying transcripts that encode cell surface proteins. The unique application of our bioinformatics processing pipeline and statistical tools allowed us to compare the expression of two membrane protein targets as a pair, and to propose a new strategy based on implementing immunotherapies that require both antigens to be expressed on the tumor cell surface to trigger therapeutic effector mechanisms. Specifically, we found that, for MYCN amplified neuroblastoma, pairwise expression of ACVR2B or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK with GFRA3, GFRA2, Cadherin 24, or with one another provided the strongest hits. For MYCN, non-amplified stage 4 neuroblastoma, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase 1, or ALK paired with GFRA2, GFRA3, SSK

  12. Surface analysis in steel nitrides by using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, R.S. de.

    1991-07-01

    The formation of iron nitride layer at low temperatures, 600-700 K, by Moessbauer spectroscopy is studied. These layers were obtained basically through two different processes: ion nitriding and ammonia gas nitriding. A preliminary study about post-discharge nitriding was made using discharge in hollow cathode as well as microwave excitation. The assembly of these chambers is also described. The analysis of the nitrided samples was done by CEMS and CXMS, aided by optical microscopy, and the CEMS and CXMS detectors were constructed by ourselves. We also made a brief study about these detectors, testing as acetone as the mixture 80% He+10% C H 4 as detection gases for the use of CEMS. The surface analysis of the samples showed that in the ammonia gas process nitriding the nitrided layer starts by the superficial formation of an iron nitride rich nitrogen. By thermal evolution this nitride promotes the diffusion of nitrogen and the formation of other more stable nitrides. (author)

  13. Identification of a surface layer structure and analysis of humidity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. N Das1 M Bose2 U K De1. Environmental Science Programme, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India; Atmospheric Science Research Group, Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India ...

  14. The materials science synchrotron beamline EDDI for energy-dispersive diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzel, Ch.; Denks, I.A.; Gibmeier, J.; Klaus, M.; Wagener, G.

    2007-01-01

    In April 2005 the materials science beamline EDDI (Energy Dispersive DIffraction) at the Berlin synchrotron storage ring BESSY started operation. The beamline is operated in the energy-dispersive mode of diffraction using the high energy white photon beam provided by a superconducting 7 T multipole wiggler. Starting from basic information on the beamline set-up, its measuring facilities and data processing concept, the wide range of applications for energy-dispersive diffraction is demonstrated by a series of examples coming from different fields in materials sciences. It will be shown, that the EDDI beamline is especially suitable for the investigation of structural properties and gradients in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. In particular, this concerns the analysis of multiaxial residual stress fields in the highly stressed surface zone of technical parts. The high photon flux further facilitates fast in situ experiments at room as well as high temperature to monitor for example the growth kinetics and reaction in thin film growth

  15. High School Students Presenting Science: An Interactional Sociolinguistic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This study examines strategies employed by students as they make science presentations; assesses student's conceptual understandings of particular science topics; and investigates gender differences. Focuses on the methodology employed and how it helps inform these goals. Advice for teaching students to present science, implications for use of…

  16. Uncertainty analysis: an evaluation metric for synthesis science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Harmon; Becky Fasth; Charles B. Halpern; James A. Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The methods for conducting reductionist ecological science are well known and widely used. In contrast, those used in the synthesis of ecological science (i.e., synthesis science) are still being developed, vary widely, and often lack the rigor of reductionist approaches. This is unfortunate because the synthesis of ecological parts into a greater whole is...

  17. Towards Analysis of the Status of Science Technology Engineering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has been the case at both 'O' and 'A' levels. There is also a noticeable decline in enrolment statistics in STEM related subjects as the level of education increases. Within the sciences, at 'O' level, integrated science has high number of entries whilst pure science subjects such as biology, chemistry, physics and ...

  18. A surface science compatible epifluorescence microscope for inspection of samples under ultra high vacuum and cryogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Rohbohm, Nils; Merkel, Rudolf; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2017-08-01

    We modified an epi-illumination light microscope and mounted it on an ultra high vacuum chamber for investigating samples used in a surface science experiment. For easy access and bake out, all optical components are placed outside the vacuum and the sample is imaged through a glass window. The microscope can be operated in reflection brightfield or epifluorescence mode to image the sample surface or fluorescent dye molecules adsorbed on it. The homemade sample mounting was made compatible for the use under the microscope; sample temperatures as low as 6 K can be achieved. The performance of the microscope is demonstrated on two model samples: Brightfield-images of a well-prepared Ag(100) surface show a macroscopic corrugation of the surface, although low energy electron diffraction data indicate a highly ordered crystalline surface. The surface shows macroscopic protrusions with flat regions, about 20-200 μm in diameter, in between. Fluorescence images of diluted 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylicacid dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules adsorbed on an ultrathin epitaxial KCl film on the Ag(100) surface show a shading effect at surface protrusions due to an inclined angle of incidence of the PTCDA beam during deposition. For some preparations, the distribution of the fluorescence intensity is inhomogeneous and shows a dense network of bright patches about 5 μm in diameter related to the macroscopic corrugation of the surface. We propose that such a light microscope can aid many surface science experiments, especially those dealing with epitaxial growth or fluorescent materials.

  19. A surface science compatible epifluorescence microscope for inspection of samples under ultra high vacuum and cryogenic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Rohbohm, Nils; Merkel, Rudolf; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2017-08-01

    We modified an epi-illumination light microscope and mounted it on an ultra high vacuum chamber for investigating samples used in a surface science experiment. For easy access and bake out, all optical components are placed outside the vacuum and the sample is imaged through a glass window. The microscope can be operated in reflection brightfield or epifluorescence mode to image the sample surface or fluorescent dye molecules adsorbed on it. The homemade sample mounting was made compatible for the use under the microscope; sample temperatures as low as 6 K can be achieved. The performance of the microscope is demonstrated on two model samples: Brightfield-images of a well-prepared Ag(100) surface show a macroscopic corrugation of the surface, although low energy electron diffraction data indicate a highly ordered crystalline surface. The surface shows macroscopic protrusions with flat regions, about 20-200 μm in diameter, in between. Fluorescence images of diluted 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylicacid dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules adsorbed on an ultrathin epitaxial KCl film on the Ag(100) surface show a shading effect at surface protrusions due to an inclined angle of incidence of the PTCDA beam during deposition. For some preparations, the distribution of the fluorescence intensity is inhomogeneous and shows a dense network of bright patches about 5 μm in diameter related to the macroscopic corrugation of the surface. We propose that such a light microscope can aid many surface science experiments, especially those dealing with epitaxial growth or fluorescent materials.

  20. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

  1. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  2. Season Spotter: Using Citizen Science to Validate and Scale Plant Phenology from Near-Surface Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kosmala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a rapidly changing climate on the biosphere is an urgent area of research for mitigation policy and management. Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change and regulates the seasonality of carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the land surface and the climate system, making it an important tool for studying biosphere–atmosphere interactions. To monitor plant phenology at regional and continental scales, automated near-surface cameras are being increasingly used to supplement phenology data derived from satellite imagery and data from ground-based human observers. We used imagery from a network of phenology cameras in a citizen science project called Season Spotter to investigate whether information could be derived from these images beyond standard, color-based vegetation indices. We found that engaging citizen science volunteers resulted in useful science knowledge in three ways: first, volunteers were able to detect some, but not all, reproductive phenology events, connecting landscape-level measures with field-based measures. Second, volunteers successfully demarcated individual trees in landscape imagery, facilitating scaling of vegetation indices from organism to ecosystem. And third, volunteers’ data were used to validate phenology transition dates calculated from vegetation indices and to identify potential improvements to existing algorithms to enable better biological interpretation. As a result, the use of citizen science in combination with near-surface remote sensing of phenology can be used to link ground-based phenology observations to satellite sensor data for scaling and validation. Well-designed citizen science projects targeting improved data processing and validation of remote sensing imagery hold promise for providing the data needed to address grand challenges in environmental science and Earth observation.

  3. Journeys of our ancestors: Conservation science approaches to the analysis of cultural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Caitlin Rose

    The application and use of non-destructive portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a critical tool in the preservation and interpretation of cultural material. Portable XRF instrumentation produce elemental compositional data that is used to reconstruct current artifact composition, which can be related to materials and methods of manufacture, technological practice, as well as object condition and presence of corrosion surfaces. Portable XRF analysis is used to assess a variety of material classes utilized in artifact manufacture. The dissertation research is based on a series of three case studies that represent typical groups of material culture commonly encountered in conservation and conservation science research. Conservators and conservation scientists frequently undertake analysis and interpretation of disparate groups of materials. Often, these objects are tied together by research questions or themes directed by outside influences including preservation issues requiring action; curatorial research interests; museum exhibition programs; as well as many other cultural heritage stakeholders. To this end, both non-destructive and destructive tools that provide measurements of interest play critical roles in analysis. The case studies have been designed to answer common compositional questions relating to (a) bulk analysis of Chinese coins, (b) characterization of Southwestern ceramic colorants, and, (c) chemical examination of post-depositional manganese dioxide accretions occurring on archaeological ceramic materials. They evaluate the value of data produced using effectiveness of non-destructive portable XRF analysis for the interpretation of archaeological materials. The case studies provide a template for the development of conservation science research, predicated on object preservation, which produce meaningful data for the interpretation and conservation of the analyzed archaeological artifacts. Portable XRF provides useful data that is used to

  4. Content analysis of science material in junior school-based inquiry and science process skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonah, S.; Nuvitalia, D.; Saptaningrum, E.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to obtain the characteristic map of science material content in Junior School which can be optimized using inquiry learning model to tone the science process skill. The research method used in the form of qualitative research on SMP science curriculum document in Indonesia. Documents are reviewed on the basis of the basic competencies of each level as well as their potential to trace the skills of the science process using inquiry learning models. The review was conducted by the research team. The results obtained, science process skills in grade 7 have the potential to be trained using the model of inquiry learning by 74%, 8th grade by 83%, and grade 9 by 75%. For the dominant process skills in each chapter and each level is the observing skill. Follow-up research is used to develop instructional inquiry tools to trace the skills of the science process.

  5. Environment, Science and Innovation. Analysis from the Perspective of Science Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, A.; Lopera, E.; Cornejo, M.

    2015-01-01

    )Humankind is facing important challenges. Environmental degradation, of which climate change is the main exponent, is one of them. Science and innovation are key factors to address this challenge, in a context in which is becoming more evident the lack of commitment of society with scientific and technological development. Taking this into consideration, this paper analyzes the interaction among environment, science and innovation from the perspective of science studies.

  6. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. XPS analysis of nanostructured materials and biological surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, D.R.; Engelhard, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the types of information that XPS can provide about a variety of nanostructured materials. Although it is sometimes not considered a 'nanoscale analysis method,' XPS can provide a great deal of information about elemental distributions, layer or coating structure and thicknesses, surface functionality, and even particles sizes on the 1-20 nm scale for sample types that may not be readily analyzed by other methods. This information is important for both synthetic nanostructured or nanosized materials and a variety of natural materials with nanostructure. Although the links between nanostructure materials and biological systems may not at first be obvious, many biological molecules and some organisms are the sizes of nanoparticles. The nanostructure of cells and microbes plays a significant role in how they interact with their environment. The interaction of biomolecules with nanoparticles is important for medical and toxicity studies. The interaction of biomolecules is important for sensor function and many nanomaterials are now the active elements in sensors. This paper first discusses how nanostructures influences XPS data as a part of understanding how simple models of sample structure and data analysis can be used to extract information about the physical and chemical structures of the materials being analyzed. Equally important, aspects of sample and analysis limitations and challenges associated with understanding nanostructured materials are indicated. Examples of the application of XPS to nanostructured and biological systems and materials are provided.

  8. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Calheiros; Mergulhão, Filipe José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL) and glass (GLA). Epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL). Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  9. Proteomic analysis of the shistosome tegument and its surface membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Braschi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The tegument surface of the adult schistosome, bounded by a normal plasma membrane overlain by a secreted membranocalyx, holds the key to understanding how schistosomes evade host immune responses. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS, and the sequencing of the Schistosoma mansoni transcriptome/genome, have facilitated schistosome proteomics. We detached the tegument from the worm body and enriched its surface membranes by differential extraction, before subjecting the preparation to liquid chromatography-based proteomics to identify its constituents. The most exposed proteins on live worms were labelled with impearmeant biotinylation reagents, and we also developed methods to isolate the membranocalyx for analysis. We identified transporters for sugars, amino acids, inorganic ions and water, which confirm the importance of the tegument plasma membrane in nutrient acquisition and solute balance. Enzymes, including phosphohydrolases, esterases and carbonic anhydrase were located with their catalytic domains external to the plasma membrane, while five tetraspanins, annexin and dysferlin were implicated in membrane architecture. In contrast, few parasite proteins could be assigned to the membranocalyx but mouse immune response proteins, including three immunoglobulins and two complement factors, were detected, plus host membrane proteins such as CD44, integrin and a complement regulatory protein, testifying to the acquisitive properties of the secreted bilayer.

  10. Examining the Nexus of Science Communication and Science Education: A Content Analysis of Genetics News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.

    2015-01-01

    Access to science information via communications in the media is rapidly becoming a central means for the public to gain knowledge about scientific advancements. However, little is known about what content knowledge is essential for understanding issues presented in news media. Very few empirical studies attempt to bridge science communication and…

  11. An Analysis of Science Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Perceptions about the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgün

    2015-01-01

    This study has been carried out to identify the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of student teachers and their metacognitive perceptions about the nature of science. The participants of the study totaled 336 student teachers enrolled in the elementary science education division of the department of elementary education at the…

  12. Hygrothermal analysis of surface layers of historical masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with the hygrothermal analysis of surface layers of historical masonry. Solid brick provided with a traditional and two modified lime-based plasters is studied. The heat and moisture transport in the envelope is induced by an exposure of the wall from the exterior side to dynamic climatic conditions of Olomouc, Czech Republic. The transport processes are described using diffusion type of mathematical model based on experimentally determined material properties. The computational results indicate that hygric transport and accumulation properties of exterior plasters affect the hygrothermal performance of the underlying solid brick in a very significant way, being able to regulate the amount of transported moisture. The modified lime plasters are not found generally superior to the traditional lime plasters in that respect. Therefore, their suitability for historical masonry should be assessed case by case, with a particular attention to the climatic conditions and to the properties of the load bearing structure.

  13. Analysis of MAGSAT and surface data of the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Techniques and significant results of an analysis of MAGSAT and surface data of the Indian region are described. Specific investigative tasks included: (1) use of the multilevel data at different altitudes to develop a model for variation of magnetic anomaly with altitude; (2) development of the regional model for the description of main geomagnetic field for the Indian sub-continent using MAGSAT and observatory data; (3) development of regional mathematical model of secular variations over the Indian sub-continent; and (4) downward continuation of the anomaly field obtained from MAGSAT and its combination with the existing observatory data to produce a regional anomaly map for elucidating tectonic features of the Indian sub-continent.

  14. Development of Computer Science Disciplines - A Social Network Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Manh Cuong; Klamma, Ralf; Jarke, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to many other scientific disciplines, computer science considers conference publications. Conferences have the advantage of providing fast publication of papers and of bringing researchers together to present and discuss the paper with peers. Previous work on knowledge mapping focused on the map of all sciences or a particular domain based on ISI published JCR (Journal Citation Report). Although this data covers most of important journals, it lacks computer science conference and ...

  15. Evaluation of flyash surface phenomena and the application of surface analysis technology. Summary report: Phase I. [44 elements; 86 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    The factors governing the formation of flyash surfaces during and following coal combustion are reviewed. The competing chemical and physical processes during the evolution of inorganic material in coal during combustion into flyash are described with respect to various surface segregation processes. Two mechanisms leading to surface enrichment are volatilization-condensation processes and diffusion processes within individual flyash particles. The experimental evidence for each of these processes is reviewed. It is shown that the volatilization-condensation process is the major factor leading to trace element enrichment in smaller flyash particles. Evidence also exists from surface analyses of flyash and representative mineral matter that diffusion processes may lead to surface enrichment of elements not volatilized or cause transport of surface-condensed elements into the flyash matrix. The semiquantitative determination of the relative importance of these two processes can be determined by comparison of concentration versus particle size profiles with surface-depth profiles obtained using surface analysis techniques. A brief description of organic transformations on flyash surfaces is also presented. The various surface analytical techniques are reviewed and the relatively new technique of Static-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is suggested as having significant advantages in studies of surfaces and diffusion processes in model systems. Several recommendations are made for research relevant to flyash formation and processes occurring on flyash surfaces.

  16. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  17. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    green revolution". — seemed to confirm the value of science and technology to international development. Yet studies showed that, at that time, only about two percent of ... gap in science and technology between the Third World and the industrial- ..... Finance; Treasury Board; Industry, Trade and Commerce; Agriculture;.

  18. Surface-Source Downhole Seismic Analysis in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    This report discusses a method for interpreting a layered slowness or velocity model from surface-source downhole seismic data originally presented by Boore (2003). I have implemented this method in the statistical computing language R (R Development Core Team, 2007), so that it is freely and easily available to researchers and practitioners that may find it useful. I originally applied an early version of these routines to seismic cone penetration test data (SCPT) to analyze the horizontal variability of shear-wave velocity within the sediments in the San Francisco Bay area (Thompson et al., 2006). A more recent version of these codes was used to analyze the influence of interface-selection and model assumptions on velocity/slowness estimates and the resulting differences in site amplification (Boore and Thompson, 2007). The R environment has many benefits for scientific and statistical computation; I have chosen R to disseminate these routines because it is versatile enough to program specialized routines, is highly interactive which aids in the analysis of data, and is freely and conveniently available to install on a wide variety of computer platforms. These scripts are useful for the interpretation of layered velocity models from surface-source downhole seismic data such as deep boreholes and SCPT data. The inputs are the travel-time data and the offset of the source at the surface. The travel-time arrivals for the P- and S-waves must already be picked from the original data. An option in the inversion is to include estimates of the standard deviation of the travel-time picks for a weighted inversion of the velocity profile. The standard deviation of each travel-time pick is defined relative to the standard deviation of the best pick in a profile and is based on the accuracy with which the travel-time measurement could be determined from the seismogram. The analysis of the travel-time data consists of two parts: the identification of layer-interfaces, and the

  19. Development of materials science by Ab initio powder diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    Crystal structure is most important information to understand properties and behavior of target materials. Technique to analyze unknown crystal structures from powder diffraction data (ab initio powder diffraction analysis) enables us to reveal crystal structures of target materials even we cannot obtain a single crystal. In the present article, three examples are introduced to show the power of this technique in the field of materials sciences. The first example is dehydration/hydration of the pharmaceutically relevant material erythrocycin A. In this example, crystal structures of two anhydrous phases were determined from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and their different dehydration/hydration properties were understood from the crystal structures. In the second example, a crystal structure of a three dimensional metal-organic-framework prepared by a mechanochemical reaction was determined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and the reaction scheme has been revealed. In the third example, a crystal structure of a novel oxide-ion conductor of a new structure family was determined from synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data which gave an important information to understand the mechanism of the oxide-ion conduction. (author)

  20. Brain Based Learning in Science Education in Turkey: Descriptive Content and Meta Analysis of Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, M. Diyaddin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at performing content analysis and meta-analysis on dissertations related to brain-based learning in science education to find out the general trend and tendency of brain-based learning in science education and find out the effect of such studies on achievement and attitude of learners with the ultimate aim of raising awareness…

  1. Mapping science communication scholarship in China: Content analysis on breadth, depth and agenda of published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linjia; Huang, Biaowen; Wu, Guosheng

    2015-11-01

    This study attempted to illuminate the cause and relation between government, scholars, disciplines, and societal aspects, presenting data from a content analysis of published research with the key word "science communication" (Symbol: see text) in the title or in the key words, including academic papers published in journals and dissertations from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Of these, 572 articles were coded using categories that identified science topics, theory, authorship, and methods used in each study to examine the breadth and depth that Science Communication has achieved since its inception in China. This study explored the dominance of History and Philosophy of Science scholars rather than Communication scholars. We also explored how science communication research began from theories and concepts instead of science report analysis and the difficulties of the shift from public understanding of science to public engagement in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Surface topography analysis for dimensional quality control of replication at the micrometre scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcon, M.; Marinello, F.; Tosello, Guido

    2011-01-01

    and replica surfaces must be quantitatively analysed and compared. In the present work, reference simulated surfaces were considered and studied in order to evaluate the effectiveness and traceability of different analysis tools for replication quality control. Topographies were analysed simulating different...... surface mapping techniques, such as optical profilometry, scanning probe microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Different strategies for surface analysis and comparison are proposed and discussed taking into account the instrument, the measuring range and the functionality of the surface....

  3. Science Engagement and Literacy: A retrospective analysis for students in Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Colette Oliver, Mary; McConney, Andrew; Schibeci, Renato; Maor, Dorit

    2014-07-01

    Given international concerns about students' pursuit (or more correctly, non-pursuit) of courses and careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, this study is about achieving a better understanding of factors related to high school students' engagement in science. The study builds on previous secondary analyses of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) datasets for New Zealand and Australia. For the current study, we compared patterns of science engagement and science literacy for male and female students in Canada and Australia. The study's secondary analysis revealed that for all PISA measures included under the conceptual umbrella of engagement in science (i.e. interest, enjoyment, valuing, self-efficacy, self-concept and motivation), 15-year-old students in Australia lagged their Canadian counterparts to varying, albeit modest, degrees. Our retrospective analysis further shows, however, that gender equity in science engagement and science literacy is evident in both Canadian and Australian contexts. Additionally, and consistent with our previous findings for indigenous and non-indigenous students in New Zealand and Australia, we found that for male and female students in both countries, the factor most strongly associated with variations in engagement in science was the extent to which students participate in science activities outside of school. In contrast, and again for both Canadian and Australian students, the factors most strongly associated with science literacy were students' socioeconomic backgrounds, and the amount of formal time spent doing science. The implications of these results for science educators and researchers are discussed.

  4. Deciding on Science: An Analysis of Higher Education Science Student Major Choice Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen Wilson

    The number of college students choosing to major in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in the United States affects the size and quality of the American workforce (Winters, 2009). The number of graduates in these academic fields has been on the decline in the United States since the 1960s, which, according to Lips and McNeil (2009), has resulted in a diminished ability of the United States to compete in science and engineering on the world stage. The purpose of this research was to learn why students chose a STEM major and determine what decision criteria influenced this decision. According to Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), the key components of decision-making can be quantified and used as predictors of behavior. In this study the STEM majors' decision criteria were compared between different institution types (two-year, public four-year, and private four-year), and between demographic groups (age and sex). Career, grade, intrinsic, self-efficacy, and self-determination were reported as motivational factors by a majority of science majors participating in this study. Few students reported being influenced by friends and family when deciding to major in science. Science students overwhelmingly attributed the desire to solve meaningful problems as central to their decision to major in science. A majority of students surveyed credited a teacher for influencing their desire to pursue science as a college major. This new information about the motivational construct of the studied group of science majors can be applied to the previously stated problem of not enough STEM majors in the American higher education system to provide workers required to fill the demand of a globally STEM-competitive United States (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine, 2010).

  5. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...

  6. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are

  7. Content Analysis of the Diagrammatic Representations of Primary Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Khine, Myint Swe

    2016-01-01

    Science education research emphasizes the irreplaceable value of textbooks in students' acquisition of scientific knowledge. Illustrations such as diagrams contained in science books are crucial modes of visual representations that facilitate learners' conceptual learning. Through classifying, coding, and analysing diagrams from twenty science…

  8. Science Teachers' Data Use Practices: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass; Monroy, Carlos; Bell, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a debate on students' low science achievement in the United States, particularly among low income, African American students, and Latino students. An important part of the education community's response to low achievement generally and in science specifically has been the implementation of high stakes accountability policies. Because of…

  9. Analysis of the Interdisciplinary Nature of Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebor, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Library and information science (LIS) is highly interdisciplinary by nature and is affected by the incessant evolution of technologies. A recent study surveying research trends in the years 2002-6 at various information science departments worldwide has found that a clear trend was identified in Masters theses and doctoral dissertations of social…

  10. Science Cadre Training in Russia and Abroad (A Comparative Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Today the scientific potential of any country, its science cadres, the volume and scale of the research being conducted, the number of science centers, the quality and subject matter of the research, the level of the material and technical equipment of its research laboratories, and other aspects constitute a most important factor in ensuring…

  11. Summary of research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period October 1, 1988 through March 31, 1989 is summarized.

  12. Summary of research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science during the period October 1, 1983 through March 31, 1984 is summarized.

  13. Ambient Surface Analysis of Organic Monolayers using Direct Analysis in Real Time Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manova, R.K.; Joshi, S.; Debrassi, A.; Bhairamadgi, N.S.; Roeven, E.; Gagnon, J.; Tahir, M.N.; Claassen, F.W.; Scheres, L.M.W.; Wennekes, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    A better characterization of nanometer-thick organic layers (monolayers) as used for engineering surface properties, biosensing, nanomedicine, and smart materials will widen their application. The aim of this study was to develop direct analysis in real time high-resolution mass spectrometry

  14. Gis-Based Surface Analysis of Archaeological Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.; Moser, M.

    2011-09-01

    The international research project HiMAT (History of Mining Activities in the Tyrol and adjacent areas) is dedicated to the study of mining history in the Eastern Alps by various scientific disciplines. The aim of this program is the analysis of the mining activities' impacts on environment and human societies. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of specific regions (e.g. Mitterberg) to offer possibilities to investigate the former mining expansions. Within this multidisciplinary project, the archaeological sites and finds are analyzed by the Surveying and Geoinformation Unit at the University of Innsbruck. This paper shows data fusion of different surveying and post-processing methods to achieve a photo-realistic digital 3D model of one of these most important finds, the Bronze Age sluice box from the Mitterberg. The applied workflow consists of four steps: 1. Point cloud processing, 2. Meshing of the point clouds and editing of the models, 3. Image orientation, bundle and image adjustment, 4. Model texturing. In addition, a short range laser scanning survey was organized before the conservation process of this wooden find. More accurate research opportunities were offered after this detailed documentation of the sluice box, for example the reconstruction of the broken parts and the surface analysis of this archaeological object were implemented using these high-resolution datasets. In conclusion, various unperceived patterns of the wooden boards were visualized by the GIS-based tool marks investigation.

  15. GIS-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The international research project HiMAT (History of Mining Activities in the Tyrol and adjacent areas is dedicated to the study of mining history in the Eastern Alps by various scientific disciplines. The aim of this program is the analysis of the mining activities’ impacts on environment and human societies. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of specific regions (e.g. Mitterberg to offer possibilities to investigate the former mining expansions. Within this multidisciplinary project, the archaeological sites and finds are analyzed by the Surveying and Geoinformation Unit at the University of Innsbruck. This paper shows data fusion of different surveying and post-processing methods to achieve a photo-realistic digital 3D model of one of these most important finds, the Bronze Age sluice box from the Mitterberg. The applied workflow consists of four steps: 1. Point cloud processing, 2. Meshing of the point clouds and editing of the models, 3. Image orientation, bundle and image adjustment, 4. Model texturing. In addition, a short range laser scanning survey was organized before the conservation process of this wooden find. More accurate research opportunities were offered after this detailed documentation of the sluice box, for example the reconstruction of the broken parts and the surface analysis of this archaeological object were implemented using these high-resolution datasets. In conclusion, various unperceived patterns of the wooden boards were visualized by the GIS-based tool marks investigation.

  16. Numerical analysis of surface subsidence in asymmetric parallel highway tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Das

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tunnelling related hazards are very common in the Himalayan terrain and a number of such instances have been reported. Several twin tunnels are being planned for transportation purposes which will require good understanding for prediction of tunnel deformation and surface settlement during the engineering life of the structure. The deformational behaviour, design of sequential excavation and support of any jointed rock mass are challenging during underground construction. We have raised several commonly assumed issues while performing stability analysis of underground opening at shallow depth. For this purpose, Kainchi-mod Nerchowck twin tunnels (Himachal Pradesh, India are taken for in-depth analysis of the stability of two asymmetric tunnels to address the influence of topography, twin tunnel dimension and geometry. The host rock encountered during excavation is composed mainly of moderately to highly jointed grey sandstone, maroon sandstone and siltstones. In contrast to equidimensional tunnels where the maximum subsidence is observed vertically above the centreline of the tunnel, the result from the present study shows shifting of the maximum subsidence away from the tunnel centreline. The maximum subsidence of 0.99 mm is observed at 4.54 m left to the escape tunnel centreline whereas the maximum subsidence of 3.14 mm is observed at 8.89 m right to the main tunnel centreline. This shifting clearly indicates the influence of undulating topography and in-equidimensional noncircular tunnel.

  17. Analysis of variability of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Georgina; Cressie, Noel

    2016-11-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific Ocean is a key component of many global climate models and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We shall analyse SST for the period November 1981-December 2014. To study the temporal variability of the ENSO phenomenon, we have selected a subregion of the tropical Pacific Ocean, namely the Niño 3.4 region, as it is thought to be the area where SST anomalies indicate most clearly ENSO's influence on the global atmosphere. SST anomalies, obtained by subtracting the appropriate monthly averages from the data, are the focus of the majority of previous analyses of the Pacific and other oceans' SSTs. Preliminary data analysis showed that not only Niño 3.4 spatial means but also Niño 3.4 spatial variances varied with month of the year. In this article, we conduct an analysis of the raw SST data and introduce diagnostic plots (here, plots of variability vs. central tendency). These plots show strong negative dependence between the spatial standard deviation and the spatial mean. Outliers are present, so we consider robust regression to obtain intercept and slope estimates for the 12 individual months and for all-months-combined. Based on this mean-standard deviation relationship, we define a variance-stabilizing transformation. On the transformed scale, we describe the Niño 3.4 SST time series with a statistical model that is linear, heteroskedastic, and dynamical.

  18. Experimental analysis of surface finish in normal conducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrebini-Esfahani, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Ristic, M.; Long, K.

    2017-10-01

    A normal conducting 805 MHz test cavity with an in built button shaped sample is used to conduct a series of surface treatment experiments. The button enhances the local fields and influences the likelihood of an RF breakdown event. Because of their smaller sizes, compared to the whole cavity surface, they allow practical investigations of the effects of cavity surface preparation in relation to RF breakdown. Manufacturing techniques and steps for preparing the buttons to improve the surface quality are described in detail. It was observed that even after the final stage of the surface treatment, defects on the surface of the cavities still could be found.

  19. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  20. Seventh BES [Basic Energy Sciences] catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  1. Constraining the JULES land-surface model for different land-use types using citizen-science generated hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, H. K.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Community land surface models such as JULES are increasingly used for hydrological assessment because of their state-of-the-art representation of land-surface processes. However, a major weakness of JULES and other land surface models is the limited number of land surface parameterizations that is available. Therefore, this study explores the use of data from a network of catchments under homogeneous land-use to generate parameter "libraries" to extent the land surface parameterizations of JULES. The network (called iMHEA) is part of a grassroots initiative to characterise the hydrological response of different Andean ecosystems, and collects data on streamflow, precipitation, and several weather variables at a high temporal resolution. The tropical Andes are a useful case study because of the complexity of meteorological and geographical conditions combined with extremely heterogeneous land-use that result in a wide range of hydrological responses. We then calibrated JULES for each land-use represented in the iMHEA dataset. For the individual land-use types, the results show improved simulations of streamflow when using the calibrated parameters with respect to default values. In particular, the partitioning between surface and subsurface flows can be improved. But also, on a regional scale, hydrological modelling was greatly benefitted from constraining parameters using such distributed citizen-science generated streamflow data. This study demonstrates the modelling and prediction on regional hydrology by integrating citizen science and land surface model. In the context of hydrological study, the limitation of data scarcity could be solved indeed by using this framework. Improved predictions of such impacts could be leveraged by catchment managers to guide watershed interventions, to evaluate their effectiveness, and to minimize risks.

  2. The Planet Mercury Surface Spectroscopy and Analysis from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and Analysis and Modeling to Determine Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Ann

    1997-01-01

    We had two successful flights to observe Mercury from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) using High-efficiency Infrared Faint-Object Grating Spectrograph (HIFOGS). Flights were May 8, 1995 (eastern elongation) and July 6, 1995 (western elongation) For the observations one half of the primary mirror was covered to prevent sunlight from entering the telescope. All equipment and the airplane and its crew performed well. These flights were historical firsts for the KAO and for spectroscopy of Mercury in that it was the first time any spectroscopic observations of Mercury from above the Earth's atmosphere had been made. It was the first time the KAO had been used to @bserve an object less than 30 degrees from the Sun. Upon completion of the basic data reduction it became obvious that extensive modeling and analysis would be required to understand the data. It took three years of a graduate student's time and part time the PI to do the thermal modeling and the spectroscopic analysis. This resulted in a lengthy publication. A copy of this publication is attached and has all the data obtained in both KAO flights and the results clearly presented. Notable results are: (1) The observations found an as yet unexplained 5 micron emission enhancement that we think may be a real characteristic of Mercury's surface but could have an instrumental cause; (2) Ground-based measurements or an emission maximum at 7.7 microns were corroborated. The chemical composition of Mercury's surface must be feldspathic in order to explain spectra features found in the data obtained during the KAO flights.

  3. Concepts in Navel Aesthetic: A Comprehensive Surface Anatomy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Giuseppe; Visconti, Emiliano; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Salgarello, Marzia

    2015-02-01

    The navel contributes to abdominal surface identity and beauty. In Western societies, the display of the navel in women's fashion has grown and, nowadays, women are much more concerned about its shape and position. Despite this, few studies are available on navel surface anatomy and there is no standardization regarding its proper placement in cosmetic abdominoplasty. In this observational study, we analyzed navel shape and position on 81 high quality pictures, having been chosen as top 2013 bikini models by editors of mass media. An on-line survey on navel shape and position has been made via facebook.com, involving 1,682 people. The analysis revealed that navel position is quite variable based on the proportions analyzed with an acceptable narrow data spread of the xiphoid-umbilicus:umbilicus-abdominal mean crease ratio of 1.62 ± 0.16. The data dispersion for the other three ratios was wider, making them less reliable as references. The most appreciated navel shape was the vertical oval with superior hooding (82 %), and the less appreciated ones were the horizontal oval (29 %) and the protruding shape (47 %). When comparing navel position on the same body, the majority of participants choose the one with the navel relocated according to the golden ratio (i.e., 1.618) CONCLUSION: The most attractive navel position is located at the xiphoid-umbilicus:umbilicus-abdominal crease golden ratio. Bony landmarks seem to be not reliable as references for proper navel positioning. The use of the Fibonacci (golden mean) caliper intraoperatively might aid in proper positioning of the navel in abdominoplasty.

  4. Analysis of Sci-Hub downloads of computer science papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andročec Darko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific knowledge is disseminated by research papers. Most of the research literature is copyrighted by publishers and avail- able only through paywalls. Recently, some websites offer most of the recent content for free. One of them is the controversial website Sci-Hub that enables access to more than 47 million pirated research papers. In April 2016, Science Magazine published an article on Sci-Hub activity over the period of six months and publicly released the Sci-Hub’s server log data. The mentioned paper aggregates the view that relies on all downloads and for all fields of study, but these findings might be hiding interesting patterns within computer science. The mentioned Sci-Hub log data was used in this paper to analyse downloads of computer science papers based on DBLP’s list of computer science publications. The top downloads of computer science papers were analysed, together with the geographical location of Sci-Hub users, the most downloaded publishers, types of papers downloaded, and downloads of computer science papers per publication year. The results of this research can be used to improve legal access to the most relevant scientific repositories or journals for the computer science field.

  5. Science and scientists in regulatory governance: a mezzo-level framework for analysis

    OpenAIRE

    G Bruce Doern; Ted Reed

    2001-01-01

    The article argues that the study of science in government needs a viable mezzo- or middle-level framework to deal adequately with the analysis of science in regulatory governance and then advances a possible framework. The case for mezzo-level analysis is developed through a brief review of relevant literature on science in government policy and regulatory decisionmaking, which is basically on macro and micro ‘science in government’ relationships, and tends to neglect the ‘mezzo-ham’ in the ...

  6. Surface analysis of transition metal oxalates: Damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@imp.kiev.ua [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute of Metal Physics, Nat. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Akad. Vernadsky Blvd. 36, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Szukiewicz, R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Barbosa, R.; Kruse, N. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 155 Wegner Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Gas evolution from the Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation is studied. • A comparative study of the damage caused by X-rays in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is carried out. • Effect of Ar{sup +} bombardment on the structure and composition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. - Abstract: The behavior of transition metal oxalates in vacuum, under X-ray irradiation and low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment was studied. A comparative mass-spectrometric analysis was carried out of gas evolution from the surface of Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation. The rates of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} liberation from the oxalates were found to be in an inverse correlation with the temperatures of dehydration and decomposition, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study the X-ray induced damage in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} by measuring the various XP spectral characteristics and surface composition of the oxalates as a function of time of exposure to X-rays. It was shown that Cu oxalate underwent a significantly faster degradation than Ni oxalate and demonstrated a high degree of X-ray induced reduction from the Cu{sup 2+} to the Cu{sup 1+} chemical state. 500 eV Ar{sup +} sputter cleaning of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} for 10 min was found to cause a strong transformation of the oxalate structure which manifested itself in an appreciable alteration of the XP core-level and valence band spectra. The analysis of changes in stoichiometry and comparison of XP spectra of bombarded oxalate with respective spectra of a reference carbonate CoCO{sub 3} implied that the bombardment-induced decomposition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} gave rise to the formation of CoO-like and disordered CoCO{sub 3}-like phases.

  7. Analysis of Nature of Science Included in Recent Popular Writing Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; McComas, William F.

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in popular science writing to determine whether it could serve supplementary resource for teaching NOS and to evaluate the accuracy of text mining and classification as a viable research tool in science education research. Four groups of documents published from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed: Scientific American, Discover magazine, winners of the Royal Society Winton Prize for Science Books, and books from NSTA's list of Outstanding Science Trade Books. Computer analysis categorized passages in the selected documents based on their inclusions of NOS. Human analysis assessed the frequency, context, coverage, and accuracy of the inclusions of NOS within computer identified NOS passages. NOS was rarely addressed in selected document sets but somewhat more frequently addressed in the letters section of the two magazines. This result suggests that readers seem interested in the discussion of NOS-related themes. In the popular science books analyzed, NOS presentations were found more likely to be aggregated in the beginning and the end of the book, rather than scattered throughout. The most commonly addressed NOS elements in the analyzed documents are science and society and empiricism in science. Only one inaccurate presentation of NOS were identified in all analyzed documents. The text mining technique demonstrated exciting performance, which invites more applications of the technique to analyze other aspects of science textbooks, popular science writing, or other materials involved in science teaching and learning.

  8. COMETARY SCIENCE. CHO-bearing organic compounds at the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko revealed by Ptolemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I P; Sheridan, S; Barber, S J; Morgan, G H; Andrews, D J; Morse, A D

    2015-07-31

    The surface and subsurface of comets preserve material from the formation of the solar system. The properties of cometary material thus provide insight into the physical and chemical conditions during their formation. We present mass spectra taken by the Ptolemy instrument 20 minutes after the initial touchdown of the Philae lander on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Regular mass distributions indicate the presence of a sequence of compounds with additional -CH2- and -O- groups (mass/charge ratios 14 and 16, respectively). Similarities with the detected coma species of comet Halley suggest the presence of a radiation-induced polymer at the surface. Ptolemy measurements also indicate an apparent absence of aromatic compounds such as benzene, a lack of sulfur-bearing species, and very low concentrations of nitrogenous material. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Material Science Image Analysis using Quant-CT in ImageJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela M.; Bianchi, Andrea G. C.; DeBianchi, Christina; Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-01-05

    We introduce a computational analysis workflow to access properties of solid objects using nondestructive imaging techniques that rely on X-ray imaging. The goal is to process and quantify structures from material science sample cross sections. The algorithms can differentiate the porous media (high density material) from the void (background, low density media) using a Boolean classifier, so that we can extract features, such as volume, surface area, granularity spectrum, porosity, among others. Our workflow, Quant-CT, leverages several algorithms from ImageJ, such as statistical region merging and 3D object counter. It also includes schemes for bilateral filtering that use a 3D kernel, for parallel processing of sub-stacks, and for handling over-segmentation using histogram similarities. The Quant-CT supports fast user interaction, providing the ability for the user to train the algorithm via subsamples to feed its core algorithms with automated parameterization. Quant-CT plugin is currently available for testing by personnel at the Advanced Light Source and Earth Sciences Divisions and Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), LBNL, as part of their research on porous materials. The goal is to understand the processes in fluid-rock systems for the geologic sequestration of CO2, and to develop technology for the safe storage of CO2 in deep subsurface rock formations. We describe our implementation, and demonstrate our plugin on porous material images. This paper targets end-users, with relevant information for developers to extend its current capabilities.

  10. The application of white radiation to residual stress analysis in the intermediate zone between surface and volume

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C; Wallis, B; Reimers, W

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical surface processing is known to give rise to complex residual stress fields in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. Consequently, their analysis by means of non-destructive X-ray and neutron diffraction methods has become an important topic in materials science. However, there remains a gap with respect to the accessible near surface zone, which concerns a range between about 10 mu m and 1 mm, where the conventional X-ray methods are no longer and the neutron methods are not yet sensitive. In order to achieve the necessary penetration depth tau to perform residual stress analysis (RSA) in this region, advantageous use can be made of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation (15-60 keV) in the reflection mode. Besides an example concerning the adaptation of methods applied so far in the angle dispersive RSA to the energy dispersive case, the concept of a new materials science beamline at BESSY II for residual stress and texture analysis is presented.

  11. Discrete calculus applied analysis on graphs for computational science

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, Leo J

    2010-01-01

    This unique text brings together into a single framework current research in the three areas of discrete calculus, complex networks, and algorithmic content extraction. Many example applications from several fields of computational science are provided.

  12. A Statistical Analysis of the Nuffield Physical Science Project Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses measurement techniques developed in the Nuffield A level physical science assessment and statistical results obtained in 1968 and 1971. Concludes that individual projects are contributors of positive and valuable educational experiences to the course. (CC)

  13. A social representations analysis of design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to positivist survey and interpretive case study research, design science research (DSR) is a relatively novel and unfamiliar research paradigm within the computing field in South Africa. In light of recent interest in the DSR paradigm...

  14. Science and Technology Policies and Priorities: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Leonard L.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the science and technology strategies and priorities of France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Analyzes the similarities and differences, historical settings, research and development allocations, coordinating mechanisms, outputs, dissatisfactions, and recent changes. (TW)

  15. Preparation of polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces and analysis of their wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jian; Huang, Manling; Zhang, Yajun; Wu, Daming; Kuang, Tairong; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoxu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we presented three simple, facile and low-cost manufacturing methods—template method, nanoparticle filling method and extrusion stamping forming method—to fabricate the polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces. The stainless steel wire mesh as the template and glass beads was investigated in this study for the first time and low-cost hollow glass beads were rarely used as particles for fabricating the superhydrophobic surface. The water contact angle measurement of polymeric surfaces was used to investigate the effect of mesh count, glass beads and PTFE on fabricating polymeric superhydrophobic surface. It was found that the mesh count significantly affected the hydrophobicity of polymer surface in template method. The addition of glass beads improved the hydrophobicity by nanoparticle filling method. The addition of PTFE was of importance to fabricate the superhydrophobic surface by extrusion stamping forming method. The surface microstructure was also observed by scanning electron microscope.

  16. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates ... Center for Advanced Technology (CAT), Haryana Engineering College Jagadhari, Yamunanagar, Haryana 135 003; Specialties and Additives Group, Chemical and Bio-Science Division, Indian ...

  17. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital. Cost effectiveness analysis carried out alongside the pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial; a multicentre UK based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six UK NHS trusts. Intention to treat population comprising 1971 participants. Kaplan Meier estimates of restricted mean time to development of pressure ulcers and total costs for treatment in hospital. Alternating pressure mattresses were associated with lower overall costs (283.6 pounds sterling per patient on average, 95% confidence interval--377.59 pounds sterling to 976.79 pounds sterling) mainly due to reduced length of stay in hospital, and greater benefits (a delay in time to ulceration of 10.64 days on average,--24.40 to 3.09). The differences in health benefits and total costs for hospital stay between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays were not statistically significant; however, a cost effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that on average alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays were associated with an 80% probability of being cost saving. Alternating pressure mattresses for the prevention of pressure ulcers are more likely to be cost effective and are more acceptable to patients than alternating pressure overlays.

  18. Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis of pulcherrin J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Osahon Ogbeide

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C29H36O4 [systematic name (4aR,5R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR-4a-hydroxy-4,4,7,11b-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodecahydrophenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl cinnamate], a natural diterpene known as pulcherrin J, was isolated from stem barks of medicinally important Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.. The crystal structure of pulcherrin J shows it to be composed of a central core of three trans-fused cyclohexane rings and a near planar five-membered furan ring, along with an axially oriented cinnamate moiety and an hydroxy substituent attached at positions 4a and 5 of the steroid ring system, respectively. The absolute structure was established with the use of Cu Kα radiation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds to generate [100] C(8 chains. Hirshfeld surface analysis indicates that the most significant contacts in packing are H...H (67.5%, followed by C...H (19.6% and H...O (12.9%.

  19. Introduction to global analysis minimal surfaces in riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, John Douglas

    2017-01-01

    During the last century, global analysis was one of the main sources of interaction between geometry and topology. One might argue that the core of this subject is Morse theory, according to which the critical points of a generic smooth proper function on a manifold M determine the homology of the manifold. Morse envisioned applying this idea to the calculus of variations, including the theory of periodic motion in classical mechanics, by approximating the space of loops on M by a finite-dimensional manifold of high dimension. Palais and Smale reformulated Morse's calculus of variations in terms of infinite-dimensional manifolds, and these infinite-dimensional manifolds were found useful for studying a wide variety of nonlinear PDEs. This book applies infinite-dimensional manifold theory to the Morse theory of closed geodesics in a Riemannian manifold. It then describes the problems encountered when extending this theory to maps from surfaces instead of curves. It treats critical point theory for closed param...

  20. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  1. Introduction to global analysis minimal surfaces in Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, John Douglas

    2017-01-01

    During the last century, global analysis was one of the main sources of interaction between geometry and topology. One might argue that the core of this subject is Morse theory, according to which the critical points of a generic smooth proper function on a manifold M determine the homology of the manifold. Morse envisioned applying this idea to the calculus of variations, including the theory of periodic motion in classical mechanics, by approximating the space of loops on M by a finite-dimensional manifold of high dimension. Palais and Smale reformulated Morse's calculus of variations in terms of infinite-dimensional manifolds, and these infinite-dimensional manifolds were found useful for studying a wide variety of nonlinear PDEs. This book applies infinite-dimensional manifold theory to the Morse theory of closed geodesics in a Riemannian manifold. It then describes the problems encountered when extending this theory to maps from surfaces instead of curves. It treats critical point theory for closed param...

  2. International production on science oriented towards data: analysis of the terms data science and e-science in scopus and the web of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Santiago Bufrem

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: current configuration in the dynamics of production and scientific communication reveals the role of Science Oriented Towards Data, a comprehensive conception represented, mainly, by terms such as "e-Science" and "Data Science". Objective: To present the global scientific production on Science Oriented Towards Data by using the terms "e-Science" and "Data Science" in Scopus and the Web of Science during 2006-2016. Methodology: The study is divided into five phases: a search for information in Scopus and the Web of Science data bases; b obtaining bibliometric records; c complementing keywords; d data correction and crossing; e analytical data representation. Results: The most important terms within the analyzed scientific production were Distributed computer systems (2006, Grid computing (2007-2013 and Big data (2014- 2016. In the area of Library and Information Science, the emphasis was on Digital Library and Open Access issues, highlighting the importance of the field for the discussions on the devices providing access to scientific information in digital media. Conclusions: Under a diachronic look, it was found a visible shift of focus, from issues approaching data exchange operations to an analytical perspective for finding patterns in large data volumes

  3. Ten years of science news: A longitudinal analysis of scientific culture in the Spanish digital press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Tamar; Figuerola, Carlos G; Quintanilla, Miguel Á

    2016-08-01

    This article presents our study of science coverage in the digital Spanish press over the last decade. We employed automated information retrieval procedures to create a corpus of 50,763 text units dealing with science and technology, and used automated text-analysis procedures in order to provide a general picture of the structure, characteristics and evolution of science news in Spain. We found between 6% and 7% of science coverage, a clear high proportion of biomedicine and predominance of science over technology, although we also detected an increase in technological content during the second half of the decade. Analysing the extrinsic and intrinsic features of science culture, we found a predominance of intrinsic features that still need further analysis. Our attempt to use specialised software to examine big data was effective, and allowed us to reach these preliminary conclusions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Science Engagement and Science Achievement in the Context of Science Instruction: A Multilevel Analysis of U.S. Students and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Larry J.; Ma, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), we explored nine aspects of science engagement (science self-efficacy, science self-concept, enjoyment of science, general interest in learning science, instrumental motivation for science, future-oriented science motivation, general value of science, personal value of…

  5. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  6. GHRSST Level 4 G1SST Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the JPL OurOcean...

  7. GHRSST Level 4 RAMSSA Australian Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  8. GHRSST Level 4 GAMSSA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  9. GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_AMSR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at the NOAA...

  10. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  11. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Nighttime Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  12. GHRSST Level 4 MUR North America Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced as a retrospective dataset at the JPL Physical...

  13. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  14. GHRSST Level 4 K10_SST Global 1 meter Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Naval...

  15. GHRSST Level 4 OSTIA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the UK Met Office...

  16. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  17. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  18. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Eastern Central Pacific Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  19. GHRSST Level 4 MW_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at Remote Sensing...

  20. Multifunctional magnetite and silica-magnetite nanoparticles: Synthesis, surface activation and applications in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Aranzazu del; Sen, Tapas; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Bruce, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    A method for the introduction of amine groups onto the surface of magnetite and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles has been established based on the condensation of aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Amine-modified particles were grafted with an oligonucleotide and used in the capture of a complimentary sequence. The particles' efficiency at capture was observed to correlate directly with amine group surface density

  1. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A review of recent applications in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikiet, Marisia A.; Khandasammy, Shelby R.; Mistek, Ewelina; Ahmed, Yasmine; Halámková, Lenka; Bueno, Justin; Lednev, Igor K.

    2018-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy has many advantages over its parent technique of Raman spectroscopy. Some of these advantages such as increased sensitivity and selectivity and therefore the possibility of small sample sizes and detection of small concentrations are invaluable in the field of forensics. A variety of new SERS surfaces and novel approaches are presented here on a wide range of forensically relevant topics.

  2. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1987-06-01

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined

  3. An Analysis of Citizen Science Based Research: Usage and Publication Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Ria; Strezov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The use of citizen science for scientific discovery relies on the acceptance of this method by the scientific community. Using the Web of Science and Scopus as the source of peer reviewed articles, an analysis of all published articles on "citizen science" confirmed its growth, and found that significant research on methodology and validation techniques preceded the rapid rise of the publications on research outcomes based on citizen science methods. Of considerable interest is the growing number of studies relying on the re-use of collected datasets from past citizen science research projects, which used data from either individual or multiple citizen science projects for new discoveries, such as for climate change research. The extent to which citizen science has been used in scientific discovery demonstrates its importance as a research approach. This broad analysis of peer reviewed papers on citizen science, that included not only citizen science projects, but the theory and methods developed to underpin the research, highlights the breadth and depth of the citizen science approach and encourages cross-fertilization between the different disciplines.

  4. Quantitative spatial analysis of the mouse brain lipidome by pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Berzina, Zane; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a novel surface sampling technique termed pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis (PLESA), which in combination with a dedicated high-resolution shotgun lipidomics routine enables both quantification and in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species...... extracted directly from tissue sections. PLESA uses a sealed and pressurized sampling probe that enables the use of chloroform-containing extraction solvents for efficient in situ lipid microextraction with a spatial resolution of 400 μm. Quantification of lipid species is achieved by the inclusion...... of internal lipid standards in the extraction solvent. The analysis of lipid microextracts by nanoelectrospray ionization provides long-lasting ion spray which in conjunction with a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer enables identification and quantification of molecular lipid species using a method...

  5. Evaluating social science and humanities knowledge production: An exploratory analysis of dynamics in science systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, P.P.; Nijkamp, P.; Verbraak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge is gaining increasing importance in modern-day society as a factor of production and, ultimately, growth. This article explores the dynamics in university knowledge production and its effect on the state of university-industry-policy exchange in the Netherlands. Science systems are said to

  6. An analysis of high-performing science students' preparation for collegiate science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Karen

    This mixed-method study surveyed first year high-performing science students who participated in high-level courses such as International Baccalaureate (IB), Advanced Placement (AP), and honors science courses in high school to determine their perception of preparation for academic success at the collegiate level. The study used 52 students from an honors college campus and surveyed the students and their professors. The students reported that they felt better prepared for academic success at the collegiate level by taking these courses in high school (pperception of preparation and student GPA with honors science courses (n=55 and Pearson's r=-0.336), while AP courses (n=47 and Pearson's r=0.0016) and IB courses (n=17 and Pearson's r=-0.2716) demonstrated no correlation between perception of preparation and GPA. Students reported various themes that helped or hindered their perception of academic success once at the collegiate level. Those themes that reportedly helped students were preparedness, different types of learning, and teacher qualities. Students reported in a post-hoc experience that more lab time, rigorous coursework, better teachers, and better study techniques helped prepare them for academic success at the collegiate level. Students further reported on qualities of teachers and teaching that helped foster their academic abilities at the collegiate level, including teacher knowledge, caring, teaching style, and expectations. Some reasons for taking high-level science courses in high school include boosting GPA, college credit, challenge, and getting into better colleges.

  7. Science Textbooks' Use of Graphical Representation: A Descriptive Analysis of Four Sixth Grade Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, Scott W.; McTigue, Erin M.; Kim, Suyeon; Jennings, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school teachers tend to rely heavily on texts that have become increasing more visual. There is little information available about the graphical demands of general middle grades' science texts. The purpose of this study was to quantify the type and quality of the graphical representations and how they interacted with the textual material in…

  8. On the implications of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission for hydrologic science and applications (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    The SWOT mission will provide surface water elevation and extent information with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution globally. All of the implications of thedata that SWOT will produce for the hydrologic science and applications communities are not yet apparent. The SWOT data will, however, certainly offer groundbreaking opportunities for estimation of two key terms in the land surface water budget: surface water storage (in almost all water bodies with surface area exceeding about 1 km2) and derived discharge for many of the world’s large rivers (widths greater than roughly 100-250 m). Among just a few of the science questions that the observations should allow us to address are a) what are the dynamics of floods and overbank flows in large rivers? b) what is the contribution of long-term, seasonal, and interannual storage in reservoirs, lakes, and wetlands to sea level? c) what is the magnitude of surface water storage changes at seasonal to decadal time scales and continental spatial scales relative to soil moisture and groundwater? d) what will be the implications of SWOT-based estimates of reservoir storage and storage change to the management of transboundary rivers? These quite likely are among just a few of the questions that SWOT will help elucidate. Others no doubt will arise from creative analyses of SWOT data in combination with data from other missions I conclude with a discussion of mechanisms that will help foster a community to investigate these and other questions, and the implications of a SWOT data policy.

  9. Analysis of surface bond lengths reported for chemisorption on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of bond length information available from the techniques of surface crystallography (particularly with LEED, SEXAFS and photoelectron diffraction) for chemisorption on well-defined surfaces of metals (M). For adsorbed main-group atoms (X), measured X-M interatomic distances for 38 combinations of X and M have been assessed with a bond order-bond length relation in combination with the Schomaker-Stevenson approach for determining single-bond lengths. When the surface bond orders are fixed primarily by the valency of X, this approach appears to provide a simple framework for predicing X-M surface bond lengths. Further, in cases where agreement has been reached from different surface crystallographic techniques, this framework has the potential for assessing refinements to the surface bonding model (e.g. in determining the roles of the effective surface valency of M, and of coordinate bonding and supplementary π bonding between X and M). Preliminary comparisons of structural data are also given for molecular adsorption (CO and ethylidyne) and for the chemisorption of other metal atoms.

  10. Analysis and research on curved surface's prototyping error based on FDM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. D.; Zhang, Y. C.; Yang, T. B.; Wang, W. S.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis and research methods on curved surface's prototyping error with FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) process are introduced in this paper, then the experiment result of curved surface's prototyping error is analyzed, and the integrity of point cloud information and the fitting method of curved surface prototyping are discussed as well as the influence on curved surface's prototyping error with different software. Finally, the qualitative and quantitative conclusions on curved surface's prototyping error are acquired in this paper.

  11. A Distinctive Analysis of Case Study, Action Research and Design Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dresch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper aims at analyzing the difference between research methods that are typical in operations management (case study and action research with design science research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts a theoretical-conceptual methodological approach, based on an extensive literature review. The literature review focused on studies that discuss the use of Case Study, Action Research and Design Science/Design Science Research. Theoretical framework – This paper reveals the foundations of Case Study and Action Research. Due to its recent use as a research method, Design Science Research is presented in greater depth. Findings – Firstly, we present design science and design science research as paradigms and as research methods, respectively, in the field of management. Secondly, we present the difference between Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and Design Science. Thirdly, we carry out comparative analysis of research methods Case Study, Action Research and Design Science Research. Finally, we offer a set of suggestions for future research regarding the use of research methods in management, in general, and in operations management, inparticular. Contributions – The main contributions of this paper focus on reflecting about research methods used in the management field. An important contribution is expanding the repertoire of research methods for understanding and using Design Science Research. The use of this method can contribute to reduce the distance between rigor and relevance, which has been described by several authors.

  12. UO2 Fuel pellet impurities, pellet surface roughness and n(18O)/n(16O) ratios, applied to nuclear forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajo, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, law enforcement has faced the problem of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic science is a new branch of science that enables the identification of seized nuclear material. The identification is not based on a fixed scheme, but further identification parameters are decided based on previous identification results. The analysis is carried out by using traditional analysis methods and applying modern measurement technology. The parameters are generally not unambiguous and not self-explanatory. In order to have a full picture about the origin of seized samples, several identification parameters should be used together and the measured data should be compared to corresponding data from known sources. A nuclear material database containing data from several fabrication plants is installed for the purpose. In this thesis the use of UO 2 fabrication plant specific parameters, fuel impurities, fuel pellet surface roughness and oxygen isotopic ratio in UO 2 were investigated for identification purposes in nuclear forensic science. The potential use of these parameters as 'fingerprints' is discussed for identification purposes of seized nuclear materials. Impurities of the fuel material vary slightly according to the fabrication method employed and a plant environment. Here the impurities of the seized UO 2 were used in order to have some clues about the origin of the fuel material by comparing a measured data to nuclear database information. More certainty in the identification was gained by surface roughness of the UO 2 fuel pellets, measured by mechanical surface profilometry. Categories in surface roughness between a different fuel element type and a producer were observed. For the time oxygen isotopic ratios were determined by Thermal Ionisation Mass Speckometry (TIMS). Thus a TIMS measurement method, using U 16 O + and U 18 0 + ions, was developed and optimised to achieve precise oxygen isotope ratio measurements for the

  13. Laser-based mass spectrometry for in situ chemical composition analysis of planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Samira; Neuland, Maike B.; Grimaudo, Valentine; Moreno-García, Pavel; Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Broekmann, Peter; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important analytical technique in space research. The chemical composition of planetary surface material is a key scientific question on every space mission to a planet, moon or asteroid. Chemical composition measurements of rocky material on the surface are of great importance to understand the origin and evolution of the planetary body.[1] A miniature laser ablation/ionisation reflectron- type time-of-flight mass spectrometer (instrument name LMS) was designed and built at the University of Bern for planetary research.[2] Despite its small size and light weight, the LMS instrument still maintains the same capabilities as large laboratory systems, which makes it suitable for its application on planetary space missions.[3-5] The high dynamic range of about eight orders of magnitude, high lateral (μm-level) and vertical (sub-nm level) resolution and high detection sensitivity for almost all elements (10 ppb, atomic fraction) make LMS a versatile instrument for various applications. LMS is a suitable instrument for in situ measurements of elemental and isotope composition with high precision and accuracy. Measurements of Pb- isotope abundances can be used for dating of planetary material. Measurements of bio-relevant elements allow searching for past or present life on a planetary surface. The high spatial resolution, both in lateral and vertical direction, is of considerable interest, e.g. for analysis of inhomogeneous, extraterrestrial samples as well as weathering processes of planetary material. References [1] P. Wurz, D. Abplanalp, M. Tulej, M. Iakovleva, V.A. Fernandes, A. Chumikov, and G. Managadze, "Mass Spectrometric Analysis in Planetary Science: Investigation of the Surface and the Atmosphere", Sol. Sys. Res., 2012, 46, 408. [2] U. Rohner, J.A. Whitby, P. Wurz, "A miniature laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary exploration" Meas. Sci. Tch., 2003, 14, 2159. [3] M. Tulej, A. Riedo, M.B. Neuland, S

  14. Scientific production of Sports Science in Iran: A Scientometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminifirouz, Masoud

    2014-06-01

    Physical education and sports science is one of the branches of humanities. The purpose of this study is determining the quantitative and qualitative rate of progress in scientific Production of Iran's researcher in Web of Science. Research Methods is Scientometric survey and Statistical Society Includes 233 Documents From 1993 to 2012 are indexed in ISI. Results showed that the time of this study, Iranian researchers' published 233 documents in this base during this period of time which has been cited 1106(4.76 times on average). The H- index has also been 17. Iran's most scientific productions in sports science realm was indexed in 2010 with 57 documents and the least in 2000. By considering the numbers of citations and the obtained H- index, it can be said that the quality of Iranian's articles is rather acceptable but in comparison to prestigious universities and large number of professors and university students in this field, the quantity of outputted articles is very low.

  15. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akter; Nandi, Uttom; Fule, Ritesh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1mm length. Molecular modelling study using commercial Gaussian 09 software outlined a possible drug-polymer interaction in the molecular level to develop solid dispersions of the drug in the pellets. Solid-state analysis conducted via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses revealed the amorphous state of the drug in the polymer matrices. Surface analysis using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the produced pellets arguably showed a homogenous distribution of the C and O atoms in the pellet matrices. Moreover, advanced chemical surface analysis conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a homogenous phase system having the drug molecule dispersed onto the amorphous matrices while Raman mapping confirmed the homogenous single-phase drug distribution in the manufactured composite pellets. Such composite pellets are expected to deliver multidisciplinary applications in drug delivery and medical sciences by e.g. modifying drug solubility/dissolutions or stabilizing the unstable drug (e.g. hormone, protein) in the composite network. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. 'The surface management system' (SuMS) database: a surface-based database to aid cortical surface reconstruction, visualization and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, J.; Drury, H.; Van Essen, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    Surface reconstructions of the cerebral cortex are increasingly widely used in the analysis and visualization of cortical structure, function and connectivity. From a neuroinformatics perspective, dealing with surface-related data poses a number of challenges. These include the multiplicity of configurations in which surfaces are routinely viewed (e.g. inflated maps, spheres and flat maps), plus the diversity of experimental data that can be represented on any given surface. To address these challenges, we have developed a surface management system (SuMS) that allows automated storage and retrieval of complex surface-related datasets. SuMS provides a systematic framework for the classification, storage and retrieval of many types of surface-related data and associated volume data. Within this classification framework, it serves as a version-control system capable of handling large numbers of surface and volume datasets. With built-in database management system support, SuMS provides rapid search and retrieval capabilities across all the datasets, while also incorporating multiple security levels to regulate access. SuMS is implemented in Java and can be accessed via a Web interface (WebSuMS) or using downloaded client software. Thus, SuMS is well positioned to act as a multiplatform, multi-user 'surface request broker' for the neuroscience community.

  17. Isolation of residuals using trend surface analysis to magnetic data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polynomial surfaces of various degrees are fitted to a magnetic data of Awo area, southwestern Nigeria with the aim of isolating the residuals of the area associated with mineralogy. The fourth degree surface correlates better with the magnetic map of the study area. The residualized data were obtained by subtracting the ...

  18. Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Dynamics: Observations, Analysis and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Kumar, Sujay; Ringerud, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity affects remote sensing of both the atmosphere and the land surface. The dynamical behavior of microwave emissivity over a very diverse sample of land surface types is studied. With seven years of satellite measurements from AMSR-E, we identified various dynamical regimes of the land surface emission. In addition, we used two radiative transfer models (RTMs), the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and the Community Microwave Emission Modeling Platform (CMEM), to simulate land surface emissivity dynamics. With both CRTM and CMEM coupled to NASA's Land Information System, global-scale land surface microwave emissivities were simulated for five years, and evaluated against AMSR-E observations. It is found that both models have successes and failures over various types of land surfaces. Among them, the desert shows the most consistent underestimates (by approx. 70-80%), due to limitations of the physical models used, and requires a revision in both systems. Other snow-free surface types exhibit various degrees of success and it is expected that parameter tuning can improve their performances.

  19. Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, R.M.M.; Moustafa, S.S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, AUG (2015), s. 128-138 ISSN 0926-9851 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface waves * surface wave dispersion * seismic data acquisition * seismic data inversion * velocity spectrum Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2015

  20. Common Goals for the Science and Practice of Behavior Analysis: A Response to Critchfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    In his scholarly and thoughtful article, "Interesting Times: Practice, Science, and Professional Associations in Behavior Analysis," Critchfield (2011) discussed the science-practice frictions to be expected in any professional organization that attempts to combine these interests. He suggested that the Association for Behavior Analysis…

  1. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  2. Arguing Artificially: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Debates That Have Shaped Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Attempts a rhetorical analysis of the history of artificial intelligence research. Responds to scholarly needs in three areas: the rhetorical nature of science, the social construction of science knowledge, and the rhetorical strategies used in artificial intelligence (AI). Suggests that this work can help rhetoricians more accurately describe the…

  3. Exploring Students' Conceptions of Science Learning via Drawing: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…

  4. A far-ultraviolet photometer for planetary surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.C.; Fastie, W.G.; Lucke, R.L.; Hapke, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of local variations in the far-ultraviolet albedo is explored as a means of detecting changes in the refractive index of rocks and dust on the surface of atmosphereless planets and satellites. Far-ultraviolet spectrophotometric measurements of the lunar surface which were obtained on the Apollo 17 orbital mission are presented to demonstrate that significant albedo variations occur in the spectral range 120 to 170 nm. These data also confirm the hypothesis that the albedo variations represent refractive index differences in the surface materials. A three-band photometer is described which, when put in orbit around a solar system object, is capable of providing refractive index maps with a sensitivity of 1 part in the second decimal place and with kilometer resolution. Comparative surface composition and surface history analyses based on such maps are discussed

  5. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A review of recent applications in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikiet, Marisia A; Khandasammy, Shelby R; Mistek, Ewelina; Ahmed, Yasmine; Halámková, Lenka; Bueno, Justin; Lednev, Igor K

    2018-05-15

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy has many advantages over its parent technique of Raman spectroscopy. Some of these advantages such as increased sensitivity and selectivity and therefore the possibility of small sample sizes and detection of small concentrations are invaluable in the field of forensics. A variety of new SERS surfaces and novel approaches are presented here on a wide range of forensically relevant topics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Library and information science research in Botswana: An analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analysed library and information science research in Botswana that has been published since 1979, when the library school at the University of Botswana was established. The period considered is from 1980 to 2006, a period of 27 years. The paper linked research and publication trends with the historical, social ...

  7. Analysis Of Career Aspirations Of Agricultural Science Graduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the career aspirations of agricultural science graduates from Nigerian Universities of Agriculture. A random sample of 215 graduating students of agriculture was selected using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and the ...

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Library and Information Science Master's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the wake of technological developments, taking a pragmatic approach towards continual library and information science (LIS) curricula revision becomes inevitable. This paper analyses the existing LIS curricula both in the United States of America (USA) and Uganda. Specific focus is on a comparison between the ...

  9. A Sociological Analysis of Science Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanda; Morais, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the teachers' pedagogic practice recontextualizes the official pedagogic discourse of the natural sciences curriculum for a Portuguese middle school. Theoretically, the study is based on theories of psychology (e.g. Vygotsky), epistemology (e.g. Ziman) and sociology,…

  10. Performance analysis of PV panel under varying surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Tripathi Abhishek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of PV panel has an adverse impact on its performance. The several electrical parameters of PV panel, such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current, power output and fill factor depends on the surface temperature of PV panel. In the present study, an experimental work was carried out to investigate the influence of PV panel surface temperature on its electrical parameters. The results obtained from this experimental study show a significant reduction in the performance of PV panel with an increase in panel surface temperature. A 5W PV panel experienced a 0.4% decrease in open circuit voltage for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. Similarly, there was 0.6% and 0.32% decrease in maximum power output and in fill factor, respectively, for every 1°C increase in panel surface temperature. On the other hand, the short circuit current increases with the increase in surface temperature at the rate of 0.09%/°C.

  11. Roughness analysis of graphite surfaces of casting elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieczorowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper profilometric measurements of graphite casting elements were described. Basic topics necessary to assess roughness of their surfaces and influence of asperities on various properties related to manufacturing and use were discussed. Stylus profilometer technique of surface irregularities measurements including its limits resulting from pickup geometry and its contact with measured object were ana-lyzed. Working principle of tactile profilometer and phenomena taking place during movement of a probe on a measured surface were shown. One of the important aspects is a flight phenomenon, which means movement of a pickup without contact with a surface during inspection resulting from too high scanning speed. results of comparison research for graphite elements of new and used mould and pin composing a set were presented. Using some surface roughness, waviness and primary profile parameters (arithmetical mean of roughness profile heights Ra, biggest roughness profile height Rz, maximum primary profile height Pt as well as maximum waviness profile height Wt a possibility of using surface asperities parameters as a measure of wear of chill graphite elements was proved. The most often applied parameter is Ra, but with a help of parameters from W and P family it was shown, that big changes occur not only for roughness but also for other components of surface irregularities.

  12. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  13. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  14. An analysis of undergraduate exercise science programs: an exercise science curriculum survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Craig L; Pujol, Thomas J; Barnes, Jeremy T

    2003-08-01

    Undergraduate exercise science programs develop curricula by referring to standards set by professional organizations. A web-based survey was administered to 235 institutions with exercise science undergraduate programs to evaluate their adherence to stated curricular guidelines. Results indicate that 29% of institutions considered American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs); 33% both ACSM and National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) guidelines; 6% ACSM, NASPE, and National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA); 8% ACSM, NASPE, NSCA, and American Society of Exercise Physiologists, and 5% NASPE. The two largest subgroups had good compliance with the areas of exercise physiology, biomechanics, and human anatomy and physiology. However, neither subgroup adhered to the areas of exercise prescription, testing, and implementation; exercise and aging; or exercise with special populations. Regardless of the implemented guideline(s), most institutions placed minimal emphasis on areas related to health promotion and many curricula did not require any field experience.

  15. Profilometric analysis of root surfaces after using various polishing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surfaces. Though polishing was done with various abrasive particles with different sizes over a long period of time, it was never been highlighted to evaluate the ideal polishing material and the particle size that would produce the ideal surface smoothness (Ra 5 μm are not able to produce the surface smoothness <0.2 μm. Only, submicron sized particles are able to produce the desired smoothness.

  16. SIMS imaging in the analysis of chemically altered coal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.R. (Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada)); Maephee, J.A. (Canmet Energy Research Lab., 555 Booth St., Ottawa, Ontario (CA))

    1989-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been used to study the low temperature oxidation of coal. Specifically, SIMS imaging has been used to study the surface distribution of /sup 16/O/sup -/ and /sup 18/O/sup -/ after mild oxidation in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ and to correlate the results with the organic and inorganic regions on the coal. In addition, coal surfaces have been treated with Tollens' reagent and the resulting silver deposition has been used as a probe for specific reactive oxygen functional groups. The results suggest the presence of surface peroxides, as well as an intimate association of reactive oxygen with the mineral apatite.

  17. Life Science Research Sample Transfer Technology for On Orbit Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditionally spaceflight life science experiments require the return of samples to earth for analysis, which is frequently a challenge to the success of...

  18. Isotope analysis of U using surface ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesario, Jean

    Surface ionization mass spectrometry is a good technique for the determination of U isotope concentrations. The principles of the method are described: ionization, optical systems, measuring systems. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are presented [fr

  19. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  20. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Surface Management System (SMS), developed by NASA Ames Research Center in cooperation with the FAA, has received wide and significant acceptance by the air...

  1. Surface free energy analysis of adsorbents used for radioiodine adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-García, C.M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); Román, S., E-mail: sroman@unex.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); González, J.F.; Sabio, E. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); Ledesma, B. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Energética y de los Materiales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    In this work, the surface free energy of biomass-based activated carbons, both fresh and impregnated with triethylenediamine, has been evaluated. The contribution of Lifshitz van der Waals components was determined by the model proposed by van Oss et al. The results obtained allowed predicting the most probable configurations of the impregnant onto the carbon surface and its influence on the subsequent adsorption of radioactive methyl iodide.

  2. Power Spectral Density Specification and Analysis of Large Optical Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2009-01-01

    The 2-dimensional Power Spectral Density (PSD) can be used to characterize the mid- and the high-spatial frequency components of the surface height errors of an optical surface. We found it necessary to have a complete, easy-to-use approach for specifying and evaluating the PSD characteristics of large optical surfaces, an approach that allows one to specify the surface quality of a large optical surface based on simulated results using a PSD function and to evaluate the measured surface profile data of the same optic in comparison with those predicted by the simulations during the specification-derivation process. This paper provides a complete mathematical description of PSD error, and proposes a new approach in which a 2-dimentional (2D) PSD is converted into a 1-dimentional (1D) one by azimuthally averaging the 2D-PSD. The 1D-PSD calculated this way has the same unit and the same profile as the original PSD function, thus allows one to compare the two with each other directly.

  3. The Intellectual Structure of Metacognitive Scaffolding in Science Education: A Co-Citation Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai-Yu; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Sufen; Lo, Hao-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The issues of metacognitive scaffolding in science education (MSiSE) have become increasingly popular and important. Differing from previous content reviews, this study proposes a series of quantitative computer-based analyses by integrating document co-citation analysis, social network analysis, and exploratory factor analysis to explore the…

  4. Apollo remote analysis system applied to surface and underwater in-situ elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.G.; Bielefeld, M.J.; Eller, E.L.; Schmadebeck, R.L.; Trombka, J.I.; Mustafa, M.G.; Senftle, F.E.; Heath, R.L.; Stehling, K.; Vadus, J.

    1976-01-01

    The surveying of the elemental composition of bulk samples over extended areas in near real-time would be an invaluable tool for surface and underwater environmental analysis. However, few techniques provide such a capability. Based on the experience from the orbital gamma-ray spectrometer experiments on Apollo 15 and 16 in which elemental composition of large portions of the moon were determined, an analysis system has been developed for terrestrial applications, which can fulfill these requirements. A portable, compact pulsed neutron generator and NaI(Tl) detector system coupled to associated electronics under mini-computer control can provide the timing and spectral characteristics necessary to determine elemental composition for many applications. Field trials of the system for underwater elemental analysis are planned during the next year

  5. Surface analysis of thin film coatings on container glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Wood, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Container glass is generally coated with a tin oxide layer followed by a coating of polymer. These coatings are believed to improve the mechanical properties of container glass as well as aid in the application of advertising labels to glass. The tin oxide layer on commercial beer bottles has a total thickness of about 15-20nm which consists of an interfacial layer comprising 70-85% of the total thickness. The polymer coating is about 2-5nm thick and also possesses an interfacial layer with tin oxide. A PHI Model 560 XPS/ SAM/ SIMS multi-technique system Is used to estimate concentration profiles of Sn, O, C, Si, Ca, Na and O. A combination of XPS, AES and SIMS is necessary to describe the coatings. Instrumental conditions and sample preparation methods are developed to optimize the analysis of thin films on glass. The coating comprises of three areas, namely (A) where polymer and tin co-exist (B) a pure tin oxide layer and (C) where tin co-exists with glass. By varying the chemical source of tin, it is possible to systematically vary the thickness of the interface and the concentration profile of Sn. Using XRD, crystalline phase(s) could be detected in tin oxide films as thin as 15nm. While the principle phase is cassiterite, a second phase is also detected which is believed to originate from the interface. Using a UMIS 2000 nanoindentor system, instrumental parameters are optimized for measurement of elastic modulus of films at varying depths, i.e. from surface of coating to the bulk of the glass. A sharp rise is observed at depth corresponding to the interface which is indicative of the significance of the interfacial layer. Samples are prepared by systematic ion-milling which are representative of various regions of the coating, namely (A), (B) and (C). These samples are analyzed by XRD and TEM. Based on these studies, a structural model of tin oxide layer and interface is presented to explain increase in elastic modulus at the interface. Copyright

  6. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Students' Attitudes about Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnick, Amy M.; Stavros Valenti, S.; Cox, Brian D.; Osman, Christopher J.

    2010-03-01

    To encourage students to seek careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, it is important to gauge students' implicit and explicit attitudes towards scientific professions. We asked high school and college students to rate the similarity of pairs of occupations, and then used multidimensional scaling (MDS) to create a spatial representation of occupational similarity. Other students confirmed the emergent MDS map by rating each of the occupations along several dimensions. We found that participants across age and sex considered scientific professions to be less creative and less people-oriented than other popular career choices. We conclude that students may be led away from STEM careers by common misperceptions that science is a difficult, uncreative, and socially isolating pursuit.

  7. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation......Cultural-historical theory is primarily a psychological theory about and human action and development within meaningful contexts. As a psychologically-oriented theory, it can be relevant to science education research, even if it was not been developed or elaborated specifically in relation...

  8. Africa burning: A thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, Robert J.; Annegarn, Harold J.; Suttles, J. Timothy; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Privette, Jeffrey L.; Scholes, Robert J.

    2003-07-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) was a major surface, airborne, and spaceborne field campaign carried out in southern Africa in 2000 and 2001 that addressed a broad range of phenomena related to land-atmosphere interactions and the biogeochemical functioning of the southern African system. This paper presents a thematic analysis and integration of the Journal of Geophysical Research SAFARI 2000 Special Issue, presenting key findings of an intensive field campaign over southern Africa in August and September of 2000. The integrating themes deal with surface emissions characterization; airborne characterizations of aerosols and trace gases; regional haze and trace gas characterization; and radiant measurements by surface, aircraft, and remote sensing platforms. Enhanced regional fuel loads associated with the moist La Niña phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle produced above average biomass burning emissions, which consequently dominated all other aerosol and trace gas emissions during the dry season. Southward transport of a broad plume of smoke originating in equatorial Africa and exiting off the east coast toward the Indian Ocean (the river of smoke) is attributed to unusual synoptic airflows associated the ENSO phase. New and revised biogenic and pyrogenic emission factors are reported, including a number of previously unreported oxygenated organic compounds and inorganic compounds from biomass combustion. Emission factors are scaled up to regional emission surfaces for biogenic species utilizing species specific and light-dependent emission factors. Fire scar estimates reveal contradictory information on the timing of the peak and extent of the biomass-burning season. Integrated tall stack coordinated measurements (between ground, airborne and remotely sensing platforms) of upwelling and downwelling radiation in massive thick aerosol layers covering much of southern Africa yield consistent estimates of large

  9. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  10. Interaction of oxygen and carbon monoxide with Pt(111) at intermediate pressure and temperature : revisiting the fruit fly of surface science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashlakov, Dmytro

    2014-01-01

    This thesis uses the surface science approach to address questions regarding the interaction of oxygen with platinum and its subsequent reaction with carbon monoxide. A Pt(111) single crystal surface is used as a model for the catalyst. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the literature on the

  11. NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1/4 Degree Daily Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Analysis, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis product was developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The SST analysis has a spatial grid...

  12. Chemical analysis of surface oxygenated moieties of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Deming, Christopher P.; Song, Yang; Kang, Xiongwu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Shaowei

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble carbon nanoparticles were prepared by refluxing natural gas soot in concentrated nitric acid. The surface of the resulting nanoparticles was found to be decorated with a variety of oxygenated species, as suggested by spectroscopic measurements. Back potentiometric titration of the nanoparticles was employed to quantify the coverage of carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic moieties on the particle surface by taking advantage of their vast difference of acidity (pKa). The results were largely consistent with those reported in previous studies with other carbonaceous (nano)materials. Additionally, the presence of ortho- and para-quinone moieties on the nanoparticle surface was confirmed by selective labelling with o-phenylenediamine, as manifested in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. The results further supported the arguments that the surface functional moieties that were analogous to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were responsible for the unique photoluminescence of the nanoparticles and the emission might be regulated by surface charge state, as facilitated by the conjugated graphitic core matrix.

  13. Chemical analysis of surface oxygenated moieties of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Deming, Christopher P; Song, Yang; Kang, Xiongwu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Shaowei

    2012-02-07

    Water-soluble carbon nanoparticles were prepared by refluxing natural gas soot in concentrated nitric acid. The surface of the resulting nanoparticles was found to be decorated with a variety of oxygenated species, as suggested by spectroscopic measurements. Back potentiometric titration of the nanoparticles was employed to quantify the coverage of carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic moieties on the particle surface by taking advantage of their vast difference of acidity (pK(a)). The results were largely consistent with those reported in previous studies with other carbonaceous (nano)materials. Additionally, the presence of ortho- and para-quinone moieties on the nanoparticle surface was confirmed by selective labelling with o-phenylenediamine, as manifested in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. The results further supported the arguments that the surface functional moieties that were analogous to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were responsible for the unique photoluminescence of the nanoparticles and the emission might be regulated by surface charge state, as facilitated by the conjugated graphitic core matrix. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Experimental Analysis of Grease Friction Properties on Sliding Textured Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease lubricated sliding contact under mixed lubrication conditions. The influences of surface texture parameters on the frictional properties were investigated using a disc-on-ring tribometer. The results showed that the friction coefficient is largely dependent on texture parameters, with higher and lower texture density resulting in a higher friction coefficient at a fixed texture depth. The sample with texture density of 15% and texture depth of 19 μm exhibited the best friction properties in all experimental conditions because it can store more grease and trap wear debris. The reduction of friction is mainly attributable to the formation of a stable grease lubrication film composed of oil film, transfer film and deposited film, and the hydrodynamic pressure effect of the surface texture, which increases the mating gap and reduces the probability of asperity contact. This result will help in understanding the tribological behaviour of grease on a textured surface and in predicting the lubrication conditions of sliding bearings for better operation in any machinery.

  15. Analysis of flame surface density measurements in turbulent premixed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halter, Fabien [Institut PRISME, Universite d' Orleans, 45072 Orleans (France); Chauveau, Christian; Goekalp, Iskender [Institut de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans (France); Veynante, Denis [Laboratoire E.M2.C, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2009-03-15

    In premixed turbulent combustion, reaction rates can be estimated from the flame surface density. This parameter, which measures the mean flame surface area available per unit volume, may be obtained from algebraic expressions or by solving a transport equation. In this study, detailed measurements were performed on a Bunsen-type burner fed with methane/air mixtures in order to determine the local flame surface density experimentally. This burner, located in a high-pressure combustion chamber, allows investigation of turbulent premixed flames under various flow, mixture, and pressure conditions. In the present work, equivalence ratio was varied from 0.6 to 0.8 and pressure from 0.1 to 0.9 MPa. Flame front visualizations by Mie scattering laser tomography are used to obtain experimental data on the instantaneous flame front dynamics. The exact equation given by Pope is used to obtain flame surface density maps for different flame conditions. Some assumptions are made in order to access three-dimensional information from our two-dimensional experiments. Two different methodologies are proposed and tested in term of global mass balance (what enters compared to what is burned). The detailed experimental flame surface data provided for the first time in this work should progressively allow improvement of turbulent premixed flame modeling approaches. (author)

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarization of char suspensions: surface science and oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarkson, R B; Odintsov, B M; Ceroke, P J

    1998-01-01

    ; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the nuclear spin population...

  17. Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Cliff S.; Breviere, Emilie; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Garcon, Veronique; Guieu, Cecile; Kieber, David J.; Kontradowitz, Stefan; Paulmier, Aurelien; Quinn, Patricia K.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Stefels, Jacqueline; von Glasow, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on critical issues in ocean-atmosphere exchange that will be addressed by new research strategies developed by the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) research community. Eastern boundary upwelling systems are important sites for CO2 and trace gas emission

  18. Surface integrity analysis when milling ultrafine-grained steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roger Rodrigues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies the effects of milling conditions on surface integrity of ultrafine-grained steels. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were related to microhardness and microstructure of the workpiece beneath machined surface. Low-carbon alloyed steel with 10.8 µm (as-received and 1.7 µm (ultrafine grain sizes were end milled using the down-milling and dry condition in a CNC machining center. The results show ultrafine-grained workpiece preserves its surface integrity against cutting parameters more than the as-received material. Cutting speed increases the microhardness while depth of cut deepens the hardened layer of the as-received material. Also, deformations of microstructure following feed rate direction were observed in workpiece subsurface.

  19. Infrared Analysis Of Enzymes Adsorbed Onto Model Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Gloria M.; Rauch, Deborah S.; Brode, Philip F.; Marcott, Curtis A.

    1989-12-01

    The adsorption of the enzymes, subtilisin BPN' and lysozyme, onto model surfaces was examined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Using a cylindrical internal reflection (CIRcle) cell with a Germanium (Ge) internal reflection element (IRE), model hydrophilic surfaces were made by plasma cleaning the IRE and model hydrophobic surfaces were made by precoating the IRE with a thin film of polystyrene. Gas chromatography (GC)-IR data collection software was used to monitor adsorption kinetics during the first five minutes after injection of the enzyme into the CIRcle cell. It was found that for both lysozyme and BPN', most of the enzyme that was going to adsorb onto the model surface did so within ten seconds after injection. Nearly an order-of-magnitude more BPN' adsorbed on the hydrophobic Ge surface than the hydrophilic one, while lysozyme adsorbed somewhat more strongly to the hydrophilic Ge surface. Overnight, the lysozyme layer continued to increase in thickness, while BPN' maintained its initial coverage. The appearance of carboxylate bands in some of the adsorbed BPN' spectra suggests the occurrence of peptide bond hydrolysis. A Au/Pd coating on the CIRcle cell o-rings had a significant effect on the adsorption of BPN'. (This coating was applied in an attempt to eliminate interfering Teflon absorption bands.) An apparent electrochemical reaction occurred, involving BPN', Ge, Au/Pd, and the salt solution used to stabilize BPN'. The result of this reaction was enhanced adsorption of the enzyme around the coated o-rings, etching of the Ge IRE at the o-ring site, and some autolysis of the enzyme. No such reaction was observed with lysozyme.

  20. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness

  1. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis--a valid method for developing knowledge in nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofthagen, Randi; Fagerstrøm, Lisbeth M

    2010-12-01

    In nursing science, concept development is a necessary prerequisite for meaningful basic research. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis is a method for developing knowledge in nursing science. The purpose of this article is to present Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis as a valid scientific method. A brief description of the evolutionary process, from data collection to data analysis, with the concepts' context, surrogate and related terms, antecedents, attributes, examples and consequences, is presented. The phases used in evolutionary concept analysis are illustrated with eight actual studies (1999-2009) from nursing research. The strength of the method is that it is systematic, with a focus on clear-cut phases during the analysis process, and that it can contribute to clarifying, describing and explaining concepts central to nursing science by analysing how a chosen concept has been used both within the discipline itself and other health sciences. While an interdisciplinary perspective which stresses the similarities and dissimilarities of how a concept is used in various disciplines can increase knowledge of a concept, it is important to clarify the specific with the discipline. Nursing research should focus on the unambiguous use of concepts, for which Rodgers' method constitutes a possible method. The importance of using quality criteria to determine the inclusion of material should, however, be emphasised in the continued development of the method. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Literacy learning in secondary school science classrooms: A cross-case analysis of three qualitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Deborah R.; O'Brien, David G.; Moje, Elizabeth B.; Stewart, Roger A.

    The purpose of this cross-case analysis is to illustrate how and why literacy was incorporated into science teaching and learning in three secondary classrooms. Research questions guiding the analysis include: (a) How were literacy events shaped by the teachers' philosophies about teaching science content and teaching students? and (b) How was literacy (reading, writing, and oral language) structured by the teachers and manifested in science lessons? The methodology of ethnography and the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism were employed in the three studies on which the cross-case analysis was based. The researchers assumed the role of participant observers, collecting data over the period of 1 year in each of the three classrooms. Data, in the form of fieldnotes, interviews, and artifacts, were collected. In each study, data were analyzed using the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to determine patterns in the teachers' beliefs about learning and how these influenced their choice of literacy activities. The cross-case analysis was conducted to determine patterns across the three teachers and their classrooms. The findings from this analysis are used to compare how the teachers' philosophies of teaching science and their beliefs about how students learn influenced their use of literacy practices during lessons. Specifically, each teacher's use of literacy activities varied based on his or her beliefs about teaching science concepts. Furthermore, reading, writing, and oral language were important vehicles to learning science concepts within daily classroom activities in the three classrooms.Received: 1 April 1993; Revised: 30 August 1993;

  3. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  4. Highly Cited Occupational Therapy Articles in the Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Fong, Kenneth N K

    A bibliometric analysis was completed of highly cited occupational therapy literature and authors published from 1991 to 2014 and accessible in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. Data were obtained from the SCI-Expanded and SSCI. Articles referenced >100 times were categorized as highly cited articles (HCA). Of 6,486 articles found, 31 were categorized as HCA. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy published the largest number of HCA (n = 8; 26%). The 31 HCA were distributed across seven countries: United States (20 articles), Canada (3), United Kingdom (3), Australia (2), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (1), and Sweden (1). The three authors with the highest Y-index were S. J. Page, F. Clark, and W. Dunn. A latency period of 4 to 5 yr post-publication appears to be needed for a journal article to gain citations.

  5. Strain-stress analysis of surface prosthesis of hip joint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Návrat, Tomáš; Fuis, Vladimír; Florian, Z.; Hlavoň, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2007), S559-S559 ISSN 0021-9290. [ISB 2007. Taipei, 01.07.2007-05.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/0136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : surface prosthesis * hip joint * FEM Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2007

  6. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the present...

  7. Modeling and analysis for surface roughness and material removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    terms of cutting parameters is also developed using regression modeling. The results indicate that the developed model is suitable for prediction of surface roughness and material removal rate in machining of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics (UD-GFRP) composites. The predicted values and measured values ...

  8. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Studies on surface reactivity of substrate iron (Fe-particles) were made in the tribo-chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates. Two alkyl octadecenoates namely ethyl octadecenoate and methyl. 12-hydroxy octadecenoate, slightly different in their chemical nature, were taken for preparing the chemisorbed ...

  9. poincare surface analysis of two coupled quintic oscillators in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Simonovic, N. S. J., 1997. Classical chaos in the hydrogen atom near a metal Surface, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, L613-L618. Wang, S. and Yu, P., 2005. Bifurcation of limit cycles in a quintic Hamiltonian system under a sixth-order perturbation, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. 26 pp. 1317-1335. POINCARE SURFACE ...

  10. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy for analysis of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hemagglutinin (HA) compounds are surface glycoproteins of a virus that can initiate an immune response from a host organism. Hemagglutinin and the related neuraminidase (NA) compounds are the basis for virus strain classification and have become part of the accepted HN taxonomy. These compounds ...

  11. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 x 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the...

  12. Monitoring and analysis of surface changes from undermining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kajzar, Vlastimil; Doležalová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2013), s. 1-10 ISSN 1802-5420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : undermining * surface changes * surveying methods Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://gse.vsb.cz/2013/LIX-2013-4-1-10.pdf

  13. Hirshfeld surface analysis of new organotin(IV)-phosphoramide complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pourayoubi, M.; Bayraq, S.S.; Tarahhomi, A.; Nečas, M.; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 751, SI (2014), s. 508-518 ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0809 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organotin(IV)-phosphoramide complexes * Hirshfeld surfaces * two-dimensional fingerprint plots * crystal packing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2014

  14. Groundnut-Corn Starch Blend- A Response Surface Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cookie bars were produced from mixtures of cassava and groundnut flours with cornstarch as binder. Box-Behnken response surface design for k=3 was used to study the effects of experimental variables for cassava flour (25-75%), groundnut flour (25-75%) and corn starch (5-15%). Effects of the experimental variables on ...

  15. Surface analysis of polydimethylsiloxane fouled with bovine serum albumin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Windvoel, T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available are not well understood. The effects of BSA combined with surfactants (surface active molecules) have been studied but not the effects of BSA independently, even though some proteins can act as surfactants. It is important to know whether a protein is a...

  16. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Studies on surface reactivity of substrate iron (Fe-particles) were made in the tribo-chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates. Two alkyl octadecenoates namely ethyl octadecenoate and methyl. 12-hydroxy octadecenoate, slightly different in their chemical nature, were taken for preparing the chemisorbed reaction films ...

  17. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    responsible for run-off generation plays a major role in run-off modelling at region scales. Remote sensing, GIS and advancement of the computer technology based evaluation of land surface prop- erties at spatial and temporal scales are very useful input data for hydrological models. Using remote sensing data is not only ...

  18. Near surface stress analysis strategies for axisymmetric fretting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    through integration. In order to compare the near surface stresses from cylinder, strip and half-plane models, the applied traction profile is assumed to be ... the method of Fourier sine or cosine integral transform can be employed. ..... into two parts since the direct calculation of the integrals becomes difficult for some cases.

  19. Introduction to statistical data analysis for the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, Claus Thorn

    2014-01-01

    This text provides a computational toolbox that enables students to analyze real datasets and gain the confidence and skills to undertake more sophisticated analyses. Although accessible with any statistical software, the text encourages a reliance on R. For those new to R, an introduction to the software is available in an appendix. The book also includes end-of-chapter exercises as well as an entire chapter of case exercises that help students apply their knowledge to larger datasets and learn more about approaches specific to the life sciences.

  20. Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    OpenAIRE

    Law, CS; Brévière, E; De Leeuw, G; Garçon, V; Guieu, C; Kieber, DJ; Kontradowitz, S; Paulmier, A; Quinn, PK; Saltzman, ES; Stefels, J; Von Glasow, R

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on critical issues in ocean-atmosphere exchange that will be addressed by new research strategies developed by the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) research community. Eastern boundary upwelling systems are important sites for CO 2 and trace gas emission to the atmosphere, and the proposed research will examine how heterotrophic processes in the underlying oxygen-deficient waters interact with the climate system. The second regional research focu...

  1. Multivariate analysis of attachment of biofouling organisms in response to material surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley-Montross, Caitlyn M; Finlay, John A; Aldred, Nick; Cassady, Harrison; Destino, Joel F; Orihuela, Beatriz; Hickner, Michael A; Clare, Anthony S; Rittschof, Daniel; Holm, Eric R; Detty, Michael R

    2017-12-29

    Multivariate analyses were used to investigate the influence of selected surface properties (Owens-Wendt surface energy and its dispersive and polar components, static water contact angle, conceptual sign of the surface charge, zeta potentials) on the attachment patterns of five biofouling organisms (Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus improvisus, Bugula neritina, Ulva linza, and Navicula incerta) to better understand what surface properties drive attachment across multiple fouling organisms. A library of ten xerogel coatings and a glass standard provided a range of values for the selected surface properties to compare to biofouling attachment patterns. Results from the surface characterization and biological assays were analyzed separately and in combination using multivariate statistical methods. Principal coordinate analysis of the surface property characterization and the biological assays resulted in different groupings of the xerogel coatings. In particular, the biofouling organisms were able to distinguish four coatings that were not distinguishable by the surface properties of this study. The authors used canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) to identify surface properties governing attachment across all five biofouling species. The CAP pointed to surface energy and surface charge as important drivers of patterns in biological attachment, but also suggested that differentiation of the surfaces was influenced to a comparable or greater extent by the dispersive component of surface energy.

  2. A Grounded Theory Analysis of Introductory Computer Science Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wellons

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning is a critical, early step on the path to successful program writing and a skill that is often lacking in novice programmers. As practitioners we are continually searching for or creating interventions to help our students, particularly those who struggle in the early stages of their computer science education. In this paper we report on our ongoing research of novice programming skills that utilizes the qualitative research method of grounded theory to develop theories and inform the construction of these interventions. We describe how grounded theory, a popular research method in the social sciences since the 1960’s, can lend formality and structure to the common practice of simply asking students what they did and why they did it. Further, we aim to inform the reader not only about our emerging theories on interventions for planning but also how they might collect and analyze their own data in this and other areas that trouble novice programmers. In this way those who lecture and design CS1 interventions can do so from a more informed perspective.

  3. Microplastic distribution in global marine surface waters: results of an extensive citizen science study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, A.; Petersen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic is a major pollutant throughout the world. The majority of the 322 million tons produced annually is used for single-use packaging. What makes plastic an attractive packaging material: cheap, light-weight and durable are also the features that help make it a common and persistent pollutant. There is a growing body of research on microplastic, particles less than 5 mm in size. Microfibers are the most common microplastic in the marine environment. Global estimates of marine microplastic surface concentrations are based on relatively small sample sizes when compared to the vast geographic scale of the ocean. Microplastic residence time and movement along the coast and sea surface outside of the gyres is still not well researched. This five-year project utilized global citizen scientists to collect 1,628 1-liter surface grab samples in every major ocean. The Artic and Southern oceans contained highest average of particles per liter of surface water. Open ocean samples (further than 12 nm from land, n = 686) contained a higher particle average (17 pieces L-1) than coastal samples (n = 723) 6 pieces L-1. Particles were predominantly 100 µm- 1.5 mm in length (77%), smaller than what has been captured in the majority of surface studies. Utilization of citizen scientists to collect data both in fairly accessible regions of the world as well as from areas hard to reach and therefore under sampled, provides us with a wider perspective of global microplastics occurrence. Our findings confirm global microplastic accumulation zone model predictions. The open ocean and poles have sequestered and trapped plastic for over half a century, and show that not only plastics, but anthropogenic fibers are polluting the environment. Continuing to fill knowledge gaps on microplastic shape, size and color in remote ocean areas will drive more accurate oceanographic models of plastic accumulation zones. Incorporation of smaller-sized particles in these models, which has previously

  4. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  5. The Earth Science Research Network as Seen Through Network Analysis of the AGU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, T.; Hasnain, S.; Stephan, R.

    2017-12-01

    Scientometrics is the science of science. Scientometric research includes measurements of impact, mapping of scientific fields, and the production of indicators for use in policy and management. We have leveraged network analysis in a scientometric study of the American Geophysical Union (AGU). Data from the AGU's Linked Data Abstract Browser was used to create a visualization and analytics tools to explore the Earth science's research network. Our application applies network theory to look at network structure within the various AGU sections, identify key individuals and communities related to Earth science topics, and examine multi-disciplinary collaboration across sections. Opportunities to optimize Earth science output, as well as policy and outreach applications, are discussed.

  6. Why Implementing History and Philosophy in School Science Education is a Challenge: An Analysis of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höttecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2011-03-01

    Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order to better understand this problem, an analysis of the obstacles of implementing HPS into classrooms was undertaken. The obstacles taken into account were structured in four groups: 1. culture of teaching physics, 2. teachers' skills, epistemological and didactical attitudes and beliefs, 3. institutional framework of science teaching, and 4. textbooks as fundamental didactical support. Implications for more effective implementation of HPS are presented, taking the social nature of educational systems into account.

  7. Stylistic analysis of headlines in science journalism: A case study of New Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek-Kozakowska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    This article explores science journalism in the context of the media competition for readers' attention. It offers a qualitative stylistic perspective on how popular journalism colonizes science communication. It examines a sample of 400 headlines collected over the period of 15 months from the ranking of five 'most-read' articles on the website of the international magazine New Scientist. Dominant lexical properties of the sample are first identified through frequency and keyness survey and then analysed qualitatively from the perspective of the stylistic projection of newsworthiness. The analysis illustrates various degrees of stylistic 'hybridity' in online popularization of scientific research. Stylistic patterns that celebrate, domesticate or personalize science coverage (characteristic of popular journalism) are intertwined with devices that foreground tentativeness, precision and informativeness (characteristic of science communication). The article reflects on the implications of including various proportions of academic and popular styles in science journalism.

  8. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  9. Surface integrity analysis of abrasive water jet-cut surfaces of friction stir welded joints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, R.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Dixit, A. R.; Bora, B.; Zeleňák, Michal; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Klich, Jiří; Sitek, Libor; Vilaca, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 5 (2017), s. 1687-1701 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : friction stir welding (FSW) * abrasive water jet (AWJ) * optical profilometer * topography * surface roughness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-016-8776-0

  10. Computer analysis of transient heat transfer from coated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, A.; Holmes, D.

    1983-01-01

    The transient thermal response of internally heated, coated surfaces in contact with liquid helium was investigated with a previously developed computer model. The coatings were found to affect the time required to initiate film boiling or to quench a superconductor in the substrate. The energy which can be absorbed without an unacceptably large temperature rise depends most strongly upon the coating thermal property group (kpC /SUB p/ ) /SUP 1/2/ and on the peak nucleate boiling heat flux. Dielectric materials for electrical insulation usually have low thermal property group values, but a new class of ceramic materials shows great promise for application with superconducting devices as electrical insulations with good thermal properties. Coating materials with thermal property group values greater than that of OFHC copper at liquid helium temperatures provide the same thermal stability as a bare copper surface exposed to the helium bath. Possible applications of the new materials to potted windings are also discussed

  11. Thermal analysis of protruding surfaces in the JET divertor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corre, Y.; Bunting, P.; Coenen, J.W.; Gaspar, J.; Iglesias, D.; Matthews, G.F.; Balboa, I.; Coffey, I.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Firdaouss, M.; Gauthier, E.; Jachmich, S.; Krieger, K.; Pitts, R.A.; Rack, M.; Silburn, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 066009. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : IR thermography * heat flux * tungsten melting Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa687e/meta

  12. Assessment of Response Surface Models using Independent Confirmation Point Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights various advantages that confirmation-point residuals have over conventional model design-point residuals in assessing the adequacy of a response surface model fitted by regression techniques to a sample of experimental data. Particular advantages are highlighted for the case of design matrices that may be ill-conditioned for a given sample of data. The impact of both aleatory and epistemological uncertainty in response model adequacy assessments is considered.

  13. Correction of systematic behaviour in topographical surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Four specimens in the sub-micrometre range and with different polishing were topographically investigated in fiveareas over their respective surfaces. Uncertainties were evaluated with and without correction for systematicbehaviour and successively analysed by a design of experiment (DOE). Result...... showed that the correction forsystematic behaviour allowed for a lower value of the estimated uncertainty when the correction was adequate tocompletely recognise the systematic effects. If not, the correction can produce an overestimation of the uncertainty....

  14. Accuracy Analysis and Validation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis L.; Robinson, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover is currently exploring the surface of Mars with a suite of tools and instruments mounted to the end of a five degree-of-freedom robotic arm. To verify and meet a set of end-to-end system level accuracy requirements, a detailed positioning uncertainty model of the arm was developed and exercised over the arm operational workspace. Error sources at each link in the arm kinematic chain were estimated and their effects propagated to the tool frames.A rigorous test and measurement program was developed and implemented to collect data to characterize and calibrate the kinematic and stiffness parameters of the arm. Numerous absolute and relative accuracy and repeatability requirements were validated with a combination of analysis and test data extrapolated to the Mars gravity and thermal environment. Initial results of arm accuracy and repeatability on Mars demonstrate the effectiveness of the modeling and test program as the rover continues to explore the foothills of Mount Sharp.

  15. Observing hydrological processes: recent advancements in surface flow monitoring through image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Recently, several efforts have been devoted to the design and development of innovative, and often unintended, approaches for the acquisition of hydrological data. Among such pioneering techniques, this presentation reports recent advancements towards the establishment of a novel noninvasive and potentially continuous methodology based on the acquisition and analysis of images for spatially distributed observations of the kinematics of surface waters. The approach aims at enabling rapid, affordable, and accurate surface flow monitoring of natural streams. Flow monitoring is an integral part of hydrological sciences and is essential for disaster risk reduction and the comprehension of natural phenomena. However, water processes are inherently complex to observe: they are characterized by multiscale and highly heterogeneous phenomena which have traditionally demanded sophisticated and costly measurement techniques. Challenges in the implementation of such techniques have also resulted in lack of hydrological data during extreme events, in difficult-to-access environments, and at high temporal resolution. By combining low-cost yet high-resolution images and several velocimetry algorithms, noninvasive flow monitoring has been successfully conducted at highly heterogeneous scales, spanning from rills to highly turbulent streams, and medium-scale rivers, with minimal supervision by external users. Noninvasive image data acquisition has also afforded observations in high flow conditions. Latest novelties towards continuous flow monitoring at the catchment scale have entailed the development of a remote gauge-cam station on the Tiber River and integration of flow monitoring through image analysis with unmanned aerial systems (UASs) technology. The gauge-cam station and the UAS platform both afford noninvasive image acquisition and calibration through an innovative laser-based setup. Compared to traditional point-based instrumentation, images allow for generating surface

  16. Analysis of shape correctness of surfaces of diamond burnished components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Gyula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In these days, diamond burnishing is frequently used for final finishing manufacturing operations of components. Diamond burnishing belongs to cold plastic manufacturing procedures. When using this technique, the following advantages can be obtained: micro-hardness of near surface layer is increasing; surface roughness is improving and the shape correctness is also improving. This paper deals with how the different technological parameters of burnishing, such as the feed rate, the burnishing speed and the burnishing force effect on the cylindricity of the burnished workpiece. The experiment was done on some specimen having outer cylindrical surfaces. The experiments were executed by the Taguchi type Full Factorial Experiment Design method with which empirical formulas can be efficiently created. The measurements of the cylindricity of specimens were done with a circular and position error measuring. From the measured data, special improvement ratios were calculated in order to define the appropriate range of technological parameters which results high improvements. Further aim was to compare the measured values of different cylindricity parameters.

  17. Quantitative Analysis and Efficient Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Sung Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminofunctional trialkoxysilanes such as aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS and (3-trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine (DETAS were employed as a surface modification molecule for generating monolayer modification on the surface of silica (SiO2 nanoparticles. We were able to quantitatively analyze the number of amine functional groups on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles by acid-base back titration method and determine the effective number of amine functional groups for the successive chemical reaction by absorption measurements after treating with fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC molecules. The numbers of amine sites measured by back titration were 2.7 and 7.7 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS and SiO2-DETAS, respectively, while the numbers of effective amine sites measured by absorption calibration were about one fifth of the total amine sites, namely, 0.44 and 1.3 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS(RITC and SiO2-DETAS(RITC, respectively. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the reactivity of amino groups on the surface-modified silica nanoparticles could be maintained in ethanol for more than 1.5 months without showing any significant differences in the reactivity.

  18. Analysis of water microdroplet condensation on silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takuya; Fujimoto, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Mogi, Katsuo; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Shu; Univ. of Tokyo Team; Tokyo Inst. of Tech. Team

    2016-11-01

    We observed the condensation process of water microdroplets on flat silicon (100) surfaces by means of the sequential visualization of the droplets using an environmental scanning electron microscope. As previously reported for nanostructured surfaces, the condensation process of water microdroplets on the flat silicon surfaces also exhibits two modes: the constant base (CB) area mode and the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. In the CB mode, the contact angle increases with time while the base diameter is constant. Subsequently, in the CCA mode, the base diameter increases with time while the contact angle remains constant. The dropwise condensation model regulated by subcooling temperature does not reproduce the experimental results. Because the subcooling temperature is not constant in the case of a slow condensation rate, this model is not applicable to the condensation of the long time scale ( several tens of minutes). The contact angle of water microdroplets ( several μm) tended to be smaller than the macro contact angle. Two hypotheses are proposed as the cause of small contact angles: electrowetting and the coalescence of sub- μm water droplets.

  19. Californium-252 plasma desorption mass analysis of proteins adsorbed on polymer and modified-polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A new Cf-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometer has been built specifically for the analysis of large biomolecules. This mass spectrometer was used to investigate the interactions between proteins adsorbed onto polymer surfaces and how the chemical nature of the polymer surface influences the production of stable, gas-phase molecule ions. Chemical modification of the polymer surfaces was achieved by means of ultra-violet irradiation, resulting in the production of a more hydrophilic surface. Analysis of a series of model compounds adsorbed onto modified and non-modified polymer surfaces indicates that the wettability of the surface is an important influence in the production of stable molecular ions. This information was then utilized to aid in the analysis of lysozyme, myoglobin, and porcine trypsin

  20. Statistical analysis of planktic foraminifera of the surface Continental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planktic foraminiferal assemblage recorded from selected samples obtained from shallow continental shelf sediments off southwestern Nigeria were subjected to statistical analysis. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine variants of planktic parameters. Values obtained for these parameters were ...