WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface salinity measurements

  1. Measuring surface salinity in the N. Atlantic subtropical gyre. The SPURS-MIDAS cruise, spring 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Jordi; Ward, Brian; Emelianov, Mikhail; Morisset, Simon; Salvador, Joaquin; Busecke, Julius

    2014-05-01

    SPURS-MIDAS (March-April 2013) on board the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa was a contribution to SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper ocean Regional Study) focused on the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of the salinity maximum associated to the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Scientists from Spain, Ireland, France and US sampled the mesoscale and submesoscale structures in the surface layer (fixed points and towed undulating CTD, underway near surface TSG) and deployed operational and experimental drifters and vertical profilers, plus additional ocean and atmospheric data collection. Validation of salinity maps obtained from the SMOS satellite was one of the objectives of the cruise. The cruise included a joint workplan and coordinated sampling with the US R/V Endeavor, with contribution from SPURS teams on land in real time data and analysis exchange. We present here an overview of the different kinds of measurements made during the cruise, as well as a first comparison between SMOS-derived sea surface salinity products and salinity maps obtained from near-surface sampling in the SPURS-MIDAS area and from surface drifters released during the cruise.

  2. Quality-controlled sea surface temperature, salinity and other measurements from the NCEI Global Thermosalinographs Database (NCEI-TSG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains global in-situ sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (SSS) and other measurements from the NOAA NCEI Global Thermosalinographs Database...

  3. Measurement of Near-Surface Salinity, Temperature and Directional Wave Spectra using a Novel Wave-Following, Lagrangian Surface Contact Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Results from a surface contact drifter buoy which measures near-surface conductivity ( 10 cm depth), sea state characteristics and near-surface water temperature ( 2 cm depth) are described. This light (righting. It has a small above-surface profile and low windage, resulting in near-Lagrangian drift characteristics. It is autonomous, with low power requirements and solar panel battery recharging. Onboard sensors include an inductive toroidal conductivity probe for salinity measurement, a nine-degrees-of-freedom motion package for derivation of directional wave spectra and a thermocouple for water temperature measurement. Data retrieval for expendable, ocean-going operation uses an onboard Argos transmitter. Scientific results as well as data processing algorithms are presented from laboratory and field experiments which support qualification of buoy platform measurements. These include sensor calibration experiments, longer-term dock-side biofouling experiments during 2013-2014 and a series of short-duration ocean deployments in the Gulf Stream in 2014. In addition, a treatment method will be described which appears to minimize the effects of biofouling on the inductive conductivity probe when in coastal surface waters. Due to its low cost and ease of deployment, scores, perhaps hundreds of these novel instruments could be deployed from ships or aircraft during process studies or to provide surface validation for satellite-based measurements, particularly in high precipitation regions.

  4. Influence from Polarized Galactic Background Noise on L-band Measurements of the Sea Surface Salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2004-01-01

    galactic background signal and the measured results. The measured 3rd Stokes parameter has variations of the same order of magnitude as the two linear polarizations, and to verify this result, an experiment for direct observation of the sky over long time is set up. This experiment confirms the presence...... of a polarized galactic background signal, and conclusions are made with respect to the necessity for polarimetric corrections in future measurements over the sea at L-band....

  5. Multiangular L-band Datasets for Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval Measured by Airborne HUT-2D Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Seppänen, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2009-04-01

    SMOS is the European Space Agency's next Earth Explorer satellite due for launch in 2009. It aims for global monitoring of soil moisture and ocean salinity utilizing a new technology concept for remote sensing: two-dimensional aperture synthesis radiometry. The payload of SMOS is Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis, or MIRAS. It is a passive instrument that uses 72 individual L-band receivers for measuring the brightness temperature of the Earth. From each acquisition, i.e. integration time or snapshot, MIRAS provides two-dimensional brightness temperature of the scene in the instrument's field of view. Thus, consecutive snapshots provide multiangular measurements of the target once the instrument passes over it. Depending on the position of the target in instrument's swath, the brightness temperature of the target at incidence angles from zero up to 50 degrees can be measured with one overpass. To support the development MIRAS instrument, its calibration, and soil moisture and sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm development, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) has designed, manufactured and tested a radiometer which operates at L-band and utilizes the same two-dimensional methodology of interferometery and aperture synthesis as MIRAS does. This airborne instrument, called HUT-2D, was designed to be used on board the University's research aircraft. It provides multiangular measurements of the target in its field of view, which spans up to 30 degrees off the boresight of the instrument, which is pointed to the nadir. The number of independent measurements of each target point depends on the flight speed and altitude. In addition to the Spanish Airborne MIRAS demonstrator (AMIRAS), HUT-2D is the only European airborne synthetic aperture radiometer. This paper presents the datasets and measurement campaigns, which have been carried out using the HUT-2D radiometer and are available for the scientific community. In April 2007 HUT-2D participated

  6. Salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water in southwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John C; George, Gregory; Fry, David; Benneyworth, Laura; Wilson, Carol; Auerbach, Leslie; Roy, Kushal; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Goodbred, Steven

    2017-09-11

    To identify the causes of salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water on an embanked island (i.e., polder) in the tidal delta plain of SW Bangladesh we collected and analyzed water samples in the dry (May) and wet (October) seasons in 2012-2013. Samples were collected from rice paddies (wet season), saltwater ponds used for brine shrimp aquaculture (dry season), freshwater ponds and tidal channels (both wet and dry season), and rainwater collectors. Continuous measurements of salinity from March 2012 to February 2013 show that tidal channel water increases from ~0.15 ppt in the wet season up to ~20 ppt in the dry season. On the polder, surface water exceeds the World Health Organization drinking water guideline of 10 μg As/L in 78% of shrimp ponds and 27% of rice paddies, raising concerns that produced shrimp and rice could have unsafe levels of As. Drinking water sources also often have unsafe As levels, with 83% of tubewell and 43% of freshwater pond samples having >10 μg As/L. Water compositions and field observations are consistent with shrimp pond water being sourced from tidal channels during the dry season, rather than the locally saline groundwater from tubewells. Irrigation water for rice paddies is also obtained from the tidal channels, but during the wet season when surface waters are fresh. Salts become concentrated in irrigation water through evaporation, with average salinity increasing from 0.43 ppt in the tidal channel source to 0.91 ppt in the rice paddies. Our observations suggest that the practice of seasonally alternating rice and shrimp farming in a field has a negligible effect on rice paddy water salinity. Also, shrimp ponds do not significantly affect the salinity of adjacent surface water bodies or subjacent groundwater because impermeable shallow surface deposits of silt and clay mostly isolate surface water bodies from each other and from the shallow groundwater aquifer. Bivariate plots of conservative element

  7. Coincident Retrieval of Ocean Surface Roughness and Salinity Using Airborne and Satellite Microwave Radiometry and Reflectometry Measurements during the Carolina Offshore (Caro) Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, D. M.; Wesson, J. C.; Wang, D. W.; Garrison, J. L.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) constellation of 8 microsats carrying GPS L-band reflectometers on 15 Dec., 2016, and continued operation of the L-band radiometer on the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, allow these complementary technologies to coincidentally retrieve Ocean surface roughness (Mean Square Slope, MSS), Surface Wind speed (WSP), and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). The Carolina Offshore (Caro) airborne experiment was conducted jointly by NRL SSC and Purdue University from 7-11 May, 2017 with the goal of under-flying CYGNSS and SMOS and overflying NOAA buoys, to obtain high-resolution reflectometer and radiometer data for combined retrieval of MSS, SSS and WSP on the continental shelf. Airborne instruments included NRL's Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS) L-, C- and IR-band radiometer system, and a 4-channel dual-pol L-band (GPS) and S-band (XM radio) reflectometer, built by Purdue University. Flights either crossed NOAA buoys on various headings, or intersected with specular point ground tracks at predicted CYGNSS overpass times. Prevailing winds during Caro were light to moderate (1-8 m/s), so specular returns dominated the reflectometer Delay Doppler Maps (DDMs), and MSS was generally low. In contrast, stronger winds (1-12 m/s) and rougher seas (wave heights 1-5 m) were experienced during the preceding Maine Offshore (Maineo) experiment in March, 2016. Several DDM observables were used to retrieve MSS and WSP, and radiometer brightness temperatures produced Sea Surface Temperature (SST), SSS and also WSP estimates. The complementary relationship of Kirchoff's formula e+r=1, between radiometric emissivity, e, and reflectivity, r, was exploited to seek consistent estimates of MSS, and use it to correct the SSS retrievals for sea surface roughness effects. The relative performance and utility of the various airborne and satellite retrieval algorithms

  8. Measurement of ocean temperature and salinity via microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Sea-surface temperature with an accuracy of 1 C and salinity with an accuracy of 1% were measured with a 1.43 and 2.65 GHz radiometer system after correcting for the influence of cosmic radiation, intervening atmosphere, sea-surface roughness, and antenna beamwidth. The radiometers are a third-generation system using null-balancing and feedback noise injection. Flight measurements from aircraft over bay regions and coastal areas of the Atlantic resulted in contour maps with spatial resolution of 0.5 km.

  9. Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

  10. Monthly Sea Surface Salinity and Freshwater Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Xie, P.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Taking advantages of the complementary nature of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements from the in-situ (CTDs, shipboard, Argo floats, etc.) and satellite retrievals from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Aquarius of a joint venture between US and Argentina, and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a technique is developed at NOAA/NCEP/CPC to construct an analysis of monthly SSS, called the NOAA Blended Analysis of Sea-Surface Salinity (BASS). The algorithm is a two-steps approach, i.e. to remove the bias in the satellite data through Probability Density Function (PDF) matching against co-located in situ measurements; and then to combine the bias-corrected satellite data with the in situ measurements through the Optimal Interpolation (OI) method. The BASS SSS product is on a 1° by 1° grid over the global ocean for a 7-year period from 2010. Combined with the NOAA/NCEP/CPC CMORPH satellite precipitation (P) estimates and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) evaporation (E) fields, a suite of monthly package of the SSS and oceanic freshwater flux (E and P) was developed to monitor the global oceanic water cycle and SSS on a monthly basis. The SSS in BASS product is a suite of long-term SSS and fresh water flux data sets with temporal homogeneity and inter-component consistency better suited for the examination of the long-term changes and monitoring. It presents complete spatial coverage and improved resolution and accuracy, which facilitates the diagnostic analysis of the relationship and co-variability among SSS, freshwater flux, mixed layer processes, oceanic circulation, and assimilation of SSS into global models. At the AGU meeting, we will provide more details on the CPC salinity and fresh water flux data package and its applications in the monitoring and analysis of SSS variations in association with the ENSO and other major climate

  11. Identification of thermohaline structure of a tropical estuary and its sensitivity to meteorological disturbance through temperature, salinity, and surface meteorological measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Sivadas, T.K.; Balachandran, K.K.; Vijaykumar, K.; Revichandran, C.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Francis, R.; Martin, G.D.

    -neap variability in which thermal and haline variability bear an inverse relationship, with cooling and enhanced salinity during spring tide and vice versa during neap tide. The diurnal variability in temperature is controlled by day/night cyclicity rather than...

  12. Salinity-Dependent Adhesion Response Properties of Aluminosilicate (K-Feldspar) Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Bärbel; Ceccato, Marcel; Andersson, Martin Peter

    2017-01-01

    is composed predominantly of quartz with some clay, but feldspar grains are often also present. While the wettability of quartz and clay surfaces has been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the adhesion properties of feldspar. We explored the interaction of model oil compounds, molecules...... in well sorted sandstone. Adhesion forces, measured with the chemical force mapping (CFM) mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed a low salinity effect on the fresh feldspar surfaces. Adhesion force, measured with -COO(H)-functionalized tips, was 60% lower in artificial low salinity seawater (LS......, ∼1500 ppm total dissolved solids) than in the high salinity solution, artificial seawater (HS, ASW, ∼35 600 ppm). Adhesion with the -CH3 tips was as much as 30% lower in LS than in HS. Density functional theory calculations indicated that the low salinity response resulted from expansion of the electric...

  13. Surface Energy Balance of Fresh and Saline Waters: AquaSEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelrady

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System model for large water bodies and add the effect of water salinity to the evaporation rate. Firstly, SEBS is modified for fresh-water whereby new parameterizations of the water heat flux and sensible heat flux are suggested. This is achieved by adapting the roughness heights for momentum and heat transfer. Secondly, a salinity correction factor is integrated into the adapted model. Eddy covariance measurements over Lake IJsselmeer (The Netherlands are carried out and used to estimate the roughness heights for momentum (~0.0002 m and heat transfer (~0.0001 m. Application of these values over the Victoria and Tana lakes (freshwater in Africa showed that the calculated latent heat fluxes agree well with the measurements. The root mean-square of relative-errors (rRMSE is about 4.1% for Lake Victoria and 4.7%, for Lake Tana. Verification with ECMWF data showed that the salinity reduced the evaporation at varying levels by up to 27% in the Great Salt Lake and by 1% for open ocean. Our results show the importance of salinity to the evaporation rate and the suitability of the adapted-SEBS model (AquaSEBS for fresh and saline waters.

  14. Simulation of tsunami effects on sea surface salinity using MODIS satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlan, N E F; Genderen, J van; Hashim, M; Marghany, M

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing technology has been recognized as powerful tool for environmental disaster studies. Ocean surface salinity is considered as a major element in the marine environment. In this study, we simulate the 2004 tsunami's impact on a physical ocean parameter using the least square algorithm to retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS) from MODIS satellite data. The accuracy of this work has been examined using the root mean of sea surface salinity retrieved from MODIS satellite data. The study shows a comprehensive relationship between the in situ measurements and least square algorithm with high r 2 of 0.95, and RMS of bias value of ±0.9 psu. In conclusion, the least square algorithm can be used to retrieve SSS from MODIS satellite data during a tsunami event

  15. L-Band Radiometers Measuring Salinity From Space: Atmospheric Propagation Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Hofman-Bang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Microwave radiometers can measure sea surface salinity from space using L-band frequencies around 1.4 GHz. However, requirements to the accuracy of the measurements, in order to be satisfactory for the user, are so stringent that the influence of the intervening atmosphere cannot be neglected...

  16. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity, and atmospheric pressure from surface underway survey in the North Pacific from January 1998 to January 2004 (NODC Accession 0045502)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface pCO2, sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and atmospheric pressure measurements collected in the North Pacific as part of the NOAA Office of...

  17. AQUARIUS: A Passive/Active Microwave Sensor to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity Globally from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Colomb, F. Raul; Chao, Yi

    2004-01-01

    Salinity is important for understanding ocean dynamics, energy exchange with the atmosphere and the global water cycle. Existing data is limited and much of the ocean has never even been sampled. Sea surface salinity can be measured remotely by satellite and a three year mission for this purpose called AquariudSAC-D has recently been selected by NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The objective is to map the salinity field globally with a spatial resolution of 100 km and a monthly average accuracy of 0.2 psu. The mission, scheduled for launch in 2008, is a partnership of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Argentine Comision National de Actividades Epaciales (CONAE).

  18. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  19. Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: impact of rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boutin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface salinity (SSS measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission has recently been revisited by the European Space Agency first campaign reprocessing. We show that, with respect to the previous version, biases close to land and ice greatly decrease. The accuracy of SMOS SSS averaged over 10 days, 100 × 100 km2 in the open ocean and estimated by comparison to ARGO (Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography SSS is on the order of 0.3–0.4 in tropical and subtropical regions and 0.5 in a cold region. The averaged negative SSS bias (−0.1 observed in the tropical Pacific Ocean between 5° N and 15° N, relatively to other regions, is suppressed when SMOS observations concomitant with rain events, as detected from SSM/Is (Special Sensor Microwave Imager rain rates, are removed from the SMOS–ARGO comparisons. The SMOS freshening is linearly correlated to SSM/Is rain rate with a slope estimated to −0.14 mm−1 h, after correction for rain atmospheric contribution. This tendency is the signature of the temporal SSS variability between the time of SMOS and ARGO measurements linked to rain variability and of the vertical salinity stratification between the first centimeter of the sea surface layer sampled by SMOS and the 5 m depth sampled by ARGO. However, given that the whole set of collocations includes situations with ARGO measurements concomitant with rain events collocated with SMOS measurements under no rain, the mean −0.1 bias and the negative skewness of the statistical distribution of SMOS minus ARGO SSS difference are very likely the mean signature of the vertical salinity stratification. In the future, the analysis of ongoing in situ salinity measurements in the top 50 cm of the sea surface and of Aquarius satellite SSS are expected to provide complementary information about the sea surface salinity stratification.

  20. Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menn, M Le; De Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J L; Grosso, P; Delauney, L; Podeur, C; Brault, P; Guillerme, O

    2011-01-01

    Absolute salinity measurement of seawater has become a key issue in thermodynamic models of the oceans. One of the most direct ways is to measure the seawater refractive index which is related to density and can therefore be related to the absolute salinity. Recent advances in high resolution position sensitive devices enable us to take advantage of small beam deviation measurements using refractometers. This paper assesses the advantages of such technology with respect to the current state-of-the-art technology. In particular, we present the resolution dependence on refractive index variations and derive the limits of such a solution for designing seawater sensors well suited for coastal and deep-sea applications. Particular attention has been paid to investigate the impact of environmental parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on an optical sensor, and ways to mitigate or compensate them have been suggested here. The sensor has been successfully tested in a pressure tank and in open oceans 2000 m deep

  1. Correlations Between Sea-Surface Salinity Tendencies and Freshwater Fluxes in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Adamec, David

    2007-01-01

    Temporal changes in sea-surface salinity (SSS) from 21 years of a high resolution model integration of the Pacific Ocean are correlated with the freshwater flux that was used to force the integration. The correlations are calculated on a 1 x10 grid, and on a monthly scale to assess the possibility of deducing evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) fields from the salinity measurements to be taken by the upcoming Aquarius/SAC-D mission. Correlations between the monthly mean E-P fields and monthly mean SSS temporal tendencies are mainly zonally-oriented, and are highest where the local precipitation is relatively high. Nonseasonal (deviations from the monthly mean) correlations are highest along mid-latitude storm tracks and are relatively small in the tropics. The response of the model's surface salinity to surface forcing is very complex, and retrievals of freshwater fluxes from SSS measurements alone will require consideration of other processes, including horizontal advection and vertical mixing, rather than a simple balance between the two.

  2. Measurement of flowing water salinity within or behind wellbore casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Water flowing within or behind a wellbore casing is irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons from a source in a downhole sonde. Gamma radiation from the isotope nitrogen-16 induced from the O 16 (n,p)N 16 reaction and the products of either the Na 23 (n,α)F 20 or the Cl 37 (n,α)P 34 reactions is measured in intensity and energy with detectors in the sonde. From the gamma radiation measurements, the relative presence of oxygen to at least one of sodium or chlorine in the water is measured, and from the measurement the salinity of the water is to be determined. (author)

  3. Ocean Surface Emissivity at L-band (1.4 GHz): The Dependence on Salinity and Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lang, R.; Wentz, F.; Messiner, T.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the emissivity of sea water at L-band is important for the remote sensing of sea surface salinity. Measurements of salinity are currently being made in the radio astronomy band at 1.413 GHz by ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. The goal of both missions is accuracy on the order of 0.1 psu. This requires accurate knowledge of the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature and also the effect of waves (roughness). The former determines the emissivity of an ideal (i.e. flat) surface and the later is the major source of error from predictions based on a flat surface. These two aspects of the problem of characterizing the emissivity are being addressed in the context of the Aquarius mission. First, laboratory measurements are being made of the dielectric constant of sea water. This is being done at the George Washington University using a resonant cavity. In this technique, sea water of known salinity and temperature is fed into the cavity along its axis through a narrow tube. The sea water changes the resonant frequency and Q of the cavity which, if the sample is small enough, can be related to the dielectric constant of the sample. An extensive set of measurements have been conducted at 1.413 GHz to develop a model for the real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant as a function of salinity and temperature. The results are compared to the predictions of models based on parameterization of the Debye resonance of the water molecule. The models and measurements are close; however, the differences are significant for remote sensing of salinity. This is especially true at low temperatures where the sensitivity to salinity is lowest.

  4. Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm Using Combined Passive-Active L-Band Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 kilometers and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 gigahertz) sea surface brightness temperatures (T (sub B)) to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves) along with several factors on the observed brightness temperature has to be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To the end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect.

  5. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply ...

  6. Surface energy balance of fresh and saline waters : AquaSEBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelrady, A.R.; Timmermans, J.; Vekerdy, Z.; Salama, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System) model

  7. Satellite observations of rainfall effect on sea surface salinity in the waters adjacent to Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chung-Ru; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chih; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2017-10-01

    Changes of oceanic salinity are highly related to the variations of evaporation and precipitation. To understand the influence of rainfall on the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the waters adjacent to Taiwan, satellite remote sensing data from the year of 2012 to 2014 are employed in this study. The daily rain rate data obtained from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Microwave Imager (TRMM/TMI), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), and WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer. The SSS data was derived from the measurements of radiometer instruments onboard the Aquarius satellite. The results show the average values of SSS in east of Taiwan, east of Luzon and South China Sea are 33.83 psu, 34.05 psu, and 32.84 psu, respectively, in the condition of daily rain rate higher than 1 mm/hr. In contrast to the rainfall condition, the average values of SSS are 34.07 psu, 34.26 psu, and 33.09 psu in the three areas, respectively at no rain condition (rain rate less than 1 mm/hr). During the cases of heavy rainfall caused by spiral rain bands of typhoon, the SSS is diluted with an average value of -0.78 psu when the average rain rate is higher than 4 mm/hr. However, the SSS was increased after temporarily decreased during the typhoon cases. A possible reason to explain this phenomenon is that the heavy rainfall caused by the spiral rain bands of typhoon may dilute the sea surface water, but the strong winds can uplift the higher salinity of subsurface water to the sea surface.

  8. Overview of the Nordic Seas CARINA data and salinity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS, the Atlantic (ATL and the Southern Ocean (SO. With the adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004 and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas include the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution provides an overview of the CARINA data from the Nordic Seas and summarises the findings of the QC of the salinity data. One cruise had salinity data that were of questionable quality, and these have been removed from the data product. An evaluation of the consistency of the quality controlled salinity data suggests that they are consistent to at least ±0.005.

  9. Hydrochemical measures and salinity studies in Inhanhuns' waters, Ceara State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Carlos Henrique; Santiago, Marlucia Freitas; Mendes Filho, Josue; Frischkorn, Horst

    1996-08-01

    The Inhamuns region is one of the most arid in Ceara Waters exhibit very high salinity. Here we evaluate measurements of chemical parameters (electrical conductivity, EC, and major ions) and δ 18 O for waters from wells, springs and surface reservoirs. Results show that springs, with EC of up to nearly 5000 μS/cm, are fed by pluvial water, exchange through dams can be excluded. Electrical conductivity is well correlated with Na + Mg ++ and Cl - for waters of various origins, whereas Ca ++ correlates reasonably only for wells. We conclude that aerosol deposition is a major source of salt, Enrichment through evaporation constitutes the most important process for surface water salination. Dissolution of chlorite-silicates is the cause for the magnesian character of underground water. (author)

  10. Surface pH changes suggest a role for H+/OH- channels in salinity response of Chara australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absolonova, Marketa; Beilby, Mary J; Sommer, Aniela; Hoepflinger, Marion C; Foissner, Ilse

    2018-05-01

    To understand salt stress, the full impact of salinity on plant cell physiology has to be resolved. Electrical measurements suggest that salinity inhibits the proton pump and opens putative H + /OH - channels all over the cell surface of salt sensitive Chara australis (Beilby and Al Khazaaly 2009; Al Khazaaly and Beilby 2012). The channels open transiently at first, causing a characteristic noise in membrane potential difference (PD), and after longer exposure remain open with a typical current-voltage (I/V) profile, both abolished by the addition of 1 mM ZnCl 2 , the main known blocker of animal H + channels. The cells were imaged with confocal microscopy, using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) coupled to dextran 70 to illuminate the pH changes outside the cell wall in artificial fresh water (AFW) and in saline medium. In the early saline exposure, we observed alkaline patches (bright fluorescent spots) appearing transiently in random spatial distribution. After longer exposure, some of the spots became fixed in space. Saline also abolished or diminished the pH banding pattern observed in the untreated control cells. ZnCl 2 suppressed the alkaline spot formation in saline and the pH banding pattern in AFW. The osmotic component of the saline stress did not produce transient bright spots or affect banding. The displacement of H + from the cell wall charges, the H + /OH - channel conductance/density, and self-organization are discussed. No homologies to animal H + channels were found. Salinity activation of the H + /OH - channels might contribute to saline response in roots of land plants and leaves of aquatic angiosperms.

  11. North Atlantic near-surface salinity contrasts and intra-basin water vapor transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, J. R.; Seidov, D.; Boyer, T.

    2017-12-01

    The geographic distribution of near-surface salinity (NSS) in the North Atlantic is characterized by a very salty (>37) subtropical region contrasting with a much fresher (NSS. Additional results and potential implications will be presented and discussed.

  12. Impact of the Sun on Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Vine, David M; Abraham, Saji; Wentz, F; Lagerloef, G. S

    2005-01-01

    ... to monitor soil moisture and sea surface salinity. Radiation from the sun can impact passive remote sensing systems in several ways, including line-of-sight radiation that comes directly from the sun and enters through antenna side lobes...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1992-present, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. Measurement of complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  15. Using the SIMGRO regional hydrological model to evaluate salinity control measures in an irrigation area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, E.; Querner, E.P.; Morábito, J.A.; Menenti, M.

    2002-01-01

    In irrigated areas with drainage and an important interaction with the groundwater system, it is often difficult to predict effects of measures to control salinity. Therefore, in order to evaluate measures to control salinity the SIMGRO integrated regional hydrological model was extended with a

  16. Eddy-induced Sea Surface Salinity changes in the tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcroix, T. C.; Chaigneau, A.; Soviadan, D.; Boutin, J.

    2017-12-01

    We analyse the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) signature of westward propagating mesoscale eddies in the tropical Pacific by collocating 5 years (2010-2015) of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) SSS and altimetry-derived sea level anomalies. The main characteristics of mesoscale eddies are first identified in SLA maps. Composite analyses in the Central and Eastern ITCZ regions then reveal regionally dependent impacts with opposite SSS anomalies for the cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. In the Central region (where we have the largest meridional SSS gradient), we found dipole-like SSS changes with maximum anomalies on the leading edge of the eddy. In the Eastern region (where we have the largest near-surface vertical salinity gradient) we found monopole-like SSS changes with maximum anomalies in the eddy centre. These dipole/monopole patterns and the rotational sense of eddies suggest the dominant role of horizontal and vertical advection in the Central and Eastern ITCZ regions, respectively.

  17. Laser measure of sea salinity, temperature and turbidity in depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, J. G.; Wouters, A. W.; Byrne, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described in which a pulsed laser is used to probe the sea. Backscattered light is analyzed in time, intensity and wavelength. Tyndall, Raman and Brillouin scattering are used to obtain the backscatter turbidity, sound velocity, salinity, and the temperature as a function of depth.

  18. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

  19. Comparing test systems to measure the salinity tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have recently been several studies into acute salinity tolerance of freshwater invertebrates using different methods, making comparisons between studies difficult. The alternatives focus on experimental flow regimes and ionic proportions. In this study non-rheophilic riverine taxa collected in South Africa and ...

  20. Comparison of the Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity Using Different Instrument Configurations of MICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjie Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Imager Combined Active/Passive (MICAP has been designed to simultaneously retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS, sea surface temperature (SST and wind speed (WS, and its performance has also been preliminarily analyzed. To determine the influence of the first guess values uncertainties on the retrieved parameters of MICAP, the retrieval accuracies of SSS, SST, and WS are estimated at various noise levels. The results suggest that the errors on the retrieved SSS have not increased dues poorly known initial values of SST and WS, since the MICAP can simultaneously acquire SST information and correct ocean surface roughness. The main objective of this paper is to obtain the simplified instrument configuration of MICAP without loss of the SSS, SST, and WS retrieval accuracies. Comparisons are conducted between three different instrument configurations in retrieval mode, based on the simulation measurements of MICAP. The retrieval results tend to prove that, without the 23.8 GHz channel, the errors on the retrieved SSS, SST, and WS for MICAP could also satisfy the accuracy requirements well globally during only one satellite pass. By contrast, without the 1.26 GHz scatterometer, there are relatively large increases in the SSS, SST, and WS errors at middle/low latitudes.

  1. A modeling study of the processes of surface salinity seasonal cycle in the Bay of Bengal.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Akhil, V.P.; Durand, F.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Keerthi, M.G.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Deltel, C.; Papa, F.; Montegut, C.deB.

    of Science, Bangalore, India, 5LOS, IFREMER, Plouzan�e, France Abstract In response to the Indian Monsoon freshwater forcing, the Bay of Bengal exhibits a very strong seasonal cycle in sea surface salinity (SSS), especially near the mouths of the Ganges...

  2. Rainfall Imprint on Sea Surface Salinity in the ITCZ: new satellite perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, J.; Viltard, N.; Supply, A.; Martin, N.; Vergely, J. L.; Hénocq, C.; Reverdin, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    The European Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission monitors sea surface salinity (SSS) over the global ocean for more than 5 years since 2010. The MADRAS microwave radiometer carried by the French (CNES) Indian (ISRO) satellite mission Megha-Tropiques sampled the 30° N-30° S region end of 2011 and in 2012, very complementary to other Global Precipitation Measurement(GPM) missions. In tropical regions, SMOS SSS contains a large imprint of atmospheric rainfall, but is also likely affected by oceanographic processes (advection and diffusion). At local and short time scales, Boutin et al. (2013, 2014) have shown that the spatio-temporal variability of SSS is dominated by rainfall as detected by satellite microwave radiometers and have demonstrated a close to linear relationship between SMOS SSS freshening under rain cells and satellite rain rate. The order of magnitude is in remarkable agreement with the theoretical renewal model of Schlussel et al. (1997) and compatible with AQUARIUS SSS observations, as well as with in situ drifters observations although the latter are local and taken at 45cm depth while satellite L-band SSS roughly correspond to the top 1cm depth and are spatially integrated over 43-150km. It is thus expected that the combined information of satellite rain rates and satellite SSS brings new constraints on the precipitation budget. We first look at the consistency between the spatial structures of SMOS SSS decrease and of rain rates derived either from the MADRAS microwave radiometer or from the CMORPH combined products that do not use MADRAS rain rates. This provides an indirect validation of the rain rates estimates. We then investigate the impact of rain history and of wind speed on the observed SMOS freshening. Based on these results, we discuss the precision on various precipitation estimates over 2012 in the ITCZ region and the major sources of uncertainties that the SPURS2 campaign could help to resolve.

  3. New insight into photo-bromination processes in saline surface waters: The case of salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamtam, Fatima; Chiron, Serge

    2012-01-01

    It was shown, through a combination of field and laboratory observations, that salicylic acid can undergo photo-bromination reactions in sunlit saline surface waters. Laboratory-scale experiments revealed that the photochemical yields of 5-bromosalicylic acid and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid from salicylic acid were always low (in the 4% range at most). However, this might be of concern since these compounds are potential inhibitors of the 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, with potential implications in endocrine disruption processes. At least two mechanisms were involved simultaneously to account for the photo-generation of brominated substances. The first one might involve the formation of reactive brominated radical species (Br·, Br 2 · − ) through hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of bromide ions. These ions reacted more selectively than hydroxyl radicals with electron-rich organic pollutants such as salicylic acid. The second one might involve the formation of hypobromous acid, through a two electron oxidation of bromine ions by peroxynitrite. This reaction was catalyzed by nitrite, since these ions play a crucial role in the formation of nitric oxide upon photolysis. This nitric oxide further reacts with superoxide radical anions to yield peroxynitrite and by ammonium through the formation of N-bromoamines, probably due to the ability of N-bromoamines to promote the aromatic bromination of phenolic compounds. Field measurements revealed the presence of salicylic acid together with 5-bromosalicylic and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid in a brackish coastal lagoon, thus confirming the environmental significance of the proposed photochemically induced bromination pathways. -- Highlights: ► Brominated derivatives of salicylic acid were detected in a brackish lagoon. ► A photochemical pathway was hypothesized to account for bromination of salicylic acid. ► Radical bromine species are partly responsible for the bromination process. ► Hypobromous acid

  4. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Sea Surface Salinity Using Satellite Imagery in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, S.; Hasanlou, M.; Safari, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    The recent development of satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) observations has enabled us to analyse SSS variations with high spatiotemporal resolution. In this regards, The Level3-version4 data observed by Aquarius are used to examine the variability of SSS in Gulf of Mexico for the 2012-2014 time periods. The highest SSS value occurred in April 2013 with the value of 36.72 psu while the lowest value (35.91 psu) was observed in July 2014. Based on the monthly distribution maps which will be demonstrated in the literature, it was observed that east part of the region has lower salinity values than the west part for all months mainly because of the currents which originate from low saline waters of the Caribbean Sea and furthermore the eastward currents like loop current. Also the minimum amounts of salinity occur in coastal waters where the river runoffs make fresh the high saline waters. Our next goal here is to study the patterns of sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (CHLa) and fresh water flux (FWF) and examine the contributions of them to SSS variations. So by computing correlation coefficients, the values obtained for SST, FWF and CHLa are 0.7, 0.22 and 0.01 respectively which indicated high correlation of SST on SSS variations. Also by considering the spatial distribution based on the annual means, it found that there is a relationship between the SSS, SST, CHLa and the latitude in the study region which can be interpreted by developing a mathematical model.

  5. Feasibility of saline infusion on the liver surface during radiofrequency ablation of subcapsuIar hepatic tumor: an experimentaI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rang; Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Seo, Heung Suk; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung Kyu; Paik, Seung Sam

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of infusion of normal saline onto the surface of the liver capsule for minimizing thermal injury of the adjacent organs during radiofrequency ablation of subcapsular hepatic tumor in an ex-vivo porcine model. We used porcine small bowel with it's serosal surface spread onto the porcine liver as an experiment model. The puncturing electrode was inserted into a 6 Fr introducer sheath, and the introducer sheath was connected to the infusion pump for creating a saline flow over the liver surface. A total of 15 ablations were divided into the control group (n=5), intermittent saline infusion group (n=5) and continuous saline infusion (n=5) group. The ablations were done during 3 minutes, and the infusion was set at 2 ml/min and stopped every 30 seconds in the intermittent saline infusion group. After the ablation, we measured the size of the ablated lesion on the surface of bowel and liver, and we also measured the depth of hepatic lesion. Ablated areas of bowel and liver surface in the control group, intermittent saline infusion group and continuous infusion group were 210.7±89.1 mm 2 , 74.6±27.2 mm 2 and 35.8±43.4 mm 2 , respectively, and 312.6±73.6 mm 2 , 228.4±110.5 mm 2 , and 80.9±55.1 mm 2 , respectively. In contrast to the broad base of the ablated area on the surface of the liver in the control group, the shapes of the lesions became narrower approaching to the liver surface in all cases of the continuous saline infusion group, and the shapes of the lesions were broad based in 3 cases and narrow based in 2 cases of the intermittent saline infusion group. Continuous infusion of normaI saline onto the surface of the liver during radiofrequency ablation of subcapsular hepatic tumor is a feasible method for minimizing thermal injury of the adjacent organs. Further exploration of the optimal parameters or techniques to maximize the hepatic ablation and simultaneously to minimize the thermal injury of

  6. A new water permeability measurement method for unsaturated tight materials using saline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinsky, Laurent; Talandier, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Relative water permeability of material in a radioactive waste disposal is a key parameter to simulate and predict saturation state evolution. In this paper we present a new measurement method and the results obtained for Callovo-Oxfordian (Cox) clay-stone, host rock of the underground Andra laboratory at Bure (Meuse/Haute-Marne). Relative water permeability of such a low permeability rock as Cox clay-stone has been measured up to now by an indirect method. It consists in submitting a rock sample to successive relative humidity steps imposed by saline solutions. The transient mass variation during each step and the mass at hydric equilibrium are interpreted generally by using an inverse analysis method. The water relative permeability function of water saturation is derived from water diffusion coefficient evolution and water retention curve. The proposed new method consists in directly measuring the water flux across a flat cylindrical submitted to a relative humidity gradient. Two special cells have been developed. The tightness of the lateral sample surface is insured by crushing a polyurethane ring surrounding the sample set in an aluminium device placed over a Plexiglas vessel filled with a saline solution. One of the cells is designed to allow humidity measurement in the cell. These cells can also be used to measure the relative humidity produced by a saline solution or by an unsaturated material. During a permeability measurement, the cell with the sample to be tested is continuously weighted in a Plexiglas box in which a saline solution imposes a different relative humidity at the upper sample face. The experimental set-up is shown on Figure 1. The mean permeability of the sample is proportional to the rate of mass variation when steady state is reached. The result of one test is shown on Figure 2(a). Twenty four permeability measurements have been performed on four argillite samples of 15 mm in height and

  7. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  8. New insight into photo-bromination processes in saline surface waters: The case of salicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamtam, Fatima; Chiron, Serge, E-mail: serge.chiron@msem.univ-montp2.fr

    2012-10-01

    It was shown, through a combination of field and laboratory observations, that salicylic acid can undergo photo-bromination reactions in sunlit saline surface waters. Laboratory-scale experiments revealed that the photochemical yields of 5-bromosalicylic acid and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid from salicylic acid were always low (in the 4% range at most). However, this might be of concern since these compounds are potential inhibitors of the 20{alpha}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, with potential implications in endocrine disruption processes. At least two mechanisms were involved simultaneously to account for the photo-generation of brominated substances. The first one might involve the formation of reactive brominated radical species (Br{center_dot}, Br{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) through hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of bromide ions. These ions reacted more selectively than hydroxyl radicals with electron-rich organic pollutants such as salicylic acid. The second one might involve the formation of hypobromous acid, through a two electron oxidation of bromine ions by peroxynitrite. This reaction was catalyzed by nitrite, since these ions play a crucial role in the formation of nitric oxide upon photolysis. This nitric oxide further reacts with superoxide radical anions to yield peroxynitrite and by ammonium through the formation of N-bromoamines, probably due to the ability of N-bromoamines to promote the aromatic bromination of phenolic compounds. Field measurements revealed the presence of salicylic acid together with 5-bromosalicylic and 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid in a brackish coastal lagoon, thus confirming the environmental significance of the proposed photochemically induced bromination pathways. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brominated derivatives of salicylic acid were detected in a brackish lagoon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photochemical pathway was hypothesized to account for bromination of salicylic acid. Black

  9. Salinity shapes microbial diversity and community structure in surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Li'an; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang

    2016-04-26

    Investigating microbial response to environmental variables is of great importance for understanding of microbial acclimatization and evolution in natural environments. However, little is known about how microbial communities responded to environmental factors (e.g. salinity, geographic distance) in lake surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, microbial diversity and community structure in the surface sediments of nine lakes on the QTP were investigated by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique and the resulting microbial data were statistically analyzed in combination with environmental variables. The results showed total microbial community of the studied lakes was significantly correlated (r = 0.631, P diversity and community structure in the studied samples. In addition, the abundant and rare taxa (OTUs with relative abundance higher than 1% and lower than 0.01% within one sample, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated (r = 0.427 and 0.783, respectively) with salinity, suggesting rare taxa might be more sensitive to salinity than their abundant counterparts, thus cautions should be taken in future when evaluating microbial response (abundant vs. rare sub-communities) to environmental conditions.

  10. Hourly changes in sea surface salinity in coastal waters recorded by Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongjie; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Haiyan; Cui, Tingwei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Lingjuan; An, Jubai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we monitored hourly changes in sea surface salinity (SSS) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary satellite ocean color images for the first time, using the Bohai Sea as a case study. We developed a simple multi-linear statistical regression model to retrieve SSS data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) based on an in situ satellite matched-up dataset (R2 = 0.795; N = 41; Range: 26.4 to 31.9 psμ). The model was then validated using independent continuous SSS measurements from buoys, with the average percentage difference of 0.65%. The model was applied to GOCI images from the dry season during an astronomical tide to characterize hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea. We found that the model provided reasonable estimates of the hourly changes in SSS and that trends in the modeled and measured data were similar in magnitude and direction (0.43 vs 0.33 psμ, R2 = 0.51). There were clear diurnal variations in the SSS of the Bohai Sea, with a regional average of 0.455 ± 0.079 psμ (0.02-3.77 psμ). The magnitude of the diurnal variations in SSS varied spatially, with large diurnal variability in the nearshore, particularly in the estuary, and small variability in the offshore area. The model for the riverine area was based on the inverse correlation between SSS and CDOM absorption. In the offshore area, the water mass of the North Yellow Sea, characterized by high SSS and low CDOM concentrations, dominated. Analysis of the driving mechanisms showed that the tidal current was the main control on hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea.

  11. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/√(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi

  12. ESTAR: The Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer for remote sensing measurement of soil moisture and ocean salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    The product of a working group assembled to help define the science objectives and measurement requirements of a spaceborne L-band microwave radiometer devoted to remote sensing of surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity is presented. Remote sensing in this long-wavelength portion of the microwave spectrum requires large antennas in low-Earth orbit to achieve acceptable spatial resolution. The proposed radiometer, ESTAR, is unique in that it employs aperture synthesis to reduce the antenna area requirements for a space system.

  13. Five Year Mean Sea-surface Salinity in the Northern Gulf of Mexico for 2005 through 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images were created by combining the mean sea-surface salinity values to produce seasonal representations for winter, spring, summer and fall. Winter includes...

  14. Seasonal distribution of temperature and salinity in the surface waters off South West Africa, 1972-1974

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Toole, M. J

    1980-01-01

    Monthly distribution charts of surface water temperature and salinity off the coast of South West Africa between Cape Frio and Hollams Bird Island are presented for the periods August 1972 to March...

  15. The Potential and Challenges of Using Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP Sea Surface Salinity to Monitor Arctic Ocean Freshwater Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Tang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface salinity (SSS links various components of the Arctic freshwater system. SSS responds to freshwater inputs from river discharge, sea ice change, precipitation and evaporation, and oceanic transport through the open straits of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. However, in situ SSS data in the Arctic Ocean are very sparse and insufficient to depict the large-scale variability to address the critical question of how climate variability and change affect the Arctic Ocean freshwater. The L-band microwave radiometer on board the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP mission has been providing SSS measurements since April 2015, at approximately 60 km resolution with Arctic Ocean coverage in 1–2 days. With improved land/ice correction, the SMAP SSS algorithm that was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL is able to retrieve SSS in ice-free regions 35 km of the coast. SMAP observes a large-scale contrast in salinity between the Atlantic and Pacific sides of the Arctic Ocean, while retrievals within the Arctic Circle vary over time, depending on the sea ice coverage and river runoff. We assess the accuracy of SMAP SSS through comparative analysis with in situ salinity data collected by Argo floats, ships, gliders, and in field campaigns. Results derived from nearly 20,000 pairs of SMAP and in situ data North of 50°N collocated within a 12.5-km radius and daily time window indicate a Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD less than ~1 psu with a correlation coefficient of 0.82 and a near unity regression slope over the entire range of salinity. In contrast, the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM has a smaller RMSD with Argo. However, there are clear systematic biases in the HYCOM for salinity in the range of 25–30 psu, leading to a regression slope of about 0.5. In the region North of 65°N, the number of collocated samples drops more than 70%, resulting in an RMSD of about 1.2 psu. SMAP SSS in the Kara Sea shows a consistent

  16. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Sea Surface Salinity in Coastal Waters of China Based on Aquarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) is a fundamental parameter for the study of global ocean dynamics, water cycle, and climate variability. Aquarius launched by NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina is a breakthrough which could achieve the remote sensing data of SSS. The present paper takes the coastal of China as study area, which is a representative area of ocean boundary and influenced by continental rivers (Yangtze River and Pearl River). After analyze the temporal and spatial variation of SSS in the coastal of China, the estuary area has obvious low salinity because the injected of freshwater from continent. Take the East China Sea (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) as representative region to discuss the effect of freshwater to SSS. The salinity is almost equal in winter when the diluted water is inadequate in both rivers. However, an obvious decrease appeared in summer especial July in Yangtze River for abundance discharge inflow the ECS. This is a reasonable expression of Yangtze River discharge is remarkable influence the SSS in coastal area then Pearl River. Survey the distribution range of Yangtze River diluted water (SSS<31psu). The range is small in winter and expands to peak value in summer

  17. Impacts of sea-surface salinity in an eddy-resolving semi-global OGCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furue, Ryo; Takatama, Kohei; Sasaki, Hideharu; Schneider, Niklas; Nonaka, Masami; Taguchi, Bunmei

    2018-02-01

    To explore the impacts of sea-surface salinity (SSS) on the interannual variability of upper-ocean state, we compare two 10-year runs of an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM): in one, SSS is strongly restored toward a monthly climatology (World Ocean Atlas '98) and in the other, toward the SSS of a monthly gridded Argo product. The inclusion of the Argo SSS generally improves the interannual variability of the mixed layer depth; particularly so in the western tropical Pacific, where so-called "barrier layers" are reproduced when the Argo SSS is included. The upper-ocean subsurface salinity variability is also improved in the tropics and subtropics even below the mixed layer. To understand the reason for the latter improvement, we separate the salinity difference between the two runs into its "dynamical" and "spiciness" components. The dynamical component is dominated by small-scale noise due to the chaotic nature of mesoscale eddies. The spiciness difference indicates that as expected from the upper-ocean general circulation, SSS variability in the mixed layer is subducted into the thermocline in subtropics; this signal is generally advected downward, equatorward, and westward in the equator-side of the subtropical gyre. The SSS signal subducted in the subtropical North Pacific appears to enter the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian Throughflow, although this signal is weak and probably insignificant in our model.

  18. The characterization of mechanical and surface properties of poly (glycerol-sebacate-lactic acid) during degradation in phosphate buffered saline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhijie [Center for biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: zhijiesun2005@yahoo.com.cn; Wu Lan; Lu Xili; Meng Zhaoxu; Zheng Yufeng [Center for biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Dong Deli [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2008-11-15

    The present study synthesized a poly (glycerol-sebacate-lactic acid) (PGSL) with 1:1:0.5 mole ratio of glycerol, sebacate and lactic acid and investigated the degradation characteristics of the polymer in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 deg. C in vitro by means of mass loss tests, geometry, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, tensile analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The maintained geometry, linear mass loss, and minor crack formation on the surface during degradation characterized both the bulk degradation and surface erosion of the polymer. By day 30 of degradation, the mass lost reached 16%. The elastic modulus, tensile strength and elongation at breakage of PGSL were correlative to the period of degradation.

  19. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  20. Comparison of sodium content of workplace and homemade meals through chemical analysis and salinity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Yeon-Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Most Koreans consume nearly 70-80% of the total sodium through their dishes. The use of a salinometer to measure salinity is recommended to help individuals control their sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to compare sodium content through chemical analysis and salinity measurement in foods served by industry foodservice operations and homemade meals. Workplace and homemade meals consumed by employees in 15 cafeterias located in 8 districts in Daegu were collected and the sodium content was measured through chemical analysis and salinity measurements and then compared. The foods were categorized into 9 types of menus with 103 workplace meals and 337 homemade meals. Workplace meals did not differ significantly in terms of sodium content per 100 g of food but had higher sodium content via chemical analysis in roasted foods per portion. Homemade meals had higher broth salt content and higher salt content by chemical analysis per 100 g of roasted foods and hard-boiled foods. One-dish workplace meals had higher salinity (P content (P content per 100 g of foods was higher in one-dish workplace meals (P content in foods and control one's sodium intake within the daily intake target as a way to promote cooking bland foods at home. However, estimated and actual measured values may differ.

  1. Improving SMOS Sea Surface Salinity in the Western Mediterranean Sea through Multivariate and Multifractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Olmedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology using a combination of debiased non-Bayesian retrieval, DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions and multifractal fusion has been used to obtain Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS fields over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The debiased non-Bayesian retrieval mitigates the systematic errors produced by the contamination of the land over the sea. In addition, this retrieval improves the coverage by means of multiyear statistical filtering criteria. This methodology allows obtaining SMOS SSS fields in the Mediterranean Sea. However, the resulting SSS suffers from a seasonal (and other time-dependent bias. This time-dependent bias has been characterized by means of specific Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs. Finally, high resolution Sea Surface Temperature (OSTIA SST maps have been used for improving the spatial and temporal resolution of the SMOS SSS maps. The presented methodology practically reduces the error of the SMOS SSS in the Mediterranean Sea by half. As a result, the SSS dynamics described by the new SMOS maps in the Algerian Basin and the Balearic Front agrees with the one described by in situ SSS, and the mesoscale structures described by SMOS in the Alboran Sea and in the Gulf of Lion coincide with the ones described by the high resolution remotely-sensed SST images (AVHRR.

  2. Simulated Effects of Soil Temperature and Salinity on Capacitance Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Green

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric measurement techniques are used widely for estimation of water contentin environmental media. However, factors such as temperature and salinity affecting thereadings require further quantitative investigation and explanation. Theoretical sensitivities ofcapacitance sensors to liquid salinity and temperature of porous media were derived andcomputed using a revised electrical circuit analogue model in conjunction with a dielectricmixing model and a finite element model of Maxwell’s equation to compute electrical fielddistributions. The mixing model estimates the bulk effective complex permittivities of solid-water-air media. The real part of the permittivity values were used in electric field simulations,from which different components of capacitance were calculated via numerical integration forinput to the electrical circuit analogue. Circuit resistances representing the dielectric losses werecalculated from the complex permittivity of the bulk soil and from the modeled fields. Resonantfrequencies from the circuit analogue were used to update frequency-dependent variables in aniterative manner. Simulated resonant frequencies of the capacitance sensor display sensitivitiesto both temperature and salinity. The gradients in normalized frequency with temperatureranged from negative to positive values as salinity increased from 0 to 10 g L-1. The modeldevelopment and analyses improved our understanding of processes affecting the temperatureand salinity sensitivities of capacitance sensors in general. This study provides a foundation forfurther work on inference of soil water content under field conditions.

  3. Statistical characterization of global Sea Surface Salinity for SMOS level 3 and 4 products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourrion, J.; Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Ballabrera, J.; Mourre, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission of the European Space Agency will soon provide sea surface salinity (SSS) estimates to the scientific community. Because of the numerous geophysical contamination sources and the instrument complexity, the salinity products will have a low signal to noise ratio at level 2 (individual estimates??) that is expected to increase up to mission requirements (0.1 psu) at level 3 (global maps with regular distribution) after spatio-temporal accumulation of the observations. Geostatistical methods such as Optimal Interpolation are being implemented at the level 3/4 production centers to operate this noise reduction step. The methodologies require auxiliary information about SSS statistics that, under Gaussian assumption, consist in the mean field and the covariance of the departures from it. The present study is a contribution to the definition of the best estimates for mean field and covariances to be used in the near-future SMOS level 3 and 4 products. We use complementary information from sparse in-situ observations and imperfect outputs from state-of-art model simulations. Various estimates of the mean field are compared. An alternative is the use of a SSS climatology such as the one provided by the World Ocean Atlas 2005. An historical SSS dataset from the World Ocean Database 2005 is reanalyzed and combined with the recent global observations obtained by the Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO). Regional tendencies in the long-term temporal evolution of the near-surface ocean salinity are evident, suggesting that the use of a SSS climatology to describe the current mean field may introduce biases of magnitude similar to the precision goal. Consequently, a recent SSS dataset may be preferred to define the mean field needed for SMOS level 3 and 4 production. The in-situ observation network allows a global mapping of the low frequency component of the variability, i.e. decadal, interannual and seasonal

  4. Bulk and Surface Aqueous Speciation of Calcite: Implications for Low-Salinity Waterflooding of Carbonate Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Yutkin, Maxim P.

    2017-08-25

    Low-salinity waterflooding (LSW) is ineffective when reservoir rock is strongly water-wet or when crude oil is not asphaltenic. Success of LSW relies heavily on the ability of injected brine to alter surface chemistry of reservoir crude-oil brine/rock (COBR) interfaces. Implementation of LSW in carbonate reservoirs is especially challenging because of high reservoir-brine salinity and, more importantly, because of high reactivity of the rock minerals. Both features complicate understanding of the COBR surface chemistries pertinent to successful LSW. Here, we tackle the complex physicochemical processes in chemically active carbonates flooded with diluted brine that is saturated with atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and possibly supplemented with additional ionic species, such as sulfates or phosphates. When waterflooding carbonate reservoirs, rock equilibrates with the injected brine over short distances. Injected-brine ion speciation is shifted substantially in the presence of reactive carbonate rock. Our new calculations demonstrate that rock-equilibrated aqueous pH is slightly alkaline quite independent of injected-brine pH. We establish, for the first time, that CO2 content of a carbonate reservoir, originating from CO2-rich crude oil and gas, plays a dominant role in setting aqueous pH and rock-surface speciation. A simple ion-complexing model predicts the calcite-surface charge as a function of composition of reservoir brine. The surface charge of calcite may be positive or negative, depending on speciation of reservoir brine in contact with the calcite. There is no single point of zero charge; all dissolved aqueous species are charge determining. Rock-equilibrated aqueous composition controls the calcite-surface ion-exchange behavior, not the injected-brine composition. At high ionic strength, the electrical double layer collapses and is no longer diffuse. All surface charges are located directly in the inner and outer Helmholtz planes. Our evaluation of

  5. AFM and SFG studies of pHEMA-based hydrogel contact lens surfaces in saline solution: adhesion, friction, and the presence of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Han; Opdahl, Aric; Marmo, Chris; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2002-04-01

    The surfaces of two types of soft contact lenses neutral and ionic hydrogels--were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. AFM measurements in saline solution showed that the presence of ionic functional groups at the surface lowered the friction and adhesion to a hydrophobic polystyrene tip. This was attributed to the specific interactions of water and the molecular orientation of hydrogel chains at the surface. Friction and adhesion behavior also revealed the presence of domains of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the lens surface. SFG showed that the lens surface became partially dehydrated upon exposure to air. On this partially dehydrated lens surface, the non-crosslinked domains exhibited low friction and adhesion in AFM. Fully hydrated in saline solution, the non-crosslinked domains extended more than tens of nanometers into solution and were mobile.

  6. Artefacts for optical surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stuart; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Brownhill, Andrew; MacDonald, Lindsay

    2011-07-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies are supporting the routine production of components with freeform surfaces in a wide variety of materials and surface finishes. Such surfaces may be exploited for both aesthetic and performance criteria for a wide range of industries, for example automotive, aircraft, small consumer goods and medial components. In order to ensure conformance between manufactured part and digital design it is necessary to understand, validate and promote best practice of the available measurement technologies. Similar, but currently less quantifiable, measurement requirements also exist in heritage, museum and fine art recording where objects can be individually hand crafted to extremely fine levels of detail. Optical 3D measurement systems designed for close range applications are typified by one or more illumination sources projecting a spot, line or structured light pattern onto a surface or surfaces of interest. Reflections from the projected light are detected in one or more imaging devices and measurements made concerning the location, intensity and optionally colour of the image. Coordinates of locations on the surface may be computed either directly from an understanding of the illumination and imaging geometry or indirectly through analysis of the spatial frequencies of the projected pattern. Regardless of sensing configuration some independent means is necessary to ensure that measurement capability will meet the requirements of a given level of object recording and is consistent for variations in surface properties and structure. As technologies mature, guidelines for best practice are emerging, most prominent at the current time being the German VDI/VDE 2634 and ISO/DIS 10360-8 guidelines. This considers state of the art capabilities for independent validation of optical non-contact measurement systems suited to the close range measurement of table top sized manufactured or crafted objects.

  7. Cyclone, Salinity Intrusion and Adaptation and Coping Measures in Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebak Kumar Saha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although households in the coastal areas of Bangladesh undertake various adaptation and coping measures to minimise their vulnerability to cyclone hazards and salinity intrusion, these autonomous measures have received little attention in the past. However, the Government of Bangladesh has recently emphasised the importance of understanding these measures so that necessary interventions to make households more resilient to natural hazards and the adverse impacts of climate change can be introduced. This paper, based on secondary sources, explores adaptation and coping measures that households in the coastal areas of Bangladesh undertake to minimise their vulnerability to cyclone hazards and salinity intrusion. This paper shows that many of the adaptation and coping measures contribute to making households less vulnerable and more resilient to cyclone hazards and salinity intrusion, although some coping measures do the opposite as they reduce households’ adaptive capacities instead of improving them. This paper argues that the adaptation and coping measures that contribute to reducing households’ vulnerability to natural hazards need to be supported and guided by the government and NGOs to make them more effective. Additionally, measures that make households more vulnerable also need to be addressed by the government and NGOs, as most of these measures are related to and constrained by both poverty, and because the households have little or no access to economic opportunities.

  8. Freshwater exchanges and surface salinity in the Colombian basin, Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Emilio; Bernal, Gladys; Ruiz-Ochoa, Mauricio; Barton, Eric Desmond

    2017-01-01

    Despite the heavy regional rainfall and considerable discharge of many rivers into the Colombian Basin, there have been few detailed studies about the dilution of Caribbean Surface Water and the variability of salinity in the southwestern Caribbean. An analysis of the precipitation, evaporation and runoff in relation to the climate variability demonstrates that although the salt balance in the Colombian Basin overall is in equilibrium, the area south of 12°N is an important dilution sub-basin. In the southwest of the basin, in the region of the Panama-Colombia Gyre, Caribbean Sea Water is diluted by precipitation and runoff year round, while in the northeast, off La Guajira, its salinity increases from December to May by upwelling. At the interannual scale, continental runoff is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation, and precipitation and evaporation south of 12°N are related to the Caribbean Low Level Jet. During El Niño years the maximum salinification occurs in the dry season (December-February) while in La Niña years the maximum dilution (or freshening), reaching La Guajira Coastal Zone, occurs in the wet season (September-November).

  9. ENSO signals on sea-surface salinity in the eastern tropical pacific ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    types collected in the tropical Pacific are analyzed to assess the regional impacts of past (1972-1996 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO events. Focus is made on the regional changes in sea-surface temperature and salinity. Commercial vessels were recently equipped with automated thermosalinographs which allows to monitor the location of salinity front along the Panama-Tahiti line, separating the Panama Gulf from the South Pacific water masses. The latitudinal change of the salinity front is well correlated with the latitudinal change of the ITCZ. Salinity distribution gives additional information on El-Niño development. How future real time SSS data might provide interesting information on the development of ENSO phenomenon in the eastern tropical Pacific area will be discussed.

  10. The Impact of the Assimilation of Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity Data in the GEOS Ocean Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieres, Guillaume Rene Jean; Kovach, Robin M.; Keppenne, Christian L.; Akella, Santharam; Brucker, Ludovic; Dinnat, Emmanuel Phillippe

    2014-01-01

    Ocean salinity and temperature differences drive thermohaline circulations. These properties also play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere coupling. With the availability of L-band space-borne observations, it becomes possible to provide global scale sea surface salinity (SSS) distribution. This study analyzes globally the along-track (Level 2) Aquarius SSS retrievals obtained using both passive and active L-band observations. Aquarius alongtrack retrieved SSS are assimilated into the ocean data assimilation component of Version 5 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) assimilation and forecast model. We present a methodology to correct the large biases and errors apparent in Version 2.0 of the Aquarius SSS retrieval algorithm and map the observed Aquarius SSS retrieval into the ocean models bulk salinity in the topmost layer. The impact of the assimilation of the corrected SSS on the salinity analysis is evaluated by comparisons with insitu salinity observations from Argo. The results show a significant reduction of the global biases and RMS of observations-minus-forecast differences at in-situ locations. The most striking results are found in the tropics and southern latitudes. Our results highlight the complementary role and problems that arise during the assimilation of salinity information from in-situ (Argo) and space-borne surface (SSS) observations

  11. Evaluation of Aquarius Version-5 Sea Surface Salinity on various spatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) products from Aquarius have had three public releases with progressive improvement in data quality: Versions 2, 3, and 4, with the last one being released in October 2015. A systematic assessment of the Version-4, Level-3 Aquarius SSS product was performed on various spatial and temporal scales by comparing it with gridded Argo products (Lee 2016, Geophys. Res. Lett.). The comparison showed that the consistency of Aquarius Version-4 SSS with gridded Argo products is comparable to that between two different gridded Argo products. However, significant seasonal biases remain in high-latitude oceans. Further improvements are being made by the Aquarius team. Aquarius Version 5.0 SSS is scheduled to be released in October 2017 as the final version of the Aquarius Project. This presentation provides a similar evaluation of Version-5 SSS as reported by Lee (2016) and contrast it with the current Version-4 SSS.

  12. Sea surface salinity of the Eocene Arctic Azolla event using innovative isotope modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Reichart, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions regarding Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. Our present research focuses on constraining the actual salinity of, and water sources for, the Eocene Arctic basin through the application of stable water isotope tracers. Precipitation pathways potentially strongly affect the final isotopic composition of water entering the Arctic Basin. Therefore we use the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3), developed by NCAR, combined with a recently developed integrated isotope tracer code to reconstruct the isotopic composition of global Eocene precipitation and run-off patterns. We further addressed the sensitivity of the modeled hydrological cycle to changes in boundary conditions, such as pCO2, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice formation. In this way it is possible to assess the effect of uncertainties in proxy estimates of these parameters. Overall, results of all runs with Eocene boundary conditions, including Eocene topography, bathymetry, vegetation patterns, TEX86 derived SSTs and pCO2 estimates, show the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. Enriched, precipitation weighted, isotopic values of around -120‰ are reported for the Arctic region. Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses (δD) on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model outcomes make it possible to verify climate reconstructions for the middle Eocene Arctic. Furthermore, recently, characteristic long-chain mid-chain ω20 hydroxy wax constituents of Azolla were found in ACEX sediments. δD values of these C32 - C36 diols provide insight into the isotopic composition of the Eocene Arctic surface water. As the isotopic signature of the runoff entering the Arctic is modelled, and the final isotopic composition of

  13. Method for measurement of flowing water salinity within or behind wellbore casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Water flowing within or behind a wellbore casing is irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons from a source in a downhole sonde. Gamma radiation from the isotope nitrogen-16 induced from the O 16 (n,p)N 16 reaction and the products of either the Na 23 (n,α)F 20 or the Cl 37 (n,α)p 34 reactions is measured in intensity and energy with detectors in the sonde. From the gamma radiation measurements, the relative presence of oxygen to at least one of sodium or chlorine in the water is measured, and from the measurement the salinity of the water is determined

  14. Eddy covarianace measurements in a hyper-arid and hyper-saline mangroves ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Marpu, P.; Molini, A.; Armstrong, P.

    2017-12-01

    The natural environment of mangroves provides a number of ecosystem services for improving water quality, supporting healthy fisheries, and protecting the coasts. Also, their carbon storage is larger than any other forest type. Several authors have recognized the importance of mangroves in global carbon cycles. However, energy, water and carbon exchanges between ecosystem and atmosphere are still not completely understood. Eddy covariance measurements are extremely valuable to understand the role of the unique stressors of costal ecosystems in gas exchange. In particular, periodic flooding and elevated soil pore water salinity influence land-atmosphere interactions. Despites the importance of flux measurements in mangroves forests, such in-situ observations are extremely rare. Our research team set up an eddy covariance tower in the Mangrove National Park of Abu Dhabi, UAE. The study site (24.4509° N, 54.4288° E) is located in a dwarf Avicennia marina ecosystem experiencing extremely high temperatures and salinity. CO2 and H2O exchanges are estimated and related to water level and salinity measurements. This unique dataset will shed some light on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide, on energy fluxes and on evapotranspiration rates for a halophyte ecosystem under severe salt-stress and high temperature.

  15. Surface flow measurements from drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Drones are transforming the way we sense and interact with the environment. However, despite their increased capabilities, the use of drones in geophysical sciences usually focuses on image acquisition for generating high-resolution maps. Motivated by the increasing demand for innovative and high performance geophysical observational methodologies, we posit the integration of drone technology and optical sensing toward a quantitative characterization of surface flow phenomena. We demonstrate that a recreational drone can be used to yield accurate surface flow maps of sub-meter water bodies. Specifically, drone's vibrations do not hinder surface flow observations, and velocity measurements are in agreement with traditional techniques. This first instance of quantitative water flow sensing from a flying drone paves the way to novel observations of the environment.

  16. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    -Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water

  17. Method of measuring surface density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of measuring surface density or thickness, preferably of coating layers, using radiation emitted by a suitable radionuclide, e.g., 241 Am. The radiation impinges on the measured material, e.g., a copper foil and in dependence on its surface density or thickness part of the flux of impinging radiation is reflected and part penetrates through the material. The radiation which has penetrated through the material excites in a replaceable adjustable backing characteristic radiation of an energy close to that of the impinging radiation (within +-30 keV). Part of the flux of the characteristic radiation spreads back to the detector, penetrates through the material in which in dependence on surface density or thickness of the coating layer it is partly absorbed. The flux of the penetrated characteristic radiation impinging on the face of the detector is a function of surface density or thickness. Only that part of the energy is evaluated of the energy spectrum which corresponds to the energy of characteristic radiation. (B.S.)

  18. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  19. Performance of electrical spectroscopy using a RESPER probe to measure salinity and water content of concrete and terrestrial soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Settimi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper discusses the performance of electrical spectroscopy using a RESPER probe to measure the salinity s and volumetric content θW of the water in concrete or terrestrial soil. The RESPER probe is an induction device for spectroscopy which performs simultaneous and non invasive measurements of the electrical RESistivity 1/σ and relative dielectric PERmittivity εr of a subjacent medium. Numerical simulations establish that the RESPER can measure σ and ε with inaccuracies below a predefined limit (10% up to the high frequency band (HF. Conductivity is related to salinity and dielectric permittivity to volumetric water content using suitably refined theoretical models which are consistent with the predictions of Archie’s and Topp’s empirical laws. The better the agreement, the lower the hygroscopic water content and the higher s; so closer agreement is found with concrete containing almost no bonded water molecules provided these are characterized by a high σ. A novelty of the present paper is the application of a mathematical–physical model to the propagation of errors in the measurements, based on a sensitivity functions tool. The inaccuracy of salinity (water content is the ratio (product between the conductivity (permittivity inaccuracy, specified by the probe, and the sensitivity function of salinity (water content relative to conductivity (permittivity, derived from the constitutive equations of the medium. The main result is the model’s prediction that the lower the inaccuracy for the measurements of s and θW (decreasing by as much as an order of magnitude from 10% to 1%, the higher σ; so the inaccuracy for soil is lower. The proposed physical explanation is that water molecules are mostly dispersed as H+ and OH- ions

  20. Salinity maxima associated with some sub-surface water masses in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Murty, C.S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    The distribution of some sub-surface water masses in the western bay of Bengal during the south-west monsoon period is presented. Based on the salinity maxima and sigma t values the existence of waters of Persian Gulf and Red Sea origin could...

  1. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  2. Receding and advancing (CO_2 + brine + quartz) contact angles as a function of pressure, temperature, surface roughness, salt type and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z.; Lebedev, Maxim; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • (Water + CO_2) contact angle on quartz increases substantially with pressure and salinity. • (Water + CO_2) contact angle on quartz increases slightly with temperature. • Surface roughness has only a minor influence on (water + CO_2 + quartz) contact angles. - Abstract: The wetting characteristics of CO_2 in rock are of vital importance in carbon geo-storage as they determine fluid dynamics and storage capacities. However, the current literature data has a high uncertainty, which translates into uncertain predictions in terms of containment security and economic project feasibility. We thus measured contact angles for the CO_2/water/quartz system at relevant reservoir conditions, and analysed the effects of pressure (0.1 to 20) MPa, temperature (296 to 343) K, surface roughness (56 to 1300) nm, salt type (NaCl, CaCl_2, and MgCl_2) and brine salinities (0 to 35) wt%. Water contact angles decreased with surface roughness, but increased with pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. Overall the contact angles were significantly increased at storage conditions (∼50°) when compared to ambient conditions (always 0°). Consequently quartz is weakly water-wet (not completely water-wet) at storage conditions, and structural and residual trapping capacities are reduced accordingly.

  3. A Compact L-band Radiometer for High Resolution sUAS-based Imaging of Soil Moisture and Surface Salinity Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Stachura, M.; Dai, E.; Elston, J.; McIntyre, E.; Leuski, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the long electrical wavelengths required along with practical aperture size limitations the scaling of passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and salinity from spaceborne low-resolution (~10-100 km) applications to high resolution (~10-1000 m) applications requires use of low flying aerial vehicles. This presentation summarizes the status of a project to develop a commercial small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) hosting a microwave radiometer for mapping of soil moisture in precision agriculture and sea surface salinity studies. The project is based on the Tempest electric-powered UAS and a compact L-band (1400-1427 MHz) radiometer developed specifically for extremely small and lightweight aerial platforms or man-portable, tractor, or tower-based applications. Notable in this combination are a highly integrated sUAS/radiometer antenna design and use of both the upwelling emitted signal from the surface and downwelling cold space signal for precise calibration using a unique lobe-differencing correlating radiometer architecture. The system achieves a spatial resolution comparable to the altitude of the UAS above the surface while referencing upwelling measurements to the constant and well-known background temperature of cold space. The radiometer has been tested using analog correlation detection, although future builds will include infrared, near-infrared, and visible (red) sensors for surface temperature and vegetation biomass correction and digital sampling for radio frequency interference mitigation. This NASA-sponsored project is being developed for commercial application in cropland water management (for example, high-value shallow root-zone crops), landslide risk assessment, NASA SMAP satellite validation, and NASA Aquarius salinity stratification studies. The system will ultimately be capable of observing salinity events caused by coastal glacier and estuary fresh water outflow plumes and open ocean rainfall events.

  4. Improved method for measuring transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors infresh and saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-03-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors produced by phyto-/bacterio-planktons in fresh and marine aquatic environments are increasingly considered as a major contributor to organic/particulate and biological fouling in micro-/ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis membrane (RO) systems. However, currently established methods which are based on Alcian blue (AB) staining and spectrophotometric techniques do not measure TEP-precursors and have the tendency to overestimate concentration in brackish/saline water samples due to interference of salinity on AB staining. Here we propose a new semi-quantitative method which allows measurement of both TEP and their colloidal precursors without the interference of salinity. TEP and their precursors are first retained on 10kDa membrane, rinsed with ultra-pure water, and re-suspended in ultra-pure water by sonication and stained with AB, followed by exclusion of TEP-AB precipitates by filtration and absorbance measurement of residual AB. The concentration is then determined based on the reduction of AB absorbance due to reaction with acidic polysaccharides, blank correction and calibration with Xanthan gum standard. The extraction procedure allows concentration of TEP and their pre-cursors which makes it possible to analyse samples with a wide range of concentrations (down to <0.1mg Xeq/L). This was demonstrated through application of the method for monitoring these compounds in algal cultures and a full-scale RO plant. The monitoring also revealed that concentrations of the colloidal precursors were substantially higher than the concentration of TEP themselves. In the RO plant, complete TEP removal was observed over the pre-treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration and ultrafiltration) but the TEP precursors were not completely removed, emphasising the importance of measuring this colloidal component to better understand the role of TEP and acidic polysaccharides in RO membrane fouling.

  5. Oceanographic temperature and salinity measurements collected using drifting buoys in the Arctic Ocean from 2003 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0014672)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic temperature and salinity measurements collected using drifting buoys in the Arctic Ocean. Data from JAMSTEC drifting buoys which were deployed both as...

  6. Hydrologic modeling in a marsh-mangrove ecotone: Predicting wetland surface water and salinity response to restoration in the Ten Thousand Islands region of Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, B.D.; Meselhe, E.A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Shrestha, Surendra; From, Andrew S.; Patino, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    At the fringe of Everglades National Park in southwest Florida, United States, the Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge (TTINWR) habitat has been heavily affected by the disruption of natural freshwater flow across the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41). As the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) proposes to restore the natural sheet flow from the Picayune Strand Restoration Project area north of the highway, the impact of planned measures on the hydrology in the refuge needs to be taken into account. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, computationally efficient mass balance model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of water level and salinity within the area of interest. This model could be used to assess the effects of the proposed management decisions on the surface water hydrological characteristics of the refuge. Surface water variations are critical to the maintenance of wetland processes. The model domain is divided into 10 compartments on the basis of their shared topography, vegetation, and hydrologic characteristics. A diversion of +10% of the discharge recorded during the modeling period was simulated in the primary canal draining the Picayune Strand forest north of the Tamiami Trail (Faka Union Canal) and this discharge was distributed as overland flow through the refuge area. Water depths were affected only modestly. However, in the northern part of the refuge, the hydroperiod, i.e., the duration of seasonal flooding, was increased by 21 days (from 115 to 136 days) for the simulation during the 2008 wet season, with an average water level rise of 0.06 m. The average salinity over a two-year period in the model area just south of Tamiami Trail was reduced by approximately 8 practical salinity units (psu) (from 18 to 10 psu), whereas the peak dry season average was reduced from 35 to 29 psu (by 17%). These salinity reductions were even larger with greater flow diversions (+20%). Naturally, the reduction

  7. Circulation of the thermocline salinity maximum waters off the Northern Brazil as inferred from in situ measurements and numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias do Mar; Bourles, B. [Inst. de Recherche pour le Developpement, Cotonou (Benin); Araujo, M. [UFPE, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Oceanografia Fisica Estuarina e Costeira

    2009-07-01

    High resolution hydrographic observations of temperature and salinity are used to analyse the subsurface circulation along the coast of North Brazil, off the Amazon mouth, between 2 S and 6 N. Observations are presented from four cruises carried out in different periods of the year (March-May 1995, May-June 1999, July-August 2001 and October-November 1997). Numerical model outputs complement the results of the shipboard measurements, and are used to complete the descriptions of mesoscale circulation. The Salinity Maximum Waters are here analyzed, principally in order to describe the penetration of waters originating in the Southern Hemisphere toward the Northern Hemisphere through the North Brazil Current (NBC)/North Brazil Undercurrent (NBUC). Our results show that, if the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) is fed by Northern Atlantic Waters, this contribution may only occur in the ocean interior, east of the western boundary around 100 m depth. Modeling results indicate a southward penetration of the Western Boundary Undercurrent (WBUC) below the thermocline, along the North Brazilian coast into the EUC or the North Equatorial Undercurrent (NEUC) (around 48 W-3 N). The WBUC in the region does not flow more south than 3 N. The northern waters are diverted eastward either by the NBC retroflection or by the northern edge of the associated clockwise rings. The existence of subsurface mesoscale rings associated to the NBC retroflection is evidenced, without any signature in the surface layer, so confirming earlier numerical model outputs. These subsurface anticyclones, linked to the NBC/NBUC retroflection into the North Equatorial Undercurrent and the EUC, contribute to the transport of South Atlantic high salinity water into the Northern Hemisphere. (orig.)

  8. Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possetti, G R C; Kamikawachi, R C; Muller, M; Fabris, J L; Prevedello, C L

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study of the behaviour of an in-fibre Mach–Zehnder interferometer for salinity measurement in a water solution is presented. The fibre transducer is composed of two nearly identical long period gratings forming an in-series 7.38 cm long device written in the same fibre optic. Two inorganic and one organic salts (NaCl, KCl, NaCOOH) were characterized within the concentration range from 0 to 150 g L −1 . For the long period grating interferometer, the average obtained sensitivities were −6.61, −5.58 and −3.83 pm/(g L −1 ) for the above salts, respectively, or equivalently −40.8, −46.5 and −39.1 nm RIU −1 . Salinity measured by means of fibre refractometry is compared with measurements obtained using an Abbe refractometer as well as via electrical conductivity. For the long period grating refractometer, the best resolutions attained were 1.30, 1.54 and 2.03 g of salt per litre for NaCl, KCl and NaCOOH, respectively, about two times better than the resolutions obtained by the Abbe refractometer. An average thermal sensitivity of 53 pm °C −1 was measured for the grating transducer immersed in water, indicating the need for the thermal correction of the sensor. Resolutions for the same ionic constituent in different salts are also analysed

  9. In situ prompt gamma-ray measurement of river water salinity in northern Taiwan using HPGe-252Cf probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiunnhsing Chao; Chien Chung

    1991-01-01

    A portable HPGe- 252 Cf probe dedicated to in situ survey of river water salinity was placed on board a fishing boat to survey the Tamsui River in northern Taiwan. The variation of water salinity is surveyed by measuring the 6111 keV chlorine prompt photopeak along the river. Results indicate that the probe can be used as a salinometer for rapid, in situ measurement in polluted rivers or sea. (author)

  10. Impacts of Salinity on Saint-Augustin Lake, Canada: Remediation Measures at Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Guesdon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter road network management is a source of anthropogenic salinity in the Saint-Augustin Lake watershed (Quebec City, QC, Canada. To prevent the potential impact caused by road runoff involving de-icing salts (NaCl and trace metals (Cd and Pb on the watershed, a full-scale treatment chain system (including a detention basin, a filtering bed, and a constructed wetland was built. Average Cl and Na concentrations in groundwater were higher in wells affected by road network (125 mg/L Cl and 64 mg/L Na than in control wells (13 mg/L Cl and 33 mg/L Na suggesting a contamination by de-icing salts. The monitoring of influent and effluent surface water in the treatment system has shown a seasonal dependence in NaCl concentrations and electrical conductivity values, being the highest in summer, linked with the lower precipitation and higher temperature. Concentration ranges were as follows: 114–846 mg/L Na and 158–1757 mg/L Cl (summer > 61–559 mg/L Na and 63–799 mg/L Cl (spring and autumn. The treatment system removal efficiency was significant, however with seasonal variations: 16%–20% Cl, 3%–25% Na, 7%–10% Cd and 7%–36% Pb. The treatment system has shown an interesting potential to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic salinity at watershed scale with higher expected performances in the subsequent years of operation.

  11. Faunal and oxygen isotopic evidence for surface water salinity changes during sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Thunell, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The discovery of the widespread anaerobic deposits (sapropels) in late Cenozoic sediments of the eastern Mediteranean has prompted many workers to propose the periodic occurrence of extremely low surface salinites in the Mediterranean. Oxygen isotopic determinations and total faunal analyses were made at 1000-year intervals across two equivalent sapropels in two piston cores from the Levantine Basin. The sapropel layers were deposited approximately 9000 y.B.P. (Sapropel A) and 80, 000 y. B.P. (Sapropel B). Significant isotopic anomalies were recorded by the foraminiferal species within Sapropels A and B in both cores. The surface dwelling species record a larger 18 O depletion than the mesopelagic species suggesting that surface salinities were reduced by 2-3per 1000 during sapropel formation. The faunal changes associated with the sapropels also indicate that the oceanographic conditions which lead to anoxic conditions in the eastern Mediteranean involve the formation of a low salinity surface layer. The source of the low salinity water might be meltwater produced by disintegration of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet which drained into the Black Sea, into the Aegean Sea and finally into the eastern Mediterranean. (Auth.)

  12. The French Contribution to the Voluntary Observing Ships Network of Sea Surface Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcroix, T. C.; Alory, G.; Téchiné, P.; Diverrès, D.; Varillon, D.; Cravatte, S. E.; Gouriou, Y.; Grelet, J.; Jacquin, S.; Kestenare, E.; Maes, C.; Morrow, R.; Perrier, J.; Reverdin, G. P.; Roubaud, F.

    2016-02-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is an essential climate variable that requires long term in situ observation. The French SSS Observation Service (SSS-OS) manages a network of Voluntary Observing Ships equipped with thermosalinographs (TSG). The network is global though more concentrated in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic oceanic basins. The acquisition system is autonomous with real time transmission and is regularly serviced at harbor calls. There are distinct real time and delayed time processing chains. Real time processing includes automatic alerts to detect potential instrument problems, in case raw data are outside of climatic limits, and graphical monitoring tools. Delayed time processing relies on a dedicated software for attribution of data quality flags by visual inspection, and correction of TSG time series by comparison with daily water samples and collocated Argo data. A method for optimizing the automatic attribution of quality flags in real time, based on testing different thresholds for data deviation from climatology and retroactively comparing the resulting flags to delayed time flags, is presented. The SSS-OS real time data feed the Coriolis operational oceanography database, while the research-quality delayed time data can be extracted for selected time and geographical ranges through a graphical web interface. Delayed time data have been also combined with other SSS data sources to produce gridded files for the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. A short review of the research activities conducted with such data is given. It includes observation-based process-oriented and climate studies from regional to global scale as well as studies where in situ SSS is used for calibration/validation of models, coral proxies or satellite data.

  13. Interaction Mechanisms between Air Bubble and Molybdenite Surface: Impact of Solution Salinity and Polymer Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Jingyi; Yuan, Duowei; Shi, Chen; Cui, Xin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qi; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2017-03-07

    The surface characteristics of molybdenite (MoS 2 ) such as wettability and surface interactions have attracted much research interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as froth flotation. In this work, a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique was employed to directly measure the interaction forces between an air bubble and molybdenite mineral surface before/after polymer (i.e., guar gum) adsorption treatment. The AFM imaging showed that the polymer coverage on the surface of molybdenite could achieve ∼5.6, ∼44.5, and ∼100% after conditioning in 1, 5, and 10 ppm polymer solution, respectively, which coincided with the polymer coverage results based on contact angle measurements. The electrolyte concentration and surface treatment by polymer adsorption were found to significantly affect bubble-mineral interaction and attachment. The experimental force results on bubble-molybdenite (without polymer treatment) agreed well with the calculations using a theoretical model based on the Reynolds lubrication theory and augmented Young-Laplace equation including the effect of disjoining pressure. The overall surface repulsion was enhanced when the NaCl concentration decreased from 100 to 1 mM, which inhibited the bubble-molybdenite attachment. After conditioning the molybdenite surface in 1 ppm polymer solution, it was more difficult for air bubbles to attach to the molybdenite surface due to the weakened hydrophobic interaction with a shorter decay length. Increasing the polymer concentration to 5 ppm effectively inhibited bubble attachment on mineral surface, which was mainly due to the much reduced hydrophobic interaction as well as the additional steric repulsion between the extended polymer chains and bubble surface. The results provide quantitative information on the interaction mechanism between air bubbles and molybdenite mineral surfaces on the nanoscale, with useful implications for the development of effective polymer

  14. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  15. New approach of a transient ICP-MS measurement method for samples with high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christina; Sander, Jonas Michael; Kautenburger, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    In the near future it is necessary to establish a disposal for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in deep and stable geological formations. In Germany typical host rocks are salt or claystone. Suitable clay formations exist in the south and in the north of Germany. The geochemical conditions of these clay formations show a strong difference. In the northern ionic strengths of the pore water up to 5M are observed. The determination of parameters like K d values during sorption experiments of metal ions like uranium or europium as homologues for trivalent actinides onto clay stones are very important for long term safety analysis. The measurement of the low concentrated, not sorbed analytes commonly takes place by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A direct measurement of high saline samples like seawater with more than 1% total dissolved salt content is not possible. Alternatives like sample clean up, preconcentration or strong dilution have more disadvantages than advantages for example more preparation steps or additional and expensive components. With a small modification of the ICP-MS sample introduction system and a home-made reprogramming of the autosampler a transient analysing method was developed which is suitable for measuring metal ions like europium and uranium in high saline sample matrices up to 5M (NaCl). Comparisons at low ionic strength between the default and the transient measurement show the latter performs similarly well to the default measurement. Additionally no time consuming sample clean-up or expensive online dilution or matrix removal systems are necessary and the analysation shows a high sensitivity due to the data processing based on the peak area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Pontius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As freshwater sources of drinking water become limited, cities and urban areas must consider higher-salinity waters as potential sources of drinking water. The Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of California has a very high salinity (43 ppt, total dissolved solids (70,000 mg/L, and color (1440 CU. Future wetlands and habitat restoration will have significant ecological benefits, but salinity levels will remain elevated. High salinity eutrophic waters, such as the Salton Sea, are difficult to treat, yet more desirable sources of drinking water are limited. The treatability of Salton Sea water for potential urban water use was evaluated here. Coagulation-sedimentation using aluminum chlorohydrate, ferric chloride, and alum proved to be relatively ineffective for lowering turbidity, with no clear optimum dose for any of the coagulants tested. Alum was most effective for color removal (28 percent at a dose of 40 mg/L. Turbidity was removed effectively with 0.45 μm and 0.1 μm microfiltration. Bench tests of Salton Sea water using sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO achieved initial contaminant rejections of 99 percent salinity, 97.7 percent conductivity, 98.6 percent total dissolved solids, 98.7 percent chloride, 65 percent sulfate, and 99.3 percent turbidity.

  17. Autonomous Sensors for Measuring Continuously the Moisture and Salinity of a Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The article describes a new field sensor to monitor continuously in situ moisture and salinity of a porous medium via measurements of its dielectric permittivity, conductivity and temperature. It intends to overcome difficulties and biases encountered with sensors based on the same sensitivity principle. Permittivity and conductivity are determined simultaneously by a self-balanced bridge, which measures directly the admittance of sensor electrodes in medium. All electric biases are reduced and their residuals taken into account by a physical model of the instrument, calibrated against reference fluids. Geometry electrode is optimized to obtain a well representative sample of the medium. The sensor also permits acquiring a large amount of data at high frequency (six points every hour, and even more) and to access it rapidly, even in real time, owing to autonomy capabilities and wireless communication. Ongoing developments intend to simplify and standardize present sensors. Results of field trials of prototypes in different environments are presented. PMID:28492471

  18. Autonomous Sensors for Measuring Continuously the Moisture and Salinity of a Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-11

    The article describes a new field sensor to monitor continuously in situ moisture and salinity of a porous medium via measurements of its dielectric permittivity, conductivity and temperature. It intends to overcome difficulties and biases encountered with sensors based on the same sensitivity principle. Permittivity and conductivity are determined simultaneously by a self-balanced bridge, which measures directly the admittance of sensor electrodes in medium. All electric biases are reduced and their residuals taken into account by a physical model of the instrument, calibrated against reference fluids. Geometry electrode is optimized to obtain a well representative sample of the medium. The sensor also permits acquiring a large amount of data at high frequency (six points every hour, and even more) and to access it rapidly, even in real time, owing to autonomy capabilities and wireless communication. Ongoing developments intend to simplify and standardize present sensors. Results of field trials of prototypes in different environments are presented.

  19. A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Hilliard, L. M.; Swift, C. T.; Ruf, C. S.; Garrett, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    A concept is presented for a microwave radiometer in space to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity as part of an 'Earth Probe' mission. The measurements could be made using an array of stick antennas. The L-band channel (1.4 GHz) would be the primary channel for determining soil moisture, with the S-band (2.65-GHz) and C-band (5.0-GHz) channels providing ancillary information to help correct for the effects of the vegetation canopy and possibly to estimate a moisture profile. A preliminary study indicates that an orbit at 450 km would provide coverage of better than 95 percent of the earth every 3 days. A 10-km resolution cell (at nadir) requires stick antennas about 9.5-m long at L-band. The S-band and C-band sticks would be substantially shorter (5 m and 2.7 m, respectively).

  20. Site characterization and validation - monitoring of saline tracer transport by borehole radar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Andersson, P.; Gustafsson, E.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to map tracer transport in fractured crystalline rock through a combination of radar difference tomography and measurements of tracer concentration in boreholes and the validation drift. The experiment was performed twice, first the D-boreholes were used as a sink and then they were replaced by the validation drift and the experiment repeated. In both experiments saline tracer (200 ml/min, 2% salinity) was injected into fracture zone H about 25 m from the validation drift. The experiment revealed an inhomogeneous transmissivity distribution in Zone H. A significant portion of the tracer is transported upwards along Zone H and towards boreholes T1, T2, and W1. The breakthrough data from both experiments indicate that there are two major transport paths from borehole C2 to the D-boreholes/validation drift. One slow and diluted path to the bottom of the drift which carries the bulk of the mass and one fast path to the crown of the drift with high tracer concentration. The radar difference tomograms show that some tracer is lost through Zone S which intersects Zone H and is nearly perpendicular to it. The intersection between the two zones seems to constitute a preferred flow path. The breakthrough data and the radar difference tomograms have also been used to estimate flow porosity. The estimate obtained area of the same order approximately 10 -4 . (au) (28 refs.)

  1. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2015-05-12

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract – ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  2. The measurement of surface gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10(-8) m s(-2)), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1-5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24 (NODC Accession 0117500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117500 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24. These data...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 1994-11-04 to 2012-08-31 (NODC Accession 0083189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083189 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2011-05-17 to 2012-10-26 (NODC Accession 0083197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083197 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Munida in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-26 to 2006-07-30 (NODC Accession 0100218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100218 includes Surface underway data collected from Munida in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-26 to 2006-07-30. These data include Partial...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2010-05-07 to 2013-06-25 (NODC Accession 0109901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109901 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank...

  8. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector and other instruments from the R/V Thomas G. Thompson in the Pacific Ocean from 2016-03-02 to 2016-04-18 (NCEI Accession 0158483)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters collected in the Pacific ocean on the R/V...

  9. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector and other instruments from 3 trans-Pacific crossings onboard container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2016-03-13 to 2016-09-13 (NCEI Accession 0158484)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters that were collected during 3 trans-Pacific...

  10. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2014-02-01 to 2014-11-26 (NCEI Accession 0132047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters were collected during 6 trans-Pacific crossings...

  11. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from container ship Cap Vilano in the Pacific Ocean from 2013-02-01 to 2013-06-06 (NCEI Accession 0132054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters were collected during 3 trans-Pacific crossings...

  12. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from 4 trans-Pacific crossings onboard container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2015-03-28 to 2015-12-04 (NCEI Accession 0141304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters collected during 4 trans-Pacific crossings in...

  13. A miniature rigid/flex salinity measurement device fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, H A; Ketterl, T P; Reid, C S

    2010-01-01

    The design, fabrication and initial performance of a single substrate, miniature, low-cost conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) sensor board with interconnects are presented. In combination these sensors measure ocean salinity. The miniature CTD device board was designed and fabricated as the main component of a 50 mm × 25 mm × 25 mm animal-attached biologger. The board was fabricated using printed circuit processes and consists of two distinct regions on a continuous single liquid crystal polymer substrate: an 18 mm × 28 mm rigid multi-metal sensor section and a 72 mm long flexible interconnect section. The 95% confidence intervals for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors were demonstrated to be ±0.083 mS cm −1 , 0.01 °C, and ±0.135 dbar, respectively.

  14. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib Jadoon, Khan; Umer Altaf, Muhammad; McCabe, Matthew Francis; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Nisar; Moghadas, Davood; Weihermüller, Lutz

    2017-10-01

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  15. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Jadoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  16. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2017-10-26

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes\\' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  17. Simulation of integrated surface-water/ground-water flow and salinity for a coastal wetland and adjacent estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, C.; Swain, E.; Wolfert, M.

    2005-01-01

    The SWIFT2D surface-water flow and transport code, which solves the St Venant equations in two dimensions, was coupled with the SEAWAT variable-density ground-water code to represent hydrologic processes in coastal wetlands and adjacent estuaries. A sequentially coupled time-lagged approach was implemented, based on a variable-density form of Darcy's Law, to couple the surface and subsurface systems. The integrated code also represents the advective transport of salt mass between the surface and subsurface. The integrated code was applied to the southern Everglades of Florida to quantify flow and salinity patterns and to evaluate effects of hydrologic processes. Model results confirm several important observations about the coastal wetland: (1) the coastal embankment separating the wetland from the estuary is overtopped only during tropical storms, (2) leakage between the surface and subsurface is locally important in the wetland, but submarine ground-water discharge does not contribute large quantities of freshwater to the estuary, and (3) coastal wetland salinities increase to near seawater values during the dry season, and the wetland flushes each year with the onset of the wet season. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of FTLOADDS to Simulate Flow, Salinity, and Surface-Water Stage in the Southern Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John D.; Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; James, Dawn E.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    representation of coastal flows. This improvement most likely is due to a more stable numerical representation of the coastal creek outlets. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying frictional resistance, leakage, barriers to flow, and topography. Changing frictional resistance values in inland areas was shown to improve water-level representation locally, but to have a negligible effect on area-wide values. These changes have only local effects and are not physically based (as are the unchanged values), and thus have limited validity. Sensitivity tests indicate that the overall accuracy of the simulation is diminished if leakage between surface water and ground water is not simulated. The inclusion of a major road as a complete barrier to surface-water flow influenced the local distribution and timing of flow; however, the changes in total flow and individual creekflows were negligible. The model land-surface altitude was lowered by 0.1 meter to determine the sensitivity to topographic variation. This topographic sensitivity test produced mixed results in matching field data. Overall, the representation of stage did not improve definitively. A final calibration utilized the results of the sensitivity analysis to refine the TIME application. To accomplish this calibration, the friction coefficient was reduced at the northern boundary inflow and increased in the southwestern corner of the model, the evapotranspiration function was varied, additional data were used for the ground-water head boundary along the southeast, and the frictional resistance of the primary coastal creek outlet was increased. The calibration improved the match between measured and simulated total flows to Florida Bay and coastal salinities. Agreement also was improved at most of the water-level sites throughout the model domain.

  19. Comparison of objective optical quality measured by double-pass aberrometry in patients with moderate dry eye: Normal saline vs. artificial tears: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J

    2018-02-01

    Dry eye is defined by a tear film instability resulting in variable but systematic fluctuations in quality of vision. Variability in optical quality can be demonstrated using a double pass aberrometer such as the Optical Quality Analyzing System, Visiometrics (OQAS). The goal of this work is to compare fluctuations in objective quality of vision measured by OQAS between treatment with normal saline eye drops and treatment with carmellose 0.5% and hyaluronic acid 0.1% (Optive Fusion [OF], Allergan) in patients with moderate dry eye syndrome. Optical quality was measured by evaluating the variations in the Optical Scattering Index (OSI) over 20seconds using the OQAS. Inclusion criteria were dry eye syndrome with an ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score >23 treated only with artificial tears. The patients were their own controls: OF in one eye and normal saline in the fellow eye. The choice of the subject eye and control eye was determined in a randomized fashion. OSI variations were measured in each eye before instillation, 5minutes and 2hours after instillation. The primary endpoint was OSI fluctuation over 20seconds of measurement. Secondary endpoints were the number of blinks and patient preference (preferred eye). Preliminary results were obtained on 19 patients. Average OSDI score was 36.8. Visual acuity was 10/10 with no significant difference between the two eyes. Prior to instillation, there was no significant difference between "normal saline" and "OF" eyes in terms of OSI, OSI variability or number of blinks. In the normal saline eye, there were no significant variations in mean OSI, OSI variability, OSI slope, or number of blinks. However, in the "OF" eye, there was a significant variation between initial and 2-hour OSI variability (0.363 versus 0.204, Peye, 24% did not have a preference, and 11% preferred the normal saline eye. Objective quality of vision measured by OQAS is an interesting parameter for evaluating the effectiveness of a lacrimal

  20. [Comparison of objective optical quality measured by double-pass aberrometry in patients with moderate dry eye: Normal saline vs. artificial tears: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J

    2018-03-01

    Dry eye is defined by a tear film instability resulting in variable but systematic fluctuations in the quality of vision. Variability in optical quality can be demonstrated using a double pass aberrometer such as the OQAS (Optical Quality Analyzing System, Visiometrics). The goal of this work is to compare fluctuations in objective quality of vision measured by OQAS between treatment with normal saline eye drops and treatment with carmellose 0.5% and hyaluronic acid 0.1% (Optive Fusion [OF], Allergan) in patients with moderate dry eye syndrome. Optical quality was measured by evaluating the variations in the Optical Scattering Index (OSI) over 20seconds using the OQAS. Inclusion criteria were dry eye syndrome with an Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score>23 treated only with artificial tears. The patients were their own controls: OF in one eye and normal saline in the fellow eye. The choice of the subject eye and control eye was determined in a randomized fashion. OSI variations were measured in each eye before instillation, 5minutes and 2hours after instillation. The primary endpoint was OSI fluctuation over 20seconds of measurement. Secondary endpoints were the number of blinks and patient's preference (preferred eye). Preliminary results were obtained on 19 patients. Average OSDI score was 36.8. Visual acuity was 10/10 with no significant difference between the two eyes. Prior to instillation, there was no significant difference between "normal saline" and "OF" eyes in terms of OSI, OSI variability or number of blinks. In the normal saline eye, there was no significant variation in mean OSI, OSI variability, OSI slope, or number of blinks. However, in the "OF" eye, there was a significant variation between initial and 2-hour OSI variability (0.363 versus 0.204; Peye, 24% did not have a preference, and 11% preferred the normal saline eye. Objective quality of vision measured by OQAS is an interesting parameter for evaluating the effectiveness of a lacrimal

  1. Response of Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and SPAD-502 Measurement to Salinity and Nutrient Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Syed Haleem

    2017-09-12

    Abiotic stress can alter key physiological constituents and functions in green plants. Improving the capacity to monitor this response in a non-destructive manner is of considerable interest, as it would offer a direct means of initiating timely corrective action. Given the vital role that plant pigments play in the photosynthetic process and general plant physiological condition, their accurate estimation would provide a means to monitor plant health and indirectly determine stress response. The aim of this work is to evaluate the response of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid (C-t) content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to changes in varying application levels of soil salinity and fertilizer applied over a complete growth cycle. The study also seeks to establish and analyze relationships between measurements from a SPAD-502 instrument and the leaf pigments, as extracted at the anthesis stage. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in triplicate by employing distinct treatments of both soil salinity and fertilizer dose at three levels. Results showed that higher doses of fertilizer increased the content of leaf pigments across all levels of soil salinity. Likewise, increasing the level of soil salinity significantly increased the chlorophyll and Ct content per leaf area at all levels of applied fertilizer. However, as an adaptation process and defense mechanism under salinity stress, leaves were found to be thicker and narrower. Thus, on a per-plant basis, increasing salinity significantly reduced the chlorophyll (Chl(t)) and Ct produced under each fertilizer treatment. In addition, interaction effects of soil salinity and fertilizer application on the photosynthetic pigment content were found to be significant, as the higher amounts of fertilizer augmented the detrimental effects of salinity. A strong positive (R-2 = 0.93) and statistically significant (p < 0.001) relationship between SPAD-502 values and Chlt and between SPAD-502 values and Ct content (R-2 = 0

  2. The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in surface and deep ocean temperature and salinity fields from unperturbed climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Large multidecadal fluctuations in basin-average sea-surface temperature (SST) are a known feature of observed, reconstructed and simulated variability in the North Atlantic Ocean. This phenomenon is often referred to as Multidecadal Atlantic Variability or AMV. Historical AMV fluctuations are associated with analog basin-scale changes in sea-surface salinity, so that warming corresponds to salinification and cooling to freshening [Polyakov et al., 2005]. The surface imprint of the AMV further corresponds to same-sign fluctuations in the shallow ocean and with opposite-sign fluctuations in the deep ocean for both temperature and salinity [Polyakov et al., 2005]. This out-of-phase behavior reflects the thermohaline overturning circulation shaping North Atlantic's low-frequency variability. Several processes contribute to the AMV, involving both ocean-atmosphere coupled processes and deep ocean circulation [e.g., Grossmann and Klotzbach, 2009]. In particular, recirculation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region of salinity anomalies from Arctic freshwater export may trigger multidecadal variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and therefore may be part of the AMV [Jungclaus et al., 2005; Dima and Lohmann, 2007]. With this contribution, we aim to improve the physical interpretation of the AMV by investigating spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and salinity fields in the shallow and deep ocean. We focus on two unperturbed millennial-scale simulations performed with the Max Planck Institute Earth system model in its paleo (MPI-ESM-P) and low-resolution (MPI-ESM-LR) configurations, which provide reference control climates for assessments of pre-industrial and historical climate simulations. The two model configurations only differ for the presence, in MPI-ESM-LR, of an active module for dynamical vegetation. We use spatial-average indices and empirical orthogonal functions/principal components to track the horizontal and vertical

  3. Detection and variability of the Congo River plume from satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jo; Lucas, Marc; Dufau, Claire; Sutton, Marion; Lauret, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The Congo River in Africa has the world's second highest annual mean daily freshwater discharge and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial organic carbon into the oceans. It annually discharges an average of 1,250 × 109 m3 of freshwater into the southeast Atlantic producing a vast fresh water plume, whose signature can be traced hundreds of kilometres from the river mouth. Large river plumes such as this play important roles in the ocean carbon cycle, often functioning as carbon sinks. An understanding of their extent and seasonality is therefore essential if they are to be realistically accounted for in global assessments of the carbon cycle. Despite its size, the variability and dynamics of the Congo plume are minimally documented. In this paper we analyse satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level anomaly to describe and quantify the extent, strength and variability of the far-field plume and to explain its behaviour in relation to winds, ocean currents and fresh water discharge. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals strong seasonal and coastal upwelling signals, potential bimodal seasonality of the Angola Current and responses to fresh water discharge peaks in all data sets. The strongest plume-like signatures however were found in the salinity and ocean colour where the dominant sources of variability come from the Congo River itself, rather than from the wider atmosphere and ocean. These two data sets are then analysed using a statistically based water mass detection technique to isolate the behaviour of the plume. The Congo's close proximity to the equator means that the influence of the earth's rotation on the fresh water inflow is relatively small and the plume tends not to form a distinct coastal current. Instead, its behaviour is determined by wind and surface circulation patterns. The main axis of the plume between November and February, following peak river discharge, is oriented northwest, driven

  4. Evolution of anomalies of salinity of surface waters of Arctic Ocean and their possible influence on climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A.; Rubchenia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Numerous of model simulations of ice extent in Arctic Ocean predict almost full disappearance of sea ice in Arctic regions by 2050. However, the nature, as against models, does not suffer the unidirectional processes. By means of various feedback responses system aspires to come in an equilibrium condition. In Arctic regions one of the most powerful generators of a negative feedback is the fresh-water stream to Greenland Sea and Northern Atlantic. Increasing or decreasing of a fresh-water volume from the Arctic basin to Greenland Sea and Northern Atlantic results in significant changes in climatic system. At the Oceanology department of Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) (St-Petersburg, Russia) in 2007, on the basis of the incorporated Russian-American database of the oceanographic data, reconstruction of long-term time series of average salinity of ocean surface was executed. The received time series describes the period from 1950 to 1993. For allocation of the processes determining formation of changes of average salinity of surface waters in Arctic basin the correlation analysis of interrelation of the received time series and several physical parameters which could affect formation of changes of salinity was executed. We found counter-intuitive result: formation of long-term changes of average salinity of surface waters of Arctic basin in the winter period does not depend on changes of a Siberian rivers runoff. Factors of correlation do not exceed -0,31. At the same time, clear inverse relationship of salinity of surface waters from volumes of the ice formed in flaw lead polynyas of the Siberian shelf seas is revealed. In this case factors of correlation change from -0,56 to -0,7. The maximum factor of correlation is -0,7. It characterizes interrelation of total volume of the ice formed in flaw lead polynyas of all seas of the Siberian shelf and average salinity of surface waters of Arctic basin. Thus, at increase of volumes of the ice formed in

  5. Autonomous multi-sensor micro-system for measurement of ocean water salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Anders; Mortensen, Dennis; Birkelund, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and application of a micro-fabricated salinity sensor system. The theoretical electrochemical behaviour is described using electrical equivalent diagrams and simple scaling properties are investigated analytically and numerically using finite element m...

  6. Temperature, salinity, and other measurements collected using gliders in the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0065238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Glider oceanographic data (temperature, salinity) collected in support of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event in the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0065238).

  7. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  8. Chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Saline River basin, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Paul Robert; Jones, B.F.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    This report gives the results of an investigation of the sediment and dissolved minerals that are transported by the Saline River and its tributaries. The Saline River basin is in western and central Kansas; it is long and narrow and covers 3,420 square miles of rolling plains, which is broken in some places by escarpments and small areas of badlands. In the western part the uppermost bedrock consists predominantly of calcareous elastic sedimentary rocks of continental origin of Pliocene age and in most places is covered by eolian deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age. In the central part the ex posed bedrock consists predominantly of calcareous marine sedimentary rocks of Late Cretaceous age. In the eastern part the exposed bedrock consists mainly of noncalcareous continental and littoral elastic sedimentary rocks of Early Cretaceous and Permian age. Fluvial deposits are in the valleys, and eolian materials are present over much of the uplands. Average precipitation increases rather uniformly from about 18 inches per year in the west to almost 28 inches per year in the east. Runoff is not affected by irrigation nor regulated by large structures, but it is closely related to precipitation. Average runoff increases from less than 0.2 inch per year in the west to more than 1.5 inches per year in the east. Aquifers of the flood-plain and terrace deposits and of the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone are the major sources of ground-water accretion to the streams. In the upper reaches of the Saline River, the water is only slightly mineralized; during the period of record the specific conductance near Wakeeney never exceeded 750 micromhos per centimeter. In the lower reaches, however, the water is slightly mineralized during periods of high flow and is highly mineralized during periods of low flow; the specific conductance near Russell exceeded 1,500 micromhos per centimeter more than 80 percent of the time. Near Russell, near Wilson, and at Tescott the water is of the

  9. Evaluation of effects of changes in canal management and precipitation patterns on salinity in Biscayne Bay, Florida, using an integrated surface-water/groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Melinda A.; Swain, Eric D.; Wang, John D.; Dixon, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Biscayne National Park, located in Biscayne Bay in southeast Florida, is one of the largest marine parks in the country and sustains a large natural marine fishery where numerous threatened and endangered species reproduce. In recent years, the bay has experienced hypersaline conditions (salinity greater than 35 practical salinity units) of increasing magnitude and duration. Hypersalinity events were particularly pronounced during April to August 2004 in nearshore areas along the southern and middle parts of the bay. Prolonged hypersaline conditions can cause degradation of water quality and permanent damage to, or loss of, brackish nursery habitats for multiple species of fish and crustaceans as well as damage to certain types of seagrasses that are not tolerant of extreme changes in salinity. To evaluate the factors that contribute to hypersalinity events and to test the effects of possible changes in precipitation patterns and canal flows into Biscayne Bay on salinity in the bay, the U.S. Geological Survey constructed a coupled surface-water/groundwater numerical flow model. The model is designed to account for freshwater flows into Biscayne Bay through the canal system, leakage of salty bay water into the underlying Biscayne aquifer, discharge of fresh and salty groundwater from the Biscayne aquifer into the bay, direct effects of precipitation on bay salinity, indirect effects of precipitation on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, direct effects of evapotranspiration (ET) on bay salinity, indirect effects of ET on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, and maintenance of mass balance of both water and solute. The model was constructed using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator, version 3.3, which couples the two-dimensional, surface-water flow and solute-transport simulator SWIFT2D with the density-dependent, groundwater flow an solute-transport simulator SEAWAT. The model was calibrated by a trial

  10. Seasonal variation in apparent conductivity and soil salinity at two Narragansett Bay salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of the apparent conductivity of salt marsh sediments using electromagnetic induction (EMI) is a rapid alternative to traditional methods of salinity determination that can be used to map soil salinity across a marsh surface. Soil salinity measures can provide informat...

  11. Aspheric surface measurement using capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Yuan, Daocheng; Li, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    With the application of aspheres in optical fields, high precision and high efficiency aspheric surface metrology becomes a hot research topic. We describe a novel method of non-contact measurement of aspheric surface with capacitive probe. Taking an eccentric spherical surface as the object of study, the averaging effect of capacitive probe measurement and the influence of tilting the capacitive probe on the measurement results are investigated. By comparing measurement results from simultaneous measurement of the capacitive probe and contact probe of roundness instrument, this paper indicates the feasibility of using capacitive probes to test aspheric surface and proposes the compensation method of measurement error caused by averaging effect and the tilting of the capacitive probe.

  12. Measuring permanence of CO2 storage in saline formations: The Frio experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Benson, Sally M.; Doughty, Christine; Freifeild, Barry M.; Sakurai, Shinichi; Daley, Thomas M.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Holtz, Mark H.; Trautz, Robert C.; Nance, H. Seay; Myer, Larry R.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2006-01-01

    If CO2 released from fossil fuel during energy production is returned to the subsurface, will it be retained for periods of time significant enough to benefit the atmosphere? Can trapping be assured in saline formations where there is no history of hydrocarbon accumulation? The Frio experiment in Texas was undertaken to provide answers to these questions.One thousand six hundred metric tons of CO2 were injected into the Frio Formation, which underlies large areas of the United States Gulf Coast. Reservoir characterization and numerical modeling were used to design the experiment, as well as to interpret the results through history matching. Closely spaced measurements in space and time were collected to observe the evolution of immiscible and dissolved CO2 during and after injection. The high-permeability, steeply dipping sandstone allowed updip flow of supercritical CO2 as a result of the density contrast with formation brine and absence of a local structural trap.The front of the CO2 plume moved more quickly than had been modeled. By the end of the 10-day injection, however, the plume geometry in the plane of the observation and injection wells had thickened to a distribution similar to the modeled distribution. As expected, CO2 dissolved rapidly into brine, causing pH to fall and calcite and metals to be dissolved.Postinjection measurements, including time-lapse vertical seismic profiling transects along selected azimuths, cross-well seismic topography, and saturation logs, show that CO2 migration under gravity slowed greatly 2 months after injection, matching model predictions that significant CO2 is trapped as relative permeability decreases.

  13. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  14. Water quality - Measurement of gross alpha activity in non-saline water - Thick source method. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 degree Centigrade. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters. The range of application depends on the amount of suspended matter in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. Gross alpha radioactivity is determined by using proportional counting or solid scintillation counting on water residue deposited on a planchet. Due to the strong absorption of the residue deposit, it is considered that the alpha emission from the surface is proportional to the alpha activity of the deposit. Gross alpha determination is not an absolute determination of the sample alpha radioactive content, but a relative determination referring to a specific alpha emitter which constitutes the standard calibration source. This type of determination is also known as alpha index. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 degree Centigrade. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchet and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard and the alpha activity concentration calculated. The paper provides information about scope, normative references, symbols, definitions and units, principle, reagents and equipment, procedure, contamination check, expression of results and test report

  15. Potential of the Moringa oleifera saline extract for the treatment of dairy wastewater: application of the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini-Schmitt, Dalila Maria; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina; Veit, Márcia Teresinha; Palácio, Soraya Moreno; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Mateus, Gustavo Affonso Pisano

    2018-03-02

    In this work, the coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation treatment of dairy wastewater samples was investigated through serial factorial designs utilizing the saline extract obtained from Moringa oleifera (Moringa) as a coagulant. The sedimentation time (ST), pH, Moringa coagulant (MC) dose and concentration of CaCl 2 have been evaluated through the response surface methodology in order to obtain the ideal turbidity removal (TR) conditions. The empirical quadratic model, in conjunction with the desirability function, demonstrated that it is possible to obtain TRs of 98.35% using a coagulant dose, concentration of CaCl 2 and pH of 280 mg L -1 , 0.8 mol L -1 and 9, respectively. The saline extract from Moringa presented its best efficiency at an alkaline pH, which influenced the reduction of the ST to a value of 25 min. It was verified that the increase in the solubility of the proteins in the Moringa stimulated the reduction of the coagulant content in the reaction medium, and it is related to the use of calcium chloride as an extracting agent of these proteins. The MC proved to be an excellent alternative for the dairy wastewater treatment, compared to the traditional coagulants.

  16. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Macaulay, Gavin D.; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K.; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A.

    2015-06-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting.

  17. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  18. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-10-01

    A scintillating crystal's surface reflectance has to be well understood in order to accurately predict and optimize the crystal's light collection through Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we measure the inner surface reflectance properties for BGO. The measurements include BGO crystals with a mechanically polished surface, rough-cut surface, and chemically etched surface, and with various reflectors attached, both air-coupled and with coupling compound. The measurements are performed with a laser aimed at the center of a hemispherical shaped BGO crystal. The hemispherical shape eliminates any non-perpendicular angles for light entering and exiting the crystal. The reflected light is collected with an array of photodiodes. The laser can be set at an arbitrary angle, and the photodiode array is rotated to fully cover 2pi of solid angle. The current produced in the photodiodes is readout with a digital multimeter connected through a multiplexer. The two rows of photodiodes achieve 5-degree by 4-degree resolution, and the current measurement has a dynamic range of 105:1. The acquired data was not described by the commonly assumed linear combination of specular and diffuse (Lambertian) distributions, except for a very few surfaces. Surface roughness proved to be the most important parameter when choosing crystal setup. The reflector choice was of less importance and of almost no consequence for rough-cut surfaces. Pure specular reflection distribution for all incidence angles was measured for polished surfaces with VM2000 film, while the most Lambertian distribution for any surface finish was measured for titanium dioxide paint. The distributions acquired in this paper will be used to create more accurate Monte Carlo models for light reflection distribution within BGO crystals.

  19. Bulk and Surface Aqueous Speciation of Calcite: Implications for Low-Salinity Waterflooding of Carbonate Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Yutkin, Maxim P.; Mishra, Himanshu; Patzek, Tadeusz; Lee, John; Radke, Clayton J.

    2017-01-01

    and surface equilibria draws several important inferences about the proposed LSW oil-recovery mechanisms. Diffuse double-layer expansion (DLE) is impossible for brine ionic strength greater than 0.1 molar. Because of rapid rock/brine equilibration

  20. Geometric Measure Theory and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bombieri, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi's measure and thin obstacles.

  1. Submarine groundwater discharge to a small estuary estimated from radon and salinity measurements and a box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crusius

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine groundwater discharge was quantified by a variety of methods for a 4-day period during the early summer of 2004, in Salt Pond, adjacent to Nauset Marsh, on Cape Cod, USA. Discharge estimates based on radon and salinity took advantage of the presence of the narrow channel connecting Salt Pond to Nauset Marsh, which allowed constructing whole-pond mass balances as water flowed in and out due to tidal fluctuations. The data suggest that less than one quarter of the discharge in the vicinity of Salt Pond happened within the pond itself, while three quarters or more of the discharge occurred immediately seaward of the pond, either in the channel or in adjacent regions of Nauset Marsh. Much of this discharge, which maintains high radon activities and low salinity, is carried into the pond during each incoming tide. A box model was used as an aid to understand both the rates and the locations of discharge in the vicinity of Salt Pond. The model achieves a reasonable fit to both the salinity and radon data assuming submarine groundwater discharge is fresh and that most of it occurs either in the channel or in adjacent regions of Nauset Marsh. Salinity and radon data, together with seepage meter results, do not rule out discharge of saline groundwater, but suggest either that the saline discharge is at most comparable in volume to the fresh discharge or that it is depleted in radon. The estimated rate of fresh groundwater discharge in the vicinity of Salt Pond is 3000-7000 m3 d-1. This groundwater flux estimated from the radon and salinity data is comparable to a value of 3200-4500 m3 d-1 predicted by a recent hydrologic model (Masterson, 2004; Colman and Masterson, 2004, although the model predicts this rate of discharge to the pond whereas our data suggest most of the groundwater bypasses the pond prior to discharge. Additional work is needed to determine if the measured rate of discharge is representative of the long-term average, and to

  2. Sea surface temperature and salinity from the Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD) from 1980-01-03 to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains the Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD) from 1980-01-03 to present as submitted to NOAA/NCEI. The data includes information about sea...

  3. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  4. RAMAN SPECTRA OF AQUEOUS FLUID INCLUSIONS: EFFECT OF MINERAL BIREFRINGENCE AND METASTABILITY ON SALINITY MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Caumon , Marie-Camille; Tarantola , Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Introduction: Crustal fluids play a major role in ore deposits, basin diagenesis and metamorphic reactions, among others. The knowledge of the chemical composition of individual fluid inclusions is essential for the understanding of past fluid transport and circulations. Microthermometry, by the observation of specific phase transitions as a function of temperature, is the general approach to determine salinity in aqueous fluid inclusions [1]. However in some cases, th...

  5. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Patricia L., E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R-4A6 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L{sup -1} (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L{sup -1}) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L{sup -1}). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L{sup -1}). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: > Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. > Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. > Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  6. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L -1 (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L -1 ) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L -1 ). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L -1 ). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: → Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. → Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. → Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  7. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  8. 22-year surface salinity changes in the Seasonal Ice Zone near 140°E off Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Kestenare, Elodie

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal and interannual variations in sea surface salinity (SSS) are analyzed in the Sea Ice Zone south of 60°S, from a 22-year time series of observations near 140°E. In the northern sea-ice zone during the warming, melting cycle from October to March, waters warm by an average of 3.5 °C and become fresher by 0.1 to 0.25. In the southern sea-ice zone, the surface temperatures vary from - 1 to 1 °C over summer, and the maximal SSS range occurs in December, with a minimum SSS of 33.65 near the Southern Boundary of the ACC, reaching 34.4 in the shelf waters close to the coast. The main fronts, normally defined at subsurface, are shown to have more distinct seasonal characteristics in SSS than in SST. The interannual variations in SSS are more closely linked to variations in upstream sea-ice cover than surface forcing. SSS and sea-ice variations show distinct phases, with large biannual variations in the early 1990s, weaker variations in the 2000s and larger variations again from 2009 onwards. The calving of the Mertz Glacier Tongue in February 2010 leads to increased sea-ice cover and widespread freshening of the surface layers from 2011 onwards. Summer freshening in the northern sea-ice zone is 0.05-0.07 per decade, increasing to 0.08 per decade in the southern sea-ice zone, largely influenced by the Mertz Glacier calving event at the end of our time series. The summer time series of SSS on the shelf at 140°E is in phase but less variable than the SSS observed upstream in the Adélie Depression, and thus represents a spatially integrated index of the wider SSS variations.

  9. Distinct kinetics and mechanisms of mZVI particles aging in saline and fresh groundwater: H2 evolution and surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jia; Tang, Fenglin; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Kolditz, Olaf; Lu, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Application of microscale zero-valent iron (mZVI) is a promising technology for in-situ contaminated groundwater remediation; however, its longevity is negatively impacted by surface passivation, especially in saline groundwater. In this study, the aging behavior of mZVI particles was investigated in three media (milli-Q water, fresh groundwater and saline groundwater) using batch experiments to evaluate their potential corrosion and passivation performance under different field conditions. The results indicated that mZVI was reactive for 0-7 days of exposure to water and then gradually lost H2-generating capacity over the next hundred days in all of the tested media. In comparison, mZVI in saline groundwater exhibited the fastest corrosion rate during the early phase (0-7 d), followed by the sharpest kinetic constant decline in the latter phases. The SEM-EDS and XPS analyses demonstrated that in the saline groundwater, a thin and compact oxide film was immediately formed on the surface and significantly shielded the iron reactive site. Nevertheless, in fresh groundwater and milli-Q water, a passive layer composed of loosely and unevenly distributed precipitates slowly formed, with abundant reactive sites available to support continuous iron corrosion. These findings provide insight into the molecular-scale mechanism that governs mZVI passivation and provide implications for long-term mZVI application in saline contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of seasonal and year-to-year surface salinity signals retrieved from SMOS and Aquarius missions in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Akhil, V.P.; Lengaigne, M.; Durand, F.; Vialard, J.; Chaitanya, A.V.S.; Keerthi, M.G.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Boutin, J.; de Boyer, M.C.

    , Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ Paris 06)-CNRS-IRD-MNHN, Paris, France; dNIO, Goa, India; eLOS, IFREMER, Plouzané, France ABSTRACT The Bay of Bengal (BoB) exhibits a wide range of sea surface salinity (SSS), with very fresh water induced by heavy monsoonal...

  11. South Asian summer monsoon variability during the last ˜54 kyrs inferred from surface water salinity and river runoff proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, D.; Hathorne, E. C.; Sijinkumar, A. V.; Nath, B. Nagender; Nürnberg, D.; Frank, M.

    2016-04-01

    The past variability of the South Asian Monsoon is mostly known from records of wind strength over the Arabian Sea while high-resolution paleorecords from regions of strong monsoon precipitation are still lacking. Here, we present records of past monsoon variability obtained from sediment core SK 168/GC-1, which was collected at the Alcock Seamount complex in the Andaman Sea. We utilize the ecological habitats of different planktic foraminiferal species to reconstruct freshwater-induced stratification based on paired Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses and to estimate seawater δ18O (δ18Osw). The difference between surface and thermocline temperatures (ΔT) and δ18Osw (Δδ18Osw) is used to investigate changes in upper ocean stratification. Additionally, Ba/Ca in G. sacculifer tests is used as a direct proxy for riverine runoff and sea surface salinity (SSS) changes related to monsoon precipitation on land. Our Δδ18Osw time series reveals that upper ocean salinity stratification did not change significantly throughout the last glacial suggesting little influence of NH insolation changes. The strongest increase in temperature gradients between the mixed layer and the thermocline is recorded for the mid-Holocene and indicate the presence of a significantly shallower thermocline. In line with previous work, the δ18Osw and Ba/Ca records demonstrate that monsoon climate during the LGM was characterized by a significantly weaker southwest monsoon circulation and strongly reduced runoff. Based on our data the South Asian Summer Monsoon (SAM) over the Irrawaddyy strengthened gradually after the LGM beginning at ∼18 ka. This is some 3 kyrs before an increase of the Ba/Ca record from the Arabian Sea and indicates that South Asian Monsoon climate dynamics are more complex than the simple N-S displacement of the ITCZ as generally described for other regions. Minimum δ18Osw values recorded during the mid-Holocene are in phase with Ba/Ca marking a stronger monsoon precipitation

  12. Surface resistivity measurement of plasma treated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D.; Pigram, P.J.; Liesegang, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Resistivity of insulators is an important property of materials used within the integrated circuit and packaging industries. The measurement of electrical resistivity of insulator materials in the surface region in this work is interpreted through observations of surface charge decay. A self-field driven and diffusion charge transport theory is used to model the process and resistivity values obtained computationally. Data for the charge decay of surface charged samples are collected by suspending them inside a coaxial cylinder connected to an electrometer. Samples used have been low density polyethylene LDPE sheet, both pristine and surface treated. Some samples have been treated by air plasma at low vacuum pressures for different periods of time; others have been washed in ethyl acetate and then plasma treated before the resistivity measurement. The sets of resistivity measurements form the various treatments are compared below. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has also been used to investigate and account for the observed variations in surface resistivity

  13. Surface Tension Measurements with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Nicolas-Alexandre; Denis, Zakari; Lavaud, Maxime; Grolleau, Adrian; Dufour, Nicolas; Deblais, Antoine; Delabre, Ulysse

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly used in higher education and at university in mechanics, acoustics, and even thermodynamics as they offer a unique way to do simple science experiments. In this article, we show how smartphones can be used in fluid mechanics to measure surface tension of various liquids, which could help students understand the concept…

  14. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  15. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.

    1984-11-01

    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  16. Temperature, salinity, sigma_t, pressure measurement collected using CTD from an unknown platform in the Min Fang Bay from 1984 to 1985 (NODC Accession 0048830)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Southern Ocean data - Min Fang Bay , temperature and salinity measurements collected using CTD from unknown platform in the Min Fang Bay from 1984 to 1985

  17. Profiles of temperature, salinity, and other measurements from CTD, XBT, and bottle samplers received from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center (NODC Accession 0054093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profiles of temperature, salinity, and other measurements received from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center, Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department as a...

  18. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1976 through 1982 (NODC Accession 0002126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1976...

  19. Temperature and salinity measurements taken by instrumented elephant seals (SEaOS) from 2004-02-24 to 2007-01-17 (NODC Accession 0012881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity measurements taken from elephant seals in the Antarctic, Coastal South Indian Ocean and other locations from 2004 to 2006 (NODC Accession...

  20. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1970 through 1975 (NODC Accession 0002125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, and Norwegian Seas from 1970...

  1. Oceanographic profile plankton, Temperature Salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from various platforms in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997 to 1998 (NODC Accession 0014651)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and other measurements found in the bottle dataset taken from the SNP-1, HUAMANGA (fishing boat) and other platforms in the...

  2. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, oxygen and meteorology measurements collected using CTD from multiple ships in the Sea of Azov from 1999 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0037021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset CTD taken from the ZODIAK (Motor boat), GROZA (Motor felucca) and other platforms in the Black Sea from...

  3. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990 (NODC Accession 0002717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990

  4. Arctic phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance, temperature and salinity measurements collected from multiple platforms from 1903-02-22 to 1970-09-30 (NODC Accession 0069178)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Arctic phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance, temperature and salinity measurements collected from multiple platforms from 1903-02-22 to 1970-09-30 by Zoological...

  5. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and pressure measurements collected using moored buoy in the Indian Ocean from 2001-2006 (NODC Accession 0002733)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity measurements in the Equatorial Indian from 2001 to 2006 from the TRITON (TRIANGLE TRANS-OCEAN BUOY NETWORK); JAPAN AGENCY FOR MARINE-EARTH...

  6. Surface dose extrapolation measurements with radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Currie, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields. An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate two-dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that the surface percentage dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionization chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. The corresponding parallel plate ionization chamber measurements are 16%, 27% and 37%, respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. (note)

  7. Analyzing the 2010-2011 La Niña signature in the tropical Pacific sea surface salinity using in situ data, SMOS observations, and a numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Audrey; Delcroix, Thierry; Boutin, Jacqueline; Dussin, Raphael; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2014-06-01

    The tropical Pacific Ocean remained in a La Niña phase from mid-2010 to mid-2012. In this study, the 2010-2011 near-surface salinity signature of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) is described and analyzed using a combination of numerical model output, in situ data, and SMOS satellite salinity products. Comparisons of all salinity products show a good agreement between them, with a RMS error of 0.2-0.3 between the thermosalinograph (TSG) and SMOS data and between the TSG and model data. The last 6 months of 2010 are characterized by an unusually strong tripolar anomaly captured by the three salinity products in the western half of the tropical Pacific. A positive SSS anomaly sits north of 10°S (>0.5), a negative tilted anomaly lies between 10°S and 20°S and a positive one south of 20°S. In 2011, anomalies shift south and amplify up to 0.8, except for the one south of 20°S. Equatorial SSS changes are mainly the result of anomalous zonal advection, resulting in negative anomalies during El Niño (early 2010), and positive ones thereafter during La Niña. The mean seasonal and interannual poleward drift exports those anomalies toward the south in the southern hemisphere, resulting in the aforementioned tripolar anomaly. The vertical salinity flux at the bottom of the mixed layer tends to resist the surface salinity changes. The observed basin-scale La Niña SSS signal is then compared with the historical 1998-1999 La Niña event using both observations and modeling.

  8. Detecting the influence of ocean process on the moisture supply for India summer monsoon from Satellite Sea Surface Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Yueh, S. H.; Liu, W. T.; Fore, A.; Hayashi, A.

    2016-02-01

    A strong contrast in the onset of Indian summer monsoon was observed by independent satellites: average rain rate over India subcontinent (IS) in June was more than doubled in 2013 than 2012 (TRMM); also observed are larger area of wet soil (Aquarius) and high water storage (GRACE). The difference in IS rainfall was contributed to the moisture inputs through west coast of India, estimated from ocean wind (OSCAT2) and water vapor (TMI). This is an interesting testbed for studying the role of ocean on terrestrial water cycle, in particular the Indian monsoon, which has tremendous social-economical impact. What is the source of extra moisture in 2013 or deficit in 2012 for the monsoon onset? Is it possible to quantify the contribution of ocean process that maybe responsible for redistributing the freshwater in favor of the summer monsoon moisture supply? This study aims to identify the influence of ocean processes on the freshwater exchange between air-sea interfaces, using Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS). We found two areas in Indian Ocean with high correlation between IS rain rate and Aquarius SSS: one area is in the Arabian Sea adjacent to IS, another area is a horizontal patch from 60°E to 100°E centered around 10°S. On the other hand, E-P (OAflux, TRMM) shows no similar correlation patterns with IS rain. Based on the governing equation of the salt budget in the upper ocean, we define the freshwater flux, F, from the oceanic branch of the water cycle, including contributions from salinity tendency, advection, and subsurface process. The tendency and advection terms are estimated using Aquarius SSS and OSCAR ocean current. We will present results of analyzing the spatial and temporal variability of F and evidence of and hypothesis on how the oceanic processes may enhance the moisture supply for summer Indian monsoon onset in 2013 comparing with 2012. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) has been producing the global soil moisture (SM) every 2-3 days

  9. A comparison of sea surface salinity in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the 1997-1998, 2012-2013, and 2014-2015 ENSO events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Caroline M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Giese, Benjamin S.

    2017-11-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) variability during the 1997-1998 El Niño event and the failed 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 El Niño events is explored using a combination of observations and ocean reanalyses. Previously, studies have mainly focused on the sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) variability. This analysis utilizes salinity data from Argo and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis to examine the SSS variability. Advective processes and evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) variability is understood to influence SSS variability. Using surface wind, surface current, evaporation, and precipitation data, we analyze the causes for the observed SSS variability during each event. Barrier layer thickness and upper level salt content are also examined in connection to subsurface salinity variability. Both advective processes and E-P variability are important during the generation and onset of a successful El Niño, while a lack of one or both of these processes leads to a failed ENSO event.

  10. Reconstructing sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in atmosphere in the Okinawa Trough during the Holocene and their paleoclimatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGXianwei; LIUYanguang; LlUZhenxia; DUDewen; HUANGQiyu; Y.Saito

    2003-01-01

    The sediment core DGKS9603 collected from the Okinawa Trough was used as research target. By use of unsaturated index U37k of long-chain alkenone, δ13C of POC and of planktonic foraminifera (G sacculifer), the evolutions of sea surface temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during the Holocene were reconstructed in the Okinawa Trough. And in combination of δ18O of planktonic foraminifera, the relative difference of sea surface salinity during the Holocene was also reconstructed.Consequently, three cooling events (E1-E3) were identified,each of which occurred at 1.7-1.6, 5.1-4.8 and 8.1-7.4kaBP (cal), respectively. Of the three events, E2 and E3 are globally comparable, their occurrence mechanism would be that the main stream of the Kuroshio Current shifted eastward due to the enhanced circulation of the northeastern Pacific Ocean, which was driven in turn by amplified intensity of sunshine and subsequent enhancement of subtropical high pressure; E1 corresponds to the Small Ice-Age Event occurring between 1550 and 1850AD in China. In the Okinawa Trough, E1 might be also related to the eastward shift of main stream of the Kuroshio current driven by powerful Asia winter monsoon.

  11. Reconstructing sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in atmos- phere in the Okinawa Trough during the Holocene and their paleoclimatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The sediment core DGKS9603 collected from the Okinawa Trough was used as research target. By use of unsaturated index of long-chain alkenone, δ13C of POC and of planktonic foraminifera (G. Sacculifer), the evolutions of sea surface temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during the Holocene were reconstructed in the Okinawa Trough. And in combination of δ18O of planktonic foraminifera, the relative difference of sea surface salinity during the Holocene was also reconstructed. Consequently, three cooling events (E1-E3) were identified, each of which occurred at 1.7-1.6, 5.1-4.8 and 8.1-7.4 kaBP (cal), respectively. Of the three events, E2 and E3 are globally comparable, their occurrence mechanism would be that the main stream of the Kuroshio Current shifted eastward due to the enhanced circulation of the northeastern Pacific Ocean, which was driven in turn by amplified intensity of sunshine and subsequent enhancement of subtropical high pressure; E1 corresponds to the Small Ice-Age Event occurring between 1550 and 1850AD in China. In the Okinawa Trough, E1 might be also related to the eastward shift of main stream of the Kuroshio current driven by powerful Asia winter monsoon.

  12. Surface aerosol measurements at Barrow during AGASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhaine, B.A.; Dutton, E.G.; DeLuisi, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surface aerosol measurements were made at the Barrow GMCC Observatory during the AGASP flight series in March 1983. The condensation nucleus, scattering extinction coefficient, size distribution, and total aerosol optical depth measurements all clearly show conditions of background Arctic haze for March 9-11, a series of haze episodes during March 12-16, and a return to background haze for March 17-18. Angstrom exponents calculated from scattering coefficient data were low during March 9-11, relatively higher during March 12-14, and highest during March 15-18. Surface aerosol data and aerosol optical depth data are in good qualitative agreement for the 10-day period studied. Background haze was present when trajectories circled the Arctic basin, and haze episodes occurred when trajectories originated in western Asia and Europe

  13. Plasma measurements with surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H. Jr.; Bradley, A.E.

    1969-01-01

    A surface barrier detector system for measuring the loss rate of protons from a hydrogen plasma and their energy spectrum is described. A full width at half maximum (FWHM) resolution of 1.4 keV for 15-keV hydrogen atoms was obtained using a selected detector having a sensitive area of 3 mm 2 and a depletion depth of 700 microns

  14. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  15. Description of measurement techniques for surface contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The needs of evaluation of the surface contamination are numerous in the processes of production and management of radioactive waste. The market of radiation protection materials proposes a lot of devices answering to the almost all these needs. These device have however their conditions and particular limits for use. To realize correct measurements it is use the device, the technique and the methods adapted to the need, by taking into account the optimization of economical aspect. (N.C.)

  16. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  17. Highly accurate surface maps from profilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Kate M.; Nelson, Jessica D.; Mandina, Mike P.

    2013-04-01

    Many aspheres and free-form optical surfaces are measured using a single line trace profilometer which is limiting because accurate 3D corrections are not possible with the single trace. We show a method to produce an accurate fully 2.5D surface height map when measuring a surface with a profilometer using only 6 traces and without expensive hardware. The 6 traces are taken at varying angular positions of the lens, rotating the part between each trace. The output height map contains low form error only, the first 36 Zernikes. The accuracy of the height map is ±10% of the actual Zernike values and within ±3% of the actual peak to valley number. The calculated Zernike values are affected by errors in the angular positioning, by the centering of the lens, and to a small effect, choices made in the processing algorithm. We have found that the angular positioning of the part should be better than 1?, which is achievable with typical hardware. The centering of the lens is essential to achieving accurate measurements. The part must be centered to within 0.5% of the diameter to achieve accurate results. This value is achievable with care, with an indicator, but the part must be edged to a clean diameter.

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-06-02 to 2013-06-05 (NCEI Accession 0157234)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157234 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-06-02 to...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-08-03 to 2013-08-21 (NCEI Accession 0157420)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157420 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-08-03 to...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-13 to 2012-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0157385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157385 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-13 to 2012-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0157309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157309 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-13 to...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-10-19 to 2012-10-20 (NCEI Accession 0157401)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157401 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-10-19 to...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-28 to 2013-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0157362)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157362 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea and South Atlantic Ocean...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-17 to 2012-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0157330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157330 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-17 to...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-06-08 to 2013-06-17 (NCEI Accession 0157288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157288 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-06-08 to...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-04-09 to 2012-04-14 (NCEI Accession 0157299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157299 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-04-09 to...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-10-06 to 2013-10-08 (NCEI Accession 0157364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157364 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-10-06 to...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-07 (NCEI Accession 0157273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157273 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-10-07 to 2012-10-17 (NCEI Accession 0157324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157324 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-10-07 to...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-09-10 to 2013-10-02 (NCEI Accession 0157366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157366 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-03-10 to 2012-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0157343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157343 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-03-10 to...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-04-24 to 2012-04-25 (NCEI Accession 0157270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157270 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-04-24 to...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-09-10 to 2012-09-12 (NCEI Accession 0157400)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157400 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-09-10 to...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-05-28 to 2012-05-30 (NCEI Accession 0157384)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157384 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-05-28 to...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-12-01 to 2012-12-04 (NCEI Accession 0157318)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157318 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-12-01 to...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2009-01-04 to 2009-02-09 (NODC Accession 0108227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108227 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2011-01-15 to 2011-02-18 (NODC Accession 0114448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114448 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to 2006-09-11 (NODC Accession 0117493)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117493 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2009-01-09 to 2010-03-21 (NODC Accession 0115765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115765 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2009-01-09 to...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Sea from 2013-07-11 to 2013-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0157281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157281 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Sea from...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea from 2013-10-12 to 2013-10-22 (NCEI Accession 0157304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157304 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-05-08 to 2013-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0157373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157373 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-04-19 to 2013-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0157305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157305 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-27 to 2012-10-04 (NCEI Accession 0157267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157267 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea from 2012-02-18 to 2012-02-29 (NCEI Accession 0157300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157300 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-02-03 to 2013-02-13 (NCEI Accession 0157382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157382 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-10-23 to 2012-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0157241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157241 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the METEOR in the English Channel, Indian Ocean and others from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-12 (NODC Accession 0115605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115605 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from METEOR in the English Channel, Indian Ocean, North...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the XUE LONG in the Bali Sea, Celebes Sea and others from 2007-11-12 to 2008-04-12 (NODC Accession 0108235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108235 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from XUE LONG in the Bali Sea, Celebes Sea, East China Sea...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the XUE LONG in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and Bering Sea from 2008-07-30 to 2008-09-11 (NODC Accession 0109932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109932 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from XUE LONG in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and Bering...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from AEGAEO in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea from 2006-02-08 to 2006-02-13 (NODC Accession 0084543)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0084543 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from AEGAEO in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea from...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea and others from 1999-01-14 to 1999-12-02 (NODC Accession 0081013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081013 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea, Bay of Bengal,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2010-04-15 to 2013-09-13 (NODC Accession 0117056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117056 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1983-01-19 to 1989-02-06 (NODC Accession 0080988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080988 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean,...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean and others from 2012-04-11 to 2012-07-25 (NODC Accession 0115295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115295 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, South...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from JOHAN HJORT in the Barents Sea, North Sea and others from 2007-11-15 to 2008-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0157398)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157398 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JOHAN HJORT in the Barents Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and Skagerrak...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2009-01-18 to 2009-07-17 (NCEI Accession 0157383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157383 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, North...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2008011 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0115181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115181 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Great...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2013-02-10 to 2013-03-09 (NODC Accession 0116410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116410 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2012-01-25 to 2012-03-07 (NODC Accession 0116411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116411 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2009-12-24 to 2010-01-22 (NODC Accession 0108228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108228 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-11-09 to 1995-12-01 (NODC Accession 0112941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112941 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2001-01-20 to 2012-06-12 (NODC Accession 0116978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116978 includes Surface underway data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from SOGEN MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 1991-10-08 to 1991-12-31 (NODC Accession 0080991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080991 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOGEN MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Hakuho Maru in the Bali Sea, Bismarck Sea and others from 1968-11-16 to 1988-03-23 (NODC Accession 0080981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080981 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Bali Sea, Bismarck Sea, Celebes Sea...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Autonomous sensor to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other instruments from SHIRASE in the Bali Sea, Celebes Sea and others from 1992-11-15 to 1993-03-20 (NODC Accession 0080990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080990 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SHIRASE in the Bali Sea, Celebes Sea (Sulawesi Sea and...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Autonomous sensor to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Hakuho Maru in the Bismarck Sea, Coral Sea and others from 1990-09-03 to 2002-01-21 (NODC Accession 0080982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080982 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Bismarck Sea, Coral Sea, Indian Ocean,...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-21 (NODC Accession 0115589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115589 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-06-28 to 2011-07-13 (NODC Accession 0117690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117690 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-06-28 to...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Natalie Schulte in the Bass Strait, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2010-10-01 to 2012-06-21 (NODC Accession 0108233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108233 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Natalie Schulte in the Bass Strait, North Pacific Ocean,...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24 (NCEI Accession 0144250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144250 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2016-01-08 to 2016-01-21 (NCEI Accession 0160553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160553 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Autonomous sensor to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Kaiyo in the Bismarck Sea, Celebes Sea and others from 1994-01-06 to 1999-11-21 (NODC Accession 0080984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080984 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Kaiyo in the Bismarck Sea, Celebes Sea (Sulawesi Sea and...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 2001-11-06 to 2013-04-25 (NODC Accession 0081041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081041 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Norwegian Sea from 2008-11-13 to 2008-12-10 (NCEI Accession 0157353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157353 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Norwegian Sea from 2008-11-13 to...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, North Greenland Sea and others from 2007-02-12 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0157392)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157392 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, North Greenland Sea, North...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2014-05-05 to 2014-08-30 (NCEI Accession 0144350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144350 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2013-08-06 to 2013-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0144346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144346 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea and Northwest Passage from 2013-08-06 to...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1995-03-17 to 1995-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0157358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157358 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2001-01-30 to 2002-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0157365)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157365 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2011-04-13 to 2011-12-28 (NCEI Accession 0144305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144305 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Hawaiian...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-01-20 to 2005-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0157327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157327 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 1997-01-12 to 1998-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0157323)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157323 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-01 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0144538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144538 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2015-07-14 to 2015-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144530 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of Alaska...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2012-08-01 to 2012-10-24 (NCEI Accession 0144338)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144338 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2003-01-05 to 2004-01-15 (NCEI Accession 0157387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157387 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea,...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2000-02-15 to 2001-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0157250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157250 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-10-04 to 2014-10-15 (NCEI Accession 0144547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144547 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-10-04 to 2014-10-15. These data include...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2016-02-21 to 2016-08-04 (NCEI Accession 0160570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160570 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2013-11-18 to 2014-12-25 (NCEI Accession 0157374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157374 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 1996-05-04 to 1997-01-08 (NCEI Accession 0157413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157413 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea and others from 2015-04-13 to 2015-11-12 (NCEI Accession 0144534)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144534 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean Sea -...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2002-01-18 to 2003-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0157376)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157376 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the North Pacific Ocean, South...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2014-01-06 to 2014-02-19 (NCEI Accession 0157272)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157272 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2015-01-07 to 2015-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0157289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157289 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2011-10-11 to 2011-11-21 (NODC Accession 0115604)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115604 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2010-08-06 (NODC Accession 0114477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114477 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2015-01-04 to 2015-10-18 (NCEI Accession 0157344)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157344 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0144246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144246 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05. These data include AIR...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-07 to 2010-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0144353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144353 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-07 to 2010-09-30. These data include...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1995-07-16 to 1999-11-05 (NODC Accession 0116981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116981 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2011-05-27 to 2011-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0144345)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144345 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-12-23 to 2014-02-04 (NODC Accession 0116979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116979 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0144247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144247 includes Surface underway data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17. These data...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 2015-01-05 to 2015-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0157326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157326 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2003-08-03 to 2003-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0160573)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160573 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea and others from 1989-11-17 to 1995-03-07 (NODC Accession 0116982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116982 includes Surface underway data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea,...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea, Japan Sea and others from 2012-10-24 to 2013-08-27 (NODC Accession 0116977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116977 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), Japan Sea,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2009-04-10 to 2009-07-03 (NCEI Accession 0144249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144249 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Solomon Sea and South Pacific Ocean...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0157449)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157449 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2007-07-24 to 2007-09-03 (NCEI Accession 0157457)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157457 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2007-07-24 to...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-05 to 2010-02-11 (NCEI Accession 0144244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144244 includes Surface underway data collected from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-05 to 2010-02-11. These data include AIR...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2008-04-03 to 2008-11-20 (NODC Accession 0117697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117697 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2000-01-22 to 2009-07-06 (NODC Accession 0116980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116980 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RABELAIS in the Caribbean Sea, Coral Sea and others from 1991-07-27 to 1997-01-15 (NCEI Accession 0157239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157239 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from RABELAIS in the Caribbean Sea, Coral Sea, English Channel, North Atlantic...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-02 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148768 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Great Australian Bight and others from 2011-04-06 to 2011-11-26 (NODC Accession 0115708)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115708 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Great Australian...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATSUSHIMA in the Inland Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1987-01-24 to 1991-03-10 (NODC Accession 0080987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080987 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATSUSHIMA in the Inland Sea (Seto Naikai), North Pacific...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TAISEI MARU in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean and others from 1993-01-25 to 1998-03-07 (NODC Accession 0080992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080992 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TAISEI MARU in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, Inland Sea...

  5. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  6. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wielgosz, R.; Bell, S. A.; Camões, M. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Dexter, P.; Dickson, A. G.; Fisicaro, P.; Harvey, A. H.; Heinonen, M.; Hellmuth, O.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; McDougall, T. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Ridout, P.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Stoica, D.; Wolf, H.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  7. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  8. Sea surface salinity and temperature-based predictive modeling of southwestern US winter precipitation: improvements, errors, and potential mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Schmitt, R. W.; Li, L.

    2017-12-01

    Using 69 years of historical data from 1948-2017, we developed a method to globally search for sea surface salinity (SSS) and temperature (SST) predictors of regional terrestrial precipitation. We then applied this method to build an autumn (SON) SSS and SST-based 3-month lead predictive model of winter (DJF) precipitation in southwestern United States. We also find that SSS-only models perform better than SST-only models. We previously used an arbitrary correlation coefficient (r) threshold, |r| > 0.25, to define SSS and SST predictor polygons for best subset regression of southwestern US winter precipitation; from preliminary sensitivity tests, we find that |r| > 0.18 yields the best models. The observed below-average precipitation (0.69 mm/day) in winter 2015-2016 falls within the 95% confidence interval of the prediction model. However, the model underestimates the anomalous high precipitation (1.78 mm/day) in winter 2016-2017 by more than three-fold. Moisture transport mainly attributed to "pineapple express" atmospheric rivers (ARs) in winter 2016-2017 suggests that the model falls short on a sub-seasonal scale, in which case storms from ARs contribute a significant portion of seasonal terrestrial precipitation. Further, we identify a potential mechanism for long-range SSS and precipitation teleconnections: standing Rossby waves. The heat applied to the atmosphere from anomalous tropical rainfall can generate standing Rossby waves that propagate to higher latitudes. SSS anomalies may be indicative of anomalous tropical rainfall, and by extension, standing Rossby waves that provide the long-range teleconnections.

  9. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  10. Measurement and removal of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, M.; Tamberg, T.

    1990-01-01

    This is a critical reappraisal of the sampling factor which is important for indirect contamination measurement. The factor gives the radioactivity collected by means of a wipe sample as a fraction of the total loose radioactivity i.e. without firm adhesion. It is used in national and international standard specifications and stated, frequently with excessive conservatism, as 0.1. Secondly, the standard specifications for the testing and appraisal of surface materials in relation to their decontamination capacity and for testing the effect of decontamination agents hitherto bond and Co-60 and Cs-137 are to be expanded to include radioactive iodine, which is important in nuclear medicine. The selection of optimum surface materials will thus be put on an improved basis. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  12. Development of a High-Stability Microstrip-based L-band Radiometer for Ocean Salinity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.; Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a microstrip-based L-band Dicke radiometer with the long-term stability required for future ocean salinity measurements to an accuracy of 0.1 psu is presented. This measurement requires the L-band radiometers to have calibration stabilities of less than or equal to 0.05 K over 2 days. This research has focused on determining the optimum radiometer requirements and configuration to achieve this objective. System configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer test beds at both JPL and GSFC. The GSFC testbed uses a cryogenic chamber that allows long-term characterization at radiometric temperatures in the range of 70 - 120 K. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature and DC bias, system linearity, optimum noise diode injection calibration, and precision temperature control of components. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability.

  13. Assessing the Contribution of Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity to Coral δ18O using a Weighted Forward Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick, K. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Anderson, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic ratio of 16O/18O (δ18O) in coral carbonate skeletons is a robust, high-resolution proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) variability predating the instrumental record. Although SST and δ18O-water (correlated to SSS) variability both contribute to the δ18O signal in the coral carbonate archive, the paucity and limited temporal span of SST and SSS instrumental observations limit the ability to differentiate respective SST and SSS contribution to each δ18O record. From instrumental datasets such as HadISST v.3, ERSST, SODA, and Delcroix (2011), we forward model the δ18O ("pseudoproxy") signal using the linear bivariate forward model from Thompson 2011 ("pseudoproxy"= a1(SST)+a2(SSS)). By iteratively weighting (between 0 and 1 by 0.005) the relative contribution of SST and SSS terms to the δ18O "pseudoproxy" following Gorman et al. 2012 method, we derive the percent contributions of SST and SSS to δ18O at each site based on the weights that produce the optimal correlation to the observed coral δ18O signal. A Monte Carlo analysis of error propagation in the weighted and unweighted pseudoproxy time series was used to determine how well the weighted and unweighted forward models captured observed δ18O variance. Across the south-western Pacific (40 sites) we found that SST contributes from less than 8 to more than 78% of the variance. This work builds upon this simple forward model of coral δ18O and improves our understanding of potential sources of differences in the observed and forward modeled δ18O variability. These results may also improve SST and SSS reconstructions from corals by highlighting the reef areas whose coral δ18O signal is most heavily influenced by SST and SSS respectively. Using an inverse approach, creating a transfer function, local SST and SSS could also be reconstructed based on the site-specific weights and observed coral δ18O time series.

  14. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  15. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  16. LOFT fuel rod surface temperature measurement testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, A.M.; Tolman, E.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the LOFT fuel rod cladding surface thermocouples has been performed to evaluate how accurately the LOFT thermocouples measure the cladding surface temperature during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence and what effect, if any, the thermocouple would have on core performance. Extensive testing has been done to characterize the thermocouple design. Thermal cycling and corrosion testing of the thermocouple weld design have provided an expected lifetime of 6000 hours when exposed to reactor coolant conditions of 620 K and 15.9 MPa and to sixteen thermal cycles with an initial temperature of 480 K and peak temperatures ranging from 870 to 1200K. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) tests have indicated a DNB penalty (5 to 28% lower) during steady state operation and negligible effects during LOCA blowdown caused by the LOFT fuel rod surface thermocouple arrangement. Experience with the thermocouple design in Power Burst Facility (PBF) and LOFT nonnuclear blowdown testing has been quite satisfactory. Tests discussed here were conducted using both stainless steel and zircaloy-clad electrically heated rod in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) blowdown simulation loop

  17. Coastal circulation and potential coral-larval dispersal in Maunalua Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii—Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, and salinity, June-September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, M. Katherine; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Logan, Joshua B.; Reiss, Thomas E.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a summary of fieldwork conducted in Maunalua Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii to address coral-larval dispersal and recruitment from June through September, 2010. The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal and spatial variations in currents, waves, tides, temperature, and salinity in Maunalua Bay during the summer coral-spawning season of Montipora capitata. Short-term vessel surveys and satellite-tracked drifters were deployed to measure currents during the June 2010 spawning event and to supplement the longer-term measurements of currents and water-column properties by fixed, bottom-mounted instruments deployed in Maunalua Bay. These data show that currents at the surface and just below the surface where coral larvae are found are often oriented in opposite directions due primarily to tidal and trade-winds forcing as the primary mechanisms of circulation in the bay. These data extend our understanding of coral-larvae dispersal patterns due to tidal and wind-driven currents and may be applicable to larvae of other Hawaiian corals.

  18. Observed year-to-year sea surface salinity variability in the Bay of Bengal during the 2009–2014 period

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaitanya, A.V.S.; Durand, F.; Mathew, S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Papa, F.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; KranthiKumar, C.; Venkatesan, R.

    ). Both high- and low-resolution data are archived at the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Systems (INCOIS) after standard quality control procedures. They are delivered to end users through the Ocean Data Information Systems (ODIS) (Shesu... international procedures. This ensures a typical accuracy of salinity of about 10-3. XCTD salinity records over the upper 4 m were discarded as it is usually done to account for the delay in the conductivity sensor response (e.g. Tanguy et al. 2010) and we...

  19. Effects of surface and subsurface drip irrigation regimes with saline water on yield and water use efficiency of potato in arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia El Mokh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on a sandy soil during spring of 2009 and autumn of 2010 in southern Tunisia for evaluating the effects of two drip irrigation methods and three irrigation regimes on soil moisture and salinity, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. The surface drip (SDI and subsurface drip (SSDI irrigation methods were used. Irrigation regimes consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI100, 60% (DI60 and 30% (DI30. FI100 was considered as full irrigation while DI60 and DI30 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Well water with an ECi of 7.0 dS/m was used for irrigation. Findings are globally consistent between the two experiments. Results show that soil moisture content and salinity were significantly affected by irrigation treatments and methods. Higher soil moisture content and lower soil salinity were maintained with SSDI than SDI for all irrigation treatments. For both irrigation methods, higher salinity and lower moisture content in the root zone are observed under DI60 and DI30 treatments compared to FI100. Potato yields were highest over two cropping periods for the SSDI method although no significant differences were observed with the SDI. Irrigation regimes resulted in significant difference in both irrigation methods on yield and its components. Yields were highest under FI100. Compared to FI100, considerable reductions in potato yields were observed under DI60 and DI30 deficit treatments resulting from a reduction in tubers number/m² and average tuber weight and size. Water use efficiency (WUE was found to vary significantly among irrigation methods and treatments and varied between 5.9 and 20.5 kg/m3. WUE of SSDI method had generally higher values than SDI. The lowest WUE values were observed for the FI100 treatment, while the highest values were obtained under DI30 treatment for both methods. SSDI method provides

  20. Particle image velocimetry measurements and numerical modeling of a saline density current

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle image velocimetry scalar measurements were carried out on the body of a stably stratified density current with an inlet Reynolds number of 2,300 and bulk Richardson number of 0.1. These measurements allowed the mass and momentum transport...

  1. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  2. Salinity and temperature variations around Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Jeremy Andy Anak Dominic; Nazrul Hizam Yusof; Mohd Rafaei Murtadza

    2004-01-01

    Vertical profiles of salinity and temperature were measured at several offshore stations along east and west coast of Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters. The measurements which covered South China Sea and Straits of Malacca were made during sampling cruises for Marine Database Project for Peninsula Malaysia, and during an IAEA regional training course for Marine Pollution Project. The results show that the water temperature is highest at the surface and minimum at bottom, while the salinity is lowest at the surface and highest at the bottom. In Malacca Straits, the highest surface water temperature was 30.6 degree C and the lowest bottom water temperature was 20.4 degree C, recorded at a station located in Andaman Sea. The same station also recorded the highest surface and bottom salinity i.e. 31.3 ppt and 34.4 ppt, respectively. For South China Sea, the maximum surface water temperature was 30.4 degree C and the minimum bottom temperature was 25.9 degree C, while the highest surface salinity was 33.2 ppt and the highest bottom salinity was 34.1 ppt. The water in South China Sea also showed some degrees of stratifications with thermocline zones located between 10-40 m water depths. In Malacca Straits, stronger thermocline develops at higher latitude, while at lower latitude the water is more readily mixed. Beside the spatial variations, the seawater temperature and salinity around Peninsula Malaysia also subjected to temporal variation as seawater. (Author)

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and sea surface temperature collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments during R/V Oden cruise Beringia_2005 (EXPOCODE 77DN20050720) in the Northwest Passage, Can. Archipelago, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea and Arctic Ocean from 2005-07-20 to 2005-08-17 (NCEI Accession 0164210)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164210 includes Surface underway data collected from R/V Oden in the Northwest Passage, Can. Archipelago, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using automated Multi-parameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA) for autonomous measurement of pH, carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-02-13 to 2006-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0157411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157411 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-03-07 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0083196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083196 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South...

  6. Surface temperature, salinity, and pCO2 collected by bottle casts during a cruise in the north Atlantic Ocean from 9/3/1991 - 9/22/1991 (NODC Accession 0000113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperature, salinity, and pCO2 data were collected using bottle casts from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 03 September 1991 to...

  7. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  8. Comparative Measurement of Microcystins in Diverse Surface ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of microcystins, cyanotoxins associated with cyanobacterial blooms which are increasingly prevalent in inland waters, is complicated by the diversity of congeners which have been observed in the environment. At present, more than 150 microcystin congeners have been identified, and this poses a significant challenge to analytical methods intended to assess human health risks in surface and drinking water systems. The most widely employed analytical method at present is the ADDA-ELISA technique which is potentially sensitive to all microcystins, but it is primarily intended as a semi-quantitative method, and questions have been raised regarding the potential for cross-reactivity and false positives. LC-MS/MS methods targeting specific congeners, such as US EPA Method 544, are intended for use as a secondary confirmation following a positive ELISA response, but these techniques can target only those congeners for which commercial standards are available. Accordingly, they are not suitable for ascertaining the safety of a given water sample, given the potential for omitting unknown microcystin congeners which might be present.An alternative approach involves oxidative transformation of microcystins to a common product, 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid, or MMPB. Measuring MMPB by LC-MS/MS can potentially provide a metric for the sum of all microcystin congeners present in a sample, subject to the efficiency and overall yield of conversion. The

  9. Impact of saline aquifer water on surface and shallow pit corrosion of martensitic stainless steels during exposure to CO2 environment (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Anja; Kranzmann, Axel

    2018-05-01

    Pipe steels suitable for carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) require resistance against the corrosive environment of a potential CCS-site, e.g. heat, pressure, salinity of the aquifer, CO2-partial pressure. Samples of different mild and high alloyed stainless injection-pipe steels partially heat treated: 42CrMo4, X20Cr13, X46Cr13, X35CrMo4 as well as X5CrNiCuNb16-4 were kept at T=60 °C and ambient pressure as well as p=100 bar for 700 h - 8000 h in a CO2-saturated synthetic aquifer environment similar to possible geological on-shore CCS-sites in the northern German Basin. Main corrosion products are FeCO3 and FeOOH. Corrosion rates obtained at 100 bar are generally much lower than those measured at ambient pressure. Highest surface corrosion rates are 0.8 mm/year for 42CrMo4 and lowest 0.01 mm/year for X5CrNiCuNb16-4 in the vapour phase at ambient pressure. At 100 bar the highest corrosion rates are 0.01 mm/year for 42CrMo4, X20Cr13 (liquid phase), X46Cr13 and less than 0.01 mm/year for X35CrMo4 and X5CrNiCuNb16-4 after 8000 h of exposure with no regard to atmosphere. Martensitic microstructure offers good corrosion resistance.

  10. Experimental measurements of negative hydrogen ion production from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.G.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the production of H - from surfaces bombarded with hydrogen are reviewed. Some measurements of H + and H 0 production from surfaces are also discussed with particular emphasis on work which might be relevant to ion source applications

  11. Geochemical and isotopic determination of deep groundwater contributions and salinity to the shallow groundwater and surface water systems, Mesilla Basin, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A.; Carroll, K. C.; Kubicki, C.; Purtshert, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system, extending from southern New Mexico to Chihuahua, Mexico, is a priority transboundary aquifer under the 2006 United States­-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing groundwater use by municipal, industrial, and agricultural users on both sides of the international border raise concerns about long-term aquifer sustainability. Relative contributions of present-day and "paleo" recharge to sustainable fresh groundwater yields has not been determined and evidence suggests that a large source of salinity at the distal end of the Mesilla Basin is saline discharge from deep groundwater flow. The magnitude and distribution of those deep saline flow paths are not determined. The contribution of deep groundwater to discharge and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface water of the Mesilla Basin will be determined by collecting discrete groundwater samples and analyzing for aqueous geochemical and isotopic tracers, as well as the radioisotopes of argon and krypton. Analytes include major ions, trace elements, the stable isotopes of water, strontium and boron isotopes, uranium isotopes, the carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gas concentrations and helium isotope ratios. Dissolved gases are extracted and captured from groundwater wells using membrane contactors in a process known as ultra-trace sampling. Gas samples are analyzed for radioisotope ratios of krypton by the ATTA method and argon by low-level counting. Effectiveness of the ultra-trace sampling device and method was evaluated by comparing results of tritium concentrations to the krypton-85 content. Good agreement between the analyses, especially in samples with undetectable tritium, indicates that the ultra-trace procedure is effective and confirms that introduction of atmospheric air has not occurred. The geochemistry data indicate a complex system of geochemical

  12. Determining the water cut and water salinity in an oil-water flowstream by measuring the sulfur content of the produced oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for detecting water cut and water salinity in an oil/water flowstream in petroleum refining and producing operations is described. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons which are slowed down and then captured producing gamma spectra characteristic of the fluid material. Analysis of the spectra indicates the relative presence of the elements sulfur, hydrogen and chlorine and from the sulfur measurement, the oil cut (fractional oil content) of the fluid is determined, enabling the water cut to be found. From the water cut, water salinity can also be determined. (U.K.)

  13. Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality of sugar beet Beta vulgaris irrigated with saline groundwater (fertigation and surface irrigation) and grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-07-01

    In a field experiment Sugar beet Beta vulgaris was grown as a spring crop during the growing seasons of 2004 and 2006, in salt affected soil, previously planted with sesbania and barley (2005 and 2003) to evaluate the response of sugar beet to two irrigation methods, (drip fertigation and surface irrigation), different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and its effect on yield and quality. Different rates of nitrogen fertilizers (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N/ ha) as urea (46% N) were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the surface-irrigated treatments in four equally split applications. The 15 N labelled urea was applied to sub-plots of 1.0 m 2 in each experimental unit in a manner similar to that of unlabeled urea. Irrigation scheduling was carried out using the direct method of neutron scattering technique. Sugar beet was irrigated when soil moisture in the upper 25 cm was 80% of the field capacity (FC) and such practice continued until the six leaf stage. From the latter stage until harvest, sugar beet was irrigated when soil moisture in the upper 50 cm reached 80% of the FC. The amount of irrigation water applied, electrical conductivity of the soil paste, dry matter and fresh roots yield, total nitrogen uptake and N derived from fertilizer were also determined. Furthermore, Nitrogen use as well as water use-efficiencies for dry matter and roots yield were also calculated. Results revealed that sugar beets and dry matter yield increased with increasing N input up to 100-150 kg N/ha which was indicated by the higher dry matter yield, and sugar beet yield. Sugar percentage was also increased relative to the average percentage recorded in Syria. Crop water use efficiencies, for both the drip-fertigated and surface-irrigated treatments were increased in most cases with increasing rate of nitrogen fertilizer. During the course of this study, small increases in soil salinity under both irrigation methods were observed. Higher increases in soil salinity was

  14. Linking water and carbon cycles through salinity observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2017-12-01

    The association of ocean surface salinity in global hydrological cycle and climate change has been traditionally studied through the examination of its tendency and advection as manifestation of ocean's heat and water fluxes with the atmosphere. The variability of surface heat and water fluxes are linked to top of atmosphere radiation, whose imbalance is the main cause of global warming. Besides the link of salinity to greenhouse warming through water balance, this study will focus on the effect of changing salinity on carbon dioxide flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. We have built statistical models to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and ocean acidification (in terms of total alkalinity and pH) using spacebased data. PCO2 is a critical parameter governing ocean as source and sink of the accumulated greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The exchange also causes ocean acidification, which is detrimental to marine lives and ecology. Before we had sufficient spacebased salinity measurements coincident with in situ pCO2 measurement, we trained our statistical models to use satellite sea surface temperature and chlorophyll, with one model using salinity climatology and the other without. We found significant differences between the two models in regions of strong water input through river discharge and surface water flux. The pCO2 output follows the seasonal salinity advection of the Amazon outflow. The seasonal salinity advection between Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea are followed by change of pCO2 and total alkalinity. At shorter time scales, the signatures of rain associated with intraseasonal organized convection of summer monsoon can be detected. We have observed distribution agreement of among pCO2, surface salinity, and surface water flux for variation from a few days to a few years under the Pacific ITCZ; the agreement varies slightly with season and longitudes and the reason is under study.

  15. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using bottle from the Zarnitsa in the Barents Sea (NODC Accession 0002235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data from the SCIENTIFIC ICHTIOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF LENINGRAD (RUSSIA), digitized from "Bulletin of the Institute of Ichthyology,...

  16. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements.

  17. Development of sub-surface drainage data base system for use in water logging and salinity managements issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, A.H.; Alam, M.M; Rafiq, M.

    2005-01-01

    A simple user-friendly menu-driven database management system pertinent to the Impact of Subsurface Drainage Systems on land and Water Conditions (ISLaW) has been developed for use in water logging and salinity management issues of drainage areas. This database has been developed by integrating four software viz; Microsoft Excel, MS Word, Acrobat and MS Access. The information in the form of tables and figures with respect to various drainage projects has been presented in MS Word files. The major data sets of various subsurface drainage projects included in the ISLaW database are: i) technical aspects, ii) groundwater and soil salinity aspects, iii) socio-technical aspects, iv) agro-economic aspects, and v) operation and maintenance aspects. The various ISLaW files can be accessed just by clicking at the Menu buttons of the database system. This database not only gives feedback on the functioning of different subsurface drainage projects with respect to above mentioned various aspects, but also serves as a resource document for these data for future studies at other drainage projects. The developed database system is useful for planners, designers and Farmers' Organizations for improved operation of existing as well as development of future drainage projects. (author)

  18. SMAP Salinity Artifacts Associated With Presence of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M. M.; Santos-Garcia, A.; Jones, L.

    2016-02-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite carries an L-band radiometer, which measures sea surface salinity (SSS) over a swath of 1000 km @ 40 km resolution. SMAP can extend the Aquarius (AQ) salinity data record with improved temporal/spatial sampling. Previous studies [see references] have demonstrated significant differences between satellite and in-situ salinity measurements during rain. In the presence of precipitation, salinity stratification exists near the sea surface, which nullifies the presumption of a well-mixed salinity. In general, these salinity gradients last only a few hours and the upper layer becomes slightly fresher in salinity. This paper describes the Rain Impact Model (RIM) that simulates the effects of rain accumulation on the SSS [Santos-Garcia et al., 2014] applied to SMAP. This model incorporates rainfall information for the previous 24 hours to the measurement sample (in this case SMAP) and uses as initialization the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) data. Given the better resolution of SMAP, the goal of this paper is to continue the analysis previously done with AQ to better understand the effects of the instantaneous and accumulated rain on the salinity measurements. Boutin, J., N. Martin, G. Reverdin, X. Yin, and F. Gaillard (2013), Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: Impact of rain, Ocean Sci., 9(1), 183-192, doi:10.5194/os-9-183-2013. Santos-Garcia, A., M. Jacob, L. Jones, W. Asher, Y. Hejazin, H. Ebrahimi, and M. Rabolli (2014), Investigation of rain effects on Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity measurements, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 7605-7624, doi:10.1002/2014JC010137. Tang, W., S.H Yueh, A. Hayashi, A.G. Fore, W.L. Jones, A. Santos-Garcia, and M.M. Jacob, (2015), Rain-Induced Near Surface Salinity Stratification and Rain Roughness Correction for Aquarius SSS Retrieval, in Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of, 8(99), 1-11, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2463768.

  19. Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans. (NCEI Accession 0157795)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Total Alkalinity fields were estimated from five regional TA relationships presented in Lee et al. 2006, using monthly mean sea surface temperature and...

  20. Spatio-temporal assessment and trend analysis of surface water salinity in the coastal region of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammi, Mashura; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Md Atikul; Bodrud-Doza, Md; Zahid, Anwar; Akter, Yeasmin; Quaiyum, Samia; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2017-06-01

    The study was designed to collect water samples over two seasons-wet-monsoon season (n = 96) (March-April) and dry-monsoon season (n = 44) (September-October)-to understand the seasonal variation in anion and cation hydrochemistry of the coastal rivers and estuaries contributing in the spatial trend in salinity. Hydrochemical examination of wet-monsoon season primarily revealed Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type (66%) and followed by Na-Cl type (17.70%) water. In the dry-monsoon season, the scenario reversed with primary water being Na-Cl type (52.27%) followed by Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type (31.81%). Analysis of Cl/Br molar ratio vs. Cl (mg/L) depicted sampling area affected by seawater intrusion (SWI). Spatial analysis by ordinary kriging method confirmed approximately 77% sample in the dry-monsoon, and 34% of the wet-monsoon season had shown SWI. The most saline-intruded areas in the wet-monsoon seasons were extreme south-west coastal zone of Bangladesh, lower Meghna River floodplain and Meghna estuarine floodplain and south-eastern part of Chittagong coastal plains containing the districts of Chittagong and Cox's Bazar adjacent to Bay of Bengal. In addition, mid-south zone is also affected slightly in the dry-monsoon season. From the analyses of data, this study could further help to comprehend seasonal trends in the hydrochemistry and water quality of the coastal and estuarine rivers. In addition, it can help policy makers to obligate some important implications for the future initiatives taken for the management of land, water, fishery, agriculture and environment of coastal rivers and estuaries of Bangladesh.

  1. Transect-scale imaging of root zone electrical conductivity by inversion of multiple-height EMI measurements under different salinity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piero Deidda, Gian; Coppola, Antonio; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Rodriguez, Giuseppe; Vignoli, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    regularization, to estimate σb vertical distribution from EMI field data. More recent studies (Hendrickx et al., 2002; Deidda et al., 2003; Deidda et al., 2014, among others), extended the approach to a more complicated non linear model of the response of a ground conductivity meter to changes with depth of σb. Noteworthy, these inverse procedures are only based on electromagnetic physics. Thus, they are only based on ECa readings, possibly taken with both the horizontal and vertical configurations and with the sensor at different heights above the ground, and do not require any further field calibration. Nevertheless, as discussed by Hendrickx et al. (2002), important issues on inverse approaches are about: i) the applicability to heterogeneous field soils of physical equations originally developed for the electromagnetic response of homogeneous media and ii) nonuniqueness and instability problems inherent to inverse procedures, even after Tikhonov regularization. Besides, as discussed by Cook and Walker (1992), these mathematical inversions procedures using layered-earth models were originally designed for interpreting porous systems with distinct layering. Where subsurface layers are not sharply defined, this type of inversion may be subject to considerable error. With these premises, the main aim of this study is estimating the vertical σb distribution by ECa measured using ground surface EMI methods under different salinity conditions and using TDR data as ground-truth data for validation of the inversion procedure. The latter is based on a regularized 1D inversion procedure designed to swiftly manage nonlinear multiple EMI-depth responses (Deidda et al., 2014). It is based on the coupling of the damped Gauss-Newton method with either the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) or the truncated generalized singular value decomposition (TGSVD), and it implements an explicit (exact) representation of the Jacobian to solve the nonlinear inverse problem. The

  2. The prediction of BRDFs from surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.; Leonard, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of predicting the BRDF of smooth surfaces from profile measurements of their surface finish. The conversion of optical profile data to the BRDF at the same wavelength is essentially independent of scattering models, while the conversion of mechanical measurements, and wavelength scaling in general, are model dependent. Procedures are illustrated for several surfaces, including two from the recent HeNe BRDF round robin, and results are compared with measured data. Reasonable agreement is found except for surfaces which involve significant scattering from isolated surface defects which are poorly sampled in the profile data

  3. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  4. Measurements of distribution coefficient for Sn, Pb and Th on sand stone and tuff in saline type groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kenichi; Muroi, Masayuki; Shibata, Masahiro; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed the sorption database for bentonite and rocks in order to assess the retardation capacities of important radioactive elements in natural and engineered barriers in the H12 report. However, there are not enough distribution coefficient data for radioactive elements in saline type groundwater in the database. Sn (tin), Pb (lead) and Th(thorium) are important radioactive elements for performance assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal, thus we carried out the batch sorption experiments for these radioactive elements on sand stone and tuff. The experiments for each radioactive element were performed on the following conditions; Sn: Kd measurements using the solutions (distilled water or artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone. Pb: Kd measurements using solution (artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone or tuff. Th: Kd measurements using solution (artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone as a function of carbonate concentration. The results of experiment are summarized below; In the case of Sn, Kd were 0.4-1 m 3 /kg in distilled water type and approximately 1 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water type. And also, Kd was 0.3 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water adjusted Ph 12. In artificial sea water type, it was suggested that Kd decreased with pH. In the case of Pb, Kd were approximately 2 m 3 /kg on sand stone and 4-10 m 3 /kg on tuff in artificial sea water type. Kd on tuff was a little larger than that on sand stone. There were no distinctly differences depending on solid-liquid separation methods. In the case of Th, Kd was approximately 1-8 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water type. On the other hand, sorption of Th on sand stone was not observed (i.e., Kd = 0 m 3 /kg) in high carbonate solution. It was estimated that low Kd in high carbonate solution might be caused by speciation of because Th could form the anions in the solution such as hydroxo-carbonate complexes and carbonate complexes

  5. Inspection of freeform surfaces considering uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrad, Vahid; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2013-01-01

    Inspection of a manufactured freeform surface can be conducted by building its surface model and comparing this manufactured surface model with the ideal design surface model and its tolerance requirement. The manufactured freeform surface model is usually achieved by obtaining measurement points on the manufactured surface, transforming these measurement points from the measurement coordinate system to the design coordinate system through localization, and reconstructing the surface model using the localized measurement points. In this research, a method was developed to estimate the locations and their variances of any selected points on the reconstructed freeform surface considering different sources of uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction processes. In this method, first locations and variances of the localized measurement points are calculated considering uncertainties of the measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the localization processes. Then locations and variances of points on the reconstructed freeform surface are obtained considering uncertainties of the localized measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the freeform surface reconstruction process. Two case studies were developed to demonstrate how these three different uncertainty sources influence the quality of the reconstructed freeform curve and freeform surface in inspection. (paper)

  6. Measurement of salinity of fluids in earth formations by comparison of inelastic and capture gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A method of borehole logging by detecting and counting gamma rays from inelastic scattering of fast neutrons by carbon, oxygen, silicon and calcium, gamma rays from capture of thermal neutrons by calcium, chlorine and silicon and comparing the former with the latter thereby deriving an estimate of the salinity of the fluids in the borehole, is given (UK)

  7. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  8. Surface magnetic field measurement with magnetic shielding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2010), 66-68 ISSN 1335-3632 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic hysteresis * magnetic field measurement * magnetic shielding * extrapolation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2010

  9. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near backgr...

  10. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  11. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  12. Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides spatially continuous high-resolution surface salinity imagery in a synoptic manner from small aircraft. Its output complements data collected from...

  13. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  14. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  15. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  16. Retrieval and Validation of aerosol optical properties from AHI measurements: impact of surface reflectance assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Go, S.; Chan, P.; Kasai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study attempts to retrieve the aerosol optical properties (AOPs) based on the spectral matching method, with using three visible and one near infrared channels (470, 510, 640, 860nm). This method requires the preparation of look-up table (LUT) approach based on the radiative transfer modeling. Cloud detection is one of the most important processes for guaranteed quality of AOPs. Since the AHI has several infrared channels, which are very advantageous for cloud detection, clouds can be removed by using brightness temperature difference (BTD) and spatial variability test. The Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm is basically utilized on a dark surface, therefore a bright surface (e.g., desert, snow) should be removed first. Then we consider the characteristics of the reflectance of land and ocean surface using three visible channels. The known surface reflectivity problem in high latitude area can be solved in this algorithm by selecting appropriate channels through improving tests. On the other hand, we retrieved the AOPs by obtaining the visible surface reflectance using NIR to normalized difference vegetation index short wave infrared (NDVIswir) relationship. ESR tends to underestimate urban and cropland area, we improved the visible surface reflectance considering urban effect. In this version, ocean surface reflectance is using the new cox and munk method which considers ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Input of this method has wind speed, chlorophyll, salinity and so on. Based on validation results with the sun-photometer measurement in AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), we confirm that the quality of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the YAER algorithm is comparable to the product from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) retrieval algorithm. Our future update includes a consideration of improvement land surface reflectance by hybrid approach, and non-spherical aerosols. This will improve the quality of YAER

  17. Measurements of radon progeny activity on typical indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Gogolak, C.V.; Klemic, G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies aimed at defining how well radon progeny on surfaces can be measured, information that is needed in order to test physical/mathematical models governing indoor radon progeny behaviour, are described. One experiment compared the decomposition on to different surfaces. Only relatively small differences were found among metal, filter paper, broadcloth, corduroy fabric, vinyl wallpaper, glass, and latex paint, but polyethylene film collected two to four times as much as the others, due most likely to electrostatic charge on the plastic surface. Another experiment compared the gamma and gross alpha count methods of measuring surface activity for metal, filter paper, broadcloth and corduroy surfaces. No difference for the surfaces tested was found from which it is concluded that, even for rougher surfaces, progeny atoms deposit mainly on the outer layers. A final experiment compared in situ and surrogate-surface methods for measuring surface deposition. For most tests, the two methods agreed within 30%, and the average ratio was not significantly different from unity. 210 Po is a complication in the in situ method. An unexpected location effect was found in the experiments conducted in houses with high radon concentrations: the deposition on the ceiling was higher than on the surfaces. (author)

  18. Salinity, temperature and density data for the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf, March 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopky, G E; Chiperzak, D B; Lawrence, M J

    1988-01-01

    This report contains salinity, temperature and density (CTD) data collected in the waters of the Canadian Beaufort Sea Shelf during March 1988. Salinity and temperature profile data were measured using a Guildline Model 8870 probe deployed from the ice surface. Ice thickness was also measured. Density was calculated using salinity and temperature values. CTD profiles were measured at five stations. The maximum depths of profiles measured from the ice surface ranged from 31.2 to 16.8 dbar. Salinity and temperature measurements ranged from 0.35 to 34.83, and -1.87 to 1.08/sup 0/C, respectively. The data presented in this report will assist in the identification and delineation of potential habitat types, as part of the Critical Arctic Estuarine and Marine Habitat Project of the Northern Oil and Gas Program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  20. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  1. A comparison of in-air and in-saline focimeter measurement of the back vertex power of spherical soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard M; Evans, Bruce J W

    2012-11-01

    To compare the repeatability and validity of measurements of the back vertex power (BVP) of spherical soft contact lenses made in-air using the method specified in the International Standard (ISO 18369-3:2006) with the corresponding values when BVP was calculated from measurements made using a wet cell and focimeter method that is not approved by this Standard. The BVP of 20 hydrogel and 20 silicone hydrogel lenses, with labelled powers ranging from +8.00 to -12.00 D, were measured with a focimeter by two operators on two occasions in-air in accordance with the relevant International Standard. Equivalent sets of measurements were made with the lenses immersed in-saline within a wet cell and their BVPs in-air were calculated. The validity of each method was assessed by comparing their results with an instrument that used the Hartmann method. The reliability results were generally a little better for the in-saline measurements than for the in-air measurements, although all reliability data demonstrated absolute values of mean errors (inter-operator and inter-session) that were power of high plus and high minus lenses compared with the Hartmann instrument) and possibly a more complex relationship for the in-saline data. The 95% limits of agreement indicate better agreement for the in-saline validity data (-0.55 to +0.48 D for hydrogel lenses and -0.42 to +0.54 D for silicone hydrogel lenses) than those obtained in-air (-0.64 to +0.68 D for hydrogel lenses and -0.57 to +0.44 D for silicone hydrogel lenses). Using equipment readily available in a clinical setting, the wet cell method of measurement of the BVP of spherical soft contact lenses has been shown to provide results for reliability and validity that were at least as good as those obtained with the in-air method approved by the International Standard. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W; O’Connor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Control of surface topography has always been of vital importance for manufacturing and many other engineering and scientific disciplines. However, despite over one hundred years of quantitative surface topography measurement, there are still many open questions. At the top of the list of questions is ‘Are we getting the right answer?’ This begs the obvious question ‘How would we know?’ There are many other questions relating to applications, the appropriateness of a technique for a given scenario, or the relationship between a particular analysis and the function of the surface. In this first ‘open questions’ article we have gathered together some experts in surface topography measurement and asked them to address timely, unresolved questions about the subject. We hope that their responses will go some way to answer these questions, address areas where further research is required, and look at the future of the subject. The first section ‘Spatial content characterization for precision surfaces’ addresses the need to characterise the spatial content of precision surfaces. Whilst we have been manufacturing optics for centuries, there still isn’t a consensus on how to specify the surface for manufacture. The most common three methods for spatial characterisation are reviewed and compared, and the need for further work on quantifying measurement uncertainties is highlighted. The article is focussed on optical surfaces, but the ideas are more pervasive. Different communities refer to ‘figure, mid-spatial frequencies, and finish’ and ‘form, waviness, and roughness’, but the mathematics are identical. The second section ‘Light scattering methods’ is focussed on light scattering techniques; an important topic with in-line metrology becoming essential in many manufacturing scenarios. The potential of scattering methods has long been recognized; in the ‘smooth surface limit’ functionally significant relationships can be derived from first

  3. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  4. Measurement of near neighbor separations of surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.I.

    Two techniques are being developed to measure the nearest neighbor distances of atoms at the surfaces of solids. Both measures extended fine structure in the excitation probability of core level electrons which are excited by an incident electron beam. This is an important problem because the structures of most surface systems are as yet unknown, even though the location of surface atoms is the basis for any quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics of surfaces and interfaces. These methods would allow any laboratory to make in situ determinations of surface structure in conjunction with most other laboratory probes of surfaces. Each of these two techniques has different advantages; further, the combination of the two will increase confidence in the results by reducing systematic error in the data analysis

  5. Surface deposition measurements of the TMI-2 gross decontamination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIssac, C.V.; Hetzer, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of the gross decontamination experiment (principally a water spray technique) performed in the TMI-2 reactor building, the Technical Information and Examination Program's Radiation and Environment personnel made surface activity measurements before and after the experiment. In conjunction with surface sampling, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and gamma spectrometry measurements were also performed to distinguish between radiation fields and contamination. The surface sampler used to collect samples from external surfaces within the reactor building is a milling tool having four major components: a 1.27-cm constant-speed drill; a drill support assembly that allows setting sample penetration depth; filter cartridges for intake air purification and sample collection; and an air pump that forces air across the surface being sampled and through the sample filter cartridge

  6. Constraining the origin of the Messinian gypsum deposits using coupled measurement of δ^{18}O$/δD in gypsum hydration water and salinity of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Gázquez, Fernando; McKenzie, Judith A.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Hodell, David A.

    2016-04-01

    We used oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of gypsum hydration water (GHW) coupled with salinity deduced from ice melting temperatures of primary fluid inclusions in the same samples (in tandem with 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S and other isotopic measurements) to determine the composition of the mother fluids that formed the gypsum deposits of the Messinian Salinity Crisis from shallow and intermediate-depth basins. Using this method, we constrain the origin of the Messinian Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) of the Sorbas basin (Betic foreland) and both the Upper Gypsum (UG) and the Lower Gypsum of the Sicilian basin. We then compare these results to measurements made on UG recovered from the deep Ionian and Balearic basins drilled during DSDP Leg 42A. The evolution of GHW δ18O/δD vs. salinity is controlled by mixing processes between fresh and seawater, coupled with the degree of evaporation. Evaporation and subsequent precipitation of gypsum from fluids dominated by freshwater will result in a depressed 87Sr/86Sr values and different trajectory in δ18O/δD vs. salinity space compared to fluids dominated by seawater. The slopes of these regression equations help to define the end-members from which the fluid originated. For example, salinity estimates from PLG cycle 6 in the Sorbas basin range from 18 to 51ppt, and after correction for fractionation factors, estimated δ18O and δD values of the mother water are low (-2.6 meteoric water during gypsum deposition, while 87Sr/86Sr (0.708942 fall below those expected from the evaporation of seawater alone, the slope of the regression equation is similar to that of seawater evaporation. This implies that there is a change up-section from a dominantly marine environment in cycle 2 to a greater influence of meteoric water in cycle 6. The UG from the Sicilian basin display greater δ18O/δD values (2.9 meteoric water that subsequently underwent intense evaporation. This observation concurs with the low values of 87Sr/86Sr from the same UG

  7. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  8. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  9. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulated BRDF based on measured surface topography of metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiyue; Haist, Tobias; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    The radiative reflective properties of a calibration standard rough surface were simulated by ray tracing and the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results have been used to compute the reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) of metal surfaces and have been compared with experimental measurements. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement.

  11. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer scintillometer. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... of soil heat flux and net irradiance, evaporation rates were calculated as a residual of the ...

  12. Calibration technique for the neutron surface moisture measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.T.; Shreve, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for calibrating the response of a surface neutron moisture measurement probe to material moisture concentration has been devised. Tests to ensure that the probe will function in the expected in-tank operating environment are also outlined

  13. Temperature and salinity measurements taken from the BLUE, PENOBSCOT and other Slocum glider platforms in the Coastal N Atlantic, Coastal S Atlantic and other locations from 2012 to 2014 (NCEI Accession 0123079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity measurements found in dataset IOOS taken from the BLUE (Slocum glider; WMO 4801504; operated by Univ. of Massachusetts Dartmouth), PENOBSCOT...

  14. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, total phosphorus, silicate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity measurements collected using bottle on multiple platforms in the Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, Mediterranean from 1910 to 1982 (NODC Accession 0038350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, nutrients, oxygen, and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from the AGASSIZ; A., ALBACORE and other platforms in the Coastal N...

  15. Time-series current measurements, temperature, and salinity data from CTD, moored buoy, and current meter casts from the Norton Sound Alaska from 14 July 1985 to 22 July 1985 (NODC Accession 0000368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Time-series current measurements, temperature, and salinity data were collected from fixed platforms at the Bering Sea - Norton Sound from July 14, 1985 to July 22,...

  16. Oceanographic profile plankton, Temperature Salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from VICTORIA 1 FISHING BOAT), ALEJERO HUMBOLDT and other platforms in the South Pacific, Coastal S Pacific and other locations from 1980 to 1982 (NODC Accession 0002083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from the VICTORIA 1(FISHING BOAT), ALEJERO HUMBOLDT and other platforms in the South...

  17. Oceanographic temperature and salinity measurements collected using CTD and XBT from NOAA Ship Nancy Foster/Ronald H Brown in the North Atlantic from 1998 to 2007 (NODC Accession 0043165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in datasets XBT and CTD taken from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN (NOAA SHIP - Call Sign WTEC)(formerly NOAA Ship...

  18. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll and other measurements found in dataset SISMER taken from the VAUBAN, JEAN CHARCOT (FNOY) and other platforms in the South Pacific, Coastal North Atlantic and other locations from 1983 to 2007 (NODC Accession 0046621)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll and other measurements found in CTD and OSD datasets taken from the VAUBAN, JEAN CHARCOT (FNOY) and other...

  19. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  20. Surface Resistance Measurements of LHC Dipole Beam Screen Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Ruggiero, F; Tan, J; Tsutsui, H

    2000-01-01

    An estimate of the resistive losses in the LHC dipole beam screen is given from cold surface resistance measurements using the shielded pair technique. Several beam screen samples have been evaluated, with different copper coating methods, including a sample with ribbed surface envisaged to reduce electron cloud losses thanks to its low reflectivity. Experimental data, derived by a proper analysis of the measured Q-factors and including error estimates are compared with theoretical predictions of the anomalous skin effect.

  1. On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.

  2. Accuracy of Surface Plate Measurements - General Purpose Software for Flatness Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.; Heuvelman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Flatness departures of surface plates are generally obtained from straightness measurements of lines on the surface. A computer program has been developed for on-line measurement and evaluation, based on the simultaneous coupling of measurements in all grid points. Statistical methods are used to

  3. A noncontact laser system for measuring soil surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; White, I.; Thwaite, E.G.; Bendeli, A.

    1988-01-01

    Soil surface topography profoundly influences runoff hydrodynamics, soil erosion, and surface retention of water. Here we describe an optical noncontact system for measuring soil surface topography. Soil elevation is measured by projecting a laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the interception point. The optical axis of the detection system is oriented at a small angle to the incident beam. A low-power HeNe (Helium-Neon) laser is used as the laser source, a photodiode array is used as the laser image detector and an ordinary 35-mm single lens reflex camera provides the optical system to focus the laser image onto the diode array. A wide spectrum of measurement ranges (R) and resolutions are selectable, from 1 mm to 1 m. These are determined by the laser-camera distance and angle, the focal length of the lens, and the sensing length of the diode array and the number of elements (N) contained in the array. The resolution of the system is approximately R/2N. We show for the system used here that this resolution is approximately 0.2%. In the configuration selected, elevation changes of 0.16 mm could be detected over a surface elevation range of 87 mm. The sampling rate of the system is 1000 Hz, which permits soil surfaces to be measured at speeds of up to 1 m s −1 with measurements taken at 1-mm spacing. Measurements of individual raindrop impacts on the soil and of soil surfaces before and after rain show the versatility of the laser surface profiler, which has applications in studies of erosion processes, surface storage and soil trafficability

  4. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  5. Summations over equilaterally triangulated surfaces and the critical string measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, D.J.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the summation over dynamically triangulated Riemann surfaces which does not rely on properties of the potential in a matrix model. Instead, we formulate a purely algebraic discretization of critical string path integral. This is combined with a technique which assigns to each equilateral triangulation of a two-dimensional surface a Riemann surface defined over a certain finite extension of the field of rational numbers, i.e. an arithmetic surface. Thus we establish a new formulated in which the sum over randomly triangulated surfaces defines an invariant measure on the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces. It is shown that because of this it is far from obvious that this measure for large genera approximates the measure defined by the continuum theory, i.e. Liouville theory or critical string theory. In low genus this subtlety does not exist. In the case of critical string theory we explicitly compute the volume of the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces in terms of the modular height function and show that for low genus it approximates correctly the continuum measure. We also discuss a continuum limit which bears some resemblance with a double scaling limit in matrix models. (orig.)

  6. Measurement for Surface Tension of Aqueous Inorganic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubble columns are effective means of filtration in filtered containment venting systems. Here, the surface tension has a significant influence on bubble size distribution and bubble deformation, which have a strong impact on the behavior of the bubble column. The influence of aqueous inorganic compounds on the surface tension depends on the electrolytic activity, Debye length, entropy of ion hydration, and surface deficiencies or excess. In this work, the surface tensions of same specific aqueous solutions have been measured by different methods including platinum plate method, platinum ring method, and maximum bubble pressure method. The measured surface tensions of both sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate are less than that of water. As solution temperature ranges from 20 to 75°C, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution decreases from 71 to 55 mN/m while that of 1 mol/L solution decreases from 60 to 45 mN/m. Similarly during the same temperature range, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium thiosulfate decreases from 70 to 38 mN/m, and that of 1 mol/L sodium thiosulfate is between 68 and 36 mN/m. The analysis for the influence mechanism of aqueous inorganic on surface tension is provided. In addition, experimental results show that the surface tension of solid aerosol suspension liquid has no obvious difference from that of distilled water.

  7. RZP 202 - a modular system for surface density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, L.; Merinsky, J.

    The sensing element is an ionization chamber of the type that has maximum sensitivity to beta radiation of the used radionuclide ( 147 Pm, 85 Kr, 90 Sr- 90 Y) or to gamma radiation of radionuclide 241 Am. Collimation shields were developed for the said sources. Measurement of the ionization currents is made with an electrometer with a vibration capacitor. Invariable configuration is secured by a measuring arm. The modular units are of the CAMAC system design. The surface density meters measure deviations from the rated surface density. The scale for inputting surface density is linear. The configuration, functional continuity of the individual parts and the possibility of variant designs of surface density meters are described and the technical parameters of RZP 202 and its configuration and design are given

  8. Box Model of Freshwater, Salinity and Nutrient in the Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marojahan Simanjuntak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Box Model of Freshwater, Salinity and Nutrient in the Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan. Research has been conducted in the southern part of the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan. Method of measuring temperature, salinity, light transmission and turbidity by using CTD model 603 SBE and current measurement and bathymetry by using ADCP model RDI. Measurement parameters on the nutrient chemistry are based of water samples taken using Nansen bottles from two depths. The purpose of this study to determine the mechanism of freshwater, salinity and nutrient transport from the land of the Mahakam River which interact with seawater by using box models. The results illustrate that the vertical distribution of salinity in the Mahakam Delta has obtained a high stratification, where the freshwater salinity 12.30 psu at the surface of a river flowing toward the sea, and seawater of high salinity 30.07 psu flowing in the direction river under the surface that are separated by a layer of mixture. Freshwater budget of the sea (VSurf obtained for 0,0306 x 109 m3 day-1, and the sea water salinity budget is going into the bottom layer system (VDeep.SOcn-d obtained for 20,727 x 109 psu day-1. While time dilution (Syst obtained for 0.245 day-1 or 5.87 hours. Nutrient budget in the surface layer obtained by the system is autotrophic while in layers near the bottom tend to be heterotrophic

  9. Advances in the Surface Renewal Flux Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, T. M.; McElrone, A.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of ecosystem-scale energy and mass fluxes between the planetary surface and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding geophysical processes. Surface renewal is a flux measurement technique based on analyzing the turbulent coherent structures that interact with the surface. It is a less expensive technique because it does not require fast-response velocity measurements, but only a fast-response scalar measurement. It is therefore also a useful tool for the study of the global cycling of trace gases. Currently, surface renewal requires calibration against another flux measurement technique, such as eddy covariance, to account for the linear bias of its measurements. We present two advances in the surface renewal theory and methodology that bring the technique closer to becoming a fully independent flux measurement method. The first advance develops the theory of turbulent coherent structure transport associated with the different scales of coherent structures. A novel method was developed for identifying the scalar change rate within structures at different scales. Our results suggest that for canopies less than one meter in height, the second smallest coherent structure scale dominates the energy and mass flux process. Using the method for resolving the scalar exchange rate of the second smallest coherent structure scale, calibration is unnecessary for surface renewal measurements over short canopies. This study forms the foundation for analysis over more complex surfaces. The second advance is a sensor frequency response correction for measuring the sensible heat flux via surface renewal. Inexpensive fine-wire thermocouples are frequently used to record high frequency temperature data in the surface renewal technique. The sensible heat flux is used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. The robust thermocouples commonly used in field experiments

  10. Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

  11. Measuring and modeling surface sorption dynamics of organophosphate flame retardants on impervious surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains measured and model predicted OPFRs gas-phase and surface-phase...

  12. Noise evaluation of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maculotti, Giacomo; Feng, Xiaobing; Galetto, Maurizio; Leach, Richard

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument is evaluated, as the first step towards establishing a route to traceability for this type of instrument. The evaluation is based on the determination of the metrological characteristics for noise as outlined in draft ISO specification standards by using a calibrated optical flat. The static noise and repeatability of the autofocus sensor are evaluated. The influence of environmental disturbances on the measured surface topography and the built-in software to compensate for such influences are also investigated. The instrument was found to have a measurement noise of approximately 2 nm or, when expressed with the measurement bandwidth, 0.4 nm for a single-point measurement.

  13. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  14. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  15. Soil disturbance as a driver of increased stream salinity in a semiarid watershed undergoing energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Mcdougal, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is a global threat to the quality of streams and rivers, but it can have many causes. Oil and gas development were investigated as one of several potential causes of changes in the salinity of Muddy Creek, which drains 2470 km2 of mostly public land in Wyoming, U.S.A. Stream discharge and salinity vary with seasonal snowmelt and define a primary salinity-discharge relationship. Salinity, measured by specific conductance, increased substantially in 2009 and was 53-71% higher at low discharge and 33-34% higher at high discharge for the years 2009-2012 compared to 2005-2008. Short-term processes (e.g., flushing of efflorescent salts) cause within-year deviations from the primary relation but do not obscure the overall increase in salinity. Dissolved elements associated with increased salinity include calcium, magnesium, and sulfate, a composition that points to native soil salts derived from marine shales as a likely source. Potential causes of the salinity increase were evaluated for consistency by using measured patterns in stream chemistry, slope of the salinity-discharge relationship, and inter-annual timing of the salinity increase. Potential causes that were inconsistent with one or more of those criteria included effects from precipitation, evapotranspiration, reservoirs, grazing, irrigation return flow, groundwater discharge, discharge of energy co-produced waters, and stream habitat restoration. In contrast, surface disturbance of naturally salt-rich soil by oil and gas development activities, such as pipeline, road, and well pad construction, is a reasonable candidate for explaining the salinity increase. As development continues to expand in semiarid lands worldwide, the potential for soil disturbance to increase stream salinity should be considered, particularly where soils host substantial quantities of native salts.

  16. Surface Forces Apparatus measurements of interactions between rough and reactive calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, Joanna; Javadi, Shaghayegh; Bratvold, Jon Einar; Nilsen, Ola; Røyne, Anja

    2018-05-28

    Nm-range forces acting between calcite surfaces in water affect macroscopic properties of carbonate rocks and calcite-based granular materials, and are significantly influenced by calcite surface recrystallization. We suggest that the repulsive mechanical effects related to nm-scale surface recrystallization of calcite in water could be partially responsible for the observed decrease of cohesion in calcitic rocks saturated with water. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA), we simultaneously followed the calcite reactivity and measured the forces in water in two surface configurations: between two rough calcite surfaces (CC), or between rough calcite and a smooth mica surface (CM). We used nm-scale rough, polycrystalline calcite films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). We measured only repulsive forces in CC in CaCO 3 -saturated water, which was related to roughness and possibly to repulsive hydration effects. Adhesive or repulsive forces were measured in CM in CaCO 3 -saturated water depending on calcite roughness, and the adhesion was likely enhanced by electrostatic effects. The pull-off adhesive force in CM became stronger with time and this increase was correlated with a decrease of roughness at contacts, which parameter could be estimated from the measured force-distance curves. That suggested a progressive increase of real contact areas between the surfaces, caused by gradual pressure-driven deformation of calcite surface asperities during repeated loading-unloading cycles. Reactivity of calcite was affected by mass transport across nm to µm-thick gaps between the surfaces. Major roughening was observed only for the smoothest calcite films, where gaps between two opposing surfaces were nm-thick over µm-sized areas, and led to force of crystallization that could overcome confining pressures of the order of MPa. Any substantial roughening of calcite caused a significant increase of the repulsive mechanical force contribution.

  17. The influence of salinity of fly ash mixtures on energy looses during flow in pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    И. Собота

    2017-01-01

    In Polish mining for backfilling the fly ash mixtures are used. Last time for fly ash mixtures preparation the saline water from mine have been used, to thanks to that the saline water missing the surface waters. Usage of saline water for fly ash mixture preparation causes the changes in energy looses during the flow in pipelines. The paper presents the results of energy looses measurement іn laboratory pipeline installation with diameter D =50 mm. The measurements have been performed for dif...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-02-13 to 2008-12-11 (NODC Accession 0109928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109928 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from F.G. Walton Smith in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Coastal Waters of Louisiana and others from 2014-04-22 to 2014-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0157432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157432 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from F.G. Walton Smith in the Coastal Waters of Florida,...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from F.G. Walton Smith in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2011-10-20 to 2011-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0157433)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157433 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from F.G. Walton Smith in the Coastal Waters of Florida,...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Coastal Waters of Mississippi and others from 2016-04-10 to 2016-11-14 (NCEI Accession 0157402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157402 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Coastal Waters of Florida,...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai) and others from 1989-11-17 to 2011-03-14 (NODC Accession 0081046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081046 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea (Tung...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Autonomous sensor to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and others from 1998-01-31 to 2003-02-12 (NODC Accession 0080986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080986 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-02-16 to 2013-03-13 (NCEI Accession 0157256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157256 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, Irish Sea and St....

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Banda Sea, Celebes Sea and others from 1994-04-16 to 1994-09-25 (NODC Accession 0117715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117715 includes Surface underway, biological, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Banda Sea,...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2011-03-24 to 2011-11-12 (NCEI Accession 0157279)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157279 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2008-10-21 to 2011-03-05 (NODC Accession 0117499)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117499 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2009-03-15 to 2009-12-20 (NODC Accession 0108229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108229 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and others from 2009-05-16 to 2010-10-08 (NODC Accession 0117502)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117502 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the Bering Sea, Coastal...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2014-02-25 to 2014-11-24 (NODC Accession 0117674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117674 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Hawaiian Islands...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Gulf of Guinea, Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-03-08 to 2010-12-20 (NODC Accession 0108093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108093 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Gulf of Guinea, Gulf...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2011-10-22 to 2011-12-11 (NODC Accession 0115180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115180 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2016-01-05 to 2016-07-07 (NCEI Accession 0157306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157306 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Coastal Waters of...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from AKADEMIK KOROLYOV, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the Bass Strait, Bering Sea and others from 1986-05-21 to 1989-04-20 (NODC Accession 0000071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0000071 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from AKADEMIK KOROLYOV, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and NOAA Ship...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from F.G. Walton Smith in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2012-02-27 to 2012-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0157425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157425 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from F.G. Walton Smith in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and others from 1997-07-28 to 1997-11-14 (NODC Accession 0081011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081011 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from KAIYO-MARU in the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1987-10-28 to 1987-12-05 (NODC Accession 0080985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080985 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KAIYO-MARU in the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-10-02 to 1998-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0157101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157101 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-08-11 to 2011-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0144622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144622 includes Surface underway data collected from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-08-11 to...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0148773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148773 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-05-26 to 2006-07-05 (NODC Accession 0108088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108088 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2011-06-06 to 2011-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0157465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157465 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2012-02-15 to 2012-08-27 (NODC Accession 0109926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109926 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Coastal Waters of...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and others from 2009-04-17 to 2009-10-18 (NODC Accession 0109931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109931 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 1998-01-08 to 1998-11-22 (NODC Accession 0081012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081012 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148774 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-31 to 2008-10-27 (NCEI Accession 0148763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148763 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-18 (NCEI Accession 0148767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148767 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway and time series observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from GULF CHALLENGER in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2004-05-10 to 2016-12-07 (NODC Accession 0073808)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0073808 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from GULF CHALLENGER in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Bering Sea, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2001-02-07 to 2001-12-03 (NODC Accession 0081015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081015 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Bering Sea, Channel Islands National...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MONTE OLIVIA and Rio Blanco in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2009-01-18 to 2009-12-23 (NODC Accession 0117337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117337 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MONTE OLIVIA and Rio Blanco in the English Channel, North...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1991-12-04 to 1994-06-12 (NODC Accession 0117725)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117725 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2006-02-02 to 2006-12-08 (NCEI Accession 0157361)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157361 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia and others from 1994-11-04 to 1994-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0157274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157274 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-01 to 2006-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0144535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144535 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0144343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144343 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South China Sea from 2012-05-13 to 2012-08-26 (NCEI Accession 0144304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144304 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-01-03 to 2013-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0157348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157348 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0148769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148769 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-01-09 to 2008-08-06 (NCEI Accession 0157386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157386 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0144354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144354 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2013-02-28 to 2013-06-25 (NCEI Accession 0144355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144355 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico,...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-22 to 2007-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157245 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-30 to 2008-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144348 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-22 to 2011-12-11 (NCEI Accession 0157336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157336 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144528 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway and time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER and ROGER REVELLE in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-11-01 to 1998-04-30 (NODC Accession 0112324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112324 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER and ROGER REVELLE in the...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-07 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0144356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144356 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-24 (NCEI Accession 0144349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144349 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-03-14 to 2012-09-02 (NCEI Accession 0157397)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157397 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-12-17 to 2006-12-15 (NCEI Accession 0157311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157311 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-12-31 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0144532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144532 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary and others from 1998-01-16 to 1998-12-17 (NCEI Accession 0157317)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157317 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Coastal Waters of Southeast...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from COLUMBUS ISELIN, ENDEAVOR and others in the Coastal Waters of Florida, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-05-11 to 1996-10-17 (NODC Accession 0051984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0051984 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from COLUMBUS ISELIN, ENDEAVOR, GYRE, OCEANUS and SEWARD JOHNSON in the...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1999-03-06 to 2000-02-10 (NCEI Accession 0157370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157370 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-02 to 2011-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0157259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157259 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-02 to 2006-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0148764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148764 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2011-07-22 to 2011-12-06 (NODC Accession 0108094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108094 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-12-29 to 2003-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0144351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144351 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-28 to 2005-12-12 (NCEI Accession 0157262)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157262 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-12-31 to 2013-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0144529)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144529 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Greenland Sea and others from 2012-02-15 to 2012-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0157254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157254 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Greenland...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SANTA LUCIA and Santa Maria in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and others from 2002-02-22 to 2007-12-22 (NODC Accession 0110259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0110259 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SANTA LUCIA and Santa Maria in the...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-23 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148766 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2010-01-14 to 2011-01-02 (NODC Accession 0108230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108230 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2013-04-30 to 2013-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0157243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157243 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico, North...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from F.G. Walton Smith in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2015-01-12 to 2015-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0157434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157434 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from F.G. Walton Smith in the Coastal Waters of Florida,...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Coastal Waters of Louisiana and others from 2014-02-15 to 2014-11-22 (NCEI Accession 0157328)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157328 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Coastal Waters of Florida,...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2015-03-12 to 2015-11-17 (NCEI Accession 0157418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157418 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2011-01-02 to 2011-11-20 (NODC Accession 0108231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108231 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2011-03-01 to 2012-08-24 (NCEI Accession 0157459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157459 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Mississippi and others from 2010-04-08 to 2010-11-23 (NCEI Accession 0157268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157268 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-03-08 to 2010-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0157269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157269 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Coastal Waters of Mississippi and others from 2012-04-29 to 2012-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0157337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157337 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Coastal Waters of Florida,...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Bay of Fundy, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2015-03-03 to 2015-10-25 (NCEI Accession 0157408)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157408 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Bay of Fundy, Coastal...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2009-02-04 to 2009-11-08 (NODC Accession 0117704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117704 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Florida Keys National...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2016-04-08 to 2016-11-21 (NCEI Accession 0157405)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157405 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0145200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145200 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Hokuto Maru in the Bismarck Sea, Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon and others from 1992-07-04 to 1996-08-27 (NODC Accession 0080983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080983 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Hokuto Maru in the Bismarck Sea, Columbia River estuary -...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2003-01-01 to 2003-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0148770)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148770 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2005-03-12 to 2005-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0157257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157257 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-01 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0148765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148765 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the North Greenland Sea, North Sea and Norwegian Sea from 2011-04-29 to 2011-11-01 (NCEI Accession 0157278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157278 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the North Greenland Sea, North Sea and...

  4. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  5. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within......Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  6. In situ measurement and simulation of nano-magnetite mobility in porous media subject to transient salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthew D; Wang, Yonggang; L Paulsen, Jeffrey; Song, Yi-Qiao; Abriola, Linda M; Pennell, Kurt D

    2015-01-21

    Nanotechnologies have been proposed for a variety of environmental applications, including subsurface characterization, enhanced oil recovery, and in situ contaminant remediation. For such applications, quantitative predictive models will be of great utility for system design and implementation. Electrolyte chemistry, which can vary substantially within subsurface pore waters, has been shown to strongly influence nanoparticle aggregation and deposition in porous media. Thus, it is essential that mathematical models be capable of tracking changes in electrolyte chemistry and predicting its influence on nanoparticle mobility. In this work, a modified version of a multi-dimensional multispecies transport simulator (SEAWAT) was employed to model nanoparticle transport under transient electrolyte conditions. The modeling effort was supported by experimental measurements of paramagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle, coated with polyacrylamide-methylpropane sulfonic acid - lauryl acrylate (nMag-PAMPS), mobility in columns packed with 40-50 mesh Ottawa sand. Column effluent analyses and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to quantify nanoparticle breakthrough and in situ aqueous phase concentrations, respectively. Experimental observations revealed that introduction of de-ionized water into the brine saturated column (80 g L(-1) NaCl + 20 g L(-1) CaCl2) promoted release and remobilization of deposited nanoparticles along a diagonal front, coincident with the variable density flow field. This behavior was accurately captured by the simulation results, which indicated that a two-site deposition-release model provided the best fit to experimental observations, suggesting that heterogeneous nanoparticle-surface interactions governed nanoparticle attachment. These findings illustrate the importance of accounting for both physical and chemical processes associated with changes in electrolyte chemistry when predicting nanoparticle transport behavior in subsurface

  7. Accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional surface reconstruction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Jun; Muneta, Yuki; Tanabe, Makito; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Azemoto, Syougo.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a new three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction system to measure the temporal bones. This system offers the advantage of observation of the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct and the porus acusticus internus in living subjects. However, its accuracy has not been confirmed. To investigate the accuracy of this new system, we measured the length of an in situ ceramic ossicular replacement prosthesis (CORP) of known length of 6.0 mm using 3-D surface reconstruction, conventional plain X-ray and polytomography. The CORP was scanned in the axial, sagittal and oblique directions. The mean measured length obtained with the 3-D surface reconstruction images was 5.94±0.21 on vertical scans, 5.91±0.27 on horizontal scans, and 6.01±0.25 on oblique scans. There were no significant differences among the measured lengths obtained in the three directions. Therefore, this 3-D surface reconstruction measurement system is considered to be reliable. Conversely, the mean measured length obtained by plain X-ray was 7.98±0.20, and by polytomography it was 7.94±0.23. These conventional methods have the inherent disadvantage of magnification of size which consequently requires correction. (author)

  8. Field measurement of albedo for limited extent test surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David J. [Portland State University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, P.O. Box 751-ME, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Resh, Kyle; Segura, Del [Tulane University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 400 Lindy Boggs Center, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A new method is introduced for field measurement of surface albedo. This method consists of the use of a cylindrical shade ring made of opaque fabric with a known (low) albedo placed over a test surface. The albedo measurement is accomplished using two small pyranometers situated so that the downward-facing pyranometer receives radiation only from the test surface and the shade ring. The upward-facing pyranometer simultaneously records the incoming solar radiation. The radiation received by the downward-facing pyramometer is a combination of reflected radiation from shaded and unshaded portions of these two surfaces, requiring detailed accounting of the resulting view factor geometries. The method presented here improves upon past approaches by allowing for smaller sample sizes, minimizing errors associated with reflective properties of the surroundings, and allowing for accurate measurements even under partially cloudy skies. In addition to these methodological improvements we introduce an approach for estimating the uncertainty in the resulting albedo measurements. Results from field measurements are presented to validate the measurement protocol, and to compare its accuracy with the accuracy of a published standard. (author)

  9. Intelligent sampling for the measurement of structured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Jiang, X; Blunt, L A; Scott, P J; Leach, R K

    2012-01-01

    Uniform sampling in metrology has known drawbacks such as coherent spectral aliasing and a lack of efficiency in terms of measuring time and data storage. The requirement for intelligent sampling strategies has been outlined over recent years, particularly where the measurement of structured surfaces is concerned. Most of the present research on intelligent sampling has focused on dimensional metrology using coordinate-measuring machines with little reported on the area of surface metrology. In the research reported here, potential intelligent sampling strategies for surface topography measurement of structured surfaces are investigated by using numerical simulation and experimental verification. The methods include the jittered uniform method, low-discrepancy pattern sampling and several adaptive methods which originate from computer graphics, coordinate metrology and previous research by the authors. By combining the use of advanced reconstruction methods and feature-based characterization techniques, the measurement performance of the sampling methods is studied using case studies. The advantages, stability and feasibility of these techniques for practical measurements are discussed. (paper)

  10. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  11. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  12. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  13. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, Sergio; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Fedorov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E A =1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D 0  = 0.53(×2.1±1) cm 2 s −1 that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  14. Direct measurement of Cu surface self-diffusion on a checked surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, Jacques; Peix, Roger; Perraillon, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    A radiotracer technique ( 64 Cu) was developed to measure surface diffusion on copper surfaces of total impurity concentration not exceeding some 10 -3 monolayers. The apparatus used consists of a slow electron diffraction device, an Auger analysis spectrometer (CMA), an ion gun and an evaporation device assembled in an ultra-vacuum chamber holding a residual pressure below 10 -10 Torr. A sample handler enables the surface studied to be positioned in front of each of these instruments. During the diffusion treatment the chemical composition of the surface is checked intermittently, and afterwards the spread of the deposit is measured outside the ultravacuum chamber. Slices several microns thick are removed and dissolved separately in dishes containing HNO 3 . The activity is then measured with a flow counter [fr

  15. Measurement of surface recombination velocity on heavily doped indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.; Ghalla-Goradia, M.; Faur, M.; Bailey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the published low values of surface recombination velocity (SRV) in n-InP, solidified in recent years when modeling of existing n/p InP solar cells revealed that the front surface SRV had to be higher than 1 x 10 6 cm/sec in order to justify the poor blue response that is characteristic of all n/p InP solar cells. In this paper, SRV on heavily doped (>10 18 cm -3 )n-type and p-type InP is measured as a function of surface treatment. For the limited range of substrates and surface treatments studied, SRV and surface stability depend strongly on the surface treatment. SRVs of ∼10 5 cm/sec in both p-type and n-type InP are obtainable, but in n-type the low SRV surfaces were unstable, and the only stable surfaces on n-type had SRVs of >10 6 cm/sec

  16. Fermi surface measurements in actinide metals and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.; Schirber, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The various techniques of measuring Fermi Surface parameters are briefly discussed in terms f application to actinide systems. Particular emphasis is given the dHvA effect. Some general results found in the dHvA studies of actinide compounds are given. The dHvA effect has been measured in α-U and is presented in detail. None of the observed frequencies corresponds to closed surfaces. Results are compared to the calculations of Freeman, Koelling and Watson-Yang where qualitative agreement is observed

  17. Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity; November 2008-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Field, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity were made in Maunalua Bay, southern Oahu, Hawaii, during the 2008-2009 winter to better understand coastal circulation, water-column properties, and sediment dynamics during a range of conditions (trade winds, kona storms, relaxation of trade winds, and south swells). A series of bottom-mounted instrument packages were deployed in water depths of 20 m or less to collect long-term, high-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity, and turbidity. These data were supplemented with a series of profiles through the water column to characterize the vertical and spatial variability in water-column properties within the bay. These measurements support the ongoing process studies being done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Pacific Coral Reef Project; the ultimate goal of these studies is to better understand the transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants, and other particles in coral reef settings. Project Objectives The objective of this study was to understand the temporal variations in currents, waves, tides, temperature, salinity and turbidity within a coral-lined embayment that receives periodic discharges of freshwater and sediment from multiple terrestrial sources in the Maunalua Bay. Instrument packages were deployed for a three-month period during the 2008-2009 winter and a series of vertical profiles were collected in November 2008, and again in February 2009, to characterize water-column properties within the bay. Measurements of flow and water-column properties in Maunalua Bay provided insight into the potential fate of terrestrial sediment, nutrient, or contaminant delivered to the marine environment and coral larval transport within the embayment. Such data are useful for providing baseline information for future watershed decisions and for establishing guidelines for

  18. Seasonal pattern of anthropogenic salinization in temperate forested headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpano, Anthony J; Zipper, Carl E; Soucek, David J; Schoenholtz, Stephen H

    2018-04-15

    Salinization of freshwaters by human activities is of growing concern globally. Consequences of salt pollution include adverse effects to aquatic biodiversity, ecosystem function, human health, and ecosystem services. In headwater streams of the temperate forests of eastern USA, elevated specific conductance (SC), a surrogate measurement for the major dissolved ions composing salinity, has been linked to decreased diversity of aquatic insects. However, such linkages have typically been based on limited numbers of SC measurements that do not quantify intra-annual variation. Effective management of salinization requires tools to accurately monitor and predict salinity while accounting for temporal variability. Toward that end, high-frequency SC data were collected within the central Appalachian coalfield over 4 years at 25 forested headwater streams spanning a gradient of salinity. A sinusoidal periodic function was used to model the annual cycle of SC, averaged across years and streams. The resultant model revealed that, on average, salinity deviated approximately ±20% from annual mean levels across all years and streams, with minimum SC occurring in late winter and peak SC occurring in late summer. The pattern was evident in headwater streams influenced by surface coal mining, unmined headwater reference streams with low salinity, and larger-order salinized rivers draining the study area. The pattern was strongly responsive to varying seasonal dilution as driven by catchment evapotranspiration, an effect that was amplified slightly in unmined catchments with greater relative forest cover. Evaluation of alternative sampling intervals indicated that discrete sampling can approximate the model performance afforded by high-frequency data but model error increases rapidly as discrete sampling intervals exceed 30 days. This study demonstrates that intra-annual variation of salinity in temperate forested headwater streams of Appalachia USA follows a natural seasonal

  19. Measuring surface flow velocity with smartphones: potential for citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven V.; Chen, Zichong; Brauchli, Tristan; Huwald, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Stream flow velocity is an important variable for discharge estimation and research on sediment dynamics. Given the influence of the latter on rating curves (stage-discharge relations), and the relative scarcity of direct streamflow measurements, surface velocity measurements can offer important information for, e.g., flood warning, hydropower, and hydrological science and engineering in general. With the growing amount of sensing and computing power in the hands of more outdoorsy individuals, and the advances in image processing techniques, there is now a tremendous potential to obtain hydrologically relevant data from motivated citizens. This is the main focus of the interdisciplinary "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water. In this subproject, we investigate the feasibility of stream flow surface velocity measurements from movie clips taken by (smartphone-) cameras. First results from movie-clip derived velocity information will be shown and compared to reference measurements.

  20. Topography measurements for determining the decay factors in surface replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Rubert, P

    2008-01-01

    The electro-forming technique is used at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the production of standard reference material (SRM) 2461 standard casings to support nationwide ballistics measurement traceability and measurement quality control in the US. In order to ensure that the SRM casings are produced with virtually the same surface topography, it is necessary to test the decay factors of the replication process. Twenty-six replica casings are replicated from the same master casing for the decay factor tests. The NIST topography measurement system is used for measurements and correlations of surface topography. The topography decays are quantified by the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max . Based on the test, it is expected that 256 SRM casings can be replicated from the same master with CCF max values higher than 95%

  1. Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

  2. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  3. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Surface Measurement of Liver Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan H; Reistad, Nina; Brange, Hannes; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Sturesson, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Liver parenchymal injuries such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can lead to increased morbidity and liver failure after liver resection. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical measuring method that is fast, convenient, and established. DRS has previously been used on the liver with an invasive technique consisting of a needle that is inserted into the parenchyma. We developed a DRS system with a hand-held probe that is applied to the liver surface. In this study, we investigated the impact of the liver capsule on DRS measurements and whether liver surface measurements are representative of the whole liver. We also wanted to confirm that we could discriminate between tumor and liver parenchyma by DRS. The instrumentation setup consisted of a light source, a fiber-optic contact probe, and two spectrometers connected to a computer. Patients scheduled for liver resection due to hepatic malignancy were included, and DRS measurements were performed on the excised liver part with and without the liver capsule and alongside a newly cut surface. To estimate the scattering parameters and tissue chromophore volume fractions, including blood, bile, and fat, the measured diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to an analytical model. In total, 960 DRS spectra from the excised liver tissue of 18 patients were analyzed. All factors analyzed regarding tumor versus liver tissue were significantly different. When measuring through the capsule, the blood volume fraction was found to be 8.4 ± 3.5%, the lipid volume fraction was 9.9 ± 4.7%, and the bile volume fraction was 8.2 ± 4.6%. No differences could be found between surface measurements and cross-sectional measurements. In measurements with/without the liver capsule, the differences in volume fraction were 1.63% (0.75-2.77), -0.54% (-2.97 to 0.32), and -0.15% (-1.06 to 1.24) for blood, lipid, and bile, respectively. This study shows that it is possible to manage DRS

  4. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms, there is a n......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions....

  5. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  6. Freeform surface measurement and characterisation using a toolmakers microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Francis Seung-yin; Chauh, Kong-Bieng; Venuvinod, Patri K

    2014-01-01

    Current freeform surface (FFS) characterization systems mainly cover aspects related to computer-aided design/manufacture (CAD/CAM). This paper describes a new approach that extends into computer-aided inspection (CAI).The following novel features are addressed: - ◼ Feature recognition and extraction from surface data; - ◼ Characterisation of properties of the surface's M and N vectors at individual vertex; - ◼ Development of a measuring plan using a toolmakers microscope for the inspection of the FFS; - ◼ Inspection of the actual FFS produced by CNC milling; - ◼ Verification of the measurement results and comparison with the CAD design data; Tests have shown that the deviations between the CAI and CAD data were within the estimated uncertainty limits

  7. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  8. Surface moisture measurement system acceptance testing work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses testing of the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The purpose of this plan is to define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, describe test control requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule associated with acceptance testing

  9. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  10. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  11. Development, Testing, and Application of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Surface-Water/Groundwater Model (FTLOADDS) with Heat and Salinity Transport in the Ten Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration Project Area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model application was developed for the coastal area inland of the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwestern Florida using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) model. This model couples a two-dimensional dynamic surface-water model with a three-dimensional groundwater model, and has been applied to several locations in southern Florida. The model application solves equations for salt transport in groundwater and surface water, and also simulates surface-water temperature using a newly enhanced heat transport algorithm. One of the purposes of the TTI application is to simulate hydrologic factors that relate to habitat suitability for the West Indian Manatee. Both salinity and temperature have been shown to be important factors for manatee survival. The inland area of the TTI domain is the location of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to restore predevelopment hydrology through the filling and plugging of canals, construction of spreader channels, and the construction of levees and pump stations. The effects of these changes are simulated to determine their effects on manatee habitat. The TTI application utilizes a large amount of input data for both surface-water and groundwater flow simulations. These data include topography, frictional resistance, atmospheric data including rainfall and air temperature, aquifer properties, and boundary conditions for tidal levels, inflows, groundwater heads, and salinities. Calibration was achieved by adjusting the parameters having the largest uncertainty: surface-water inflows, the surface-water transport dispersion coefficient, and evapotranspiration. A sensitivity analysis did not indicate that further parameter changes would yield an overall improvement in simulation results. The agreement between field data from GPS-tracked manatees and TTI application results demonstrates that the model can predict the salinity and temperature

  12. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  13. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  14. Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Saletti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  15. Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  16. Field Measurement of Surface Ship Magnetic Signature Using Multiple AUVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    been equipped with a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer and used to perform preliminary magnetic field measurements. Measurements of this type will be...mounted on the AUVs, shown in Fig. 1, was a three-axis fluxgate type [16] magnetometer with a range of ±100,000 nT and a sensitivity of 100μV/nT. The...surface ship. The system will employ a formation of multiple AUVs, each equipped with a magnetometer . The objective is to measure total magnetic

  17. Measurement of annual dose on porcelain using surface TLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of measurement of annual dose using ultrathin (CaSO 4 :Tm) dosage layer on porcelain was studied. The TLD was placed on the part of porcelain without glaze. A comparison of measurement of annual dose for surface TLD, inside TLD and alpha counting on porcelain was made. The results show that this technique is suitable for measuring annual dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  18. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Statistical properties and time-frequency analysis of temperature, salinity and turbidity measured by the MAREL Carnot station in the coastal waters of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kbaier Ben Ismail, Dhouha; Lazure, Pascal; Puillat, Ingrid

    2016-10-01

    In marine sciences, many fields display high variability over a large range of spatial and temporal scales, from seconds to thousands of years. The longer recorded time series, with an increasing sampling frequency, in this field are often nonlinear, nonstationary, multiscale and noisy. Their analysis faces new challenges and thus requires the implementation of adequate and specific methods. The objective of this paper is to highlight time series analysis methods already applied in econometrics, signal processing, health, etc. to the environmental marine domain, assess advantages and inconvenients and compare classical techniques with more recent ones. Temperature, turbidity and salinity are important quantities for ecosystem studies. The authors here consider the fluctuations of sea level, salinity, turbidity and temperature recorded from the MAREL Carnot system of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France), which is a moored buoy equipped with physico-chemical measuring devices, working in continuous and autonomous conditions. In order to perform adequate statistical and spectral analyses, it is necessary to know the nature of the considered time series. For this purpose, the stationarity of the series and the occurrence of unit-root are addressed with the Augmented-Dickey Fuller tests. As an example, the harmonic analysis is not relevant for temperature, turbidity and salinity due to the nonstationary condition, except for the nearly stationary sea level datasets. In order to consider the dominant frequencies associated to the dynamics, the large number of data provided by the sensors should enable the estimation of Fourier spectral analysis. Different power spectra show a complex variability and reveal an influence of environmental factors such as tides. However, the previous classical spectral analysis, namely the Blackman-Tukey method, requires not only linear and stationary data but also evenly-spaced data. Interpolating the time series introduces numerous artifacts to the

  20. DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Lev; Unlü, M Selim; Swan, Anna K; Goldberg, Bennett B; Cantor, Charles R

    2006-02-21

    The conformation of DNA molecules tethered to the surface of a microarray may significantly affect the efficiency of hybridization. Although a number of methods have been applied to determine the structure of the DNA layer, they are not very sensitive to variations in the shape of DNA molecules. Here we describe the application of an interferometric technique called spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy to the precise measurement of the average location of a fluorescent label in a DNA layer relative to the surface and thus determine specific information on the conformation of the surface-bound DNA molecules. Using spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy, we have estimated the shape of coiled single-stranded DNA, the average tilt of double-stranded DNA of different lengths, and the amount of hybridization. The data provide important proofs of concept for the capabilities of novel optical surface analytical methods of the molecular disposition of DNA on surfaces. The determination of DNA conformations on surfaces and hybridization behavior provide information required to move DNA interfacial applications forward and thus impact emerging clinical and biotechnological fields.