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Sample records for surface samples collected

  1. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  2. Activity Concentration for Surface Soil Samples Collected from Arrant, Qena, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.; Moustafa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from four regions from Armant area. Qena, Upper Egypt for measure their natural radioactivity concentrations due to Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides. Thirty-Four surface soil samples were analyzed by using low-level gamma-spectrometric analysis. The average activity concentration for Ra-226 in (Bq/kg) in the collected soil samples were found to be 27.3 ±3.2, 11.4±1.09, 10.6±1.2, and 11.4±1.02 while the average value for Th-232 were 15.1±1.4, 11.1±0.77, 10.8 ± 0.72 and 11.1 ± 0.8 (Bq/kg) for soil samples from North, South, West and East. The corresponding average values for K-40 were 521.4±16.8, 463±14.8, 488.9±15.6 and 344.5±10.7 (Bq/kg), respectively. Based on radionuclides concentration in surface soil samples the radiological effects can be assessed

  3. Analysis of Samples Collected from the Surface of Interim Storage Canisters at Calvert Cliffs in June 2017: Revision 01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In June 2017, dust and salt samples were collected from the surface of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) dry storage canisters at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. The samples were delivered to Sandia National laboratories for analysis. Two types of samples were collected: filter-backed Scotch-Brite TM pads were used to collect dry dust samples for characterization of salt and dust morphologies and distributions; and Saltsmart TM test strips were used to collect soluble salts for determining salt surface loadings per unit area. After collection, the samples were sealed into plastic sleeves for shipping. Condensation within the sleeves containing the Scotch-Brite TM samples remobilized the salts, rendering them ineffective for the intended purpose, and also led to mold growth, further compromising the samples; for these reasons, the samples were not analyzed. The SaltSmart TM samples were unaffected and were analyzed by ion chromatography for major anions and cations. The results of those analyses are presented here.

  4. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  5. Procedures for the collection and preservation of groundwater and surface water samples and for the installation of monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Kearl, P.

    1984-01-01

    Proper sampling procedures are essential for a successful water-quality monitoring program. It must be emphasized, however, that it is impossible to maintain absolutely in-situ conditions when collecting and preserving a water sample, whether from a flowing stream or an aquifer. Consequently, the most that can reasonably be expected is to collect a best possible sample with minimal disturbance. This document describes procedures for installing monitoring wells and for collecting samples of surface water and groundwater. The discussion of monitoring wells includes mention of multilevel sampling and a general overview of vadose-zone monitoring. Guidelines for well installation are presented in detail. The discussion of water-sample collection contains evaluations of sampling pumps, filtration equipment, and sample containers. Sample-preservation techniques, as published by several government and private sources, are reviewed. Finally, step-by-step procedures for collection of water samples are provided; these procedures address such considerations as necessary equipment, field operations, and written documentation. Separate procedures are also included for the collection of samples for determination of sulfide and for reactive aluminum. The report concludes with a brief discussion of adverse sampling, conditions that may significantly affect the quality of the data. Appendix A presents a rationale for the development and use of statistical considerations in water sampling to ensure a more complete water quality monitoring program. 51 references, 9 figures, 4 tables

  6. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Kosek, Margaret N; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-08-22

    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 ( p samples (Pearson (0.53, p method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials.

  7. Sample collection and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Yamashita, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hasai, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Beginning within a few weeks after the bombings and periodically during the intervening decades, investigators in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have collected samples of materials that were in the cities at the time of the bombings. Although some early efforts were not driven by specific measurement objectives, many others were. Even some of the very earliest samples collected in 1945 were based on carefully conceived research plans and detailed specifications for samples appropriate to particular retrospective measurements, i.e., of particular residual quantities remaining from exposure to the neutrons and gamma rays from the bombs. This chapter focuses mainly on the work of groups at two institutions that have actively collaborated since the 1980s in major collection efforts and have shared samples among themselves and with other investigators: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), and Hiroshima University. In addition, a number of others are listed, who also contributed to the literature by their collection of samples. (J.P.N.)

  8. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D ... that used for CSF in that they require aspiration of a sample of the fluid through a ...

  9. Water-quality assessment of south-central Texas : comparison of water quality in surface-water samples collected manually and by automated samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ging, Patricia B.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water sampling protocols of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program specify samples for most properties and constituents to be collected manually in equal-width increments across a stream channel and composited for analysis. Single-point sampling with an automated sampler (autosampler) during storms was proposed in the upper part of the South-Central Texas NAWQA study unit, raising the question of whether property and constituent concentrations from automatically collected samples differ significantly from those in samples collected manually. Statistical (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) analyses of 3 to 16 paired concentrations for each of 26 properties and constituents from water samples collected using both methods at eight sites in the upper part of the study unit indicated that there were no significant differences in concentrations for dissolved constituents, other than calcium and organic carbon.

  10. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  11. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  12. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

  13. Antibacterial activity of marine culturable bacteria collected from a global sampling of ocean surface waters and surface swabs of marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2010-01-01

    ). Total cell counts at the seawater surface were 5 × 105 to 106 cells/ml, of which 0.1–0.2% were culturable on dilute marine agar (20°C). Three percent of the colonies cultured from seawater inhibited Vibrio anguillarum, whereas a significantly higher proportion (13%) of colonies from inert or biotic...

  14. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  15. Frequency distribution of specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in surface beach sand samples collected in Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkit, N.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Youngchauy, U.; Polthum, S.; Kessaratikoon, P.

    2017-09-01

    The specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) in 50 surface beach sand samples collected from Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province in the easthern region of Thailand, were measured and evaluated. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system in the special laboratory at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). The IAEA-SOIL-375 reference material was used to analyze the concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all samples. It was found that the specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were ranged from 510.85 - 771.35, 8.17 - 17.06 and 4.25 - 15.68 Bq/kg. Furthermore, frequency distribution of the specific activities were studied, analyzed and found to be the asymmetrical distribution by using a statistical computer program. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the investigated area were also calculated by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The results were also compared with the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) annual report data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations.

  16. Equipment for collecting samples of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raggenbass, A.; Fradin, J.; Joubert, G.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present an equipment aimed at collecting samples of fission products to perform radio-chemical analysis. As the sample must have a total activity between 1 and 50 micro-Curie, this installation comprises a sampling system and a dilution device which aims at bringing the sample to the suitable activity. Samples are collected by means of needles. The sample reproducibility is discussed. The dilution device is described

  17. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected

  18. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  19. Ball assisted device for analytical surface sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNaggar, Mariam S; Van Berkel, Gary J; Covey, Thomas R

    2015-11-03

    A system for sampling a surface includes a sampling probe having a housing and a socket, and a rolling sampling sphere within the socket. The housing has a sampling fluid supply conduit and a sampling fluid exhaust conduit. The sampling fluid supply conduit supplies sampling fluid to the sampling sphere. The sampling fluid exhaust conduit has an inlet opening for receiving sampling fluid carried from the surface by the sampling sphere. A surface sampling probe and a method for sampling a surface are also disclosed.

  20. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  1. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  2. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  3. Devices and Methods for Collection and Concentration of Air and Surface Samples for Improved Detection of Microbes onboard ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Protecting the International Space Station (ISS) crew from microbial contaminants is of great importance. Bacterial and fungal contamination of air, surfaces and...

  4. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  5. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  6. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    knowledge of sample collection from various matrices is crucial. Recovery and preservation of microorganisms prior to analysis are important...Another method for encapsulating bacteria for use in biodegradation of gasoline involves a complex process using gellan gum (Moslemy et al. 2002). Many...use of acacia gum in preserving microorganisms for extended periods of time without refrigeration (Krumnow et al. 2009; Sorokulova et al. 2008, 2012

  7. Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Carvalho, F; Duarte, J A; Remião, F; Marques, A; Santos, A; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    Forensic toxicology is the study and practice of the application of toxicology to the purposes of the law. The relevance of any finding is determined, in the first instance, by the nature and integrity of the specimen(s) submitted for analysis. This means that there are several specific challenges to select and collect specimens for ante-mortem and post-mortem toxicology investigation. Post-mortem specimens may be numerous and can endow some special difficulties compared to clinical specimens, namely those resulting from autolytic and putrefactive changes. Storage stability is also an important issue to be considered during the pre-analytic phase, since its consideration should facilitate the assessment of sample quality and the analytical result obtained from that sample. The knowledge on degradation mechanisms and methods to increase storage stability may enable the forensic toxicologist to circumvent possible difficulties. Therefore, advantages and limitations of specimen preservation procedures are thoroughfully discussed in this review. Presently, harmonized protocols for sampling in suspected intoxications would have obvious utility. In the present article an overview is given on sampling procedures for routinely collected specimens as well as on alternative specimens that may provide additional information on the route and timing of exposure to a specific xenobiotic. Last, but not least, a discussion on possible bias that can influence the interpretation of toxicological results is provided. This comprehensive review article is intented as a significant help for forensic toxicologists to accomplish their frequently overwhelming mission.

  8. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Naicheng

    2016-11-14

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  9. Fog collecting biomimetic surfaces: Influence of microstructure and wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Ellerbrok, D; Barthlott, W; Koch, K

    2015-01-19

    We analyzed the fog collection efficiency of three different sets of samples: replica (with and without microstructures), copper wire (smooth and microgrooved) and polyolefin mesh (hydrophilic, superhydrophilic and hydrophobic). The collection efficiency of the samples was compared in each set separately to investigate the influence of microstructures and/or the wettability of the surfaces on fog collection. Based on the controlled experimental conditions chosen here large differences in the efficiency were found. We found that microstructured plant replica samples collected 2-3 times higher amounts of water than that of unstructured (smooth) samples. Copper wire samples showed similar results. Moreover, microgrooved wires had a faster dripping of water droplets than that of smooth wires. The superhydrophilic mesh tested here was proved more efficient than any other mesh samples with different wettability. The amount of collected fog by superhydrophilic mesh was about 5 times higher than that of hydrophilic (untreated) mesh and was about 2 times higher than that of hydrophobic mesh.

  10. Composite sampling of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate with cellulose sponge surface samplers from a nonporous surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia A M Tufts

    Full Text Available A series of experiments was conducted to explore the utility of composite-based collection of surface samples for the detection of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate using cellulose sponge samplers on a nonporous stainless steel surface. Two composite-based collection approaches were evaluated over a surface area of 3716 cm2 (four separate 929 cm2 areas, larger than the 645 cm2 prescribed by the standard Centers for Disease Control (CDC and Prevention cellulose sponge sampling protocol for use on nonporous surfaces. The CDC method was also compared to a modified protocol where only one surface of the sponge sampler was used for each of the four areas composited. Differences in collection efficiency compared to positive controls and the potential for contaminant transfer for each protocol were assessed. The impact of the loss of wetting buffer from the sponge sampler onto additional surface areas sampled was evaluated. Statistical tests of the results using ANOVA indicate that the collection of composite samples using the modified sampling protocol is comparable to the collection of composite samples using the standard CDC protocol (p  =  0.261. Most of the surface-bound spores are collected on the first sampling pass, suggesting that multiple passes with the sponge sampler over the same surface may be unnecessary. The effect of moisture loss from the sponge sampler on collection efficiency was not significant (p  =  0.720 for both methods. Contaminant transfer occurs with both sampling protocols, but the magnitude of transfer is significantly greater when using the standard protocol than when the modified protocol is used (p<0.001. The results of this study suggest that composite surface sampling, by either method presented here, could successfully be used to increase the surface area sampled per sponge sampler, resulting in reduced sampling times in the field and decreased laboratory processing cost and turn-around times.

  11. A Improved Seabed Surface Sand Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In marine geology research it is necessary to obtain a suf fcient quantity of seabed surface samples, while also en- suring that the samples are in their original state. Currently,there are a number of seabed surface sampling devices available, but we fnd it is very diffcult to obtain sand samples using these devices, particularly when dealing with fne sand. Machine-controlled seabed surface sampling devices are also available, but generally unable to dive into deeper regions of water. To obtain larger quantities of seabed surface sand samples in their original states, many researchers have tried to improve upon sampling devices,but these efforts have generally produced ambiguous results, in our opinion.To resolve this issue, we have designed an improved andhighly effective seabed surface sand sampling device that incorporates the strengths of a variety of sampling devices. It is capable of diving into deepwater to obtain fne sand samples and is also suited for use in streams, rivers, lakes and seas with varying levels of depth (up to 100 m). This device can be used for geological mapping, underwater prospecting, geological engineering and ecological, environmental studies in both marine and terrestrial waters.

  12. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO_2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  13. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the western Okanogan highlands and of the upper Columbia River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples; no known uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern portions of the western Okanogan highlands and in the upper Columbia River valley were investigated during a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of the Tertiary sedimentary rocks of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples. No portion of the project area of this report is rated of high or of medium favorability for potential uranium resources. Low favorability ratings are given to Oroville, Tonasket, and Pine Creek areas of the Okanogan River valley; to the Republic graben; and to the William Lakes, Colville, and Sheep Creek areas of the upper Columbia River valley. All these areas contain some fluvial, poorly sorted feldspathic or arkosic sandstones and conglomerates. These rocks are characterized by very low permeability and a consistently high siliceous matrix suggesting very low initial permeability. There are no known uranium deposits in any of these areas, and low level uranium anomalies are rare.

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2009-04-10 to 2009-07-03 (NODC Accession 0108084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108084 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108123 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2005-05-25 to 2005-07-02 (NODC Accession 0108081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108081 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Bismarck Sea, Coral Sea and others from 1993-10-05 to 1993-11-10 (NODC Accession 0115019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115019 includes Surface underway, chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-04-03 to 1994-05-21 (NODC Accession 0115002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115002 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-09-02 to 1991-09-26 (NODC Accession 0115001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115001 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1992-12-27 to 1993-01-31 (NODC Accession 0115173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115173 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from METEOR in the South Atlantic...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-01-04 to 1994-03-21 (NODC Accession 0115157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115157 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from PELICAN in the Coastal Waters of Louisiana, Coastal Waters of Texas and Gulf of Mexico from 2013-09-09 to 2013-09-22 (NCEI Accession 0157461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157461 includes Surface underway, chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from PELICAN in the Coastal Waters...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from surface discrete sampling using flow through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0157389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from surface discrete sampling using flow...

  4. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Homeland Security, collecting DNA samples from: (1) Aliens lawfully in, or being processed for lawful... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection...

  5. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life.

  6. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  7. Collection and preparation of samples for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jingquan

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the basic principles of sample collection and preparation: setting up unified sampling program, methods and procedures, sample packing, transportation and storage, determination of sample quantity, sample pretreatment and preparation of samples to be analysed, etc. for gamma spectrometry. And the paper also describes briefly the main methods and special issues of sampling and preparation for the same environmental and biological samples, such as, air, water, grass, soil and foods

  8. Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

    2013-07-16

    A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

  9. Analysis of the Touch-And-Go Surface Sampling Concept for Comet Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Bayard, David S.; Blackmore, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the Touch-and-Go (TAG) concept for enabling a spacecraft to take a sample from the surface of a small primitive body, such as an asteroid or comet. The idea behind the TAG concept is to let the spacecraft descend to the surface, make contact with the surface for several seconds, and then ascend to a safe location. Sampling would be accomplished by an end-effector that is active during the few seconds of surface contact. The TAG event is one of the most critical events in a primitive body sample-return mission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a representative spacecraft during the TAG event, i.e., immediately prior, during, and after surface contact of the sampler. The study evaluates the sample-collection performance of the proposed sampling end-effector, in this case a brushwheel sampler, while acquiring material from the surface during the contact. A main result of the study is a guidance and control (G&C) validation of the overall TAG concept, in addition to specific contributions to demonstrating the effectiveness of using nonlinear clutch mechanisms in the sampling arm joints, and increasing the length of the sampling arms to improve robustness.

  10. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Yolanda E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shou, Yulin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marrone, Babetta L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunbar, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  11. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  12. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of 137 Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, 7 Be and 210 Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of 7 Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of 7 Be and 210 Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, and 210 Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, and 210 Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites

  13. Assessing human error during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the assessment method of the hydrocarbon sample collection standard operation procedure (SOP) using THERP. The Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) from THERP analyzed and assessed the human errors during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of a petrochemical refinery plant. Twenty-two ...

  14. Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics

  15. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by...(b)(3) § 761.306 Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves. (a) Divide each 1 meter square portion where it is necessary to collect a surface wipe test sample into two equal (or as...

  16. Collective probabilities algorithm for surface hopping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastida, Adolfo; Cruz, Carlos; Zuniga, Jose; Requena, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    General equations that transition probabilities of the hopping algorithms in surface hopping calculations must obey to assure the equality between the average quantum and classical populations are derived. These equations are solved for two particular cases. In the first it is assumed that probabilities are the same for all trajectories and that the number of hops is kept to a minimum. These assumptions specify the collective probabilities (CP) algorithm, for which the transition probabilities depend on the average populations for all trajectories. In the second case, the probabilities for each trajectory are supposed to be completely independent of the results from the other trajectories. There is, then, a unique solution of the general equations assuring that the transition probabilities are equal to the quantum population of the target state, which is referred to as the independent probabilities (IP) algorithm. The fewest switches (FS) algorithm developed by Tully is accordingly understood as an approximate hopping algorithm which takes elements from the accurate CP and IP solutions. A numerical test of all these hopping algorithms is carried out for a one-dimensional two-state problem with two avoiding crossings which shows the accuracy and computational efficiency of the collective probabilities algorithm proposed, the limitations of the FS algorithm and the similarity between the results offered by the IP algorithm and those obtained with the Ehrenfest method

  17. Characterization Of Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm 3 and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  18. Fieldwork and catalogue of samples collected in Polan, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, N.; Drewniak, A.; Glowniak, E.; Ineson, J.; Matyja, B.A.; Merta, T.; Wierzbowski, A.

    1995-12-31

    This report lists the collection of samples taken during the field work of the EFP-95 Project, named `The Polish Middle to Late Jurassic Epicratonic basin, stratigraphy, facies and basin history` (short title: Jurrasic basin study, Poland) in Poland, August 7-20, 1995. The samples were collected for palynological studies, and/or sedimentaological studies, and/or source rock studies, and/or reservoir rock characteristics. Prepared samples (slides etc.) are stored in the collections of the GEUS, and remaining rock-material at the store of the GEUS. Field work with collection of samples for palynological studies has been carried earlier in 1988 and at the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian Joint Working Groups Meeting 1992. (au)

  19. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  20. Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; Staymates, Matthew E; Sisco, Edward

    2017-04-10

    One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

  1. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  2. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasas, Alex; Ramalhinho, Helena; Pessoa, Luciana S; Resende, Mauricio G C; Caballé, Imma; Barba, Nuria

    2014-01-09

    Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

  3. Collecting, Managing, and Visualizing Data during Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Graff, T. G.; Bleacher, J. E.; Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T. D.; Coan, D.; Reagan, M.; Evans, C. A.; Garrison, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    While the Apollo lunar surface missions were highly successful in collecting valuable samples to help us understand the history and evolution of the Moon, technological advancements since 1969 point us toward a new generation of planetary surface exploration characterized by large volumes of data being collected and used to inform traverse execution real-time. Specifically, the advent of field portable technologies mean that future planetary explorers will have vast quantities of in situ geochemical and geophysical data that can be used to inform sample collection and curation as well as strategic and tactical decision making that will impact mission planning real-time. The RIS4E SSERVI (Remote, In Situ and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration; Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute) team has been working for several years to deploy a variety of in situ instrumentation in relevant analog environments. RIS4E seeks both to determine ideal instrumentation suites for planetary surface exploration as well as to develop a framework for EVA (extravehicular activity) mission planning that incorporates this new generation of technology. Results from the last several field campaigns will be discussed, as will recommendations for how to rapidly mine in situ datasets for tactical and strategic planning. Initial thoughts about autonomy in mining field data will also be presented. The NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations (NEEMO) missions focus on a combination of Science, Science Operations, and Technology objectives in a planetary analog environment. Recently, the increase of high-fidelity marine science objectives during NEEMO EVAs have led to the ability to evaluate how real-time data collection and visualization can influence tactical and strategic planning for traverse execution and mission planning. Results of the last few NEEMO missions will be discussed in the context of data visualization strategies for real-time operations.

  4. Sample collection and sample analysis plan in support of the 105-C/190-C concrete and soil sampling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis in support of the 105-C water tunnels and 190-C main pumphouse concrete and soil sampling activities. These analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials to support the decontamination and disposal activities

  5. Critical evaluation of methodology commonly used in sample collection, storage and preparation for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-11-04

    The main aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive and critical verification of methodology commonly used for sample collection, storage and preparation in studies concerning the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in aqueous environmental samples with the usage of SPE-LC/MS techniques. This manuscript reports the results of investigations into several sample preparation parameters that to the authors' knowledge have not been reported or have received very little attention. This includes: (i) effect of evaporation temperature and (ii) solvent with regards to solid phase extraction (SPE) extracts; (iii) effect of silanising glassware; (iv) recovery of analytes during vacuum filtration through glass fibre filters and (v) pre LC-MS filter membranes. All of these parameters are vital to develop efficient and reliable extraction techniques; an essential factor given that target drug residues are often present in the aqueous environment at ng L(-1) levels. Presented is also the first comprehensive review of the stability of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater. Among the parameters studied are: time of storage, temperature and pH. Over 60 analytes were targeted including stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, human urine indicators and their metabolites. The lack of stability of analytes in raw wastewater was found to be significant for many compounds. For instance, 34% of compounds studied reported a stability change >15% after only 12 h in raw wastewater stored at 2 °C; a very important finding given that wastewater is typically collected with the use of 24 h composite samplers. The stability of these compounds is also critical given the recent development of so-called 'sewage forensics' or 'sewage epidemiology' in which concentrations of target drug residues in wastewater are used to back-calculate drug consumption. Without an understanding of stability

  6. Sampling free energy surfaces as slices by combining umbrella sampling and metadynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shalini; Kapil, Venkat; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-06-15

    Metadynamics (MTD) is a very powerful technique to sample high-dimensional free energy landscapes, and due to its self-guiding property, the method has been successful in studying complex reactions and conformational changes. MTD sampling is based on filling the free energy basins by biasing potentials and thus for cases with flat, broad, and unbound free energy wells, the computational time to sample them becomes very large. To alleviate this problem, we combine the standard Umbrella Sampling (US) technique with MTD to sample orthogonal collective variables (CVs) in a simultaneous way. Within this scheme, we construct the equilibrium distribution of CVs from biased distributions obtained from independent MTD simulations with umbrella potentials. Reweighting is carried out by a procedure that combines US reweighting and Tiwary-Parrinello MTD reweighting within the Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM). The approach is ideal for a controlled sampling of a CV in a MTD simulation, making it computationally efficient in sampling flat, broad, and unbound free energy surfaces. This technique also allows for a distributed sampling of a high-dimensional free energy surface, further increasing the computational efficiency in sampling. We demonstrate the application of this technique in sampling high-dimensional surface for various chemical reactions using ab initio and QM/MM hybrid molecular dynamics simulations. Further, to carry out MTD bias reweighting for computing forward reaction barriers in ab initio or QM/MM simulations, we propose a computationally affordable approach that does not require recrossing trajectories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to investigate healthy and cancerous colon samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzegar, A.; Rezaei, H.; Malekfar, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, spontaneous Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra have been investigated. The samples which were kept in the formalin solution selected from the human's healthy and cancerous colon tissues. The Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra were collected by adding colloidal solution contained silver nanoparticles to the top of the samples. The recorded spectra were compared for the spontaneous Raman spectra of healthy and cancerous colon samples. The spontaneous and surface enhanced Raman scattering data were also collected and compared for both healthy and damaged samples.

  8. Hayabusa2 Sampler: Collection of Asteroidal Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hirotaka; Okazaki, Ryuji; Tachibana, Shogo; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Miura, Yayoi; Abe, Masanao; Hasegawa, Sunao; Noguchi, Takaaki

    2017-07-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the asteroid exploration probe "Hayabusa2" in December 3rd, 2014, following the 1st Hayabusa mission. With technological and scientific improvements from the Hayabusa probe, we plan to visit the C-type asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and to sample surface materials of the C-type asteroid that is likely to be different from the S-type asteroid Itokawa and contain more pristine materials, including organic matter and/or hydrated minerals, than S-type asteroids. We developed the Hayabusa2 sampler to collect a minimum of 100 mg of surface samples including several mm-sized particles at three surface locations without any severe terrestrial contamination. The basic configuration of the sampler design is mainly as same as the 1st Hayabusa (Yano et al. in Science, 312(5778):1350-1353, 2006), with several minor but important modifications based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa to fulfill the scientific requirements and to raise the scientific value of the returned samples.

  9. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Astromaterial Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections in seven different clean-room suites: (1) Apollo Samples (ISO (International Standards Organization) class 6 + 7); (2) Antarctic Meteorites (ISO 6 + 7); (3) Cosmic Dust Particles (ISO 5); (4) Microparticle Impact Collection (ISO 7; formerly called Space-Exposed Hardware); (5) Genesis Solar Wind Atoms (ISO 4); (6) Stardust Comet Particles (ISO 5); (7) Stardust Interstellar Particles (ISO 5); (8) Hayabusa Asteroid Particles (ISO 5); (9) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Coupons and Witness Plates (ISO 7). Additional cleanrooms are currently being planned to house samples from two new collections, Hayabusa 2 (2021) and OSIRIS-REx (2023). In addition to the labs that house the samples, we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs. We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples, we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics (weight, location, etc.) of more than 250,000 individually numbered samples across our various collections, as well as more than 100,000 images, and countless "analog" records that record the sample processing records of each individual sample. JSC Curation is co-located with JSC

  10. Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairrow, N.L.; Ivie, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Pantex is the final assembly/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a bar code system for collection of samples was developed and implemented to speed up the process and decrease the number of errors probable when transferring data. In the past, all the bioassay data from samples were entered manually into a computer database. Transferring the bioassay data from the liquid scintillation counter to each individual's dosimetry record required as much as two weeks of concentrated effort

  11. Biotic, temporal and spatial variability of tritium concentrations in transpirate samples collected in the vicinity of a near-surface low-level nuclear waste disposal site and nearby research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, J R; Hughes, C E; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S; Crawford, J; Johansen, M; Dyer, L

    2011-06-01

    The results of a 21 month sampling program measuring tritium in tree transpirate with respect to local sources are reported. The aim was to assess the potential of tree transpirate to indicate the presence of sub-surface seepage plumes. Transpirate gathered from trees near low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches contained activity concentrations of (3)H that were significantly higher (up to ∼700 Bq L(-1)) than local background levels (0-10 Bq L(-1)). The effects of the waste source declined rapidly with distance to be at background levels within 10s of metres. A research reactor 1.6 km south of the site contributed significant (p nuclear waste site. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotic, temporal and spatial variability of tritium concentrations in transpirate samples collected in the vicinity of a near-surface low-level nuclear waste disposal site and nearby research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, J.R., E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Hughes, C.E.; Harrison, J.J.; Hankin, S.; Crawford, J.; Johansen, M.; Dyer, L. [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    The results of a 21 month sampling program measuring tritium in tree transpirate with respect to local sources are reported. The aim was to assess the potential of tree transpirate to indicate the presence of sub-surface seepage plumes. Transpirate gathered from trees near low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches contained activity concentrations of {sup 3}H that were significantly higher (up to {approx}700 Bq L{sup -1}) than local background levels (0-10 Bq L{sup -1}). The effects of the waste source declined rapidly with distance to be at background levels within 10s of metres. A research reactor 1.6 km south of the site contributed significant (p < 0.01) local fallout {sup 3}H but its influence did not reach as far as the disposal trenches. The elevated {sup 3}H levels in transpirate were, however, substantially lower than groundwater concentrations measured across the site (ranging from 0 to 91% with a median of 2%). Temporal patterns of tree transpirate {sup 3}H, together with local meteorological observations, indicate that soil water within the active root zones comprised a mixture of seepage and rainfall infiltration. The degree of mixing was variable given that the soil water activity concentrations were heterogeneous at a scale equivalent to the effective rooting volume of the trees. In addition, water taken up by roots was not well mixed within the trees. Based on correlation modelling, net rainfall less evaporation (a surrogate for infiltration) over a period of from 2 to 3 weeks prior to sampling seems to be the optimum predictor of transpirate {sup 3}H variability for any sampled tree at this site. The results demonstrate successful use of {sup 3}H in transpirate from trees to indicate the presence and general extent of sub-surface contamination at a low-level nuclear waste site. - Highlights: > Data on environmental tritium behaviour over 21 months related to a legacy waste site are presented. > The relative contributions of atmospheric and

  13. Characteristics of the samples in the FNG fission deposit collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1990-12-01

    Information concerning the samples in the Fast Neutron Generator (FNG) Group's fission deposit collection has been assembled. This includes the physical dimensions, isotopic analyses, half-lives, alpha emission rates specific activities and deposit weights. 10 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ANTEA and L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2005-06-09 to 2007-09-30 (NODC Accession 0108086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108086 includes Surface underway, chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA and L'ATALANTE in the...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, Barometric pressure sensor and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-05-11 to 2007-08-04 (NODC Accession 0083633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0083633 includes Surface underway, chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, optical, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H....

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 1993-05-15 to 1993-06-26 (NODC Accession 0115172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115172 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the...

  17. Mars Express radar collects first surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    This radar started its science operations on 4 July, the same day as its first commissioning phase ended. Due to the late deployment of Marsis, it was decided to split the commissioning, originally planned to last four weeks, into two phases; the second will take place in December. It has thus been possible to begin scientific observations with the instrument earlier than initially planned, while it is still Martian night-time. This is the best environmental condition for subsurface sounding, as in daytime the ionosphere is more ‘energised’ and disturbs the radio signals used for subsurface observations. As from the start of commissioning, the two 20m-long antenna booms have been sending radio signals towards the Martian surface and receiving echoes back. “The commissioning procedure confirmed that the radar is working very well and that it can be operated at full power without interfering with any of the spacecraft systems,” says Roberto Seu, Instrument Manager for Marsis, of University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Italy. Marsis is a very complex instrument, capable of operating at different frequency bands. Lower frequencies are best suited to probing the subsurface, the highest frequencies are used to probe shallow subsurface depths, while all frequencies are suited to studying the surface and the upper atmospheric layer of Mars. “During commissioning we worked to test all transmission modes and optimise the radar's performance around Mars,” says Professor Giovanni Picardi, Principal Investigator for Marsis, of University of Rome ‘LaSapienza’. “The result is that since we started the scientific observations in early July, we have been receiving very clean surface echoes back, and first indications about the ionosphere.” The Marsis radar is designed to operate around the orbit ‘pericentre’, when the spacecraft is closer to the planet’s surface. In each orbit, the radar is switched on for 36minutes around this point, spending the middle 26

  18. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  19. A 'feather-trap' for collecting DNA samples from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Golo; Beck, Nadeena; Double, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of birds are usually based on DNA extracted from a blood sample. For some species, however, obtaining blood samples is difficult because they are sensitive to handling, pose a conservation or animal welfare concern, or evade capture. In such cases, feathers obtained from live birds in the wild can provide an alternative source of DNA. Here, we provide the first description and evaluation of a 'feather-trap', consisting of small strips of double-sided adhesive tape placed close to a nest with chicks, as a simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive method to collect feathers. The feather-trap was tested in tropical conditions on the Australian pheasant coucal (Centropus phasianinus). None of the 12 pairs of coucals on which the feather-trap was used abandoned the nest, and feeding rates did not differ from those of birds not exposed to a feather-trap. On average, 4.2 feathers were collected per trap over 2-5 days and, despite exposure to monsoonal rain, DNA was extracted from 71.4% of samples, albeit at low concentrations. The amount of genomic DNA extracted from each feather was sufficient to reliably genotype individuals at up to five microsatellite loci for parentage analysis. We show that a feather-trap can provide a reliable alternative for obtaining DNA in species where taking blood is difficult. It may also prove useful for collecting feather samples for other purposes, e.g. stable-isotope analysis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  1. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Collection and preparation of marine samples for radionuclide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research in radioecology is to be able to predict the pathways of radioactive material in the environment and hence estimate possible doses to the population in various regions. Knowledge of levels of contamination are necessary to maintain control of operations of nuclear facilities. Correct methods of sample collection, handling and preparation are among the most important parts for a correct assessment. On basis of the final results of radionuclide concentrations, scientific, medical and political decisions are taken. (author)

  3. Collection and preparation of water samples for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baucom, E.I.; Ferguson, R.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method based on ion exchange and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was developed and field-tested to determine uranium over the range 0.02 to 10,000 ppb in natural water using a single procedure. Water samples are filtered in the field using a specially-designed one-liter filter apparatus pressurized to 40 psig with an inert gas. The filtered water is treated with a high purity, mixed cation-anion resin in the hydronium-hydroxide form. All ions are removed from solution under the strong driving force of the neutralization reaction. Anionic, cationic, and natural complexes of uranium can be concentrated with this method. Field tests showed greater than 95 percent recovery of 13 elements analyzed (including greater than 99 percent recovery of uranium) and greater than or equal to 90 percent recovery of 4 other elements. Uranium collected on the resin was quantitatively determined by NAA. Coefficient of variation for sampling plus analysis was less than 20 percent for samples containing more than 0.1 ppb uranium. Advantages of this method include: (1) wide dynamic range, (2) low detection limit for uranium (0.02 ppb), (3) high precision and accuracy, (4) relatively low cost, (5) high-yield recovery from low-level aqueous samples without risk of loss to containers, (6) decreased risk of significant sample contamination compared with other low-level methods, (7) production of stable samples suitable for retrievable storage, and(8) concentration of other ions that can be determined by NAA. This paper presents (1) background regarding development of procedures for sample collection and preparation, (2) results of development programs, (3) description of equipment and field procedures, and (4) preliminary conclusions regarding use of this technology for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance for uranium

  4. Surface reconstruction through poisson disk sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Hou

    Full Text Available This paper intends to generate the approximate Voronoi diagram in the geodesic metric for some unbiased samples selected from original points. The mesh model of seeds is then constructed on basis of the Voronoi diagram. Rather than constructing the Voronoi diagram for all original points, the proposed strategy is to run around the obstacle that the geodesic distances among neighboring points are sensitive to nearest neighbor definition. It is obvious that the reconstructed model is the level of detail of original points. Hence, our main motivation is to deal with the redundant scattered points. In implementation, Poisson disk sampling is taken to select seeds and helps to produce the Voronoi diagram. Adaptive reconstructions can be achieved by slightly changing the uniform strategy in selecting seeds. Behaviors of this method are investigated and accuracy evaluations are done. Experimental results show the proposed method is reliable and effective.

  5. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  6. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    were investigated in this study: Nine samples from different surface water bodies, two samples from two effluent sources ... Ezeagu, Udi, Nkanu, Oji River and some parts of Awgu and Aninri ..... Study of Stream Output from Small Catchments.

  7. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  8. Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text

  9. Method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2017-10-03

    A method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed utilizes a collection instrument having a port through which a liquid solution is conducted onto the surface to be analyzed. The port is positioned adjacent the surface to be analyzed, and the liquid solution is conducted onto the surface through the port so that the liquid solution conducted onto the surface interacts with material comprising the surface. An amount of material is thereafter withdrawn from the surface. Pressure control can be utilized to manipulate the solution balance at the surface to thereby control the withdrawal of the amount of material from the surface. Furthermore, such pressure control can be coordinated with the movement of the surface relative to the port of the collection instrument within the X-Y plane.

  10. Methods for the collection of subsurface samples during environmental site assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstock, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses numerous sample collection techniques that have been successfully employed during Phase 2 Assessments and presents case histories of their application. Pollutants of concern include PCE and petroleum. The collection of shallow soil samples is described using commercially available hand augers and hand-driven core samplers. These devices are modified with extensions to collect deeper samples from storm drains and leaching pools. The performance of soil gas surveys are described using both hand-driven sample probes and vehicle-mounted, hydraulically driven vapor probes. Once the soil vapor is collected at the ground surface, a sample of the media is either analyzed on-site using a field-operated detection device or delivered to a laboratory for analysis. Application and case histories of the Geoprobe(trademark)sampling system, a form of direct push technology, are described. This device uses vehicle-mounted, hydraulically-driven sample probes. The probe can be advanced to depths as great as 100 feet below grade and can retrieve soil, soil gas and groundwater samples

  11. Sources of variability in collection and preparation of paint and lead-coating samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, S L; Gutknecht, W F

    2001-06-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead (Pb) can result in permanent physiological impairment. Since surfaces coated with lead-containing paints and varnishes are potential sources of exposure, it is extremely important that reliable methods for sampling and analysis be available. The sources of variability in the collection and preparation of samples were investigated to improve the performance and comparability of methods and to ensure that data generated will be adequate for its intended use. Paint samples of varying sizes (areas and masses) were collected at different locations across a variety of surfaces including metal, plaster, concrete, and wood. A variety of grinding techniques were compared. Manual mortar and pestle grinding for at least 1.5 min and mechanized grinding techniques were found to generate similar homogenous particle size distributions required for aliquots as small as 0.10 g. When 342 samples were evaluated for sample weight loss during mortar and pestle grinding, 4% had 20% or greater loss with a high of 41%. Homogenization and sub-sampling steps were found to be the principal sources of variability related to the size of the sample collected. Analysis of samples from different locations on apparently identical surfaces were found to vary by more than a factor of two both in Pb concentration (mg cm-2 or %) and areal coating density (g cm-2). Analyses of substrates were performed to determine the Pb remaining after coating removal. Levels as high as 1% Pb were found in some substrate samples, corresponding to more than 35 mg cm-2 Pb. In conclusion, these sources of variability must be considered in development and/or application of any sampling and analysis methodologies.

  12. Forensic collection of trace chemicals from diverse surfaces with strippable coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Michael J; Beltis, Kevin J; Drennan, Paul M; Pindzola, Bradford A

    2013-11-07

    Surface sampling for chemical analysis plays a vital role in environmental monitoring, industrial hygiene, homeland security and forensics. The standard surface sampling tool, a simple cotton gauze pad, is failing to meet the needs of the community as analytical techniques become more sensitive and the variety of analytes increases. In previous work, we demonstrated the efficacy of non-destructive, conformal, spray-on strippable coatings for chemical collection from simple glass surfaces. Here we expand that work by presenting chemical collection at a low spiking level (0.1 g m(-2)) from a diverse array of common surfaces - painted metal, engineering plastics, painted wallboard and concrete - using strippable coatings. The collection efficiency of the strippable coatings is compared to and far exceeds gauze pads. Collection from concrete, a particular challenge for wipes like gauze, averaged 73% over eight chemically diverse compounds for the strippable coatings whereas gauze averaged 10%.

  13. Planning for the Collection and Analysis of Samples of Martian Granular Materials Potentially to be Returned by Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, B. L.; Beaty, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover is scheduled to land on Mars in 2021 and will be equipped with a sampling system capable of collecting rock cores, as well as a specialized drill bit for collecting unconsolidated granular material. A key mission objective is to collect a set of samples that have enough scientific merit to justify returning to Earth. In the case of granular materials, we would like to catalyze community discussion on what we would do with these samples if they arrived in our laboratories, as input to decision-making related to sampling the regolith. Numerous scientific objectives have been identified which could be achieved or significantly advanced via the analysis of martian rocks, "regolith," and gas samples. The term "regolith" has more than one definition, including one that is general and one that is much more specific. For the purpose of this analysis we use the term "granular materials" to encompass the most general meaning and restrict "regolith" to a subset of that. Our working taxonomy includes the following: 1) globally sourced airfall dust (dust); 2) saltation-sized particles (sand); 3) locally sourced decomposed rock (regolith); 4) crater ejecta (ejecta); and, 5) other. Analysis of martian granular materials could serve to advance our understanding areas including habitability and astrobiology, surface-atmosphere interactions, chemistry, mineralogy, geology and environmental processes. Results of these analyses would also provide input into planning for future human exploration of Mars, elucidating possible health and mechanical hazards caused by the martian surface material, as well as providing valuable information regarding available resources for ISRU and civil engineering purposes. Results would also be relevant to matters of planetary protection and ground-truthing orbital observations. We will present a preliminary analysis of the following, in order to generate community discussion and feedback on all issues relating to: What are the

  14. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  15. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in environmental and food samples collected in industrial and artisanal dairy plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacometti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of Arcobacter species in two cheese factories; a total of 22 environmental samples and 10 food samples were collected from an artisanal and an industrial cheese factory; Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the artisanal cheese factory, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from several environmental samples, cow and water buffalo raw milk and ricotta cheese. In the industrial plant, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from surfaces not in contact with food and from a cleaned surface in contact with food; no Arcobacter spp. was isolated from food. All isolates were identified as A. butzleri. We report of the presence of A. butzleri in a ready-to-eat cheese produced for retail. In addition, the isolation of A. butzleri in food processing surfaces in the two cheese factories could be assessed as a source of potential contamination for cheeses

  16. A Prototype Ice-Melting Probe for Collecting Biological Samples from Cryogenic Ice at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ashley

    2017-08-01

    In the Solar System, the surface of an icy moon is composed of irregular ice formations at cryogenic temperatures (pumps. The device contains a heated conical probe with a central orifice, which is forced into surface ice and directs the meltwater upward into a reservoir. The force on the probe is proportional to the height of meltwater (pressure) obtained in the system and allows regulation of the melt rate and temperature of the sample. The device can collect 5-50 mL of meltwater from the surface of an ice block at 233-208 K with an environmental pressure of less than 10-2 atm while maintaining a sample temperature between 273 and 293 K. These conditions maintain most biological samples in a pristine state and maintain the integrity of most organisms' structure and function.

  17. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  18. Radon exhalation rates from soil and sand samples collected from the vicinity of Yamuna river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; Sushil Kumar; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Soil, sand and stones are the most popular building materials for Indian dwellings. Radon is released into ambient air from these materials due to ubiquitous uranium and radium in them, thus increasing the airborne radon concentration. The radioactivity in sand and soils is related to radioactivity in the rocks from which they are formed. These materials contain varying amount of uranium. In the present investigation, the radon emanated from soil and sand samples from different locations in the vicinity of Yamuna river has been estimated. The samples have been collected from different locations near the Yamuna river. The samples collecting sites are from Yamunanagar in Haryana to Delhi. The radon concentration in different samples has been calculated, based upon the data, the mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from them have also been calculated

  19. Radioactivity in Soil Samples Collected in Southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the focus effect was of Kosovo and Metohija and southern Serbia) in 1999, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. Cleaning action of depleted uranium was performed by Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, during 2002?2007 at locations: Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan. At all locations underwent detailed dosimetric screening and decontamination was performed. Because of the loose soil, DU projectils were found to a depth of 1 m. Found missiles, contaminated soil and radioactive material has been collected and stored on radioactive waste. After cleaning the ground is leveled and another dosimetric prospecting was performed. Monitoring of radioactivity in southern Serbia included determination of gamma emitters as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activities in soil, water and plant. Sampling was carried out at Pljackovica, Borovac, Bratoselce and Reljan in July 2011. This paper presents only the results of measurement of gamma emitters in soil samples and showed the presence of natural radionuclides: 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). Also, the ratio between the 235U and 238U is given. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated. (author)

  20. Enhanced surface sampler and process for collection and release of analytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S; Atkinson, David A; Bays, John T; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D; Ewing, Robert G; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A

    2015-02-03

    An enhanced swipe sampler and method of making are described. The swipe sampler is made of a fabric containing selected glass, metal oxide, and/or oxide-coated glass or metal fibers. Fibers are modified with silane ligands that are directly attached to the surface of the fibers to functionalize the sampling surface of the fabric. The swipe sampler collects various target analytes including explosives and other threat agents on the surface of the sampler.

  1. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Jia, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  2. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  3. Interpolating and sampling sequences in finite Riemann surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Cerda, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    We provide a description of the interpolating and sampling sequences on a space of holomorphic functions on a finite Riemann surface, where a uniform growth restriction is imposed on the holomorphic functions.

  4. Capacity constrained blue-noise sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sen; Guo, Jianwei; Zhang, Hui; Jia, Xiaohong; Yan, Dongming; Yong, Junhai; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    regularizer of the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) energy, our approach enforces an exact capacity constraint using the restricted power tessellation on surfaces. Our approach is a generalization of the previous 2D blue noise sampling technique using

  5. Surface Resistance Measurements of LHC Dipole Beam Screen Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Ruggiero, F; Tan, J; Tsutsui, H

    2000-01-01

    An estimate of the resistive losses in the LHC dipole beam screen is given from cold surface resistance measurements using the shielded pair technique. Several beam screen samples have been evaluated, with different copper coating methods, including a sample with ribbed surface envisaged to reduce electron cloud losses thanks to its low reflectivity. Experimental data, derived by a proper analysis of the measured Q-factors and including error estimates are compared with theoretical predictions of the anomalous skin effect.

  6. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  7. Linearised collective Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, M.; Heumann, D.; Scheid, W.

    1990-11-01

    The linearisation of the Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations yields a new spin degree of freedom, which is called collective spin and has a value of 3/2. With the introduction of collective spin dependent potentials, this linearised Schroedinger equation is then used for the description of low energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities of some even-odd Xe, Ir and Au nuclei which have a spin 3/2 in their groundstate. (orig.)

  8. Active Collection of Land Cover Sample Data from Geo-Tagged Web Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sample data plays an important role in land cover (LC map validation. Traditionally, they are collected through field survey or image interpretation, either of which is costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In recent years, massive geo-tagged texts are emerging on the web and they contain valuable information for LC map validation. However, this kind of special textual data has seldom been analyzed and used for supporting LC map validation. This paper examines the potential of geo-tagged web texts as a new cost-free sample data source to assist LC map validation and proposes an active data collection approach. The proposed approach uses a customized deep web crawler to search for geo-tagged web texts based on land cover-related keywords and string-based rules matching. A data transformation based on buffer analysis is then performed to convert the collected web texts into LC sample data. Using three provinces and three municipalities directly under the Central Government in China as study areas, geo-tagged web texts were collected to validate artificial surface class of China’s 30-meter global land cover datasets (GlobeLand30-2010. A total of 6283 geo-tagged web texts were collected at a speed of 0.58 texts per second. The collected texts about built-up areas were transformed into sample data. User’s accuracy of 82.2% was achieved, which is close to that derived from formal expert validation. The preliminary results show that geo-tagged web texts are valuable ancillary data for LC map validation and the proposed approach can improve the efficiency of sample data collection.

  9. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.

  10. Effects of XPS operational parameters on investigated sample surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrad, O.; Ismail, I.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of the operating conditions of the xray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis technique (XPS) on the investigated samples. Firstly, the performances of the whole system have been verified as well as the accuracy of the analysis. Afterwards, the problem of the analysis of insulating samples caused by the charge buildup on the surface has been studied. The use of low-energy electron beam (<100 eV) to compensate the surface charge has been applied. The effect of X-ray on the samples have been assessed and was found to be nondestructive within the analysis time. The effect of low- and high-energy electron beams on the sample surface have been investigated. Highenergy electrons were found to have destructive effect on organic samples. The sample heating procedure has been tested and its effect on the chemical stat of the surface was followed. Finally, the ion source was used to determine the elements distribution and the chemical stat of different depths of the sample. A method has been proposed to determine these depths (author).

  11. Intelligent sampling for the measurement of structured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Jiang, X; Blunt, L A; Scott, P J; Leach, R K

    2012-01-01

    Uniform sampling in metrology has known drawbacks such as coherent spectral aliasing and a lack of efficiency in terms of measuring time and data storage. The requirement for intelligent sampling strategies has been outlined over recent years, particularly where the measurement of structured surfaces is concerned. Most of the present research on intelligent sampling has focused on dimensional metrology using coordinate-measuring machines with little reported on the area of surface metrology. In the research reported here, potential intelligent sampling strategies for surface topography measurement of structured surfaces are investigated by using numerical simulation and experimental verification. The methods include the jittered uniform method, low-discrepancy pattern sampling and several adaptive methods which originate from computer graphics, coordinate metrology and previous research by the authors. By combining the use of advanced reconstruction methods and feature-based characterization techniques, the measurement performance of the sampling methods is studied using case studies. The advantages, stability and feasibility of these techniques for practical measurements are discussed. (paper)

  12. A Geostatistical Approach to Indoor Surface Sampling Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Thomas; Petersen, Ole Holm; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1990-01-01

    Particulate surface contamination is of concern in production industries such as food processing, aerospace, electronics and semiconductor manufacturing. There is also an increased awareness that surface contamination should be monitored in industrial hygiene surveys. A conceptual and theoretical...... framework for designing sampling strategies is thus developed. The distribution and spatial correlation of surface contamination can be characterized using concepts from geostatistical science, where spatial applications of statistics is most developed. The theory is summarized and particulate surface...... contamination, sampled from small areas on a table, have been used to illustrate the method. First, the spatial correlation is modelled and the parameters estimated from the data. Next, it is shown how the contamination at positions not measured can be estimated with kriging, a minimum mean square error method...

  13. Transport Powder and Liquid Samples by Surface Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Louyeh, Sahar

    2009-01-01

    Sample transport is an important requirement for In-situ analysis of samples in NASA planetary exploration missions. Tests have shown that powders or liquid drops on a surface can be transported by surface acoustic waves (SAW) that are generated on the surface using interdigital transducers. The phenomena were investigated experimentally and to generate SAWs interdigital electrodes were deposited on wafers of 128 deg rotated Y-cut LiNbO?. Transporting capability of the SAW device was tested using particles of various sizes and drops of various viscosities liquids. Because of different interaction mechanisms with the SAWs, the powders and the liquid drops were observed to move in opposite directions. In the preliminary tests, a speed of 180 mm/s was achieved for powder transportation. The detailed experimental setup and results are presented in this paper. The transporting mechanism can potentially be applied to miniaturize sample analysis system or " lab-on-chip" devices.

  14. Capacity constrained blue-noise sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sen

    2015-11-27

    We present a novel method for high-quality blue-noise sampling on mesh surfaces with prescribed cell-sizes for the underlying tessellation (capacity constraint). Unlike the previous surface sampling approach that only uses capacity constraints as a regularizer of the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) energy, our approach enforces an exact capacity constraint using the restricted power tessellation on surfaces. Our approach is a generalization of the previous 2D blue noise sampling technique using an interleaving optimization framework. We further extend this framework to handle multi-capacity constraints. We compare our approach with several state-of-the-art methods and demonstrate that our results are superior to previous work in terms of preserving the capacity constraints.

  15. Effects of Blood Sample Collection Pre- and Post- Slaughter, Edta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were immediately subjected to Wet mount (WM), Haemotocrit centrifugation test (HCT) and Thin smear (TS) tests. The results revealed that, of the 100 samples examined, 19 (19%) were positive for the presence of Microfilaria spp while 6(6%) yielded Trypanosome spp. Of the 19 samples detected having ...

  16. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  17. Design of the CERN MEDICIS Collection and Sample Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alexander

    MEDICIS is a new facility at CERN ISOLDE that aims to produce radio-isotopes for medical research. Possible designs for the collection and transport system for the collection of radio-isotopes was investigated. A system using readily available equipment was devised with the the aim of keeping costs to a minimum whilst maintaining the highest safety standards. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, was used to simulate the radiation from the isotopes to be collected. Of the isotopes to be collected 44Sc was found to give the largest dose by simulating the collection of all isotopes of interest to CERN’s MEDICIS facility, for medical research. The simulations helped guide the amount of shielding used in the final design. Swiss Regulations stipulating allowed activity level of individual isotopes was also considered within the body of the work.

  18. Robotic Patterning a Superhydrophobic Surface for Collective Cell Migration Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yonggang; Yang, Jing; Hui, Zhixin; Grottkau, Brian E

    2018-04-01

    Collective cell migration, in which cells migrate as a group, is fundamental in many biological and pathological processes. There is increasing interest in studying the collective cell migration in high throughput. Cell scratching, insertion blocker, and gel-dissolving techniques are some methodologies used previously. However, these methods have the drawbacks of cell damage, substrate surface alteration, limitation in medium exchange, and solvent interference. The superhydrophobic surface, on which the water contact angle is greater than 150 degrees, has been recently utilized to generate patterned arrays. Independent cell culture areas can be generated on a substrate that functions the same as a conventional multiple well plate. However, so far there has been no report on superhydrophobic patterning for the study of cell migration. In this study, we report on the successful development of a robotically patterned superhydrophobic array for studying collective cell migration in high throughput. The array was developed on a rectangular single-well cell culture plate consisting of hydrophilic flat microwells separated by the superhydrophobic surface. The manufacturing process is robotic and includes patterning discrete protective masks to the substrate using 3D printing, robotic spray coating of silica nanoparticles, robotic mask removal, robotic mini silicone blocker patterning, automatic cell seeding, and liquid handling. Compared with a standard 96-well plate, our system increases the throughput by 2.25-fold and generates a cell-free area in each well non-destructively. Our system also demonstrates higher efficiency than conventional way of liquid handling using microwell plates, and shorter processing time than manual operating in migration assays. The superhydrophobic surface had no negative impact on cell viability. Using our system, we studied the collective migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and cancer cells using assays of endpoint

  19. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  20. Electronic collective modes and instabilities on semiconductor surfaces. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, A.; Hanke, W.

    1984-01-01

    A Green's-function theory of electronic collective modes is presented which leads to a practical scheme for a microscopic determination of surface elementary excitations in conducting as well as nonconducting solids. Particular emphasis is placed on semiconductor surfaces where the jellium approximation is not valid, due to the importance of density fluctuations on a microscopic scale (reflected in the local-field effects). Starting from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the two-particle Green's function of the surface system, an equation of motion for the electron-hole pair is obtained. Its solutions determine the energy spectra, lifetimes, and amplitudes of the surface elementary excitations, i.e., surface plasmons, excitons, polaritons, and magnons. Exchange and correlation effects are taken into account through the random-phase and time-dependent Hartree-Fock (screened electron-hole attraction) approximations. The formalism is applied to the study of electronic (charge- and spin-density) instabilities at covalent semiconductor surfaces. Quantitative calculations for an eight-layer Si(111) slab display an instability of the ideal paramagnetic surface with respect to spin-density waves with wavelength nearly corresponding to (2 x 1) and (7 x 7) superstructures

  1. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinský, P., E-mail: malinsky@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Hnatowicz, V., E-mail: hnatowicz@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Macková, A., E-mail: mackova@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-15

    A fast code for the simulation of common RBS spectra including surface roughness effects has been written and tested on virtual samples comprising either a rough layer deposited on a smooth substrate or smooth layer deposited on a rough substrate and simulated at different geometries. The sample surface or interface relief has been described by a polyline and the simulated RBS spectrum has been obtained as the sum of many particular spectra from randomly chosen particle trajectories. The code includes several procedures generating virtual samples with random and regular (periodical) roughness. The shape of the RBS spectra has been found to change strongly with increasing sample roughness and an increasing angle of the incoming ion beam.

  2. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Rick [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  3. Optimization of sampling for the determination of the mean Radium-226 concentration in surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.R.; Leggett, R.W.; Espegren, M.L.; Little, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes a field experiment that identifies an optimal method for determination of compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Ra-226 guidelines for soil. The primary goals were to establish practical levels of accuracy and precision in estimating the mean Ra-226 concentration of surface soil in a small contaminated region; to obtain empirical information on composite vs. individual soil sampling and on random vs. uniformly spaced sampling; and to examine the practicality of using gamma measurements in predicting the average surface radium concentration and in estimating the number of soil samples required to obtain a given level of accuracy and precision. Numerous soil samples were collected on each six sites known to be contaminated with uranium mill tailings. Three types of samples were collected on each site: 10-composite samples, 20-composite samples, and individual or post hole samples; 10-composite sampling is the method of choice because it yields a given level of accuracy and precision for the least cost. Gamma measurements can be used to reduce surface soil sampling on some sites. 2 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system (RSSAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barren, E.; Bracco, A.; Dorn, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose is to develop a rapid surface (concrete, steel) contamination measurement system that will provide a ''quick-look'' indication of contamination areas, an archival record, and an automated analysis. A bulk sampling oven is also being developed. The sampling device consists of a sampling head, a quick look detector, and an archiving system (sorbent tube). The head thermally desorbs semi-volatiles, such as PCBs, oils, etc., from concrete and steel surfaces; the volatilized materials are passed through a quick-look detector. Sensitivity of the detector can be attenuated for various contaminant levels. Volatilized materials are trapped in a tube filled with adsorbent. The tubes are housed in a magazine which also archives information about sampling conditions. Analysis of the tubes can be done at a later date. The concrete sampling head is fitted with a tungsten-halogen lamp; in laboratory experiments it has extracted model contaminants by heating the top 4mm of the surface to 250 C within 100-200 s. The steel sampling head has been tested on different types of steels and has extracted model contaminants within 30 s. A mathematical model of heat and mass transport in concrete has been developed. Rate of contaminant removal is at maximum when the moisture content is about 100 kg/m 3 . The system will be useful during decontamination and decommissioning operations

  5. Evaluation of surface sampling method performance for Bacillus Spores on clean and dirty outdoor surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Einfeld, Wayne; Boucher, Raymond M.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Tezak, Matthew Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Recovery of Bacillus atrophaeous spores from grime-treated and clean surfaces was measured in a controlled chamber study to assess sampling method performance. Outdoor surfaces investigated by wipe and vacuum sampling methods included stainless steel, glass, marble and concrete. Bacillus atrophaeous spores were used as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores in this study designed to assess whether grime-coated surfaces significantly affected surface sampling method performance when compared to clean surfaces. A series of chamber tests were carried out in which known amounts of spores were allowed to gravitationally settle onto both clean and dirty surfaces. Reference coupons were co-located with test coupons in all chamber experiments to provide a quantitative measure of initial surface concentrations of spores on all surfaces, thereby allowing sampling recovery calculations. Results from these tests, carried out under both low and high humidity conditions, show that spore recovery from grime-coated surfaces is the same as or better than spore recovery from clean surfaces. Statistically significant differences between method performance for grime-coated and clean surfaces were observed in only about half of the chamber tests conducted.

  6. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  7. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Goldberg, R.H.; Burnett, D.S.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1974-04-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19 (p, alpha gamma)O-16 was used to perform depth sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction was applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths of about 1 / 2 micrometer. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H 2 O surface contamination and a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H 2 O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with O-16 to simulate the radiation damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations were performed in a 1 pm surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19(alpha gamma)O-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint of lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination. (U.S.)

  8. Concordance analysis of methylation biomarkers detection in self-collected and physician-collected samples in cervical neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Cheng-Chang; Huang, Rui-Lan; Liao, Yu-Ping; Su, Po-Hsuan; Hsu, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Hui-Chen; Tien, Chau-Yang; Yu, Mu-Hsien; Lin, Ya-Wen; Lai, Hung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-attendance at gynecological clinics is a major limitation of cervical cancer screening and self-collection of samples may improve this situation. Although HPV testing of self-collected vaginal samples is acceptable, the specificity is inadequate. The current focus is increasing self-collection of vaginal samples to minimize clinic visits. In this study, we analyzed the concordance and clinical performance of DNA methylation biomarker (PAX1, SOX1, and ZNF582) detection in self-collected vaginal samples and physician-collected cervical samples for the identification of cervical neoplasm. We enrolled 136 cases with paired methylation data identified from abnormal Pap smears (n = 126) and normal controls (n = 10) regardless of HPV status at gynecological clinics. The study group comprised 37 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm I (CIN1), 23 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm II (CIN2), 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm III (CIN3), 30 carcinoma in situ (CIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and seven adenocarcinomas (ACs)/adenosquamous carcinomas (ASCs). PAX1, SOX1 and ZNF582 methylation in study samples was assessed by real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. We generated methylation index cutoff values for the detection of CIN3+ in physician-collected cervical samples for analysis of the self-collected group. Concordance between the physician-collected and self-collected groups was evaluated by Cohen’s Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity and area under curve (AUC) were calculated for detection of CIN3+ lesions. Finally, we produced an optimal cutoff value with the best sensitivity from the self-collected groups. We generated a methylation index cutoff value from physician-collected samples for detection of CIN3+. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity of PAX1, SOX1 and ZNF582 between the self-collected and physician-collected groups. The methylation status of all three genes in the normal control

  9. Rapid extraction and assay of uranium from environmental surface samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Christopher A.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Speakman, Robert J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Addleman, Raymond Shane

    2017-10-01

    Extraction methods enabling faster removal and concentration of uranium compounds for improved trace and low-level assay are demonstrated for standard surface sampling material in support of nuclear safeguards efforts, health monitoring, and other nuclear analysis applications. A key problem with the existing surface sampling swipes is the requirement for complete digestion of sample and sampling matrix. This is a time-consuming and labour-intensive process that limits laboratory throughput, elevates costs, and increases background levels. Various extraction methods are explored for their potential to quickly and efficiently remove different chemical forms of uranium from standard surface sampling material. A combination of carbonate and peroxide solutions is shown to give the most rapid and complete form of uranyl compound extraction and dissolution. This rapid extraction process is demonstrated to be compatible with standard inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods for uranium isotopic assay as well as screening techniques such as x-ray fluorescence. The general approach described has application beyond uranium to other analytes of nuclear forensic interest (e.g., rare earth elements and plutonium) as well as heavy metals for environmental and industrial hygiene monitoring.

  10. Fog Collection on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Fibers: Influence of Cross Section and Surface Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Krause, Tobias; Danter, Leon; Baars, Albert; Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2017-06-06

    Fog-collecting meshes show a great potential in ensuring the availability of a supply of sustainable freshwater in certain arid regions. In most cases, the meshes are made of hydrophilic smooth fibers. Based on the study of plant surfaces, we analyzed the fog collection using various polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers with different cross sections and surface structures with the aim of developing optimized biomimetic fog collectors. Water droplet movement and the onset of dripping from fiber samples were compared. Fibers with round, oval, and rectangular cross sections with round edges showed higher fog-collection performance than those with other cross sections. However, other parameters, for example, width, surface structure, wettability, and so forth, also influenced the performance. The directional delivery of the collected fog droplets by wavy/v-shaped microgrooves on the surface of the fibers enhances the formation of a water film and their fog collection. A numerical simulation of the water droplet spreading behavior strongly supports these findings. Therefore, our study suggests the use of fibers with a round cross section, a microgrooved surface, and an optimized width for an efficient fog collection.

  11. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Physiology and Molecular Biology for Fruit, Tree, Beijing 100193, China. ... analyzed on genetic diversity to ensure their represen- .... strategy, cluster and random sampling. .... on isozyme data―A simulation study, Theor.

  12. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  13. Evaluation of Skin Surface as an Alternative Source of Reference DNA Samples: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albujja, Mohammed H; Bin Dukhyil, Abdul Aziz; Chaudhary, Abdul Rauf; Kassab, Ahmed Ch; Refaat, Ahmed M; Babu, Saranya Ramesh; Okla, Mohammad K; Kumar, Sachil

    2018-01-01

    An acceptable area for collecting DNA reference sample is a part of the forensic DNA analysis development. The aim of this study was to evaluate skin surface cells (SSC) as an alternate source of reference DNA sample. From each volunteer (n = 10), six samples from skin surface areas (forearm and fingertips) and two traditional samples (blood and buccal cells) were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted and quantified then genotyped using standard techniques. The highest DNA concentration of SSC samples was collected using the tape/forearm method of collection (2.1 ng/μL). Cotton swabs moistened with ethanol yielded higher quantities of DNA than swabs moistened with salicylic acid, and it gave the highest percentage of full STR profiles (97%). This study supports the use of SSC as a noninvasive sampling technique and as a extremely useful source of DNA reference samples among certain cultures where the use of buccal swabs can be considered socially unacceptable. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  15. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  16. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  17. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  18. INTERACTION OF IMPULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS WITH SURFACES OF METAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavliouchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of maximum tangential component of magnetic intensity Hτm have been carried out in the paper. The measurements have been taken on the surface of metal samples according to time of single current pulse rise in the form of semi-sinusoid of a linear current wire. Measurements have been made with the purpose to determine a value of the component according to thickness of samples made of aluminium.Temporary resolution ranges of electric and magnetic properties and defects of sample continuity along the depth have been found.Empirical formulae of dependence Hτm on sample thickness have been derived and their relation with efficient depth penetration of magnetic field into metal has been found.

  19. Fabrication of Biomimetic Fog-Collecting Superhydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Surface Micropatterns Using Femtosecond Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Elisabeth; Stroj, Sandra; Kasemann, Stephan; Matylitsky, Victor; Domke, Matthias

    2018-03-06

    The exciting functionalities of natural superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces served as inspiration for a variety of biomimetic designs. In particular, the combination of both extreme wetting states to micropatterns opens up interesting applications, as the example of the fog-collecting Namib Desert beetle shows. In this paper, the beetle's elytra were mimicked by a novel three-step fabrication method to increase the fog-collection efficiency of glasses. In the first step, a double-hierarchical surface structure was generated on Pyrex wafers using femtosecond laser structuring, which amplified the intrinsic wetting property of the surface and made it superhydrophilic (water contact angle 150°). In the last step, the Teflon-like coating was selectively removed by fs-laser ablation to uncover superhydrophilic spots below the superhydrophobic surface, following the example of the Namib Desert beetle's fog-collecting elytra. To investigate the influence on the fog-collection behavior, (super)hydrophilic, (super)hydrophobic, and low and high contrast wetting patterns were fabricated on glass wafers using selected combinations of these three processing steps and were exposed to fog in an artificial nebulizer setup. This experiment revealed that high-contrast wetting patterns collected the highest amount of fog and enhanced the fog-collection efficiency by nearly 60% compared to pristine Pyrex glass. The comparison of the fog-collection behavior of the six samples showed that the superior fog-collection efficiency of surface patterns with extreme wetting contrast is due to the combination of water attraction and water repellency: the superhydrophilic spots act as drop accumulation areas, whereas the surrounding superhydrophobic areas allow a fast water transportation caused by gravity. The presented method enables a fast and flexible surface functionalization of a broad range of materials including transparent substrates, which offers exciting possibilities for

  20. Determination of the Presence of Three Antimicrobials in Surface Water Collected from Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cepeda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous release of antimicrobials into the environment, the aim of this study was to compare the frequency of detection of sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine and trimethoprim in surface water collected from urban and rural areas in Northwestern Spain. A monitoring study was conducted with 314 river water samples analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that 37% of the samples contained residues of at least one of the investigated antimicrobials, and every sampling site yielded positive samples. At sites located near the discharge points of wastewater treatment plants and near the collection point of a drinking-water treatment plant, more than 6% of the samples were positive for the presence of antimicrobial residues.

  1. Protocol for collecting eDNA samples from streams [Version 2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; T. Wilcox; M. K. Young; K. S. McKelvey; M. K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 2014 field season, we had over two dozen biologist throughout the western US collect over 300 samples for eDNA analysis with paired controls. Control samples were collected by filtering 0.5 L of distilled water. No samples had any evidence of field contamination. This method of sampling verifies the cleanliness of the field equipment, as well as the...

  2. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Classification of Surface and Deep Soil Samples Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Ali, M.; Daud, M.

    2015-01-01

    A statistical analysis was made of the activity concentrations measured in surface and deep soil samples for natural and anthropogenic gamma-emitting radionuclides. Soil samples were obtained from 48 different locations in Gilgit, Pakistan covering about 50 km/sup 2/ areas at an average altitude of 1550 m above sea level. From each location two samples were collected: one from the top soil (2-6 cm) and another from a depth of 6-10 cm. Four radionuclides including /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 40/K and /sup 137/Cs were quantified. The data was analyzed using t-test to find out activity concentration difference between the surface and depth samples. At the surface, the median activity concentrations were 23.7, 29.1, 4.6 and 115 Bq kg/sup -1/ for 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K respectively. For the same radionuclides, the activity concentrations were respectively 25.5, 26.2, 2.9 and 191 Bq kg/sup -1/ for the depth samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore patterns within the data. A positive significant correlation was observed between the radionuclides /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th. The data from PCA was further utilized in linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the classification of surface and depth samples. LDA classified surface and depth samples with good predictability. (author)

  4. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System. Topical report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 1 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large tacks of concern to both government and industry. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean materials can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmatory process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible. Aware of the shortcomings of traditional surface characterization technology, GE, with DOE support has undertaken a 12-month effort to complete Phase 1 of a proposed four-phase program to develop the RSSAR system. The objectives of this work are to provide instrumentation to cost-effectively sample concrete and steel surfaces, provide a quick-look indication for the presence or absence of contaminants, and collect samples for later, more detailed analysis in a readily accessible and addressable form. The Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System will be a modular instrument made up of several components: (1) sampling heads for concrete surfaces, steel surfaces, and bulk samples; (2) quick-look detectors for photoionization and ultraviolet; (3) multisample trapping module to trap and store vaporized contaminants in a manner suitable for subsequent detailed lab-based analyses

  5. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling for HPV DNA testing among women in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Alan J; Gage, Julia C; Alfaro, Karla M; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Villalta, Sofia; Miranda, Esmeralda; Cremer, Miriam L

    2014-08-01

    To determine the acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling among women participating in public sector HPV-based cervical cancer screening in El Salvador. Two thousand women aged 30-49 years underwent self-collected and provider-collected sampling with careHPV between October 2012 and March 2013 (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). After sample collection, a random sample of women (n=518) were asked about their experience. Participants were questioned regarding sampling method preference, previous cervical cancer screening, HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, HPV risk factors, and demographic information. All 518 women approached to participate in this questionnaire study agreed and were enrolled, 27.8% (142 of 511 responding) of whom had not received cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years and were considered under-screened. Overall, 38.8% (n=201) preferred self-collection and 31.9% (n=165) preferred provider collection. Self-collection preference was associated with prior tubal ligation, HPV knowledge, future self-sampling preference, and future home-screening preference (P<0.05). Reasons for self-collection preference included privacy/embarrassment, ease, and less pain; reasons cited for provider-collection preference were result accuracy and provider knowledge/experience. Self-sampling was found to be acceptable, therefore screening programs could consider offering this option either in the clinic or at home. Self-sampling at home may increase coverage in low-resource countries and reduce the burden that screening places upon clinical infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  7. Benthic foraminiferal census data from Mobile Bay, Alabama--counts of surface samples and box cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Kathryn A.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to understand recent environmental change in Mobile Bay, Alabama. For this study a series of surface sediment and box core samples was collected. The surface benthic foraminiferal data provide the modern baseline conditions of the bay and can be used as a reference for changing paleoenvironmental parameters recorded in the box cores. The 14 sampling locations were chosen in the bay to cover the wide diversity of fluvial and marine-influenced environments on both sides of the shipping channel.

  8. Equipment for collecting samples of radioactive solutions; Installation de prelevements d'echantillons de solutions radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, A.; Fradin, J.; Joubert, G.

    1958-12-03

    The authors present an equipment aimed at collecting samples of fission products to perform radio-chemical analysis. As the sample must have a total activity between 1 and 50 micro-Curie, this installation comprises a sampling system and a dilution device which aims at bringing the sample to the suitable activity. Samples are collected by means of needles. The sample reproducibility is discussed. The dilution device is described.

  9. Milk samples collected with filter paper for progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiahua, Zhang; Guoxia, Geng; Huaiyu, Zhang

    1985-09-01

    The cow milk was collected with filter paper treated with ethanol during eastrus-day (0 day) and 22th and 24th day after mating. Then it was dried and stored in room temprature until analysis for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivity is 13.62 pg/bule (n = 4), the coefficients of variation within a group and between groups are 8.8% (n = 10) and 16.65% (n = 8) respectively, and the recovery is 91.23% (n = 4). The average progesterone level for 22th and 24th day in the pregnant cows (6.28 +- 1.28 ng/ml) was much higher than that in the non-pregnant cow (2.00 +- 1.18 ng/ml), the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The judgement based on progesterone level (5 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows) faily agreed with the clinical diagnosis.

  10. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent [Central Missouri State Univ., Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  11. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  12. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  13. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self... cleanup verification conducted in accordance with § 761.61(a)(6), follow the procedures in paragraph (b... verification conducted in accordance with § 761.61(a)(6), follow the procedures in this section for locating...

  14. The Autism Simplex Collection : an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Bolshakova, Nadia; Brownfeld, Jessica M.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Bender, Patrick; Bernier, Raphael; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Freitag, Christine M.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods: In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection ...

  15. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  16. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-04 to 2005-09-26 (NODC Accession 0108087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108087 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-06-06 to 2007-07-03 (NODC Accession 0108090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108090 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients, and other variables collected from surface only or profile discrete sampling observations using Niskin bottle and other instruments in the Gulf of Alaska region from 2007-05-19 to 2013-07-22 (NCEI Accession 0132049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package includes environmental data from the Gulf of Alaska region. Samples were collected between May 2007 and July 2013.

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-10-16 to 2012-03-06 (NCEI Accession 0157351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157351 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, Southern...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-11-01 to 2006-11-30 (NODC Accession 0108089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108089 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-09-03 to 2007-09-24 (NODC Accession 0108091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108091 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  3. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    , Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return, and Comet Surface Sample Return, all of which were named in the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2013-2022. We are fully committed to pushing the boundaries of curation protocol as humans continue to push the boundaries of space exploration and sample return. However, to improve our ability to curate astromaterials collections of the future and to provide maximum protection to any returned samples, it is imperative that curation involvement commences at the time of mission conception. When curation involvement is at the ground floor of mission planning, it provides a mechanism by which the samples can be protected against project-level decisions that could undermine the scientific value of the re-turned samples. A notable example of one of the bene-fits of early curation involvement in mission planning is in the acquisition of contamination knowledge (CK). CK capture strategies are designed during the initial planning stages of a sample return mission, and they are to be implemented during all phases of the mission from assembly, test, and launch operations (ATLO), through cruise and mission operations, to the point of preliminary examination after Earth return. CK is captured by witness materials and coupons exposed to the contamination environment in the assembly labs and on the space craft during launch, cruise, and operations. These materials, along with any procedural blanks and returned flight-hardware, represent our CK capture for the returned samples and serves as a baseline from which analytical results can be vetted. Collection of CK is a critical part of being able to conduct and interpret data from organic geochemistry and biochemistry investigations of returned samples. The CK samples from a given mission are treated as part of the sample collection of that mission, hence they are part of the permanent archive that is maintained by the NASA curation Office. We are in the midst of collecting witness plates and

  4. Collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-11-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective configuration to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without significant heating of the background gas. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinusoidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or diffuse, laterally homogeneous discharges. The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to self-organization of current filaments and pattern formation. Major similarities of the two types of barrier discharges are elaborated.

  5. Laboratory Studies on Surface Sampling of Bacillus anthracis Contamination: Summary, Gaps, and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Hu, Rebecca

    2011-11-28

    This report summarizes previous laboratory studies to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing/transporting, processing, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis or related surrogates. The focus is on plate culture and count estimates of surface contamination for swab, wipe, and vacuum samples of porous and nonporous surfaces. Summaries of the previous studies and their results were assessed to identify gaps in information needed as inputs to calculate key parameters critical to risk management in biothreat incidents. One key parameter is the number of samples needed to make characterization or clearance decisions with specified statistical confidence. Other key parameters include the ability to calculate, following contamination incidents, the (1) estimates of Bacillus anthracis contamination, as well as the bias and uncertainties in the estimates, and (2) confidence in characterization and clearance decisions for contaminated or decontaminated buildings. Gaps in knowledge and understanding identified during the summary of the studies are discussed and recommendations are given for future studies.

  6. The concentration of Cs, Sr and other elements in water samples collected in a paddy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Yanai-Kudo, Masumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Torikai, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    To research elemental concentrations in soil water in a paddy field, samples of the soil water were collected with porous Teflon resin tubes which were buried in the field. The soil water collections were made at various depth, 2.5, 12.5, 25 and 35 cm from the surface in the paddy field, located in Rokkasho, Aomori, once every two weeks during the rice cultivation period, from May to October in 1998. The paddy field was irrigated from May 7th to July 20th, dried from July 20th to August 5th, then again irrigated until September 16th. Drastic changes of the alkaline earth metal elements, Fe and Mn in soil water samples were seen at the beginning and end of the midsummer drainage. The concentrations of Cs, Fe, Mn and NH 4 in soil water samples showed a similar variation pattern to that of alkaline earth metal elements in the waterlogged period. The change of redox potential was considered a possible cause for the concentration variation for these substances. (author)

  7. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling. Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area

  8. Protocol for Microplastics Sampling on the Sea Surface and Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač Viršek, Manca; Palatinus, Andreja; Koren, Špela; Peterlin, Monika; Horvat, Petra; Kržan, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic pollution in the marine environment is a scientific topic that has received increasing attention over the last decade. The majority of scientific publications address microplastic pollution of the sea surface. The protocol below describes the methodology for sampling, sample preparation, separation and chemical identification of microplastic particles. A manta net fixed on an »A frame« attached to the side of the vessel was used for sampling. Microplastic particles caught in the cod end of the net were separated from samples by visual identification and use of stereomicroscopes. Particles were analyzed for their size using an image analysis program and for their chemical structure using ATR-FTIR and micro FTIR spectroscopy. The described protocol is in line with recommendations for microplastics monitoring published by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter. This written protocol with video guide will support the work of researchers that deal with microplastics monitoring all over the world. PMID:28060297

  9. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  10. Self-Collected versus Clinician-Collected Sampling for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunny, Carole; Taylor, Darlene; Hoang, Linda; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background The increases in STI rates since the late 1990s in Canada have occurred despite widespread primary care and targeted public health programs and in the setting of universal health care. More innovative interventions are required that would eliminate barriers to STI testing such as internet-based or mail-in home and community service testing for patients that are hard to reach, who refuse to go for clinician-based testing, or who decline an examination. Jurisdictions such as New Zealand and some American states currently use self-collected sampling, but without the required evidence to determine whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens in terms of chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the review is to compare self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal samples to our reference standard - clinician-collected cervical, urethral, pharyngeal and rectal sampling techniques to identify a positive specimen using nucleic acid amplification test assays. Methods The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and the fixed effect models were used to assess the accuracy of comparable specimens that were collected by patients compared to clinicians. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as our main outcome measures. Findings We included 21 studies based on over 6100 paired samples. Fourteen included studies examined chlamydia only, 6 compared both gonorrhea and chlamydia separately in the same study, and one examined gonorrhea. The six chlamydia studies comparing self-collection by vaginal swab to a clinician-collected cervical swab had the highest sensitivity (92%, 95% CI 87-95) and specificity (98%, 95% CI 97-99), compared to other specimen-types (urine/urethra or urine/cervix). Six studies compared urine self-samples to urethra clinician-collected samples in males and produced a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 83-93) and a specificity of

  11. Fragments shored against ruins : Denis Byrne’s surface collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Denis Byrne’s Surface Collection is a finely written philosophical travelogue, taking the reader on an archaeological tour of South Asia that is also a personal quest and a critique of heritage conservation. Its closely organised structure, reminiscent of baroque music, begins with an investigation of the modes of erasure or preservation of the recent past in South East Asia, shifts to an ironic narrative of futile quests for historical traces, and concludes with reflections on the clash of popular Buddhist relic worship with the values of heritage conservation. Byrne stages the latter conflict as between magical and rationalistic worldviews. Mildly dissenting, this essay suggests that although heritage conservation deploys scientific meanss, it is based on the sacralisation of the past. This motivation brings it closer to magic than to core tenets of Enlightenment, either of the Rational or the Buddhist kind.

  12. Fragments Shored against Ruins: Denis Byrne’s Surface Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gillen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Denis Byrne’s Surface Collection is a finely written philosophical travelogue, taking the reader on an archaeological tour of South Asia that is also a personal quest and a critique of heritage conservation. Its closely organised structure, reminiscent of baroque music, begins with an investigation of the modes of erasure or preservation of the recent past in South East Asia, shifts to an ironic narrative of futile quests for historical traces, and concludes with reflections on the clash of popular Buddhist relic worship with the values of heritage conservation. Byrne stages the latter conflict as between magical and rationalistic worldviews. Mildly dissenting, this essay suggests that although heritage conservation deploys scientific meanss, it is based on the sacralisation of the past. This motivation brings it closer to magic than to core tenets of Enlightenment, either of the Rational or the Buddhist kind.

  13. Centrifugation-Assisted Fog-Collecting Abilities of Metal-Foam Structures with Different Surface Wettabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Keju; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Jia; Meng, Guiyun; Ding, Yafei; Dai, Zhendong

    2016-04-20

    The collection of water from fog is a simple and sustainable means of obtaining freshwater for human and animal consumption. Herein, we address the use of metal foam in fog collection and present a novel fog-collecting device fabricated from copper foam. This device, which can also be used in other liquid-gas separation applications, is a 3D extension of biologically inspired 1D and 2D materials. The network structure of the 3D material effectively increased the contact area and interaction time of the skeleton structure and fog compared to those of traditional 2D fog-collecting materials. The main aspects investigated in this study were the influences of the inertial centrifugal force generated by rotating the metal-foam samples and the use of samples with different surface wettabilities on the fog-collecting performance. Superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic samples were found to have higher collection efficiencies at low and high rotational speeds, respectively, and a maximum efficiency of 86% was achieved for superhydrophobic copper foam (20 pores per inch) rotated at 1500 rpm.

  14. Self-collected versus clinician-collected sampling for sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Darlene; Lunny, Carole; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Li, Neville; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Hoang, Linda; Ogilvie, Gina

    2013-10-10

    Three meta-analyses and one systematic review have been conducted on the question of whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens for STI screening. However, these reviews predate 2007 and did not analyze rectal or pharyngeal collection sites. Currently, there is no consensus on which sampling method is the most effective for the diagnosis of genital chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC) or human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Our meta-analysis aims to be comprehensive in that it will examine the evidence of whether self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal specimens provide as accurate a clinical diagnosis as clinician-collected samples (reference standard). Eligible studies include both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, pre- and post-test designs, and controlled observational studies. The databases that will be searched include the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), EMBASE and PubMed/Medline. Data will be abstracted independently by two reviewers using a standardized pre-tested data abstraction form. Heterogeneity will be assessed using the Q2 test. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals as well as negative and positive likelihood ratios will be pooled and weighted using random effects meta-analysis, if appropriate. A hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics curve for self-collected specimens will be generated. This synthesis involves a meta-analysis of self-collected samples (urine, vaginal, pharyngeal and rectal swabs) versus clinician-collected samples for the diagnosis of CT, GC and HPV, the most prevalent STIs. Our systematic review will allow patients, clinicians and researchers to determine the diagnostic accuracy of specimens collected by patients compared to those collected by clinicians in the detection of chlamydia, gonorrhea and HPV.

  15. Distribution coefficient Kd in surface soils collected in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Soil-solution distribution coefficients (Kds), which are the ratio of an element concentration in a soil solid phase to that in a solution phase, for 32 elements in Andosols, Wet Andosols and Gleyed Andosols collected throughout Aomori Prefecture were determined. A dried soil sample was mixed with a 10-fold amount of pure water in a PPCO centrifuge tube, and then gently shaken for 24 h. The Kd values were obtained by measurement of element concentrations in solid and solution phases (batch method). The Kd values in this work were up to three orders of magnitude higher than the IAEA reported values, and their 95% confidence intervals were within two orders of magnitude. Most Kd values of elements were decreasing with increasing electrical conductivity of the solution phase. The Kd of Ca had a good correlation with that of Sr. However, the correlation between the Kds of K and Cs was not good. The Kd values were also determined by another method. The soil solutions were separated from the fresh soil samples by means of high speed centrifuging. The Kd values were calculated from the element concentration in solid phase and soil solution (centrifugation method). The Kd values obtained by the centrifugation method agreed within one order of magnitude with those by the batch method, and both variation patterns in elements correlated well. (author)

  16. Semi-automatic surface sediment sampling system - A prototype to be implemented in bivalve fishing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Marta M.; Baptista, Paulo; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2018-01-01

    In the current work we propose a new method to sample surface sediment during bivalve fishing surveys. Fishing institutes all around the word carry out regular surveys with the aim of monitoring the stocks of commercial species. These surveys comprise often more than one hundred of sampling stations and cover large geographical areas. Although superficial sediment grain sizes are among the main drivers of benthic communities and provide crucial information for studies on coastal dynamics, overall there is a strong lack of this type of data, possibly, because traditional surface sediment sampling methods use grabs, that require considerable time and effort to be carried out on regular basis or on large areas. In face of these aspects, we developed an easy and un-expensive method to sample superficial sediments, during bivalve fisheries monitoring surveys, without increasing survey time or human resources. The method was successfully evaluated and validated during a typical bivalve survey carried out on the Northwest coast of Portugal, confirming that it had any interference with the survey objectives. Furthermore, the method was validated by collecting samples using a traditional Van Veen grabs (traditional method), which showed a similar grain size composition to the ones collected by the new method, on the same localities. We recommend that the procedure is implemented on regular bivalve fishing surveys, together with an image analysis system to analyse the collected samples. The new method will provide substantial quantity of data on surface sediment in coastal areas, using a non-expensive and efficient manner, with a high potential application in different fields of research.

  17. 77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration... Sampling'' to more accurately reflect the type of information that is collected. Chronic exposure to... dust levels since 1970 and, consequently, the prevalence rate of black lung among coal miners, severe...

  18. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an In-Service Interim Storage System at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2016-10-01

    In July, 2016, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners performed a field test at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site, located near Wiscasset, Maine. The primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of an in-service interim storage canister within an overpack; however, as part of the demonstration, dust and soluble salt samples were collected from horizontal surfaces within the interim storage system. The storage system is a vertical system made by NAC International, consisting of a steel-lined concrete overpack containing a 304 stainless steel (SS) welded storage canister. The canister did not contain spent fuel but rather greater-than-class-C waste, which did not generate significant heat, limiting airflow through the storage system. The surfaces that were sampled for deposits included the top of the shield plug, the side of the canister, and a shelf at the bottom of the overpack, just below the level of the pillar on which the canister sits. The samples were sent to Sandia National Laboratories for analysis. This report summarizes the results of those analyses. Because the primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of the canister within the overpack, collection of dust samples was carried out in a qualitative fashion, using paper filters and sponges as the sampling media. The sampling focused mostly on determining the composition of soluble salts present in the dust. It was anticipated that a wet substrate would more effectively extract soluble salts from the surface that was sampled, so both the sponges and the filter paper were wetted prior to being applied to the surface of the metal. Sampling was accomplished by simply pressing the damp substrate against the metal surface for two minutes, and then removing it. It is unlikely that the sampling method quantitatively collected dust or salts from the metal surface; however, both substrates did extract a

  19. Data Validation Package October 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Sampling Period: October 10–12, 2016. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Samples were collected from 54 of 64 planned locations (16 of 17 former mill site wells, 15 of 18 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 3 of 3 bedrock wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations).

  20. Theorical and practical bases for blood sample collection from the heel of newborns for neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vela-Amieva

    2014-07-01

    collected in a special filter paper (Guthrie’s card. Despite its apparent simplicity, NBS laboratories commonly receive a large number of samples collected incorrectly and technically unsuitable for perfor4ming biochemical determinations. The aim of the present paper is to offer recommendations based on scientific evidence, for the properly blood collection on filter paper for NBS programs.

  1. Trace Elements Analysis of Archeological Brick Samples Collected from Different Historical Placs in Rajshahi Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Shapan K.; Matin, Mohammed A.; Hoque, Mohammed M.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-nine brick samples were collected from different temples and palaces, namely Paharpur, Kumarpur, Gaurbari, Puthia and Natore in Rajshahi Division in Bangladesh. The samples were analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) method. The elemental data sets have been analyzed in order to find out the general characteristics and any significant differences among the collected samples and identify the origin of these brick samples. Most of the crustal elements have enrichment factor (EF) values close to unity. Only Cu and Pb have high values that may come from painting as these have been collected from temples and palaces.(author)

  2. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  3. Surface chemical characterization of PM{sub 10} samples by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzei, Davide, E-mail: datzei@unica.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Cagliari, Complesso Universitario di Monserrato, S.S. 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Fantauzzi, Marzia; Rossi, Antonella [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Cagliari, Complesso Universitario di Monserrato, S.S. 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Fermo, Paola [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Piazzalunga, Andrea [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi Milano, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Ambiente e del territorio, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, I-20122 Milano (Italy); Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Samples of particulate matter (PM) collected in the city of Milan during wintertime were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal optical transmittance (TOT), ionic chromatography (IC) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in order to compare quantitative bulk analysis and surface analysis. In particular, the analysis of surface carbon is here presented following a new approach for the C1s curve fitting aiming this work to prove the capability of XPS to discriminate among elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) and to quantify the carbon-based compounds that might be present in the PM. Since surface of urban PM is found to be rich in carbon it is important to be able to distinguish between the different species. XPS results indicate that aromatic and aliphatic species are adsorbed on the PM surface. Higher concentrations of (EC) are present in the bulk. Also nitrogen and sulfur were detected on the surfaces and a qualitative and quantitative analysis is provided. Surface concentration of sulfate ion is equal to that found by bulk analysis; moreover surface analysis shows an additional signal due to organic sulfur not detectable by the other methods. Surface appears to be also enriched in nitrogen.

  4. FLOQSwabTM: optimisation of procedures for the recovery of microbiological samples from surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Finazzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The FLOQSwabTM is a specimen collection device worldwide recognised for its superior performance in the clinical diagnostics. The aim of this work was to evaluate FLOQSwabTM for the recovery of microbiological samples from surfaces compared to the traditional swab (rayon tipped swab as per ISO 18593:2004 standard. The FLOQSwabTM, thanks to its innovative manufacturing technology, allows improving the efficiency of recovery and release of analyte. The study has been divided into two experiments. In the first experiment the two swabs were evaluated for their capacity to recover and release the analyte (three different bacterial loads of Escherichia coli. In the second experiment, the two swabs were evaluated for their capacity to recover three different bacterial loads of E. coli from two different surface materials (stainless steel and polypropylene. In all experiments the flocked swab demonstrated a higher recovery rate compared to the traditional rayon tipped swab. The data obtained from this preliminary study demonstrated that the FLOQSwabTM could be a good food surfaces collection device, which improves the recovery of the analyte and thus produces accurate results. Based on the outcomes of the study, a larger field study is in progress using the FLOQSwabTM for samples collection to improve both environmental monitoring and the efficacy of the hygiene controls for food safety.

  5. Differential efficiencies of dip-net sampling versus sampling surface-floating pupal exuviae in a biodiversity survey of Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Charles Ferrington Jr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative efficiencies of standard dip-net sampling (SDN versus collections of surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE were determined for detecting Chironomidae at catchment and site scales and at subfamily/tribe-, genus- and species-levels based on simultaneous, equal-effort sampling on a monthly basis for one year during a biodiversity assessment of Bear Run Nature Reserve. Results showed SFPE was more efficient than SDN at catchment scales for detecting both genera and species. At site scales, SDN sampling was more efficient for assessment of a first-order site. No consistent pattern, except for better efficiency of SFPE to detect Orthocladiinae genera, was observed at genus-level for two second-order sites. However, SFPE was consistently more efficient at detecting species of Orthocladiinae, Chironomini and Tanytarsini at the second order sites. SFPE was more efficient at detecting both genera and species at two third-order sites. The differential efficiencies of the two methods are concluded to be related to stream order and size, substrate size, flow and water velocity, depth and habitat heterogeneity, and differential ability to discriminate species among pupal exuviae specimens versus larval specimens. Although both approaches are considered necessary for comprehensive biodiversity assessments of Chironomidae, our results suggest that there is an optimal, but different, allocation of sampling effort for detecting Chironomidae across stream orders and at differing spatial and taxonomic scales.Article submitted 13. August 2014, accepted 31. October 2014, published 22. December 2014.

  6. 78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... soliciting comments concerning the proposed information collection for updating Radiation Sampling and... exposed with no adverse effects have been established and are expressed as working levels (WL). The... mandatory samplings. Records must include the sample date, location, and results, and must be retained at...

  7. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cyril V [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  8. [Establishment and Management of Multicentral Collection Bio-sample Banks of Malignant Tumors from Digestive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Si; Shen, Junwei; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Dongliang; Yu, Hongyu; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yi

    2015-11-01

    To establish and manage of multicentral collection bio-sample banks of malignant tumors from digestive system, the paper designed a multicentral management system, established the standard operation procedures (SOPs) and leaded ten hospitals nationwide to collect tumor samples. The biobank has been established for half a year, and has collected 695 samples from patients with digestive system malignant tumor. The clinical data is full and complete, labeled in a unified way and classified to be managed. The clinical and molecular biology researches were based on the biobank, and obtained achievements. The biobank provides a research platform for malignant tumor of digestive system from different regions and of different types.

  9. Characteristic of selected frequency luminescence for samples collected in deserts north to Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxu; Wei Mingjian; Wang Junping; Pan Baolin; Zhao Shiyuan; Liu Zhaowen

    2009-01-01

    Surface sand samples were collected in eight sites of the Horqin and Otindag deserts located in north to Beijing. BG2003 luminescence spectrograph was used to analyze the emitted photons and characteristic spectra of the selected frequency luminescence were obtained. It was found that high intensities of emitted photons stimulated by heat from 85 degree C-135 degree C and 350 degree C-400 degree C. It belong to the traps of 4.13 eV (300 nm), 4.00 eV (310 nm), 3.88 eV (320 nm) and 2.70 eV (460 nm), and the emitted photons belong to traps of 4.00 eV (310 nm), 3.88 eV (320 nm) and 2.70 eV (460 nm) were stimulated by green laser. And sand samples of the eight sites can respond to the increase of definite radiological dose at each wavelength, which is the characteristic spectrum to provide radiation dosimetry basis for dating. There are definite district characteristic in their characteristic spectra. (authors)

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS FOR HYDROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MODIFICATION OF STANDARD TOOLS FOR SAMPLE COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aligadjiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper discusses the improvement of methods of hydrobiological studies by modifying tools for plankton and benthic samples collecting. Methods. In order to improve the standard methods of hydro-biological research, we have developed tools for sampling zooplankton and benthic environment of the Caspian Sea. Results. Long-term practice of selecting hydrobiological samples in the Caspian Sea shows that it is required to complete the modernization of the sampling tools used to collect hydrobiological material. With the introduction of Azov and Black Sea invasive comb jelly named Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz to the Caspian Sea there is a need to collect plankton samples without disturbing its integrity. Tools for collecting benthic fauna do not always give a complete picture of the state of benthic ecosystems because of the lack of visual site selection for sampling. Moreover, while sampling by dredge there is a probable loss of the samples, especially in areas with difficult terrain. Conclusion. We propose to modify a small model of Upstein net (applied in shallow water to collect zooplankton samples with an upper inverted cone that will significantly improve the catchability of the net in theCaspian Sea. Bottom sampler can be improved by installing a video camera for visual inspection of the bottom topography, and use sensors to determine tilt of the dredge and the position of the valves of the bucket. 

  11. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    concentrations and bacteriological content. Evaluation of the results ... and Aninri local government areas of Enugu state. Surface water ... surface water bodies are prone to impacts from ... Coal Measures (Akamigbo, 1987). The geologic map ...

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of earth materials collected by research personnel over the course of its history. In 2006, a Geologic Collections Inventory was conducted within the USGS Geology Discipline to determine the extent and nature of its sample collections, and in 2008, a working group was convened by the USGS National Geologic and Geophysical Data Preservation Program to examine ways in which these collections could be coordinated, cataloged, and made available to researchers both inside and outside the USGS. The charge to this working group was to evaluate the proposition of creating a Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a centralized database that would (1) identify all existing USGS geologic collections, regardless of size, (2) create a virtual link among the collections, and (3) provide a way for scientists and other researchers to obtain access to the samples and data in which they are interested. Additionally, the group was instructed to develop criteria for evaluating current collections and to establish an operating plan and set of standard practices for handling, identifying, and managing future sample collections. Policies and procedures promoted by the GCMS would be based on extant best practices established by the National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution. The resulting report—USGS Circular 1410, “The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): A Master Catalog and Collections Management Plan for U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Samples and Sample Collections”—has been developed for sample repositories to be a guide to establishing common practices in the collection, retention, and disposal of geologic research materials throughout the USGS.

  13. Directed transport by surface chemical potential gradients for enhancing analyte collection in nanoscale sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Amit; Hess, Henry

    2015-05-13

    Nanoscale detectors hold great promise for single molecule detection and the analysis of small volumes of dilute samples. However, the probability of an analyte reaching the nanosensor in a dilute solution is extremely low due to the sensor's small size. Here, we examine the use of a chemical potential gradient along a surface to accelerate analyte capture by nanoscale sensors. Utilizing a simple model for transport induced by surface binding energy gradients, we study the effect of the gradient on the efficiency of collecting nanoparticles and single and double stranded DNA. The results indicate that chemical potential gradients along a surface can lead to an acceleration of analyte capture by several orders of magnitude compared to direct collection from the solution. The improvement in collection is limited to a relatively narrow window of gradient slopes, and its extent strongly depends on the size of the gradient patch. Our model allows the optimization of gradient layouts and sheds light on the fundamental characteristics of chemical potential gradient induced transport.

  14. Uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments collected in Ghazaouet, west coast of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B.; Hocini, N.; Boulahdid, M.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of surface marine sediments of different grain sizes collected in Ghazaouet, a small bay on the western coast of Algeria, have been examined to measure concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides. The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity and its repartition in the sedimentary area. The samples analyzed by direct counting gamma spectrometry, showed relatively high activities for natural radioactivity and revealed measurable quantities of 137 Cs, ranging from 0.66-8.47 Bq kg -1 dry weight. In addition, some of the samples of different nature were sieved in different grain-sizes, to study the uptake of radioactivity. It is found that the sediments of less than 100 μm grain-size have the highest level of uptake of radioactivity

  15. Uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments collected in Ghazaouet, west coast of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B. [Laboratoire d' Environnement, Centre de Radioprotection et de Surete (C.R.S.), Algiers (Algeria); Hocini, N. [Laboratoire de Sedimentologie, Centre de Developpement des Techniques Nucleaires (C.D.T.N.), Algiers (Algeria); Boulahdid, M. [Departement de la Pollution Chimique, Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l' Amenagement du Littoral, Tipaza (Algeria)

    1998-12-01

    Samples of surface marine sediments of different grain sizes collected in Ghazaouet, a small bay on the western coast of Algeria, have been examined to measure concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides. The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity and its repartition in the sedimentary area. The samples analyzed by direct counting gamma spectrometry, showed relatively high activities for natural radioactivity and revealed measurable quantities of {sup 137}Cs, ranging from 0.66-8.47 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight. In addition, some of the samples of different nature were sieved in different grain-sizes, to study the uptake of radioactivity. It is found that the sediments of less than 100 {mu}m grain-size have the highest level of uptake of radioactivity.

  16. Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Risa; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Ishiyama, Momoko; Ryuda, Noriko; Someya, Takashi; Tokumoto, Ieyasu; Ueno, Daisuke

    2018-01-13

    Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

  17. Baseline geochemical data for stream sediment and surface water samples from Panther Creek, the Middle Fork of the Salmon River, and the Main Salmon River from North Fork to Corn Creek, collected prior to the severe wildfires of 2000 in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann; Crock, James G.; Meier, Allen; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance baseline geochemical study in central Idaho. The purpose of the baseline study was to establish a 'geochemical snapshot' of the area, as a datum for monitoring future change in the geochemical landscape, whether natural or human-induced. This report presents the methology, analytical results, and sample descriptions for water, sediment, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples collected during this geochemical investigation. In the summer of 2000, the Clear Creek, Little Pistol, and Shellrock wildfires swept across much of the area that was sampled. Thus, these data represent a pre-fire baseline geochemical dataset. A 2001 post- fire study is planned and will involve re-sampling of the pre-fire baseline sites, to allow for pre- and post-fire comparison.

  18. Tritium concentrations in environmental water and food samples collected around the vicinity of the PNPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.Y.; Enriquez, S.O.; Duran, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of tritium in environmental samples collected around the vicinity and more distant environment of the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-1) in Bataan were assessed. The samples analyzed consisted of water samples such as seawater, freshwater, drinking water, groundwater and rainwater; and food samples such as cereals, vegetables, fruits; meat, milk fish and crustaceans. Tritium concentrations in water samples were determined by distillation and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The food samples were analyzed for tissue-free water tritium by the freezing-drying method followed by liquid scintillation counting techniques. (Auth.) 13 refs

  19. Normalisation of spot urine samples to 24-h collection for assessment of exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, R.; Katorza, E.; Gonen, R.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.; Pelled, O.; Paz-tal, O.; Adout, A.; Karpas, Z.

    2008-01-01

    For dose assessment of workers at Nuclear Research Center Negev exposed to natural uranium, spot urine samples are analysed and the results are normalised to 24-h urine excretion based on 'standard' man urine volume of 1.6 l d -1 . In the present work, the urine volume, uranium level and creatinine concentration were determined in two or three 24-h urine collections from 133 male workers (319 samples) and 33 female workers (88 samples). Three volunteers provided urine spot samples from each voiding during a 24-h period and a good correlation was found between the relative level of creatinine and uranium in spot samples collected from the same individual. The results show that normalisation of uranium concentration to creatinine in a spot sample represents the 24-h content of uranium better than normalisation to the standard volume and may be used to reduce the uncertainty of dose assessment based on spot samples. (authors)

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  1. [Diversity of Bacillus species inhabiting on the surface and endophyte of lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cibin; Liu, Bo; Che, Jianmei; Chen, Meichun; Liu, Guohong; Wei, Jiangchun

    2015-05-04

    The present work reported the isolation, identification and diversity of Bacillus species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain. Nine lichen samples of Evernia, Stereocaulon, Menegazzia and other 6 genera belonging to 7 families were collected from Wuyi mountain nature reserve. The bacillus-like species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in these lichens were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. There was no bacillus-like species isolated from Evernia, Ramalina and Lecarona. A total of 34 bacillus-like bacteria were isolated from another 6 lichen samples. These bacteria were identified as 24 species and were classified into Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillus. Paenibacillus and Bacillus are the dominant genera, and accounting for 41. 2% and 35. 3% of all isolated bacteria respectively. Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillu were first reported being isolated from lichens. There were different species and quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in different lichens. The quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface of Physcia was more than 3.85 x 10(6) cfu/g and was the largest in the isolated bacteria, while the species of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in Stereocaulon was the most abundant. Most of the isolated bacteria were colonizing on (in) one lichen genera, but Paenibacillus taichungensis, Paenibacillus odorifer, Brevibacillus agri, Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus was respectively colonizing on (in) 2-3 lichen genera and Bacillus mycoides was colonizing on (in) Menegazzia, Cladonia Physcia, and Stereocaulon. There are species and quantity diversity of bacillus colonizing on (in) lichens.

  2. The Martian surface as imaged, sampled, and analyzed by the Viking landers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidson, R.E.; Gooding, J.L.; Moore, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected by two Viking landers are analyzed. Attention is given to the characteristics of the surface inferred from Lander imaging and meteorology data, physical and magnetic properties experiments, and both inorganic and organic analyses of Martian samples. Viking Lander 1 touched down on Chryse Planitia on July 20, 1976 and continued to operate for 2252 sols, until November 20, 1982. Lander 2 touched down about 6500 km away from Lander 1, on Utopia Planitia on September 3, 1976. The chemical compositions of sediments at the two landing sites are similar, suggesting an aeolian origin. The compositions suggest an iron-rich rock an are matched by various clays and salts. 89 refs

  3. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  4. An international study of the performance of sample collection from patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzik, WH; Murphy, MF; Andreu, G; Heddle, N; Hogman, C; Kekomaki, R; Murphy, S; Shimizu, M; Smit Sibinga, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Objectives Collection of a blood sample from the correct patient is the first step in the process of safe transfusion. The aim of this international collaborative study was to assess the frequency of mislabelled and miscollected samples drawn for blood grouping. Materials and Methods

  5. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of ... Conclusion: Acceptability of self-sampling for HPV testing was similarly excellent in both groups despite their difference in terms ... cancer is the leading cause of death caused by cancer in.

  6. Insights into explosion dynamics at Stromboli in 2009 from ash samples collected in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Lautze, N.; Andronico, D.; D'Auria, L.; Niemeijer, A.; Houghton, B.; Scarlato, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rapid characterization of tephra during explosive eruptions can provide valuable insights into eruptive mechanisms, also integrating other monitoring systems. Here we reveal a perspective on Stromboli's conduit processes by linking ash textures to geophysical estimates of eruption parameters of observed explosions. A three day campaign at Stromboli was undertaken by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in October 2009. At this time activity was moderately intense, with an average 4 to 5, both ash-rich and ash-poor, explosions per hour at each the SW and NE vents. A total of fifteen ash samples were collected in real time. We used binocular and scanning electron microscopes to analyze the components, grain size and morphology distributions, and surface chemistry of ash particles within eight selected samples. In addition, the INGV monitoring network provided visual, thermal, and seismic information on the explosions that generated the sampled ash. In each sample, the proportion of fluidal, glassy sideromelane (as opposed to blocky, microcrystalline tachylite plus lithics), the degree of "chemical freshness" (as opposed to chemical alteration), and the average size of particles appear to correlate directly with the maximum height and the seismic amplitude of the corresponding explosion, and inversely correlate with the amount of ash erupted, as estimated by monitoring videos. These observations suggest that more violent explosions (i.e., those driven by the release of larger and more pressurized gas volumes) produce ash via the fragmentation of hotter, more fluid magma, while weaker ones mostly erupt ash-sized particles derived by the fragmentation of colder magma and incorporation of conduit wall debris. The formation of fluidal ash particles (up to Pele's hairs) requires aerodynamic deformation of a relatively low-viscosity magma, in agreement with the strong acceleration imposed upon fragmented magma clots by the rapid expansion of

  7. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  8. Comparison of semen parameters in samples collected by masturbation at a clinic and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Malm, Johan

    2008-06-01

    To investigate differences in semen quality between samples collected by masturbation at a clinic and at home. Cross-sectional study. Fertility center. Three hundred seventy-nine men assessed for infertility. None. Semen was analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Seminal markers of epididymal (neutral alpha-glucosidase), prostatic (prostate-specific antigen and zinc), and seminal vesicle (fructose) function were measured. Two patient groups were defined according to sample collection location: at a clinic (n = 273) or at home (n = 106). Compared with clinic-collected semen, home-collected samples had statistically significantly higher values for sperm concentration, total sperm count, rapid progressive motility, and total count of progressive motility. Semen volume, proportion of normal sperm morphology, neutral alpha-glucosidase, prostate-specific antigen, zinc, and fructose did not differ significantly between groups. An abnormal sperm concentration (masturbation at home compared with at a clinic. This should be taken into consideration in infertility investigations.

  9. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which

  10. Sampling design and procedures for fixed surface-water sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain study unit, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, H.H.; Oaksford, E.T.; Asbury, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of design guidelines for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has resulted in the development of new sampling procedures and the modification of existing procedures commonly used in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) study unit began the intensive data collection phase of the program in October 1992. This report documents the implementation of the NAWQA guidelines by describing the sampling design and procedures for collecting surface-water samples in the GAFL study unit in 1993. This documentation is provided for agencies that use water-quality data and for future study units that will be entering the intensive phase of data collection. The sampling design is intended to account for large- and small-scale spatial variations, and temporal variations in water quality for the study area. Nine fixed sites were selected in drainage basins of different sizes and different land-use characteristics located in different land-resource provinces. Each of the nine fixed sites was sampled regularly for a combination of six constituent groups composed of physical and chemical constituents: field measurements, major ions and metals, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediments. Some sites were also sampled during high-flow conditions and storm events. Discussion of the sampling procedure is divided into three phases: sample collection, sample splitting, and sample processing. A cone splitter was used to split water samples for the analysis of the sampling constituent groups except organic carbon from approximately nine liters of stream water collected at four fixed sites that were sampled intensively. An example of the sample splitting schemes designed to provide the sample volumes required for each sample constituent group is described in detail. Information about onsite sample processing has been organized into a flowchart that describes a pathway for each of

  11. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  12. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  13. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  14. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  15. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE.

  16. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  17. Demonstration Exercise of a Validated Sample Collection Method for Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents in Georgia 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, B.

    2007-01-01

    August 7, 2006 the state of Georgia conducted a collaborative sampling exercise between the Georgia National Guard 4th Civil Support Team Weapons of Mass Destruction (CST-WMD) and the Georgia Department of Human Resources Division of Public Health demonstrating a recently validated bulk powder sampling method. The exercise was hosted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) at Glynn County, Georgia and involved the participation of the Georgia Emergency Management Agency (GEMA), Georgia National Guard, Georgia Public Health Laboratories, the Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Office, Georgia Coastal Health District, and the Glynn County Fire Department. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate a recently validated national sampling standard developed by the American Standards and Test Measures (ASTM) International; ASTM E2458 S tandard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces . The intent of the exercise was not to endorse the sampling method, but to develop a model for exercising new sampling methods in the context of existing standard operating procedures (SOPs) while strengthening operational relationships between response teams and analytical laboratories. The exercise required a sampling team to respond real-time to an incident cross state involving a clandestine bio-terrorism production lab found within a recreational vehicle (RV). Sample targets consisted of non-viable gamma irradiated B. anthracis Sterne spores prepared by Dugway Proving Ground. Various spore concentration levels were collected by the ASTM method, followed by on- and off-scene analysis utilizing the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Laboratory Response Network (LRN) and National Guard Bureau (NGB) CST mobile Analytical Laboratory Suite (ALS) protocols. Analytical results were compared and detailed surveys of participant evaluation comments were examined. I will

  18. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CAU. The sampling plan is designed to ensure that monitoring activities occur in compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (DOE, 2012). The sampling plan should be referenced for Quality Assurance (QA) elements and procedures governing sampling activities. The NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan specifies the groundwater monitoring that will occur in CAU 98 until the long-term monitoring program is approved in the Closure Report. The plan specifies the wells that must be monitored and categorizes them by their sampling objective with the associated analytical requirements and frequency. Possible sample collection methods and required standard operating procedures are also presented. The intent of this handbook is to augment the NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan by providing well-specific details for the sampling professional implementing the Sampling Plan in CAU 98, Frenchman Flat. This handbook includes each CAU 98 well designated for sampling in the NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan. The following information is provided in the individual well sections: 1. The purpose of sampling. 2. A physical description of the well. 3. The chemical characteristics of the formation water. 4. Recommended protocols for purging and sampling. The well-specific information has been gathered from numerous historical and current sources cited in each section, but two particularly valuable resources merit special mention. These are the USGS NNSS website (http://nevada.usgs.gov/doe_nv/ntsarea5.cfm) and the UGTA Field Operations website (https://ugta.nv.doe.gov/sites/Field%20Operations/default.aspx). 2 Land surface elevation and measuring point for water level measurements in Frenchman Flat were a focus during CAU investigations (see Appendix B, Attachment 1 in Navarro-Intera, 2014). Both websites listed above provide information on the accepted datum for each well. A summary is found on the home page for the well on the USGS website. Additional information is available through a link in the

  19. Collection and corrections of oblique multiangle hyperspectral bidirectional reflectance imagery of the water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Oney, Taylor S.

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral images of coastal waters in urbanized regions were collected from fixed platform locations. Surf zone imagery, images of shallow bays, lagoons and coastal waters are processed to produce bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) signatures corrected for changing viewing angles. Angular changes as a function of pixel location within a scene are used to estimate changes in pixel size and ground sampling areas. Diffuse calibration targets collected simultaneously from within the image scene provides the necessary information for calculating BRF signatures of the water surface and shorelines. Automated scanning using a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor allows imagery to be collected on the order of one minute or less for different regions of interest. Imagery is then rectified and georeferenced using ground control points within nadir viewing multispectral imagery via image to image registration techniques. This paper demonstrates the above as well as presenting how spectra can be extracted along different directions in the imagery. The extraction of BRF spectra along track lines allows the application of derivative reflectance spectroscopy for estimating chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic matter and suspended matter concentrations at or near the water surface. Imagery is presented demonstrating the techniques to identify subsurface features and targets within the littoral and surf zones.

  20. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  1. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  2. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times) compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression. PMID:22988904

  3. Blood venous sample collection: Recommendations overview and a checklist to improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavarina, Davide; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The extra-analytical phases of the total testing process have substantial impact on managed care, as well as an inherent high risk of vulnerability to errors which is often greater than that of the analytical phase. The collection of biological samples is a crucial preanalytical activity. Problems or errors occurring shortly before, or soon after, this preanalytical step may impair sample quality and characteristics, or else modify the final results of testing. The standardization of fasting requirements, rest, patient position and psychological state of the patient are therefore crucial for mitigating the impact of preanalytical variability. Moreover, the quality of materials used for collecting specimens, along with their compatibility, can guarantee sample quality and persistence of chemical and physical characteristics of the analytes over time, so safeguarding the reliability of testing. Appropriate techniques and sampling procedures are effective to prevent problems such as hemolysis, undue clotting in the blood tube, draw of insufficient sample volume and modification of analyte concentration. An accurate identification of both patient and blood samples is a key priority as for other healthcare activities. Good laboratory practice and appropriate training of operators, by specifically targeting collection of biological samples, blood in particular, may greatly improve this issue, thus lowering the risk of errors and their adverse clinical consequences. The implementation of a simple and rapid check-list, including verification of blood collection devices, patient preparation and sampling techniques, was found to be effective for enhancing sample quality and reducing some preanalytical errors associated with these procedures. The use of this tool, along with implementation of objective and standardized systems for detecting non-conformities related to unsuitable samples, can be helpful for standardizing preanalytical activities and improving the quality of

  4. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  5. Advanced Curation Activities at NASA: Implications for Astrobiological Studies of Future Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Harrington, A. D.; Regberg, A. B.; Snead, C. J.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10F JSC is charged with curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions. The Directive goes on to define Curation as including documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for re-search, education, and public outreach. Here we briefly describe NASA's astromaterials collections and our ongoing efforts related to enhancing the utility of our current collections as well as our efforts to prepare for future sample return missions. We collectively refer to these efforts as advanced curation.

  6. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lee, R.; Le, L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the many unexpected observations of asteroid 433 Eros by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission was the many ponds of fine-grained materials [1-3]. The ponds have smooth surfaces, and define equipotential surfaces up to 10's of meters in diameter [4]. The ponds have a uniformly sub-cm grain size and appear to be cohesive or indurated to some degree, as revealed by slumping. The ponds appear to be concentrated within 30 degrees of the equator of Eros, where gravity is lowest. There is some insight into the mineralogy and composition of the ponds surfaces from NEAR spectroscopy [2,4,5,6]. Compared to the bulk asteroid, ponds: (1) are distinctly bluer (high 550/760 nm ratio), (2) have a deeper 1um mafic band, (3) have reflectance elevated by 5%.

  8. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  9. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  10. New Zealand guidelines for the collection of groundwater samples for chemical and isotopic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.; Cameron, S.G.; Reeves, R.R.; Taylor, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater are important tools for differentiating between the natural composition and human-induced contaminants of groundwater. A comprehensive suite of inorganic water chemical analyses is necessary to characterise waters. The geology of New Zealand is diverse, so it is impractical to characterise a ''typical'' groundwater chemical composition. Each aquifer system should be evaluated individually because the major dissolved species contain useful information about the pathways of water through the soil zone into the aquifer. Analyses of major ions such as chloride, nitrate, potassium and sulphate often give indication of septic systems and agricultural contamination. The minor ions, while most are not considered contaminants, are often indicators of human activity. Iron and manganese are good indicators of Eh potential, which is an important control on the mobility of many heavy metals. The inexpensive inorganic chemical analytical suite should be used as a guide to advisability of more expensive contaminant testing. The purpose of this manual is to provide consistent groundwater sampling guidelines for use throughout New Zealand. Sinton's (1998) guide to groundwater sampling techniques provided a sound basis for the accurate collection of groundwater samples. However Sinton did not address sampling materials and techniques for the collection of samples for ultra trace component analysis or the collection of environmental isotope samples. These important aspects of groundwater sampling have been included in this updated manual. (author). 30 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs., 1 appendix

  11. Time-Efficiency of Sorting Chironomidae Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae Samples from Urban Trout Streams in Northeast Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M Anderson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Collections of Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE provide an effective means of assessing water quality in streams. Although not widely used in the United States, the technique is not new and has been shown to be more cost-efficient than traditional dip-net sampling techniques in organically enriched stream in an urban landscape. The intent of this research was to document the efficiency of sorting SFPE samples relative to dip-net samples in trout streams with catchments varying in amount of urbanization and differences in impervious surface. Samples of both SFPE and dip-nets were collected from 17 sample sites located on 12 trout streams in Duluth, MN, USA. We quantified time needed to sort subsamples of 100 macroinvertebrates from dip-net samples, and less than or greater than 100 chironomid exuviae from SFPE samples. For larger samples of SFPE, the time required to subsample up to 300 exuviae was also recorded. The average time to sort subsamples of 100 specimens was 22.5 minutes for SFPE samples, compared to 32.7 minutes for 100 macroinvertebrates in dip-net samples. Average time to sort up to 300 exuviae was 37.7 minutes. These results indicate that sorting SFPE samples is more time-efficient than traditional dip-net techniques in trout streams with varying catchment characteristics.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1380.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  12. A comparison of results for samples collected with bailers constructed of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomey, N.; Ogle, R.; Jackson, J.

    1992-01-01

    A bailer is one of the most common sampling devices used to collect ground water samples. Bailers constructed from various materials are available; teflon, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene, and stainless steel are all commonly used. It is widely recognized that sample results can be affected by the material from which the bailer is constructed. Teflon and stainless steel are usually recommended based upon their inert properties. The cost of these bailers is significantly higher than other types. For the purposes of petroleum storage tank investigations, sampling devices that would not compromise sample quality but be more economical than teflon or stainless steel would be especially desirable. Water samples were collected using the different types of bailers; teflon, stainless steel, PVC, and polyethylene. Split samples were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons. The analytical results were compared to determine if differences were due to normal analytical variances or due to interaction of the sample with the sampling device. No difference was noted in the results which were obtained

  13. Collection and preparation of wet and dry stream-sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchlik, K.

    1977-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is responsible for the Hydrogeochemistry and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program for uranium in the seven far western states. The work thus far has concentrated on the arid to semi-arid regions of the West and this paper discusses the collection and preparation of sediment samples in the Basin and Range province. The sample collection and preparation procedures described here may not be applicable to other parts of the far western states or other areas. These procedures also differ somewhat from those used by the other three laboratories involved in the HSSR program

  14. Survey of elemental concentrations in lichen samples collected from Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Horimoto, L.K.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Coccaro, D.M.B.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Samples of the lichen Canoparmelia texana collected in seven different sites of Sao Paulo State and one site of the Parana State were analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to obtain information on the air quality in these regions and also to select a region of interest for the evaluation of baseline level of elements in lichen species. Concentrations of the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, U, V, Zn and lanthanides were determined and a preliminary comparisons was made between the results obtained for samples collected in different sites. (author)

  15. Simultaneous PIXE and PIGE analyses of aerosol samples collected in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boni, C.; Caruso, E.; Cereda, E.; Marcazzan, G.M.; Redaelli, P.; Bacci, P.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the simultaneous PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission) analyses of aerosol samples collected in urban areas. The results show that PIGE can detect Li, F, Na, Al, and Si in fly ashes and F, Na, Al and Si in atmospheric aerosol. The PIXE-PIGE technique has also been applied to 80 samples of atmospheric particular matter collected above Milan during the winter and summer months of 1986/7, and the average values of concentrations and enrichment factors are given for the detected elements. (U.K.)

  16. Data Validation Package April 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Complete sample sets were collected from 42 of 48 planned locations (9 of 9 former mill site wells, 13 of 13 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Locations R6-M3, SW00-01, Seep 1, Seep 2, and Seep 5 were not sampled due to insufficient water availability. A partial sample was collected at location R4-M3 due to insufficient water. All samples from the permeable reactive barrier wells were filtered as specified in the program directive. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location Sorenson and from monitoring wells 92-07 and RlO-Ml. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and an additional set of wells. See Attachment2, Trip Report for additional details. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello sites are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate+ nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate+ nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 4.

  17. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  18. Performance of a hydrostatic sampler for collecting samples at the water-sediment interface in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando PEDROZO

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-sediment interface plays a significant role in the determination of the trophic degree of a waterbody. Numerous redox reactions take place there, resulting in the release of contaminants from the sediments to the water column. The aim of the present work was to develop an equipment for collecting samples from the water-sediment interface. Such equipment was to have a simple design, low construction cost, no depth limitations, and high levels of personal safety and to be reliable in the collection of samples. The performance of the hydrostatic sampler thus developed was tested against samples collected either remotely with a corer or directly with syringes by autonomous divers. The hydrostatic sampler permits access to depths where the costs of the traditional diving methodology are expensive, and where working conditions are dangerous for the diver. The hydrostatic sampler provides an additional means of collecting samples from the water-sediment interface, which together with pore-water samples, facilitates the investigation and understanding of chemical mechanisms in lakes, for instance, those that control the P release from sediment to the water column.

  19. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molydenum (Cu-Au-Mo) deposit in southwest Alaska. The Pebble deposit is extremely large and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The deposit is presently being explored by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd., and Anglo-American LLC. The USGS undertakes unbiased, broad-scale mineral resource assessments of government lands to provide Congress and citizens with information on national mineral endowment. Research on known deposits is also done to refine and better constrain methods and deposit models for the mineral resource assessments. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, it is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), it is a large mineral system, and it is fairly well constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of the USGS study are (1) to determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, (2) to better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and (3) to test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. This report presents analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs. The analytical data are presented digitally both as an integrated Microsoft 2003 Access? database and as Microsoft 2003 Excel? files. The Pebble deposit is located in southwestern Alaska on state lands about 30 km (18 mi) northwest of the village of Illiamna and 320 km (200 mi) southwest of Anchorage (fig. 1). Elevations in the Pebble area range from 287 m (940 ft) at Frying Pan Lake just south of the deposit to 1146 m (3760 ft) on Kaskanak Mountain about 5 km (5 mi) to the west. The deposit is in an area of

  20. Sample collection and preparation of biofluids and extracts for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M; Al-Talla, Zeyad A; Kharbatia, Najeh M

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the utility of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in metabonomics research, all stages of the experimental design should be standardized, including sample collection, storage, preparation, and sample separation. Moreover, the prerequisite for any GC-MS analysis is that a compound must be volatile and thermally stable if it is to be analyzed using this technique. Since many metabolites are nonvolatile and polar in nature, they are not readily amenable to analysis by GC-MS and require initial chemical derivatization of the polar functional groups in order to reduce the polarity and to increase the thermal stability and volatility of the analytes. In this chapter, an overview is presented of the optimum approach to sample collection, storage, and preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabonomics with particular focus on urine samples as example of biofluids.

  1. Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurgensen, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented

  2. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune

    2013-01-01

    and stored at -20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7......Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples...... until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection...

  3. Fabrication of SERS Active Surface on Polyimide Sample by Excimer Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Csizmadia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible application of excimer laser irradiation for the preparation of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate is demonstrated. A polyimide foil of 125 μm thickness was irradiated by 240 pulses of focused ArF excimer laser beam (λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 20 ns. The applied fluence was varied between 40 and 80 mJ/cm2. After laser processing, the sample was coated with 40 nm silver by PLD in order to create a conducting layer required for the SERS application. The SERS activity of the samples was tested by Raman microscopy. The Raman spectra of Rhodamine 6G aqueous solution (c=10−3 mol/dm3 were collected from the patterned and metalized areas. For areas prepared at 40–60 mJ/cm2 laser fluences, the measured Raman intensities have shown a linear dependence on the applied laser fluence, while above 60 mJ/cm2 saturation was observed. The morphology of the SERS active surface areas was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Finite element modeling was performed in order to simulate the laser-absorption induced heating of the polyimide foil. The simulation resulted in the temporal and spatial distribution of the estimated temperature in the irradiated polyimide sample, which are important for understanding the structure formation process.

  4. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malinský, Petr; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Macková, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 371, MAR (2016), s. 101-105 ISSN 0168-583X. [22nd International conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Opatija, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : computer simulation * Rutherford backscattering * surface roughness Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  5. Sampling problems and the determination of mercury in surface water, seawater, and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; van der Sloot, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of surface water for mercury comprises the determination of both ionic and organically bound mercury in solution and that of the total mercury content of the suspended matter. Eventually, metallic mercury has to be determined too. Requirements for the sampling procedure are given. A method for the routine determination of mercury in surface water and seawater was developed and applied to Dutch surface waters. The total sample volume is 2500 ml. About 500 ml is used for the determination of the content of suspended matter and the total amount of mercury in the water. The sample is filtered through a bed of previously purified active charcoal at a low flow-rate. The main portion ca. 2000 ml) passes a flow-through centrifuge to separate the solid fraction. One liter is used to separate ''inorganic'' mercury by reduction, volatilization in an airstream and adsorption on active charcoal. The other liter is led through a column of active charcoal to collect all mercury. The procedures were checked with 197 Hg radiotracer both as an ion and incorporated in organic compounds. The mercury is determined by thermal neutron activation, followed by volatilization in a tube furnace and adsorption on a fresh carbon bed. The limit of determination is approximately equal to 1 ng 1 -1 . The rate of desorption from and adsorption on suspended material has been measured as a function of a pH of the solution for Hg +2 and various other ions. It can be concluded that only the procedure mentioned above does not disturb the equilibrium. The separation of mercury from air is obtained by suction of 1 m 3 through a 0.22 μm filter and a charcoal bed. The determination is then performed as in the case of the water samples

  6. Portable automation of static chamber sample collection for quantifying soil gas flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled in a given time period is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. However, the static chamber method can limit spatial ...

  7. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visagie, C M; Hirooka, Y; Tanney, J B; Whitfield, E; Mwange, K; Meijer, M; Amend, A S; Seifert, K A; Samson, R A

    As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samples included the culture-dependent dilution-to-extinction method and the culture-independent 454-pyrosequencing. Of the 7 904 isolates, 2 717 isolates were identified as belonging to

  8. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of Madagascar. Materials and methods: Participants were recruited in a health care center (urban group) and smaller affiliated dispensaries (rural group). They were invited to perform ...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...

  10. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  11. Use of aspiration method for collecting brain samples for rabies diagnosis in small wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamamoto, K; Quadros, J; Queiroz, L H

    2011-02-01

    In developing countries such as Brazil, where canine rabies is still a considerable problem, samples from wildlife species are infrequently collected and submitted for screening for rabies. A collaborative study was established involving environmental biologists and veterinarians for rabies epidemiological research in a specific ecological area located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The wild animals' brains are required to be collected without skull damage because the skull's measurements are important in the identification of the captured animal species. For this purpose, samples from bats and small mammals were collected using an aspiration method by inserting a plastic pipette into the brain through the magnum foramen. While there is a progressive increase in the use of the plastic pipette technique in various studies undertaken, it is also appreciated that this method could foster collaborative research between wildlife scientists and rabies epidemiologists thus improving rabies surveillance. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Comparative multielement analyses of airborne particulate samples collected in various areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mizohata, Akira

    1973-01-01

    In order to grasp the characteristic features of the air pollution by particulates in various areas in Japan, multielement analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis were applied to 31 airborne particulate samples collected in 15 different areas, and the analytical results obtained were compared with one another. All the samples were collected by so-called ''10 micron cut'' samplers, the collection efficiency of which is considered to be 50% at 8μ and nearly zero beyond 10μ. Among the areas in question there are clean seaside areas, heavily industrialized areas, small cities along the Inland Sea or the Pacific Ocean around which industrialization is progressing, a small city having only a big iron work, an area famous for its ceramic industry and so on. The atmospheres over them were found to be quite different not only in pollution extent but also in pollution pattern. (auth.)

  13. Device and method for enhanced collection and assay of chemicals with high surface area ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D.; Bays, John T.; Wallace, Krys

    2016-02-16

    A method and device for enhanced capture of target analytes is disclosed. This invention relates to collection of chemicals for separations and analysis. More specifically, this invention relates to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device having better capability for chemical collection and analysis. This includes better physical stability, capacity for chemical collection, flexible surface chemistry and high affinity for target analyte.

  14. Collective acceleration of ions on the basis of resonance surface photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsiferov, V.V.; Smirnov, G.I.; Telegin, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ion beam shaping and collective acceleration on the basis of resonance surface ionization are discussed. The principle diagram of the device for collective acceleration of positive ions is given. The method suggested for positive ion acceleration provides the efficiency increase, the design simplification, the size decrease and the increase in the frequency of the collective laser ion accelerator pulses

  15. Fast Characterization of Moving Samples with Nano-Textured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of structures using conventional optical microscopy is restricted by the diffraction limit. Techniques like atomic force and scanning electron microscopy can investigate smaller structures but are very time consuming. We show that using scatterometry, a technique based on optical...... diffraction, integrated into a commercial light microscope we can characterize nano-textured surfaces in a few milliseconds. The adapted microscope has two detectors, a CCD camera used to easily find an area of interest and a spectrometer for the measurements. We demonstrate that the microscope has...

  16. Evaluation of a new simple collection device for sampling of microparticles in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferaj, Sabina; Ullah, Shahid; Tinglev, Åsa; Carlsson, Sten; Winberg, Jesper; Stambeck, Peter; Beck, Olof

    2018-03-12

    The microparticle fraction of exhaled breath is of interest for developing clinical biomarkers. Exhaled particles may contain non-volatile components from all parts of the airway system, formed during normal breathing. This study aimed to evaluate a new, simple sampling device, based on impaction, for collecting microparticles from exhaled breath. Performance of the new device was compared with that of the existing SensAbues membrane filter device. The analytical work used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. The new device collected three subsamples and these were separately analysed from eight individuals. No difference was observed between the centre position (0.91 ng/sample) and the side positions (1.01 ng/sample) using major phosphatidylcholine (PC) 16:0/16:0 as the analyte. Exhaled breath was collected from eight patients on methadone maintenance treatment. The intra-individual variability in measured methadone concentration between the three collectors was 8.7%. In another experiment using patients on methadone maintenance treatment, the sampling efficiency was compared with an established filter device. Compared to the existing device, the efficiency of the new device was 121% greater for methadone and 1450% greater for DPPC. The data from lipid analysis also indicated that a larger fraction of the collected material was from the distal parts. Finally, a study using an optical particle counter indicated that the device preferentially collects the larger particle fraction. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the new device for collecting non-volatile components from exhaled breath. The performance of the device was superior to the filter device in several aspects.

  17. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  18. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in biological and water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg -1 for 234 U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the 236 U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.41-15.6 mBq l -1 for 234 U and 0.012-0.695 mBq l -1 for 235 U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants

  19. Portable Automation of Static Chamber Sample Collection for Quantifying Soil Gas Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Morgan P.; Groh, Tyler A.; Parkin, Timothy B.; Williams, Ryan J.; Isenhart, Thomas M.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. An automated system for collecting gas samples from chambers in the field would eliminate the need for personnel to return to the chamber during a flux measurement period and would allow a single technician to sample multiple chambers simultaneously. This study describes Chamber Automated Sampling Equipment (FluxCASE) to collect and store chamber headspace gas samples at assigned time points for the measurement of soil gas flux. The FluxCASE design and operation is described, and the accuracy and precision of the FluxCASE system is evaluated. In laboratory measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) concentrations of a standardized gas mixture, coefficients of variation associated with automated and manual sample collection were comparable, indicating no loss of precision. In the field, soil gas fluxes measured from FluxCASEs were in agreement with manual sampling for both N2O and CO2. Slopes of regression equations were 1.01 for CO2 and 0.97 for N2O. The 95% confidence limits of the slopes of the regression lines included the value of one, indicating no bias. Additionally, an expense analysis found a cost recovery ranging from 0.6 to 2.2 yr. Implementing the FluxCASE system is an alternative to improve the efficiency of the static chamber method for measuring soil gas flux while maintaining the accuracy and precision of manual sampling.

  20. A Systematic Review of Published Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys Collecting Behavioral and Biologic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Hakim, Avi J; Dittrich, Samantha; Burnett, Janet; Kim, Evelyn; White, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Reporting key details of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey implementation and analysis is essential for assessing the quality of RDS surveys. RDS is both a recruitment and analytic method and, as such, it is important to adequately describe both aspects in publications. We extracted data from peer-reviewed literature published through September, 2013 that reported collected biological specimens using RDS. We identified 151 eligible peer-reviewed articles describing 222 surveys conducted in seven regions throughout the world. Most published surveys reported basic implementation information such as survey city, country, year, population sampled, interview method, and final sample size. However, many surveys did not report essential methodological and analytical information for assessing RDS survey quality, including number of recruitment sites, seeds at start and end, maximum number of waves, and whether data were adjusted for network size. Understanding the quality of data collection and analysis in RDS is useful for effectively planning public health service delivery and funding priorities.

  1. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.48-93.9 Bq kg -1 for 234 U and 0.02-12.2 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, 236 U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 μBq m -3 for 238 U, 0.96-38.0 μBq m -3 for 234 U, and 0.05-1.83 μBq m -3 for 235 U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.27-28.1 mBq l -1 for 234 U, and 0.01-0.88 mBq l -1 for 235 U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of

  2. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-09-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, 0.48-93.9 Bqkg(-1) for (234)U and 0.02-12.2 Bqkg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, (236)U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 microBqm(-3) for (238)U, 0.96-38.0 microBqm(-3) for (234)U, and 0.05-1.83 microBqm(-3) for (235)U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBql(-1) for (238)U, 0.27-28.1 mBql(-1) for (234)U, and 0.01-0.88 mBql(-1) for (235)U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated

  3. An Automated Algorithm to Screen Massive Training Samples for a Global Impervious Surface Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Brown de Colstoun, Eric; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tilton, James C.; Huang, Chengquan; Smith, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to automatically screen the outliers from massive training samples for Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP). GLS-IMP is to produce a global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set for years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. This unprecedented high resolution impervious cover data set is not only significant to the urbanization studies but also desired by the global carbon, hydrology, and energy balance researches. A supervised classification method, regression tree, is applied in this project. A set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications. Here we developed the global scale training samples from 1 m or so resolution fine resolution satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2), and then aggregate the fine resolution impervious cover map to 30 m resolution. In order to improve the classification accuracy, the training samples should be screened before used to train the regression tree. It is impossible to manually screen 30 m resolution training samples collected globally. For example, in Europe only, there are 174 training sites. The size of the sites ranges from 4.5 km by 4.5 km to 8.1 km by 3.6 km. The amount training samples are over six millions. Therefore, we develop this automated statistic based algorithm to screen the training samples in two levels: site and scene level. At the site level, all the training samples are divided to 10 groups according to the percentage of the impervious surface within a sample pixel. The samples following in each 10% forms one group. For each group, both univariate and multivariate outliers are detected and removed. Then the screen process escalates to the scene level. A similar screen process but with a looser threshold is applied on the scene level considering the possible variance due to the site difference. We do not perform the screen process across the scenes because the scenes might vary due to

  4. Data Set for the manuscript entitled, "Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in Surface Samples."

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Shah, S., S. Kane, A.M. Erler, and T. Alfaro. Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in...

  5. Method for rapid screening analysis of Sr-90 in edible plant samples collected near Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Sakamoto, Hideaki; Shiga, Norikatsu; Suzuki, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin, and the 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with this method. - Highlights: • A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. • 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. • The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin. • 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. • 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in edible plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi NPPs with this method.

  6. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 3: Sampling, data collection and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene

    2018-12-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. The second article focused on context, research questions and designs, and referred to publications for further reading. This third article addresses FAQs about sampling, data collection and analysis. The data collection plan needs to be broadly defined and open at first, and become flexible during data collection. Sampling strategies should be chosen in such a way that they yield rich information and are consistent with the methodological approach used. Data saturation determines sample size and will be different for each study. The most commonly used data collection methods are participant observation, face-to-face in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses in ethnographic, phenomenological, grounded theory, and content analysis studies yield different narrative findings: a detailed description of a culture, the essence of the lived experience, a theory, and a descriptive summary, respectively. The fourth and final article will focus on trustworthiness and publishing qualitative research.

  7. Validation of a Sampling Method to Collect Exposure Data for Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Naïma; Mertens, Karl; Overholser, Rosanna; Goetghebeur, Els; Catry, Boudewijn; Lambert, Marie-Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of central-line-associated bloodstream infections requires the labor-intensive counting of central-line days (CLDs). This workload could be reduced by sampling. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of various sampling strategies in the estimation of CLDs in intensive care units (ICUs) and to establish a set of rules to identify optimal sampling strategies depending on ICU characteristics. Analyses of existing data collected according to the European protocol for patient-based surveillance of ICU-acquired infections in Belgium between 2004 and 2012. CLD data were reported by 56 ICUs in 39 hospitals during 364 trimesters. We compared estimated CLD data obtained from weekly and monthly sampling schemes with the observed exhaustive CLD data over the trimester by assessing the CLD percentage error (ie, observed CLDs - estimated CLDs/observed CLDs). We identified predictors of improved accuracy using linear mixed models. When sampling once per week or 3 times per month, 80% of ICU trimesters had a CLD percentage error within 10%. When sampling twice per week, this was >90% of ICU trimesters. Sampling on Tuesdays provided the best estimations. In the linear mixed model, the observed CLD count was the best predictor for a smaller percentage error. The following sampling strategies provided an estimate within 10% of the actual CLD for 97% of the ICU trimesters with 90% confidence: 3 times per month in an ICU with >650 CLDs per trimester or each Tuesday in an ICU with >480 CLDs per trimester. Sampling of CLDs provides an acceptable alternative to daily collection of CLD data.

  8. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol

  9. Sampling and sample handling procedures for priority pollutants in surface coal mining wastewaters. [Detailed list to be analyzed for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, R. S.; Johnson, D. O.; Henricks, J. D.

    1979-03-01

    The report describes the procedures used by Argonne National Laboratory to sample surface coal mine effluents in order to obtain field and laboratory data on 110 organic compounds or classes of compounds and 14 metals and minerals that are known as priority pollutants, plus 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/), total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS). Included are directions for preparation of sampling containers and equipment, methods of sampling and sample preservation, and field and laboratory protocols, including chain-of-custody procedures. Actual analytical procedures are not described, but their sources are referenced.

  10. Sample collection: an overview of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four national laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most samples are collected at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multi-element analytical data, which can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  11. Method for the Collection, Gravimetric and Chemical Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith; Rutherford, Gugu; Aranda, Denisse

    2017-01-01

    Nonvolatile residue (NVR), sometimes referred to as molecular contamination is the term used for the total composition of the inorganic and high boiling point organic components in particulates and molecular films deposited on critical surfaces surrounding space structures, with the particulate and NVR contamination originating primarily from pre-launch operations. The "nonvolatile" suggestion from the terminology NVR implies that the collected residue will not experience much loss under ambient conditions. NVR has been shown to have a dramatic impact on the ability to perform optical measurements from platforms based in space. Such contaminants can be detected early by the controlled application of various detection techniques and contamination analyses. Contamination analyses are the techniques used to determine if materials, components, and subsystems can be expected to meet the performance requirements of a system. Of particular concern is the quantity of NVR contaminants that might be deposited on critical payload surfaces from these sources. Subsequent chemical analysis of the contaminant samples by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry identifies the components, gives semi-quantitative estimates of contaminant thickness, indicates possible sources of the NVR, and provides guidance for effective cleanup procedures. In this report, a method for the collection and determination of the mass of NVR was generated by the authors at NASA Langley Research Center. This report describes the method developed and implemented for collecting NVR contaminants, and procedures for gravimetric and chemical analysis of the residue obtained. The result of this NVR analysis collaboration will help pave the way for Langley's ability to certify flight hardware outgassing requirements in support of flight projects such as Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Materials International

  12. Fog-harvesting inspired by the Stenocara beetle—An analysis of drop collection and removal from biomimetic samples with wetting contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Beatrice; Sarkar, Anjishnu; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2013-11-01

    This work examines the fog-harvesting ability of patterned and non-patterned samples in spray chamber experiments. The samples were prepared from different materials and the patterns under investigation were channels, hydrophobic patches and hydrophilic patches of contrasting wettability to mimic and optimize the alleged natural fog-harvesting ability of the Stenocara beetle. Fog-harvesting results based on the amount of collected water showed no significant differences among all samples, as the influence of “wind” was found to be the more dominant factor compared to the samples’ wetting characteristics. Video analysis of the experiments, however, revealed differences in the water collection and water removal mechanisms and were concluded to be more helpful than water collection results in the assessment of the various competing mechanisms in fog-harvesting experiments. The analysis with regard to surface wettability is based on drop rolling on the surface and roll-off into air, respectively. All patterned and most non-patterned samples exhibited drop motion by coalescence rather than rolling. Larger coalesced drops of non-spherical shape with irregular triple line shapes span the surface pattern on all our surfaces, which suggests that the underlying pattern of the surface has no dominant effect on the behavior of the droplets on these surfaces.

  13. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in biota samples collected during the Ymer-80 expedition to the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980 expedition to the Arctic with the icebreaker Ymer, a number of vertebrate species were sampled for determination of persistent organic pollutants. Samples of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n=34, glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, n=8, common eider (Somateria mollissima, n=10, Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia, n=9, ringed seal (Pusa hispida, n=2 and polar bear (Ursus maritimus, n=2 were collected. With the exception of Brünnich's guillemot, there was a marked contamination difference of birds from western as compared to eastern/northern Svalbard. Samples in the west contained a larger number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners and also polychlorinated terphenyls, indicating local sources. Brünnich's guillemots had similar pollutant concentrations in the west and east/north; possibly younger birds were sampled in the west. In Arctic char, pollutant profiles from lake Linnévatn (n=5, the lake closest to the main economic activities in Svalbard, were similar to profiles in Arctic char from the Shetland Islands (n=5, but differed from lakes to the north and east in Svalbard (n=30. Arctic char samples had higher concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs than the marine species of birds and mammals, possibly due to accumulation via snowmelt. Compared to the Baltic Sea, comparable species collected in Svalbard had lower concentrations of PCB and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, but similar concentrations indicating long-range transport of hexachlorobenzene, HCHs and cyclodiene pesticides. In samples collected in Svalbard in 1971, the concentrations of PCB and DDT in Brünnich's guillemot (n=7, glaucous gull (n=2 and polar bear (n=2 were similar to the concentrations found in 1980.

  15. Data Validation Package October 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Sampling Period: October 12–14, 2015. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the 2004 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Post-Record of Decision Monitoring Plan, Draft Final and Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Samples were collected from 52 of 61 planned locations (15 of 17 former mill site wells, 17 of 18 downgradient wells, 9 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 2 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Locations MW00-07, Seep 1, Seep 2, Seep 3, Seep 5, Seep 6, SW00-01, T01-13, and T01-19 were not sampled because of insufficient water availability. All samples were filtered as specified in the monitoring plan. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location W3-04 and from monitoring wells 82-08, 92-09, and 92-10. Water levels were measured at all but one sampled well and an additional set of wells. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in this report. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed.

  16. Adaptation of G-TAG Software for Validating Touch-and-Go Comet Surface Sampling Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The G-TAG software tool was developed under the R&TD on Integrated Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control for Comet Sample Return, and represents a novel, multi-body dynamics simulation software tool for studying TAG sampling. The G-TAG multi-body simulation tool provides a simulation environment in which a Touch-and-Go (TAG) sampling event can be extensively tested. TAG sampling requires the spacecraft to descend to the surface, contact the surface with a sampling collection device, and then to ascend to a safe altitude. The TAG event lasts only a few seconds but is mission-critical with potentially high risk. Consequently, there is a need for the TAG event to be well characterized and studied by simulation and analysis in order for the proposal teams to converge on a reliable spacecraft design. This adaptation of the G-TAG tool was developed to support the Comet Odyssey proposal effort, and is specifically focused to address comet sample return missions. In this application, the spacecraft descends to and samples from the surface of a comet. Performance of the spacecraft during TAG is assessed based on survivability and sample collection performance. For the adaptation of the G-TAG simulation tool to comet scenarios, models are developed that accurately describe the properties of the spacecraft, approach trajectories, and descent velocities, as well as the models of the external forces and torques acting on the spacecraft. The adapted models of the spacecraft, descent profiles, and external sampling forces/torques were more sophisticated and customized for comets than those available in the basic G-TAG simulation tool. Scenarios implemented include the study of variations in requirements, spacecraft design (size, locations, etc. of the spacecraft components), and the environment (surface properties, slope, disturbances, etc.). The simulations, along with their visual representations using G-View, contributed to the Comet Odyssey New Frontiers proposal

  17. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  18. Estimation of uranium in drinking water samples collected from different locations across Tarapur, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusane, C.B.; Maity, Sukanta; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, drinking water samples were collected from different locations across Tarapur, India for screening uranium contents. Uranium concentrations were determined by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Uranium concentration in water samples varied in a wide range from 0.6-7.9 μg L -1 . Results were compared with the international water quality guidelines World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) and were found within the permissible limit. Results were also compared with the safe limit values for drinking water recommended by national organization like Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). (author)

  19. A new sampling technique for surface exposure dating using a portable electric rock cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Suganuma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface exposure dating using in situ cosmogenic nuclides has contributed to our understanding of Earth-surface processes. The precision of the ages estimated by this method is affected by the sample geometry; therefore, high accuracy measurements of the thickness and shape of the rock sample (thickness and shape is crucial. However, it is sometimes diffi cult to meet these requirements by conventional sampling methods with a hammer and chisel. Here, we propose a new sampling technique using a portable electric rock cutter. This sampling technique is faster, produces more precisely shaped samples, and allows for a more precise age interpretation. A simple theoretical modeldemonstrates that the age error due to defective sample geometry increases as the total sample thickness increases, indicating the importance of precise sampling for surface exposure dating.

  20. Collection of size fractionated particulate matter sample for neutron activation analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko; Nakamatsu, Hiroaki; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    According to the decision of the 2001 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactor (Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Section), size fractionated particulate matter collection for NAA was started from 2002 at two sites in Japan. The two monitoring sites, ''Tokyo'' and ''Sakata'', were classified into ''urban'' and ''rural''. In each site, two size fractions, namely PM 2-10 '' and PM 2 '' particles (aerodynamic particle size between 2 to 10 micrometer and less than 2 micrometer, respectively) were collected every month on polycarbonate membrane filters. Average concentrations of PM 10 (sum of PM 2-10 and PM 2 samples) during the common sampling period of August to November 2002 in each site were 0.031mg/m 3 in Tokyo, and 0.022mg/m 3 in Sakata. (author)

  1. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral...

  2. Next Generation Offline Approaches to Trace Gas-Phase Organic Compound Speciation: Sample Collection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R.; Marcotte, A.; Khare, P.; Ditto, J.; Charan, S.; Gentner, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) are major precursors to secondary organic aerosol, and contribute to tropospheric ozone formation. Their wide volatility range, chemical complexity, behavior in analytical systems, and trace concentrations present numerous hurdles to characterization. We present an integrated sampling-to-analysis system for the collection and offline analysis of trace gas-phase organic compounds with the goal of preserving and recovering analytes throughout sample collection, transport, storage, and thermal desorption for accurate analysis. Custom multi-bed adsorbent tubes are used to collect samples for offline analysis by advanced analytical detectors. The analytical instrumentation comprises an automated thermal desorption system that introduces analytes from the adsorbent tubes into a gas chromatograph, which is coupled with an electron ionization mass spectrometer (GC-EIMS) and other detectors. In order to optimize the collection and recovery for a wide range of analyte volatility and functionalization, we evaluated a variety of commercially-available materials, including Res-Sil beads, quartz wool, glass beads, Tenax TA, and silica gel. Key properties for optimization include inertness, versatile chemical capture, minimal affinity for water, and minimal artifacts or degradation byproducts; these properties were assessed with a diverse mix of traditionally-measured and functionalized analytes. Along with a focus on material selection, we provide recommendations spanning the entire sampling-and-analysis process to improve the accuracy of future comprehensive I/SVOC measurements, including oxygenated and other functionalized I/SVOCs. We demonstrate the performance of our system by providing results on speciated VOCs-SVOCs from indoor, outdoor, and chamber studies that establish the utility of our protocols and pave the way for precise laboratory characterization via a mix of detection methods.

  3. Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga) Samples Collected in Different Uruguayan Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migues, Ignacio; Baenas, Nieves; Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Moreno, Diego A

    2018-04-24

    The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated via DPPH and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assays. A multivariate linear regression was applied to correlate the observed antioxidant capacity with the phenolic content. Furthermore, Principal Components Analysis was performed to highlight characteristics between the various samples studied. The main results indicated differences between northern and southern Uruguayan samples. Delphinidin-3-hexoside was present in southern samples (mean of 293.16 µmol/100 g dry weight (DW)) and absent in the sample collected in the north (sample 3). All the samples contain high levels of cyanidin-3-hexoside, but a noticeable difference was found between the northern sample (150.45 µmol/100 g DW) and the southern sample (1121.98 µmol/100 g DW). The antioxidant capacity (mean ORAC of 56370 µmol Trolox ® /100 g DW) were high in all the samples compared to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of similar berry-fruits. The results of this study highlight the nutraceutical value of a native fruit that has not been exploited until now.

  4. Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga Samples Collected in Different Uruguayan Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Migues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated via DPPH and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assays. A multivariate linear regression was applied to correlate the observed antioxidant capacity with the phenolic content. Furthermore, Principal Components Analysis was performed to highlight characteristics between the various samples studied. The main results indicated differences between northern and southern Uruguayan samples. Delphinidin-3-hexoside was present in southern samples (mean of 293.16 µmol/100 g dry weight (DW and absent in the sample collected in the north (sample 3. All the samples contain high levels of cyanidin-3-hexoside, but a noticeable difference was found between the northern sample (150.45 µmol/100 g DW and the southern sample (1121.98 µmol/100 g DW. The antioxidant capacity (mean ORAC of 56370 µmol Trolox®/100 g DW were high in all the samples compared to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA database of similar berry-fruits. The results of this study highlight the nutraceutical value of a native fruit that has not been exploited until now.

  5. Lessons learned from surface wipe sampling for lead in three workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucham, Catherine; Ceballos, Diana; King, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Surface wipe sampling in the occupational environment is a technique widely used by industrial hygienists. Although several organizations have promulgated standards for sampling lead and other metals, uncertainty still exists when trying to determine an appropriate wipe sampling strategy and how to interpret sampling results. Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation Program have used surface wipe sampling as part of their exposure assessment sampling strategies in a wide range of workplaces. This article discusses wipe sampling for measuring lead on surfaces in three facilities: (1) a battery recycling facility; (2) a firing range and gun store; and (3) an electronic scrap recycling facility. We summarize our findings from the facilities and what we learned by integrating wipe sampling into our sampling plan. Wiping sampling demonstrated lead in non-production surfaces in all three workplaces and that the potential that employees were taking lead home to their families existed. We also found that the presence of metals such as tin can interfere with the colorimetric results. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of colorimetric analysis of surface wipe samples and the challenges we faced when interpreting wipe sampling results.

  6. Determination of 36Cl in environmental samples collected in the JCO by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki; Arai, D.; Nagashima, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Matsuhiro, T.; Imanaka, T.

    2003-01-01

    Long-lived chlorine, 36 Cl (T 1/2 = 301,000 y) in environmental samples has been measured by the AMS system installed in Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. A tri-carbon-molecular 12 C 3 - pilot beam method is used to stabilize the terminal voltage of the tandem. A small amount of pure carbon graphite is well mixed into a AgCl target material for creating Cl - and 12 C 3 - in the ion source. A 36 S isobaric interference in the system is eliminated to determine 36 Cl in environmental samples by chemical procedure. Some samples containing chlorine such as soil, chemical reagents and table salt have been collected in the JCO criticality accident site and analyzed to detect neutron-induced 36 Cl. The experimental result has been compared with a theoretical calculation. (author)

  7. X RF measurement for sediment sample collected from the niles in Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Aisha Abdelgader Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study to determine the concentration of element (K, Ca Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr) in sediment sample collected from thirty different sites from the three rivers in Khartoum state. X-ray fluorescence (X RF) was used to identify the element concentration. Validation of the equipment was done by measuring reference samples provided by IAEA. Iron was found to be the dominant element with concentration ranged between (13000 ppm) in the white nile to (101000 ppm) in the blue nile, Pb was found to be the lowest among the twelve elements measured with concentration ranged between (11.7 ppm) in the white nile to (28 ppm) in the river nile for all samples. In general there was no variation of the concentration of elements between the blue nile sediments and the river nile sediments and was found variation of concentration of elements between the white nile sediments and other two niles. (Author).

  8. Feasibility of automated speech sample collection with stuttering children using interactive voice response (IVR) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Block, Susan; Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Eadie, Patricia; Barth, Ben; Conway, Laura; Mundt, James C; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of adopting automated interactive voice response (IVR) technology for remotely capturing standardized speech samples from stuttering children. Participants were 10 6-year-old stuttering children. Their parents called a toll-free number from their homes and were prompted to elicit speech from their children using a standard protocol involving conversation, picture description and games. The automated IVR system was implemented using an off-the-shelf telephony software program and delivered by a standard desktop computer. The software infrastructure utilizes voice over internet protocol. Speech samples were automatically recorded during the calls. Video recordings were simultaneously acquired in the home at the time of the call to evaluate the fidelity of the telephone collected samples. Key outcome measures included syllables spoken, percentage of syllables stuttered and an overall rating of stuttering severity using a 10-point scale. Data revealed a high level of relative reliability in terms of intra-class correlation between the video and telephone acquired samples on all outcome measures during the conversation task. Findings were less consistent for speech samples during picture description and games. Results suggest that IVR technology can be used successfully to automate remote capture of child speech samples.

  9. Profiling quinones in ambient air samples collected from the Athabasca region (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnorowski, Andrzej; Charland, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents new findings on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation products-quinones that were collected in ambient air samples in the proximity of oil sands exploration. Quinones were characterized for their diurnal concentration variability, phase partitioning, and molecular size distribution. Gas-phase (GP) and particle-phase (PM) ambient air samples were collected separately in the summer; a lower quinone content was observed in the PM samples from continuous 24-h sampling than from combined 12-h sampling (day and night). The daytime/nocturnal samples demonstrated that nighttime conditions led to lower concentrations and some quinones not being detected. The highest quinone levels were associated with wind directions originating from oil sands exploration sites. The statistical correlation with primary pollutants directly emitted from oil sands industrial activities indicated that the bulk of the detected quinones did not originate directly from primary emission sources and that quinone formation paralleled a reduction in primary source NO x levels. This suggests a secondary chemical transformation of primary pollutants as the origin of the determined quinones. Measurements of 19 quinones included five that have not previously been reported in ambient air or in Standard Reference Material 1649a/1649b and seven that have not been previously measured in ambient air in the underivatized form. This is the first paper to report on quinone characterization in secondary organic aerosols originating from oil sands activities, to distinguish chrysenequinone and anthraquinone positional isomers in ambient air, and to report the requirement of daylight conditions for benzo[a]pyrenequinone and naphthacenequinone to be present in ambient air. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of uranium in surface-waters collected at the Rocky Flats Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Aguilar, R.D.; Roensch, F.R.; Perrin, R.E.; Banar, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility where plutonium and uranium components were manufactured for nuclear weapons. During plant operations radioactivity was inadvertently released into the environment. This study was initiated to characterize the uranium present in surface-waters at RFP. Three drainage basins and natural ephemeral streams transverse RFP. The Woman Creek drainage basin traverses and drains the southern portion of the site. The Rock Creek drainage basin drains the northwestern portion of the plant complex. The Walnut Creek drainage basin traverses the western, northern, and northeastern portions of the RFP site. Dams, detention ponds, diversion structures, and ditches have been constructed at RFP to control the release of plant discharges and surface (storm water) runoff. The ponds located downstream of the plant complex on North Walnut Creek are designated A-1 through A-4. Ponds on South Walnut Creek are designated B-1 through B-5. The ponds in the Woman Creek drainage basin are designated C-1 and C-2. Water samples were collected from each pond and the uranium was characterized by TIMS measurement techniques

  11. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 3: Sampling, data collection and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. The second article focused on context, research questions and designs, and referred to publications for further reading. This third article addresses FAQs about sampling, data collection and analysis. The data collection plan needs to be broadly defined and open at first, and become flexible during data collection. Sampling strategies should be chosen in such a way that they yield rich information and are consistent with the methodological approach used. Data saturation determines sample size and will be different for each study. The most commonly used data collection methods are participant observation, face-to-face in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses in ethnographic, phenomenological, grounded theory, and content analysis studies yield different narrative findings: a detailed description of a culture, the essence of the lived experience, a theory, and a descriptive summary, respectively. The fourth and final article will focus on trustworthiness and publishing qualitative research. PMID:29199486

  12. Storage Effects on Sample Integrity of Environmental Surface Sampling Specimens with Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, K Allison; O'Connell, Heather A; Rose, Laura J; Noble-Wang, Judith A; Arduino, Matthew J

    The effect of packaging, shipping temperatures and storage times on recovery of Bacillus anthracis . Sterne spores from swabs was investigated. Macrofoam swabs were pre-moistened, inoculated with Bacillus anthracis spores, and packaged in primary containment or secondary containment before storage at -15°C, 5°C, 21°C, or 35°C for 0-7 days. Swabs were processed according to validated Centers for Disease Control/Laboratory Response Network culture protocols, and the percent recovery relative to a reference sample (T 0 ) was determined for each variable. No differences were observed in recovery between swabs held at -15° and 5°C, (p ≥ 0.23). These two temperatures provided significantly better recovery than swabs held at 21°C or 35°C (all 7 days pooled, p ≤ 0.04). The percent recovery at 5°C was not significantly different if processed on days 1, 2 or 4, but was significantly lower on day 7 (day 2 vs. 7, 5°C, 10 2 , p=0.03). Secondary containment provided significantly better percent recovery than primary containment, regardless of storage time (5°C data, p ≤ 0.008). The integrity of environmental swab samples containing Bacillus anthracis spores shipped in secondary containment was maintained when stored at -15°C or 5°C and processed within 4 days to yield the optimum percent recovery of spores.

  13. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for... inspections and investigations in coal or other mines shall be made each year for the purposes of, among other...

  14. Remote collection of microorganisms at two depths in a freshwater lake using an unmanned surface vehicle (USV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Powers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are ubiquitous in freshwater aquatic environments, but little is known about their abundance, diversity, and transport. We designed and deployed a remote-operated water-sampling system onboard an unmanned surface vehicle (USV, a remote-controlled boat to collect and characterize microbes in a freshwater lake in Virginia, USA. The USV collected water samples simultaneously at 5 and 50 cm below the surface of the water at three separate locations over three days in October, 2016. These samples were plated on a non-selective medium (TSA and on a medium selective for the genus Pseudomonas (KBC to estimate concentrations of culturable bacteria in the lake. Mean concentrations ranged from 134 to 407 CFU/mL for microbes cultured on TSA, and from 2 to 8 CFU/mL for microbes cultured on KBC. There was a significant difference in the concentration of microbes cultured on KBC across three sampling locations in the lake (P = 0.027, suggesting an uneven distribution of Pseudomonas across the locations sampled. There was also a significant difference in concentrations of microbes cultured on TSA across the three sampling days (P = 0.038, demonstrating daily fluctuations in concentrations of culturable bacteria. There was no significant difference in concentrations of microbes cultured on TSA (P = 0.707 and KBC (P = 0.641 across the two depths sampled, suggesting microorganisms were well-mixed between 5 and 50 cm below the surface of the water. About 1 percent (7/720 of the colonies recovered across all four sampling missions were ice nucleation active (ice+ at temperatures warmer than −10 °C. Our work extends traditional manned observations of aquatic environments to unmanned systems, and highlights the potential for USVs to understand the distribution and diversity of microbes within and above freshwater aquatic environments.

  15. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  16. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  17. Determination of different contaminants in selective drinking water samples collected from Peshawar valley area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah; Khan, M.; Khattak, T.N.; Sattar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the pollutants carried through sewage, industrial effluents, fertilizers, pesticides; heavy metals and various pathogenic bacteria are directly related to human/animal diseases. Samples of drinking water were collected from different locations, in the Peshawar area. Cadmium, lead and copper levels in these samples were determined by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA). The data indicated wide variation in the concentration of these heavy metals. Variation in results is discussed on the basis of some possible sources of contamination. The concentration of cadmium and lead in all the samples was higher compared to the values given in the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Copper was below the detection limit in majority of the samples. The values of Cd, Pb and Cu were in the range of 0.023-2.75, 0.025-1.88 and 0-0.67 mg/1 respectively. Various physical quality indices (ph, electrical conductivity and total solids) and pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and total coliforms) were also determined in water samples. Most of the drinking waters was found contaminated with higher levels of Cd and Pb and pathogenic bacteria and hence, considered unfit for drinking purposes. (author)

  18. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  19. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  20. Composition of Trace Metals in Dust Samples Collected from Selected High Schools in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olowoyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential health risks associated with trace metal pollution have necessitated the importance of monitoring their levels in the environment. The present study investigated the concentrations and compositions of trace metals in dust samples collected from classrooms and playing ground from the selected high schools In Pretoria. Schools were selected from Pretoria based on factors such as proximity to high traffic ways, industrial areas, and residential areas. Thirty-two dust samples were collected from inside and outside the classrooms, where learners often stay during recess period. The dust samples were analysed for trace metal concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The composition of the elements showed that the concentrations of Zn were more than all other elements except from one of the schools. There were significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals from the schools (p<0.05. Regular cleaning, proximity to busy road, and well maintained gardens seem to have positive effects on the concentrations of trace metals recorded from the classrooms dust. The result further revealed a positive correlation for elements such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Sb, indicating that the dust might have a common source.

  1. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  2. A continuous flow from sample collection to data acceptability determination using an automated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, J.F.; Leasure, C.; Sauter, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    In its role as regulator, EPA is the recipient of enormous reams of analytical data, especially within the Superfund Program. In order to better manage the volume of paper that comes in daily, Superfund has required its laboratories to provide data that is contained on reporting forms to be delivered also on a diskette for uploading into data bases for various purposes, such as checking for contractual compliance, tracking quality assurance parameters, and, ultimately, for reviewing the data by computer. This last area, automated review of the data, has generated programs that are not necessarily appropriate for use by clients other than Superfund. Such is the case with Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Chemistry Group and its emerging subcontractor community, designed to meet the needs of the remedial action program at LANL. LANL is in the process of implementing an automated system that will be used from the planning stage of sample collection to the production of a project-specific report on analytical data quality. Included are electronic scheduling and tracking of samples, data entry, checking and transmission, data assessment and qualification for use, and report generation that will tie the analytical data quality back to the performance criteria defined prior to sample collection. Industry standard products will be used (e.g., ORACLE, Microsoft Excel) to ensure support for users, prevent dependence on proprietary software, and to protect LANL's investment for the future

  3. Patterned gradient surface for spontaneous droplet transportation and water collection: simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Xianhua; Zhu, Yiying; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Liao, Guanglan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate spontaneous droplet transportation and water collection on wedge-shaped gradient surfaces consisting of alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Droplets on the surfaces are modeled and simulated to analyze the Gibbs free energy and free energy gradient distributions. Big half-apex angle and great wettability difference result in considerable free energy gradient, corresponding to large driving force for spontaneous droplet transportation, thus causing the droplets to move towards the open end of the wedge-shaped hydrophilic regions, where the Gibbs free energy is low. Gradient surfaces are then fabricated and tested. Filmwise condensation begins on the hydrophilic regions, forming wedge-shaped tracks for water collection. Dropwise condensation occurs on the hydrophobic regions, where the droplet size distribution and departure diameters are controlled by the width of the regions. Condensate water from both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions are collected directionally to the open end of the wedge-shaped hydrophilic regions, agreeing with the simulations. Directional droplet transport and controllable departure diameters make the branched gradient surfaces more efficient than smooth surfaces for water collection, which proves that gradient surfaces are potential in water collection, microfluidic devices, anti-fogging and self-cleaning. (paper)

  4. AFM fluid delivery/liquid extraction surface sampling/electrostatic spray cantilever probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-23

    An electrospray system comprises a liquid extraction surface sampling probe. The probe comprises a probe body having a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet, and having a liquid extraction tip. A solvent delivery conduit is provided for receiving solvent liquid from the liquid inlet and delivering the solvent liquid to the liquid extraction tip. An open liquid extraction channel extends across an exterior surface of the probe body from the liquid extraction tip to the liquid outlet. An electrospray emitter tip is in liquid communication with the liquid outlet of the liquid extraction surface sampling probe. A system for analyzing samples, a liquid junction surface sampling system, and a method of analyzing samples are also disclosed.

  5. Note: Radio frequency surface impedance characterization system for superconducting samples at 7.5 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, B P; Reece, C E; Phillips, H L; Geng, R L; Wang, H; Marhauser, F; Kelley, M J

    2011-05-01

    A radio frequency (RF) surface impedance characterization (SIC) system that uses a novel sapphire-loaded niobium cavity operating at 7.5 GHz has been developed as a tool to measure the RF surface impedance of flat superconducting material samples. The SIC system can presently make direct calorimetric RF surface impedance measurements on the central 0.8 cm(2) area of 5 cm diameter disk samples from 2 to 20 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT. To illustrate system utility, we present first measurement results for a bulk niobium sample.

  6. Analyses and Comparison of Bulk and Coil Surface Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; Nash, C.; Stone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sludge samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) heating coil frame and coil surface were characterized to identify differences that might help identify heat transfer fouling materials. The SME steam coils have seen increased fouling leading to lower boil-up rates. Samples of the sludge were taken from the coil frame somewhat distant from the coil (bulk tank material) and from the coil surface (coil surface sample). The results of the analysis indicate the composition of the two SME samples are very similar with the exception that the coil surface sample shows ∼5-10X higher mercury concentration than the bulk tank sample. Elemental analyses and x-ray diffraction results did not indicate notable differences between the two samples. The ICP-MS and Cs-137 data indicate no significant differences in the radionuclide composition of the two SME samples. Semi-volatile organic analysis revealed numerous organic molecules, these likely result from antifoaming additives. The compositions of the two SME samples also match well with the analyzed composition of the SME batch with the exception of significantly higher silicon, lithium, and boron content in the batch sample indicating the coil samples are deficient in frit relative to the SME batch composition.

  7. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  8. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: a lion case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sam M; Maruping, Nkabeng T; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R

    2013-05-24

    Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  9. Molecular dynamics based enhanced sampling of collective variables with very large time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yang; Tuckerman, Mark E.

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced sampling techniques that target a set of collective variables and that use molecular dynamics as the driving engine have seen widespread application in the computational molecular sciences as a means to explore the free-energy landscapes of complex systems. The use of molecular dynamics as the fundamental driver of the sampling requires the introduction of a time step whose magnitude is limited by the fastest motions in a system. While standard multiple time-stepping methods allow larger time steps to be employed for the slower and computationally more expensive forces, the maximum achievable increase in time step is limited by resonance phenomena, which inextricably couple fast and slow motions. Recently, we introduced deterministic and stochastic resonance-free multiple time step algorithms for molecular dynamics that solve this resonance problem and allow ten- to twenty-fold gains in the large time step compared to standard multiple time step algorithms [P. Minary et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150201 (2004); B. Leimkuhler et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 3579-3594 (2013)]. These methods are based on the imposition of isokinetic constraints that couple the physical system to Nosé-Hoover chains or Nosé-Hoover Langevin schemes. In this paper, we show how to adapt these methods for collective variable-based enhanced sampling techniques, specifically adiabatic free-energy dynamics/temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics, unified free-energy dynamics, and by extension, metadynamics, thus allowing simulations employing these methods to employ similarly very large time steps. The combination of resonance-free multiple time step integrators with free-energy-based enhanced sampling significantly improves the efficiency of conformational exploration.

  10. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Rivera-Dirks, C.; Coriz, F.

    1995-07-01

    Area G, in Technical Area 54, has been the principle facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the storage and disposal of low-level and transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes since 1957. The current environmental investigation consisted of ESH-19 personnel who collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G to characterize possible contaminant movement through surface-water runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241 (soil only), and cesium 137. The metals, mercury, lead, and barium, were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence

  11. Direct impression on agar surface as a diagnostic sampling procedure for candida balanitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Carmen; Santos, António; Azevedo, Filomena; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of candida balanitis should be based upon both clinical and mycological data. The procedure of material collection is a critical issue to confirm or rule out the clinical diagnosis of candida balanitis. To compare direct impression of the glans on the agar surface of solid culture media with the collection of genital exudates with cotton swab for the diagnosis of candida balanitis. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out during a 36-month period. Sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees with balanitis and asymptomatic men were included. Specimens for yeast culture were collected from the glans penis and inner preputial layer using the direct impression on CHROMagar candida medium and by swabbing with a sterile cotton swab. Among 478 men enrolled, 189 had balanitis. The prevalence of candida balanitis was 17.8% (85/478) confirmed after culture by direct impression; the swab method detected only 54/85 (63.5%) of these men. Of the 289 asymptomatic men, 36 (12.5%) yielded Candida spp; the swab method detected only 38.9% of these men. The risk of having candida balanitis is 8.9 (IC 95% 2.48 to 32.04) whenever the number of candida colonies recovered by direct impression was greater than 10. Direct impression on CHROMagar candida medium resulted in the highest Candida spp recovery rate. More than 10 colonies yielded by impression culture were statistically associated with candida balanitis. This method shows the ideal profile for sampling the male genital area for yeasts and should be included in the management of balanitis.

  12. An intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiang; Xin, Shi-Qing; Sun, Qian; He, Ying

    2013-09-01

    Poisson disk sampling has excellent spatial and spectral properties, and plays an important role in a variety of visual computing. Although many promising algorithms have been proposed for multidimensional sampling in euclidean space, very few studies have been reported with regard to the problem of generating Poisson disks on surfaces due to the complicated nature of the surface. This paper presents an intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces. In sharp contrast to the conventional parallel approaches, our method neither partitions the given surface into small patches nor uses any spatial data structure to maintain the voids in the sampling domain. Instead, our approach assigns each sample candidate a random and unique priority that is unbiased with regard to the distribution. Hence, multiple threads can process the candidates simultaneously and resolve conflicts by checking the given priority values. Our algorithm guarantees that the generated Poisson disks are uniformly and randomly distributed without bias. It is worth noting that our method is intrinsic and independent of the embedding space. This intrinsic feature allows us to generate Poisson disk patterns on arbitrary surfaces in IR(n). To our knowledge, this is the first intrinsic, parallel, and accurate algorithm for surface Poisson disk sampling. Furthermore, by manipulating the spatially varying density function, we can obtain adaptive sampling easily.

  13. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 μm in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  14. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  15. Distribution Coeficients (Kd) Generated From A Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-01-01

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K d ), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and Crawford

  16. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  17. Europa's surface radiation environment and considerations for in-situ sampling and biosignature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, T.; Paranicas, C.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is embedded deep within the Jovian magnetosphere and is thus exposed to bombardment by charged particles, from thermal plasma to more energetic particles at radiation belt energies. In particular, energetic charged particles are capable of affecting the uppermost layer of surface material on Europa, in some cases down to depths of several meters (Johnson et al., 2004; Paranicas et al., 2009, 2002). Examples of radiation-induced surface alteration include sputtering, radiolysis and grain sintering; processes that are capable of significantly altering the physical properties of surface material. Radiolysis of surface ices containing sulfur-bearing contaminants from Io has been invoked as a possible explanation for hydrated sulfuric acid detected on Europa's surface (Carlson et al., 2002, 1999) and radiolytic production of oxidants represents a potential source of energy for life that could reside within Europa's sub-surface ocean (Chyba, 2000; Hand et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2003; Vance et al., 2016). Accurate knowledge of Europa's surface radiation environment is essential to the interpretation of space and Earth-based observations of Europa's surface and exosphere. Furthermore, future landed missions may seek to sample endogenic material emplaced on Europa's surface to investigate its chemical composition and to search for biosignatures contained within. Such material would likely be sampled from the shallow sub-surface, and thus, it becomes crucial to know to which degree this material is expected to have been radiation processed.Here we will present modeling results of energetic electron and proton bombardment of Europa's surface, including interactions between these particles and surface material. In addition, we will present predictions for biosignature destruction at different geographical locations and burial depths and discuss the implications of these results for surface sampling by future missions to Europa's surface.

  18. Comparison of noninvasive sample collection procedures for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR-hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: vidasnino@yahoo.com.br; antero@cdtn.br; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: melo@mono.icb.ufmg.br; ltituassu@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The dogs are the main reservoir of the visceral leishmaniasis etiological agent Leishmania chagasi and these animals have to be systematically monitored. The aim of present work was to standardize a method for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis using DNA samples obtained by a noninvasive ways. Two kind of samples were compared: conjunctival swab and blood. The samples were analyzed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) associated with the hybridization of {sup 32}P labeled DNA probes. An in vitro test was carried out using cotton swabs seeded with L. chagasi parasites at different cell numbers. After that, the PCR and hybridization sensitivity was evaluated in two groups of 23 seropositive dogs. Conjunctival swabs and 1,0 mL of blood were collected from each animal. 90 {mu}L of these blood were spotted onto filter paper and the remaining used to prepare the buffy coat. The DNA purification from cotton swabs was carried out through the phenol-chloroform (group 1) or boiling (group 2). The Wizard kit was used to DNA extraction from buffy coat. The filters were treated according to Dialab protocol. The analysis of the seeded samples showed that the PCR was able to identify until ten parasites while the following hybridization of the PCR products allows the detection of until one parasite. The PCR positivity for the conjunctival swabs were 73.9% and 52.2% respectively to the groups 1 and 2. For buffy coat the positivities were 43.5% and 56.5% respectively. The filters presented the lowest positivity. The hybridization step was not accomplished yet for these samples. (author)

  19. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  20. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  1. Top-Down Proteomics and Direct Surface Sampling of Neonatal Dried Blood Spots: Diagnosis of Unknown Hemoglobin Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rebecca L.; Griffiths, Paul; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2012-11-01

    We have previously shown that liquid microjunction surface sampling of dried blood spots coupled with high resolution top-down mass spectrometry may be used for screening of common hemoglobin variants HbS, HbC, and HbD. In order to test the robustness of the approach, we have applied the approach to unknown hemoglobin variants. Six neonatal dried blood spot samples that had been identified as variants, but which could not be diagnosed by current screening methods, were analyzed by direct surface sampling top-down mass spectrometry. Both collision-induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry were employed. Four of the samples were identified as β-chain variants: two were heterozygous Hb D-Iran, one was heterozygous Hb Headington, and one was heterozygous Hb J-Baltimore. The fifth sample was identified as the α-chain variant heterozygous Hb Phnom Penh. Analysis of the sixth sample suggested that it did not in fact contain a variant. Adoption of the approach in the clinic would require speed in both data collection and interpretation. To address that issue, we have compared manual data analysis with freely available data analysis software (ProsightPTM). The results demonstrate the power of top-down proteomics for hemoglobin variant analysis in newborn samples.

  2. Assessment of Sampling Error Associated with Collection and Analysis of Soil Samples at a Firing Range Contaminated with HMX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenkins, Thomas F

    1997-01-01

    Short-range and mid-range (grid size) spatial heterogeneity in explosives concentrations within surface soils was studied at an active antitank firing range at the Canadian Force Base-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec...

  3. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment in surface soil samples from east and south of Marmara region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Onder; Belivermis, Murat; Topçuoğlu, Sayhan; Cotuk, Yavuz; Coşkun, Mahmut; Cayir, Akin; Küçer, Rahmi

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 232Th, 238U and 226Ra were measured in surface soil samples from East and South of Marmara region, Turkey. The physico-chemical parameters (organic matter, CaCO3 contents and pH-value) of the soil samples were determined in the samples collected from 100 sampling stations. The average activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 232Th, 238U and 226Ra were found to be 27.46+/-21.84, 442.51+/-189.85, 26.63+/-15.90, 21.77+/-12.08 and 22.45+/-13.31 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean value of total annual external gamma radiation dose equivalent for the natural radionuclides was calculated to be 54.86 microSv. The current data were compared with those found in the other locations of Turkey and different countries.

  4. Characterization of the March 2017 tank 10 surface sample (combination of HTF-10-17-30 AND HTF-10-17-31) and variable depth sample (combination of HTF-10-17-32 and HTF-10-17-33)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-19

    Two surface samples (HTF-10-17-30 and HTF-10-17-31) and two variable depth samples (HTF-10-17-32 and HTF-10-17-33) were collected from SRS Tank 10 during March 2017 and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two surface samples were combined in one container, the two variable depth samples (VDSs) were combined in another container, and then the two composite samples were each characterized by a series of physical, ionic, radiological, and elemental analysis methods. The surface sample composite was characterized primarily for Tank Farm corrosion control purposes, while the VDS composite was characterized primarily for Tank Closure Cesium Removal (TCCR) purposes.

  5. Collecting data from migrants in Ghana: Lessons learned using respondent-driven sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R. Lattof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Policymakers and program implementers require high-quality data on migrants and migration in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC; however, a shortage of high-quality data exists in these settings. Sampling migrant populations requires better techniques. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS may be one such solution. Objective: Using Ghana as a case study, the objectives of this paper are to: 1 assess RDS recruitment productivity, network size, and ties of internal migrants; 2 test for homophily; and 3 detail the successes of and challenges to implementing RDS in Ghana and how these lessons can be applied to migrant populations in other LMIC settings. Methods: This study used RDS to sample 625 rural-urban female migrants working as market porters (kayayei in Accra, Ghana. Results: This study generated the most comprehensive data set on kayayei to date. Network size increases as participants become more educated and migrate more often to Accra. Ethnic group membership is an important determinant of recruitment, with certain groups preferring to recruit from within. Employing members of the kayayei population to collect data built crucial trust. Conclusions: Whilst RDS is not a one-size-fits-all solution for sampling hard-to-reach migrants in LMIC, it can be a powerful tool to uncover and to recruit hard-to-reach migrant populations. In countries with multiple ethnolinguistic groups, recruiting a migrant population with greater ethnolinguistic overlap may facilitate quicker equilibrium. Contribution: This study expands the evidence base on use of RDS among migrant populations in LMIC and provides lessons learned to assist other researchers implementing RDS in LMIC settings.

  6. The Consistency of Isotopologues of Ambient Atmospheric Nitric Acid in Passively Collected Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Padgett, P.; Allen, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen oxides have previously been shown to have distinctive isotopic signatures of oxygen and nitrogen. Nylon filters are currently used in passive sampling arrays to measure ambient atmospheric nitric acid concentrations and estimate deposition rates. This experiment measured the ability of nylon filters to consistently collect isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in the same ratios as they are present in the atmosphere. Samplers were deployed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and at field sites across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California. Filters were exposed over a four week period with individual filters being subjected to 1-4 week exposure times. Extracted nitric acid were measured for δ18O and δ15N ratios and compared for consistency based on length of exposure and amount of HNO3 collected. Filters within the CSTRs collected HNO3 at a consistent rate in both high and low concentration chambers. After two weeks of exposure, the mean δ18O values were within 0.5‰ of the δ18O of the source HNO3 solution. The mean of all weekly exposures were within 0.5‰ of the δ15N of the source solution, but after three weeks, the mean δ15N of adsorbed HNO3 was within 0.2‰. As the length of the exposure increased, the variability of measured delta values decreased for both elements. The field samplers collected HNO3 consistent with previously measured values along a deposition gradient. The mean δ18O at high deposition sites was 52.2‰ compared to 35.7‰ at the low deposition sites. Mean δ15N values were similar at all sites across the deposition gradient. Due to precipitation events occurring during the exposure period, the δ15N and δ18O of nitric acid were highly variable at all field sites. At single sites, changes in δ15N and δ18O were negatively correlated, consistent with two-sourcing mixing dynamics, but the slope of the regressions differed between high and low deposition sites. Anthropogenic

  7. Safety Evaluation of Oil Samples Collected from Different Food Points of Multan City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akhtar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oil has become a part and parcel of modern food system and therefore its safety is of prime significance for health agencies around the globe to ensure good health among the community. Current study was designed to investigate the physicochemical properties including free fatty acids, peroxide value and conjugated dienes; minerals (nickel & cobalt and heavy metals (lead and cadmium in oil samples collected from different areas of Multan city of Pakistan. The findings of this study revealed that free fatty acid percentages, conjugated dienes, cobalt and nickel concentrations were in normal ranges while the peroxide values, lead and cadmium concentrations were recorded above the norms. Strict regulatory measures need to be adopted to ensure good quality oil supply and to protect the people from health implications of physicochemical and metallic hazards prevailing in fried oils and fried foods.

  8. Removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major concerns in many parts of the world including Bangladesh and India. Considering the high toxicity of arsenic, World Health Organization (WHO) has set a provisional guideline value of 10 μg L -1 for arsenic in drinking water. Several methods have been adopted for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Most of the methods fail to remove As(III), the most toxic form of arsenic. An extra oxidative treatment step is essential for effective removal of total arsenic. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) oxidizes As(III) to As(V). Removal of arsenic from water using manganese dioxide has been reported. During this work, removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from arsenic contaminated area of West Bengal, India were carried out using MnO 2

  9. Uranium isotopic signatures measured in samples of dirt collected at two former uranium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, L.A.; Stalcup, A.M.; LaMont, S.P.; Spitz, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is a multidisciplinary science that uses a variety of analytical methods and tools to explore the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of nuclear and radiological materials. These characteristics, when evaluated alone or in combination, become signatures that may reveal how and when the material was fabricated. The signatures contained in samples of dirt collected at two different uranium metal processing facilities in the United States were evaluated to determine uranium isotopic composition and compare results with processes that were conducted at these sites. One site refined uranium and fabricated uranium metal ingots for fuel and targets and the other site rolled hot forged uranium and other metals into dimensional rods. Unique signatures were found that are consistent with the activities and processes conducted at each facility and establish confidence in using these characteristics to reveal the provenance of other materials that exhibit similar signatures. (author)

  10. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  11. Land Surface Phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 Global Land Cover Dynamics Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Friedl, Mark A.; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Verma, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Information related to land surface phenology is important for a variety of applications. For example, phenology is widely used as a diagnostic of ecosystem response to global change. In addition, phenology influences seasonal scale fluxes of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and atmosphere. Increasingly, the importance of phenology for studies of habitat and biodiversity is also being recognized. While many data sets related to plant phenology have been collected at specific sites or in networks focused on individual plants or plant species, remote sensing provides the only way to observe and monitor phenology over large scales and at regular intervals. The MODIS Global Land Cover Dynamics Product was developed to support investigations that require regional to global scale information related to spatiotemporal dynamics in land surface phenology. Here we describe the Collection 5 version of this product, which represents a substantial refinement relative to the Collection 4 product. This new version provides information related to land surface phenology at higher spatial resolution than Collection 4 (500-m vs. 1-km), and is based on 8-day instead of 16-day input data. The paper presents a brief overview of the algorithm, followed by an assessment of the product. To this end, we present (1) a comparison of results from Collection 5 versus Collection 4 for selected MODIS tiles that span a range of climate and ecological conditions, (2) a characterization of interannual variation in Collections 4 and 5 data for North America from 2001 to 2006, and (3) a comparison of Collection 5 results against ground observations for two forest sites in the northeastern United States. Results show that the Collection 5 product is qualitatively similar to Collection 4. However, Collection 5 has fewer missing values outside of regions with persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Interannual variability in Collection 5 is consistent with expected ranges of

  12. Wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of thirdhand tobacco smoke contamination on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Matt, Georg E; Chatfield, Dale; Zakarian, Joy M; Fortmann, Addie L; Hoh, Eunha

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke contains a mixture of pollutants that can persist in air, dust, and on surfaces for months or longer. This persistent residue is known as thirdhand smoke (THS). Here, we detail a simple method of wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of accumulated THS on surfaces. We analyzed findings from 5 real-world studies to investigate the performance of wipe sampling for nicotine on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels in relation to smoking behavior and smoking restrictions. The intraclass correlation coefficient for side-by-side samples was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94). Wipe sampling for nicotine reliably distinguished between private homes, private cars, rental cars, and hotels with and without smoking bans and was significantly positively correlated with other measures of tobacco smoke contamination such as air and dust nicotine. The sensitivity and specificity of possible threshold values (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/m(2)) were evaluated for distinguishing between nonsmoking and smoking environments. Sensitivity was highest at a threshold of 0.1 μg/m(2), with 74%-100% of smoker environments showing nicotine levels above threshold. Specificity was highest at a threshold of 10 μg/m(2), with 81%-100% of nonsmoker environments showing nicotine levels below threshold. The optimal threshold will depend on the desired balance of sensitivity and specificity and on the types of smoking and nonsmoking environments. Surface wipe sampling for nicotine is a reliable, valid, and relatively simple collection method to quantify THS contamination on surfaces across a wide range of field settings and to distinguish between nonsmoking and smoking environments.

  13. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Bockting, Walter O; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2012-05-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online.

  14. DNA cards: determinants of DNA yield and quality in collecting genetic samples for pharmacogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Crescenti, Anna; Gassó, Patricia; Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Lafuente, Amalia

    2007-08-01

    As pharmacogenetic studies frequently require establishment of DNA banks containing large cohorts with multi-centric designs, inexpensive methods for collecting and storing high-quality DNA are needed. The aims of this study were two-fold: to compare the amount and quality of DNA obtained from two different DNA cards (IsoCode Cards or FTA Classic Cards, Whatman plc, Brentford, Middlesex, UK); and to evaluate the effects of time and storage temperature, as well as the influence of anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the DNA elution procedure. The samples were genotyped by several methods typically used in pharmacogenetic studies: multiplex PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, single nucleotide primer extension, and allelic discrimination assay. In addition, they were amplified by whole genome amplification to increase genomic DNA mass. Time, storage temperature and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no significant effects on either DNA card. This study reveals the importance of drying blood spots prior to isolation to avoid haemoglobin interference. Moreover, our results demonstrate that re-isolation protocols could be applied to increase the amount of DNA recovered. The samples analysed were accurately genotyped with all the methods examined herein. In conclusion, our study shows that both DNA cards, IsoCode Cards and FTA Classic Cards, facilitate genetic and pharmacogenetic testing for routine clinical practice.

  15. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2013-01-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  16. Uranium analysis in some food samples collected from Bathinda area of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Prasher, Sangeeta; Singh, Surinder

    2009-07-01

    To strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Bathinda, the uranium concentration in daily diet of the residents has been measured and its associated radiation risks were estimated for the adult population. Food samples were collected from major cancer prone areas of the district, from which daily diets were prepared. These diet samples were analyzed using fission track technique. The measured values of the uranium content were found to vary from 0.38 mBq/g in mustard seeds to 4.60 mBq/g in wheat. In case of milk the uranium content is found to vary from 28.57-213.36 mBq/ℓ with mean concentration of 61.35 mBq/ℓ. This leads to a daily dietary intake of 0.90 Bq/day. The measured value of 0.90 Bq d-1, contributes to 1.12 mSv to the cumulative effective dose to the population. This dose is much large than the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for the general public [1]. Therefore, it would pose significant health hazard.

  17. Radiological results for samples collected on paired glass- and cellulose-fiber filters at the Sandia complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizell, Steve A.; Shadel, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particulates are collected at U.S. Department of Energy sites that exhibit radiological contamination on the soil surface to help assess the potential for wind to transport radionuclides from the contamination sites. Collecting these samples was originally accomplished by drawing air through a cellulose-fiber filter. These filters were replaced with glass-fiber filters in March 2011. Airborne particulates were collected side by side on the two filter materials between May 2013 and May 2014. Comparisons of the sample mass and the radioactivity determinations for the side-by-side samples were undertaken to determine if the change in the filter medium produced significant results. The differences in the results obtained using the two filter types were assessed visually by evaluating the time series and correlation plots and statistically by conducting a nonparametric matched-pair sign test. Generally, the glass-fiber filters collect larger samples of particulates and produce higher radioactivity values for the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy analyses. However, the correlation between the radioanalytical results for the glass-fiber filters and the cellulose-fiber filters was not strong enough to generate a linear regression function to estimate the glass-fiber filter sample results from the cellulose-fiber filter sample results.

  18. A collection of mathematical models for dispersion in surface water and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.; Key, K.T.; Whelan, G.

    1982-06-01

    This report represents a collection of some of the manual procedures and simple computer programs used by the Hydrologic Engineering Section of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, for computing the fate of routinely or accidentally released radionuclides in surface water and groundwater. All models are straightforward simulations of dispersion with constant coefficients in simple geometries

  19. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 94, Group ESH-19. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Lyons, C.R.; Coriz, F.

    1996-08-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY94 to characterize possible contaminant movement out of Area G through surface-water and sediment runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. Ten metals were also analyzed on selected soils using analytical laboratory techniques. All radiochemical data are compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and reported in LA-12986. Baseline concentrations for future disposal operations were established for metals and radionuclides by a sampling program in the proposed Area G Expansion Area. Considering the amount of radioactive waste that has been disposed at Area G, there is evidence of only low concentrations of radionuclides on perimeter surface soils. Consequently, little radioactivity is leaving the confines of Area G via the surface water runoff pathway

  20. Cracks and nanodroplets produced on tungsten surface samples by dense plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Galaţanu, M.; Galaţanu, A.; Luculescu, C.; Scurtu, A.; Udrea, N.; Ticoş, D.; Dumitru, M.

    2018-03-01

    Small samples of 12.5 mm in diameter made from pure tungsten were exposed to a dense plasma jet produced by a coaxial plasma gun operated at 2 kJ. The surface of the samples was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after applying consecutive plasma shots. Cracks and craters were produced in the surface due to surface tensions during plasma heating. Nanodroplets and micron size droplets could be observed on the samples surface. An energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that the composition of these droplets coincided with that of the gun electrode material. Four types of samples were prepared by spark plasma sintering from powders with the average particle size ranging from 70 nanometers up to 80 μm. The plasma power load to the sample surface was estimated to be ≈4.7 MJ m-2 s-1/2 per shot. The electron temperature and density in the plasma jet had peak values 17 eV and 1.6 × 1022 m-3, respectively.

  1. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  2. Evaluation of the toxicological properties of ground- and surface-water samples from the Aral Sea Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, K.; Erdinger, L.; Ingel, F.; Khussainova, S.; Utegenova, E.; Bresgen, N.; Eckl, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine whether there is a potential health risk associated with the water supply in the Aral Sea Basin, ground- and surface-water samples were collected in and around Aralsk and from the Aral Sea in 2002. Water samples from Akchi, a small town close to Almaty, served as controls. Bioassays with different toxicological endpoints were employed to assess the general toxicological status. Additionally, the samples were analysed for microbial contamination. The samples were tested in the primary hepatocyte assay for their potential to induce micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations as cumulative indicators for genotoxicity. In parallel, the effects on cell proliferation evidenced by mitotic index and cytotoxicity such as the appearance of necrotic and apoptotic cells, were determined. Furthermore, samples were examined using the Microtox assay for general toxicity. Chemical analysis according to European regulations was performed and soil and water samples were analysed for DDT and DDE. The results obtained indicated no increased cyto- or genotoxic potential of the water samples, nor levels of DDT or DDE exceeding the thresholds levels suggested by WHO. Our data therefore do not support the hypothesis that the contamination of the drinking water in and around Aralsk is responsible for the health effects previously described such as increased rates of liver disease and in particular liver cancer. Microbiological analysis, however, revealed the presence of contamination in most samples analysed

  3. Individual and collective modes of surface magnetoplasmon in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles studied by MCD spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Shiratsu, Taisuke

    2016-05-01

    Large magneto-optical (MO) responses at the energy of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), namely, surface magnetoplasmons, are demonstrated for the first time in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The samples examined are decanethiol (DT)-, azobenzenethiol (ABT)-, and ABT/DT mixed-monolayer-protected Ag nanoparticles. ABT-protected Ag nanoparticles are somewhat aggregated and thus exhibit a broad, collective mode of plasmonic absorption, whereas other samples with highly-dispersed nanoparticles show an individual mode of LSPR absorption. In all Ag nanoparticles, a derivative-like MCD signal is observed under an applied magnetic field of 1.6 T, which can be explained in terms of two circular modes of magnetoplasmon caused by the increase (or decrease) in the Lorentz force imparted on the free electrons that oscillate in the left (or right) circular orbits in the nanosphere. For the Ag nanoparticles exhibiting an individual LSPR mode, in particular, simultaneous deconvolution analysis of UV-vis absorption and MCD spectra reveal that (i) the amplitude of the magnetoplasmonic component with lower frequency (ω-), resulting from the reduction in the confinement strength of collective electrons by the Lorentz force, is stronger than that with a higher frequency (ω+) (ii) the accurate shift or cyclotron frequency between two magnetoplasmonic modes (ωc = ω+ - ω-) is size-dependent, and presents a very large value with implications for the apparent enhancement of the local magnetic-field in the Ag nanoparticles. These results strongly suggest that the Ag-thiolate layer or Ag-S bonding on the nanoparticle surface plays a significant role in the MO enhancement.Large magneto-optical (MO) responses at the energy of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), namely, surface magnetoplasmons, are demonstrated for the first time in thiolate-protected silver nanoparticles with magnetic circular dichroism (MCD

  4. Metal-organic frameworks for analytical chemistry: from sample collection to chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chang, Na; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2012-05-15

    In modern analytical chemistry researchers pursue novel materials to meet analytical challenges such as improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limit. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of microporous materials, and their unusual properties such as high surface area, good thermal stability, uniform structured nanoscale cavities, and the availability of in-pore functionality and outer-surface modification are attractive for diverse analytical applications. This Account summarizes our research on the analytical applications of MOFs ranging from sampling to chromatographic separation. MOFs have been either directly used or engineered to meet the demands of various analytical applications. Bulk MOFs with microsized crystals are convenient sorbents for direct application to in-field sampling and solid-phase extraction. Quartz tubes packed with MOF-5 have shown excellent stability, adsorption efficiency, and reproducibility for in-field sampling and trapping of atmospheric formaldehyde. The 2D copper(II) isonicotinate packed microcolumn has demonstrated large enhancement factors and good shape- and size-selectivity when applied to on-line solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. We have explored the molecular sieving effect of MOFs for the efficient enrichment of peptides with simultaneous exclusion of proteins from biological fluids. These results show promise for the future of MOFs in peptidomics research. Moreover, nanosized MOFs and engineered thin films of MOFs are promising materials as novel coatings for solid-phase microextraction. We have developed an in situ hydrothermal growth approach to fabricate thin films of MOF-199 on etched stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of volatile benzene homologues with large enhancement factors and wide linearity. Their high thermal stability and easy-to-engineer nanocrystals make MOFs attractive as new stationary phases to fabricate MOF

  5. 222Rn in water: A comparison of two sample collection methods and two sample transport methods, and the determination of temporal variation in North Carolina ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.H. III

    1994-01-01

    Objectives of this field experiment were: (1) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radon concentrations of samples collected by EPA's standard method, using a syringe, and an alternative, slow-flow method; (2) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the measured radon concentrations of samples mailed vs samples not mailed; and (3) determine whether there was a temporal variation of water radon concentration over a 7-month period. The field experiment was conducted at 9 sites, 5 private wells, and 4 public wells, at various locations in North Carolina. Results showed that a syringe is not necessary for sample collection, there was generally no significant radon loss due to mailing samples, and there was statistically significant evidence of temporal variations in water radon concentrations

  6. Data Validation Package - June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected during the 2015 sampling event from point-of-compliance (POC) wells 0171, 0173, 0176, 0179, 0181, and 0813 to monitor the disposition of contaminants in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Groundwater samples also were collected from alluvium monitoring wells 0188, 0189, 0192, 0194, and 0707, and basal sandstone monitoring wells 0182, 0184, 0185, and 0588 as a best management practice. Surface locations 0846 and 0847 were sampled to monitor for degradation of water quality in the backwater area of Brown’s Wash and in the Green River immediately downstream of Brown’s Wash. The Green River location 0801 is upstream from the site and is sampled to determine background-threshold values (BTVs). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Water levels were measured at each sampled well. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. All six POC wells are completed in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation and are monitored to measure contaminant concentrations for comparison to proposed alternate concentration limits (ACLs), as provided in Table 1. Contaminant concentrations in the POC wells remain below their respective ACLs.

  7. Sampling of dissolved gases in deep groundwater pumped to the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, J.

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop method for sampling dissolved gases in groundwater pumped out from borehole. In this report the developed method called Simple gas collector (YKK) and the first results gained are described. Samples were collected from five sampling sections. First test samplings were made from multipackered deep borehole (OL-KR1/523,2-528,2 m). The rest of samples were sampled during prepumping of PAVE-samplings. All samples were analysed with mass spectrometer. Gas composition results were very reproducible but gas concentration results varied in some sampling sections. Achieved results were compared with gas results of groundwater samples taken with PAVE-equipment. YKK-results were mainly comparable to PAVE-results, although differences were observed in both gas composition and concentration results. When gas concentration is small ( 2 O) gas compositions are very comparable and when concentration is high compositions differs between YKK- and PAVE-results. Gas concentration values were very comparable when the groundwater samples contained gases a lot, but the differences were relatively higher, when the gas amount in the groundwater sample was small. According to the survey you can get comparable information of dissolved gases in groundwater with YKK-method. The limit of using this method is that pumped groundwater must be oversaturated with gases in sampling conditions. (orig.)

  8. Validation of Marek's disease diagnosis and monitoring of Marek's disease vaccines from samples collected in FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Aneg L; Montiel, Enrique R; Gimeno, Isabel M

    2009-12-01

    The use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) filter cards to quantify Marek's disease virus (MDV) DNA for the diagnosis of Marek's disease (MD) and to monitor MD vaccines was evaluated. Samples of blood (43), solid tumors (14), and feather pulp (FP; 36) collected fresh and in FTA cards were analyzed. MDV DNA load was quantified by real-time PCR. Threshold cycle (Ct) ratios were calculated for each sample by dividing the Ct value of the internal control gene (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) by the Ct value of the MDV gene. Statistically significant correlation (P FTA cards by using Pearson's correlation test. Load of serotype 1 MDV DNA was quantified in 24 FP, 14 solid tumor, and 43 blood samples. There was a statistically significant correlation between FP (r = 0.95), solid tumor (r = 0.94), and blood (r = 0.9) samples collected fresh and in FTA cards. Load of serotype 2 MDV DNA was quantified in 17 FP samples, and the correlation between samples collected fresh and in FTA cards was also statistically significant (Pearson's coefficient, r = 0.96); load of serotype 3 MDV DNA was quantified in 36 FP samples, and correlation between samples taken fresh and in FTA cards was also statistically significant (r = 0.84). MDV DNA samples extracted 3 days (t0) and 8 months after collection (t1) were used to evaluate the stability of MDV DNA in archived samples collected in FTA cards. A statistically significant correlation was found for serotype 1 (r = 0.96), serotype 2 (r = 1), and serotype 3 (r = 0.9). The results show that FTA cards are an excellent media to collect, transport, and archive samples for MD diagnosis and to monitor MD vaccines. In addition, FTA cards are widely available, inexpensive, and adequate for the shipment of samples nationally and internationally.

  9. Use of self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody screening in relatives: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Rafkin, L E; Matheson, D; Henderson, C; Boulware, D; Besser, R E J; Ferrara, C; Yu, L; Steck, A K; Bingley, P J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody testing to identify risk in relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes. Participants were recruited via the observational TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study, which screens and monitors relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes for islet autoantibodies. Relatives were sent kits for capillary blood collection, with written instructions, an online instructional video link and a questionnaire. Sera from capillary blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, insulin and zinc transporter 8. 'Successful' sample collection was defined as obtaining sufficient volume and quality to provide definitive autoantibody results, including confirmation of positive results by repeat assay. In 240 relatives who returned samples, the median (range) age was 15.5 (1-49) years and 51% were male. Of these samples, 98% were sufficient for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and zinc transporter 8 autoantibody testing and 84% for insulin autoantibody testing and complete autoantibody screen. The upper 90% confidence bound for unsuccessful collection was 4.4% for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and/or zinc transporter 8 autoantibody assays, and 19.3% for insulin autoantibodies. Despite 43% of 220 questionnaire respondents finding capillary blood collection uncomfortable or painful, 82% preferred home self-collection of capillary blood samples compared with outpatient venepuncture (90% of those aged 18 years). The perceived difficulty of collecting capillary blood samples did not affect success rate. Self-collected capillary blood sampling offers a feasible alternative to venous sampling, with the potential to facilitate autoantibody screening for Type 1 diabetes risk. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  10. Calculation of parameter failure probability of thermodynamic system by response surface and importance sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yanlong; Cai Qi; Chen Lisheng; Zhang Yangwei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the combined method of response surface and importance sampling was applied for calculation of parameter failure probability of the thermodynamic system. The mathematics model was present for the parameter failure of physics process in the thermodynamic system, by which the combination arithmetic model of response surface and importance sampling was established, then the performance degradation model of the components and the simulation process of parameter failure in the physics process of thermodynamic system were also present. The parameter failure probability of the purification water system in nuclear reactor was obtained by the combination method. The results show that the combination method is an effective method for the calculation of the parameter failure probability of the thermodynamic system with high dimensionality and non-linear characteristics, because of the satisfactory precision with less computing time than the direct sampling method and the drawbacks of response surface method. (authors)

  11. Apparatus for surface treatment of U-Pu carbide fuel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Susumu; Arai, Yasuo; Handa, Muneo; Ohmichi, Toshihiko; Shiozawa, Ken-ichi.

    1979-05-01

    Apparatus has been constructed for treating the surface of U-Pu carbide fuel samples for EPMA. The treatment is to clean off oxide layer on the surface, then coat with an electric-conductive material. The apparatus, safe in handling plutonium, operates as follows. (1) To avoid oxidation of the analyzing surface by oxygen and water in the air, series of cleaning and coating, i.e. ion-etching and ion-coating or ion-etching and vacuum-evaporation is done at the same time in an inert gas atmosphere. (2) Ion-etching is possible on samples embedded in non-electric-conductive and low heat-conductive resin. (3) Since the temperature rise in (2) is negligible, there is no deterioration of the samples. (author)

  12. Accelerated sampling by infinite swapping of path integral molecular dynamics with surface hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Zhennan

    2018-02-01

    To accelerate the thermal equilibrium sampling of multi-level quantum systems, the infinite swapping limit of a recently proposed multi-level ring polymer representation is investigated. In the infinite swapping limit, the ring polymer evolves according to an averaged Hamiltonian with respect to all possible surface index configurations of the ring polymer and thus connects the surface hopping approach to the mean-field path-integral molecular dynamics. A multiscale integrator for the infinite swapping limit is also proposed to enable efficient sampling based on the limiting dynamics. Numerical results demonstrate the huge improvement of sampling efficiency of the infinite swapping compared with the direct simulation of path-integral molecular dynamics with surface hopping.

  13. Recovery of diverse microbes in high turbidity surface water samples using dead-end ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Bonnie; Hill, Vincent R

    2012-12-01

    Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) has been reported to be a simple, field-deployable technique for recovering bacteria, viruses, and parasites from large-volume water samples for water quality testing and waterborne disease investigations. While DEUF has been reported for application to water samples having relatively low turbidity, little information is available regarding recovery efficiencies for this technique when applied to sampling turbid water samples such as those commonly found in lakes and rivers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a DEUF technique for recovering MS2 bacteriophage, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface water samples having elevated turbidity. Average recovery efficiencies for each study microbe across all turbidity ranges were: MS2 (66%), C. parvum (49%), enterococci (85%), E. coli (81%), and C. perfringens (63%). The recovery efficiencies for MS2 and C. perfringens exhibited an inversely proportional relationship with turbidity, however no significant differences in recovery were observed for C. parvum, enterococci, or E. coli. Although ultrafilter clogging was observed, the DEUF method was able to process 100-L surface water samples at each turbidity level within 60 min. This study supports the use of the DEUF method for recovering a wide array of microbes in large-volume surface water samples having medium to high turbidity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in American Samoa from Water Samples collected since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  15. Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ernesto Barber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial sampling interval, as related to the ability to digitize a soil profile with a certain number of features per unit length, depends on the profiling technique itself. From a variety of profiling techniques, roughness parameters are estimated at different sampling intervals. Since soil profiles have continuous spectral components, it is clear that roughness parameters are influenced by the sampling interval of the measurement device employed. In this work, we contributed to answer which sampling interval the profiles needed to be measured at to accurately account for the microwave response of agricultural surfaces. For this purpose, a 2-D laser profiler was built and used to measure surface soil roughness at field scale over agricultural sites in Argentina. Sampling intervals ranged from large (50 mm to small ones (1 mm, with several intermediate values. Large- and intermediate-sampling-interval profiles were synthetically derived from nominal, 1 mm ones. With these data, the effect of sampling-interval-dependent roughness parameters on backscatter response was assessed using the theoretical backscatter model IEM2M. Simulations demonstrated that variations of roughness parameters depended on the working wavelength and was less important at L-band than at C- or X-band. In any case, an underestimation of the backscattering coefficient of about 1-4 dB was observed at larger sampling intervals. As a general rule a sampling interval of 15 mm can be recommended for L-band and 5 mm for C-band.

  16. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible.

  17. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995 - May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible

  18. Sampling methods for recovery of human enteric viruses from environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnage, Nicole L; Gibson, Kristen E

    2017-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis causes the second highest infectious disease burden worldwide. Human enteric viruses have been identified as leading causative agents of acute gastroenteritis as well as foodborne illnesses in the U.S. and are generally transmitted by fecal-oral contamination. There is growing evidence of transmission occurring via contaminated fomite including food contact surfaces. Additionally, human enteric viruses have been shown to remain infectious on fomites over prolonged periods of time. To better understand viral persistence, there is a need for more studies to investigate this phenomenon. Therefore, optimization of surface sampling methods is essential to aid in understanding environmental contamination to ensure proper preventative measures are being applied. In general, surface sampling studies are limited and highly variable among recovery efficiencies and research parameters used (e.g., virus type/density, surface type, elution buffers, tools). This review aims to discuss the various factors impacting surface sampling of viruses from fomites and to explore how researchers could move towards a more sensitive and standard sampling method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  20. Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Chester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC method was developed for simultaneous estimation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia rebaudiana samples collected from different regions of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved by using acetone: ethyl acetate: water (5:4:1, v/v/v as the solvent system on precoated silica gel 60 F 254 TLC plates. The densitometric quantification of stevia glycosides was carried out at wavelength 360 nm in absorption mode after spraying with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid as detecting reagent. Results: The well resolved peaks for stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed at R f values 0.31± 0.02 and 0.21± 0.02 respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 100 - 2000 ng spot -1 with good correlation coefficient 0.996 and 0.991 for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method was validated as per the ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization guidelines and found simple, sensitive, economic, reproducible, robust and accurate for quantitative analysis of stevia glycosides, which can be applied for quality control of stevia as well as to check.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of humic acids from subsurface sediment samples collected across the Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. SAKELLARIADOU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural humic acids are biogenic, structurally complex and heterogeneous, refractory, acidic, yellow-to black-coloured organic polyelectrolytes of relatively high molecular weight. They occur in all soils, sediments, fresh waters, and seawaters. Humic acids represent the largest portion of nonliving soil organic matter. In the present paper, humic substances were isolated from marine subsurface sediment samples collected across the Aegean sea (in Greece and especially from a marine area extending northwards of the Samothraki plateau towards the north-eastern part of the island of Crete. In a following step, humic preparations were studied using infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy (emission, excitation and synchronous-scan excitation spectra were obtained. The infrared spectra suggested functional chemical groups such as as OH-, C-H aliphatic, C=C, C=O/COO-, salts of carboxylic acids, and also, in some cases, silicate anions or C-O from alcohols, esters and ethers. Fluorescence emission, excitation and synchronous scan excitation provided some valuable information concerning a probable origin (marine and/or terrestrial for the isolated humics.

  2. AN EVALUATION OF PRIMARY DATA-COLLECTION MODES IN AN ADDRESS-BASED SAMPLING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ashley; Leclere, Felicia; Carris, Kari; Liao, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    As address-based sampling becomes increasingly popular for multimode surveys, researchers continue to refine data-collection best practices. While much work has been conducted to improve efficiency within a given mode, additional research is needed on how multimode designs can be optimized across modes. Previous research has not evaluated the consequences of mode sequencing on multimode mail and phone surveys, nor has significant research been conducted to evaluate mode sequencing on a variety of indicators beyond response rates. We conducted an experiment within the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the U.S. Risk Factor Survey (REACH U.S.) to evaluate two multimode case-flow designs: (1) phone followed by mail (phone-first) and (2) mail followed by phone (mail-first). We compared response rates, cost, timeliness, and data quality to identify differences across case-flow design. Because surveys often differ on the rarity of the target population, we also examined whether changes in the eligibility rate altered the choice of optimal case flow. Our results suggested that, on most metrics, the mail-first design was superior to the phone-first design. Compared with phone-first, mail-first achieved a higher yield rate at a lower cost with equivalent data quality. While the phone-first design initially achieved more interviews compared to the mail-first design, over time the mail-first design surpassed it and obtained the greatest number of interviews.

  3. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137 Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

  4. Surface characterization of Nb samples electropolished with real superconducting rf accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium (Nb samples electropolished together with a single cell superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavity. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris, and the beam pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray for elemental analysis was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulfur (S were found covering the samples nonuniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulfur.

  5. Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial-mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multi-cellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multi-cellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of surface roughness, texture and polymer degradation on cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Frankel, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel samples was studied using SKP. ► Delamination of the coating decreased with increased substrate surface roughness. ► Delamination of the coating was faster on the substrate with parallel surface scratches. ► Delamination of the coating exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure. - Abstract: The Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) technique was used to investigate the effects of surface roughness, texture and polymer degradation on cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel. The cathodic delamination rate of the epoxy coatings dramatically decreased with increased surface roughness of the underlying steel substrate. The surface texture of the steel substrates also had a significant effect in that samples with parallel abrasion lines exhibiting faster cathodic delamination in the direction of the lines compared to the direction perpendicular to the lines. The cathodic delamination kinetics of epoxy coatings previously exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure due to pronounced polymer degradation. SEM observation confirmed that the cyclic exposure to UV radiation and water condensation caused severe deterioration in the polymer structures with surface cracking and erosion. The SKP results clearly showed that the cathodic delamination of the epoxy coatings was significantly influenced by the surface features of the underlying steel substrates and the degradation of the coatings.

  7. Surface analyses of electropolished niobium samples for superconducting radio frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Saeki, T.; Sawabe, M.; Hayano, H.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities is sometimes limited by contaminations present on the cavity surface. In the recent years extensive research has been done to enhance the cavity performance by applying improved surface treatments such as mechanical grinding, electropolishing (EP), chemical polishing, tumbling, etc., followed by various rinsing methods such as ultrasonic pure water rinse, alcoholic rinse, high pressure water rinse, hydrogen per oxide rinse, etc. Although good cavity performance has been obtained lately by various post-EP cleaning methods, the detailed nature about the surface contaminants is still not fully characterized. Further efforts in this area are desired. Prior x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of EPed niobium samples treated with fresh EP acid, demonstrated that the surfaces were covered mainly with the niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) along with carbon, in addition a small quantity of sulfur and fluorine were also found in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. In this article, the authors present the analyses of surface contaminations for a series of EPed niobium samples located at various positions of a single cell niobium cavity followed by ultrapure water rinsing as well as our endeavor to understand the aging effect of EP acid solution in terms of contaminations presence at the inner surface of the cavity with the help of surface analytical tools such as XPS, SIMS, and scanning electron microscope at KEK.

  8. Surface analyses of electropolished niobium samples for superconducting radio frequency cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Saeki, T.; Sawabe, M.; Hayano, H.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S. [GUAS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); KAKEN Inc., Hokota, Ibaraki 311-1416 (Japan); GUAS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan) and KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    The performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities is sometimes limited by contaminations present on the cavity surface. In the recent years extensive research has been done to enhance the cavity performance by applying improved surface treatments such as mechanical grinding, electropolishing (EP), chemical polishing, tumbling, etc., followed by various rinsing methods such as ultrasonic pure water rinse, alcoholic rinse, high pressure water rinse, hydrogen per oxide rinse, etc. Although good cavity performance has been obtained lately by various post-EP cleaning methods, the detailed nature about the surface contaminants is still not fully characterized. Further efforts in this area are desired. Prior x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of EPed niobium samples treated with fresh EP acid, demonstrated that the surfaces were covered mainly with the niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) along with carbon, in addition a small quantity of sulfur and fluorine were also found in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. In this article, the authors present the analyses of surface contaminations for a series of EPed niobium samples located at various positions of a single cell niobium cavity followed by ultrapure water rinsing as well as our endeavor to understand the aging effect of EP acid solution in terms of contaminations presence at the inner surface of the cavity with the help of surface analytical tools such as XPS, SIMS, and scanning electron microscope at KEK.

  9. Adaptive Sampling based 3D Profile Measuring Method for Free-Form Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xianyin; Zou, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Peng, Fangyu; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Guozhang

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of adaptability and scanning efficiency of the current surface profile detection device, a high precision and high efficiency detection approach is proposed for surface contour of free-form surface parts based on self- adaptability. The contact mechanical probe and the non-contact laser probe are synthetically integrated according to the sampling approach of adaptive front-end path detection. First, the front-end path is measured by the non-contact laser probe, and the detection path is planned by the internal algorithm of the measuring instrument. Then a reasonable measurement sampling is completed according to the planned path by the contact mechanical probe. The detection approach can effectively improve the measurement efficiency of the free-form surface contours and can simultaneously detect the surface contours of unknown free-form surfaces with different curvatures and even different rate of curvature. The detection approach proposed in this paper also has important reference value for free-form surface contour detection.

  10. Free water {sup 3}H concentration in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, S. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Inoue, Y.; Miyamoto, K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Takizawa, Y. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Fallout {sup 3}H concentrations in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita Prefecture are reported in this paper. Since {sup 3}H is a potential nuclear fuel for fusion reactors in future, its environmental behavior is important for dose assessment of released {sup 3}H from the plants. Tritium in foods is classified into two types; free water {sup 3}H (FWT) and organically-bound {sup 3}H (OBT). The FWT is practically separated by means of freeze-drying, while the OBT is measured with water sample collected by combustion of dried sample. The OBT concentrations in foods and human tissue samples were reported for {sup 3}H originating from nuclear weapon fallout. We already published {sup 3}H concentrations in diet samples collected in Akita City during 1985-88. Although results for the samples collected in U.S.A. and European countries in the 1970s showed higher specific activity of OBT than FWT, our recent results in Japan indicate almost the same specific activity between them. Since the measurements for the samples in 1960s and 1970s are important to understand the long-term movement of {sup 3}H in the environment, we have searched old diet samples. Recently, diet samples collected in Akita Prefecture during 1969-80 were found and obtained for {sup 3}H analysis. The samples were originally gathered for nutrition survey programs and consisted of duplicate diet samples for 1 day from 10-30 persons. Food samples excluding boiled rice which is the staple food was homogenized by electric mixers after adding tap water. Then, the food and the boiled rice samples were stored in a refrigerator at -20degC. Free water in the samples was collected with lyophilization, then {sup 3}H in the water sample was measured after purification with low-level liquid scintillation counters. The free water {sup 3}H concentrations were measured for 57 diet samples (dish excluding boiled rice) and 17 boiled rice samples. The free water {sup 3}H concentrations in diet and rice samples

  11. Bacterial diversity of surface sand samples from the Gobi and Taklamaken deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shu; Couteau, Cécile; Luo, Fan; Neveu, Julie; DuBow, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    Arid regions represent nearly 30 % of the Earth's terrestrial surface, but their microbial biodiversity is not yet well characterized. The surface sands of deserts, a subset of arid regions, are generally subjected to large temperature fluctuations plus high UV light exposure and are low in organic matter. We examined surface sand samples from the Taklamaken (China, three samples) and Gobi (Mongolia, two samples) deserts, using pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S V1/V2 rDNA sequences from total extracted DNA in order to gain an assessment of the bacterial population diversity. In total, 4,088 OTUs (using ≥97 % sequence similarity levels), with Chao1 estimates varying from 1,172 to 2,425 OTUs per sample, were discernable. These could be grouped into 102 families belonging to 15 phyla, with OTUs belonging to the Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria phyla being the most abundant. The bacterial population composition was statistically different among the samples, though members from 30 genera were found to be common among the five samples. An increase in phylotype numbers with increasing C/N ratio was noted, suggesting a possible role in the bacterial richness of these desert sand environments. Our results imply an unexpectedly large bacterial diversity residing in the harsh environment of these two Asian deserts, worthy of further investigation.

  12. Sampling strategy to develop a core collection of Uruguayan maize landraces based on morphological traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malosetti, M.; Abadie, T.

    2001-01-01

    Core collections were suggested to improve germplasm utilization. A core collection is a subset chosen to represent the diversity of a collection with a minimum of redundancies. Because diversity is distributed between and within groups with different degrees of organization, an adequate

  13. Effects of surface coatings on the light collection in plastic scintillators used for radioxenon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bläckberg, L; Klintenberg, M; Sjöstrand, H; Ringbom, A

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition coatings are under investigation to reduce the diffusion of radioxenon into plastic scintillators. This paper investigates the impact of such surface coating on the light collection efficiency in a cylindrical geometry. A high and uniform light collection efficiency is important to preserve detector resolution. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements have been carried out to study the influence of coating thickness, refractive index and surface quality. It was found that it is important to achieve a smooth coating and good optical match between the refractive indices of the coating and the plastic scintillator. Taking into account these considerations, the detector under study could be coated without a significant degradation of its resolution.

  14. Occurrence and behavior of butyltins in intertidal and shallow subtidal surface sediments of an estuarine beach under different sampling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Dayana Moscardi dos; Sant'Anna, Bruno Sampaio; Sandron, Daniela Corsino; Cardoso de Souza, Sara; Cristale, Joyce; Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de; Turra, Alexander

    2010-07-01

    Contamination by butyltin compounds (BTs) has been reported in estuarine environments worldwide, with serious impacts on the biota of these areas. Considering that BTs can be degraded by varying environmental conditions such as incident light and salinity, the short-term variations in such factors may lead to inaccurate estimates of BTs concentrations in nature. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the possibility that measurements of BTs in estuarine sediments are influenced by different sampling conditions, including period of the day (day or night), tidal zone (intertidal or subtidal), and tides (high or low). The study area is located on the Brazilian southeastern coast, São Vicente Estuary, at Pescadores Beach, where BT contamination was previously detected. Three replicate samples of surface sediment were collected randomly in each combination of period of the day, tidal zone, and tide condition, from three subareas along the beach, totaling 72 samples. BTs were analyzed by GC-PFPD using a tin filter and a VF-5 column, by means of a validated method. The concentrations of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) ranged from undetectable to 161 ng Sn g -1 (d.w.). In most samples (71%), only MBT was quantifiable, whereas TBTs were measured in only 14, suggesting either an old contamination or rapid degradation processes. DBT was found in 27 samples, but could be quantified in only one. MBT concentrations did not differ significantly with time of day, zones, or tide conditions. DBT and TBT could not be compared under all these environmental conditions, because only a few samples were above the quantification limit. Pooled samples of TBT did not reveal any difference between day and night. These results indicated that, in assessing contamination by butyltin compounds, surface-sediment samples can be collected in any environmental conditions. However, the wide variation of BTs concentrations in the study area, i.e., over a very small

  15. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assonov, S.S.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Koeppel, C.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and

  16. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample ...

  17. Gaussian process based intelligent sampling for measuring nano-structure surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. J.; Ren, M. J.; Yin, Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is the science and engineering that manipulate matters at nano scale, which can be used to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications. As the nanotech product increasingly enters the commercial marketplace, nanometrology becomes a stringent and enabling technology for the manipulation and the quality control of the nanotechnology. However, many measuring instruments, for instance scanning probe microscopy, are limited to relatively small area of hundreds of micrometers with very low efficiency. Therefore some intelligent sampling strategies should be required to improve the scanning efficiency for measuring large area. This paper presents a Gaussian process based intelligent sampling method to address this problem. The method makes use of Gaussian process based Bayesian regression as a mathematical foundation to represent the surface geometry, and the posterior estimation of Gaussian process is computed by combining the prior probability distribution with the maximum likelihood function. Then each sampling point is adaptively selected by determining the position which is the most likely outside of the required tolerance zone among the candidates and then inserted to update the model iteratively. Both simulationson the nominal surface and manufactured surface have been conducted on nano-structure surfaces to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results imply that the proposed method significantly improves the measurement efficiency in measuring large area structured surfaces.

  18. Acceptability of self-collection sampling for HPV-DNA testing in low-resource settings: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, Pooja; Wittet, Scott; Lim, Jeanette L; Winkler, Jennifer L; Paul, Proma; Jeronimo, Jose

    2014-06-12

    Vaginal self-sampling with HPV-DNA tests is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer. However, women's experiences, concerns and the acceptability of such tests in low-resource settings remain unknown. In India, Nicaragua, and Uganda, a mixed-method design was used to collect data from surveys (N = 3,863), qualitative interviews (N = 72; 20 providers and 52 women) and focus groups (N = 30 women) on women's and providers' experiences with self-sampling, women's opinions of sampling at home, and their future needs. Among surveyed women, 90% provided a self- collected sample. Of these, 75% reported it was easy, although 52% were initially concerned about hurting themselves and 24% were worried about not getting a good sample. Most surveyed women preferred self-sampling (78%). However it was not clear if they responded to the privacy of self-sampling or the convenience of avoiding a pelvic examination, or both. In follow-up interviews, most women reported that they didn't mind self-sampling, but many preferred to have a provider collect the vaginal sample. Most women also preferred clinic-based screening (as opposed to home-based self-sampling), because the sample could be collected by a provider, women could receive treatment if needed, and the clinic was sanitary and provided privacy. Self-sampling acceptability was higher when providers prepared women through education, allowed women to examine the collection brush, and were present during the self-collection process. Among survey respondents, aids that would facilitate self-sampling in the future were: staff help (53%), additional images in the illustrated instructions (31%), and a chance to practice beforehand with a doll/model (26%). Self-and vaginal-sampling are widely acceptable among women in low-resource settings. Providers have a unique opportunity to educate and prepare women for self-sampling and be flexible in accommodating women's preference for self-sampling.

  19. Impact of collection container material and holding times on sample integrity for mercury and methylmercury in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riscassi, Ami L [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in streamwater can vary on short timescales (hourly or less) during storm flow and on a diel cycle; the frequency and timing of sampling required to accurately characterize these dynamics may be difficult to accomplish manually. Automated sampling can assist in sample collection; however use has been limited for Hg and MeHg analysis due to stability concerns of trace concentrations during extended storage times. We examined the viability of using automated samplers with disposable low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sample bags to collect industrially contaminated streamwater for unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg analysis. Specifically we investigated the effect of holding times ranging from hours to days on streamwater collected during baseflow and storm flow. Unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg concentrations decreased with increases in time prior to sample processing; holding times of 24 hours or less resulted in concentration changes (mean 11 7% different) similar to variability in duplicates collected manually during analogous field conditions (mean 7 10% different). Comparisons of samples collected with manual and automated techniques throughout a year for a wide range of stream conditions were also found to be similar to differences observed between duplicate grab samples. These results demonstrate automated sampling into LDPE bags with holding times of 24 hours or less can be effectively used to collect streamwater for Hg and MeHg analysis, and encourage the testing of these materials and methods for implementation in other aqueous systems where high-frequency sampling is warranted.

  20. Airborne detection and quantification of swine influenza a virus in air samples collected inside, outside and downwind from swine barns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Corzo

    Full Text Available Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m³ of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m³ of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m³. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions.

  1. Mobile sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH: Results of samples collected in a roadway tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, B.A. Jr.; Gordon, G.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A recent review article emphasized the need for further characterizations of the carbonaceous fraction of mobile source emissions, particularly with the impending removal of lead alkyl octane boosters and bromine-containing lead scavengers from regular leaded gasolines. The lead and bromine emitted from the combustion of these fuels have been used as tracers of mobile source emissions for a number of years. Single vehicle emission studies have shed light on the relationship between engine operating parameters and the chemical characteristics of the emissions but they are not suitable for use in source apportionment studies which require emission data from a large number of different vehicles. Air particulate samples collected near a busy highway or in a roadway tunnel would be more appropriate for use in estimating the mobile source contribution of organic compounds to a region. Suspended particle samples collected in a heavily-travelled roadway tunnel (Baltimore Harbor Tunnel, Baltimore, Maryland) were characterized for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some nitro-PAH by gas and liquid chromatographic techniques. These samples included those collected on Teflon filters and on glass fiber filters for investigating any differences in samples collected on an inert (Teflon) and more reactive (glass-fiber) medium. All samples collected on Teflon were backed-up with polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) which trapped any inherent vapor-phase PAH as well as any compounds ''blown-off'' the particles during collection

  2. Deuterium retention and surface modification of tungsten macrobrush samples exposed in FTU Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaluno, G.; Giacomi, G.; Rufoloni, A.; Verdini, L.

    2007-06-01

    The effect of discrete structures such as macrobrush or castellated surfaces on power handling and deuterium retention of plasma facing components is to be assessed since such geometrical configurations are needed for increasing the lifetime of the armour to heat-sink joint. Four small macrobrush W and W + 1%La2O3 samples have been exposed in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) scrape-off layer up to the last closed flux surface by means of the Sample Introduction System. FTU is an all metal machine with no carbon source inside vacuum vessel; it exhibits ITER relevant energy and particle fluxes on the plasma facing components. Here, results on morphological surface changes (SEM), chemical composition (EDX) and deuterium retention (TDS) are reported.

  3. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks

  4. Classification of bacterial samples as negative or positive for a UTI and antibiogram using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Pitris, Costas

    2011-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis requires an overnight culture to identify a sample as positive or negative for a UTI. Additional cultures are required to identify the pathogen responsible for the infection and to test its sensitivity to antibiotics. A rise in ineffective treatments, chronic infections, rising health care costs and antibiotic resistance are some of the consequences of this prolonged waiting period of UTI diagnosis. In this work, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is used for classifying bacterial samples as positive or negative for UTI. SERS spectra of serial dilutions of E.coli bacteria, isolated from a urine culture, were classified as positive (105-108 cells/ml) or negative (103-104 cells/ml) for UTI after mixing samples with gold nanoparticles. A leave-one-out cross validation was performed using the first two principal components resulting in the correct classification of 82% of all samples. Sensitivity of classification was 88% and specificity was 67%. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was also done using SERS spectra of various species of gram negative bacteria collected 4 hours after exposure to antibiotics. Spectral analysis revealed clear separation between the spectra of samples exposed to ciprofloxacin (sensitive) and amoxicillin (resistant). This study can become the basis for identifying urine samples as positive or negative for a UTI and determining their antibiogram without requiring an overnight culture.

  5. A comparison of human papillomavirus testing of clinician-collected and self-collected samples during follow-up after screen-and-treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sylvia; Wang, Chunhui; Wright, Thomas C; Denny, Lynette; Kuhn, Louise

    2011-08-15

    Screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention programs based on high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cryotherapy have been shown to be effective in resource-limited settings. However, because cryotherapy is not 100% effective, follow-up is needed after treatment to detect post-treatment failures. We compared the test performances of high-risk HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2) using self-collected and clinician-collected samples as well as cervical cytology for identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 or 3 or invasive cervical cancer (CIN2+) among women who did (n=812) and did not (n=1858) undergo cryotherapy in a South African screen-and-treat trial. At 6 months after enrolment (and after cryotherapy, if performed), women were tested using all three screening methods and then underwent colposcopy/biopsy. A predefined subset of women (n=1,455) had extended follow-up with colposcopy/biopsy at 12 months. A total of 33 and 91 cases of CIN2+ were detected among treated and untreated women, respectively. The sensitivity of HPV testing using clinician-collected samples and cervical cytology did not differ by treatment status. HPV testing of clinician-collected samples detected the most cases of CIN2+ among both treated (85%) and untreated (91%) women (p=0.31). Cytology (at a cutoff of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater) detected 76% of cases among both treated and untreated women. However, the sensitivity of HPV testing using self-collected samples was significantly lower among treated versus untreated women (55% vs. 78%, p=0.01). HPV testing using self-collected vaginal specimens may be useful in primary screening but performs poorly for detecting post-treatment failures. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  6. Ra-226 collective dosimetry for surface waters in the uranium mining region of Pocos de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Graphs of the collective dose equivalent for the whole body, bone, gastro-intestinal tract (lower large intestine), kidneys, and liver, via the pathways of drinking water and ingestion of food grown in irrigated fields are presented as a function of the 226 Ra concentrations in the surface waters of the Pocos de Caldas region. The collective dose equivalent calculated from the 226 Ra concentrations measured in the baseline studies are compared with those collective dose equivalent estimated from the projected higher 226 Ra concentrations in the river waters. The 226 Ra concentrations in river waters of the region are expected to be enhanced due to 226 Ra releases from uranium mining and milling operations. The dose equivalent commitment for the exposed population for the referred pathways is also estimated for the contribution of the mine during its predicted time of operation. The assumptions for the dose calculations are presented and the results obtained are discussed. (H.K.)

  7. Temperature-tunable wettability on a bioinspired structured graphene surface for fog collection and unidirectional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Yun; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Hao-Bo; Li, Shu-Yi; Kaya, Cigdem; Stegmaier, Thomas; Han, Zhi-Wu; Ren, Lu-Quan

    2018-02-22

    We designed a type of smart bioinspired wettable surface with tip-shaped patterns by combining polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and graphene (PDMS/G). The laser etched porous graphene surface can produce an obvious wettability change between 200 °C and 0 °C due to a change in aperture size and chemical components. We demonstrate that the cooperation of the geometrical structure and the controllable wettability play an important role in water gathering, and surfaces with tip-shaped wettability patterns can quickly drive tiny water droplets toward more wettable regions, so making a great contribution to the improvement of water collection efficiency. In addition, due to the effective cooperation between super hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of the special tip-shaped pattern, unidirectional water transport on the 200 °C heated PDMS/G surface can be realized. This study offers a novel insight into the design of temperature-tunable materials with interphase wettability that may enhance fog collection efficiency in engineering liquid harvesting equipment, and realize unidirectional liquid transport, which could potentially be applied to the realms of microfluidics, medical devices and condenser design.

  8. An Intrinsic Algorithm for Parallel Poisson Disk Sampling on Arbitrary Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiang; Xin, Shi-Qing; Sun, Qian; He, Ying

    2013-03-08

    Poisson disk sampling plays an important role in a variety of visual computing, due to its useful statistical property in distribution and the absence of aliasing artifacts. While many effective techniques have been proposed to generate Poisson disk distribution in Euclidean space, relatively few work has been reported to the surface counterpart. This paper presents an intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces. We propose a new technique for parallelizing the dart throwing. Rather than the conventional approaches that explicitly partition the spatial domain to generate the samples in parallel, our approach assigns each sample candidate a random and unique priority that is unbiased with regard to the distribution. Hence, multiple threads can process the candidates simultaneously and resolve conflicts by checking the given priority values. It is worth noting that our algorithm is accurate as the generated Poisson disks are uniformly and randomly distributed without bias. Our method is intrinsic in that all the computations are based on the intrinsic metric and are independent of the embedding space. This intrinsic feature allows us to generate Poisson disk distributions on arbitrary surfaces. Furthermore, by manipulating the spatially varying density function, we can obtain adaptive sampling easily.

  9. Technical Note: Comparison of storage strategies of sea surface microlayer samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schneider-Zapp

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface microlayer (SML is an important biogeochemical system whose physico-chemical analysis often necessitates some degree of sample storage. However, many SML components degrade with time so the development of optimal storage protocols is paramount. We here briefly review some commonly used treatment and storage protocols. Using freshwater and saline SML samples from a river estuary, we investigated temporal changes in surfactant activity (SA and the absorbance and fluorescence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM over four weeks, following selected sample treatment and storage protocols. Some variability in the effectiveness of individual protocols most likely reflects sample provenance. None of the various protocols examined performed any better than dark storage at 4 °C without pre-treatment. We therefore recommend storing samples refrigerated in the dark.

  10. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research.

  11. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Green, Carla A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  12. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment : Examples from Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Per Johan

    with through both detailed discussion and by using simple examples. These examples are mostly based on situations in tropical fisheries and, in particular, experience has been drawn from developing a data collection programme in Viet Nam. The main questions addressed in the manual are which fisheries data...... to collect, where and when to collect them. Only data collected from commercial marine capture fisheries are considered (data from freshwater fisheries, cultured fish and experimental fisheries are excluded). The methodologies used are mainly appropriate for a tropical developing country with many small...

  13. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Chemical Warfare Agents in Indoor Sample Media Typically Collected During Forensic Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, P. A; Hancock, J. R; Chenier, C. L

    2005-01-01

    .... DRDC Suffield, in collaboration with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, identified a need for analytical methods for chemical warfare agent identification in media, including flooring, wall surfaces...

  14. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... laboratory within one day. If delivery is delayed, samples should be refrigerated. (a) For egg- and meat-type chickens, waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game birds. All samples and swabs described in this paragraph...

  15. Blood sample collection and patient identification demand improvement: a questionnaire study of preanalytical practices in hospital wards and laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Olof; Söderberg, Johan; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Stenlund, Hans; Grankvist, Kjell; Brulin, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2010; 24; 581-591 
 Blood sample collection and patient identification demand improvement: a questionnaire study of preanalytical practices in hospital wards and laboratories   Most errors in venous blood testing result from human mistakes occurring before the sample reach the laboratory.   To survey venous blood sampling (VBS) practices in hospital wards and to compare practices with hospital laboratories.   Staff in two hospitals (all wards) and two hospital laboratories (314 respondents, response rate 94%), completed a questionnaire addressing issues relevant to the collection of venous blood samples for clinical chemistry testing.   The findings suggest that instructions for patient identification and the collection of venous blood samples were not always followed. For example, 79% of the respondents reported the undesirable practice (UDP) of not always using wristbands for patient identification. Similarly, 87% of the respondents noted the UDP of removing venous stasis after the sampling is finished. Compared with the ward staff, a significantly higher proportion of the laboratory staff reported desirable practices regarding the collection of venous blood samples. Neither education nor the existence of established sampling routines was clearly associated with VBS practices among the ward staff.   The results of this study, the first of its kind, suggest that a clinically important risk of error is associated with VBS in the surveyed wards. Most important is the risk of misidentification of patients. Quality improvement of blood sample collection is clearly needed, particularly in hospital wards. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Collection and preparation of samples for Agency's programme of intercalibration methods and procedures for measurement of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    1975-12-01

    In the period of 1971-1975 several samples of marine sediment and organisms were collected from the Bombay Harbour Bay as well as from the vicinity of the Tarapur nuclear power station in order to supply the materials for preparing intercalibration samples for radionuclides measurements. All samples collected were freeze-dried and homogenized prior to the dispatch to the Monaco Laboratory, where final homogenization and the homogeneity tests were carried out. Altogether 2 marine organisms and 3 marine sediments were supplied during this period. The materials supplied were proved to be useful to prepare intercalibration samples for radionuclide measurements in the levels for monitoring operations. Based on these materials several intercalibration exercises were successfully conducted. This work thus formed a basis for bringing the better comparability of radionuclide measurements in marine environmental samples in an international scale

  17. Characterisation of silica surfaces III: Characterisation of aerosil samples through ethanol adsorption and contact angle studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Nadiye–Tabbiruka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosil samples, heat treated and then silylated with various silanes at various temperatures have been characterised by adsorption of ethanol at 293 K. Adsorption isotherms were plotted and the BET specific surface areas were determined. Contact angles were measured by the captive bubble method at the three phase contact line in ethanol, on glass slides similarly modified. Silylation was found to alter the ethanol adsorptive properties on aerosil and increase the contact angles on the glass slides to extents that depend on the silane used as well as the concentration of residual silanols and that of surface silyl groups.

  18. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs

  19. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  20. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Amy L.; Tirelli, Valentina; O’Connor, Ian; Officer, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Plastic, as a form of marine litter, is found in varying quantities and sizes around the globe from surface waters to deep-sea sediments. Identifying patterns of microplastic distribution will benefit an understanding of the scale of their potential effect on the environment and organisms. As sea ice extent is reducing in the Arctic, heightened shipping and fishing activity may increase marine pollution in the area. Microplastics may enter the region following ocean transport and local input, although baseline contamination measurements are still required. Here we present the first study of microplastics in Arctic waters, south and southwest of Svalbard, Norway. Microplastics were found in surface (top 16 cm) and sub-surface (6 m depth) samples using two independent techniques. Origins and pathways bringing microplastic to the Arctic remain unclear. Particle composition (95% fibres) suggests they may either result from the breakdown of larger items (transported over large distances by prevailing currents, or derived from local vessel activity), or input in sewage and wastewater from coastal areas. Concurrent observations of high zooplankton abundance suggest a high probability for marine biota to encounter microplastics and a potential for trophic interactions. Further research is required to understand the effects of microplastic-biota interaction within this productive environment. PMID:26446348

  1. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Amy L.; Tirelli, Valentina; O'Connor, Ian; Officer, Rick

    2015-10-01

    Plastic, as a form of marine litter, is found in varying quantities and sizes around the globe from surface waters to deep-sea sediments. Identifying patterns of microplastic distribution will benefit an understanding of the scale of their potential effect on the environment and organisms. As sea ice extent is reducing in the Arctic, heightened shipping and fishing activity may increase marine pollution in the area. Microplastics may enter the region following ocean transport and local input, although baseline contamination measurements are still required. Here we present the first study of microplastics in Arctic waters, south and southwest of Svalbard, Norway. Microplastics were found in surface (top 16 cm) and sub-surface (6 m depth) samples using two independent techniques. Origins and pathways bringing microplastic to the Arctic remain unclear. Particle composition (95% fibres) suggests they may either result from the breakdown of larger items (transported over large distances by prevailing currents, or derived from local vessel activity), or input in sewage and wastewater from coastal areas. Concurrent observations of high zooplankton abundance suggest a high probability for marine biota to encounter microplastics and a potential for trophic interactions. Further research is required to understand the effects of microplastic-biota interaction within this productive environment.

  2. The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: an Argentinian sample of modern skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, S A; Desántolo, B; Mancuso, R García; Plischuk, M; Inda, A M

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The Lambre Collection is housed in the School of Medical Sciences of the National University of La Plata and it consists of skeletal remains ceded by the Municipal Cemetery of La Plata. The collection has more than four hundred skeletons, with information on age, sex, nationality, date and cause of death. It was created for teaching and research purposes in compliance with current legislation, and its management meets guidelines specified in the Declaration of the Argentinian Association for Biological Anthropology on Research Ethics on Human Remains (2007). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical results for 544 water samples collected in the Attean Quartz Monzonite in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklin, W.H.; Nowlan, G.A.; Preston, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine as a part of the study of the relationship of dissolved constituents in water to the sediments subjacent to the water. Each sample was analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, acidity, pH, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and silica. Trace elements determined were copper, zinc, molybdenum, lead, iron, manganese, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, and strontium. The longitude and latitude of each sample location and a sample site map are included in the report as well as a table of the analytical results.

  4. Strategy for Ranking the Science Value of the Surface of Asteroid 101955 Bennu for Sample Site Selection for Osiris-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    OSRIS-REx is NASA's New Frontiers 3 sample return mission that will return at least 60 g of pristine surface material from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. The scientific value of the sample increases enormously with the amount of knowledge captured about the geological context from which the sample is collected. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is highly maneuverable and capable of investigating the surface of Bennu at scales down to the sub-cm. The OSIRIS-REx instruments will characterize the overall surface geology including spectral properties, microtexture, and geochemistry of the regolith at the sampling site in exquisite detail for up to 505 days after encountering Bennu in August 2018. The mission requires at the very minimum one acceptable location on the asteroid where a touch-and-go (TAG) sample collection maneuver can be successfully per-formed. Sample site selection requires that the follow-ing maps be produced: Safety, Deliverability, Sampleability, and finally Science Value. If areas on the surface are designated as safe, navigation can fly to them, and they have ingestible regolith, then the scientific value of one site over another will guide site selection.

  5. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment: examples from Viet Nam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sparre, Per

    2000-01-01

    .... The data collection programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery...

  6. Nanoparticles in natural systems I: The effective reactive surface area of the natural oxide fraction in field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Antelo, Juan; Rahnemaie, Rasoul; van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Information on the particle size and reactive surface area of natural samples is essential for the application of surface complexation models (SCM) to predict bioavailability, toxicity, and transport of elements in the natural environment. In addition, this information will be of great help to enlighten views on the formation, stability, and structure of nanoparticle associations of natural organic matter (NOM) and natural oxide particles. Phosphate is proposed as a natively present probe ion to derive the effective reactive surface area of natural samples. In the suggested method, natural samples are equilibrated (⩾10 days) with 0.5 M NaHCO 3 (pH = 8.5) at various solid-solution ratios. This matrix fixes the pH and ionic strength, suppresses the influence of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions by precipitation these in solid carbonates, and removes NOM due to the addition of activated carbon in excess, collectively leading to the dominance of the PO 4-CO 3 interaction in the system. The data have been interpreted with the charge distribution (CD) model, calibrated for goethite, and the analysis results in an effective reactive surface area (SA) and a reversibly bound phosphate loading Γ for a series of top soils. The oxidic SA varies between about 3-30 m 2/g sample for a large series of representative agricultural top soils. Scaling of our data to the total iron and aluminum oxide content (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable), results in the specific surface area between about 200-1200 m 2/g oxide for most soils, i.e. the oxide particles are nano-sized with an equivalent diameter in the order of ˜1-10 nm if considered as non-porous spheres. For the top soils, the effective surface area and the soil organic carbon fraction are strongly correlated. The oxide particles are embedded in a matrix of organic carbon (OC), equivalent to ˜1.4 ± 0.2 mg OC/m 2 oxide for many soils of the collection, forming a NOM-mineral nanoparticle association with an average NOM volume

  7. Geostatistical integration and uncertainty in pollutant concentration surface under preferential sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grisotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the focus is on environmental statistics, with the aim of estimating the concentration surface and related uncertainty of an air pollutant. We used air quality data recorded by a network of monitoring stations within a Bayesian framework to overcome difficulties in accounting for prediction uncertainty and to integrate information provided by deterministic models based on emissions meteorology and chemico-physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Several authors have proposed such integration, but all the proposed approaches rely on representativeness and completeness of existing air pollution monitoring networks. We considered the situation in which the spatial process of interest and the sampling locations are not independent. This is known in the literature as the preferential sampling problem, which if ignored in the analysis, can bias geostatistical inferences. We developed a Bayesian geostatistical model to account for preferential sampling with the main interest in statistical integration and uncertainty. We used PM10 data arising from the air quality network of the Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardy Region (Italy and numerical outputs from the deterministic model. We specified an inhomogeneous Poisson process for the sampling locations intensities and a shared spatial random component model for the dependence between the spatial location of monitors and the pollution surface. We found greater predicted standard deviation differences in areas not properly covered by the air quality network. In conclusion, in this context inferences on prediction uncertainty may be misleading when geostatistical modelling does not take into account preferential sampling.

  8. Possible Overestimation of Surface Disinfection Efficiency by Assessment Methods Based on Liquid Sampling Procedures as Demonstrated by In Situ Quantification of Spore Viability ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, I.; Bellon-Fontaine, M.-N.; Herry, J.-M.; Hilaire, D.; Moriconi, F.-X.; Naïtali, M.

    2011-01-01

    The standard test methods used to assess the efficiency of a disinfectant applied to surfaces are often based on counting the microbial survivors sampled in a liquid, but total cell removal from surfaces is seldom achieved. One might therefore wonder whether evaluations of microbial survivors in liquid-sampled cells are representative of the levels of survivors in whole populations. The present study was thus designed to determine the “damaged/undamaged” status induced by a peracetic acid disinfection for Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on glass coupons directly on this substrate and to compare it to the status of spores collected in liquid by a sampling procedure. The method utilized to assess the viability of both surface-associated and liquid-sampled spores included fluorescence labeling with a combination of Syto 61 and Chemchrome V6 dyes and quantifications by analyzing the images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The principal result of the study was that the viability of spores sampled in the liquid was found to be poorer than that of surface-associated spores. For example, after 2 min of peracetic acid disinfection, less than 17% ± 5% of viable cells were detected among liquid-sampled cells compared to 79% ± 5% or 47% ± 4%, respectively, when the viability was evaluated on the surface after or without the sampling procedure. Moreover, assessments of the survivors collected in the liquid phase, evaluated using the microscopic method and standard plate counts, were well correlated. Evaluations based on the determination of survivors among the liquid-sampled cells can thus overestimate the efficiency of surface disinfection procedures. PMID:21742922

  9. Possible overestimation of surface disinfection efficiency by assessment methods based on liquid sampling procedures as demonstrated by in situ quantification of spore viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, I; Bellon-Fontaine, M-N; Herry, J-M; Hilaire, D; Moriconi, F-X; Naïtali, M

    2011-09-01

    The standard test methods used to assess the efficiency of a disinfectant applied to surfaces are often based on counting the microbial survivors sampled in a liquid, but total cell removal from surfaces is seldom achieved. One might therefore wonder whether evaluations of microbial survivors in liquid-sampled cells are representative of the levels of survivors in whole populations. The present study was thus designed to determine the "damaged/undamaged" status induced by a peracetic acid disinfection for Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on glass coupons directly on this substrate and to compare it to the status of spores collected in liquid by a sampling procedure. The method utilized to assess the viability of both surface-associated and liquid-sampled spores included fluorescence labeling with a combination of Syto 61 and Chemchrome V6 dyes and quantifications by analyzing the images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The principal result of the study was that the viability of spores sampled in the liquid was found to be poorer than that of surface-associated spores. For example, after 2 min of peracetic acid disinfection, less than 17% ± 5% of viable cells were detected among liquid-sampled cells compared to 79% ± 5% or 47% ± 4%, respectively, when the viability was evaluated on the surface after or without the sampling procedure. Moreover, assessments of the survivors collected in the liquid phase, evaluated using the microscopic method and standard plate counts, were well correlated. Evaluations based on the determination of survivors among the liquid-sampled cells can thus overestimate the efficiency of surface disinfection procedures.

  10. Development of a One-Handed, Environmental Surface-Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    individual packaging, an operator can generate a large amount of waste that needs to be managed during a sampling mission. The U.S. Army Edgewood...prepared and spore spotting was performed in a biological safety cabinet. For the spore- spotting procedures, the surfaces were spotted with 1 mL of...260 nm (A260) and 280 nm (A280). To determine the DNA concentration for each sample, the NanoDrop software used a modified Beer –Lambert equation and

  11. Comparison of three media for transport and storage of the samples collected for detection of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guang-Yu; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Du, Xiang; Huang, Bao-Xu; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2015-09-15

    Detection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is important for diagnosis, surveillance and control of avian influenza which is of great economic and public health significance. Proper transport and storage of samples is critical for the detection when the samples cannot be detected immediately. As recommended by some international or national authoritative entities and some publications, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS-glycerol and brain heart infusion broth (BHIB) are frequently used for transport and storage of the samples collected for detection of AIVs worldwide. In this study, we compared these three media for transport and storage of simulated and authentic swab and feces samples collected for detection of AIVs using virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR. The results suggest that PBS-glycerol is superior to PBS and BHIB as the sample transport and storage media. The results also suggest that the samples collected for detection of AIVs should be detected as soon as possible because the virus concentration of the samples may decline rapidly during storage within days at 4 or -20°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  13. Atmospheric pressure surface sampling/ionization techniques for direct coupling of planar separations with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-06-18

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface plasmon resonance: advances of label-free approaches in the analysis of biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riedel, Tomáš; Majek, P.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Brynda, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 24 (2014), s. 3325-3336 ISSN 1757-6180 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance sensors * polymer brushes * human serum samples Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.003, year: 2014

  15. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging chemical pollutants in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, F; Dabrowski, JM; Forbes, PBC

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to determine the potential threat that these ECPs may pose. Relevant surface water sampling sites in the Gauteng Province of South Africa were identified utilising a geographic information sy...

  16. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for detection of pregnancy associated plasma protein A2 in clinical samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, Markéta; Chadtová Song, Xue; Gedeonová, Erika; Levová, K.; Kalousová, M.; Zima, T.; Homola, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 408, č. 26 (2016), s. 7265-7269 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1101 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Nanoparticles * Blood sample * Surface plasmon resonance Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.431, year: 2016

  17. Sampling and Low-Rank Tensor Approximation of the Response Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann Georg; El-Moselhy, Tarek A.

    2013-01-01

    Most (quasi)-Monte Carlo procedures can be seen as computing some integral over an often high-dimensional domain. If the integrand is expensive to evaluate-we are thinking of a stochastic PDE (SPDE) where the coefficients are random fields and the integrand is some functional of the PDE-solution-there is the desire to keep all the samples for possible later computations of similar integrals. This obviously means a lot of data. To keep the storage demands low, and to allow evaluation of the integrand at points which were not sampled, we construct a low-rank tensor approximation of the integrand over the whole integration domain. This can also be viewed as a representation in some problem-dependent basis which allows a sparse representation. What one obtains is sometimes called a "surrogate" or "proxy" model, or a "response surface". This representation is built step by step or sample by sample, and can already be used for each new sample. In case we are sampling a solution of an SPDE, this allows us to reduce the number of necessary samples, namely in case the solution is already well-represented by the low-rank tensor approximation. This can be easily checked by evaluating the residuum of the PDE with the approximate solution. The procedure will be demonstrated in the computation of a compressible transonic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Strokes flow around an airfoil with random/uncertain data. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  18. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: 60-Day... mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for coal miners to wear and operate without impeding their... related to Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices. MSHA is particularly interested in comments that: Evaluate...

  19. A simple way to achieve bioinspired hybrid wettability surface with micro/nanopatterns for efficient fog collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kai; Du, Haifeng; Dong, Xinran; Wang, Cong; Duan, Ji-An; He, Jun

    2017-10-05

    Fog collection is receiving increasing attention for providing water in semi-arid deserts and inland areas. Inspired by the fog harvesting ability of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic surface of Namib desert beetles, we present a simple, low-cost method to prepare a hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surface. The surface contains micro/nanopatterns, and is prepared by incorporating femtosecond-laser fabricated polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles deposited on superhydrophobic copper mesh with a pristine hydrophilic copper sheet. The as-prepared surface exhibits enhanced fog collection efficiency compared with uniform (super)hydrophobic or (super)hydrophilic surfaces. This enhancement can be tuned by controlling the mesh number, inclination angle, and fabrication structure. Moreover, the surface shows excellent anti-corrosion ability after immersing in 1 M HCl, 1 M NaOH, and 10 wt% NaCl solutions for 2 hours. This work may provide insight into fabricating hybrid superhydrophobic-hydrophilic surfaces for efficient atmospheric water collection.

  20. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Martian surface: constraints for sample recovery and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects such as cosmic ray tracks can provide information on the surface history of Mars. A recent overview on developments in cosmogenic nuclide research for historical studies of predominantly extraterrestrial materials was published previously. The information content of cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects produced in the Martian surface is based on the different ways of interaction of the primary galactic and solar cosmic radiation (GCR, SCR) and the secondary particle cascade. Generally the kind and extent of interactions as seen in the products depend on the following factors: (1) composition, energy and intensity of the primary SCR and GCR; (2) composition, energy and intensity of the GCR-induced cascade of secondary particles; (3) the target geometry, i.e., the spatial parameters of Martian surface features with respect to the primary radiation source; (4) the target chemistry, i.e., the chemical composition of the Martian surface at the sampling location down to the minor element level or lower; and (5) duration of the exposure. These factors are not independent of each other and have a major influence on sample taking strategies and techniques

  1. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile...... a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark......). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants provided a semen sample after 4-7 days of abstinence followed by another sample after only 2 h. For both ejaculates, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility groups and detailed kinematic parameters were assessed and compared by using the Sperm...

  2. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  3. Infrared surface analysis using a newly developed thin-sample preparation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naoto; Nishiyama, Itsuo; Kishima, Yoshio; Iida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a new sampling system, the Nano Catcher, for measuring the surface chemical structure of polymers or industrial products and we evaluated the performance of the system. The system can directly pick up surface species whose depth is on the order of approximately 100 nm and can easily provide a sample for a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system without the necessity of passing it over to a measurement plate. The FT-IR reflection data obtained from the Nano Catcher were compared with those obtained using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method and sampling by hand. Chemical structural analysis of a depth region from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers can be directly performed using this system. Such depths are beyond the scope of conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ATR methods. We can expect the use of the Nano Catcher system to lead to a great improvement in the detection of signals of surface species in these depth regions.

  4. Analyses of Gas, Steam and Water Samples Collected in and Around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, 1975-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Cathy J.; Bergfeld, D.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains physical and chemical data from gas, steam, and water samples collected between July 1975 and September 2002 from locations in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Data are compiled as tables in Excel spreadsheets and are organized by locale. Most data are keyed to 1 of 107 site codes that are shown on local- and regional-scale maps. Brief descriptions of terminology, sampling, and analytical methods are provided.

  5. Sampling intraspecific variability in leaf functional traits: Practical suggestions to maximize collected information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzellis, Francesco; Palandrani, Chiara; Savi, Tadeja; Alberti, Roberto; Nardini, Andrea; Bacaro, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The choice of the best sampling strategy to capture mean values of functional traits for a species/population, while maintaining information about traits' variability and minimizing the sampling size and effort, is an open issue in functional trait ecology. Intraspecific variability (ITV) of functional traits strongly influences sampling size and effort. However, while adequate information is available about intraspecific variability between individuals (ITV BI ) and among populations (ITV POP ), relatively few studies have analyzed intraspecific variability within individuals (ITV WI ). Here, we provide an analysis of ITV WI of two foliar traits, namely specific leaf area (SLA) and osmotic potential (π), in a population of Quercus ilex L. We assessed the baseline ITV WI level of variation between the two traits and provided the minimum and optimal sampling size in order to take into account ITV WI , comparing sampling optimization outputs with those previously proposed in the literature. Different factors accounted for different amount of variance of the two traits. SLA variance was mostly spread within individuals (43.4% of the total variance), while π variance was mainly spread between individuals (43.2%). Strategies that did not account for all the canopy strata produced mean values not representative of the sampled population. The minimum size to adequately capture the studied functional traits corresponded to 5 leaves taken randomly from 5 individuals, while the most accurate and feasible sampling size was 4 leaves taken randomly from 10 individuals. We demonstrate that the spatial structure of the canopy could significantly affect traits variability. Moreover, different strategies for different traits could be implemented during sampling surveys. We partially confirm sampling sizes previously proposed in the recent literature and encourage future analysis involving different traits.

  6. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  7. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the UK to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. Extensive data and biological samples are being collected from 500,000 participants aged between 40 and 69 years. The biological samples that are collected and how they are processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. The aim of the UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol is to specify methods for the collection and storage of participant samples that give maximum scientific return within the available budget. Processing or storage methods that, as far as can be predicted, will preclude current or future assays have been avoided. The protocol was developed through a review of the literature on sample handling and processing, wide consultation within the academic community and peer review. Protocol development addressed which samples should be collected, how and when they should be processed and how the processed samples should be stored to ensure their long-term integrity. The recommended protocol was extensively tested in a series of validation studies. UK Biobank collects about 45 ml blood and 9 ml of urine with minimal local processing from each participant using the vacutainer system. A variety of preservatives, anti-coagulants and clot accelerators is used appropriate to the expected end use of the samples. Collection of other material (hair, nails, saliva and faeces) was also considered but rejected for the full cohort. Blood and urine samples from participants are transported overnight by commercial courier to a central laboratory where they are processed and aliquots of urine, plasma, serum, white cells and red cells stored in ultra-low temperature archives. Aliquots of whole blood are also stored for potential future production of immortalized cell lines. A standard panel of haematology assays is

  8. Guidelines for the processing and quality assurance of benthic invertebrate samples collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.; Meador, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate samples are collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This is a perennial, multidisciplinary program that integrates biological, physical, and chemical indicators of water quality to evaluate status and trends and to develop an understanding of the factors controlling observed water quality. The Program examines water quality in 60 study units (coupled ground- and surface-water systems) that encompass most of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii. Study-unit teams collect and process qualitative and semi-quantitative invertebrate samples according to standardized procedures. These samples are processed (elutriated and subsampled) in the field to produce as many as four sample components: large-rare, main-body, elutriate, and split. Each sample component is preserved in 10-percent formalin, and two components, large-rare and main-body, are sent to contract laboratories for further processing. The large-rare component is composed of large invertebrates that are removed from the sample matrix during field processing and placed in one or more containers. The main-body sample component consists of the remaining sample materials (sediment, detritus, and invertebrates) and is subsampled in the field to achieve a volume of 750 milliliters or less. The remaining two sample components, elutriate and split, are used for quality-assurance and quality-control purposes. Contract laboratories are used to identify and quantify invertebrates from the large-rare and main-body sample components according to the procedures and guidelines specified within this document. These guidelines allow the use of subsampling techniques to reduce the volume of sample material processed and to facilitate identifications. These processing procedures and techniques may be modified if the modifications provide equal or greater levels of accuracy and precision. The intent of sample processing is to

  9. Study of the formation of duricrusts on the martian surface and their effect on sampling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömle, Norbert; Pitcher, Craig; Gao, Yang; Richter, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    The Powdered Sample Dosing and Distribution System (PSDDS) of the ExoMars rover will be required to handle and contain samples of Mars regolith for long periods of time. Cementation of the regolith, caused by water and salts in the soil, results in clumpy material and a duricrust layer forming on the surface. It is therefore possible that material residing in the sampling system may cement, and could potentially hinder its operation. There has yet to be an investigation into the formation of duricrusts under simulated Martian conditions, or how this may affect the performance of sample handling mechanisms. Therefore experiments have been performed to create a duricrust and to explore the cementation of Mars analogues, before performing a series of tests on a qualification model of the PSDDS under simulated Martian conditions. It was possible to create a consolidated crust of cemented material several millimetres deep, with the material below remaining powder-like. It was seen that due to the very low permeability of the Montmorillonite component material, diffusion of water through the material was quickly blocked, resulting in a sample with an inhomogeneous water content. Additionally, samples with a water mass content of 10% or higher would cement into a single solid piece. Finally, tests with the PSDDS revealed that samples with a water mass content of just 5% created small clumps with significant internal cohesion, blocking the sample funnels and preventing transportation of the material. These experiments have highlighted that the cementation of regolith in Martian conditions must be taken into consideration in the design of sample handling instruments.

  10. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  11. A newly developed grab sampling system for collecting stratospheric air over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Honda

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the concentrations of various minor constituents and their isotopic ratios in the stratosphere over Antarctica, a simple grab sampling system was newly developed. The sampling system was designed to be launched by a small number of personnel using a rubber balloon under severe experimental conditions. Special attention was paid to minimize the contamination of sample air, as well as to allow easy handling of the system. The sampler consisted mainly of a 15l sample container with electromagnetic and manual valves, control electronics for executing the air sampling procedures and sending the position and status information of the sampler to the ground station, batteries and a transmitter. All these parts were assembled in an aluminum frame gondola with a shock absorbing system for landing. The sampler was equipped with a turn-over mechanism of the gondola to minimize contamination from the gondola, as well as with a GPS receiver and a rawinsonde for its tracking. Total weight of the sampler was about 11kg. To receive, display and store the position and status data of the sampling system at the ground station, a simple data acquisition system with a portable receiver and a microcomputer was also developed. A new gas handling system was prepared to simplify the injection of He gas into the balloon. For air sampling experiments, three sampling systems were launched at Syowa Station (69°00′S, 39°35′E, Antarctica and then recovered on sea ice near the station on January 22 and 25,1996.

  12. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  13. RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 56: COLLECTION OF GASEOUS GRAB SAMPLES FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES FOR NITROUS OXIDE MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a recommended operating procedure, prepare or use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). The procedure applies to the collection of gaseous grab samples from fossil fuel combustion sources for subsequent a...

  14. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.

    Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were...... be detected besides several therapeutic drugs: cocaine (9), MDMA (7), sildenafil (2), ketamine (1), amphetamine (1), and oxycodone (1). Conclusions: NPS were detected neither in urine nor in soil samples. This might be due to low concentrations based on their negligible consumption at the studied festival...

  15. Evaluation of some pollutant levels in environmental samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharshar, Taher; Hassan, H Ebrahim; Arida, Hassan A; Aydarous, Abdulkadir; Bazaid, Salih A; Ahmed, Mamdouh A

    2013-01-01

    The levels of radioactivity and heavy metals in soil, plant and groundwater samples collected from the area of the new campus of Taif University, Saudi Arabia, and its neighbouring areas have been determined. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for radioactivity measurements, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The means of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K concentrations in water samples collected from four wells were found to be 0.13 ± 0.03, 0.05 ± 0.03 and 1.3 ± 0.5 Bq l(-1), respectively. The means of (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th for soil samples) and (40)K concentrations in wild plant and soil samples were found to be 3.7 ± 4.1, 8.8 ± 11.6, 3.8 ± 2.9 and 1025 ± 685, and 8.6 ± 3.4, 12.8 ± 3.4, 16.6 ± 7.1 and 618 ± 82 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively. The (137)Cs of artificial origin was also detected in soil samples with a mean concentration of 3.8 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1) DW. Evaluating the results, it can be concluded that the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples fall within the world average. Furthermore, 19 trace and major elements in groundwater samples and 22 elements in soil and plant samples were determined. The sampling locations of soil can be classified into three groups (relatively high, medium and low polluted) according to their calculated metal pollution index using the contents of trace and major elements. A cluster analysis of the contents of radioactivity and trace element contents in soil samples shows the presence of two main distinct clusters of sampling locations.

  16. Collection, pre-treatment and analyses of Cs-137 and Tc-99 in marine samples at the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Marine Research (IMR) is an important contributor to the Norwegian marine monitoring programme RAME (Radioactivity in the Marine Environment). RAME is funded by the Ministry of the Environment and coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Sample collection is performed from IMRs research vessels in the open sea areas of the North-, Norwegian- and Barents Seas and in Norwegian fjords. The samples consist of biota (fish and other marine organisms), sediments and seawater. Biota samples are frozen onboard the ship and transported to IMR where the samples are subsequently ground up, freeze dried, homogenized and aliquoted into polyethylene counting boxes of appropriate size prior to analysis. Attempts are made to collect filets from 25 fish for each sample of large fish such as cod, haddock, saithe, red-fish and Greenland halibut. For smaller fish (e.g. blue whiting, polar cod, capelin and Atlantic herring) and other organisms such as amphipods, krill, and deep-sea shrimps, a sample of 2-3 kg of each species is taken. These samples are ground up whole. Sediment samples are collected using a Smoegen boxcorer, from where both surface samples and cores are taken. The samples are frozen onboard the ship. While half-frozen, the cores are cut into slices of 1 or 2 cm thickness on board the ship, then frozen again and transported to IMR where they are treated as described above for the biota samples. Large volumes (typically 50-200 L) of seawater are needed in order to get enough material for analysis. Pre-treatment of the samples in the field is therefore an advantage. Surface samples (5 m) of seawater are collected from a shipboard pump, while a CTD-rosette multi-bottle sampler with 12 10 L samplers is used to collect seawater from depths below 5 meters. For the analysis of Cs-137, Cu 2 [Fe(CN) 6 ]-impregnated cotton filters are used for the pre-concentration. One pre-filter without impregnation, two Cu 2 [Fe(CN) 6

  17. Microjetting from grooved surfaces in metallic samples subjected to laser driven shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rességuier, T.; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P.

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave propagating in a solid sample reflects from a free surface, geometrical effects predominantly governed by the roughness and defects of that surface may lead to the ejection of tiny jets that may breakup into high velocity, approximately micrometer-size fragments. This process referred to as microjetting is a major safety issue for engineering applications such as pyrotechnics or armour design. Thus, it has been widely studied both experimentally, under explosive and impact loading, and theoretically. In this paper, microjetting is investigated in the specific loading conditions associated to laser shocks: very short duration of pressure application, very high strain rates, small spatial scales. Material ejection from triangular grooves in the free surface of various metallic samples is studied by combining transverse optical shadowgraphy and time-resolved velocity measurements. The influences of the main parameters (groove angle, shock pressure, nature of the metal) on jet formation and ejection velocity are quantified, and the results are compared to theoretical estimates.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors for highly sensitive detection in real samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, B.; Carrascosa, L. G.; Regatos, D.; Otte, M. A.; Fariña, D.; Lechuga, L. M.

    2009-08-01

    In this work we summarize the main results obtained with the portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device developed in our group (commercialised by SENSIA, SL, Spain), highlighting its applicability for the real-time detection of extremely low concentrations of toxic pesticides in environmental water samples. In addition, we show applications in clinical diagnosis as, on the one hand, the real-time and label-free detection of DNA hybridization and single point mutations at the gene BRCA-1, related to the predisposition in women to develop an inherited breast cancer and, on the other hand, the analysis of protein biomarkers in biological samples (urine, serum) for early detection of diseases. Despite the large number of applications already proven, the SPR technology has two main drawbacks: (i) not enough sensitivity for some specific applications (where pM-fM or single-molecule detection are needed) (ii) low multiplexing capabilities. In order solve such drawbacks, we work in several alternative configurations as the Magneto-optical Surface Plasmon Resonance sensor (MOSPR) based on a combination of magnetooptical and ferromagnetic materials, to improve the SPR sensitivity, or the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) based on nanostructures (nanoparticles, nanoholes,...), for higher multiplexing capabilities.

  19. Microjetting from grooved surfaces in metallic samples subjected to laser driven shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rességuier, T. de; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P.

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave propagating in a solid sample reflects from a free surface, geometrical effects predominantly governed by the roughness and defects of that surface may lead to the ejection of tiny jets that may breakup into high velocity, approximately micrometer-size fragments. This process referred to as microjetting is a major safety issue for engineering applications such as pyrotechnics or armour design. Thus, it has been widely studied both experimentally, under explosive and impact loading, and theoretically. In this paper, microjetting is investigated in the specific loading conditions associated to laser shocks: very short duration of pressure application, very high strain rates, small spatial scales. Material ejection from triangular grooves in the free surface of various metallic samples is studied by combining transverse optical shadowgraphy and time-resolved velocity measurements. The influences of the main parameters (groove angle, shock pressure, nature of the metal) on jet formation and ejection velocity are quantified, and the results are compared to theoretical estimates

  20. Microjetting from grooved surfaces in metallic samples subjected to laser driven shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rességuier, T. de, E-mail: resseguier@ensma.fr [Institut PPRIME, UPR 3346, CNRS, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, 1 ave. Clément Ader, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-01-28

    When a shock wave propagating in a solid sample reflects from a free surface, geometrical effects predominantly governed by the roughness and defects of that surface may lead to the ejection of tiny jets that may breakup into high velocity, approximately micrometer-size fragments. This process referred to as microjetting is a major safety issue for engineering applications such as pyrotechnics or armour design. Thus, it has been widely studied both experimentally, under explosive and impact loading, and theoretically. In this paper, microjetting is investigated in the specific loading conditions associated to laser shocks: very short duration of pressure application, very high strain rates, small spatial scales. Material ejection from triangular grooves in the free surface of various metallic samples is studied by combining transverse optical shadowgraphy and time-resolved velocity measurements. The influences of the main parameters (groove angle, shock pressure, nature of the metal) on jet formation and ejection velocity are quantified, and the results are compared to theoretical estimates.

  1. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  2. Sampling technique for collection of expired COsub(2) in studies using naturally labelled sup(13)C in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Pelletier, G.; Gagnon, M.

    1984-01-01

    Natural isotopic labelling of animal metabolic processes presents great advantages over the use of artificially enriched compounds. These advantages include the use of natural diets, low cost and easiness of handling, sampling and disposal. Changes in the sup(13)C/sup(12)C ratio of expired COsub(2) after ingestion of a test meal containing a variable proportion of Csub(3) and/or Csub(4) plant-derived products permits measurements of the immediate oxidation of dietary carbohydrates. A breathing device for collection of expired COsub(2) and purification techniques are described. The breath-sampling device is composed of a polypropylene enclosure and a rubber bag. The rubber bag is blown up by the animal and a sample of the expired gas is transferred to a sampling glass holder in which a vacuum had been previously achieved. Sample purification of expired COsub(2) is done by differential freezing

  3. A Model Approach for Finding Cleaning Solutions for Plasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Surfaces of Collections Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Egsgaard, Helge; Morales Munoz, Clara

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on developing a surface cleaning treatment for one type of commercially available plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The effects of cleaning solutions on samples of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) were examined by several methods. The sample surface, prior to and after artifici...

  4. Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.

  5. Direct protein quantification in complex sample solutions by surface-engineered nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2017-06-30

    Detecting biomarkers from complex sample solutions is the key objective of molecular diagnostics. Being able to do so in a simple approach that does not require laborious sample preparation, sophisticated equipment and trained staff is vital for point-of-care applications. Here, we report on the specific detection of the breast cancer biomarker sHER2 directly from serum and saliva samples by a nanorod-based homogeneous biosensing approach, which is easy to operate as it only requires mixing of the samples with the nanorod probes. By careful nanorod surface engineering and homogeneous assay design, we demonstrate that the formation of a protein corona around the nanoparticles does not limit the applicability of our detection method, but on the contrary enables us to conduct in-situ reference measurements, thus further strengthening the point-of-care applicability of our method. Making use of sandwich assays on top of the nanorods, we obtain a limit of detection of 110 pM and 470 pM in 10-fold diluted spiked saliva and serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, our results open up numerous applications in direct protein biomarker quantification, specifically in point-of-care settings where resources are limited and ease-of-use is of essence.

  6. Direct protein quantification in complex sample solutions by surface-engineered nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Schotter, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Detecting biomarkers from complex sample solutions is the key objective of molecular diagnostics. Being able to do so in a simple approach that does not require laborious sample preparation, sophisticated equipment and trained staff is vital for point-of-care applications. Here, we report on the specific detection of the breast cancer biomarker sHER2 directly from serum and saliva samples by a nanorod-based homogeneous biosensing approach, which is easy to operate as it only requires mixing of the samples with the nanorod probes. By careful nanorod surface engineering and homogeneous assay design, we demonstrate that the formation of a protein corona around the nanoparticles does not limit the applicability of our detection method, but on the contrary enables us to conduct in-situ reference measurements, thus further strengthening the point-of-care applicability of our method. Making use of sandwich assays on top of the nanorods, we obtain a limit of detection of 110 pM and 470 pM in 10-fold diluted spiked saliva and serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, our results open up numerous applications in direct protein biomarker quantification, specifically in point-of-care settings where resources are limited and ease-of-use is of essence.

  7. Generalized molybdenum oxide surface chemical state XPS determination via informed amorphous sample model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas, E-mail: job314@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, B336 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); PhotoCatalytic Synthesis group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, Meander 229, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz [CRANN, Chemistry School, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Fernandez, Vincent [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Veenstra, Rick [PhotoCatalytic Synthesis group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, Meander 229, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Dukstiene, Nijole [Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu pl. 19, LT-50254 Kaunas (Lithuania); Roberts, Adam [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Trafford Wharf Road, Wharfside, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Fairley, Neal [Casa Software Ltd, Bay House, 5 Grosvenor Terrace, Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8NE (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • We analyzed and modeled spectral envelopes of complex molybdenum oxides. • Molybdenum oxide films of varying valence and crystallinity were synthesized. • MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 2} line shapes from experimental data were created. • Informed amorphous sample model (IASM) developed. • Amorphous molybdenum oxide XPS envelopes were interpreted. - Abstract: Accurate elemental oxidation state determination for the outer surface of a complex material is of crucial importance in many science and engineering disciplines, including chemistry, fundamental and applied surface science, catalysis, semiconductors and many others. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is the primary tool used for this purpose. The spectral data obtained, however, is often very complex and can be subject to incorrect interpretation. Unlike traditional XPS spectra fitting procedures using purely synthetic spectral components, here we develop and present an XPS data processing method based on vector analysis that allows creating XPS spectral components by incorporating key information, obtained experimentally. XPS spectral data, obtained from series of molybdenum oxide samples with varying oxidation states and degree of crystallinity, were processed using this method and the corresponding oxidation states present, as well as their relative distribution was elucidated. It was shown that monitoring the evolution of the chemistry and crystal structure of a molybdenum oxide sample due to an invasive X-ray probe could be used to infer solutions to complex spectral envelopes.

  8. Sampling Participants' Experience in Laboratory Experiments: Complementary challenges for more complete data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eMcAuliffe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Speelman and McGann's (2013 examination of the uncritical way in which the mean is often used in psychological research raises questions both about the average's reliability and its validity. In the present paper, we argue that interrogating the validity of the mean involves, amongst other things, a better understanding of the person's experiences, the meaning of their actions, at the time that the behaviour of interest is carried out. Recently emerging approaches within Psychology and Cognitive Science have argued strongly that experience should play a more central role in our examination of behavioural data, but the relationship between experience and behaviour remains very poorly understood. We outline some of the history of the science on this fraught relationship, as well as arguing that contemporary methods for studying experience fall into one of two categories. Wide approaches tend to incorporate naturalistic behaviour settings, but sacrifice accuracy and reliability in behavioural measurement. Narrow approaches maintain controlled measurement of behaviour, but involve too specific a sampling of experience, which obscures crucial temporal characteristics. We therefore argue for a novel, mid-range sampling technique, that extends Hurlburt's Descriptive Experience Sampling, and adapts it for the controlled setting of the laboratory. This Controlled Descriptive Experience Sampling may be an appropriate tool to help calibrate both the mean and the meaning of an experimental situation with one another.

  9. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Requirement to Establish a Production and... manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the master... statistical sampling plan (or otherwise every finished batch), before releasing for distribution to verify...

  10. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  11. Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  12. Tank 241-U-203 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  13. Tank 241-C-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  14. Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  15. Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  16. Tank 241-SX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  17. Attitudes towards biomedical use of tissue sample collections, consent, and biobanks among Finns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Sihvo, Sinikka; Snell, Karolna

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain the attitudes towards the use of existing diagnostic and research samples, the setting up of a national biobank, and different types of informed consent among Finns. Method: A population survey of 2,400 randomly selected Finns aged 24-65 was conducted at the beginning of 2007....

  18. Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  19. Tank 241-C-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  20. Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  1. Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  2. Tank 241-SX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  3. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  4. Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  5. Tank 241-C-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  6. Tank 241-C-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  7. Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  8. Macroinvertebrate and algal community sample collection methods and data collected at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.

    2010-01-01

    State and local agencies are concerned about the effects of increasing urban development and human population growth on water quality and the biological condition of regional streams in the Eagle River watershed. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As part of this study, previously collected macroinvertebrate and algal data from the Eagle River watershed were compiled. This report includes macroinvertebrate data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and(or) the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed. Additionally, a brief description of the sample collection methods and data processing procedures are presented.

  9. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.

    1997-01-01

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived 137 Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to 137 Ca, 134 Cs, 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For 137 Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7±5.2 kBq m -2 at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1±6.9 kBq m -2 at 50 m height and 47.9±8.5 kBq m -2 at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean α/ρ value for 137 Cs in Area I is 0.77±0.10 cm 2 g -1 (relaxation mass per unit area, β 1.31±0.15 gcm -2 ). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of 137 Cs activity from these samples was 92.4±63 kBq m -2 , a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m -2 . (EG)

  10. Development of a surface plasmon resonance biosensing approach for the rapid detection of porcine circovirus type2 in sample solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Hu

    Full Text Available A sensitive and label-free analytical approach for the detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 instead of PCV2 antibody in serum sample was systematically investigated in this research based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR with an establishment of special molecular identification membrane. The experimental device for constructing the biosensing analyzer is composed of an integrated biosensor, a home-made microfluidic module, and an electrical control circuit incorporated with a photoelectric converter. In order to detect the PCV2 using the surface plasmon resonance immunoassay, the mercaptopropionic acid has been used to bind the Au film in advance through the known form of the strong S-Au covalent bonds formed by the chemical radical of the mercaptopropionic acid and the Au film. PCV2 antibodies were bonded with the mercaptopropionic acid by covalent -CO-NH- amide bonding. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of this approach, the known concentrations of PCV2 Cap protein of 10 µg/mL, 7.5 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL, 2.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL, and 0.5 µg/mL were prepared by diluting with PBS successively and then the delta response units (ΔRUs were measured individually. Using the data collected from the linear CCD array, the ΔRUs gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of standard known concentrations of PCV2 Cap protein with the R-Squared value of 0.99625. The theoretical limit of detection was calculated to be 0.04 µg/mL for the surface plasmon resonance biosensing approach. Correspondingly, the recovery rate ranged from 81.0% to 89.3% was obtained. In contrast to the PCV2 detection kits, this surface plasmon resonance biosensing system was validated through linearity, precision and recovery, which demonstrated that the surface plasmon resonance immunoassay is reliable and robust. It was concluded that the detection method which is associated with biomembrane properties is expected to contribute much to determine the PCV2

  11. Microbial diversity in firework chemical exposed soil and water samples collected in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasarathan, P; Theriappan, P; Ashokraja, C

    2010-03-01

    Microbial diversity of soil and water samples collected from pyrochemicals exposed areas of Virdhunagar district (Tamil Nadu, India) was studied. Soil and water samples from cultivable area, waste land and city area of the same region were also studied for a comparative acount. There is a remarkable reduction in total heterotrophic bacterial population (THB) in pyrochemicals exposed soil and water samples (42 × 10(4) CFU/g and 5.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml respectively), compared to the THB of cultivable area soil and water samples (98 × 10(7) CFU/g and 38.6 × 10(7) CFU/ml). The generic composition the THB of the pyrochemicals exposed samples too exhibited considerable change compared to other samples. Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (41.6%) followed by Achromobacter sp. (25%) in pyrochemical exposed soil and Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (25%) in pyrochemical exposed water samples followed by Bacillus sp. (25%) and Micrococcus sp. (16.6%). It was observed that Cornybacterium sp. and Micrococcus sp. were absent completely in pyrochemical exposed soil and Achromobacter sp. was missing in the pyrochemical exposed water samples, which were present in the other samples. The outcome of this study clearly demonstrates that pollutants such as chemicals used in pyrotechniques affect the microbial biodiversity and suitable measures have to be taken to control the pollution level and to save biodiversity.

  12. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations – such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1 h – can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed “verified Lagrangian” sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2–4 h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we

  13. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C; Writer, Jeffrey H; Murphy, Sheila F

    2014-02-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations - such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1h - can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed "verified Lagrangian" sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2-4h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we show how data

  14. k0-INAA for APM samples collected in period of June 2004 - March 2005 and some marine certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, Ho Manh; Vu, Cao Dong; Y, Truong; Sy, Nguyen Thi

    2006-01-01

    The airborne particulate matter (APM) samples have been collected in 2004 using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 at two sites of industrial (Ho Chi Mihn City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. Three marine certified reference materials have been selected to establish a k0-NAA procedure for marine samples. The concentration of trace multi-element in the samples has been determined by the k 0 -INAA procedure using K o -DALAT software developed in Dalat NRI. About 28 elements in 224 APM samples collected at two areas of Dateh and HCMC of Vietnam in period from June, 2004 to March, 2005 were presented in report. The statistical analysis was applied to the data set to investigate the pollution source at sampling sites. The results proved that the k 0 -NAA on the Dalat research reactor is a reliable and effective analytical technique for characterization of trace multi-element in APM and marine samples for air and marine environmental pollution study in Vietnam. (author)

  15. Quantitative Caffeine Analysis Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Deibel, Michael A. [Earlham College; Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  16. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-101: Results from samples collected on 9/1/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-101 (referred to as Tank C-101) and the ambient air collected - 30 ft upwind near the tank and through the VSS near the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4056, and samples were collected by WHC on September 1, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated (≤ 10 degrees C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25 degrees C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for NH 3 , NO 2 , and NO analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)

  17. LIIS: A web-based system for culture collections and sample annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Forster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lab Information Indexing System (LIIS is a web-driven database application for laboratories looking to store their sample or culture metadata on a central server. The design was driven by a need to replace traditional paper storage with an easier to search format, and extend current spreadsheet storage methods. The system supports the import and export of CSV spreadsheets, and stores general metadata designed to complement the environmental packages provided by the Genomic Standards Consortium. The goals of the LIIS are to simplify the storage and archival processes and to provide an easy to access library of laboratory annotations. The program will find utility in microbial ecology laboratories or any lab that needs to annotate samples/cultures.

  18. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes in environmental samples collected in dairy plants of Sassari Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Terrosu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria (L. monocytogenes is frequently isolated from food production environment and often persists in dairy plants despite vigorous sanitation regimes. In recent years several alert notifications were sent to Rapid Alert System for Food Products system as a consequence of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of ricotta cheese. After the alert of 2012, competent authority (Local Health Unit of Sassari Province organised an environmental monitoring plan with the partnership of the Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia to verify analysis of dairy plants own-check according to Regulation (EC N° 2073/05 and further modifications. In 2014 n. 665 processing areas samples of n. 50 dairy plants of Sassari Province were examined. UNI EN ISO 11290-1:2005 for detection of L. monocytogenes was used. Non-compliance in n. 5 diary plants are observed (n. 8 positive samples. Post-non-compliance environmental sanitisation was efficient and own-check plans included appropriate corrective actions.

  19. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chapon

    Full Text Available Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples’ characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters. Keywords: Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC, PerkinElmer, Tri-Carb, Smear, Swipe

  20. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data

    OpenAIRE

    Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2011-01-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender peop...

  1. Escherichia coli in settled-dust and air samples collected in residential environments in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, I; Salinas, E; Yela, A; Calva, E; Eslava, C; Cravioto, A

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli, an important indicator of the presence of fecal material, was isolated from indoor and outdoor environments in Mexico City. The heterogeneity of E. coli was represented by 89 serotypes, most of them coming from settled-dust indoor samples; 21% of them presented antibiotic multiresistance. The numbers of plasmids were higher among the antibiotic-resistant strains. The results of this study suggest that intestinal infections produced by environmental strains could be of more e...

  2. Statistical Methods and Sampling Design for Estimating Step Trends in Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses two components of the problem of estimating the magnitude of step trends in surface water quality. The first is finding a robust estimator appropriate to the data characteristics expected in water-quality time series. The J. L. Hodges-E. L. Lehmann class of estimators is found to be robust in comparison to other nonparametric and moment-based estimators. A seasonal Hodges-Lehmann estimator is developed and shown to have desirable properties. Second, the effectiveness of various sampling strategies is examined using Monte Carlo simulation coupled with application of this estimator. The simulation is based on a large set of total phosphorus data from the Potomac River. To assure that the simulated records have realistic properties, the data are modeled in a multiplicative fashion incorporating flow, hysteresis, seasonal, and noise components. The results demonstrate the importance of balancing the length of the two sampling periods and balancing the number of data values between the two periods.

  3. Surface plasmon resonance based sensing of different chemical and biological samples using admittance loci method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ghosh, Sharmila; Ray, Mina

    2013-06-01

    The admittance loci method plays an important role in the design of multilayer thin film structures. In this paper, admittance loci method has been explored theoretically for sensing of various chemical and biological samples based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon. A dielectric multilayer structure consisting of a Boro silicate glass (BSG) substrate, calcium fluoride (CaF2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) along with different dielectric layers has been investigated. Moreover, admittance loci as well as SPR curves of metal-dielectric multilayer structure consisting of the BSG substrate, gold metal film and various dielectric samples has been simulated in MATLAB environment. To validate the proposed simulation results, calibration curves have also been provided.

  4. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D. [SURRC, East Kilbride, Scotland (United Kingdom); Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to {sup 137}Ca, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208} radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For {sup 137}Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7{+-}5.2 kBq m{sup -2} at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1{+-}6.9 kBq m{sup -2} at 50 m height and 47.9{+-}8.5 kBq m{sup -2} at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean {alpha}/{rho} value for {sup 137}Cs in Area I is 0.77{+-}0.10 cm{sup 2}g{sup -1} (relaxation mass per unit area, {beta} 1.31{+-}0.15 gcm{sup -2}). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of {sup 137}Cs activity from these samples was 92.4{+-}63 kBq m{sup -2}, a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m{sup -2}. (EG). 17 refs.

  5. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D C.W.; Allyson, J D [SURRC, East Kilbride, Scotland (United Kingdom); Toivonen, H; Honkamaa, T [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to {sup 137}Ca, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208} radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For {sup 137}Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7{+-}5.2 kBq m{sup -2} at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1{+-}6.9 kBq m{sup -2} at 50 m height and 47.9{+-}8.5 kBq m{sup -2} at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean {alpha}/{rho} value for {sup 137}Cs in Area I is 0.77{+-}0.10 cm{sup 2}g{sup -1} (relaxation mass per unit area, {beta} 1.31{+-}0.15 gcm{sup -2}). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of {sup 137}Cs activity from these samples was 92.4{+-}63 kBq m{sup -2}, a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m{sup -2}. (EG). 17 refs.

  6. Data Collected in 1959 by English Research Vessels at Serial and Surface Hydrographic Stations (NODC Accession 6900852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present volume contains data collected in 1959 by English research vessels at serial and surface hydrographic stations. The data list are preceded by a number of...

  7. Clostridium difficile from food and surface samples in a Belgian nursing home: an unlikely source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Brach, P; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the contamination of foods and surfaces with Clostridium difficile in a single nursing home. C. difficile PCR-ribotype 078 was found in one food sample and in none of the tested surfaces. These results indicate that food and surfaces are an unlikely source of C. difficile infection in this setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Environmental Samples Collected from Live Poultry Markets in China during 2009-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Zou, Shumei; Bo, Hong; Dong, Libo; Gao, Rongbao; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-11-01

    Abstract: To investigate the distribution of avian influenza virus in environmental samples from live poultry markets (LPM) in China, samples were collected and tested by nucleic acid during 2009-2013 season. Each sample was tested by real-time RT PCR using flu A specific primers. If any real-time PCR was positive, the sample was inoculated into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs for viral isolation. The results indicated that the positive rate of nucleic acid in enviromental samples exhibited seasonality. The positive rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in Winter and Spring. The positive rate of nucleic acid in LPM located in the south of China was higher than in northern China. Samples of Sewage for cleaning poultry and chopping board showed that higher positive rate of nucleic acid than other samples. The Subtype identification showed that H5 and H9 were main subtypes in the enviromental samples. Viral isolation indicated H5 subtypes was more than H9 subtypes between 2009 and 2013 while H9 subtypes increased in 2013. Our findings suggested the significance of public health based on LPM surveillance and provided the basis of prevention and early warning for avian flu infection human.

  9. Challenges in collecting clinical samples for research from pregnant women of South Asian origin: evidence from a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelotpol, Sharmind; Hay, Alastair W M; Jolly, A Jim; Woolridge, Mike W

    2016-08-31

    To recruit South Asian pregnant women, living in the UK, into a clinicoepidemiological study for the collection of lifestyle survey data and antenatal blood and to retain the women for the later collection of cord blood and meconium samples from their babies for biochemical analysis. A longitudinal study recruiting pregnant women of South Asian and Caucasian origin living in the UK. Recruitment of the participants, collection of clinical samples and survey data took place at the 2 sites within a single UK Northern Hospital Trust. Pregnant women of South Asian origin (study group, n=98) and of Caucasian origin (comparison group, n=38) living in Leeds, UK. Among the participants approached, 81% agreed to take part in the study while a 'direct approach' method was followed. The retention rate of the participants was a remarkable 93.4%. The main challenges in recruiting the ethnic minority participants were their cultural and religious conservativeness, language barrier, lack of interest and feeling of extra 'stress' in taking part in research. The chief investigator developed an innovative participant retention method, associated with the women's cultural and religious practices. The method proved useful in retaining the participants for about 5 months and in enabling successful collection of clinical samples from the same mother-baby pairs. The collection of clinical samples and lifestyle data exceeded the calculated sample size required to give the study sufficient power. The numbers of samples obtained were: maternal blood (n=171), cord blood (n=38), meconium (n=176), lifestyle questionnaire data (n=136) and postnatal records (n=136). Recruitment and retention of participants, according to the calculated sample size, ensured sufficient power and success for a clinicoepidemiological study. Results suggest that development of trust and confidence between the participant and the researcher is the key to the success of a clinical and epidemiological study involving

  10. Frequency of hepatitis E and Hepatitis A virus in water sample collected from Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E and Hepatitis A virus both are highly prevalent in Pakistan mainly present as a sporadic disease. The aim of the current study is to isolate and characterized the specific genotype of Hepatitis E virus from water bodies of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Drinking and sewage samples were qualitatively analyzed by using RT-PCR. HEV Genotype 1 strain was recovered from sewage water of Faisalabad. Prevalence of HEV and HAV in sewage water propose the possibility of gradual decline in the protection level of the circulated vaccine in the Pakistani population.

  11. Monitoring of uranium concentrations in water samples collected near potentially hazardous objects in North-West Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoriy, P; Schläger, M; Murtazaev, K; Pillath, J; Zoriy, M; Heuel-Fabianek, B

    2018-01-01

    The water contamination near ecologically problematic objects was investigated between 2009 and 2014 in North-West Tajikistan as a part of a joint project between Forschungszentrum Jülich and Khujand State University. The main part of this work was the determination of uranium in water samples collected near the Degmay tailings dump, the Taboshar pit lake and the Syr Darya river. More than 130 water samples were collected and analyzed to monitor the uranium concentration near the investigated areas. Two different mass spectrometers and an ion chromatograph were used for element concentration measurements. Based on the results obtained, the uranium influence of the Degmay tailings on the rivers Khoja-Bakyrgan-Say and Syr Darya and surrounding water was not found. The uranium concentration in water samples was monitored for a lengthy period at seven locations Great differences in the uranium concentration in waters collected in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 for each location were not observed. Drinking water samples from the region of North-West Tajikistan were analyzed and compared with the World Health Organization's guidelines. Seven out of nine drinking water samples near Taboshar exceeded the WHO guideline value for uranium concentrations (30 μg/L). The average uranium concentration of water samples from Syr Darya for the period from 2009 to 2014 was determined to be 20.1 (±5.2) μg/L. The uranium contamination of the Syr Darya was determined from the western border to the eastern border and the results are shown in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants are typically associated with urban areas such as San Antonio, Texas, in Bexar County, the seventh most populous city in the United States. This report describes an assessment of selected sediment-associated contaminants in samples collected in Bexar County from sites on the following streams: Medio Creek, Medina River, Elm Creek, Martinez Creek, Chupaderas Creek, Leon Creek, Salado Creek, and San Antonio River. During 2007-09, the U.S. Geological Survey periodically collected surficial streambed-sediment samples during base flow and suspended-sediment (large-volume suspended-sediment) samples from selected streams during stormwater runoff. All sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and for organic compounds including halogenated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Selected contaminants in streambed and suspended sediments in watersheds of the eight major streams in Bexar County were assessed by using a variety of methods—observations of occurrence and distribution, comparison to sediment-quality guidelines and data from previous studies, statistical analyses, and source indicators. Trace elements concentrations were low compared to the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Trace element concentrations were greater than the TEC in 28 percent of the samples and greater than the PEC in 1.5 percent of the samples. Chromium concentrations exceeded sediment-quality guidelines more frequently than concentrations of any other constituents analyzed in this study (greater than the TEC in 69 percent of samples and greater than the PEC in 8 percent of samples). Mean trace element concentrations generally are lower in Bexar County samples compared to concentrations in samples collected during previous studies in the Austin and Fort Worth, Texas, areas, but considering the relatively

  13. Calculation of Collective Variable-based PMF by Combining WHAM with Umbrella Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei-Xin; Li Yang; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2012-01-01

    Potential of mean force (PMF) with respect to localized reaction coordinates (RCs) such as distance is often applied to evaluate the free energy profile along the reaction pathway for complex molecular systems. However, calculation of PMF as a function of global RCs is still a challenging and important problem in computational biology. We examine the combined use of the weighted histogram analysis method and the umbrella sampling method for the calculation of PMF as a function of a global RC from the coarse-grained Langevin dynamics simulations for a model protein. The method yields the folding free energy profile projected onto a global RC, which is in accord with benchmark results. With this method rare global events would be sufficiently sampled because the biased potential can be used for restricting the global conformation to specific regions during free energy calculations. The strategy presented can also be utilized in calculating the global intra- and intermolecular PMF at more detailed levels. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Radioactivity measurements in moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) samples collected from Marmara region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belivermis, Murat, E-mail: belmurat@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cotuk, Yavuz, E-mail: cotukyav@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U activity concentrations in epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis). The activity levels in 37 moss and 38 lichen samples collected from the Marmara region of Turkey were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U in the moss samples were found to be in the range of 0.36-8.13, 17.1-181.1, 1.51-6.17, and 0.87-6.70 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively, while these values were below detection limit (BDL)-4.32, 16.6-240.0, 1.32-6.47, and BDL-3.57 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively in lichen. The average moss/lichen activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U were found to be 1.32 {+-} 0.57, 2.79 {+-} 1.67, 2.11 {+-} 0.82, and 2.19 {+-} 1.02, respectively. Very low {sup 137}Cs concentrations were observed in moss and lichen samples compared to soil samples collected from the same locations in a previous study. Seasonal variations of the measured radionuclide activities were also examined in the three sampling stations.

  15. A nanosilver-based spectrophotometric method for determination of malachite green in surface water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, R; Farmany, A; Mortazavi, S S; Noorizadeh, H

    2013-07-01

    A new spectrophotometric method is reported for the determination of nanomolar level of malachite green in surface water samples. The method is based on the catalytic effect of silver nanoparticles on the oxidation of malachite green by hexacyanoferrate (III) in acetate-acetic acid medium. The absorbance is measured at 610 nm with the fixed-time method. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 8.0 × 10(-9)-2.0 × 10(-