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Sample records for surface rupture caused

  1. Causes of renal forniceal rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Boris; Kulkarni, Naveen; Sahani, Dushyant V; Eisner, Brian H

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Renal forniceal rupture is a common finding in patients with ureteral obstruction. It is thought to be due to increased renal pelvis pressure from backup of urine, causing one or more renal fornices to leak urine. This phenomenon has not been systematically studied. Herein we retrospectively review the causes and associated clinical findings in over 100 cases of renal forniceal rupture. • To perform a retrospective review aiming to identify causes of renal forniceal rupture. • A retrospective review was performed of the longitudinal medical record and CT records for patients identified as having renal 'forniceal rupture' or 'calyceal rupture' using a radiological database. • In total, 108 patients were identified with the CT diagnosis of renal 'forniceal' or 'calyceal' rupture. • Forniceal rupture was caused by ureteric stones in 80 cases (74.1%), malignant extrinsic ureteric compression in nine cases (8.3%), benign extrinsic ureteric compression in two cases (1.9%), pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction in two cases (1.9%), vesico-ureteric junction (VUJ) obstruction in one case (0.9%), bladder outlet obstruction in one case (0.9%) and iatrogenic causes in four cases (3.7%). • No definitive cause was found in nine cases (8.3%). For patients in whom a ureteric stone was the cause of forniceal rupture, the level of obstruction was proximal ureter in 24.3% of cases, distal ureter in 17.6% of cases and VUJ in 58.1% of cases. • Mean (sd) stone size was 4.09 (2.0) mm. Mean (sd) stone size was 5.34 (1.87) mm for proximal stones, 4.08 (1.69) mm for distal stones and 3.53 (1.96) mm for VUJ stones (P= 0.005). • Urinary tract infection was present in five out of 97 patients (5.2%) in whom data were available for analysis. • The most common aetiology of renal forniceal rupture is obstruction caused by distal ureteric stones followed by malignant extrinsic ureteric compression. © 2011 THE

  2. Ruptured uterus-eight year retrospective analysis of causes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ruptured uterus is a common cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Further studies may help in the development of preventive strategies. Objective: To determine the frequency, cause and management outcome of ruptured uterus at a zonal hospital. Method: A retrospective study (April 1, ...

  3. Unusual Cause of Acute Abdomen—Ruptured Retroperitoneal Paraganglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok-Kay Yau; Wing-Tai Siu; Michael Ka-Wah Li

    2008-01-01

    Ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Its clinical presentation and laparoscopic features have seldom been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma that presented as acute abdomen, and its subsequent management.

  4. Unusual Cause of Acute Abdomen—Ruptured Retroperitoneal Paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Kay Yau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Its clinical presentation and laparoscopic features have seldom been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma that presented as acute abdomen, and its subsequent management.

  5. Spontaneous calyceal rupture caused by a ureteral calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Chaabouni

    Ureteral calculus;. CT;. Ureterel stent. Abstract. Rupture of the urinary collecting system with perirenal and retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition that is typically caused by ureteral-obstructing calculi. We report a case of calyceal rupture with urinoma formation, due to a stone in the distal ureter.

  6. Spontaneous calyceal rupture caused by a ureteral calculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of the urinary collecting system with perirenal and retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition that is typically caused by ureteral-obstructing calculi. We report a case of calyceal rupture with urinoma formation, due to a stone in the distal ureter. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed ...

  7. Ruptured thymoma causing a hemothorax: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokka, Daisuke; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Tane, Shinya; Tanaka, Yugo; Tauchi, Shunsuke; Maniwa, Yoshimasa

    2015-09-01

    A thymoma is a neoplasm that arises from the epithelial cells of the thymus, and may cause various signs and symptoms dependent upon its local extent. A non-traumatic hemothorax is extremely rare. The present study reports the case of a 77-year-old female who presented with an acute onset of chest pain. Imaging procedures revealed a mass occupying the anterior mediastinum and left hemithorax, and a left pleural effusion. Progressive anemia was noted following admission. Left hemothorax due to rupture of the anterior mediastinal mass was suspected, and emergency surgery was performed. Hemorrhage was observed on the cut surface of the tumor. An analysis of frozen sections indicated a thymoma, and a thymo-partial thymectomy was subsequently performed to remove as much of the hematoma as possible. The patient was discharged on post-operative day 13 following an uneventful recovery. The present case suggests that in previously healthy individuals, sudden-onset dyspnea and chest pain co-occurring with an acute widening of the mediastinum observed on roentgenograph may be indicative of a ruptured thymoma.

  8. Hemothorax caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the pleural cavity: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hin Hee; Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Jin Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Hemothorax resulting from ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare and is generally caused by ruptured intrathoracic metastatic lesions. However, we report a rare case of hemothorax resulting from intrathoracic rupture of primary HCC.

  9. Case Report: Early Neonatal Death Due To Liver Rupture Caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An early neonatal death due to liver to liver rupture caused by maternal abdominal manipulation and massage is presented. An apparently health baby girl was born to 26 years old primigravida who came in the second state of labour and deliver of her baby within eight minutes of arrival to the labour ward. Her labour lasted ...

  10. Uterine rupture: a retrospective analysis of causes, complications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted a retrospective review of case notes (from 2003 to 2009) to determine the incidence, causes, complications and foetal/maternal outcome among women with a diagnosis of ... Out of 72,570 deliveries 163 cases of ruptured uterus were recorded in seven years, making an incidence of 2.25 per 1000 births.

  11. Ruptured pericallosal aneurysm causing hemorrhage along the fornix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.E.; Lurito, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a 57 year-old man with a pericallosal aneurysm causing parenchymal hemorrhage in the preseptal region of the frontal lobe with extension into the fornix. We briefly discuss the literature pertaining to ruptured pericallosal aneurysms and their bleeding patterns. (orig.)

  12. Ruptured pericallosal aneurysm causing hemorrhage along the fornix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.E.; Lurito, J.T. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, 550 North University Boulevard, Room 0615, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2002-12-01

    We present a 57 year-old man with a pericallosal aneurysm causing parenchymal hemorrhage in the preseptal region of the frontal lobe with extension into the fornix. We briefly discuss the literature pertaining to ruptured pericallosal aneurysms and their bleeding patterns. (orig.)

  13. Ruptured thymoma causing mediastinal hemorrhage resected via partial sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, S; Watanabe, S; Sakasegawa, K; Tani, A

    2001-01-01

    A case of a ruptured thymoma causing mediastinal hemorrhage and hemothorax that was electively resected by a partial sternotomy approach is presented. This case and others previously reported illustrate that a sudden onset of dyspnea and chest pain accompanied by acute mediastinal widening on chest roentgenogram in a previously healthy patient should suggest the diagnosis of a ruptured thymoma. An upper part sternotomy approach may be as safe and effective as a less invasive surgical procedure in resection of noninvasive thymomas, even if dense tumor adhesion exists.

  14. Hemobilia caused by a ruptured hepatic cyst: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Sudhir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. More than 50% of hemobilia cases are related to iatrogenic trauma from hepatobiliary procedures, and needle biopsy of the liver represents the most common cause. A minority of hemobilia cases are due to hepatobiliary disorders such as cholangitis, hepatobiliary cancers, choledocholithiasis, and vascular abnormalities in the liver. The classic presentation of hemobilia is the triad of right upper quadrant (biliary pain, obstructive jaundice, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a rare case of hemobilia caused by a spontaneous hepatic cyst rupture, where our patient presented without the classical symptoms, in the absence of therapeutic or pathological coagulopathy, and in the absence of spontaneous or iatrogenic trauma. Case presentation A 91-year-old African-American woman was referred to our out-patient gastroenterology clinic for evaluation of mild epigastric pain and intermittent melena. An abdominal computed tomography scan was remarkable for multiple hepatic cysts. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple blood clots at the ampulla of Vater. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a single 18 mm-sized filling defect in the common hepatic duct wall at the junction of the right and left hepatic duct, adjacent to one of the hepatic cysts. The ruptured hepatic cyst communicated to the bile ducts and was the cause of hemobilia with an atypical clinical presentation. Conclusion Hemobilia is an infrequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and rarely occurs due to hepatic cyst rupture. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case report in the literature that describes hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture. However, it is the first case in the literature of hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture in the absence of iatrogenic or spontaneous trauma, and in the absence of a spontaneous or pathological coagulopathy.

  15. Thyroid gland rupture caused by blunt trauma to the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hirotaka; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2016-02-19

    Thyroid rupture following blunt trauma is extremely rare, and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. However, hemorrhage and hematoma subsequently causes severe tracheal compression and respiratory distress. A 71-year-old Japanese woman visited our emergency room with a complaint of increasing right-sided neck pain at the thyroid cartilage level after she tripped and accidentally hit her neck against a pole 3 h back. On admission, her vital signs were stable. There was no swelling or subcutaneous emphysema. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed mild laryngeal edema, although there was no impairment in vocal fold mobility on either side. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed rupture of the right lobe of the thyroid gland accompanied by a large hematoma extending from the neck to the mediastinum. Under general anesthesia, the right lobe was resected and the hematoma was evacuated. Only a few isolated cases of thyroid rupture caused by blunt neck trauma have been reported in patients with normal thyroid glands and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. When suspected, CT should be performed to confirm the diagnosis determine the optimal treatment.

  16. Rupture of sigmoid colon caused by compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wan-Bin; Hu, Ji-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xian-Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Shen; Liu, Guang-Wei; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Lu, Yun

    2016-03-14

    Compressed air has been generally used since the beginning of the 20(th) century for various applications. However, rupture of the colon caused by compressed air is uncommon. We report a case of pneumatic rupture of the sigmoid colon. The patient was admitted to the emergency room complaining of abdominal pain and distention. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle against his anus as a practical joke 2 h previously. On arrival, his pulse rate was 126 beats/min, respiratory rate was 42 breaths/min and blood pressure was 86/54 mmHg. Physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and the abdomen was markedly distended. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a large volume of air in the abdominal cavity. Peritoneocentesis was performed to relieve the tension pneumoperitoneum. Emergency laparotomy was done after controlling shock. Laparotomy revealed a 2-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. The perforation was sutured and temporary ileostomy was performed as well as thorough drainage and irrigation of the abdominopelvic cavity. Reversal of ileostomy was performed successfully after 3 mo. Follow-up was uneventful. We also present a brief literature review.

  17. Iatrogenic fornix rupture caused during retrograde manipulation of the ureter: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bannowsky, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Iatrogenic fornix rupture caused during retrograde manipulation of the ureter is a rather rare or rarely diagnosed phenomenon. A 22 year-old female patient presented with a fornix rupture following endoscopic ureteral stone extraction under uretero-renoscopy, the rupture having become symptomatic two days later.

  18. Perinephric abscess caused by ruptured retrocecal appendix: MDCT demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Nisar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis may occasionally become extraordinarily complicated and life threatening yet difficult to diagnose. One such presentation is described in a 60-year-old man who was brought to the hospital due to right lumbar pain and fever for the last 15 days. Ultrasonography showed a right perinephric gas and fluid collection. Abdominal computed tomography with multidetector-row CT (MDCT revealed gas-containing abscess in the right retroperitoneal region involving the perinephric space, extending from the lower pole of the right kidney up to the bare area of the liver. Inflamed retrocecal appendix was seen on thick multiplanar reformat images with its tip at the lower extent of the abscess. Laparotomy and retroperitoneal exploration were performed immediately and a large volume of foul smelling pus was drained. A ruptured retrocecal appendix was confirmed as the cause of the abscess.

  19. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some rock slides of several tens of meters in size that obviously require significantly high ground shaking were also developed on steep fault scarps. The orientation of the principal stress tensor as deduced from the surface rupture of the Eskisehir earthquake displays clear inconsistency with the geometry of prominent ...

  20. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The orientation of the principal stress tensor as deduced from the surface rupture of the Eskisehir earthquake ... history extended back to late Oligocene exhuma- tion of the Uludag massif (Okay et al 2008) and the ensuing ... accepted this view estimating stress directions from slip measurements in the main bounding faults.

  1. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface rupture and source fault of the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake have been a matter of debate that potentially contributes towards the understanding of the active deformation and seismic risk in the highly populated NW Anatolia. Field observations on the two fault segments (namely Kavacık and Uludere ...

  2. A Rare Cause of Thumb Boutonniere Deformity: Flexor Pulley Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-Ho Leung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of thumb boutonniere deformity secondary to closed rupture of thumb flexor pulley. The postulation of the development of boutonniere deformity, anatomical and biomechanical basis, and current treatment options are discussed.

  3. An uncommon cause of ascites: spontaneous rupture of biliary cystadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Sasidharan; Jino, Thomas; Sarin, George Zacharia; Sandesh, Kolassery; Prathapan, Valiya Kambarath; Ramachandran, Thazhath Mavali

    2014-01-01

    Biliary cystadenomas are cystic hepatic tumours of biliary origin. Cystadenomas are often slow-growing benign tumours, but always harbour the risk of malignant transformation. Cystadenomas are often asymptomatic, but may present with abdominal pain and distension. Though suspected with cross-sectional abdominal imaging, definitive diagnosis almost always requires histology. Spontaneous rupture of cystadenoma had been reported three times in the medical literature to date, all presenting with peritonitis. Here we report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of biliary cystadenoma presenting as ascites without peritonitis.

  4. Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingdi; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Miyakoshi, Ken; Irikura, Kojiro

    2017-09-01

    Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment ( M 0) and rupture area ( A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M 0- A 2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counter-intuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M 0- A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.

  5. Rupture of thin liquid films on structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaev, Vladimir S; Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Kabov, Oleg A

    2011-10-01

    We investigate stability and breakup of a thin liquid film on a solid surface under the action of disjoining pressure. The solid surface is structured by parallel grooves. Air is trapped in the grooves under the liquid film. Our mathematical model takes into account the effect of slip due to the presence of menisci separating the liquid film from the air inside the grooves, the deformation of these menisci due to local variations of pressure in the liquid film, and nonuniformities of the Hamaker constant which measures the strength of disjoining pressure. Both linear stability and strongly nonlinear evolution of the film are analyzed. Surface structuring results in decrease of the fastest growing instability wavelength and the rupture time. It is shown that a simplified description of film dynamics based on the standard formula for effective slip leads to significant deviations from the behavior seen in our simulations. Self-similar decay over several orders of magnitude of the film thickness near the rupture point is observed. We also show that the presence of the grooves can lead to instability in otherwise stable films if the relative groove width is above a critical value, found as a function of disjoining pressure parameters.

  6. Pneumatic rupture of the esophagus caused by carbonated drinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerovitch, J.; Barzilay, Z.; Ben Ami, T.; Rozenman, J.

    1988-09-01

    Pneumatic rupture of the esophagus occurs when gas under pressure is accidentally delivered into the oral cavity. To the 4 cases previously described we add 2 pediatric patients and in both the source of the offending gas was a bottle of carbonated drink. The mild initial symptoms were followed in both by physical and radiographic findings suggesting pharyngoesophageal perforation. Early radiologic findings included free subcutaneous and mediastinal air, followed later by hydropneumothorax and mediastinal widening as well as leak of contrast material on gastrografin swallow. CT findings contributed to patient evaluation and management.

  7. Rubber matting on an obstacle course causes anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and its removal eliminates them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Rodney P

    2002-04-01

    In June 1998, six unexpected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures within 12 months were detected by routine injury surveillance in a cohort of Australian Army recruits. Local investigation, reported separately as a Case Report in this issue, suggested the cause to be an excessive coefficient of friction between rubber boot soles and newly laid rubber matting on one obstacle course, creating excessive knee torques. The matting was removed progressively, but not before two more ruptures occurred on one remaining section. In this retrospective study, chi 2 analyses were used to compare the incidence of ACL rupture in prehazard, hazard-exposed, and postintervention cohorts, and the average costs to the institution of each ACL rupture were determined. Zero, eight, and zero ACL ruptures occurred in the prehazard, hazard-exposed, and postintervention cohorts, respectively (chi 2 > 4.75 for 1 df, p < 0.03 for each change in incidence). The temporal relationships between hazard introduction or removal and changes in the incidence of ACL rupture were strong. The average institutional cost of each ACL rupture was AU$54,627 or US$34,322. Rubber matting on obstacle courses increases the risk of ACL rupture in the presence of speed and rubber-soled footwear. Routine injury surveillance and simple preventive processes save money and personnel.

  8. Rupture

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  9. Generalized peritonitis caused by spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaru, A; Endou, M; Miura, Y; Otsuki, M

    1996-11-01

    We report a case of generalized peritonitis caused by spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of the urinary bladder. A 74-year-old female was admitted with abdominal pain and biochemical findings of acute renal failure (ARF). She had recently complained of macrohematuria. She had a past history of radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer and Parkinson's disease treated with levodopa and amantadine. We diagnosed this case as intraperitoneal rupture of the bladder by cystogram. Biochemical findings of ARF might have resulted from urine reabsorption. Intraperitoneal rupture of the bladder should be considered in all cases of peritonitis, especially in patients with urological symptoms and features of ARF.

  10. Historic Surface Rupture Informing Probabilistic Fault Displacement Analysis: New Zealand Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, P.; Litchfield, N. J.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Langridge, R.; Berryman, K. R.; Baize, S.

    2016-12-01

    Surface rupture associated with the 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield Earthquake (South Island, New Zealand) was extremely well documented, thanks to an immediate field mapping response and the acquisition of LiDAR data within days of the event. With respect to informing Probabilistic Fault Displacement Analysis (PFDHA) the main insights and outcomes from this rupture through Quaternary gravel are: 1) significant distributed deformation either side of the main trace (30 to 300 m wide deformation zone) and how the deformation is distributed away from the main trace; 2) a thorough analysis of uncertainty of the displacement measures obtained using the LIDAR data and repeated measurements from several scientists; and 3) the short surface rupture length for the reported magnitude, resulting from complex fault rupture with 5-6 reverse and strike-slip strands, most of which had no surface rupture. While the 2010 event is extremely well documented and will be an excellent case to add to the Surface Rupture during Earthquakes database (SURE), other NZ historical earthquakes that are not so well documented, but can provide important information for PFDHA. New Zealand has experienced about 10 historical surface fault ruptures since 1848, comprising ruptures on strike-slip, reverse and normal faults. Mw associated with these ruptures ranges between 6.3 and 8.1. From these ruptures we observed that the surface expression of deformation can be influenced by: fault maturity; the type of Quaternary sedimentary cover; fault history (e.g., influence of inversion tectonics, flexural slip); fault complexity; and primary versus secondary rupture. Other recent >Mw 6.6 earthquakes post-2010 that did not rupture the ground surface have been documented with InSAR and can inform Mw thresholds for surface fault rupture. It will be important to capture all this information and that of similar events worldwide to inform the SURE database and ultimately PFDHA.

  11. Prediction of globe rupture caused by primary blast: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lizhen; Wang, Chao; Fan, Jie; Liu, Songyang; Fan, Yubo

    2015-07-01

    Although a human eye comprises less than 0.1% of the frontal body surface area, injuries to the eye are found to be disproportionally common in survivors of explosions. This study aimed to introduce a Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling model to predict globe rupture resulting from primary blast effect. A finite element model of a human eye was created using Lagrangian mesh. An explosive and its surrounding air domain were modelled using Eulerian mesh. Coupling the two models allowed simulating the blast wave generation, propagation and interaction with the eye. The results showed that the peak overpressures caused by blast wave on the corneal apex are 2080, 932.1 and 487.3 kPa for the victim distances of 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 m, respectively. Higher stress occurred at the limbus, where the peaks for the three victim distances are 25.5, 14.1 and 6.4 MPa. The overpressure threshold of globe rupture was determined as 2000 kPa in a small-scale explosion. The findings would provide insights into the mechanism of primary blast-induced ocular injuries.

  12. Rare causes of closed rupture of the flexor tendon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenekes, Martin W.; Ruttermann, Mike; Werker, Paul M. N.

    Closed injuries to the flexor tendon are relatively rare. We present three rare causes of closed injury to the flexor tendon. Early recognition and adequate treatment by a specialised hand surgeon are crucial for the prognosis of such cases. Delayed diagnosis and treatment often require secondary

  13. Ruptured thymoma causing a hemothorax: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    HOKKA, DAISUKE; OGAWA, HIROYUKI; TANE, SHINYA; TANAKA, YUGO; TAUCHI, SHUNSUKE; MANIWA, YOSHIMASA

    2015-01-01

    A thymoma is a neoplasm that arises from the epithelial cells of the thymus, and may cause various signs and symptoms dependent upon its local extent. A non-traumatic hemothorax is extremely rare. The present study reports the case of a 77-year-old female who presented with an acute onset of chest pain. Imaging procedures revealed a mass occupying the anterior mediastinum and left hemithorax, and a left pleural effusion. Progressive anemia was noted following admission. Left hemothorax due to...

  14. A case of generalized peritonitis due to a rupture of the bladder caused by radiation cystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitake, Shin-ichi; Nozaki, Hideki; Shimizu, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshiyuki; Kataoka, Susumu

    1999-01-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the department of gastroenterology in our hospital with a diagnosis of adhesive ileus following operation for a uterine cancer on July 22, 1997. Conservative therapy was started, but three days later, peritoneal signs appeared and white blood cell count and CRP level increased. An emergency operation was performed. Upon laparotomy, there were a large volume of ascites and a rupture of the bladder of which wall had become fragile. It was thought that the cause of rupture might result from radiation cystitis because she received irradiation after operation for the uterine cancer. Ruptured site of the bladder was sutured. Possible causes of the ileus were thought to be intestinal paralysis due to generalized peritonitis and a narrowing of the ileum where inflammatory change was remarkable. For this, an excision of the ileum with ileostomy was performed. Thereafter a closure of the ileostomy and ileocolostomy were carried out. The patient had difficulty in management of evacuation for a while, but she was discharged on March 2, 1998. Spontaneous rupture of the bladder is rare. This paper presents such a rare case caused by radiation cystitis, together with 14 cases reported in Japan. It is thought that surgeons who manage acute abdomen may encounter the disease. (author)

  15. A case of generalized peritonitis due to a rupture of the bladder caused by radiation cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitake, Shin-ichi; Nozaki, Hideki; Shimizu, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshiyuki; Kataoka, Susumu [Meitetsu Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the department of gastroenterology in our hospital with a diagnosis of adhesive ileus following operation for a uterine cancer on July 22, 1997. Conservative therapy was started, but three days later, peritoneal signs appeared and white blood cell count and CRP level increased. An emergency operation was performed. Upon laparotomy, there were a large volume of ascites and a rupture of the bladder of which wall had become fragile. It was thought that the cause of rupture might result from radiation cystitis because she received irradiation after operation for the uterine cancer. Ruptured site of the bladder was sutured. Possible causes of the ileus were thought to be intestinal paralysis due to generalized peritonitis and a narrowing of the ileum where inflammatory change was remarkable. For this, an excision of the ileum with ileostomy was performed. Thereafter a closure of the ileostomy and ileocolostomy were carried out. The patient had difficulty in management of evacuation for a while, but she was discharged on March 2, 1998. Spontaneous rupture of the bladder is rare. This paper presents such a rare case caused by radiation cystitis, together with 14 cases reported in Japan. It is thought that surgeons who manage acute abdomen may encounter the disease. (author)

  16. Bacterial Endocarditis Caused by Lactobacillus acidophilus Leading to Rupture of Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, Carlos Omar; Loranger, Austin Mitchell; Bharatkumar, A G; Almassi, G Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus rarely causes bacterial endocarditis, because it usually resides in the mucosa of the vagina, gastrointestinal tract, and oropharynx. Moreover, sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are rare cardiac anomalies, either acquired or congenital. We present the case of a middle-aged man whose bacterial endocarditis, caused by Lactobacillus acidophilus, led to an aneurysmal rupture of the sinus of Valsalva into the right ventricular outflow tract. The patient underwent successful surgical repair, despite numerous complications and sequelae.

  17. Rupture Dynamics along Thrust Dipping Fault: Inertia Effects due to Free Surface Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J. P.; Scala, A.; Festa, G.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamic interaction between free surface and up-dip, in-plane rupture propagation along thrust faults, under linear slip-weakening friction. With reference to shallow along-dip rupture propagation during large subduction earthquakes, we consider here low dip-angle fault configurations with fixed strength excess and depth-increasing initial stress. In this configuration, the rupture undergoes a break of symmetry with slip-induced normal stress perturbations triggered by the interaction with reflected waves from the free surface. We found that both body-waves - behind the crack front - and surface waves - at the crack front - can trigger inertial effects. When waves interact with the rupture before this latter reaches its asymptotic speed, the rupture can accelerate toward the asymptotic speed faster than in the unbounded symmetric case, as a result of these inertial effects. Moreover, wave interaction at the crack front also affects the slip rate generating large ground motion on the hanging wall. Imposing the same initial normal stress, frictional strength and stress drop while varying the static friction coefficient we found that the break of symmetry makes the rupture dynamics dependent on the absolute value of friction. The higher the friction the stronger the inertial effect both in terms of rupture acceleration and slip amount. When the contact condition allows the fault interface to open close to the free surface, the length of the opening zone is shown to depend on the propagation length, the initial normal stress and the static friction coefficient. These new results are shown to agree with analytical results of rupture propagation in bounded media, and open new perspectives for understanding the shallow rupture of large subduction earthquakes and tsunami sources.

  18. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS is a rapid increase in intra-abdominal pressure associated with multi-organs dysfunction. It is caused mostly by abdominal bleeding und massive volume compensation. Case report. We reported a 76-year-old patient admitted to the hospital with aortic abdominal aneurysm, 13.7 cm in diameter, ruptured in vena cava, which caused intraabdominal hypertension, the liver and kidney dysfunction, as well as circulation, respiration and metabolic disorders. Intraabdominal pressure was measured by bladder manometry. Central venous pressure and systemic arterial pressure were monitored continuously. Clinical signs were thrill and typical abdominal bruit. Aorto-caval fistula was diagnosed by the use of contrast computerized tomography. Caval endoaneurysmatic suture and aortobiiliac bypass with 18 × 9 mm Dacron prothesis were performed. Haemodynamic changes were mostly corrected during the surgery. The complete correction of haemodynamics, liver, kidney, respiration and metabolic changes was established in the next few weeks. Conclusion. The ACS was caused by rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm in vena cava followed by edema of the abdominal organs, retroperitoneum, abdominal wall and ascites. Caval endoaneurysmatic suture and aortobiiliac bypass with 18 × 9 mm Dacron prothesis solved aortocaval fistula as well as all the organs and metabolic dysfunctions caused by ACS.

  19. Evaluation of surface blood flow in intact and ruptured canine cruciate ligaments using laser Doppler flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testuz, Joakim; Howard, Judith; Pozzi, Antonio; Rytz, Ulrich; Krudewig, Christiane; Spreng, David; Forterre, Simone

    2016-09-20

    To evaluate the usefulness of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to measure surface blood flow in canine cruciate ligaments, compare measurements in different sites of intact and partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (CrCL) and intact caudal cruciate ligaments (CaCL), and investigate any association between surface blood flow in partially ruptured CrCL and synovitis or duration of clinical signs. Case-controlled clinical study. Sixteen dogs with partially ruptured CrCL and five dogs with intact CrCL. Blood cell flux (BCF) readings during three measurement cycles using LDF at two sites in each ligament (mid-substance and the distal portion of the CrCL, and mid-substance and the proximal portion of the CaCL) were recorded. Synovial changes were graded grossly and histologically using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International histopathology scoring system. The within-run coefficients of variation (CV) for a single BCF measurement cycle were 12.2% and 12.7% in the ruptured and intact CrCL groups, respectively. The between-run CV for three measurement cycles was 20.8% and 14.8%, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, absolute agreement) was 0.66 for a single measurement cycle and 0.86 for the average of three cycles. No difference in average BCF readings was found between any two sites in either group, but BCF readings in both CrCL sites were significantly higher in the ruptured CrCL group than the intact CrCL group. No associations between BCF and synovial grades or duration of lameness were identified. Laser Doppler flowmetry can be used to assess surface blood flow in intact and partially ruptured canine cruciate ligaments with acceptable precision. Using this method, surface blood flow appears greater in partially ruptured canine CrCL than intact CrCL. Further studies are required to determine if this is a sequela of trauma or synovitis.

  20. Spontaneous hemothorax caused by rupture of an intercostal artery aneurysm in neurofibromatosis Type I: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Chang Min; Na, Jae Beom; You, Jin Jong; Chung, Sung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1) is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome. Associated vascular abnormalities are arterial occlusion, aneurysm, ectasia and arteriovenous malformation. Spontaneous massive hemothorax due to rupture of an arterial aneurysm is rare but fatal. It is, therefore, essential to determine the location of an aneurysm and provide immediate surgical or the interventional treatment. We report a case of spotaneous hemothorax caused by rupture of an intercostal arterial aneurysm diagnosed by CT and angiography

  1. Tungsten surface evolution by helium bubble nucleation, growth and rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, Karl D.; Juslin, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reveal sub-surface mechanisms likely involved in the initial formation of nanometre-sized ‘fuzz’ in tungsten exposed to low-energy helium plasmas. Helium clusters grow to over-pressurized bubbles as a result of repeated cycles of helium absorption and Frenkel pair formation. The self-interstitials either reach the surface as isolated adatoms or trap at the bubble periphery before organizing into prismatic 〈1 1 1〉 dislocation loops. Surface roughening occurs as single adatoms migrate to the surface, prismatic loops glide to the surface to form adatom islands, and ultimately as over-pressurized gas bubbles burst. (paper)

  2. Surface rupturing earthquakes repeated in the 300 years along the ISTL active fault system, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Aya; Kondo, Hisao; Kurosawa, Hideki

    2017-06-01

    Surface rupturing earthquakes produced by intraplate active faults generally have long recurrence intervals of a few thousands to tens of thousands of years. We here report the first evidence for an extremely short recurrence interval of 300 years for surface rupturing earthquakes on an intraplate system in Japan. The Kamishiro fault of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) active fault system generated a Mw 6.2 earthquake in 2014. A paleoseismic trench excavation across the 2014 surface rupture showed the evidence for the 2014 event and two prior paleoearthquakes. The slip of the penultimate earthquake was similar to that of 2014 earthquake, and its timing was constrained to be after A.D. 1645. Judging from the timing, the damaged area, and the amount of slip, the penultimate earthquake most probably corresponds to a historical earthquake in A.D. 1714. The recurrence interval of the two most recent earthquakes is thus extremely short compared with intervals on other active faults known globally. Furthermore, the slip repetition during the last three earthquakes is in accordance with the time-predictable recurrence model rather than the characteristic earthquake model. In addition, the spatial extent of the 2014 surface rupture accords with the distribution of a serpentinite block, suggesting that the relatively low coefficient of friction may account for the unusually frequent earthquakes. These findings would affect long-term forecast of earthquake probability and seismic hazard assessment on active faults.

  3. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boncio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike–slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding. For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ∼ 2150 m on the footwall and  ∼  3100 m on the hanging wall. Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( >   ∼  50 % at distances  <   ∼  250 m. The widest WRZ are recorded where sympathetic slip (Sy on distant faults occurs, and/or where bending-moment (B-M or flexural-slip (F-S fault ruptures, associated with large-scale folds (hundreds of metres to kilometres in wavelength, are present. A positive relation between the earthquake magnitude and the total WRZ is evident, while a clear correlation between the vertical displacement on the principal fault and the total WRZ is not found. The distribution of surface ruptures is fitted with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to

  4. Late Pleistocene surface rupture history of the Paeroa Fault, Taupo Rift, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.R.; Villamor, P.; Nairn, I.A.; Van Dissen, R.J.; Begg, J.G.; Lee, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 30 km long Paeroa Fault is one of the largest and fastest slipping (c. 1.5 mm/yr vertical displacement rate) normal faults of the currently active Taupo Rift of North Island, New Zealand. Along its northern section, seven trenches excavated across 5 of 11 subparallel fault strands show that successive ruptures of individual strands probably occurred at the same time, but were individually and collectively highly variable in size and recurrence, and most fault strands have ruptured three or four times in the past 16 kyr. In the c. 16 kyr timeframe, four surface-rupturing earthquakes took place when Okataina volcano was erupting, and six occurred between eruptions. Large earthquakes on the Paeroa Fault comprise a significant component of the seismic hazard in the region between the Okataina and Taupo Volcanic Centres, and there are partial associations between these large earthquakes and volcanism. (author). 36 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  5. A New Snowboard Injury Caused by "FLOW" Bindings A Complete Deltoid Ligament and Anterior Talofibular Ankle Ligament Rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, Daniel; Hoornenborg, Daniel; Maas, Mario; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a snowboard injury that caused a combination of a complete deltoid and anterior talofibular ligament rupture, without bony or syndesmotic injury. Initial surgical repair for both ligaments was performed. We describe the etiology of this injury to demonstrate the cause and

  6. Hemoperitoneum Caused by Hepatic Necrosis and Rupture Following a Snakebite: a Case Report with Rare CT Findings and Successful Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jae Hong; Yoo, Dong Gon; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Park, Man Soo; Kwak, Jin Ho; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Shick [GangNeung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Snakebites are a relatively common occurrence worldwide and are estimated to affect greater than 2.5 million humans annually, of whom more than 100,000 will die. Imaging manifestations associated with this entity have rarely been described in the scientific literature. We recently obtained a successful clinical outcome after gelatin sponge sheet embolization of the hepatic artery in the case of a snakebite which caused hemoperitoneum associated with hepatic necrosis and rupture. Until now, this type of complication after a snakebite has not been reported in the literature. We report the computed tomographic and angiographic findings in a case of a snakebite resulting in hemoperitoneum caused by hepatic rupture and necrosis with active bleeding. In conclusion, snakebites have complex venomous effects. They may lead to various changes in hemostasis. In our case, snakebite-induced coagulopathy by a Korean viper resulted in hepatic necrosis and rupture with active bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the first published case about CT findings of hepatic necrosis and rupture with active bleeding after a snakebite and should be recognized as a possible complication following snakebites. We report the computed tomographic and angiographic findings in the case of a recently obtained successful clinical outcome after embolization of the hepatic artery in the case of a snakebite causing hemoperitoneum associated with hepatic necrosis and rupture with active bleeding.

  7. Rupture and Spreading Dynamics of Lipid Membranes on a Solid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Antonio; Shin, Sangwoo; Colosqui, Carlos; Young, Yuan-Nan; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-11-01

    The spreading of lipid membranes on solid surfaces is a dynamic phenomenon relevant to drug delivery, endocytosis, biofouling, and the synthesis of supported lipid bilayers. Current technological developments are limited by an incomplete understanding of the spreading and adhesion dynamics of a lipid bilayer under different physicochemical conditions. Here, we present recent experimental and theoretical results for the spreading of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), where the vesicle shell consists of a lipid bilayer. In particular, we study the effect of different background ion concentrations, osmolarity mismatches between the interior and the exterior of the vesicles, and different surface chemistries of the glass substrate. In all of the studied cases, we observe a delay time before a GUV in contact with the solid surface eventually ruptures. The rupture kinetics and subsequent spreading dynamics is controlled by the ionic screening within the thin film of liquid between the vesicle and the surface. Different rupture mechanisms, mobilities of the spreading vesicle, and degrees of substrate coverage are observed by varying the electrolyte concentration, solid surface charge, and osmolarity mismatch.

  8. Type 1 Achilles tendon rupture caused by grooming trauma in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achilles tendon rupture is uncommon in small animal practice. A 9-month-old, female, mixed breed dog (weighing 2.2kg) was referred to our hospital with a primary complaint of right hind limb lameness. Complete right Achilles tendon rupture was diagnosed by physical examination and radiography. The tendon was ...

  9. Posterior Uterine Rupture Causing Fetal Expulsion into the Abdominal Cavity: A Rare Case of Neonatal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Navaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uterine rupture is a potentially catastrophic complication of vaginal birth after caesarean section. We describe the sixth case of posterior uterine rupture, with intact lower segment scar, and the first neonatal survival after expulsion into the abdominal cavity with posterior rupture. Case Presentation. A multiparous woman underwent prostaglandin induction of labour for postmaturity, after one previous caesarean section. Emergency caesarean section for bradycardia revealed a complete posterior uterine rupture, with fetal and placental expulsion. Upon delivery, the baby required inflation breaths only. The patient required a subtotal hysterectomy but returned home on day 5 postnatally with her healthy baby. Discussion. Vaginal birth after caesarean section constitutes a trial of labour, and the obstetrician must be reactive to labour events. Posterior uterine rupture is extremely rare and may occur without conventional signs. Good maternal and fetal outcome is possible with a prompt, coordinated team response.

  10. [Urothorax caused by traumatic rupture of the subpyelic ureter. Apropos of a case in a 5-year-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, G; Chavrier, Y; Allard, D; Prudhomme, B; Lavocat, M P; Freycon, F

    1983-01-01

    The authors report the observation of a five years old boy who presents after a polytraumatism a chronic pleural effusion who stop only after decortication and which is caused by a ruptur of sub-pyelic uretere. Echography is a good procedure for diagnosis. Laboratory studies of pleural fluid (protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine) could give information for diagnosis.

  11. Tracheal rupture caused by blunt chest trauma: radiological and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisch-Hoppe, M.; Rauber, K.; Rau, W.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Justus Liebig Univ., Giessen (Germany); Hoppe, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Popella, C. [Dept. of ENT, Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess radiomorphologic and clinical features of tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma. From 1992 until 1998 the radiomorphologic and clinical key findings of all consecutive tracheal ruptures were retrospectively analyzed. The study included ten patients (7 men and 3 women; mean age 35 years); all had pneumothoraces which were persistent despite suction drainage. Seven patients developed a pneumomediastinum as well as a subcutaneous emphysema on conventional chest X-rays. In five patients, one major hint leading to the diagnosis was a cervical emphysema, discovered on the lateral cervical spine view. Contrast-media-enhanced thoracic CT was obtained in all ten cases and showed additional injuries (atelectasis n = 5; lung contusion n = 4; lung laceration n = 2; hematothorax n = 2 and hematomediastinum n = 4). The definite diagnosis of tracheal rupture was made by bronchoscopy, which was obtained in all patients. Tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma occurs rarely. Key findings were all provided by conventional chest X-ray. Tracheal rupture is suspected in front of a pneumothorax, a pneumomediastinum, or a subcutaneous emphysema on lateral cervical spine and chest films. Routine thoracic CT could also demonstrate these findings but could not confirm the definite diagnosis of an tracheal rupture except in one case; in the other 9 cases this was done by bronchoscopy. Thus, bronchoscopy should be mandatory in all suspicious cases of tracheal rupture and remains the gold standard. (orig.)

  12. Timing of Late Holocene surface rupture of the Wairau Fault, Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariasen, J.; Berryman, K.R.; Langridge, R.M.; Prentice, C.; Rymer, M.; Stirling, M.W.; Villamor, P.

    2006-01-01

    Three trenches excavated across the central portion of the right-lateral strike-slip Wairau Fault in South Island, New Zealand, exposed a complex set of fault strands that have displaced a sequence of late Holocene alluvial and colluvial deposits. Abundant charcoal fragments provide age control for various stratigraphic horizons dating back to c. 5610 yr ago. Faulting relations from the Wadsworth trench show that the most recent surface rupture event occurred at least 1290 yr and at most 2740 yr ago. Drowned trees in landslide-dammed Lake Chalice, in combination with charcoal from the base of an unfaulted colluvial wedge at Wadsworth trench, suggest a narrower time bracket for this event of 1811-2301 cal. yr BP. The penultimate faulting event occurred between c. 2370 and 3380 yr, and possibly near 2680 ± 60 cal. yr BP, when data from both the Wadsworth and Dillon trenches are combined. Two older events have been recognised from Dillon trench but remain poorly dated. A probable elapsed time of at least 1811 yr since the last surface rupture, and an average slip rate estimate for the Wairau Fault of 3-5 mm/yr, suggests that at least 5.4 m and up to 11.5 m of elastic shear strain has accumulated since the last rupture. This is near to or greater than the single-event displacement estimates of 5-7 m. The average recurrence interval for surface rupture of the fault determined from the trench data is 1150-1400 yr. Although the uncertainties in the timing of faulting events and variability in inter-event times remain high, the time elapsed since the last event is in the order of 1-2 times the average recurrence interval, implying that the Wairau Fault is near the end of its interseismic period. (author). 44 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  13. Field and LiDAR observations of the Hector Mine California 1999 surface rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, F.; Akciz, S. O.; Harvey, J. C.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Scharer, K. M.; Stock, J. M.; Witkosky, R.; Kendrick, K. J.; Wespestad, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report new field- and computer-based investigations of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake. Since May 2012, in cooperation with the United States Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) at Twentynine Palms, CA, our team has been allowed ground and aerial access to the entire surface rupture. We have focused our new field-based research and imagery analysis along the ~10 kilometer-long maximum slip zone (MSZ) which roughly corresponds to the zone of >4 meter dextral horizontal offset. New data include: 1) a 1 km wide aerial LiDAR survey along the entire surface rupture (@ 10 shots/m2, May 2012, www.opentopography.org); 2) terrestrial LiDAR surveys at 5 sites within the MSZ (@ >1000 shots/m2, April 2014); 3) low altitude aerial photography and ground based photography of the entire MSZ; 4) a ground-truthed database of 87 out of the 94 imagery-based offset measurements made within the MSZ; and 5) a database of 50 new field-based offset measurements made within the MSZ by our team on the ground, 31 of which have also been made on the computer (Ladicaoz) with both the 2000 LiDAR data (@ 0.5 m DEM resolution; Chen et al, in review) and 2012 LiDAR data (@ 35 cm DEM resolution; our team). New results to date include 1) significant variability (> 2 m) in horizontal offsets measured along short distances of the surface rupture (~100 m) within segments of the surface rupture that are localized to a single fault strand; 2) strong dependence of decadal scale fault scarp preservation on local lithology (bedrock vs. alluvial fan vs. fine sediment) and geomorphology (uphill vs. downhill facing scarp); 3) newly observed offset features which were never measured during the post-event field response; 4) newly observed offset features too small to be resolved in airborne LiDAR data (judged by our team to warrant removal from the database due to incorrect feature reconstruction; and 6) significant variability in both accuracy of LiDAR offset

  14. Severe renal bleeding caused by a ruptured renal sheath: case report of a rare complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunes Ali

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a minimally invasive intervention for renal stone disease. Complications, which are rare and usually presented as case reports, are diversified as the utilization of the procedure is expanded. The procedure causes less blood loss and less morbidity when compared to open surgical procedures. Yet, there are some reports involving severe bleeding and relevant morbidity during surgery. These are usually related with the surgical technique or experience of the surgeon. Renal sheaths are designed to cause minimal trauma inside the kidney and, to our knowledge, there are no reports presenting the rupture of a sheath causing severe bleeding during the procedure. Case report We present an adult patient who had severe bleeding during percutaneous nephrolithotomy due to parenchymal injury caused by a ruptured renal sheath. During retrieval, due probably to rough handling of the equipment, a piece of stone with serrated edges ruptured the tip of the sheath, and this tip caused damage inside the kidney. The operation was terminated and measures were taken to control bleeding. The patient was transfused with a total of 1600 ml of blood, and the stones were cleared in a second look operation. Conclusion Although considered to be a minimally invasive procedure, some unexpected complications may arise during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. After being fragmanted, stone pieces may damage surgical equipment, causing acute and severe harm to the kidney. Surgeons must manipulate the equipment with fine and careful movements in order to prevent this situation.

  15. Where surface physics and fluid dynamics meet: rupture of an amphiphile layer by fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, M M; Goldburg, W I; Cressman, J R; Kellay, H

    2006-03-14

    We investigate the fluctuating pattern created by a jet of fluid impingent upon an amphiphile-covered surface. This microscopically thin layer is initially covered with 50 microm floating particles so that the layer can be visualized. A vertical jet of water located below the surface and directed upward drives a hole in this layer. The hole is particle-free and is surrounded by the particle-laden amphiphile region. The jet ruptures the amphiphile layer creating a particle-free region that is surrounded by the particle-covered surface. The aim of the experiment is to understand the (fluctuating) shape of the ramified interface between the particle-laden and particle-free regions.

  16. Study on conditional probability of surface rupture: effect of fault dip and width of seismogenic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N.

    2017-12-01

    The conditional probability of surface ruptures is affected by various factors, such as shallow material properties, process of earthquakes, ground motions and so on. Toda (2013) pointed out difference of the conditional probability of strike and reverse fault by considering the fault dip and width of seismogenic layer. This study evaluated conditional probability of surface rupture based on following procedures. Fault geometry was determined from the randomly generated magnitude based on The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (2017) method. If the defined fault plane was not saturated in the assumed width of the seismogenic layer, the fault plane depth was randomly provided within the seismogenic layer. The logistic analysis was performed to two data sets: surface displacement calculated by dislocation methods (Wang et al., 2003) from the defined source fault, the depth of top of the defined source fault. The estimated conditional probability from surface displacement indicated higher probability of reverse faults than that of strike faults, and this result coincides to previous similar studies (i.e. Kagawa et al., 2004; Kataoka and Kusakabe, 2005). On the contrary, the probability estimated from the depth of the source fault indicated higher probability of thrust faults than that of strike and reverse faults, and this trend is similar to the conditional probability of PFDHA results (Youngs et al., 2003; Moss and Ross, 2011). The probability of combined simulated results of thrust and reverse also shows low probability. The worldwide compiled reverse fault data include low fault dip angle earthquake. On the other hand, in the case of Japanese reverse fault, there is possibility that the conditional probability of reverse faults with less low dip angle earthquake shows low probability and indicates similar probability of strike fault (i.e. Takao et al., 2013). In the future, numerical simulation by considering failure condition of surface by the source

  17. Spontaneous Spleen Rupture in a Teenager: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verroiotou Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70 mmHg, and her pulse was 120 b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma.

  18. Role of echocardiography in diagnosis and management of complete papillary muscle rupture caused by myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vincelj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the usefulness of echocardiography in the diagnosis of complete rupture of papillary muscle. Methods Transthoracic (TTE and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE was performed with the ATL 3000 HDI Ultrasound Inc (Bothell, WA, USA with a 2.5 MHz transducer and 5-7 MHz multiplane phased array transducer. We are reporting about two patients (a 45 and a 51-year old male with complete ruptures of papillary muscle following acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Results Both patients were previously treated with fibrinolysis in their local hospitals, 400 and 300 km, respectively, away from our hospital. Massive mitral regurgitation developed in both followed by rapid deterioration of hemodynamic state and severe heart failure, because of which both were transferred by helicopter to the Coronary Care Unit of our clinic. The diagnosis of complete papillary muscle rupture was confirmed in both patients by TTE and TEE. Due to the significant deterioration in their hemodynamic state, vasoactive drugs and intra-aortic balloon pump support were applied. Both patients then underwent mitral valve replacement, accompanied by concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting in one case. Conclusion Transesophageal echocardiography is a more accurate and rapid diagnostic method in patients with mechanical complications of AMI than TTE.

  19. Structural features and seismotectonic implications of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aiming

    2017-09-01

    Field investigations and analyses of satellite images and aerial photographs reveal that the 2016 M w 7.1 (Mj 7.3) Kumamoto earthquake produced a ˜40-km surface rupture zone striking NE-SW on central Kyushu Island, Japan. Coseismic surface ruptures were characterized by shear faults, extensional cracks, and mole tracks, which mostly occurred along the pre-existing NE-SW-striking Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone in the southwest and central segments, and newly identified faults in the northeast segment. This study shows that (i) the Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone triggered the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and controlled the spatial distribution of coseismic surface ruptures; (ii) the southwest and central segments were dominated by right-lateral strike-slip movement with a maximum in-site measured displacement of up to 2.5 m, accompanied by a minor vertical component. In contrast, the northeast segment was dominated by normal faulting with a maximum vertical offset of up to 1.75 m with a minor horizontal component that formed graben structures inside Aso caldera; (iii) coseismic rupturing initiated at the jog area between the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, then propagated northeastward into Aso caldera, where it terminated. The 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake therefore offers a rare opportunity to study the relationships between coseismic rupture processes and pre-existing active faults, as well as the seismotectonics of Aso volcano.

  20. Nonculprit Plaque Characteristics in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Caused by Plaque Erosion vs Plaque Rupture: A 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoyo; Yamamoto, Erika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Xing, Lei; Lee, Hang; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Libby, Peter; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2018-03-01

    Patients with culprit plaque rupture are known to have pancoronary plaque vulnerability. However, the characteristics of nonculprit plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes caused by plaque erosion are unknown. To investigate the nonculprit plaque phenotype in patients with acute coronary syndrome according to culprit plaque pathology (erosion vs rupture) by 3-vessel optical coherence tomography imaging. In this observational cohort study, between August 2010 and May 2014, 82 patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent preintervention optical coherence tomography imaging of all 3 major epicardial coronary arteries were enrolled at the Massachusetts General Hospital Optical Coherence Tomography Registry database. Analysis of the data was conducted between November 2016 and July 2017. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on the culprit lesion pathology: 17 patients with culprit plaque erosion and 34 patients with culprit plaque rupture. Thirty-one patients with the absence of culprit rupture or erosion were excluded from further analysis. Preintervention 3-vessel optical coherence tomography imaging. Plaque characteristics at the culprit and nonculprit lesions evaluated by optical coherence tomography. In 51 patients (37 men; mean age, 58.7 years), the characteristics of 51 culprit plaques and 216 nonculprit plaques were analyzed. In patients with culprit erosion, the mean (SD) number of nonculprit plaques per patient was smaller (3.4 [1.9] in erosion vs 4.7 [2.1] in rupture, P = .05). Patient-based analysis showed that none of 17 patients with culprit plaque erosion had nonculprit plaque rupture, whereas 26% of the patients (9 of 34) with culprit plaque rupture had nonculprit plaque rupture (P = .02). Plaque-based analysis showed that, compared with the culprit rupture group (n = 158), the culprit erosion group (n = 58) had lower prevalence of plaque rupture (0% vs 8%; P erosion had a smaller number of nonculprit plaques

  1. Clinical features and prognostic factors in patients with intraventricular hemorrhage caused by ruptured arteriovenous malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Hu, Xin; Fang, Fang; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was associated with poor outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. IVH had a high incidence in patients with ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In this study, we aimed to discuss the clinical features and prognostic factors of outcomes in the patients with AVM-related IVH. From January 2010 to January 2016, we collected the data of the patients with AVM-related IVH retrospectively. The data, including clinical and radiological parameters, were collected to evaluate the clinical features. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the prognostic factors for clinical outcomes (hydrocephalus, 6-month outcomes measured by the modified Rankin scale) in our cohort. A total of 67 eligible patients were included and 19 patients (28%) only presented with IVH. Thirty-three patients (49%) presented hydrocephalus, and 12 patients (18%) presented brain ischemia. Nineteen patients (28%) had a poor outcome after 6 months. In multivariate logistic regression, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (P = .028) was associated with hydrocephalus and higher Graeb score (P = .080) tended to increase the risk of hydrocephalus. The high Glasgow coma scale (P = .010), large hematoma volume of parenchyma (P = .006), and high supplemented Spetzler–Martin (sup-SM) score (P = .041) were independent factors of the poor outcome. IVH was common in ruptured AVMs and increased the poor outcomes in patients with the ruptured AVMs. The AVM-related IVH patients had a high incidence of hydrocephalus, which was associated with brain ischemia and SAH. Patients with lower Glasgow coma scale, lower sup-SM score, and smaller parenchymal hematoma had better long-term outcomes. PMID:29137064

  2. Left atrial myxoma, ruptured chordae tendinae causing mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitral regurgitation is uncommon with left atrial myxoma. The echocardiographic assessment of presence of mitral regurgitation and its severity are impaired by the presence of left atrial myxoma. We describe an uncommon association of left atrial myxoma with coronary artery disease and mitral regurgitation. MR was reported as mild on pre-operative transthoracic echocardiography but found to be severe due to ruptured chordae tendinae during intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography, which lead to change in the surgical plan to mitral valve replacement in addition to excision of myxoma.

  3. [Renal angiomyolipoma rupture as a cause of lumbar pain: report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Melissa; Calleja, Félix; Hola, José; Daviú, Antonio; Jara, Danilo; Vallejos, Humberto

    2008-08-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor formed by smooth muscle, adipose tissue and blood vessels. It is commonly found incidentally and its clinical manifestations are pain and abdominal mass or spontaneous tumor rupture with retroperitoneal bleeding. The clinical presentation of a hemorrhagic shock secondary to a retroperitoneal hematoma is uncommon. We report a 40 year-old male who presented to the emergency room with lumbar pain and deterioration of hemodynamic parameters. The CT scan showed a left renal injury associated to an expansive retroperitoneal process. The abdominal exploration, vascular control of the renal pedicle and nephrectomy allowed a successful outcome.

  4. Ruptured Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary as a Cause of Acute Abdomen in Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Oge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdomen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare entity in postmenopausal women due to gynecologic conditions. A 54-year-old, postmenopausal woman was brought to emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed acute abdomen findings with 15 cm pelvic mass on the right adnexal region. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed. During laparotomy 1000 cc of bloodstained fluid, ruptured and actively bleeding large mass arising from right ovary was observed. Right salpingo-oopherectomy was performed in emergency conditions, and pathology report revealed an adult type of granulosa cell tumor. After this result, staging surgery was performed and patient was diagnosed as granulosa cell tumor stage 1 c. Cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin chemotherapy was given. Clinicians should be aware of granulosa cell tumors which may occur at any age and prone to rupture. Frozen section will be helpful in order to avoid incomplete surgeries especially in postmenopausal women presented with intra-abdominal bleeding.

  5. Analog modeling of strike-slip surface ruptures: Implications for Greendale Fault (New Zealand) mechanics and paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasnett, P.; Quigley, M.; Cruden, A. R.; Boutelier, D. A.; Villamor, P.

    2013-12-01

    Analog modeling of strike-slip faulting provides insight into the development and behavior of surface ruptures with progressive slip, with relevance for understanding how coseismic displacements from fault ruptures are recorded in paleoseismic trenches. Patterns of surface deformation were investigated in analogue experiments using cohesive and non-cohesive granular materials above a vertical, planar, strike-slip basement fault. Surface deformation during the experiments was monitored by 3D PIV (Particle Imaging Velocimetry) and 2D time-lapse photography. Analysis of the experiments focused on fault zone morphology and development, as well as comparisons between the models and surface deformation observed along the Greendale Fault that resulted from the 2010 Darfield earthquake, New Zealand. Complex surface rupture patterns with similar characteristics to the Greendale Fault (en echelon fractures, Riedel shears, pop-up structures, etc.) were generated by a simple fault plane of uniform dip, slip, and frictional properties. The main controls on surface rupture morphology were found to be the properties and thickness of the overburden, the nature of the material surface, and the overall displacement of the underlying fault. Mapping the evolution of fracture patterns with progressive shear strain reveals that Riedel shears, striking 0-30° from the underlying basement fault, are more frequently reactivated during multiple displacement (earthquake) cycles, and are thus most likely to provide reliable paleoseismic records. This information will assist in the identification of suitable locations for paleoseismic trenches and in the interpretation of trench records from the Greendale Fault and other active, strike-slip faults in analogous geologic settings. The results also highlight the tendency of trenching studies of faults of this type to underestimate the number of and displacements on previous ruptures, which potentially leads to an underestimate of the magnitude

  6. Rare cause of right heart failure: contained rupture of a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm associated intraventricular septal aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookadam, F; Haley, J; Mendrick, Ed

    2005-06-01

    Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) is a rare congenital lesion described first in 1840 by John Thurnam (Cited by Boutefou JM, Moret PR, Hahn C, Hanf E. Aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva: report of seven cases and review of the literature. Am J Med 1978;65:18-24). In most cases unruptured Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) is clinically silent; however, if it progressively enlarges it may cause coronary artery compression, complete heart block, or right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (Meier JH, Seward JD, Miller FA, Oh J, Sarano ME. Aneurysms in the left ventricular outflow tract: clinical presentation, causes, and echocardiographic features. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1998;11:729-45; D'Silva SA, Dalve BV, Lokhandwala YY, Kale PA, Tendolkar AG. Unruptured congenital aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva presenting as acute right heart failure. Chest 1992;101:578-79) or is a potential source of cerebrovascular emboli. (Shahrabani RM, Jairaj PS. Unruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva: a potential source of cerebrovascular embolism. Br Heart J 1993;69:266-67). In this report, we describe a case of right coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm with a contained rupture. The containing rupture is in intraventricular septal aneurysm; the patient presents with right-sided heart failure.

  7. Estimating rupture distances without a rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Worden, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Most ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) require distances that are defined relative to a rupture model, such as the distance to the surface projection of the rupture (RJB) or the closest distance to the rupture plane (RRUP). There are a number of situations in which GMPEs are used where it is either necessary or advantageous to derive rupture distances from point-source distance metrics, such as hypocentral (RHYP) or epicentral (REPI) distance. For ShakeMap, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the shaking levels for events without rupture models, and before rupture models are available for events that eventually do have rupture models. In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, it is often convenient to use point-source distances for gridded seismicity sources, particularly if a preferred orientation is unknown. This avoids the computationally cumbersome task of computing rupture-based distances for virtual rupture planes across all strikes and dips for each source. We derive average rupture distances conditioned on REPI, magnitude, and (optionally) back azimuth, for a variety of assumed seismological constraints. Additionally, we derive adjustment factors for GMPE standard deviations that reflect the added uncertainty in the ground motion estimation when point-source distances are used to estimate rupture distances.

  8. Multidetector-row CT of right hemidiaphragmatic rupture caused by blunt trauma: a review of 12 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, O.; Mirvis, S.E.; Shanmuganathan, K.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the usefulness of multidetector-row CT (MDCT) with multiplanar reformatted (MPR) images in the sagittal and coronal plane in diagnosing acute right hemidiaphragmatic rupture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients were identified who received chest and abdominal MDCT after major blunt trauma diagnosed with right diaphragmatic injury. Sagittal and coronal reformations were performed in all cases. The images were retrospectively reviewed by two experienced radiologists for signs of right diaphragm injury, such as direct diaphragm discontinuity, the 'collar sign', the 'dependent viscera sign', and intra-thoracic location of herniated abdominal contents. RESULTS: Of the 12 cases of right hemidiaphragm rupture, diaphragm discontinuity was seen in seven (58%) cases, the collar sign in five (42%), the dependent viscera sign in four (33%), and transdiaphragmatic herniation of the right colon and fat in another. Two variants of the collar sign were apparent on high-quality sagittal and coronal reformations. The first, termed the 'hump sign', describes a rounded portion of liver herniating through the diaphragm forming a hump-shaped mass, and the second, termed the 'band sign,' is a linear lucency across the liver along the torn edges of the hemidiaphragm. The hump sign occurred in 10 (83%) patients and the band sign in four (33%). CONCLUSION: MDCT is very useful in the diagnosis of right hemidiaphragm injury caused by blunt trauma when sagittal and coronal reformatted images are obtained, and should allow more frequent preoperative diagnosis

  9. New procedure to record the rupture of bonds between macromolecules and the surface of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dultsev, Fedor N; Kolosovsky, Eugeny A; Mik, Ivan A

    2012-10-02

    It is shown that an increase in the amplitude of QCM shear oscillations during frequency scanning around the resonance frequency is accompanied (at a definite voltage) by distortions in the amplitude-frequency dependence for QCM. We demonstrated that these distortions are connected to the rupture of macromolecules from the QCM surface. It is shown that the identification of the rupture of particles and macromolecules from the QCM surface can be carried out by relying on the analysis of these distortions of the amplitude-frequency dependence. The distortions were distinguished as a signal. The number of broken bonds can be estimated from the value of this distortion signal, and the threshold voltage applied to the system can be used to estimate the rupture force to high accuracy. Using the proposed method, we estimated the strength of a physical bond, which was 3 pN. This procedure can be useful for studying biological objects and represents an advanced step in the development of the REVS (rupture event scanning) technique.

  10. Effect of position, time in the season, and playing surface on Achilles tendon ruptures in NFL games: a 2009-10 to 2016-17 review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, Michael K; Borchers, James R; Hoffman, Joshua T; Krill, Matthew L; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-09-01

    Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures are a potentially career-altering and ending injury. Achilles tendon ruptures have a below average return-to-play rate compared to other common orthopaedic procedures for National Football League (NFL) players. The objective of this study was to monitor the incidence and injury rates (IR) of AT ruptures that occurred during the regular season in order to evaluate the influence of player position, time of injury, and playing surface on rupture rates. A thorough online review was completed to identify published injury reports and public information regarding AT ruptures sustained during regular season and post-season games in the National Football League (NFL) during the 2009-10 to 2016-17 seasons. Team schedules, player position details and stadium information was used to determine period of the season of injury and playing surface. IRs were calculated per 100 team games (TG). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were utilized to compare IRs. During eight monitored seasons, there were 44 AT ruptures in NFL games. A majority of AT ruptures were sustained in the first eight games of the regular season (n = 32, 72.7%). There was a significant rate difference for the first and second four-game segments of the regular season compared to the last two four-game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures (n = 32, 72.7%). The IR on grass was 1.00 per 100 TG compared to 1.08 per 100 TG on artificial turf (IRR: 0.93, p = .80). A significant increase in AT ruptures occurred in the first and second four game segments of the regular season compared to the last two-four game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures compared to offensive or specialist players. There was no difference between AT rupture rates and playing surface in games.

  11. Surface rupture of the 1933 M 7.5 Diexi earthquake in eastern Tibet: implications for seismogenic tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Xu, Xiwei; Zhang, Shimin; Yeats, Robert S.; Chen, Jiawei; Zhu, Ailan; Liu, Shao

    2018-03-01

    The 1933 M 7.5 Diexi earthquake is another catastrophic event with the loss of over 10 000 lives in eastern Tibet comparable to the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Because of its unknown surface rupture, the seismogenic tectonics of the 1933 earthquake remains controversial. We collected unpublished reports, literatures and old photos associated with the 1933 earthquake and conducted field investigations based on high-resolution Google Earth imagery. Combined with palaeoseismological analysis, radiocarbon dating and relocated earthquakes, our results demonstrate that the source of the 1933 earthquake is the northwest-trending Songpinggou fault. This quake produced a > 30 km long normal-faulting surface rupture with the coseismic offset of 0.9-1.7 m. Its moment magnitude (Mw) is ˜6.8. The Songpinggou fault undergoes an average vertical slip rate of ˜0.25 mm yr-1 and has a recurrence interval of ˜6700 yr of large earthquakes. The normal-faulting surface rupture of this quake is probably the reactivation of the Mesozoic Jiaochang tectonic belt in gravitational adjustment of eastern Tibet. Besides the major boundary faults, minor structures within continental blocks may take a role in strain partitioning of eastern Tibet and have the potential of producing large earthquake. This study contributes to a full understanding of seismotectonics of large earthquakes and strain partitioning in eastern Tibet.

  12. Growing skull fracture - rupture of coronal suture caused by vacuum extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.N.; Pedersen, H.; Petersen, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Growing skull fracture is a well known complication to calvarian fracture with underlying dural tear and brain injury in infancy and early childhood. This has been reported in three cases after forceps delivery. To our best knowledge it has never been described after disruption of a calvarian suture caused by vacuum extraction delivery. (orig.)

  13. No difference between mechanical perturbation training with compliant surface and manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after ACL rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya; Logerstedt, David; Failla, Mathew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-27

    Manual perturbation training improves dynamic knee stability and functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL-rupture). However, it is limited to static standing position and does not allow time-specific perturbations at different phase of functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administering mechanical perturbation training including compliant surface provides effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional measures after an acute ACL-rupture. Sixteen level I/II athletes with ACL-ruptures participated in this preliminary study. Eight patients received mechanical (Mechanical) and eight subjects received manual perturbation training (Manual). All patients completed a functional testing (isometric quadriceps strength, single-legged hop tests) and patient-reported measures (Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), Global Rating Score (GRS), International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 (IKDC 2000) at pre- and post-training. 2 × 2 ANOVA was used for data analysis. No significant group-by-time interactions were found for all measures (p > 0.18). Main effects of time were found for single hop (Pre-testing: 85.14% ± 21.07; Post-testing: 92.49% ± 17.55), triple hop (Pre-testing: 84.64% ± 14.17; Post-testing: 96.64% ± 11.14), KOS-ADLS (Pre-testing: 81.13% ± 11.12; Post-testing: 88.63% ± 12.63), GRS (Pre-testing: 68.63% ± 15.73; Post-testing: 78.81% ± 13.85), and IKDC 2000 (Pre-testing: 66.66% ± 9.85; Post-testing: 76.05% ± 14.62) (p training using compliant surfaces induce effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after acute ACL-rupture. The clinical significance is both modes of training improve patients' functional-performance and limb-to-limb movement symmetry, and enhancing the patients' self-reported of knee functional measures after ACL rupture. Mechanical

  14. Variability of recurrence interval for New Zealand surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A., , Prof; Robinson, R., Jr.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Harvison, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recurrence interval (RI) for successive earthquakes on individual faults is recorded by paleoseismic datasets for surface-rupturing earthquakes which, in New Zealand, have magnitudes of >Mw ~6 to 7.2 depending on the thickness of the brittle crust. New Zealand faults examined have mean RI of ~130 to 8500 yrs, with an upper bound censored by the sample duration (arithmetic mean) values have been used to quantify RI variability for geological and simulated earthquakes on >100 New Zealand active faults. RI for individual faults can vary by more than an order of magnitude. CoV of RI for paleoearthquake data comprising 4-10 events ranges from ~0.2 to 1 with a mean of 0.6±0.2. These values are generally comparable to simulated earthquakes (>100 events per fault) and suggest that RI ranges from quasi periodic (e.g., ~0.2-0.5) to random (e.g., ~1.0). Comparison of earthquake simulation and paleoearthquake data indicates that the mean and CoV of RI can be strongly influenced by sampling artefacts including; the magnitude of completeness, the dimensionality of spatial sampling and the duration of the sample period. Despite these sampling issues RI for the best of the geological data (i.e. >6 events) and earthquake simulations are described by log-normal or Weibull distributions with long recurrence tails (~3 times the mean) and provide a basis for quantifying real RI variability (rather than sampling artefacts). Our analysis indicates that CoV of RI is negatively related to fault slip rate. These data are consistent with the notion that fault interaction and associated stress perturbations arising from slip on larger faults are more likely to advance or retard future slip on smaller faults than visa versa.

  15. Regional pulmonary edema caused by acute mitral insufficiency after rupture of chordae tendinae with prolaps of the posterior mitral valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauser, M.; Wiedemer, B.; Fleischmann, D.; Billmann, P.; Ennker, J.

    2003-01-01

    An unilateral or predominantly lobar pulmonary edema is an unusual clinical or radiological finding, often misdiagnosed as one of the more common causes of focal lung disease. We report 2 cases of a regional pulmonary edema caused by the acute onset of a severe mitral insufficiency after the rupture of chordae tendinae resulting in a prolaps of the posterior mitral leaflet. In both cases the regional pulmonary edema was initially misdiagnosed as a pneumonic infiltration, which delayed the cardiological diagnostical procedures and the surgical intervention. The mechanism of the regional edema is an excentric regurgitation jet into the left atrium, which is usually directed to the orifice of the right upper lobe pulmonary vein which increases the hydrostatic vascular pressure in the corresponding lung segment. For the confirmation of the diagnosis, transesophageal echogradiographye is helpful in documenting the direction of the regurgitant flow and detecting differential gradients between the right and left pulmonary venous systems. The pulmonary infiltrations, which persisted for several weeks, dissappeared within a few days after surgical mitral-valve-reconstruction in both cases. (orig.) [de

  16. Numerical Analysis on the Compressible Flow Characteristics of Supersonic Jet Caused by High-Pressure Pipe Rupture Using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jong-Kil; Yoon, Jun-Kyu [Gachon Univ., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Chu [KEPCO-E& C, Kimchun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    A rupture in a high-pressure pipe causes the fluid in the pipe to be discharged in the atmosphere at a high speed resulting in a supersonic jet that generates the compressible flow. This supersonic jet may display complicated and unsteady behavior in general . In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to investigate the compressible flow generated by a supersonic jet ejected from a high-pressure pipe. A Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model was selected to analyze the unsteady nature of the flow, which depends upon the various gases as well as the diameter of the pipe. In the CFD analysis, the basic boundary conditions were assumed to be as follows: pipe of diameter 10 cm, jet pressure ratio of 5, and an inlet gas temperature of 300 K. During the analysis, the behavior of the shockwave generated by a supersonic jet was observed and it was found that the blast wave was generated indirectly. The pressure wave characteristics of hydrogen gas, which possesses the smallest molecular mass, showed the shortest distance to the safety zone. There were no significant difference observed for nitrogen gas, air, and oxygen gas, which have similar molecular mass. In addition, an increase in the diameter of the pipe resulted in the ejected impact caused by the increased flow rate to become larger and the zone of jet influence to extend further.

  17. A 3000-year record of surface-rupturing earthquakes at Günalan: variable fault-rupture lengths along the 1939 Erzincan earthquake-rupture segment of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey George Fraser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Anatolian Fault is a ca. 1200-km-long, right-lateral, strike-slip fault that forms the northern boundary of the Anatolian plate. A damaging sequence of earthquakes ruptured almost the entire fault in the twentieth century. This study adds to the growing number of paleoseismic investigations of the 350-km-long 1939 Erzincan earthquake-rupture segment, which is towards the eastern end of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Using three paleoseismic trenches located along ca. 2 km of the principal fault strand, this study determines the timing of five earthquakes prior to the 1939 earthquake. The first three of these earthquakes are correlated to historical earthquakes in A.D. 1668, 1254 and 499, and two further events were identified as occurring from 881-673 B.C. and from 1406-1291 B.C. (2v age ranges. By comparing the earthquake timing determined in this study to results from other paleoseismic investigations of the 1939 rupture segment, it becomes clear that this historical rupture segment does not always rupture in unison. This analysis indicates that the A.D. 499 earthquake was the last time the 1939 rupture segment ruptured in unison; partial ruptures of the 1939 rupture segment occur more frequently, and can also produce large magnitude earthquakes (MW >7.

  18. On Offset Stream Measurements and Recent Coseismic Surface Rupture in the Carrizo Section of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Akciz, S. O.; Delano, J.; Glennie, C. L.; Prentice, C. S.; DeLong, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies using airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) topographic data have provoked debate about whether the Mw 7.9 Fort Tejon 1857 earthquake produced ~5m or ~10m of surface strike-slip displacement in the Carrizo section of the south-central San Andreas fault. Resolution of this discrepancy is important not only for understanding the proposed role of the Carrizo section in controlling repeated south-central San Andreas rupture but also for understanding the general utility of stream offset measurements for earthquake process studies. To explore if higher-resolution topographic data of the offset features would help reconcile the different interpretations, we used a mobile laser scanning (MLS) backpack-mounted system to survey 11 ~5m offset streams given 'high' quality rankings by previous studies. In our surveys, point density was on the order of 1000s pts/m^2 in comparison to 1-4 pts/m^2 for the ALSM data, enabling us to faithfully make digital elevation models with grid spacing smaller than 10cm. We adapt a geometric method that relies on a small number of user-dependent decisions to produce an offset estimate from a set of geomorphic markers (thalweg, channel margins, channel shoulders) from upstream and downstream locations. We typically derive an ensemble of at least 10 offset measurements per stream channel and from these calculate a mean and standard deviation. We also explore using gradient changes in long profiles of the offset stream reaches to diagnose the possibility of a ~10m channel experiencing 2 ~5m slip events. Preliminary results suggest a tendency towards the higher value offset estimates, although this does not necessarily preclude the possibility of two or more events causing the cumulative offset.

  19. Intrasylvian hematoma caused by ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms predicts recovery from poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Kosuke; Moriya, Takafumi; Nakashita, Satoru; Lo, Benjamin W Y; Yamagata, Sen

    2015-09-01

    Intrasylvian hematoma (ISH) is a subtype of intracranial hematoma caused by aneurysmal rupture and often presents with a poor initial neurological grade; it is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with ISH. Data for 97 patients with poor-grade SAH (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade IV or V) were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, prospective, observational cohort database. Ultra-early surgical clipping, removal of hematoma, external decompression for brain swelling, and prevention of vasospasm by cisternal irrigation with milrinone were combined as an aggressive treatment. Characteristics and clinical courses of SAH with ISH were identified. The authors also evaluated any correlations between poor admission-grade SAH and ISH with good functional outcome. Patients with poor admission-grade SAH and with ISH were more likely to have initial cerebral edema (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test), which significantly resolved overtime (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). These patients had a better chance of functional survival (modified Rankin Scale scores of 1-3; OR 5.75; 95% CI 1.36-24.3; p = 0.017) at 6 months after hospital discharge, after adjustment for potential confounders such as younger age and better initial neurological grade by multivariable analysis. ISH predicted good functional recovery from poor-grade aneurysmal SAH.

  20. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  1. Structure of the 1906 near-surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Peninsula segment, near Woodside, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, C.M.; Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Grove, Karen; Goldman, M.R.

    2016-07-08

    High-resolution seismic-reflection and refraction images of the 1906 surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault near Woodside, California reveal evidence for one or more additional near-surface (within about 3 meters [m] depth) fault strands within about 25 m of the 1906 surface rupture. The 1906 surface rupture above the groundwater table (vadose zone) has been observed in paleoseismic trenches that coincide with our seismic profile and is seismically characterized by a discrete zone of low P-wave velocities (Vp), low S-wave velocities (Vs), high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios. A second near-surface fault strand, located about 17 m to the southwest of the 1906 surface rupture, is inferred by similar seismic anomalies. Between these two near-surface fault strands and below 5 m depth, we observed a near-vertical fault strand characterized by a zone of high Vp, low Vs, high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios on refraction tomography images and near-vertical diffractions on seismic-reflection images. This prominent subsurface zone of seismic anomalies is laterally offset from the 1906 surface rupture by about 8 m and likely represents the active main (long-term) strand of the San Andreas Fault at 5 to 10 m depth. Geometries of the near-surface and subsurface (about 5 to 10 m depth) fault zone suggest that the 1906 surface rupture dips southwestward to join the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at about 5 to 10 m below the surface. The 1906 surface rupture forms a prominent groundwater barrier in the upper 3 to 5 m, but our interpreted secondary near-surface fault strand to the southwest forms a weaker barrier, suggesting that there has been less or less-recent near-surface slip on that strand. At about 6 m depth, the main strand of the San Andreas Fault consists of water-saturated blue clay (collected from a hand-augered borehole), which is similar to deeply weathered serpentinite observed within the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at

  2. Surface rupture characteristics of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake from field data and correlation of lidar and optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, L. J.; Nissen, E.; Hollingsworth, J.; Maruyama, T.; Chiba, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Kumamoto earthquake sequence of April, 2016 included a Mw 6.2 foreshock on April 14th, followed two days later by the Mw 7.0 mainshock. Here we present a preliminary investigation of the mainshock surface rupture and shallow slip characteristics, including an estimation of the shallow slip deficit and analysis of geometrical rupture propagation effects. We use a combination of fault offsets surveyed on the ground by the Geological Survey of Japan, together with near-field surface displacements calculated from lidar and optical image correlation. We use two 0.5 meter digital surface models provided by Asia Air Survey Co. that are derived from lidar data collected in surveys flown following the foreshock on April 15th, and eight days after the mainshock on April 24th. Although the surface models have not been processed to remove vegetation, the close temporal spacing of acquisitions minimizes non-tectonic surface changes. We also use 2 meter resolution SPOT 7 stereo images collected on December 12th, 2015 and April 20th, 2016. Although the elapsed time between acquisitions is larger for the SPOT 7 images than the lidar data (and includes foreshock surface deformation), it is possible to calculate 3-dimensional displacements using stereo-images and derivative digital elevation models. Lidar and optical datasets were each separately correlated using the COSI-Corr software package, allowing a qualitative comparison of the displacement fields from the two independent datasets. Ongoing work aims to compute the full 3-dimensional displacement field from both datasets.

  3. Giant renal artery pseudoaneurysm caused by rupture of renal angiomyolipoma following pregnancy: Endovascular treatment and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay S Idilman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartomatous, benign tumor composed of blood vessels, fatty tissue and smooth muscle cells, and is often detected incidentally. It can also be associated with the tuberous-sclerosis complex (TSC. Pregnancy and use of oral contraceptives are known to be associated with an increased risk of tumoral rupture and bleeding. Herein, we report a unique case of renal angiomyolipoma associated with TSC who presented with hypovolemic shock as a result of spontaneous rupture of a giant renal pseudoaneurysm, immediately after pregnancy. Emergency endovascular treatment was successful with sparing of most of the affected kidney as demonstrated by follow-up computed tomography imaging.

  4. Interventional and surgical treatment of a hemothorax caused by a ruptured vertebral artery in a patient with neurofibromatosis type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Seo, Hong Joo [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    We report a case of a massive hemothorax arising from a ruptured vertebral artery aneurysm in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 suffering from sudden onset of dyspnea. The vertebral artery aneurysm was treated with endovascular coil embolization. Then, an open thoracotomy was performed to evacuate the hematoma.

  5. Interventional and surgical treatment of a hemothorax caused by a ruptured vertebral artery in a patient with neurofibromatosis type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Seo, Hong Joo

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a massive hemothorax arising from a ruptured vertebral artery aneurysm in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 suffering from sudden onset of dyspnea. The vertebral artery aneurysm was treated with endovascular coil embolization. Then, an open thoracotomy was performed to evacuate the hematoma.

  6. Ruptured Eardrum (Perforated Eardrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with air travel. Other events that can cause sudden changes in pressure — and possibly a ruptured eardrum — ... if it fails to heal. Possible complications include: Hearing loss. Usually, hearing loss is temporary, lasting only until ...

  7. Right ventricular rupture and tamponade caused by malposition of the Avalon cannula for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Hitoshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Placement of the Avalon Elite bicaval dual lumen cannula for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO via the internal jugular vein requires precise positioning of the cannula tip in the inferior vena cava with echocardiography or fluoroscopy guidance. Correct guidewire placement is clearly the key first step in assuring proper advancement of the cannula. We report a case of unexpected wire migration into the right ventricle at the time of final cannula advancement, resulting in right ventricular rupture and tamponade. Transesophageal echocardiography is an important monitoring modality for appropriate placement of the VV-ECMO guidewire and Avalon cannula, and in particular, for early identification of potential complications.

  8. Radiation impact caused by the rupture of a radioactive tank within the Reactor Auxiliary Building of Angra 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Erivaldo Mario dos; Alves, Antonio Sergio de Martin

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to show the methodology, the parameters and some results of the radionuclide migration simulation in order to determine the radiation impact to the biosphere due to an accidental radionuclide release associated with the rupture of a radioactive tank within the Reactor Auxiliary Building of Angra 2. After tank rupture, the radionuclides are supposed to reach the sea via the aquifer of the Angra 2 site. This radiological impact is evaluated with the aid of the activity concentration at the sea and dose received by members of the public. Activity concentration for each radionuclide is calculated according to the ANSI/ANS - 2.17 - 1980, which shows the methodology for calculation of activity concentration in the aquifer in case of accidental radionuclide releases of nuclear power plants, whereas the dose calculation follows recognized international procedures. The migration analysis for the mentioned radionuclides is performed through the aquifer and allows to estimate the maximum activity concentration near the sea boundary and the annual dose to the member of the public. Based on the safety analysis performed for the investigated case one can conclude the annual dose impact is lower than that corresponding to one year of normal operation of the Angra 2 plant. (author)

  9. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.

    1998-06-01

    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area

  10. Rehabilitation of the gas pipeline that had a rupture in service caused by SCC (Stress Corrosion C raking); Rehabilitacion al servicio de un gasoducto que ha sufrido una ruptura en servicio por SCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando; Carzoglio, Eduardo; Hryciuk, Pedro [TGN - Transportadora de Gas del Norte S.A. (Argentina). Depto. de Integridad

    2003-07-01

    TGN had a rupture in service on Gasoducto Troncal Norte. After initial evaluation of the causes of the rupture it was concluded that it had been caused by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). Subsequent investigation in the area of the rupture revealed that colonies of cracks, typical of SCC were found in pipes located near the rupture. In order to put back in service the pipeline in a safety condition, SCC mitigation activities were performed. A decision was made to conduct a hydro test along approximately 30 kilometers of pipe. The stages of the works, the problems faced and the solutions found are dealt with, as well as the conclusions reached upon completion of the works which allowed a better understanding of SCC phenomenon. The methodology for the identification of those areas susceptible to SCC is also described. (author)

  11. Rupture disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut in the rupturable member. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention the rupturable member includes a solid head seated in the end of the drain line having a rim extending peripherally therearound, the rim being clamped against the end of the drain line by a clamp ring having an interior shearing edge, the bottom of the rupturable member being convex and extending into the drain line. Means are provided to draw the rupturable member away from the drain line against the shearing edge to clear the drain line for outflow of sodium therethrough

  12. Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes at the Spring Lake and North Creek Sites on the Wasatch Fault Zone: Evidence for complex rupture of the Nephi Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duross, Christopher; Hylland, Michael D.; Hiscock, Adam; Personius, Stephen; Briggs, Richard; Gold, Ryan D.; Beukelman, Gregg; McDonald, Geg N; Erickson, Ben; McKean, Adam; Angster, Steve; King, Roselyn; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The Nephi segment of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) comprises two fault strands, the northern and southern strands, which have evidence of recurrent late Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes. We excavated paleoseismic trenches across these strands to refine and expand their Holocene earthquake chronologies; improve estimates of earthquake recurrence, displacement, and fault slip rate; and assess whether the strands rupture separately or synchronously in large earthquakes. Paleoseismic data from the Spring Lake site expand the Holocene record of earthquakes on the northern strand: at least five to seven earthquakes ruptured the Spring Lake site at 0.9 ± 0.2 ka (2σ), 2.9 ± 0.7 ka, 4.0 ± 0.5 ka, 4.8 ± 0.8 ka, 5.7 ± 0.8 ka, 6.6 ± 0.7 ka, and 13.1 ± 4.0 ka, yielding a Holocene mean recurrence of ~1.2–1.5 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~0.5–0.8 mm/yr. Paleoseismic data from the North Creek site help refine the Holocene earthquake chronology for the southern strand: at least five earthquakes ruptured the North Creek site at 0.2 ± 0.1 ka (2σ), 1.2 ± 0.1 ka, 2.6 ± 0.9 ka, 4.0 ± 0.1 ka, and 4.7 ± 0.7 ka, yielding a mean recurrence of 1.1–1.3 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~1.9–2.0 mm/yr. We compare these Spring Lake and North Creek data with previous paleoseismic data for the Nephi segment and report late Holocene mean recurrence intervals of ~1.0–1.2 kyr for the northern strand and ~1.1–1.3 kyr for the southern strand. The northern and southern strands have similar late Holocene earthquake histories, which allow for models of both independent and synchronous rupture. However, considering the earthquake timing probabilities and per-event vertical displacements, we have the greatest confidence in the simultaneous rupture of the strands, including rupture of one strand with spillover rupture to the other. Ultimately, our results improve the surface-faulting earthquake history of the Nephi segment and enhance our understanding of how structural barriers

  13. Globe Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Honda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with severe left eye pain and decreased vision after tripping and striking the left side of his head on the corner of his wooden nightstand. The patient arrived as an inter-facility transfer for a suspected globe rupture with a protective eye covering in place; thus, further physical examination of the eye was not performed by the emergency physician in order to avoid further leakage of aqueous humor. Significant findings: The patient’s computed tomography (CT head demonstrated a deformed left globe, concerning for ruptured globe. The patient had hyperdense material in the posterior segment (see green arrow, consistent with vitreous hemorrhage. CT findings that are consistent with globe rupture may include a collapsed globe, intraocular air, or foreign bodies. Discussion: A globe rupture is a full-thickness defect in the cornea, sclera, or both.1 It is an ophthalmologic emergency. Globe ruptures are almost always secondary to direct perforation via a penetrating mechanism; however, it can occur due to blunt injury if the force generated creates sufficient intraocular pressure to tear the sclera.2 Globes most commonly rupture at the insertions of the intraocular muscles or at the limbus. They are associated with a high rate of concomitant orbital floor fractures.2,3 Possible physical examination findings include a shallow anterior chamber on slit-lamp exam, hyphema, and an irregular “teardrop” pupil. Additionally, a positive Seidel sign, which is performed by instilling fluorescein in the eye and then examining for a dark stream of aqueous humor, is indicative of a globe rupture.4 CT is often used to assess for globe rupture; finds of a foreign body, intraocular air, abnormal contour or volume of the globe, or disruption of the sclera suggest globe rupture.2 The sensitivity of CT scan for diagnosis of globe rupture is only 75%; thus, high clinical

  14. Rupture with Concurrent Splenic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Pavel et al., 2008). Infrequently, persistent or mild trauma can cause severe perirenal haematoma resulting in abdominal pain, hematuria and shock. In humans, kidney injury is common with falls and automobile accidents; however there is dearth of information of the causes ofkidney rupture in dogs. In veterinary patient ...

  15. Ruptured thymoma managed via thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Anand; Malik, Paras; Krishnan, Ramya; Kugathasan, Gana; Ayobami, Opeyemi; Edwards, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thymomas rarely present with chest pain due to hemorrhage. This could cause shortness of breath if it ruptures into the pleural space, and is best managed surgically. We describe the case of an 83-year-old woman who presented with such symptoms. Computed tomography showed a ruptured mediastinal mass with pleural effusion. She was managed successfully by thoracotomy with excision of the mass and drainage of the effusion. Histopathology revealed a ruptured thymoma with infarction and necrosis.

  16. Mineralogical compositions of fault rocks from surface ruptures of Wenchuan earthquake and implication of mineral transformation during the seismic cycle along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jiaxiang; Zhou, Yongsheng; He, Changrong; Ma, Shengli

    2017-11-01

    There are two co-seismic bedrock surface ruptures from the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the northern and central parts of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault, Sichuan Province, southwest China. In this study, we report on the macrostructure of the fault rocks and results from X-ray powder diffraction analysis of minerals from rocks in the fault zone. The most recent fault gouge (the gouge produced by the most recent co-seismic fault movement) in all the studied outcrops is dark or grayish-black, totally unconsolidated and ultrafine-grained. Older fault gouges in the same outcrops are grayish or yellowish and weakly consolidated. X-ray powder diffraction analysis results show that mineral assemblages in both the old fault gouge and the new fault gouge are more complicated than the mineral assemblages in the bedrock as the fault gouge is rich in clay minerals. The fault gouge inherited its major rock-forming minerals from the parent rocks, but the clay minerals in the fault gouge were generated in the fault zone and are therefore authigenic and synkinematic. In profiles across the fault, clay mineral abundances increase as one traverses from the bedrock to the breccia to the old gouge and from the old gouge to the new gouge. Quartz and illite are found in all collected gouge samples. The dominant clay minerals in the new fault gouge are illite and smectite along the northern part of the surface rupture and illite/smectite mixed-layer clay in the middle part of the rupture. Illite/smectite mixed-layer clay found in the middle part of the rupture indicates that fault slip was accompanied by K-rich fluid circulation. The existence of siderite, anhydrite, and barite in the northern part of the rupture suggests that fault slip at this locality was accompanied by acidic fluids containing ions of Fe, Ca, and Ba.

  17. Resistance to rupture of the equine stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Di Filippo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Equine colic is an important and common cause of disease and death in horses. Gastric rupture has been extensively described in the literature, and is known to affect expressive numbers of horses. Gastric dilatation, which precedes rupture, may be observed when the animal consumes large amounts of recently harvested grass or drinks water too fast, though diagnosis criteria also include infestation with Gastherophilus and the presence of ileus and distal intestinal obstructions. The objective of the present study was to determine the resistance to rupture of the equine stomach to air (mm Hg and water (L injection. Forty stomachs of young horses (20 geldings and 20 mares with no defined breed were analyzed. Total organ length (cm, weight (g, greater curved length (cm, lesser curved length (cm and height (cm were measured, with no statistical difference between males and females (p > .05. However, stomachs of horses were larger than those of mares and therefore presented higher volumetric capacity (p<0.05. No difference between males and females was observed in the pressure assay (93mmg Hg. Rupture occurred along the greater curvature (99% and on the visceral (80% and diaphragmatic (20% surfaces, across all layers of the gastric wall. Although the equine stomach is relatively small, the organ is considerably resistant to rupture, whether by injection of air or liquid. Horses and mares exhibit similar resistance values, although the stomach of females has smaller volumetric capacity.

  18. Afterslip-dominated surface rupture in the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake as constrained by structure-from-motion analysis and terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, S. B.; Pickering, A.; Scharer, K. M.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lienkaemper, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Near-fault surface deformation associated with the August 24, 2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake included both coseismic and post-seismic slip. Initial synthesis of field observations and initial measurement and modeling of afterslip from traditional survey methods indicate that coseismic slip was minimal (study site is 6 km north of the southern end of the 15 km long surface rupture and 5 km south of the highest measured co-seismic slip. We used structure-from-motion (SfM) methods to mosaic, orthorectify, and generate dense point clouds from the photos. SfM data corroborates survey-based ground observations of limited (~5 cm or less) coseismic slip along the fault trace between CA State Highway 12 and Withers Road, on discontinuous left-stepping en echelon ruptures. By August 26, the surface rupture became nearly continuous, and cultural features extracted from the TLS point clouds indicate horizontal slip magnitudes between 15 and 27 cm, increasing northward. By September 22, slip magnitudes had increased to between 26 and 46 cm. The lower slip magnitudes are to the south at Withers Road, and the general trend is increased slip to the north, but there is more slip variability along the fault trace in the September 15 data. From August 26 to September 15, the west side of the fault trace uplifted between 0.5 and 5 cm relative to east side. Increased relief on the surface rupture itself indicated a slight compressional component of the deformation. These results confirm that post-event air photos can be useful for rapid 3D mapping, and that the unparalleled accuracy of TLS data can be used to quantify even very subtle deformation patterns in three dimensions and document changes through time.

  19. Strength and rupture-life transitions caused by secondary carbide precipitation in HT-9 during high-temperature low-rate mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMelfi, R.J.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Hughes, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    The martensitic-ferritic alloy HT-9 is slated for long-term use as a fuel-cladding material in the Integral Fast Reactor. Analysis of published high-temperature mechanical property data suggests that secondary carbide precipitation would occur during service life causing substantial strengthening of the as-heat-treated material. Aspects of the kinetics of this precipitation process are extracted from calculations of the back stress necessary to produce the observed strengthening effect under various creep loading conditions. The resulting Arrhenius factor is shown to agree quantitatively with shifts to higher strength of crept material in reference to the intrinsic strength of HT-9. The results of very low constant strain-rate high-temperature tensile tests on as-heat-treated HT-9 that focus on the transition in strength with precipitation will be presented and related to rupture-life

  20. On machine surface to the unit event causing residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalama, R.M.; Mannanb, M.A.; Spowageca, A.

    2005-01-01

    Integrity and reduce overall costs. Within the framework of surface integrity investigations, special emphasis is given to the measurement of residual stresses because they contribute directly to premature failure of components. Since the highest residual stresses are to be found in surface layers, these deserve special attention when dealing with dynamically, heavily loaded machine parts such as gas turbine components used in aero engines. Of the many techniques available for the measurement of residual stresses, the most highly developed and widely used non-destructive method is based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, it is not possible to use this technique for inspection of all the components, since it is time consuming, complicated as well as expensive. In this paper, a method is being proposed that augments the XRD method but at the same time capable of inspecting all the components. A non-destructive, visual inspection technique has been developed that can correlate the characteristic features on the surface to the unit event causing the residual stress and the type of residual stress generated on the machined surface. Pictures of the machined surfaces have been taken using a digital video microscope at a magnification of 500 and the surface feature correlated to the unit event causing the residual stress. Sharp and well defined long grooves indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a mechanical unit event while appearance of streaks and small areas of smeared material indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a thermal unit event. These trends have been confirmed by measuring the residual stresses using XRD. The proposed technique is an attempt at establishing a simple methodology that would be useful to industries manufacturing aerospace and other components that require good surface integrity. (Author)

  1. Geometry, slip distribution, and kinematics of surface rupture on the Sakarya fault segment during the 17 August 1999 İzmit, Turkey, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, R.M.; Stenner, Heidi D.; Fumal, T.E.; Christofferson, S.A.; Rockwell, T.K.; Hartleb, R.D.; Bachhuber, J.; Barka, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mw 7.4 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake ruptured five major fault segments of the dextral North Anatolian Fault Zone. The 26-km-long, N86°W-trending Sakarya fault segment (SFS) extends from the Sapanca releasing step-over in the west to near the town of Akyazi in the east. The SFS emerges from Lake Sapanca as two distinct fault traces that rejoin to traverse the Adapazari Plain to Akyazi. Offsets were measured across 88 cultural and natural features that cross the fault, such as roads, cornfield rows, rows of trees, walls, rails, field margins, ditches, vehicle ruts, a dike, and ground cracks. The maximum displacement observed for the İzmit earthquake (∼5.1 m) was encountered on this segment. Dextral displacement for the SFS rises from less than 1 m at Lake Sapanca to greater than 5 m near Arifiye, only 3 km away. Average slip decreases uniformly to the east from Arifiye until the fault steps left from Sagir to Kazanci to the N75°W, 6-km-long Akyazi strand, where slip drops to less than 1 m. The Akyazi strand passes eastward into the Akyazi Bend, which consists of a high-angle bend (18°-29°) between the Sakarya and Karadere fault segments, a 6-km gap in surface rupture, and high aftershock energy release. Complex structural geometries exist between the İzmit, Düzce, and 1967 Mudurnu fault segments that have arrested surface ruptures on timescales ranging from 30 sec to 88 days to 32 yr. The largest of these step-overs may have acted as a rupture segmentation boundary in previous earthquake cycles.

  2. Micromechanical properties and collagen composition of ruptured human achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Kovanen, Vuokko; Hölmich, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive.......The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive....

  3. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  4. Case report: rupture of popliteal artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altino Ono Moraes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An 83-year-old female patient with a history of prior endovascular treatment to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm presented with intense pain and edema in the left leg, with hyperemia and localized temperature increase. Doppler ultrasonography revealed a voluminous aneurysm of the popliteal artery with a contained rupture, and hematoma involving the popliteal fossa and the medial and anterior surfaces of the knee causing compression of the popliteal vein. Endovascular repair was accomplished with covered stents and the rupture was confirmed. during the procedure The aneurysm was excluded and the signs and symptoms it had caused resolved completely, but during the postoperative period the patient developed sepsis of pulmonary origin and died.

  5. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2017-05-18

    Many of Earth's great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent 'flapping' of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  7. Clays causing adhesion with tool surfaces during mechanical tunnel driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, G.; Fernández-Steeger, T.; Stanjek, H.; Feinendegen, M.; Post, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    During mechanical excavation with a tunnel boring machine (TBM) it is possible that clays stick to the cutting wheel and to other metal parts. The resulting delays in the progress of construction work, cause great economic damage and often disputes between the public awarding authorities and executing companies. One of the most important factors to reduce successfully the clay adhesion is the use of special polymers and foams. But why does the clay stick to the metal parts? A first step is to recognize which kind of clay mineralogy shows serious adhesion problems. The mechanical properties of clay and clay suspensions are primarily determined by surface chemistry and charge distribution at the interfaces, which in turn affect the arrangement of the clay structure. As we know, clay is a multi-phase material and its behaviour depends on numerous parameters such as: clay mineralogy, clay fraction, silt fraction, sand fraction, water content, water saturation, Atterberg limits, sticky limit, activity, cation exchange capacity, degree of consolidation and stress state. It is therefore likely that adhesion of clay on steel is also affected by these clay parameters. Samples of clay formations, which caused problems during tunnel driving, will be analyzed in laboratory. Mineralogical analyses (diffractometry, etc.) will be carried out to observe which minerals are responsible for adherence problems. To manipulate the physical properties, batch tests will be carried out in order to eliminate or reduce the adhesion on tool surfaces through variation of the zeta potential. Second step is the performance of vane shear tests on clay samples. Different pore fluid (distilled water, pure NaCl solution, ethanol and methanol) will be used to study the variation of the mechanical behaviour of clay depending on the dielectric constant of the fluids. This project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the DFG (German Research Foundation) in the

  8. Late Quaternary Surface Rupture and Associated Transpressive Uplift on a Section of the State Line Fault in the south-central Amargosa Desert Basin, Southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, C. M.; Fridrich, C.; Blakely, R. J.; Thompson, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    New geomorphic, geophysical, and structural data indicate that a section of the Pahrump-Stewart Valley (State Line) fault on the northern piedmont of the Resting Spring Range is associated with late Quaternary surface rupture and related transpressive domal uplift. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity data clearly image this northwest-trending strike-slip fault in the subsurface as a continuous multi-strand fault system that continues >35 km further northwest into the south-central Amargosa Desert basin than previously established. This continuation of the fault consists of a sigmoidal bend characterized by a constraining bend on the north flank of the Resting Spring Range, paired with a releasing bend on the north flank of the southeastern Funeral Mountains. Bedrock mapping in the Amargosa Desert indicates a cumulative late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement of ˜15 km across the entire fault zone. In the Resting Spring area, the major central strand of the State Line fault zone is inactive but offsets playa facies of the Artists Drive Formation (equivalent), internally folded into a giant southeast-plunging chevron syncline, against fluvial and playa margin facies of the same formation that are folded into a broad northwest-plunging anticline. These deformed Tertiary strata are exposed in the core of a large (10 x 18 km) domal Quaternary uplift, centered on the northern piedmont of the range, that coincides with a major transpressive left-step in the adjoining active trace of the fault zone. The domal uplift is indicated by persistent incision into Tertiary bedrock (1-5+ m deep) beneath stepped sequences of straths capped by thin and locally warped mid-Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial-gravel veneers. Quaternary activity on the fault zone in this area is now focused on a strand along the northern and eastern border of the uplifted area marked by a discontinuous, 8-10 km long series of aligned, en-echelon, or anastomosing fault scarps that commonly bound linear

  9. A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Yeol Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone, duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management.ResultsForty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case, microfat graft (2 case, removal only (14 case, and follow-up loss (17 case.ConclusionsSaline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs.

  10. Intra-amniotic administration of exogenous pulmonary surfactant for improving in lung maturity of fetal rabbits with intrauterine infection caused by premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the effect of intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant (PS on lung maturation in conditions of experimentally induced premature rupture of membranes (PROM and intrauterine infection of rabbits. To establish animal (rabbit models of intrauterine infection caused by PROM, E. coli was intrauterinely injected in 24-and 26-day pregnant animals. Twenty healthy pregnancy adult Japanese white rabbits were divided into three groups: the infection group (8 rabbits, infection group with intra-amniotic PS administration (8 rabbits and healthy controls (4 rabbits. Ultrastructure changes in the lung were observed under an electron microscope 19.5 hours after intervention. The results showed that the lung infection levels of fetal rabbits in the infection group and the infection group with PS had no significant difference. Bacillus bodies and infiltrated inflammatory cells can be occasionally seen in the alveoli, bronchial lumen, and cytoplasm. The type II alveolar epithelial cells (AT-II were decreased in the infection group than that in control group. Lamellar bodies showed vacuolation changes and different levels of apoptosis. In the infection group with PS, the count of AT-II did not show an obvious decrease. Lamellar bodies increased, and different secretion forms appeared. Also, there was little apoptosis and no obvious collagen fiber hyperplasia in antenatal administration of PS group. We believe that once PROM has happened, intrauterine infection and inflammation stimulated a cascade reaction on the fetal lung, leading to abnormal changes in the alveolar ultrastructure. Intra-amniotic administration of PS can improve the fetal lung ultrastructure and its maturity.

  11. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture ?

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, Jos? Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a s...

  12. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Andrusaitis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 69-year-old male with poorly controlled hypertension presented with 1 hour of severe low back pain that radiated to his abdomen. The patient was tachycardic and had an initial blood pressure of 70/40. He had a rigid and severely tender abdomen. The patient’s history of hypertension, abnormal vital signs, severity and location of his pain were suspicious for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Therefore, a computed tomography angiogram (CTA was ordered. Significant findings: CTA demonstrated a ruptured 7.4 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm with a large left retroperitoneal hematoma. Discussion: True abdominal aortic aneurysm is defined as at least a 3cm dilatation of all three layers of the arterial wall of the abdominal aorta.1 An estimated 15,000 people die per year in the US of this condition.2 Risk factors for AAA include males older than 65, tobacco use, and hypertension.1,3,4 There are also congenital, mechanical, traumatic, inflammatory, and infectious causes of AAA.3 Rupture is often the first manifestation of the disease. The classic triad of abdominal pain, pulsatile mass, and hypotension is seen in only 50% of ruptured AAAs.5 Pain (abdominal, groin, or back is the most common symptom. The most common misdiagnoses of ruptured AAAs are renal colic, diverticulitis, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.6 Bedside ultrasonography is the fastest way to detect this condition and is nearly 100% sensitive.1 One study showed that bedside ultrasounds performed by emergency physicians had a sensitivity of .94 [95% CI = .86-1.0] and specificity of 1 [95% CI = .98-1.0] for detecting AAAs.7 CTA has excellent sensitivity (approximately 100% and yields the added benefit of facilitating surgical planning and management.1 Without surgical treatment, a ruptured AAA is almost uniformly fatal, and 50% of those who undergo surgery do not survive.1 Early resuscitation and coordination with vascular surgery should be

  13. Earthquake lights and rupture processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Losseva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A physical model of earthquake lights is proposed. It is suggested that the magnetic diffusion from the electric and magnetic fields source region is a dominant process, explaining rather high localization of the light flashes. A 3D numerical code allowing to take into account the arbitrary distribution of currents caused by ground motion, conductivity in the ground and at its surface, including the existence of sea water above the epicenter or (and near the ruptured segments of the fault have been developed. Simulations for the 1995 Kobe earthquake were conducted taking into account the existence of sea water with realistic geometry of shores. The results do not contradict the eyewitness reports and scarce measurements of the electric and magnetic fields at large distances from the epicenter.

  14. Small-displacement linear surface ruptures of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence detected by ALOS-2 SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Yarai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Morishita, Yu; Nakano, Takayuki; Miyahara, Basara; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yuji; Ueshiba, Haruka; Kakiage, Yasuaki; Une, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    We constructed and analyzed the ground surface displacement associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence using satellite radar interferometry images of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2. The radar interferogram generally shows elastic deformation caused by the main earthquakes, but many other linear discontinuities showing displacement are also found. Approximately 230 lineaments are identified, some of which coincide with the positions of known active faults, such as the main earthquake faults belonging to the Futagawa and Hinagu fault zones and other minor faults; however, there are much fewer known active faults than lineaments. In each area, the lineaments have a similar direction and displacement to each other; therefore, they can be divided into several groups based on location and major features. Since the direction of the lineaments coincides with that of known active faults or their conjugate faults, the cause of the lineaments must be related to the tectonic stress field of this region. The lineaments are classified into the following two categories: (1) main earthquake faults and their branched subfaults and (2) secondary faults that are not directly related to the main earthquake but whose slip was probably triggered by the main earthquake or aftershocks.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Migraine before rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Gurary, Natalia M; Sakovich, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA.......Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA....

  16. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diansari, Angga Vertika; Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri

    2015-01-01

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault

  17. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diansari, Angga Vertika, E-mail: anggav.bmkg@gmail.com; Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri [Academy of Meteorology and Geophysics, Jalan Perhubungan I no.5 Tangerang 15221 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  18. Lectin interactions on surface-grafted glycostructures: influence of the spatial distribution of carbohydrates on the binding kinetics and rupture forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Creagh, A Louise; Haynes, Charles A; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2013-08-20

    We performed quantitative analysis of the binding kinetics and affinity of carbohydrate-lectin binding and correlated them directly with the molecular and structural features of ligands presented at the nanoscale within the glycocalyx mimicking layers on surfaces. The surface plasmon resonance analysis identified that the mode of binding changed from multivalent to monovalent, which resulted in a near 1000-fold change in the equilibrium association constant, by varying the spatial distribution of carbohydrate ligands within the surface-grafted polymer layer. We identified, for the first time, that the manner in which the ligands presented on the surface has great influence on the binding at the first stage of bivalent chelating, not on the binding at the second stage. The rupture forces measured by atomic force microscope force spectroscopy also indicated that the mode of binding between lectin and ligands changed from multiple to single with variation in the ligand presentation. The dependence of lectin binding on the glycopolymer composition and grafting density is directly correlated with the nanoscale presentation of ligands on a surface, which is a determining factor in controlling the clustering and statistical effects contributing to the enhanced binding.

  19. Which Fault Segments Ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and Which Did Not? New Evidence from Near‐Fault 3D Surface Displacements Derived from SAR Image Offsets

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Guangcai

    2017-03-15

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured a complex thrust‐faulting system at the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau and west of Sichuan basin. Though the earthquake has been extensively studied, several details about the earthquake, such as which fault segments were activated in the earthquake, are still not clear. This is in part due to difficult field access to the fault zone and in part due to limited near‐fault observations in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations because of decorrelation. In this study, we address this problem by estimating SAR image offsets that provide near‐fault ground displacement information and exhibit clear displacement discontinuities across activated fault segments. We begin by reanalyzing the coseismic InSAR observations of the earthquake and then mostly eliminate the strong ionospheric signals that were plaguing previous studies by using additional postevent images. We also estimate the SAR image offsets and use their results to retrieve the full 3D coseismic surface displacement field. The coseismic deformation from the InSAR and image‐offset measurements are compared with both Global Positioning System and field observations. The results indicate that our observations provide significantly better information than previous InSAR studies that were affected by ionospheric disturbances. We use the results to present details of the surface‐faulting offsets along the Beichuan fault from the southwest to the northeast and find that there is an obvious right‐lateral strike‐slip component (as well as thrust faulting) along the southern Beichuan fault (in Yingxiu County), which was strongly underestimated in earlier studies. Based on the results, we provide new evidence to show that the Qingchuan fault was not ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a topic debated in field observation studies, but show instead that surface faulting occurred on a northward extension of the Beichuan fault during

  20. Ruptured Pebbles - a coseismic and paleoseismic indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismüller, Christopher; Reicherter, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    To increase the understanding of paleo-earthquakes and deformation patterns, and the propagation of surface waves in the proximity of active faults, we use the mainly disregarded features of ruptured or broken pebbles within in a clayey matrix. Deformation of unconsolidated sediments (alluvium, colluvium) due to earthquake ruptures is a long investigated topic, including the degradation of the fault scarp. However, during many trenching studies aligned pebbles along the fault planes have been described, and attributed to coseismic deformation. Over the last decades, we have found many ruptured pebbles in trenches at active faults with historic earthquakes, but also aligned (rotated?) pebbles. Here, we describe ruptured pebbles from a Pleistocene debris flow near the coastline between the towns Carboneras and Mojácar (SE Spain), East of the Sierra Cabrera. The outcrop is on-fault at the transition of the active Carboneras and Palomares faults (major historical earthquakes with M 7 in 1518 and 1522), implying proximity to the earthquakes epicenters. The Carboneras (NE-SW), Gafarillos (E-W) and Palomares (NNE-SSW) faults form major faults in eastern Andalucia. The outcrop contains ruptured pebbles in an only slightly consolidated, Pleistocene debris flow with 50 % matrix content. Similar near-fault ruptured pebbles have already been observed in the Carrizales quarry near Baelo Claudia, S Spain, and many other sites (e.g., Italy, Greece, Russia), but always in the proximity of active faults. We measured the fractures of 100 pebbles as planes, if possible, or trend, in case no measureable plane was accessible. Complementary 3D-models of the outcrop and each ruptured pebble were created using Structure from Motion, allowing us to further study the pebbles morphology and geometry. Mode II and conjugate fractures are prevailing in the pebbles and the lack of surface-loading such as striations and dissolution pits neglects clast-interaction. Un-cemented shear planes

  1. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  2. The causes of alkalinity variations in the global surface ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Claudia Helen

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have caused the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to increase by 120 ppmv from pre-industrial times to 2014. The ocean takes up approximately a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2, causing ocean acidification (OA). Therefore it is necessary to study the ocean carbonate system, including alkalinity, to quantify the flux of CO2 into the ocean and understand OA. Since the 1970s, carbonate system measurements have been undertaken which can be analyzed to quantify the...

  3. Rupture of esophagus by compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Tan, Yuyong; Huo, Jirong

    2016-11-01

    Currently, beverages containing compressed air such as cola and champagne are widely used in our daily life. Improper ways to unscrew the bottle, usually by teeth, could lead to an injury, even a rupture of the esophagus. This letter to editor describes a case of esophageal rupture caused by compressed air.

  4. Insights into earthquake rupture and recovery from paleoseismic faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C. D.; Griffith, W. A.; Ross, C.; Melosh, B. L.; Young, E.

    2016-12-01

    There are two key factors distinguishing earthquake slip from creep that have the potential to be preserved in rocks from ancient fault zones. First, slip velocity is sufficiently high that the frictional heat production on the slip surface outpaces conductive heat dissipation, resulting in a net temperature rise. If the slip is sufficiently localized and the normal stress is high enough, this temperature rise can dissociate hydrous minerals, cause rapid maturation of organic compounds, and melt fault rock. These reactions are recorded in fault rock mineralogy and composition and can be used to estimate coseismic temperatures from 250 C to greater than 1400 C. Second, seismic slip is *dynamic*, that is, that the slipping area expands in size at rates comparable to the shear wave velocity in the rocks ( 3 km/s), which results in extreme stress gradients in the wall rock at the rupture tip. The stressing rate exceeds the speed at which fractures can propagate through the wall rock, resulting in distinctive patterns of very tightly spaced and branching fractures, and sometimes pulverization. These fractures can be the dominant form of off-fault damage and may cause permeability spikes through the fresh fracture networks. Using both types of fossil earthquake signatures, we can identify ancient seismic rupture planes and use these to map out the geometry of earthquake rupture networks at the outcrop scale (10^-3 - 10^3 meters), which is below the resolution and location uncertainty of earthquake seismology in most active faults. Using examples from the Pofadder and Norumbega Shear Zones, I will show that earthquakes can rupture multiple parallel and non-parallel surfaces simultaneously, and that healing during afterslip can affect damage zones as well as the rupture surface. Outcrop studies may be able to elucidate the consequences for slip distribution and help explain spatial variations in fracture energy and stress drop that are barely resolvable in seismic data.

  5. Asteroid strikes cause the Moon's surface to smooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    The lunar surface is marred by impact craters, remnants of the collisions that have occurred over the past 4.5 billion years. The Orientale basin, the Moon's most recently formed sizable crater, stands out from the rest. The crater, which lies along the southwestern boundary between the near and far sides of the moon, appears as a dark spot ringed by concentric circles of ejecta that reach more than 900 kilometers from the impact location. Though other craters have similar rings, the lunar surface surrounding the Orientale basin is unusually rough with reduced concavity. The anomalous features were identified by Kreslavsky and Head after they produced a map of the lunar surface topographic roughness using observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  6. Soil gas distribution in the main coseismic surface rupture zone of the 1980, Ms = 6.9, Irpinia earthquake (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Bigi, Sabina; Tartarello, Chiara; Sacco, Pietro; Lombardi, Salvatore; Ascione, Alessandra; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Soil gas measurements of different gas species with different geochemical behaviors were performed in the area of the Pecore Plain, a 200 m × 300 m sized, fault-bounded extensional basin located in the northern Mount Marzano massif, in the axial belt of the southern Apennine chain. The Pecore Plain area was affected by coseismic surface faulting during the Ms = 6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake, the strongest and most destructive seismic event of the last 30 years in southern Italy. The collected data and their geostatistical analysis provide new insights into the control exerted by active fault segments on deep-seated gas migration toward the surface. The results define anomalies that are aligned with the NW-SE trending coseismic rupture of the 1980 earthquake along the western border of the plain, as well as along the southern border of the plain where a hidden, E-W striking fault is inferred. Geospatial analysis highlights an anisotropic spatial behavior of 222Rn along the main NW-SE trend and of CO2 along the E-W trend. This feature suggests a correlation between the shape and orientation of the anomalies and the barrier/conduit behavior of fault zones in the area. Furthermore, our results show that gas migration through brittle deformation zones occurs by advective processes, as suggested by the relatively high migration rate needed to obtain anomalies of short-lived 222Rn in the soil pores.

  7. Rifting mechanisms constrained by InSAR, seismicity, GPS, and surface rupture from the Karonga earthquake sequence in northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Pritchard, M. E.; Henderson, S. T.; Gaherty, J. B.; Shillington, D. J.; Oliva, S. J.; Ebinger, C.; Nooner, S. L.; Elliott, J.; Saria, E.; Ntambila, D.; Chindandali, P. R. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Malawi rift is part of the archetypal East African rift where early-stage crustal extension is dominated by faulting. In the Karonga region of northern Malawi, a sequence of earthquakes in late 2009, with 15 teleseismically detected (Mw 4.5-6.0) over 13 days, provides a uniqueopportunity to evaluate faulting processes controlling present-day extension in an early-stage rift. We describe observations of this sequence including hundreds of aftershocks located by a temporary seismic array installed in 2010, ground deformation from satellite interferograms, and surface rupture from field surveys published by others. We use all of these data to model fault geometry and slip. The aftershocks from January-May 2010 suggest the involvement of multiple faults, and we test the extent that this can be resolved by the InSAR data. The InSAR and surface rupture both suggest that the major slip occurred at shallow depth (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project, which includes the Karonga region and spans 2013-2015. We find 3 cm of potential ground movement at the location of the earthquake as determined by the SEGMeNT seismic array from Sentinel-1. Geodetic fault slip is consistent with the focal mechanism and depth determined by the local array. The location is at the northern end of the 2009-2010 aftershock zone, and aftershocks suggest some linkage with faults that slipped in 2009. InSAR observations do not provide any evidence for large aseismic slip or fluid movements during or after the 2014 sequence, which had <200 aftershocks above the network threshold. For example, we do not observe any deformation at Rungwe volcano above the 2 cm/yr detection threshold with InSAR time series from ALOS (2007-2010) or Sentinel-1 (10/2014 - 04/2017). The time series from SEGMeNT and other continuous GPS stations do not show transients related to the earthquakes, but are not optimally located in space or time.

  8. Tidal Disruption of Phobos as the Cause of Surface Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Asphaug, E.; Spitale, J. N.; Hemingway, D.; Rhoden, A. R.; Henning, W. G.; Bills, B. G.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Walker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Phobos, the innermost satellite of Mars, displays an extensive system of grooves that are mostly symmetric about its sub-Mars point. Phobos is steadily spiraling inward due to the tides it raises on Mars lagging behind Phobos' orbital position and will suffer tidal disruption before colliding with Mars in a few tens of millions of years. We calculate the surface stress field of the deorbiting satellite and show that the first signs of tidal disruption are already present on its surface. Most of Phobos' prominent grooves have an excellent correlation with computed stress orientations. The model requires a weak interior that has very low rigidity on the tidal evolution time scale, overlain by an approximately 10-100 m exterior shell that has elastic properties similar to lunar regolith as described by Horvath et al. (1980).

  9. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  10. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  11. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  12. Ruptured Uterus At Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. | Eze | Ebonyi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Ruptured uterus is an obstetric catastrophe associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality. Objectives: To determine the incidence, causes, management and fetomaternal outcomes of ruptured uterus in Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Delivery records, theatre registers and case notes of all ruptured ...

  13. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in premature rupture of membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Maissa Marçola Scandiuzzi; Thiago Cerizza Pinheiro; André Afonso Nimtz Rodrigues; Fernando Antonio Maria Claret Alcadipani

    2014-01-01

    Introducion: pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes (PROM) are associated with bad outcomes and controvertial management. Although underlain mechanism is unknown, strong evidences point infection as the main cause underneath preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm labour. Objective: to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Method: retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnanci...

  14. Idiopathic Gastric Rupture in a Child: Critical Situation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Index Word: Gastric rupture, Pneumoperitoneum, Abdominal distension, Resuscitation. INTRODUCTION astric rupture (GR) has been ... necrosis, with No evidence of malignancy or acute inflammation in the ruptured gastric edges ... GR in neonates may be idiopathic or caused by birth trauma, congenital muscle defects, ...

  15. Young surface of Pluto's Sputnik Planitia caused by viscous relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.; Hu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Lin, D. N. C.; Yang, J.; Showman, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The young surface of Pluto's Sputnik Planitia (SP) is one of the most prominent features observed by the New Horizon mission (Moore et al., 2016; Stern et al., 2015). No crater has been confirmed on the heart-shaped SP basin, in contrast to more than 5000 identified over comparable areas elsewhere (Robbins et al., 2016). The SP basin is filled with mostly N2 ice and small amount of CH4 and CO ice (Protopapa et al., 2017). Previous studies suggested that the SP surface might be renewed through vigorous thermal convection (McKinnon et al., 2016), and that the surface age may be as young as 500,000 years. In this paper, we present numerical simulations demonstrating that craters can be removed by rapid viscous relaxation of N2 ice over much shorter timescales. The crater retention age is less than 1000 years if the N2-ice thickness is several kilometers. McKinnon, W. B., Nimmo, F., Wong, T., Schenk, P. M., White, O. L., Roberts, J., . . . Umurhan, O. (2016). Convection in a volatile nitrogen-ice-rich layer drives Pluto's geological vigour. Nature, 534(7605), 82-85. Moore, J. M., McKinnon, W. B., Spencer, J. R., Howard, A. D., Schenk, P. M., Beyer, R. A., . . . White, O. L. (2016). The geology of Pluto and Charon through the eyes of New Horizons. Science, 351(6279), 1284-1293. Protopapa, S., Grundy, W. M., Reuter, D. C., Hamilton, D. P., Dalle Ore, C. M., Cook, J. C., . . . Young, L. A. (2017). Pluto's global surface composition through pixel-by-pixel Hapke modeling of New Horizons Ralph/LEISA data. Icarus, Volume 287, 218-228. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.11.028Robbins, S. J., Singer, K. N., Bray, V. J., Schenk, P., Lauer, T. R., Weaver, H. A., . . . Porter, S. (2016). Craters of the Pluto-Charon system. Icarus. Stern, S. A., Bagenal, F., Ennico, K., Gladstone, G. R., Grundy, W. M., McKinnon, W. B., . . . Zirnstein, E. (2015). The Pluto system: Initial results from its exploration by New Horizons. Science, 350(6258), aad1815.

  16. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  17. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL

  18. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm

  19. Rupture of primigravid uterus and recurrent rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahreen Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is a deadly obstetrical emergency endangering the life of both mother and fetus. In Bangladesh, majority of deliveries arc attended by unskilled traditional birth attendant and maternal mortality is still quite high. It is rare Ln developed country but unfortunately it is common in a developing country like Bangladesh. We report a case history of a patient age 32yrs from Daudkandi, Comilla admitted with H/0 previous two rupture uterus and repair with no living issue. We did caesarean section at her 31+ weeks of pregnancy when she developed Jabour pain. A baby of 1.4 kg was delivered. During cesarean section, focal rupture was noted in previous scar of rupture. Unfortunately the baby expired in neonatal ICU after 36 hours.

  20. Radiative forcing by changes in surface albedo caused by changes in vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Kvalevåg, Maria Malene

    2005-01-01

    The human influence on vegetation causes changes in the surface reflective properties. By using MODIS land cover and MODIS surface albedo products, an estimation of radiative forcing due to surface albedo changes caused by vegetation changes is performed. A potential natural vegetation data set is used to compute radiative forcing estimates from pre agricultural times to present. A combination between MODIS blacksky and whitesky albedo and diffuse and direct radiation at gr...

  1. Effect of leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma on osteoarthritis caused by cranial cruciate ligament rupture: A canine gait analysis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Maria E.; Santana, Angelo; Spinella, Giuseppe; Carrillo, José M.; Batista, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to objectively assess the effect of a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivate in English bulldogs with stifle degenerative joint disease secondary to cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). We used a force platform and affixed electrogoniometers to measure peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI), stance time (ST), and angular range of motion (AROM), from 12 lame client-owned English bulldogs with post-CCLR stifle joint abnormalities. The 12 affected subjects were treated with 4 intra-articular injections of PRP, at 30-day intervals. Ten untreated, sound English bulldogs were used as a reference group. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using a linear mixed effects model. Mean values of PVF, VI, ST, and AROM were improved within the first 3 months post-treatment in the CCLR group, with mean measured changes increasing to maximum 4.56% body weight gain, 1.5% body weight/second, 0.07 seconds, and 6.18 degrees, respectively. The effects declined progressively after the treatment interval, ending at nearly initial levels after 6 months. This study demonstrates that dogs with CCLR treated with intra-articular PRP had improved PVF, VI, ST, and AROM over time; the duration of effect was waning by the end of the post-treatment period. PMID:29554150

  2. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.

    2002-01-01

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  3. Chorioamnionitis caused by Serratia marcescens in a healthy pregnant woman with preterm premature rupture of membranes: A rare case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenberg, Miriam; Yagel, Yael; Press, Fernanda; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-04-01

    The incidence of chorioamnionitis varies widely. The highest incidence is reported in preterm deliveries. Among preterm deliveries, chorioamnionitis usually occurs after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). To date, only five cases of chorioamnionitis due to Serratia marcescens were reported. Here we present a case of a pregnant woman with chorioamnionitis due to Serratia marcescens who delivered a premature neonate at 28 weeks and four days of gestation. We also conducted a review of the literature in order to identify and characterize the clinical presentation and outcomes of this rare infection. A 36 year old female (gravida 9, para 6) was admitted with cervical effacement of 16mm and intact membranes at gestational age of 25 weeks and five days. One week following her admission PPROM was noticed. Treatment with the standard antibiotic regimen for PPROM was initiated. Thirteen days after the diagnosis of PPROM (28 weeks and four days) she developed chills, abdominal pain, sub febrile fever, tachycardia, leukocytosis and fetal tachycardia, and a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis was made. An urgent CS was performed. In the first post-operative day the patient developed surgical sight infection. Cultures obtained from the purulent discharge of the wound, as well as cultures from the placenta and uterine cavity that were obtained during surgery grew Serratia marcescens. The patient was treated with Meropenem for six days, with a good clinical response. We present a rare case of nosocomialy acquired Serratia marcescens chorioamnionitis in a patient with PPROM. This case emphasizes the need for good infection control measures. Our favorable outcome together with the scares reports in the literature, add insight into this type of rare infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  5. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  6. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Furuya, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co {gamma}-ray irradiation.

  7. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  8. ACL Rupture in Collegiate Wrestler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay A. Palmer

    2016-05-01

    ACL and hamstring. After completing five months of physical therapy, the patient joined a college wrestling team in August 2013. The athletic training staff at the university started him on a quadriceps and hamstring strengthening rehabilitation program for about one month. The staff also worked on continuous flexion and extension of the knee to where the patient could feel comfortable with doing activities with his knee. The patient continues to participate in daily stretching and strengthening protocols for his quadriceps and hamstring bilaterally. Deviation from the Expected/Uniqueness: The patient still participated on a fully ruptured ACL for seven months with just complaining of minimal pain and discomfort. The athlete chose to complete two seasons of activities instead of receiving surgery immediately. The ratio of people who rupture their ACL is about 5 in every 100,000 people. It is interesting that the high school clinician could not diagnose the injury until the patient received an MRI two months post-injury. The patient was also told by doctors that he only uses about 50% of his ACL on a daily basis compared to anyone else who uses their ACL about 95%. The patient felt comfortable with the ACL ruptured and changed any discomfort by just wearing a brace. Conclusions: Not many people can play on a ruptured ACL for seven months before receiving any surgical repairs. We need to keep this in mind as Athletic Trainers so we are not sending our athletes back on the field and possibly causing them more damage. The athlete continues stretching protocols daily.

  9. Splenic rupture masquerading ruptured ectopic pregnancy | Kigbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classical triad of presentation of delayed menses, irregular vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain may not be encountered at all! Overwhelming features of abdominal pain, amenorrhea, pallor, abdominal tenderness, shifting dullness with positive pregnancy test gave a clinical diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  10. Dynamic rupture activation of backthrust fault branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-01

    We perform dynamic rupture simulations to investigate the possible reactivation of backthrust branches triggered by ruptures along a main thrust fault. Simulations with slip-weakening fault friction and uniform initial stress show that fast propagation speed or long propagation distance of the main rupture promotes reactivation of backthrust over a range of branch angles. The latter condition may occur separately from the former if rupture speed is limited by an increasing slip-weakening distance towards the junction direction. The results suggest a trade-off between the amplitude and duration of the dynamic stress near the main rupture front for backthrust reactivation. Termination of the main rupture by a barrier can provide enhanced loading amplitude and duration along a backthrust rooted near the barrier, facilitating its reactivation especially with a high frictional resistance. The free surface and depth-dependent initial stress can have several additional effects. The sign of the triggered motion along the backthrust can be reversed from thrust to normal if a deeply nucleated main rupture breaks the free surface, while it is preserved as thrust if the main rupture is terminated by a barrier at depth. The numerical results are discussed in relation to several recent megathrust earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, and Japan, and related topics such as branch feedbacks to the main fault. The dynamic view on backthrust fault branching provided by the study fills a gap not covered by quasi-static models or observations. A specific examined case of antithetic fault branching may be useful for indicating a barrier-like behavior along the main fault.

  11. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong [Shilla General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture.

  12. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture

  13. Acute papillary muscle rupture in a patient with clostridial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R; Andreas, S; Weise, B; Werner, G S

    1997-03-01

    We describe the clinical course of a 58-year-old man who died from acute papillary muscle rupture as a complication of clostridial sepsis. There was no evidence for myocardial infarction, infective endocarditis, prior chest trauma or other known causes of papillary muscle rupture. Histological specimens taken at autopsy demonstrated clostridial infection of the heart. To our knowledge the occurrence of papillary muscle rupture in the setting of clostridial sepsis has not yet been reported in the literature.

  14. Rupture traumatique du diaphragme

    OpenAIRE

    Nordback, P.L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Résumé Rupture traumatique du diaphragme La rupture traumatique du diaphragme a été décrite la première fois par Sennertus en 1541. Ambroise Paré, en 1579, décrivit le premier cas de rupture traumatique du diaphragme diagnostiqué à l'autopsie. Une rupture traumatique du diaphragme existe chez 3 à 5% des patients polytraumatisés. En général la réparation chirurgicale est simple. La mortalité globale atteint 20 à 25%, elle est en général liée aux lésions associées, à la sévérité de la ...

  15. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  16. STUDY OF THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE AND HYDROCOMPACTION AT CONFINED AQUIFER CAUSED THE LAND SUBSIDENCE IN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrudin Fahrudin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Semarang city has experienced of the land subsidence that be caused by intake groundwater in confined aquiferabundant. The land subsidence happened during range of time 20 years, it’s critical boundary so that result theenvironmental damage. Hence needed a study of cause of the land subsidence. This study aim to know theposition of piezometric surface and also explain the mechanism hydrogeology when happened the landsubsidence. The study of spreading aquifer has been done by the analysis of secondary data which is in the formof drilling log data, piezometric surface and soil mechanics test obtained from PLG (Environmental Center ofGeology Bandung. Later then, between the land subsidence and piezometric surface be overlay becamezonation. From the data made a analysis of cause of the land subsidence. This aquifer has the land subsidence.The land subsidence explainable with the experienced phenomenon fact for example degradation of piezometricsurface at confined aquifer and process of hydrocompaction. That process influenced by two factors that areassess the pore number (e and specific gravity (Gs. The degradation of piezometric surface formed the trapezeof water table until 20 m from sea level with the mean 0.7 - 1.1 m/year. Hydrocompaction cause the degradationof number of mean pore 0.145 - 0.5 and specific gravity 0.009 - 0.073 . The degradation of piezometric surfaceand process the hydrocompaction cause the fast of land subsidence around 0.5 - 1.75 cm/year.

  17. Granitic boulder erosion caused by chaparral wildfire: Implications for cosmogenic radionuclide dating of bedrock surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Katherine J.; Camille Partin,; Graham, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Rock surface erosion by wildfire is significant and widespread but has not been quantified in southern California or for chaparral ecosystems. Quantifying the surface erosion of bedrock outcrops and boulders is critical for determination of age using cosmogenic radionuclide techniques, as even modest surface erosion removes the accumulation of the cosmogenic radionuclides and causes significant underestimate of age. This study documents the effects on three large granitic boulders following the Esperanza Fire of 2006 in southern California. Spalled rock fragments were quantified by measuring the removed rock volume from each measured boulder. Between 7% and 55% of the total surface area of the boulders spalled in this single fire. The volume of spalled material, when normalized across the entire surface area, represents a mean surface lowering of 0.7–12.3 mm. Spalled material was thicker on the flanks of the boulders, and the height of the fire effects significantly exceeded the height of the vegetation prior to the wildfire. Surface erosion of boulders and bedrock outcrops as a result of wildfire spalling results in fresh surfaces that appear unaffected by chemical weathering. Such surfaces may be preferentially selected by researchers for cosmogenic surface dating because of their fresh appearance, leading to an underestimate of age.

  18. Uterine rupture at Lagos University Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omololu Adegbola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine rupture remains a major life-threatening obstetric disaster encountered in many developing countries and is associated with a high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, associated risk factors, trend, clinical presentation, management as well as maternal and fetal outcome of uterine rupture at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with uterine rupture at the LUTH, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria, from June 1, 2005 to May 31, 2013. The case records of patients in this period were retrieved from the medical health records department. The relevant data of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical presentation, management as well as maternal and perinatal outcome were collated using a structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 13,138 deliveries during the study period, there were eighty cases of uterine rupture giving a hospital incidence of 6.1/1000 deliveries. Patients with parities of 1 (28.36% and 2 (38.81% were identified to be at higher risk of uterine rupture. Previous caesarean section (46.28%, obstructed labor (26.87%, and injudicious use of oxytocin (16.42% were the common associated factors. Rupture along previous anterior scar was the most common site affected in 32.84%; repair with bilateral tubal ligation was the surgical procedure in most of the cases (47.76%. The case fatality rate for ruptured uterus was 11.94% for the mothers and the perinatal mortality rate of 791/1000 babies. Conclusion: Uterine rupture is a major cause of maternal and perinatal death in Lagos, Nigeria.

  19. STRESSES IN CEMENT-CONCRETE PAVEMENT SURFACING CAUSED BY THERMAL SHOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to mention specially so-called thermal shock among various impacts on highway surface. Ice layer is formed on a concrete surface during the winter period of pavement surfacing operation. Sodium chloride which lowers temperature of water-ice transition temperature and causes ice thawing at negative temperature is usually used to remove ice from the pavement surface. Consequently, temperature in the concrete laying immediately under a thawing ice layer is coming down with a run that leads to significant stresses. Such phenomenon is known as a thermal shock with a meaning of local significant change in temperature. This process is under investigation, it has practical importance for an estimation of strength and longevity of a cement-concrete pavement surfacing and consequently it is considered as rather topical issue. The purpose of investigations is to develop a mathematical model and determination of shock blow permissible gradients for a cementconcrete road covering. Finite difference method has been used in order to determine stressed and deformed condition of the cement-concrete pavement surfacing of highways. A computer program has been compiled and it permits to carry out calculation of a road covering at various laws of temperature distribution in its depth. Regularities in distribution of deformation and stresses in the cement-concrete pavement surfacing of highways at thermal shock have been obtained in the paper. A permissible parameter of temperature distribution in pavement surfacing thickness has been determined in the paper. A strength criterion based on the process of micro-crack formation and development in concrete has been used for making calculations. It has been established that the thermal shock causes significant temperature gradients on the cement-concrete surfacing that lead to rather large normal stresses in the concrete surface layer. The possibility of micro-crack formation in a road covering is

  20. Temporal fault slip rate and rupture patterns on the Genoa fault, central eastern Sierra Nevada, integrating ground-based LiDAR, Be-10 surface exposure dating, and paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, D. H.; Harvey, J. E.; Ramelli, A.; Burbank, D. W.; Bookhagen, B.

    2011-12-01

    Using an integrated geomorphic-paleoseismic approach, we evaluate temporal patterns of fault-related, late Quaternary deformation along the Genoa fault at the eastern boundary of the central Sierra Nevada, California-Nevada. The Genoa fault is experiencing some of the highest strain rates and fastest Holocene slip rates in the western Great Basin. This fault was the site of at least two Holocene M~7 earthquakes, including a pre-historic, but less than ~600 yr BP event with co-seismic displacement of 4-6 m and a penultimate event at ~2000-2500 yr BP (Ramelli et al., 1999). Its long-term slip rate history is only well-studied at one site on the southern segment: 0.4 +0.3/-0.1 mm/yr over both ~20 ky and ~150 ky time scales along the West Fork of the Carson River at Woodfords, CA (Rood et al, 2011). Over 10- to 200-ky time scales, our geomorphic approach is to quantify fault displacements of multiple geomorphic features, including 2 glacial outwash terraces and 2 alluvial fans. We use dGPS and ground-based LiDAR topographic data to model fault slip at the Woodfords, Mott Canyon, and Corsser Creek sites. We determine the age of offset features using Be-10 surface exposure dating techniques, including ~50 new Be-10 analyses. Paired surface boulders and depth profiles for each landform allow more accurate, high-resolution chronologies to be developed. By comparing offsets of different ages along individual fault segments and modeling their slip rates and uncertainties, we define how the locus, magnitude, and rate of fault slip changes through time. Paleoseismic trench studies reduce uncertainty concerning how these geomorphic offsets are produced by fault rupture. New trench data from the Fay Canyon site permits comparison of rupture patterns on the neighboring central and southern fault segments, where differences in the timing of earthquake events, displacement magnitude/event, and geometry of underlying faults are compared to the slip-rates calculated from offset

  1. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  2. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm | Jamabo | Sahel Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those treated for traumatic rupture of the diaphragm were selected and analyzed for age, gender, cause of injury, associated injuries sustained and mode of treatment. They were all treated at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and a private clinic in Port Harcourt. Results: 12 patients had traumatic rupture of ...

  3. Animal models for plaque rupture: a biomechanical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Kim; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Daemen, Mat J.; Gijsen, Frank J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the main cause of acute cardiovascular events. Animal models of plaque rupture are rare but essential for testing new imaging modalities to enable diagnosis of the patient at risk. Moreover, they enable the design of new treatment strategies to prevent plaque

  4. Spontaneous Pre-Labour Rupture of Membranes at Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pre-labour rupture of membranes (SPROM) at term is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, particularly because it is associated with a latency period from membrane rupture to delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ...

  5. Ruptured tubal pregnancy in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Ruptured tubal pregnancy remains a major cause of early foetal wastage and maternal mortality in Nigeria and other developing countries. This study was done to determine the incidence, predisposing factors, clinical presentation and management options of ruptured tubal pregnancy at the Federal ...

  6. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.

  7. Postinfarction left ventricular free wall rupture repaired successfully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tireli, Emin; Kalko, Yusuf; Kafali, Eylül; Basaran, Murat

    2002-09-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture is a well-recognized complication of myocardial infarction and a frequent cause of death. A 49-year-old man was successfully treated for a left ventricular free wall rupture that occurred on the third day after an anterior myocardial infarction. Concomitant myocardial revascularization was performed.

  8. Analysis of ruptured uterus in Debre Markos Hospital, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence of uterine rupture in a rural hospital and to examine its cause, type and outcome. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Debre Markos Hospital, Ethiopia. Subject. All patients who were admitted and operated on for uterine rupture in the above mentioned hospital over a period of two ...

  9. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  10. Modeling of Transmittance Degradation Caused by Optical Surface Contamination by Atomic Oxygen Reaction with Adsorbed Silicones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce; Miller, Sharon; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward

    2001-01-01

    A numerical procedure is presented to calculate transmittance degradation caused by contaminant films on spacecraft surfaces produced through the interaction of orbital atomic oxygen (AO) with volatile silicones and hydrocarbons from spacecraft components. In the model, contaminant accretion is dependent on the adsorption of species, depletion reactions due to gas-surface collisions, desorption, and surface reactions between AO and silicone producing SiO(x), (where x is near 2). A detailed description of the procedure used to calculate the constituents of the contaminant layer is presented, including the equations that govern the evolution of fractional coverage by specie type. As an illustrative example of film growth, calculation results using a prototype code that calculates the evolution of surface coverage by specie type is presented and discussed. An example of the transmittance degradation caused by surface interaction of AO with deposited contaminant is presented for the case of exponentially decaying contaminant flux. These examples are performed using hypothetical values for the process parameters.

  11. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture: local or systemic process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, Esther; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; Faber, Birgit C.; Gijbels, Marion J.; Eurlings, Petra M.; Bijnens, Ann-Pascale; Cleutjens, Kitty B.; Heeneman, Sylvia; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally established that the unstable plaque is the major cause of acute clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, terms indicating lesions prone to plaque instability, such as "vulnerable plaque," and the different phenotypes of unstable plaques, such as plaque rupture, plaque

  12. ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURE AND PLATELET RICH PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Zedde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Achilles tendon rupture is currently one of the most frequent injuries in athletes. Such rupture may be caused by a sudden dorsiflexion of the ankle, pushing off with the weight bearing forefoot while extending the knee or violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot. The treatment goal consists of restoring the normal tendon length and tension, as well as the function and strength of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex. The biological repair process can be enhanced in all stages of recovery with the use of PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma without any side effects.

  13. Retinal detachment associated with traumatic chorioretinal rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, Thanos D; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Wu, David; Miller, John B; Veldman, Peter B; Chee, Yewlin E; Husain, Deeba; Eliott, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic chorioretinal rupture, also known as sclopetaria, is a full-thickness break of the choroid and retina caused by a high-velocity projectile striking or passing adjacent to, but not penetrating, the globe. Previous reports have emphasized that retinal detachment seldom occurs, and observation alone has been the recommended management strategy. However, the authors present herein a series of consecutive patients with retinal detachment associated with sclopetaria and provide a literature review of the topic. They recommend that patients with traumatic chorioretinal rupture be monitored closely for the development of retinal detachment during the first few weeks after the injury. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Nitrous oxide use and endotracheal tube rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, E L; Schelkun, P M; Vincent, S K

    1988-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important and widely used anesthetic agent. However, during lengthy surgical procedures, significant amounts of nitrous oxide diffuse into the endotracheal tube cuff, causing sequelae that may include increased cuff pressures, tracheal trauma, increased postoperative discomfort, and cuff rupture. In this paper, two cases are presented in which the endotracheal tube cuff used to deliver this anesthetic agent ruptured after more than four hours of surgery. Two simple means of limiting the diffusion of nitrous oxide into the cuff and thus preventing this occurrence are described.

  15. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  16. Revisiting the Cause of the 1989-2009 Arctic Surface Warming Using the Surface Energy Budget: Downward Infrared Radiation Dominates the Surface Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukyoung; Gong, Tingting; Feldstein, Steven B.; Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian

    2017-10-01

    The Arctic has been warming faster than elsewhere, especially during the cold season. According to the leading theory, ice-albedo feedback warms the Arctic Ocean during the summer, and the heat gained by the ocean is released during the winter, causing the cold-season warming. Screen and Simmonds (2010; SS10) concluded that the theory is correct by comparing trend patterns in surface air temperature (SAT), surface turbulence heat flux (HF), and net surface infrared radiation (IR). However, in this comparison, downward IR is more appropriate to use. By analyzing the same data used in SS10 using the surface energy budget, it is shown here that over most of the Arctic the skin temperature trend, which closely resembles the SAT trend, is largely accounted for by the downward IR, not the HF, trend.

  17. Surface layers of Xanthomonas malvacearum, the cause of bacterial blight of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, J P; Formanek, H

    1981-01-01

    Mureins were isolated from two strains of Xanthomonas malvacearum, a phytopathogenic bacterium causing bacterial blight of cotton. The purity of murein was 70-95 % and the amino acid and amino sugar components (glutamic acid, alanina, meso-disminopimelic acid, muramic acid and glucosamine) were present at the molar ratio of 1:1.9:1:l.12.0.85. The bacterium secreted a copious amount of slime which masked itd surface structure. The slime was composed of densley interwoven network of filamentous material originating from the cell surface and extended into the medium without and discernable boundary. The slime was secreted through surface layers pores by force, giving the effect of a spray or jet. Slime also played a role in chain formatin of baterial cells.

  18. Investigation of creep rupture properties in air and He environments of alloy 617 at 800 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Ekaputra, I.M.W.; Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Min-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Creep rupture properties for Alloy 617 were investigated by a series of creep tests under different applied stresses in air and He environments at 800 °C. The creep rupture time in air and He environments exhibited almost similar life in a short rupture time. However, when the creep rupture time reaches above 3000 h, the creep life in the He environment reduced compared with those of the air environment. The creep strain rate in the He environment was a little faster than that in the air environment above 3000 h. The reduction of creep life in the He environment was due to the difference of various microstructure features such as the carbide depleted zone, oxidation structures, surface cracking, voids below the surface, and voids in the matrix in air and He environments. Alloy 617 followed Norton’s power law and the Monkman–Grant relationship well. As the stress decreased, the creep ductility decreased slightly. The thickness of the outer and internal oxide layers presented the trend of a parabolic increase with an increase in creep rupture time in both the air and He environments. The thickness in the He environment was found to be thicker than in the air environment, although pure helium gas of 99.999% was used in the present investigation. The differences in the oxide-layer thickness caused detrimental effects on the creep resistance, even in a low oxygen-containing He agent.

  19. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  20. Ruptured Eardrum (Perforated Eardrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your eardrum when the air pressure in your middle ear and the air pressure in the environment are out of balance. If the pressure is ... ruptured, the skin debris can pass into your middle ear and form a cyst. A ... a friendly environment for bacteria and contains proteins that can damage ...

  1. Rule and rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Eilenberg, Michael

    This policy brief contributes to a novel understanding of public authority and state formation. It draws on a recent publication, Rule and Rupture, edited by Christian Lund and Michael Eilenberg (2016), and argues that public authority is not simply given but constituted through social contracts...

  2. Earthquake rupture in shallow, unconsolidated sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, R. J.; De Paola, N.; Marco, S.; Holdsworth, R.

    2014-12-01

    Faults in shallow, unconsolidated sediment are often associated with aseismic creep, due to the velocity-strengthening behaviour of unconsolidated materials observed during lab experiments. They are expected to appear as broad zones of distributed deformation. However, large seismic ruptures can still propagate to the surface through shallow sediment, causing vast damage and destructive tsunamis. Our understanding of how seismic rupturing of shallow faults in unconsolidated sediment occurs in nature is limited due to the lack of direct observations constraining their structure, deformation patterns and mechanisms, and frictional behaviour. We studied syn-depositional normal faults, which deform unconsolidated, saturated lake sediments of the palaeo-Dead Sea. The sediments belong to the Lisan Formation (~70-18 Ka) and comprise alternating 1-3 mm thick laminae of aragonite and ultrafine-grained detritus. The faults formed at the surface, the only overburden being the overlying water column, and are known to have hosted seismic slip during large events (M ≥ 6), due to their association with seismites. The faults are discrete, localized structures, which sharply truncate laminae in the host sediment. Slip surfaces are sharp and straight and accompanied by a narrow slip zone, up to 1 cm wide, but often ≤ 1 mm wide, containing ultrafine-grained gouge. The majority of slip, up to 3 m, is concentrated in these slip zones. Faults can be categorised as having either simple geometry (one continuous fault strand accommodates all the displacement) or complex geometry (two or more fault segments share the overall displacement). Slip profiles constructed for simple geometry faults all have similar shapes, regardless of maximum displacement, whereas those for complex geometry faults are highly variable, due to segment interaction. It is apparent from the slip profiles that these faults grow and interact in the same way as 'brittle' faults in cohesive rocks. We will present

  3. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics; Shao, Y. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). Dept. of Foreign Language; Guichen, M. [Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  4. [Distributions of phosphorus fractions in suspended sediments and surface sediments of Tiaoxi mainstreams and cause analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Long; Yuan, Xu-Yin; Wang, Huan; Li, Zheng-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is a primary nutrient showing the water quality status of river and inducing eutrophication, and a different phosphorus fraction can make diverse contributions to water quality. Four phosphorus forms of suspended sediments and surface sediments in Tiaoxi mainstreams were measured using a sequential extraction procedure, and the distributions of their forms were discussed. The results showed that the tropic status of Xitiaoxi River was inferior to that of Dongtiaoxi River as a whole, and the water quality in the middle reach of Dongtiaoxi River was better than that in the upper and lower reaches. The contents of nutrient elements in suspended sediments were significantly higher than those in surface sediment, which indicated an enrichment of nutrient in fine sediment. The percentages of the loosely absorbed phosphorus ( NH4Cl-P), the reductant phosphorus (BD-P) and the metal oxide bound phosphorus (NaOH-P) in the suspended sediment were higher than those in surface sediment, while the percentage of the calcium bound phosphorus (HCl-P) showed a reverse trend. Correlation analyses between phosphorus forms and chemical compositions of suspended sediments and surface sediments were performed. The results showed the phosphorus forms in suspended sediments and surface sediments of Xitiaoxi River had weak relationships with mineral components, while those in the Dongtiaoxi River had strong relationships with mineral, especially OM and clay mineral. The cause was associated with the geological setting and material sources in Tiaoxi watershed.

  5. Source rupture process of the 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake estimated from the kinematic waveform inversion of strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ao; Wang, Mingfeng; Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2018-03-01

    On 2016 November 13, an Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand near Kaikoura. The earthquake caused severe damages and great impacts on local nature and society. Referring to the tectonic environment and defined active faults, the field investigation and geodetic evidence reveal that at least 12 fault sections ruptured in the earthquake, and the focal mechanism is one of the most complicated in historical earthquakes. On account of the complexity of the source rupture, we propose a multisegment fault model based on the distribution of surface ruptures and active tectonics. We derive the source rupture process of the earthquake using the kinematic waveform inversion method with the multisegment fault model from strong-motion data of 21 stations (0.05-0.35 Hz). The inversion result suggests the rupture initiates in the epicentral area near the Humps fault, and then propagates northeastward along several faults, until the offshore Needles fault. The Mw 7.8 event is a mixture of right-lateral strike and reverse slip, and the maximum slip is approximately 19 m. The synthetic waveforms reproduce the characteristics of the observed ones well. In addition, we synthesize the coseismic offsets distribution of the ruptured region from the slips of upper subfaults in the fault model, which is roughly consistent with the surface breaks observed in the field survey.

  6. Understanding the Acute Skin Injury Mechanism Caused by Player-Surface Contact During Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnde, Wilbert A.J.; Peppelman, Malou; Lamers, Edwin A.D.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C.M.; van Erp, Piet E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Superficial skin injuries are considered minor, and their incidence is probably underestimated. Insight into the incidence and mechanism of acute skin injury can be helpful in developing suitable preventive measures and safer playing surfaces for soccer and other field sports. Purpose: To gain insight into the incidence and severity of skin injuries related to soccer and to describe the skin injury mechanism due to player-surface contact. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The prevention model by van Mechelen et al (1992) combined with the injury causation model of Bahr and Krosshaug (2005) were used as a framework for the survey to describe the skin injury incidence and mechanism caused by player-surface contact. Results: The reviewed literature showed that common injury reporting methods are mainly based on time lost from participation or the need for medical attention. Because skin abrasions seldom lead to absence or medical attention, they are often not reported. When reported, the incidence of abrasion/laceration injuries varies from 0.8 to 6.1 injuries per 1000 player-hours. Wound assessment techniques such as the Skin Damage Area and Severity Index can be a valuable tool to obtain a more accurate estimation of the incidence and severity of acute skin injuries. Conclusion: The use of protective equipment, a skin lubricant, or wet surface conditions has a positive effect on preventing abrasion-type injuries from artificial turf surfaces. The literature also shows that essential biomechanical information of the sliding event is lacking, such as how energy is transferred to the area of contact. From a clinical and histological perspective, there are strong indications that a sliding-induced skin lesion is caused by mechanical rather than thermal injury to the skin. PMID:26535330

  7. Changes in terrestrial near-surface wind speed and their possible causes: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zha, Jinlin; Zhao, Deming; Yang, Qidong

    2017-11-01

    Changes in terrestrial near-surface wind speed (SWS) are induced by a combination of anthropogenic activities and natural climate changes. Thus, the study of the long-term changes of SWS and their causes is very important for recognizing the effects of these processes. Although the slowdown in SWS has been analyzed in previous studies, to the best of knowledge, no overall comparison or detailed examination of this research has been performed. Similarly, the causes of the decreases in SWS and the best directions of future research have not been discussed in depth. Therefore, we analyzed a series of studies reporting SWS trends spanning the last 30 years from around the world. The changes in SWS differ among different regions. The most significant decreases have occurred in Central Asia and North America, with mean linear trends of - 0.11 m s-1 decade-1; the second most significant decreases have occurred in Europe, East Asia, and South Asia, with mean linear trends of - 0.08 m s-1 decade-1; and the weakest decrease has occurred in Australia. Although the SWS in Africa has decreased, this region lacks long-term observational data. Therefore, the uncertainties in the long-term SWS trend are higher in this region than in other regions. The changes in SWS, caused by a mixture of global-, regional-, and local-scale factors, are mainly due to changes in driving forces and drag forces. The changes in the driving forces are caused by changes in atmospheric circulation, and the changes in the drag forces are caused by changes in the external and internal friction in the atmosphere. Changes in surface friction are mainly caused by changes in the surface roughness due to land use and cover change (LUCC), including urbanization, and changes in internal friction are mainly induced by changes in the boundary layer characteristics. Future studies should compare the spatio-temporal differences in SWS between high and low altitudes and quantify the effects of different factors on

  8. InSAR detects increase in surface subsidence caused by an Arctic tundra fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Jafarov, Elchin E.; Schaefer, Kevin M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zebker, Howard A.; Williams, Christopher A.; Rogan, John; Zhang, Tingjun

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance in the Arctic tundra and boreal forests, having a significant impact on soil hydrology, carbon cycling, and permafrost dynamics. This study explores the use of the microwave Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique to map and quantify ground surface subsidence caused by the Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska. We detected an increase of up to 8 cm of thaw-season ground subsidence after the fire, which is due to a combination of thickened active layer and permafrost thaw subsidence. Our results illustrate the effectiveness and potential of using InSAR to quantify fire impacts on the Arctic tundra, especially in regions underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Our study also suggests that surface subsidence is a more comprehensive indicator of fire impacts on ice-rich permafrost terrain than changes in active layer thickness alone.

  9. InSAR detects increase in surface subsidence caused by an Arctic tundra fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Jafarov, Elchin E.; Schaefer, Kevin M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zebker, Howard A.; Williams, Christopher A.; Rogan, John; Zhang, Tingjun

    2014-06-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance in the Arctic tundra and boreal forests, having a significant impact on soil hydrology, carbon cycling, and permafrost dynamics. This study explores the use of the microwave Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique to map and quantify ground surface subsidence caused by the Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska. We detected an increase of up to 8 cm of thaw-season ground subsidence after the fire, which is due to a combination of thickened active layer and permafrost thaw subsidence. Our results illustrate the effectiveness and potential of using InSAR to quantify fire impacts on the Arctic tundra, especially in regions underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Our study also suggests that surface subsidence is a more comprehensive indicator of fire impacts on ice-rich permafrost terrain than changes in active layer thickness alone.

  10. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  11. Distal biceps tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidou, Olga D; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Partsinevelos, Antonios A; Karadimas, Evangelos J; Korres, Demetrios S

    2004-09-01

    The authors report a rupture of the distal tendon of biceps brachii in a 42-year-old athlete. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the injury. Early surgical repair was performed by reinsertion of the tendon on the radial tuberosity according to modified Boyd-Anderson technique. Indomethacin was administered prophylactically. No complications were noted. At the latest follow-up, the patient had full elbow range of motion and participated successfully in athletic activities and job.

  12. Spontaneous Fundal Uterine Rupture in a Pregnant Woman at 32 Weeks Gestation who had Two Previous Cesarean Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Kaba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy can cause severe complications, even maternal and fetal demise. We report successful management of a spontaneous fundal uterine rupture in a 32 week pregnant who had undergone two previous cesarean sections due to preterm delivery. We explain causes of spontaneous uterine rupture and the management of this rare event in the presented case report.

  13. Hemoperitoneum secondary to an spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicking a duodenal perforated ulcera: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Díaz, Gustavo; Alias, David; Jiménez-Fuertes, Montiel; Durán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen without traumatic cause is an unfrequent entity, usually related with pathologic spleens. We present a case of spontaneous rupture of an histologically normal spleen with splenomegalia secondary to smoking habit. The hemoperitoneum caused by the spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicked a hollow viscera perforation.

  14. Frequency, predisposing factors and fetomaternal outcome in uterine rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency and to analyze the predisposing factors, maternal and fetal outcome of uterine rupture. All cases of ruptured uterus, who were either admitted with or who developed this complication in the hospital, were included in the study. Demographic data, details regarding the most probable predisposing factor, type of rupture, the management and maternal and fetal outcome were taken into consideration for analysis.During three years, total number of deliveries was 18668, and there were 103 cases of uterine rupture (0.55%).Out of these, only 13 (12.62%) patients were booked. Most of the patients presented between the ages of 26-30 years (42.71%). Majority of ruptures occurred in para 2-4 (44.66%). Fifty five cases (53.39%) had a previous caesarean section scar. In 68 (66.01%) cases, the tear was located in lower uterine segment. In 93 (90.29%) cases, anterior uterine wall was involved. Rupture was complete in 79 (76.69%)cases. Repair of uterus was done in 79 (76.69%) cases. Hysterectomy was performed in 24 (23.30%) cases. There were 8 (7.76% or 77.66/1000) maternal deaths and 85 (81.73% or 825 / 1000) perinatal deaths.This study confirms high frequency of such serious preventable obstetrical problem which can lead to high fetomaternal mortality. Rupture of caesarean section scar was the most common cause of uterine rupture found in this series. (author)

  15. Vibration of the soil caused by a vehicle moving over the randomly uneven surface of a slab track

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, H.;Lenz, St.

    2012-01-01

    A vehicle which passes an uneven surface of a slab track causes vibrations of the whole system: the vehicle, the slab track and the subsoil. For a given random unevenness ?w of the slab track surface, covariances of the soil surface motion are calculated.

  16. Achilles tendon rupture in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, Joseph P; Wilson, Kristina M; Cox, Charles L; Diamond, Alex B; Thomson, A Brian

    2009-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures commonly affect middle-aged athletes and can result in considerable functional impairment. While the cause is multifactorial, the greatest risk is present for athletes involved in sports that involve sudden acceleration and deceleration. A thorough history and physical examination can accurately yield a diagnosis, but when question remains, magnetic resonance imaging is superior to ultrasound-guided evaluation. The best evidence available suggests that operative treatment has a lower rate of rerupture, a higher rate of return to the same level of sport participation, and a higher complication rate, if an open technique is used. Percutaneous methods of fixation have lower complication rates without an increase in the rate of rerupture when compared with open methods. Augmentation of an Achilles tendon repair has demonstrated no clinical benefit. Rehabilitation with early mobilization leads to improved patient-reported outcomes.

  17. Deformations on Hole and Projectile Surfaces Caused By High Velocity Friction During Ballistic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamış, M. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the deformations caused by the ballistic impact on the MM composites and on projectile surfaces are examined. The hole section and grain deformation of unreinforced targets are also examined after impact. The relatively high complexity of impact problems is caused by the large number of intervening parameters like relative velocity of projectile and target, shape of colliding objects, relative stiffness and masses, time-dependent surface of contact, geometry and boundary conditions and material characteristics. The material used in this investigation are 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys as matrix reinforced with SiC and Al2O3 particles. The matrix materials are extensively used in defense applications due to its favorable ballistic properties, moderate strength, high corrosion resistance and super plastic potential. Two different composites were produced; one by casting and the other by lamination. The ballistic tests of the composite targets were carried out according to NIJ Standard-0101.04, Temperature 21 °C, RH=65% with 7.62 mm projectiles. The bullet weight was 9.6 g and their muzzle velocities were in the range of 770–800 m/s. The projectiles consisted of a steel core, copper jacket and lead material. The composite targets were positioned 15 m from the rifle. The interaction between projectiles and the target hole created after impact were examined by light microscopy and photography. Different damage and failure mechanisms such as petalling, cracking, spalling, dishing, etc., were observed on the target body. On the other hand, dramatic wear and damages on the projectile surface were also observed. The targets were supported with Al-5083 backing blocks having 40 mm thickness.

  18. Surface erosion and sedimentation caused by ejecta from the lunar crater Tycho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Basilevsky, A.; Kaydash, V.; Ivanov, B.; Korokhin, V.; Videen, G.

    2018-02-01

    We use Kaguya MI images acquired at wavelengths 415, 750, and 950 nm to map TiO2 and FeO content and the parameter of optical maturity OMAT in lunar regions Lubiniezky E and Taurus-Littrow with a spatial resolution of 20 m using the Lucey method [Lucey et al., JGR 2000, 105. 20,297]. We show that some ejecta from large craters, such as Tycho and Copernicus may cause lunar surface erosion, transportation of the eroded material and its sedimentation. The traces of the erosion resemble wind tails observed on Earth, Mars, and Venus, although the Moon has no atmosphere. The highland material of the local topographic prominences could be mobilized by Tycho's granolometrically fine ejecta and caused by its transportation along the ejecta way to adjacent mare areas and subsequent deposition. The tails of mobilized material reveal lower abundances of Ti and Fe than the surrounding mare surface. We have concluded that high-Ti streaks also seen in the Lubiniezky E site, which show unusual combinations of the TiO2 and FeO content on the correlation diagram, could be the result of erosion by Tycho's ejecta too. In these locations, Tycho's material did not form a consolidated deposit, but resulted in erosion of the mare surface material that became intermixed, consequently, diluting the ejecta. The Taurus-Littrow did provide evidence of the mechanical effect of Tycho's ejecta on the local landforms (landslide, secondary craters) and do not show the compositional signature of Tycho's ejecta probably due to intermixing with local materials and dilution.

  19. Damage caused by a nanosecond UV laser on a heated copper surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henč-Bartolić, V., E-mail: visnja.henc@fer.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jakovljević, S., E-mail: suzana.jakovljevic@fsb.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Panjan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zupanič, F. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A Cu-plate was exposed to nanosecond UV laser with max. energy 1.1 J/cm{sup 2}. • Surface topography was studied on the cold and heated copper plate. • At room temperature, a crater formed, the melt was ejected from it. • Capillary waves formed in the vicinity of the crater at 360 °C. - Abstract: This work studied the effect of thin copper plate temperature on its surface morphology after irradiation using a pulsed nanosecond UV laser. The surface characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and stylus profilometry. When a target was at room temperature, a crater and the radial flow of molten Cu from the crater was observed. When the thin target was warm (about 360 °C ± 20 °C), a crater was smaller, and quasi-semicircular waves with the periodicity of around 3 μm appeared in its vicinity. The origin of the waves is Marangoni effect, causing thermocapillary waves, which in same occasions had a structure of final states of chaos in Rayleigh–Bénard convection.

  20. Creep rupture behavior of welded Grade 91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Triratna [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Basirat, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Alsagabi, Sultan; Sittiho, Anumat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Charit, Indrajit, E-mail: icharit@uidaho.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Creep rupture behavior of fusion welded Grade 91 steel was studied in the temperature range of 600 – 700 °C and at stresses of 50–200 MPa. The creep data were analyzed in terms of the Monkman-Grant relation and Larson-Miller parameter. The creep damage tolerance factor was used to identify the origin of creep damage. The creep damage was identified as the void growth in combination with microstructural degradation. The fracture surface morphology of the ruptured specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy and deformed microstructure examined by transmission electron microscopy, to further elucidate the rupture mechanisms.

  1. Materials damaging and rupture - Volumes 1-2. General remarks, metallic materials. Non-metallic materials and biomaterials, assemblies and industrial problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, M.; Bompard, P.

    2009-01-01

    The rupture and damaging of materials and structures is almost always and unwanted events which may have catastrophic consequences. Even if the mechanical failure causes can often be analyzed using a thorough knowledge of materials behaviour, the forecasting and prevention of failures remain difficult. While the macroscopic mechanical behaviour is often the result of average effects at the structure or microstructure scale, the damage is very often the result of the combination of load peaks, of localization effects and of microstructure defects. This book, presented in two volumes, takes stock of the state-of-the-art of the knowledge gained in the understanding and modelling of rupture and damaging phenomena of materials and structure, mostly of metallic type. It gives an outline of the available knowledge for other classes of materials (ceramics, biomaterials, geo-materials..) and for different types of applications (aeronautics, nuclear industry). Finally, it examines the delicate problem, but very important in practice, of the behaviour of assemblies. Content: Vol.1 - physical mechanisms of materials damaging and rupture; rupture mechanics; cyclic plasticity and fatigue crack growth; fatigue crack propagation; environment-induced cracking; contacts and surfaces. Vol.2 - glasses and ceramics; natural environments: soils and rocks; mechanical behaviour of biological solid materials: the human bone; contribution of simulation to the understanding of rupture mechanisms; assemblies damaging and rupture; industrial cases (behaviour of PWR pressure vessel steels, and thermal and mechanical stresses in turbojet engines). (J.S.)

  2. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved ("U-shaped" relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality.We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18-85, from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA, vertical trunk circumference (VTC, height (H and waist circumference (WC. The surface-based body shape index (SBSI is defined as follows: SBSI = ((H(7/4(WC(5/6/(BSA VTC (1 SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, A Body Shape Index (ABSI in predicting all-cause

  3. Multi-Fault Rupture Scenarios in the Brawley Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Oglesby, D. D.; Rockwell, T. K.; Meltzner, A. J.; Barall, M.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic rupture complexity is strongly affected by both the geometric configuration of a network of faults and pre-stress conditions. Between those two, the geometric configuration is more likely to be anticipated prior to an event. An important factor in the unpredictability of the final rupture pattern of a group of faults is the time-dependent interaction between them. Dynamic rupture models provide a means to investigate this otherwise inscrutable processes. The Brawley Seismic Zone in Southern California is an area in which this approach might be important for inferring potential earthquake sizes and rupture patterns. Dynamic modeling can illuminate how the main faults in this area, the Southern San Andreas (SSAF) and Imperial faults, might interact with the intersecting cross faults, and how the cross faults may modulate rupture on the main faults. We perform 3D finite element modeling of potential earthquakes in this zone assuming an extended array of faults (Figure). Our results include a wide range of ruptures and fault behaviors depending on assumptions about nucleation location, geometric setup, pre-stress conditions, and locking depth. For example, in the majority of our models the cross faults do not strongly participate in the rupture process, giving the impression that they are not typically an aid or an obstacle to the rupture propagation. However, in some cases, particularly when rupture proceeds slowly on the main faults, the cross faults indeed can participate with significant slip, and can even cause rupture termination on one of the main faults. Furthermore, in a complex network of faults we should not preclude the possibility of a large event nucleating on a smaller fault (e.g. a cross fault) and eventually promoting rupture on the main structure. Recent examples include the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield (New Zealand) and Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquakes, where rupture started on a smaller adjacent segment and later cascaded into a larger

  4. [Achilles tendon rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

    2000-03-01

    The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.

  5. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  6. Microscopic degradation mechanism of polyimide film caused by surface discharge under bipolar continuous square impulse voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Wu, Guang-Ning; Liu, Ji-Wu; Peng, Jia; Gao, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Guang-Ya; Wang, Peng; Cao, Kai-Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Polyimide (PI) film is an important type of insulating material used in inverter-fed motors. Partial discharge (PD) under a sequence of high-frequency square impulses is one of the key factors that lead to premature failures in insulation systems of inverter-fed motors. In order to explore the damage mechanism of PI film caused by discharge, an aging system of surface discharge under bipolar continuous square impulse voltage (BCSIV) is designed based on the ASTM 2275 01 standard and the electrical aging tests of PI film samples are performed above the partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV). The chemical bonds of PI polymer chains are analyzed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the dielectric properties of unaged and aged PI samples are investigated by LCR testers HIOKI 3532-50. Finally, the micro-morphology and micro-structure changes of PI film samples are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the physical and chemical effects of discharge cut off the chemical bonds of PI polymer chains. The fractures of ether bond (C—O—C) and imide ring (C—N—C) on the backbone of a PI polymer chain leads to the decrease of molecular weight, which results in the degradation of PI polymers and the generation of new chemical groups and materials, like carboxylic acid, ketone, aldehydes, etc. The variation of microscopic structure of PI polymers can change the orientation ability of polarizable units when the samples are under an AC electric field, which would cause the dielectric constant ɛ to increase and dielectric loss tan δ to decrease. The SEM images show that the degradation path of PI film is initiated from the surface and then gradually extends to the interior with continuous aging. The injection charge could result in the PI macromolecular chain degradation and increase the trap density in the PI polymer bulk.

  7. Source rupture process inversion of the 2013 Lushan earthquake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lifen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal slip distribution of the Lushan earthquake was estimated using teleseismic body wave data. To perform a stable inversion, we applied smoothing constraints and determined their optimal relative weights on the observed data using an optimized Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC. The inversion generated the source parameters. Strike, dip and slip were 218°, 39° and 100. 8°, respectively. A seismic moment (M0 was 2. 1 × 1020 Nm with a moment magnitude (Mw of 6. 8, and a source duration was approximately 30 second. The rupture propagated along the dip direction, and the maximum slip occurred at the hypocenter. The maximum slip was approximately 2. 1 m, although this earthquake did not cause an apparent surface rupture. The energy was mainly released within 10 second. In addition, the Lushan earthquake was apparently related to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. However, the question of whether it was an aftershock of the Wenchuan earthquake requires further study.

  8. Spontaneous Rupture of the Stomach; Report of Case,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-30

    massively distended and she experienced dyspnea. She developed tachycardia (110) and became hypotensive (90 systolic). Portable x-rays of the chest and...pointed out by Matikainen 17 in 1979. Spontaneous gastric rupture in the newborn appears to be more common than in the adult. 18 DISCUSSION The cause of...138:(451-452), 1979. 18. Bayatpour, M., Bernard, L., McCune, F., and bariel, W.: Spontaneous gastric rupture in the newborn , Am. J. Surg., 137:(267-269), 1979.

  9. A New Approach for Studying Bond Rupture/Closure of a Spiro Benzopyran Photochromic Material: Reactivity Descriptors Derived from Frontier Orbitals and DFT Computed Electrostatic Potential Energy Surface Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on computations technique within the framework of the TD-DFT theory for studying the relationship between structure-properties of reversible conversion of photochromic materials. Specifically, we report on 1′,3′-dihydro-8-methoxy-1′,3′,3′-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro[2H-1-benzopyran-2,2′-(2H-indole] (SP and its isomers. TD-DFT calculated UV-Vis electronic spectra of the closed and open isomers of this photochromic material are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, this paper reports on the results of theoretical investigations of reactivity indices that may govern the conversion between spiropyrans and its isomers. In addition, the solvent and rigidity of the medium significantly control the thermal bleaching of the photogenerated colored isomers and hence the switch ability pattern of the photochromic material. The effect of molecular structure computed by DFT in gas-phase and solvents on Cspiro-O bond length has been shown to correlate with photochromic properties. For this compound, DFT optimized geometry could be used to predict photochromism. Furthermore, in an attempt to predict the driving force for MC → SP, this work explores, for the first time, profitable exploitation of the calculated and visualized mapped electrostatic potential energy surfaces (ESP map. Interestingly, it seems that the electrostatic potential forces over the molecular fragments govern spirobond rupture/closure reactions. Thermodynamically, all-trans-colored isomer (CTT is the most stable merocyanine-like form.

  10. Biceps Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Polvino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 55-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of right arm pain. Five days prior to arrival, he attempted to lift himself up on his van and experienced what he described as a “rubber band snapping” in his right arm. He reported severe pain at the time that persisted but lessened in severity. Additionally, he reported increasing bruising over the proximal right arm. He had no history of prior right arm or shoulder injury. Significant findings: Physical exam was significant for ecchymosis and mild swelling of the right bicep. When the right arm was flexed at the elbow, a prominent mass was visible and palpable over the right bicep. Right upper extremity strength was 4/5 with flexion at the elbow. Discussion: The biceps brachii muscle is comprised of a long and short head, which share a common attachment at the bicipital tuberosity on the radius. The short head originates from the coracoid process of the scapula and the long head originates from the supraglenoid tubercle.1 Biceps tendon rupture has been found to occur at a rate of 0.53/100,000 over five years, and is three times more likely to occur in men than women.2 Risk factors for biceps tendon rupture include male sex, old age, increased body mass index, smoking, and pre-existing shoulder pathology.3,4 Diagnosis of biceps tendon rupture is typically a clinical diagnosis utilizing inspection and palpation as well as special testing such as the Speed’s and/or Yergason’s tests. Ultrasound may be used to aid in diagnosis; in full-thickness tears, ultrasound was found to have a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 98%. However, in partial thickness tears ultrasound has a sensitivity of 27% and a specificity of 100%.5 Often considered the gold standard in diagnosis, MRI has been found to have a sensitivity of only 67% and specificity of 98% in detecting complete tears6. Treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression

  11. Influence of Evaporation on Soap Film Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champougny, Lorène; Miguet, Jonas; Henaff, Robin; Restagno, Frédéric; Boulogne, François; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2018-03-02

    Although soap films are prone to evaporate due to their large surface to volume ratio, the effect of evaporation on macroscopic film features has often been disregarded in the literature. In this work, we experimentally investigate the influence of environmental humidity on soap film stability. An original experiment allows to measure both the maximum length of a film pulled at constant velocity and its thinning dynamics in a controlled atmosphere for various values of the relative humidity [Formula: see text]. At first order, the environmental humidity seems to have almost no impact on most of the film thinning dynamics. However, we find that the film length at rupture increases continuously with [Formula: see text]. To rationalize our observations, we propose that film bursting occurs when the thinning due to evaporation becomes comparable to the thinning due to liquid drainage. This rupture criterion turns out to be in reasonable agreement with an estimation of the evaporation rate in our experiment.

  12. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  13. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  14. QCM-based measurement of bond rupture forces in DNA double helices for complementarity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dultsev, Fedor N; Kolosovsky, Eugeny A; Mik, Ivan A; Lomzov, Alexander A; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V

    2014-04-08

    After fixing the DNA molecule in the form of a double helix on the surface of a thickness shear mode resonator (QCM), mechanical oscillations at increasing amplitude cause detorsion of the helix. The force necessary for detorsion can be determined from the voltage applied to the QCM at the rupture moment. The high sensitivity of this method is due to the fact that measurements are carried out in the frequency region around the QCM resonance, where any (even very weak) distortions of the consistent oscillating system cause noticeable distortions of the amplitude-frequency dependence, and these distortions are used to fix the rupture moment. The measured rupture forces were within 30-40 pN, and the sensitivity was 10(8) molecules. It was demonstrated that the proposed procedure allows one to determine the factors that affect the stability of the DNA double helix. This procedure can be the basis for the development of a new method of rapid DNA analysis. Experiments performed with model DNA showed that it is possible to reveal complementarity between two DNA samples.

  15. Presence of Bacteria in Spontaneous Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Christer G; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Hopkins, Chelsea; Luan, Ju; Ip, Margaret; Yung, Shu-Hang; Friman, Göran; Qin, Ling; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The structural pathology of Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures resembles tendinopathy, but the causes remain unknown. Recently, a number of diseases were found to be attributed to bacterial infections, resulting in low-grade inflammation and progressive matrix disturbance. The authors speculate that spontaneous AT ruptures may also be influenced by the presence of bacteria. Bacteria are present in ruptured ATs but not in healthy tendons. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with spontaneous AT ruptures and patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were recruited for this study. During AT surgical repair, excised tendinopathic tissue was collected, and healthy tendon samples were obtained as controls from hamstring tendon grafts used in ACL reconstruction. Half of every sample was reserved for DNA extraction and the other half for histology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using 16S rRNA gene universal primers, and the PCR products were sequenced for the identification of bacterial species. A histological examination was performed to compare tendinopathic changes in the case and control samples. Five of 20 AT rupture samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA, while none of the 23 hamstring tendon samples were positive. Sterile operating and experimental conditions and tests on samples, controlling for harvesting and processing procedures, ruled out the chance of postoperative bacterial contamination. The species identified predominantly belonged to the Staphylococcus genus. AT rupture samples exhibited histopathological features characteristic of tendinopathy, and most healthy hamstring tendon samples displayed normal tendon features. There were no apparent differences in histopathology between the bacterial DNA-positive and bacterial DNA-negative AT rupture samples. The authors have demonstrated the presence of bacterial DNA in ruptured AT samples. It may suggest the potential involvement of bacteria

  16. The 2016-2017 Central Italy Seismic Sequence: Source Complexity Inferred from Rupture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, L.; Tinti, E.; Casarotti, E.; Pucci, S.; Villani, F.; Cocco, M.; Magnoni, F.; Michelini, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Apennines have been struck by several seismic sequences in recent years, showing evidence of the activation of multiple segments of normal fault systems in a variable and, relatively short, time span, as in the case of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake (three shocks in 40 s), the 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence (four main shocks in 18 days) and the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake having three segments activated within a few weeks. The 2016-2017 central Apennines seismic sequence begin on August 24th with a MW 6.0 earthquake, which strike the region between Amatrice and Accumoli causing 299 fatalities. This earthquake ruptures a nearly 20 km long normal fault and shows a quite heterogeneous slip distribution. On October 26th, another main shock (MW 5.9) occurs near Visso extending the activated seismogenic area toward the NW. It is a double event rupturing contiguous patches on the fault segment of the normal fault system. Four days after the second main shock, on October 30th, a third earthquake (MW 6.5) occurs near Norcia, roughly midway between Accumoli and Visso. In this work we have inverted strong motion waveforms and GPS data to retrieve the source model of the MW 6.5 event with the aim of interpreting the rupture process in the framework of this complex sequence of moderate magnitude earthquakes. We noted that some preliminary attempts to model the slip distribution of the October 30th main shock using a single fault plane oriented along the Apennines did not provide convincing fits to the observed waveforms. In addition, the deformation pattern inferred from satellite observations suggested the activation of a multi-fault structure, that is coherent to the complexity and the extension of the geological surface deformation. We investigated the role of multi-fault ruptures and we found that this event revealed an extraordinary complexity of the rupture geometry and evolution: the coseismic rupture propagated almost simultaneously on a normal fault and on a blind fault

  17. 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yumi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Kubo, Hisahiko

    2017-11-01

    Using 3-D dynamic rupture simulations, we investigated the 2016 Mw7.1 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake to elucidate why and how the rupture of the main shock propagated successfully, assuming a complicated fault geometry estimated on the basis of the distributions of the aftershocks. The Mw7.1 main shock occurred along the Futagawa and Hinagu faults. Within 28 h before the main shock, three M6-class foreshocks occurred. Their hypocenters were located along the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, and their focal mechanisms were similar to that of the main shock. Therefore, an extensive stress shadow should have been generated on the fault plane of the main shock. First, we estimated the geometry of the fault planes of the three foreshocks as well as that of the main shock based on the temporal evolution of the relocated aftershock hypocenters. We then evaluated the static stress changes on the main shock fault plane that were due to the occurrence of the three foreshocks, assuming elliptical cracks with constant stress drops on the estimated fault planes. The obtained static stress change distribution indicated that Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) was positive just below the hypocenter of the main shock, while the ΔCFS in the shallow region above the hypocenter was negative. Therefore, these foreshocks could encourage the initiation of the main shock rupture and could hinder the propagation of the rupture toward the shallow region. Finally, we conducted 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the main shock using the initial stress distribution, which was the sum of the static stress changes caused by these foreshocks and the regional stress field. Assuming a slip-weakening law with uniform friction parameters, we computed 3-D dynamic rupture by varying the friction parameters and the values of the principal stresses. We obtained feasible parameter ranges that could reproduce the characteristic features of the main shock rupture revealed by seismic waveform analyses. We also

  18. Clinical features of single and repeated globe rupture after penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murata N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Noriaki Murata, Hideaki Yokogawa, Akira Kobayashi, Natsuko Yamazaki, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanBackground: In this paper, we report our experience of the clinical features of single and repeated globe rupture after penetrating keratoplasty.Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of single and repeated globe ruptures following keratoplasty in eight eyes from seven consecutive patients referred to Kanazawa University Hospital over a 10-year period from January 2002 to March 2012. We analyzed their ophthalmic and demographic data, including age at time of globe rupture, incidence, time interval between keratoplasty and globe rupture, cause of rupture, complicated ocular damage, and visual outcome after surgical repair.Results: Five patients (71.4% experienced a single globe rupture and two patients (28.6% experienced repeated globe ruptures. Patient age at the time of globe rupture was 75.4 ± 6.8 (range 67–83 years. Four of the patients were men and three were women. During the 10-year study period, the incidence of globe rupture following penetrating keratoplasty was 2.8%. The time interval between penetrating keratoplasty and globe rupture was 101 ± 92 months (range 7 months to 23 years. The most common cause of globe rupture in older patients was a fall (n = 5, 79.8 ± 3.7 years, all older than 67 years. Final best-corrected visual acuity was .20/200 in three eyes (37.5%. In all except one eye, globe rupture involved the graft-host junction; in the remaining eye, the rupture occurred after disruption of the extracapsular cataract extraction wound by blunt trauma.Conclusion: Preventative measures should be taken to avoid single and repeated ocular trauma following penetrating keratoplasty.Keywords: repeated globe ruptures, penetrating keratoplasty, postoperative complications, ocular trauma

  19. Thompson Test in Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Albertson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available HPI: A 26-year old male presented to the emergency department after experiencing the acute onset of left ankle pain while playing basketball. Upon jumping, he felt a “pop” in his left posterior ankle, followed by pain and difficulty ambulating. His exam was notable for a defect at the left Achilles tendon on palpation. The practitioner performed a Thompson test, which was positive (abnormal on the left. Significant Findings: The left Achilles tendon had a defect on palpation, while the right Achilles tendon was intact. When squeezing the right (unaffected calf, the ankle spontaneously plantar flexed, indicating a negative (normal Thompson test. Upon squeeze of the left (affected calf, the ankle did not plantar flex, signifying a positive (abnormal Thompson test. The diagnosis of left Achilles tendon rupture was confirmed intraoperatively one week later. Discussion: The Achilles tendon (also: calcaneal tendon or heel cord is derived from the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as the soleus muscle. Rupture of the Achilles tendon most commonly occurs in the distal tendon, approximately 2-6 cm from its attachment to the calcaneal tuberosity, in an area of hypovascularity known as the “watershed” or “critical” zone.1-3 The Thompson test (also: Simmonds-Thompson test, described by Simmonds in 1957 and Thompson in 1962, is done while the patient is in the prone position, with feet hanging over the end of a table/gurney, or with the patient kneeling on a stool or chair.4-5 Squeezing the calf of an unaffected limb will cause the ankle to plantar flex, but squeezing the calf of a limb with an Achilles tendon rupture will cause no motion. The sensitivity of the Thompson’s test for the diagnosis of a complete Achilles tendon rupture is 96-100% and the specificity is 93-100%, but data is limited.6-8

  20. Unexpected traumatic rupture of left atrium mimicking aortic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah K Alameddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA rupture is rare following blunt chest injury. We describe a case of blunt LA rupture that was treated surgically. This report is intended to alert practitioners for a need of a close multiple disciplinary collaborations among them for optimal management of patients with this type of trauma; because other non-cardiac injuries involving the head, abdomen, or extremities are considered covariates for in-hospital mortality. As in the present case, the patient eventually died from associated extrathoracic injuries. The diagnosis of LA rupture is by exclusion. However, the initial radiological reading may be misinterpreted, because this injury can easily be mistaking for an aortic rupture. The final reappraisal of the chest imaging studies should be interpreted by a skilled radiologist to avoid misdiagnosis. Subtle radiological features can help distinguish aortic thoracic injury as illustrated in this patient. These factors may be useful to the practicing surgeon in deciding surgical approach.

  1. Prevention and management of intraprocedural rupture of intracranial aneurysm with detachable coils during embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming-Hua; Gao, Bu-Lang; Fang, Chun; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Li, Yong-Dong; Wang, Jue [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Sixth Hospital, Shanghai (China); Xu, Guo-Ping [Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Department of Pathology, Shanghai (China)

    2006-12-15

    Intracranial aneurysm rupture during embolization with detachable coils is reportedly among the gravest of intraprocedural complications. We present here our experiences with this outcome, and a potential intervention for managing this life-threatening complication. From April 1998 to March 2005, 284 patients with cerebral aneurysms were treated with detachable coils. Intraprocedural aneurysm rupture occurred in ten patients with a history of a previously ruptured aneurysm. In the event of intraprocedural hemorrhage, we routinely performed heparin reversal with protamine sulfate. Of the 221 patients with a previously ruptured aneurysm, intraprocedural aneurysm rupture occurred in 10 (4.5%). These ruptures were caused by a microguidewire in one patient, a microcatheter in one, over-packing in two and a coil perforation in three. In the remaining three patients the ruptures were caused by both the microcatheter and the coils. Three patients died because of aneurysm re-rupture, yielding a mortality rate of 30%. One patient presented with a slight disability in the left leg and no neurological deficits were observed in the remaining six patients. Intraprocedural aneurysm rupture during embolization is a rare, but unavoidable and life-threatening event. Proper measures should be taken to reduce and improve the outcome of this tragic occurrence. The majority of patients with an intraprocedural ruptured aneurysm can survive without severe sequelae if managed appropriately. (orig.)

  2. Prevention and management of intraprocedural rupture of intracranial aneurysm with detachable coils during embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Hua; Gao, Bu-Lang; Fang, Chun; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Li, Yong-Dong; Wang, Jue; Xu, Guo-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysm rupture during embolization with detachable coils is reportedly among the gravest of intraprocedural complications. We present here our experiences with this outcome, and a potential intervention for managing this life-threatening complication. From April 1998 to March 2005, 284 patients with cerebral aneurysms were treated with detachable coils. Intraprocedural aneurysm rupture occurred in ten patients with a history of a previously ruptured aneurysm. In the event of intraprocedural hemorrhage, we routinely performed heparin reversal with protamine sulfate. Of the 221 patients with a previously ruptured aneurysm, intraprocedural aneurysm rupture occurred in 10 (4.5%). These ruptures were caused by a microguidewire in one patient, a microcatheter in one, over-packing in two and a coil perforation in three. In the remaining three patients the ruptures were caused by both the microcatheter and the coils. Three patients died because of aneurysm re-rupture, yielding a mortality rate of 30%. One patient presented with a slight disability in the left leg and no neurological deficits were observed in the remaining six patients. Intraprocedural aneurysm rupture during embolization is a rare, but unavoidable and life-threatening event. Proper measures should be taken to reduce and improve the outcome of this tragic occurrence. The majority of patients with an intraprocedural ruptured aneurysm can survive without severe sequelae if managed appropriately. (orig.)

  3. Misdiagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in a trauma setting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    portion of the diaphragm, whereas progressive muscular atrophy secondary to several causes, for example a phrenic nerve palsy or previous trauma, is usually the cause of the acquired condition.1,2. In the event of trauma, one should have a high index of clinical suspicion for diaphragmatic rupture (DR), a notoriously ...

  4. A Rare Case of Peritonitis Following Spontaneous Rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity. The reported incidence varies from 0.5% in ... The cause of pyometra is the occlusion of cervical canal by benign or malignant growth, stenosis following age‑related atrophy, radiation treatment, or surgery on the cervix. A spontaneous rupture of pyometra causing ...

  5. Dynamic rupture models of subduction zone earthquakes with off-fault plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollherr, S.; van Zelst, I.; Gabriel, A. A.; van Dinther, Y.; Madden, E. H.; Ulrich, T.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling tsunami-genesis based on purely elastic seafloor displacement typically underpredicts tsunami sizes. Dynamic rupture simulations allow to analyse whether plastic energy dissipation is a missing rheological component by capturing the complex interplay of the rupture front, emitted seismic waves and the free surface in the accretionary prism. Strike-slip models with off-fault plasticity suggest decreasing rupture speed and extensive plastic yielding mainly at shallow depths. For simplified subduction geometries inelastic deformation on the verge of Coulomb failure may enhance vertical displacement, which in turn favors the generation of large tsunamis (Ma, 2012). However, constraining appropriate initial conditions in terms of fault geometry, initial fault stress and strength remains challenging. Here, we present dynamic rupture models of subduction zones constrained by long-term seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling (STM) without any a priori assumption of regions of failure. The STM model provides self-consistent slab geometries, as well as stress and strength initial conditions which evolve in response to tectonic stresses, temperature, gravity, plasticity and pressure (van Dinther et al. 2013). Coseismic slip and coupled seismic wave propagation is modelled using the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org), suited for complex fault zone structures and topography/bathymetry. SeisSol allows for local time-stepping, which drastically reduces the time-to-solution (Uphoff et al., 2017). This is particularly important in large-scale scenarios resolving small-scale features, such as the shallow angle between the megathrust fault and the free surface. Our dynamic rupture model uses a Drucker-Prager plastic yield criterion and accounts for thermal pressurization around the fault mimicking the effect of pore pressure changes due to frictional heating. We first analyze the influence of this rheology on rupture dynamics and tsunamigenic properties, i.e. seafloor

  6. Deformation and rupture of a horizontal liquid layer by thermal and solutal Marangoni flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viviani, Antonio; Zuev, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of strong surface deformation of a thin viscous fluid layer on a horizontal solid wettable substrate was studied experimentally. Layer deformation is caused by the concentration gradient of surface tension generated by a drop of soluble surfactant placed on the free layer surface. The conditions leading to the layer rupture and drying of the bottom section under the spreading drop were studied. The dependence of the dry spot radius on time, horizontal dimension and thickness of the layer, volume of the introduced droplet and fluids properties, were obtained for various fluid pairs. It was found that the critical initial thickness of the layer, at which its deformation reaches the layer bottom, is practically insensitive to the quantity of the applied surfactant and is defined by the difference in surface tension between the drop and the layer. Comparison of the data with the results of the study of the thermocapillary rupture of a cylindrical layer heated at the center and cooled along the periphery showed good agreement between the dependences of the critical layer thickness on the thermal and the solutal surface tension difference

  7. QCM-based rupture force measurement as a tool to study DNA dehybridization and duplex stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dultsev, Fedor N; Kolosovsky, Eugeny A; Lomzov, Alexander A; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V

    2017-02-01

    The stability of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was assessed on the basis of unwinding force measurement. Unwinding force was measured directly with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The amplitude of its surface oscillations was controlled by supplying variable alternate voltage. Under smoothly increasing amplitude of QCM surface oscillations, dsDNA fixed on QCM surface through one of its ends got unwound. This procedure allows reliable measurement of rupture force as small as 5-10 pN. It was demonstrated that oscillations of the surface, with dsDNA bound through one of its ends to this surface, at a frequency of 14 MHz, cause helix unwinding to form two complementary parts due to viscous forces of the liquid medium. Unwinding starts at the upper end. This was proven using oligonucleotide duplexes containing mismatches in different positions. For duplexes containing complementary 20 base pairs, the helix unwinding force is equal to 30-40 pN, which is in agreement with the data obtained by means of atomic-force microscopy (AFM) for the case of unzipping mode. Graphical Abstract Rupture force depending on mismatch position in dsDNA.

  8. Fetal membrane healing after spontaneous and iatrogenic membrane rupture: A review of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Devlieger, R.; Millar, L. K.; Bryant-Greenwood, G.; Lewi, L.; Deprest, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the important protective role of the fetal membranes, wound sealing, tissue regeneration, or wound healing could be life saving in cases of preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Although many investigators are studying the causes of preterm premature rupture of membranes, the emphasis has not been on the wound healing capacity of the fetal membranes. In this review, the relevant literature on the pathophysiologic condition that leads to preterm premature rupture of membranes ...

  9. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy diagnosed with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, Maciej; Żurada, Anna; Biernacki, Maciej; Zygmunt, Kozielec

    2010-01-01

    The rupture of ectopic pregnancy (EP) still remains the primary and direct cause of death in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasonography is known to be a modality of choice in EP diagnostics. We found a severe discrepancy between the frequency of ectopic pregnancies (EP) and the number of available computed tomography (CT) examinations. A 29-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with a history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and collapse. Sonographic findings of a suspected EP were unclear. Moreover, not all features of intrauterine pregnancy were present. Due to the patient’s life-threatening condition, an emergency multi-slice CT with MPR and VRT reconstructions was performed, revealing symptoms of a ruptured EP. In the right adnexal area, a well-vascularized, solid-cystic abnormal mass lesion was found. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was confirmed intraoperatively, and the right fallopian tube with a tubal EP was resected. In the surgery in situ, as well as in the pathological examination of the tumor mass, a human embryo of approximately 1.5 cm in length (beginning of the 8 th week of gestation) was found. Although ultrasonography still remains the first-line imaging examination in EP diagnostics, sometimes the findings of suspected EPs are unclear and not sufficient. The rupture of EP, with serious bleeding and symptoms of shock, may require an emergent pelvic and abdominal CT inspection. A clear correlation was found between the macroscopic CT images and the intraoperatively sampled material

  10. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether...... breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations......, the authors identified 64 women who had at least one ruptured implant at the first magnetic resonance imaging examination and, for comparison, all women who had intact implants at both examinations (n = 98). Magnetic resonance images from the two examinations were compared and changes in rupture configuration...

  11. Steam generator tube rupture effects on a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A problem currently experienced in commercial operating pressurized water reactors (PWR) in the United States is the degradation of steam generator tubes. Safety questions have arisen concerning the effect of these degraded tubes rupturing during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). To determine the effect of a small number of tube ruptures on the behavior of a large PWR during a postulated LOCA, a series of computer simulations was performed. The primary concern of the study was to determine whether a small number (10 or less of steam generator tubes rupturing at the beginning surface temperatures. Additional reflood analyses were performed to determine the system behavior when from 10 to 60 tubes rupture at the beginning of core reflood. The FLOOD4 code was selected as being the most applicable code for use in this study after an extensive analysis of the capabilities of existing codes to perform simulations of a LOCA with concurrent steam generator tube ruptures. The results of the study indicate that the rupturing of 10 or less steam generator tubes in any of the steam generators during a 200% cold leg break will not result in a significant increase in the peak cladding temperature. However, because of the vaporization of the steam generator secondary water in the primary side of the steam generator, a significant increase in the core pressure occurs which retards the reflooding process

  12. Ectopic pregnancy with tubal rupture: an analysis of 80 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, S.; Aziz, S.; Hasan, M.; Sultan, S.; Irfan, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a major problem in obstetrics as there is evidence of increasing incidence throughout the world. It is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In Pakistan, the care seeking behaviour among female is limited that makes female vulnerable to die due to complication of ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of tubal rupture in ectopic pregnancy in Pakistani patients. Method: In this cross-sectional study data pertaining to age, gestational age, parity and duration of presenting symptoms were collected and analysed. Result: 80 patients were diagnosed to have ectopic pregnancy. The frequency of tubal rupture was 91.25%. It is encountered significantly more often in women with age of 26 years. More tubal rupture is found in patient with low parity, in which the frequency of tubal rupture is up to 100% and decrease up to 78.6% with increasing parity up to four. Furthermore, it is noted that increase in gestational age from 8 weeks to 10 weeks caused an increase in frequency of tubal rupture from 80 to 100% respectively. It is also noted that earlier the patient presents the lesser is the frequency of tubal rupture, as compared to late presentation beyond 3-4 days which make frequency up to 95%. Conclusion: Tubal rupture is still common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, and is still a major challenge in gynaecological practice. Creating awareness amongst midwives and GPs regarding early diagnosis can contribute to decrease the mortality, morbidity and fertility loss related to EP. (author)

  13. Short term creep rupture predictions for tantalum alloy T-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTGs near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (rupture times up to ∼2x10 3 hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to rupture, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term rupture data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the rupture time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a rupture time of approximately 100 hrs

  14. Dynamic rupture simulations of the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake: a cascading multi-fault event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, T.; Gabriel, A. A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Xu, W.; Feng, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake struck the Northern part of New Zealand's South Island roughly one year ago. It ruptured multiple segments of the contractional North Canterbury fault zone and of the Marlborough fault system. Field observations combined with satellite data suggest a rupture path involving partly unmapped faults separated by large stepover distances larger than 5 km, the maximum distance usually considered by the latest seismic hazard assessment methods. This might imply distant rupture transfer mechanisms generally not considered in seismic hazard assessment. We present high-resolution 3D dynamic rupture simulations of the Kaikōura earthquake under physically self-consistent initial stress and strength conditions. Our simulations are based on recent finite-fault slip inversions that constrain fault system geometry and final slip distribution from remote sensing, surface rupture and geodetic data (Xu et al., 2017). We assume a uniform background stress field, without lateral fault stress or strength heterogeneity. We use the open-source software SeisSol (www.seissol.org) which is based on an arbitrary high-order accurate DERivative Discontinuous Galerkin method (ADER-DG). Our method can account for complex fault geometries, high resolution topography and bathymetry, 3D subsurface structure, off-fault plasticity and modern friction laws. It enables the simulation of seismic wave propagation with high-order accuracy in space and time in complex media. We show that a cascading rupture driven by dynamic triggering can break all fault segments that were involved in this earthquake without mechanically requiring an underlying thrust fault. Our prefered fault geometry connects most fault segments: it does not features stepover larger than 2 km. The best scenario matches the main macroscopic characteristics of the earthquake, including its apparently slow rupture propagation caused by zigzag cascading, the moment magnitude and the overall inferred slip

  15. Surface vitrification caused by natural fires in Late Pleistocene wetlands of the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Gattacceca, Jerome; Valenzuela, Millarca; Devouard, Bertrand; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Arriagada, Cesar; Rochette, Pierre; Latorre, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Melted rocks are a common feature in many of the 175 recognized terrestrial impact structures [1]. However, some glasses, like the Dakhleh Glass [2] or the Edeowie Glass [3] are also attributed to impacts despite the lack of other direct evidence. These cases have been attributed to low-altitude airbursts of cosmic bodies (asteroids, comets) during their entry in the Earth's atmosphere but the identification and mechanism of formation of these glasses are however debated. Massive glass blocks were recently discovered [4] in the Tamarugal-Llamara basin of the Atacama desert in Chile. We show that these glasses, found near the town of Pica at four localities separated by up to 70 km, are neither fulgurites, nor volcanic glasses, nor metallurgical slags related to anthropic activity, but show close similarities with other glasses, which have been attributed to large airbursts. However, most glasses contain numerous plant imprints and some glasses are mainly made of partially melted silicified plant twigs and field observations indicate that the glasses are restricted to specific Late Pleistocene wetlands. Large oases did indeed form in the hyperarid Atacama desert due to elevated groundwater discharge and increased recharge during the Central Andean Pluvial Event (roughly coeval with the Mystery interval and Younger Dryas). 14C dating and paleomagnetic data indicate that the glasses were formed during at least two distinct periods. The strong environmental control on the distribution of the glasses and large differences in ages rule out the hypothesis of a single large airburst as the cause of surface melting. The available data suggest that the Atacama desert surface glasses were formed in situ by natural fires in soils rich in dry organic matter and siliceous biological remains, at a time of strong climate oscillations between wet (organic matter accumulation in soils) and dry periods (triggering fires) in desert wetlands. Our interpretation likely applies to other

  16. In vivo detection of activated platelets allows characterizing rupture of atherosclerotic plaques with molecular magnetic resonance imaging in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik von Elverfeldt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early and non-invasive detection of platelets on micro atherothrombosis provides a means to identify unstable plaque and thereby allowing prophylactic treatment towards prevention of stroke or myocardial infarction. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI of activated platelets as early markers of plaque rupture using targeted contrast agents is a promising strategy. In this study, we aim to specifically image activated platelets in murine atherothrombosis by in vivo mMRI, using a dedicated animal model of plaque rupture. METHODS: An antibody targeting ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS on the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-receptor of activated platelets was conjugated to microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO to form the LIBS-MPIO contrast agent causing a signal-extinction in T2*-weighted MRI. ApoE(-/- mice (60 weeks-old were fed a high fat diet for 5 weeks. Using a small needle, the surface of their carotid plaques was scratched under blood flow to induce atherothrombosis. In vivo 9.4 Tesla MRI was performed before and repetitively after intravenous injection of either LIBS-MPIO versus non-targeted-MPIO. RESULTS: LIBS-MPIO injected animals showed a significant signal extinction (p<0.05 in MRI, corresponding to the site of plaque rupture and atherothrombosis in histology. The signal attenuation was effective for atherothrombosis occupying ≥ 2% of the vascular lumen. Histology further confirmed significant binding of LIBS-MPIO compared to control-MPIO on the thrombus developing on the surface of ruptured plaques (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: in vivo mMRI detected activated platelets on mechanically ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE(-/- mice with a high sensititvity. This imaging technology represents a unique opportunity for noninvasive detection of atherothrombosis and the identification of unstable atherosclerotic plaques with the ultimate promise to prevent strokes and myocardial infarctions.

  17. Investigation of topographical effects on rupture dynamics and resultant ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanqing; Zhang, Zhenguo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of irregular topography on the dynamic rupture and resultant ground motions using the curved grid finite-difference method. The research is based on spontaneous dynamic rupture on vertical strike-slip faults by varying the shapes and relative locations of irregular topography to the critical supershear transition distance. The results show that seismic energy of a supershear earthquake can be transmitted farther with large amplitudes. However, its ground motion near the fault is weaker than that caused by a subshear (namely the sub-Rayleigh) rupture. Whether the irregular topography exhibits stronger ground motion overall depends on the irregular topography's ability to prevent the subshear-to-supershear transition. Finally, we also discuss the effects of the strength parameter S and a larger size of the irregular topography on the resultant ground motion. The modellings of San Andreas Fault with real and inverted topographical surfaces show the implications of the topographical effects from the real earthquake.

  18. Trivial trauma and delayed rupture of a normal spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although a majority of splenic ruptures present acutely with a known mechanism of injury, a minority of patients present days to weeks following trauma with a delayed rupture. Also uncommon is the atraumatic rupture, the vast majority of which occur in patients with underlying splenic pathology. A handful of cases of apparently spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen are reported; however, there is debate about whether these actually represent delayed ruptures following a history of trauma that is not elicited. Although a few cases of delayed rupture of the spleen following trivial trauma have been reported, the majority of these present evidence of an underlying disease process. We found only two such cases that documented a normal spleen and three cases where underlying splenic pathology was not reported. We review the literature and discuss the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the normal spleen following trivial trauma. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian man with no underlying splenic pathology presented with splenic rupture one week after playfully wrestling with his partner. The patient did not present at the time of the injury and only recalled it upon repeated questioning after computed tomography diagnosis. Conclusions This case lends support to the theory that the normal spleen can rupture some time after trivial trauma, which seems like a more plausible explanation than rupture without cause. However, given the dearth of similar reports in the literature, the possibility remains that the association we have observed is not causational.

  19. A case of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube-induced esophageal rupture repaired by endoscopic clipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jin Il; Song, Jun Ho; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Sang Hun; Cheung, Dae Young; Park, Soo Heon; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2011-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was admitted to another hospital for hematemesis due to heavy drinking. A Sengstaken-Blakemore tube was inserted and the patient was transferred to our hospital. The patient's ensuing movements inadvertently caused an esophageal rupture 2.5 cm in size. Since the patient's condition was stable, treatment via endoscopic repair using metallic clips was chosen over emergency surgery. Two hemoclips were fixed at the ends of the ruptured area; by employing an endoscopic detachable snare, the ruptured area was carefully repaired with 10 metallic clips. As a result, the esophageal rupture could be successfully repaired by endoscopic procedure rather than performing surgery.

  20. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN's IEA-R1 research reactor (PSA level 1) due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami

    2009-01-01

    This work applies the methodology of probabilistic safety assessment level 1 to the research reactor IEA-R1 IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two categories of identified initiating events of accidents in the reactor are studied: loss of flow and loss of primary coolant. Among the initiating events, blockage of flow channel and loss of cooling fluid by major pipe rupture in the primary circuit are chosen for a detailed analysis. The event tree technique is used to analyze the evolution of the accident, including the actuation or the fail of actuation of the safety systems and the reactor damages. Using the fault tree the reliability of the following reactor safety systems is evaluated: reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the electric system. Estimative for the frequency of damage to the reactor core and the probability of failure of the analyzed systems are calculated. The estimated values for the frequencies of core damage are within the expected margins and are of the same order of magnitude as those found for similar reactors. The reliability of the reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool and ECCS are satisfactory for the conditions these systems are required. However, for the electric system it is suggested an upgrade to increase its reliability. (author)

  1. Rupture of the gravid uterus in a referral hospital in Niger Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rupture of the gravid uterus is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Methods: A review of the clinical records of all cases of ruptured uterus managed at the Center Hospitalier Regional, Dosso, Niger Republic, between January 2000 and December 2001 were ...

  2. of Valsalva aneurysm atrium and right Rupture of sinus into both ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-16

    Apr 16, 1983 ... bacterial endocarditis..giving rise to a mycotic aneurysm. 11 Syphi- lis is said to be a most unusual cause, and so is rupture due to severe rheumatoid heart diseaseY. Asingle rupture with fistula formation is by far the most usual consequence of a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, which is usually single. The only ...

  3. Saved from a fatal flight: A ruptured splenic artery aneurysm in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke C. Heitkamp

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In case of pregnant women with acute abdomen and hypovolemia, emergency physicians, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and gynecologists should be aware of the possibility of a ruptured SAA, apart from more common causes like placental abruption, placenta percreta, or uterine rupture. Early recognition and prompt multidisciplinary treatment might save the life of mother and child.

  4. Aortic plaque rupture in the setting of acute lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Acute aortic plaque rupture is an uncommon cause of acute lower limb ischemia. The authors report sequence computed tomographic imaging of a distal aortic plaque rupture in a young man with bilateral lower limb complications. Clinical awareness, prompt recognition and imaging, and appropriate treatment of this uncommon condition are necessary to improve patient outcomes.

  5. Ruptur af fri venstre ventrikelvaeg, septum og papillaermuskler ved akut myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Hassager, Christian; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The risk of complications to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), such as cardiogenic shock, is 5-10%. The cause is often left heart failure and sometimes right heart failure, but it can be mechanical AMI complications (MCA) in the form of rupture of the left ventricle and papillary muscle rupture...

  6. An unusual late complication after SFA stenting: the artery rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisci, E; De Donato, G; Setacci, F; Raucci, A; Giubbolini, M; Setacci, C

    2009-04-01

    Peripheral artery rupture as a late complication of an endovascular stenting, due to the protrusion of a stent, has never been described in the literature in thigh arteries. Here we describe two anecdotic cases of artery rupture after superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting. In both cases the endovascular procedure was performed as a reintervention at 2 and 27 months after a failed surgical or hybrid procedure for limb revascularization. The stent had been delivered in the first part of the SFA and the rupture occurred at the junction between the common femoral artery and SFA, which is one of the most flexible parts of the femoral artery. The cause of rupture was probably caused by an ulcer of the stent against the artery wall concomitant with a status of local or systemic infection. A huge pseudoaneurysm developed in both cases. The massive bleeding was stopped by an emergency surgical bypass, with the removal of the stented artery. These two cases show the possibility of SFA rupture after stenting. Previous surgical treatment, the site of stenting (first part of the SFA) and an active infection could predispose patients to this life-threatening complication.

  7. Traumatic ruptured globe eye injuries in a large urban center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burstein ES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eitan S Burstein, Douglas R LazzaroDepartments of Ophthalmology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to examine patient characteristics and outcomes in a group of consecutive patients with ruptured globe eye injuries at Kings County Hospital Center, a large, urban, level 1 trauma center.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients with ruptured globe eye injuries seen between January 2009 and October 2011. Thirty-eight patients who sustained ruptured globe eye injuries from all causes were investigated for etiology and final visual outcomesResults: Eight eyes in which vision could be assessed were evaluated as having no light perception at presentation and three of these eyes required primary enucleation. Of the 38 eyes, orbit fractures were found in 15 eyes and an intraocular foreign body was found in six eyes.Discussion: Our cohort revealed a 37.5% rate of primary enucleation in eyes with no light perception, which we believe to be a reflection of the severity of injury. All three cases were secondary to a gunshot wound. Further, our sample, although small in size, revealed a very high percentage of eyes that were ruptured secondary to violent causes compared with other studies.Keywords: rupture, trauma, violence, urban, epidemiology, emergency, globe

  8. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and sudden starts and stops — such as soccer, basketball and tennis. Steroid injections. Doctors sometimes inject steroids ... or slippery surfaces. Dress properly for cold-weather training, and wear well-fitting athletic shoes with proper ...

  9. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  10. Bacterial inhibiting surfaces caused by the effects of silver release and/or electrical field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Schroll, Casper

    2008-01-01

    In this study, silver-palladium surfaces and silver-bearing stainless steels were designed and investigated focusing on electrochemical principles to form inhibiting effects on planktonic and/or biofilm bacteria in water systems. Silver-resistant Escherichia coli and silver-sensitive E. coli were...... used for the evaluation of inhibiting effects and the inhibiting mechanism. For silver-palladium surfaces combined with bacteria in media, the inhibiting effect was a result of electrochemical interactions and/or electrical field, and in some specific media, such as ammonium containing, undesired...... silver ions release can occur from their Surfaces. For silver-bearing stainless steels, the inhibiting effect can only be explained by high local silver ions release. and can be limited or deactivated dependent on the specific environment. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistical wall shear stress maps of ruptured and unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubergrits, L.; Schaller, J.; Kertzscher, U.; van den Bruck, N.; Poethkow, K.; Petz, Ch.; Hege, H.-Ch.; Spuler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Haemodynamics and morphology play an important role in the genesis, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. The goal of this study was to generate and analyse statistical wall shear stress (WSS) distributions and shapes in middle cerebral artery (MCA) saccular aneurysms. Unsteady flow was simulated in seven ruptured and 15 unruptured MCA aneurysms. In order to compare these results, all geometries must be brought in a uniform coordinate system. For this, aneurysms with corresponding WSS data were transformed into a uniform spherical shape; then, all geometries were uniformly aligned in three-dimensional space. Subsequently, we compared statistical WSS maps and surfaces of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. No significant (p > 0.05) differences exist between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms regarding radius and mean WSS. In unruptured aneurysms, statistical WSS map relates regions with high (greater than 3 Pa) WSS to the neck region. In ruptured aneurysms, additional areas with high WSS contiguous to regions of low (less than 1 Pa) WSS are found in the dome region. In ruptured aneurysms, we found significantly lower WSS. The averaged aneurysm surface of unruptured aneurysms is round shaped, whereas the averaged surface of ruptured cases is multi-lobular. Our results confirm the hypothesis of low WSS and irregular shape as the essential rupture risk parameters. PMID:21957117

  13. [Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuch, J; Kuník, Z; Herczegh, S; Pelc, J; Machan, L; Chamko, M

    1990-07-01

    Traumatic ruptures of the diaphragm occur most frequently at blunt injuries of the abdomen or thorax as a component of polytraumatism. At the acute stage they present a serious diagnostic problem since signs of polytrauma are predominant. The authors report 3 cases of traumatic rupture of the diaphragm with thoracotomy as the therapeutic approach. The first patient presented with severe polytraumatism and shock, rupture of the diaphragm, pericardium and lungs, along with serial fracture of the left ribs. The second patient was not in shock, he had suffered serial fracture of the left ribs and fracture of the pelvis. In both these cases of blunt injury to the thorax, careful examination of the patients resulted in early diagnosis and surgery. The third patient presented with open injury of the right side of the thorax, injured diaphragm and liver, serial fracture of the ribs, fractured sternum, and was in a state of deep shock. There was no mortality, all three patients recovered.

  14. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether...... untreated ruptures are associated with changes over time in magnetic resonance imaging findings, serologic markers, or self-reported breast symptoms. A baseline magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 1999 on 271 women who were randomly chosen from a larger cohort of women having cosmetic...... breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations...

  15. Coupling geodynamic earthquake cycles and dynamic ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Iris; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Heuret, Arnauld

    2016-04-01

    Studying the seismicity in a subduction zone and its effects on tsunamis requires diverse modelling methods that span spatial and temporal scales. Hundreds of years are necessary to build the stresses and strengths on a fault, while consequent earthquake rupture propagation is determined by both these initial fault conditions and the feedback of seismic waves over periods of seconds up to minutes. This dynamic rupture displaces the sea floor, thereby causing tsunamis. The aim of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulations of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project is to study all these aspects and their interactions. Here, we present preliminary results of the first aspects in this modelling chain: the coupling of a seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) code to the dynamic rupture model SeisSol. STM models of earthquake cycles have the advantage of solving multiple earthquake events in a self-consistent manner concerning stress, strength and geometry. However, the drawback of these models is that they often lack in spatial or temporal resolution and do not include wave propagation. In contrast, dynamic rupture models solve for frictional failure coupled to seismic wave propagation. We use the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org) based on an ADER-DG discretization allowing high-order accuracy in space and time as well as flexible tetrahedral meshing. However, such simulations require assumptions on the initial fault stresses and strengths and its geometry, which are hard to constrain due to the lack of near-field observations and the complexity of coseismic conditions. By adapting the geometry as well as the stress and strength properties of the self-consistently developing non-finite fault zones from the geodynamic models as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture models, the advantages of both methods are exploited and modelling results may be compared. Our results show that a dynamic rupture can be triggered spontaneously and that the propagating rupture is

  16. Ruptured Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha BS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A pregnancy with implantation on the scar of a past cesarean section is uncommon. However such pregnancies are on the rise due to the increasing number of lower segment cesarean section. One of the complications of such a pregnancy is uterine rupture in early pregnancy which can be life threatening to the patient. The following is a report of a patient who presented at 10 weeks of gestational age with features of hypovolemic shock and lower position of the gestational sac in relation to the uterus with normal fetal heart rate. The diagnosis of ruptured cesarean scar pregnancy was made only after laparotomy.

  17. What the metallurgist can anticipate from disk rupture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretin, L.; Toitot, M.

    The use of tensile tests on cathodically charged bars and rupture tests on disks in hydrogen embrittlement investigations give attractively similar results. But, while the former allow to readily classify steels or alloys as to their performance versus hydrogen pickup, the latter further enable to investigate such factors as the gas pressure and purity of hydrogen, the surface condition of tests specimens, which factors are of special interest for engineering people. Moreover, rupture tests on disks can be applied to other brittleness problems for instance, brittleness originated by a metallurgical process, low temperature brittleness (plotting of fragile-brittle - bi-directional offset - vs temperature curves) [fr

  18. Uterine rupture an obstetrics catastrophy; incidence, risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Ruptured uterus is still an important obstetrics complication because it contributes significantly to both maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality in our setting. Therefore there is a need to further evaluate its causes and the outcome of its management. Objective: To determine the incidence, risk factors, ...

  19. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: risks of aneurysm rupture and delayed cerebral ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Three percent of the population harbors an intracranial aneurysm. A minority of these aneurysms will rupture and cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is a devastating disease with high case fatality and morbidity. A major contributor to the poor outcome after SAH is delayed cerebral ischemia

  20. Uterine ruptures: epidemiological aspects and prognosis at N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULT: We recorded 54 uterine ruptures among 9384 deliveries giving a frequency of 0.57%. The average age was 26. 8 years with a range of 15 to 40 years. Thirty two of the 54 patients (57.4%) were multiparous (average parity was 3.8). Eighteen had a scarred uterus (p=0,014). Among the causes, foeto–pelvic ...

  1. Ruptured splenic epidermoid cyst: case report and imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, N.J.B.; Arthur, R.J.; Stringer, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of a splenic epidermoid cyst is a rare but recognised cause of ''acute abdomen'' in a child. We describe such a case occurring after very minor trauma, show the influence that imaging had in making an accurate diagnosis, and discuss how this influenced clinical management. (orig.). With 1 fig

  2. Uterine rupture: UCH, Ibadan experience | Ogunnowo | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85.7% of the patients were unbooked. Common modes of presentation were bleeding per vaginam and abdominal pain. Spontaneous cause of rupture predominates. The interval between diagnosis and surgery was greater than 7 hours in 75% of cases. Uterine repair with or without tubal ligation was commonly employed.

  3. Causes of plasma column contraction in surface-wave-driven discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenti, Marco Antonio; de Amorim, Jayr; Dal Pino, Arnaldo; Guerra, Vasco; Petrov, George

    2018-01-01

    In this work we compute the main features of a surface-wave-driven plasma in argon at atmospheric pressure in view of a better understanding of the contraction phenomenon. We include the detailed chemical kinetics dynamics of Ar and solve the mass conservation equations of the relevant neutral excited and charged species. The gas temperature radial profile is calculated by means of the thermal diffusion equation. The electric field radial profile is calculated directly from the numerical solution of the Maxwell equations assuming the surface wave to be propagating in the TM00 mode. The problem is considered to be radially symmetrical, the axial variations are neglected, and the equations are solved in a self-consistent fashion. We probe the model results considering three scenarios: (i) the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is calculated by means of the Boltzmann equation; (ii) the EEDF is considered to be Maxwellian; (iii) the dissociative recombination is excluded from the chemical kinetics dynamics, but the nonequilibrium EEDF is preserved. From this analysis, the dissociative recombination is shown to be the leading mechanism in the constriction of surface-wave plasmas. The results are compared with mass spectrometry measurements of the radial density profile of the ions Ar+ and Ar2+. An explanation is proposed for the trends seen by Thomson scattering diagnostics that shows a substantial increase of electron temperature towards the plasma borders where the electron density is small.

  4. Deflate-gate: Conservative Management of a Large Ruptured Hydrocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Viktor X.; Wallen, Jared J.; Martinez, Danny R.; Carrion, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A hydrocele is a common cause of intrascrotal swelling that results when fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Over time, fluid may collect to form a massive hydrocele and result in significant discomfort for the patient. In this case report, we present a rare event of a 28-year-old gentleman with a documented massive hydrocele measuring 14.1 × 8.9 cm who ruptured his hydrocele during sexual intercourse. We expectantly managed the patient's ruptured hydrocele and encountered no complications throughout the course of his recovery. PMID:26793551

  5. Deflate-gate: Conservative Management of a Large Ruptured Hydrocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor X. Flores

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A hydrocele is a common cause of intrascrotal swelling that results when fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Over time, fluid may collect to form a massive hydrocele and result in significant discomfort for the patient. In this case report, we present a rare event of a 28-year-old gentleman with a documented massive hydrocele measuring 14.1 × 8.9 cm who ruptured his hydrocele during sexual intercourse. We expectantly managed the patient's ruptured hydrocele and encountered no complications throughout the course of his recovery.

  6. Ruptured Splenic Artery Aneurysm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-05-04

    May 4, 1974 ... Radiological confirmation of the commonness of the condition found at coeliac angiography,' adds further support for a high autopsy incidence. The unusual preponderance of females with splenic artery aneurysms3.•.• cannot be explained on the basis of aetiology, as they are most often caused by arterio- ...

  7. Intrapleural rupture of a cystic thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniuda, M; Numanami, H; Kondo, R; Kurai, M; Takashima, S; Amano, J

    2000-10-01

    Although cystic degeneration of a thymoma is not uncommon, rupture of a cystic thymoma is rare. The authors report a patient with sudden chest pain and dyspnea due to rupture of a cystic thymoma into the right pleural space.

  8. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro

    2002-01-01

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  9. Investigation of small ruptured aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Masaru; Ikawa, Fusao; Obayashi, Naohiko; Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Nosaka, Ryou; Inagawa, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with ruptured aneurysms smaller than 5 mm in diameter are sometimes encountoied at our hospital. However, the operative indication for unruptured aneurysm is over 5 mm according to the JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR DETECTION OF ASYMPTOMATIC BRAIN DISEASES. We therefore analyzed the characteristics of ruptured aneurysms smaller than 5 mm in diameter. A retrospective review of all SAH patients using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) between April 1999 and March 2004 was conducted. We compared 201 SAH patients with DSA (group A) and 61 with aneurysms smaller than 5 mm (group B). Age, gender, familial history, hypertension, and location of the ruptured aneurysm were examined. In males younger than 40 years old, anterior communicating artery/distal anterior cerebral artery (Acom/DACA) aneurysms were significantly correlated with group B rather than group A. Familial history and hypertension were not found to be characteristic in group B in this study. Small unruptured aneurysms may have a risk of rupture especially in young males with Acom/DACA aneurysms. Further investigations on small aneurysms are needed. (author)

  10. PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients presenting with premature rupture of the membranes there are two factors which influence the foetal morbidity and mortality. These factors are prema- turity and intra-uterine infection. The purpose of this analysis was to elucidate which factor carried the greater risk to the foetus. Recently there has been a spate of.

  11. Opalski syndrome caused by vertebral artery compression of the lateral surface of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Tomohisa; Tanahashi, Norio

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with vertigo, nystagmus, and gait ataxia followed by left hemiparesis (Opalski syndrome). T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed vascular compression of the left lateral side of the medulla oblongata by the left vertebral artery. On diffusion tensor imaging, the level of fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left corticospinal fibers caudal to the pyramidal decussation was lower than that observed in the right corticospinal fibers. Opalski syndrome caused by vascular compression is very rare. This is the first reported case of Opalski syndrome that was imaged on FA.

  12. Solar Irradiance Variability is Caused by the Magnetic Activity on the Solar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, K. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Norris, C. M.; Beeck, B.; Unruh, Y. C.; Krivova, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    The variation in the radiative output of the Sun, described in terms of solar irradiance, is important to climatology. A common assumption is that solar irradiance variability is driven by its surface magnetism. Verifying this assumption has, however, been hampered by the fact that models of solar irradiance variability based on solar surface magnetism have to be calibrated to observed variability. Making use of realistic three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere and state-of-the-art solar magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we present a model of total solar irradiance (TSI) that does not require any such calibration. In doing so, the modeled irradiance variability is entirely independent of the observational record. (The absolute level is calibrated to the TSI record from the Total Irradiance Monitor.) The model replicates 95% of the observed variability between April 2010 and July 2016, leaving little scope for alternative drivers of solar irradiance variability at least over the time scales examined (days to years).

  13. Solar Irradiance Variability is Caused by the Magnetic Activity on the Solar Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kok Leng; Solanki, Sami K; Norris, Charlotte M; Beeck, Benjamin; Unruh, Yvonne C; Krivova, Natalie A

    2017-09-01

    The variation in the radiative output of the Sun, described in terms of solar irradiance, is important to climatology. A common assumption is that solar irradiance variability is driven by its surface magnetism. Verifying this assumption has, however, been hampered by the fact that models of solar irradiance variability based on solar surface magnetism have to be calibrated to observed variability. Making use of realistic three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere and state-of-the-art solar magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we present a model of total solar irradiance (TSI) that does not require any such calibration. In doing so, the modeled irradiance variability is entirely independent of the observational record. (The absolute level is calibrated to the TSI record from the Total Irradiance Monitor.) The model replicates 95% of the observed variability between April 2010 and July 2016, leaving little scope for alternative drivers of solar irradiance variability at least over the time scales examined (days to years).

  14. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc...

  15. Rheumatoid wrist deformity and risk of extensor tendon rupture evaluated by 3DCT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Abe, Asami; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Horizono, Hidehiro; Ishii, Katsushi; Seki, Eiko [Niigata Rheumatic Center, Department of Rheumatology, Shibata city, Niigata (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    Extensor tendon rupture on the dorsum of the wrist is commonly seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It causes immediate dysfunction of the hand and surgical reconstruction is usually required. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk of extensor tendon rupture by quantifying wrist deformity on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) images. Three-dimensional CT images of 108 wrists in 102 patients with RA and 38 wrists in 38 healthy volunteers were analyzed retrospectively. All of the rheumatoid wrists had caused persistent pain for more than 6 months despite ongoing medical treatment. Extensor tendon rupture was noted in 49 wrists in 47 patients, and no rupture was noted in 59 wrists in 56 patients. The dorsal subluxation ratio (DSR) of the ulnar head and the carpal supination angle (CSA) were measured utilizing a new technique. The average DSR and CSA in the rupture group (n = 49), the non-rupture group (n = 59), and the normal wrist group (n = 38) were 37%, 19%, and 26%, and 15 , 11 , and 6 respectively. The cut-off values for extensor tendon rupture in the wrists of patients with RA were 32% (sensitivity; 70%, specificity; 75%) in the DSR, and 14 (71%, 68%) in the CSA. By utilizing 3DCT imaging of the rheumatoid wrist, these parameters can help improve our ability to predict extensor tendon rupture. (orig.)

  16. Analyses of surface motions caused by the magnitude 9.0 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ó.

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on December 26th was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.0 it is the forth largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about one hundred kilometers off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively thin...... of years. The result was a devastating tsunami hitting coastlines across the Indian Ocean killing more than 225,000 people in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. An earthquake of this magnitude is expected to involve a displacement on the fault on the order of 10 meters. But, what...... was the actual amplitude of the surface motions that triggered the tsunami? This can be constrained using the amplitudes of elastic waves radiated from the earthquake, or by direct measurements of deformation. Here we present estimates of the deformation based on continuous Global Positioning System (GPS...

  17. Is the current stress state in the Central Amazonia caused by surface water loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Delano M.; Riccomini, Claudio; Miranda, Fernando P.

    2014-11-01

    We present new fault data for the region of the Manaus, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Field measurements concentrate on the Miocene-Holocene sedimentary deposits exposed on the Amazonas River Basin, in order to investigate the development of this region in this time-interval. Two faulting events are distinguished since the Miocene. The oldest one is related to NW-SE extension during Miocene times and associated with paleoseismicity, while the younger is associated with NE-SW extension direction and seems to persist today. These two deformational events may be thereby considered Neotectonic. Moreover, the second extensional pulse with NE-SW orientation can be explained by the surface hydrological loading, which induces the Central Amazonia flexural subsidence and may promote extensional stresses in the upper crust.

  18. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an ultrathin air film causes drop splashing on smooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Tan, Peng; Xu, Lei

    2015-03-17

    When a fast-moving drop impacts onto a smooth substrate, splashing will be produced at the edge of the expanding liquid sheet. This ubiquitous phenomenon lacks a fundamental understanding. Combining experiment with model, we illustrate that the ultrathin air film trapped under the expanding liquid front triggers splashing. Because this film is thinner than the mean free path of air molecules, the interior airflow transfers momentum with an unusually high velocity comparable to the speed of sound and generates a stress 10 times stronger than the airflow in common situations. Such a large stress initiates Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at small length scales and effectively produces splashing. Our model agrees quantitatively with experimental verifications and brings a fundamental understanding to the ubiquitous phenomenon of drop splashing on smooth surfaces.

  19. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory.

  20. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory

  1. Vaginal rupture and evisceration in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Nikitas N; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Ververidis, Haralabos N; Anagnostou, Tilemachos L; Kladakis, Stefanos E

    2010-09-01

    A 1.5-year-old German Shepherd mixed breed dog was admitted with mild haemorrhage from the vulva and a perineal mass of 24-hour duration, which had been first observed immediately after parturition. Parturition had occurred at low ambient temperature, and only one puppy survived out of the seven oversized fetuses. The dog was in poor body condition, dehydrated, hypothermic, depressed, non-ambulatory and in a state of shock. Intestinal loops, the urinary bladder and the uterine horns and body were protruding from the vulva. A true vaginal prolapse was also observed. The abdominal viscera were flushed with warm sterile saline solution, protected and maintained wet. The laboratory findings included moderate anaemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminaemia, azotaemia and elevated liver enzyme activities. Stabilisation of the dog's general condition was attempted before surgery. Antimicrobial and analgesic drugs were also administered. After exploratory laparotomy the protruding organs, which were in good condition, were reduced. A recent rupture in the vaginal wall, approximately 6 cm long, was observed. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy were performed. The preoperative course of therapy was continued, but the bitch died 12 hours later. The probable cause of vaginal rupture and evisceration in this bitch was tenesmus and/or trauma due to the oversized fetuses.

  2. MRI demonstration of unsuspected intraventricular rupture of pyogenic cerebral abscesses in patients being treated for meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamra, P.; Venkatesh, S.K.; Gupta, R.K. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Uttar Pradesh (India); Vatsal, D.K.; Husain, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, KG Medical College, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, S. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2002-02-01

    We report three patients with pyogenic meningitis who showed a partial response to medical treatment. MRI demonstrated an unsuspected brain abscess with intraventricular rupture, a possible cause of the partial response to treatment. (orig.)

  3. Silicon surface damage caused by reactive ion etching in fluorocarbon gas mixtures containing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norstroem, H.; Blom, H.; Ostling, M.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Keinonen, J.; Berg, S.

    1991-01-01

    For selective etching of SiO 2 on silicon, gases or gas mixtures containing hydrogen are often used. Hydrogen from the glow discharge promotes the formation of a thin film polymer layer responsible for the selectivity of the etching process. The reactive ion etch (RIE) process is known to create damage in the silicon substrate. The influence of hydrogen on the damage and deactivation of dopants is investigated in the present work. The distribution of hydrogen in silicon, after different etching and annealing conditions have been studied. The influence of the RIE process on the charge carrier concentration in silicon has been investigated. Various analytical techniques like contact resistivity measurements, four point probe measurements, and Hall measurements have been used to determine the influence of the RIE process on the electrical properties of processed silicon wafers. The hydrogen profile in as-etched and post annealed wafers was determined by the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C nuclear reaction. The depth of the deactivated surface layer is discussed in terms of the impinging hydrogen ion energy, i.e., the possibility of H + ions to pick up an energy equal to the peak-to-peak voltage of the rf signal

  4. Does Heel Height Cause Imbalance during Sit-to-Stand Task: Surface EMG Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh R. Naik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether electromyography (EMG muscle activities around the knee differ during sit-to-stand (STS and returning task for females wearing shoes with different heel heights. Sixteen healthy young women (age = 25.2 ± 3.9 years, body mass index = 20.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2 participated in this study. Electromyography signals were recorded from the two muscles, vastus medialis (VM and vastus lateralis (VL that involve in the extension of knee. The participants wore shoes with five different heights, including 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 cm. Surface electromyography (sEMG data were acquired during STS and stand-to-sit-returning (STSR tasks. The data was filtered using a fourth order Butterworth (band pass filter of 20–450 Hz frequency range. For each heel height, we extracted median frequency (MDF and root mean square (RMS features to measure sEMG activities between VM and VL muscles. The experimental results (based on MDF and RMS-values indicated that there is imbalance between vasti muscles for more elevated heels. The results are also quantified with statistical measures. The study findings suggest that there would be an increased likelihood of knee imbalance and fatigue with regular usage of high heel shoes (HHS in women.

  5. Dynamic rupture analysis of reinforced concrete shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebora, B.; Zimmermann, Th.; Wolf, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Extreme dynamic loading conditions often require the rupture analysis of reinforced and prestressed-concrete structures. The study presented in this paper extends a method of analysis of dynamic loading conditions which has proven efficient for short-time loads. Another aim is to adapt the method to thin-walled structures. It is not sufficient to work only with plastic rupture and yield surfaces locally which are compared to the elastic distribution of the stress resultants; it is essential to account for the redistribution of the latter. The method proposed consists of discretizing the structure into isoparametric three-dimensional elements with 20 nodes for the concrete and one-dimensional bar elements with three nodes for the steel. The latter can also be handled with a 'smeared' two-dimensional membrane element. In compression a three-dimensional non-linear elastic constitutive law is introduced for the concrete, and a triaxial failure surface expressed in the stress invariants is used, determining cracking and crushing. Two- and three-dimensional cracking surfaces in which no components of stress are transmitted are accounted for. The possibility exists that, during the history of loading, cracks can close up again. For steel, a yield criterion is selected. The non-linear analysis is based on the concept of initial stress. Residual loads are calculated using information in Gauss integration points. The ultimate load is reached when the algorithm does not converge. The corresponding failure modes can be interpreted as those for which a state of equilibrium is no longer possible. The equations of motion are discretized in time, using an extension of the linear acceleration method. (Auth.)

  6. Rapid Adjustments Cause Weak Surface Temperature Response to Increased Black Carbon Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjern, Camilla Weum; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Andrews, Timothy; Boucher, Olivier; Faluvegi, Gregory; Iversen, Trond; Kasoar, Matthew; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Kirkevâg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Olivié, Dirk; Richardson, Thomas; Shawki, Dilshad; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the climate response to increased concentrations of black carbon (BC), as part of the Precipitation Driver Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). A tenfold increase in BC is simulated by nine global coupled-climate models, producing a model median effective radiative forcing of 0.82 (ranging from 0.41 to 2.91) W m-2, and a warming of 0.67 (0.16 to 1.66) K globally and 1.24 (0.26 to 4.31) K in the Arctic. A strong positive instantaneous radiative forcing (median of 2.10 W m-2 based on five of the models) is countered by negative rapid adjustments (-0.64 W m-2 for the same five models), which dampen the total surface temperature signal. Unlike other drivers of climate change, the response of temperature and cloud profiles to the BC forcing is dominated by rapid adjustments. Low-level cloud amounts increase for all models, while higher-level clouds are diminished. The rapid temperature response is particularly strong above 400 hPa, where increased atmospheric stabilization and reduced cloud cover contrast the response pattern of the other drivers. In conclusion, we find that this substantial increase in BC concentrations does have considerable impacts on important aspects of the climate system. However, some of these effects tend to offset one another, leaving a relatively small median global warming of 0.47 K per W m-2—about 20% lower than the response to a doubling of CO2. Translating the tenfold increase in BC to the present-day impact of anthropogenic BC (given the emissions used in this work) would leave a warming of merely 0.07 K.

  7. Spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis secondary to ureteral obstruction by urothelial tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Daniel Alvarenga; Palma, Ana Laura Gatti; Kido, Ricardo Yoshio Zanetti; Barros, Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Penachim, Thiago Jose; Caserta, Nelson Marcio Gomes, E-mail: daniel_alvafer@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: daniel_alvafer@icloud.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2014-09-15

    Partial spontaneous rupture of the upper urinary tract is rare and usually associated with nephrolithiasis. Other reported causes, apart from instrumentation and trauma, involve obstructive ureteral tumor in the pelvic cavity, retroperitoneal fibrosis, fluid overload, and pregnancy. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis secondary to ureteral obstruction caused by urothelial tumor, clinically suspected and evaluated by CT scans and MRIs, discussing the relevant findings for diagnosis.(author)

  8. Spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis secondary to ureteral obstruction by urothelial tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Daniel Alvarenga; Palma, Ana Laura Gatti; Kido, Ricardo Yoshio Zanetti; Barros, Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Penachim, Thiago Jose; Caserta, Nelson Marcio Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Partial spontaneous rupture of the upper urinary tract is rare and usually associated with nephrolithiasis. Other reported causes, apart from instrumentation and trauma, involve obstructive ureteral tumor in the pelvic cavity, retroperitoneal fibrosis, fluid overload, and pregnancy. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of renal pelvis secondary to ureteral obstruction caused by urothelial tumor, clinically suspected and evaluated by CT scans and MRIs, discussing the relevant findings for diagnosis.(author)

  9. Pulse-Like Rupture Induced by Three-Dimensional Fault Zone Flower Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian

    2014-07-04

    © 2014, Springer Basel. Faults are often embedded in low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) caused by material damage. Previous 2D dynamic rupture simulations (Huang and Ampuero, 2011; Huang et al., 2014) showed that if the wave velocity contrast between the LVFZ and the country rock is strong enough, ruptures can behave as pulses, i.e. with local slip duration (rise time) much shorter than whole rupture duration. Local slip arrest (healing) is generated by waves reflected from the LVFZ–country rock interface. This effect is robust against a wide range of fault zone widths, absence of frictional healing, variation of initial stress conditions, attenuation, and off-fault plasticity. These numerical studies covered two-dimensional problems with fault-parallel fault zone structures. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and geometries that are more typical of natural fault zones, including complexities such as flower structures with depth-dependent velocity and thickness, and limited fault zone depth extent. This investigation requires high resolution and flexible mesh generation, which are enabled here by the high-order accurate arbitrary high-order derivatives discontinuous Galerkin method with an unstructured tetrahedral element discretization (Peltieset al., 2012). We show that the healing mechanism induced by waves reflected in the LVFZ also operates efficiently in such three-dimensional fault zone structures and that, in addition, a new healing mechanism is induced by unloading waves generated when the rupture reaches the surface. The first mechanism leads to very short rise time controlled by the LVFZ width to wave speed ratio. The second mechanism leads to generally longer, depth-increasing rise times, is also conditioned by the existence of an LVFZ, and persists at some depth below the bottom of the LVFZ. Our simulations show that the generation of slip pulses by these two mechanisms is robust to the depth extent of the LVFZ and to the position of the hypocenter

  10. The diagnosis of breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse; Conrad, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as performed according to a strict study protocol in diagnosing rupture of silicone breast implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 64 women with 118 implants, who had...... participated in either one or two study MRI examinations, aiming at determining the prevalence and incidence of silent implant rupture, respectively, and who subsequently underwent explantation. Implant rupture status was determined by four independent readers and a consensus diagnosis of either rupture...... (intracapsular or extracapsular), possible rupture or intact implant was then obtained. Strict predetermined rupture criteria were applied as described in this report and findings at surgery were abstracted in a standardised manner and results compared. RESULTS: At MRI, 66 implants were diagnosed as ruptured...

  11. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN'S IEA-R1 research reactor due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Cabral, Eduardo Lobo Lustosa

    2009-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), which is the Brazilian nuclear regulatory commission, imposes safety and licensing standards in order to ensure that the nuclear power plants operate in a safe way. For licensing a nuclear reactor one of the demands of CNEN is the simulation of some accidents and thermalhydraulic transients considered as design base to verify the integrity of the plant when submitted to adverse conditions. The accidents that must be simulated are those that present large probability to occur or those that can cause more serious consequences. According to the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) the initiating event that can cause the largest damage in the core, of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, is the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The objective of this paper is estimate the frequency of the IEA-R1 core damage, caused by this initiating event. In this paper we analyze the accident evolution and performance of the systems which should mitigate this event: the Emergency Coolant Core System (ECCS) and the isolated pool system. They will be analyzed by means of the event tree. In this work the reliability of these systems are also quantified using the fault tree. (author)

  12. Active body surface warming systems for preventing complications caused by inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Eva; Urrútia, Gerard; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Campos, Juan Manuel; Paniagua, Pilar; Maestre, Luz; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2016-04-21

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a phenomenon that can occur as a result of the suppression of the central mechanisms of temperature regulation due to anaesthesia, and of prolonged exposure of large surfaces of skin to cold temperatures in operating rooms. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia has been associated with clinical complications such as surgical site infection and wound-healing delay, increased bleeding or cardiovascular events. One of the most frequently used techniques to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is active body surface warming systems (ABSW), which generate heat mechanically (heating of air, water or gels) that is transferred to the patient via skin contact. To assess the effectiveness of pre- or intraoperative active body surface warming systems (ABSW), or both, to prevent perioperative complications from unintended hypothermia during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 9, 2015); MEDLINE (PubMed) (1964 to October 2015), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2015), and CINAHL (Ovid) (1982 to October 2015). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ABSW system aimed at maintaining normothermia perioperatively against a control or against any other ABSW system. Eligible studies also had to include relevant clinical outcomes other than measuring temperature alone. Several authors, by pairs, screened references and determined eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consensus, with the collaboration of a third author. We included 67 trials with 5438 participants that comprised 79 comparisons. Forty-five RCTs compared ABSW versus control, whereas 18 compared two different types of ABSW, and 10 compared two different techniques to administer the same type of ABSW. Forced-air warming (FAW) was by far the most studied intervention.Trials varied widely regarding whether the interventions were

  13. Surface Deformation Caused by a Shallow Magmatic Source at Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Y.; Freymueller, J. T.; Kimata, F.; Sato, T.; Mann, D.; Kasahara, M.

    2001-12-01

    Okmok Volcano, located on Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian arc, last erupted in 1997. Okmok consists of a 10 km wide caldera with several cones located inside. Significant surface deformation before, during and after the eruption has been measured using InSAR. However, the area of coherent data has been limited to the northern part of the caldera, with some additional coherent areas along the outer flanks of the volcano. With support from NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) and the International Arctic Research Center, we carried out GPS campaigns in 2000 and 2001 to supplement the InSAR data with 3D measurements of deformation at well-distributed points. We surveyed 24 sites on and around Okmok in 2000, and 31 sites in 2001. As of this date, no SAR data from suitable passes has been acquired in the summer of 2001; if any are acquired, we will also analyze this data. InSAR data for the period 1997-2000 show what appears to be a radially-symmetric pattern of displacements, consistent with the inflation of a shallow (3-4 km) pressure (Mogi) source located beneath the geoemtric center of the caldera. A deflation source at the same location and depth was inferred from an interferogram spanning the eruption. The 2000-2001 GPS data, on the other hand, show evidence for rapid horizontal extension between sites in center of the caldera. This signal cannot be explained by a Mogi source, and may represent the intrusion of a shallow dike. In addition to this probable dike source, it appears that overall inflation of the volcano continues. The proposed dike extends from roughly the center of the caldera toward the 1997 eruptive vent. In May 2001, a swarm of micro-earthquakes occurred somewhere close to Okmok Volcano (location errors are very large as the closest permanent seismic site is ~100 km from Okmok). It is possible that this small earthquake swarm could have been associated with the intrusion of the shallow dike.

  14. The biomechanics of amnion rupture: an X-ray diffraction study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che J Connon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Pre-term birth is the leading cause of perinatal and neonatal mortality, 40% of which are attributed to the pre-term premature rupture of amnion. Rupture of amnion is thought to be associated with a corresponding decrease in the extracellular collagen content and/or increase in collagenase activity. However, there is very little information concerning the detailed organisation of fibrillar collagen in amnion and how this might influence rupture. Here we identify a loss of lattice like arrangement in collagen organisation from areas near to the rupture site, and present a 9% increase in fibril spacing and a 50% decrease in fibrillar organisation using quantitative measurements gained by transmission electron microscopy and the novel application of synchrotron X-ray diffraction. These data provide an accurate insight into the biomechanical process of amnion rupture and highlight X-ray diffraction as a new and powerful tool in our understanding of this process.

  15. Renal allograft rupture: US diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maklad, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    The US appearances in seven pathologically and/or surgically proved cases of renal allograft rupture are presented. These include a triangular or amorphous echogenic area in the cortex and medulla in a polar location, an echogenic band or wavy, branching anechoic lines in the hyperechoic region, a subcapsular hematoma, and an extrarenal hematoma in direct continuity with the echogenic area. Duplex Doppler examination in renal allograft rupture shows marked reduction of absence of the diastolic component of the velocity waveform in the arcuate and interlobar arteries, with reduction in amplitude of the systolic wave form. Correlation of the US appearances with gross and microscopic pathologic findings indicates that the echogenic area is due to an intrarenal hematoma, while the echogenic band represents the cortical laceration with adherent blood clots. The US-duplex Doppler examination should be the primary diagnostic modality in this life-threatening condition

  16. Plasticité et Rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Marigo, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Engineering school; Ce cours a un double objectif:1. renforcer les notions de mécanique des milieux continus;2. présenter les concepts fondamentaux de la plasticité et de la rupture, premiers exemples du comportement irréversible des solides.En conséquence, le cours sera divisé en trois parties: une consacrée à l'élasticité, une deuxième à la plasticité et la troisième à la mécanique de la rupture. Partie Elasticité:On commencera par un rappel sur les concepts fondamentaux de la mécanique des...

  17. Role of geometric barriers in irregular-rupture evolution during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuwaki, R.; Yagi, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Geometric discontinuities within fault systems known as geometric barriers contribute to irregular rupture evolutions during earthquakes. We applied a hybrid backprojection method to high-frequency teleseismic P-waveforms to investigate the role of geometric barriers in the rupture propagation during the MW 7.9 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. We found that sources of high-frequency waves were concentrated near the intersections of a northwest-trending cross-cutting fault with the dominant northeast-trending fault system and in areas around steps between fault segments of the dominant fault system. We recognized these areas as geometric barriers to rupture propagation. Our analysis of the high-frequency waves associated with the geometric discontinuities within the fault system showed that geometric barriers can decelerate or stop rupture propagation, but can also accelerate rupture when the rupture front crosses a geometric barrier and instigates rupture in an adjacent fault segment. Our result suggests that geometric discontinuities within fault systems can cause earthquake rupture propagation that is more complex than that of faults of simpler geometry associated with subduction zone megathrust earthquakes.

  18. Morphological and Hemodynamic Discriminators for Rupture Status in Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lv

    Full Text Available The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA aneurysms.In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured, clinical, morphological and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms.While univariate analyses showed that the size of aneurysm dome, aspect ratio (AR, size ratio (SR, dome-to-neck ratio (DN, inflow angle (IA, normalized wall shear stress (NWSS and percentage of low wall shear stress area (LSA were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture status. With multivariate analyses, significance was only retained for higher IA (OR = 1.539, p < 0.001 and LSA (OR = 1.393, p = 0.041.Hemodynamics and morphology were related to rupture status of intracranial aneurysms. Higher IA and LSA were identified as discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms.

  19. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, S.; Kantarci, M.; Okur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented

  20. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, S. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: suateren@atauni.edu.tr; Kantarci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Okur, A. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL MODELLING OF MECHANISMS CAUSING OCCURRENCE OF SEISMIC OSCILLATION SOURCES IN CASE OF INTERACTIONS OF UNEVEN SURFACES IN FAULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ruzhich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out using TRIBO, a specially designed testing stand including a concrete plate that can be moved at different rates. In our experiment, the plate served as an artificial allochtonous wing placed at the uneven surface of the segment of the Angarsky fault in Pribaikalie. Tribological effects of contact interaction of the uneven surfaces in the zone of sliding movements of the plate were recorded by strain gauges, linear displacement gauges and four Baikal-7HR seismic stations; such stations are commonly used for earthquake recording. The effect of shocks in initiation of seismic oscillation sources was studied with changes of the regimes of destruction of the uneven surfaces (underneath the base of the plate which differ in size and strength. The study was focused on stages in the process of friction at preparation to transition from quasi-regular decelerated sliding movement of the plate to its breakaway and occurrence of a high-energy seismic impulse.The applied method of large-scale modelling at natural objects in field provides new data that may prove useful for stu­dies of mechanisms causing seismicity, identification of stages in occurrence of earthquakes in fault zones and interpretation of seismic monitoring data. Results of such physical tests can contribute to the development of methods aimed at forecasting of rock shocks and earthquakes and also for the development of new physical models showing formation of earthquake foci of various scales in tectonic faults.

  2. Visualization of Flow in Pressurizer Spray Line Piping and Estimation of Thermal Stress Fluctuation Caused by Swaying of Water Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumaya, Toru; Nakamura, Akira; Onojima, Daisuke; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    The pressurizer spray line of PWR plants cools reactor coolant by injecting water into pressurizer. Since the continuous spray flow rate during commercial operation of the plant is considered insufficient to fill the pipe completely, there is a concern that a water surface exists in the pipe and may periodically sway. In order to identify the flow regimes in spray line piping and assess their impact on pipe structure, a flow visualization experiment was conducted. In the experiment, air was used substituted for steam to simulate the gas phase of the pressurizer, and the flow instability causing swaying without condensation was investigated. With a full-scale mock-up made of acrylic, flow under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions was visualized, and possible flow regimes were identified based on the results of the experiment. Three representative patterns of swaying of water surface were assumed, and the range of thermal stress fluctuation, when the surface swayed instantaneously, was calculated. With the three patterns of swaying assumed based on the visualization experiment, it was confirmed that the thermal stress amplitude would not exceed the fatigue endurance limit prescribed in the Japanese Design and Construction Code.

  3. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake using advanced satellite radar interferometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sup Jung

    Full Text Available Mapping three-dimensional (3D surface deformation caused by an earthquake is very important for the environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems made it possible to measure precise 3D deformations by combining SAR interferometry (InSAR and multiple aperture interferometry (MAI. In this paper, we retrieve the 3D surface deformation field of the 2010 Haiti earthquake which occurred on January 12, 2010 by a magnitude 7.0 Mw by using the advanced interferometric technique that integrates InSAR and MAI data. The surface deformation has been observed by previous researchers using the InSAR and GPS method, but 3D deformation has not been measured yet due to low interferometric coherence. The combination of InSAR and MAI were applied to the ALOS PALSAR ascending and descending pairs, and were validated with the GPS in-situ measurements. The archived measurement accuracy was as little as 1.85, 5.49 and 3.08 cm in the east, north and up directions, respectively. This result indicates that the InSAR/MAI-derived 3D deformations are well matched with the GPS deformations. The 3D deformations are expected to allow us to improve estimation of the area affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  4. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake using advanced satellite radar interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyung-Sup; Hong, Soo-Min

    2017-01-01

    Mapping three-dimensional (3D) surface deformation caused by an earthquake is very important for the environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems made it possible to measure precise 3D deformations by combining SAR interferometry (InSAR) and multiple aperture interferometry (MAI). In this paper, we retrieve the 3D surface deformation field of the 2010 Haiti earthquake which occurred on January 12, 2010 by a magnitude 7.0 Mw by using the advanced interferometric technique that integrates InSAR and MAI data. The surface deformation has been observed by previous researchers using the InSAR and GPS method, but 3D deformation has not been measured yet due to low interferometric coherence. The combination of InSAR and MAI were applied to the ALOS PALSAR ascending and descending pairs, and were validated with the GPS in-situ measurements. The archived measurement accuracy was as little as 1.85, 5.49 and 3.08 cm in the east, north and up directions, respectively. This result indicates that the InSAR/MAI-derived 3D deformations are well matched with the GPS deformations. The 3D deformations are expected to allow us to improve estimation of the area affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  5. An analysis of uterine rupture at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbamara, S U; Obiechina, Nja; Eleje, G U

    2012-01-01

    Uterine rupture is a preventable condition which has persistently remained in our environment. The aim of this study therefore is to ascertain the incidence of uterine rupture, examine the predisposing factors and maternal and fetal outcome of patients managed of uterine rupture in a tertiary hospital. This descriptive case series was conducted at the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe, University Teaching Hospital Nnewi from March 2004 to February 2009. The incidence of uterine rupture was 6.2 per 1000 deliveries. The commonest age range of occurrence was 30-34 years. Uterine rupture occurred predominantly among women of low parity. Previous caesarean section with concurrent use of oxytocics was the commonest risk factor documented.The maternal and perinatal mortality ratio was 94 per 100,000 deliveries and 6 per 1000 births respectively. Surgery was the main stay of treatment and the commonest procedure carried out was uterine repair only. Rupture of the gravid uterus is still a significant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in our environment. The causes are commonly preventable. The provision of maternal care by skilled personnel, proper antenatal care, update training programmes for health care providers and appropriate legislation on maternal care will significantly reduce the incidence of uterine rupture and improve its prognosis.

  6. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  7. Radiologic analysis of the medical collateral ligament rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Che; Lee, Chang Jun; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung

    1979-01-01

    The medical collateral ligament rupture is the most common injury involving the knee joint ligaments. The ruptured medical collateral ligaments of 73 cases with clinical and surgical confirmations were radiologically analyzed. The results were obtained as follows: 1. The most risky age for tearing of the medical collateral ligament was third to fifth decades (50 cases of male and 23 of females). 2. The most common cause of the medical collateral ligament rupture was traffic accident (82.2%). 3. The mean distance of medial knee joint space was 7.9 ± 2.0 mm on the normal side and 13.7 ± 4.2 mm on the affected side. 4. The mean degree of knee joint space was 10.1 ± 2.5 on the normal side and 14.7 ± 3.8 on the affected side. 5. The fibula was the bone fractured most frequently in association with the medial collateral ligament rupture (30.6%).

  8. [Proximal and distal ruptures of the biceps brachii tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonz, A; Loitz, D; Reilmann, H

    2003-09-01

    Proximal ruptures. Ruptures of the long head of the M. biceps humeri are commonly caused by degenerative changes within the tendon. Non-operative treatment gives good results, the loss of power regarding elbow flexion and supination amounts to only 8-21%. Refixation may be indicated for cosmetic reasons and offers a small but evident improvement of flexion and supination power. Deformity of the slipped muscle can be corrected effectively. Residual complaints after conservative treatment often result from associated subacromial problems. Distal ruptures. Ruptures of the distal tendon should be treated operatively. The loss of power after conservative treatment is evident (30-40% for flexion, >50% for supination). Extra-anatomical tenodesis to the brachialis muscle or anatomical fixation to the radial tuberosity can be applied. Flexion power and cosmesis can be addressed by both techniques. If supination strength is to be restored, the tendon has to be fixed anatomically. Preparation of the tuberosity bears the risk of heterotopic ossification or nerve damage. Mini-open techniques, using only a limited anterior approach, may decrease risks.

  9. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: development, rupture and preventive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Nima; Rinkel, Gabriel J

    2016-12-01

    Saccular unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) have a prevalence of 3% in the adult population, and are being increasingly detected because of improved quality and higher frequency of cranial imaging. Large amounts of data, providing varying levels of evidence, have been published on aneurysm development, progression and rupture, but less information is available on the risks and efficacy of preventive treatment. When deciding how to best manage UIAs, clinicians must consider the age and life expectancy of the patient, the estimated risk of rupture, the risk of complications attributed to preventive treatment, and the level of anxiety caused by the awareness of having an aneurysm. This Review highlights the latest human data on the formation, progression and rupture of intracranial aneurysms, as well as risks associated with preventive treatment. Considering these we discuss the implication for clinical management. Furthermore, we highlight pivotal questions arising from current data on intracranial aneurysms and the implications the data have for future experimental or clinical research. We also discuss data on novel radiological surrogates for rupture for those aneurysms that do not require preventive occlusion. Finally, we provide guidance for clinicians who are confronted with patients with incidentally detected UIAs.

  10. Shallow megathrust earthquake ruptures betrayed by their outer-trench aftershocks signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, Anthony; Trevisan, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    For some megathrust earthquakes, the rupture extends to the solid Earth's surface, at the ocean floor. This unexpected behaviour holds strong implications for the tsunami potential of subduction zones and for the physical conditions governing earthquakes, but such ruptures occur in underwater areas which are hard to observe, even with current instrumentation and imaging techniques. Here, we evidence that aftershocks occurring ocean-ward from the trench are conditioned by near-surface rupture of the megathrust fault. Comparison to well constrained earthquake slip models further reveals that for each event the number of aftershocks is proportional to the amount of shallow slip, a link likely related to static stress transfer. Hence, the spatial distribution of these specific aftershock sequences could provide independent constrains on the coseismic shallow slip of future events. It also offers the prospect to be able to reassess the rupture of many large subduction earthquakes back to the beginning of the instrumental era.

  11. Repair of Isolated Mitral Papillary Muscle Rupture Consequent to Blunt Trauma in a Small Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan, Eyup; Guzeloglu, Mehmet; Sariosmanoglu, Nejat; Ugurlu, Baran; Keskin, Vehip; Unal, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    Blunt thoracoabdominal trauma is most often caused by high-velocity motor-vehicle accidents or by falls from a height. The clinical spectrum of cardiac injuries arising from this type of trauma varies from myocardial contusion to valvular rupture. Intracardiac valvular rupture is rarely observed, and few cases have been reported. The youngest of the patients in cases reported to date was 6 years of age. Here we report the case of a 2½year-old child, who sustained mitral valve insufficiency due to isolated rupture of the posterior mitral papillary muscle, which developed after a domestic accident. PMID:19568400

  12. [Repair of distal biceps brachii tendon rupture: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Kahraman; Sahin, Vedat

    2002-01-01

    The rupture of the distal tendon of the biceps brachii muscle is a rarely encountered injury, causing flexion and supination losses. There are literature reports giving good results with the use of two-incision technique that fixes the distal biceps brachii tendon to the radial tuberosity. We used this technique in a 49-year-old male patient who had had left distal tendinous rupture of the biceps brachii muscle caused by lifting heavy weight. Functional evaluation at the end of 16 months with the use of the Cybex 350 test machine showed normal range of motions for flexion and extension in the left elbow. There was a 25 percent loss of strength and 5 percent loss of endurance in flexion, and 11 percent loss of endurance in pronation. No complications were observed and a very good functional result was achieved.

  13. The rupture in visual language:

    OpenAIRE

    Kula, Ömür; Kula, Omur

    2006-01-01

    The shift of arts from conventional forms of canvas-painting and sculpture to collage, ready-mades, installations and performances as it had occurred in the history of western art follow a linear and natural unfolding in parallel with sociopolitical evolvements. In the case of Turkish visual arts, this kind of a transformation projects to the time period between 1960s to 1990s where the face of arts change not smoothly but rather in the form of a 'rupture' as new tendencies are embraced, prac...

  14. Espaces ruraux et ruptures territoriales

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal , Mohamed; Détang-Dessendre , Cécile; Schaeffer , Yves

    2013-01-01

    Sur une grande partie du territoire métropolitain, villes et campagnes font système et échangent quotidiennement des ressources. Néanmoins, certains espaces restent en creux du maillage urbain, qu’il soit principal ou secondaire. Cet éloignement peut être à l’origine de désavantages dans de nombreuses dimensions de l’existence et c’est de ces ruptures dans l’accès aux avantages urbains que traite ce chapitre. L’éclairage proposé est organisé en trois temps. La première section situe les espac...

  15. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  16. Traumatic rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksha Ramlakhan, BMedSc, MBBCh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial dermoid cysts are congenital tumors of ectodermal origin. Rupture of these cysts can occur spontaneously, but rupture in association with trauma is reported infrequently. The diagnosis of rupture is made by the presence of lipid (cholesterol droplets in the subarachnoid spaces and ventricles. Nonenhanced CT of the head demonstrates multiple foci of low attenuation that correspond with hyperintense signal on T1-weighted MRI. We present a case of an adult patient with rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst, precipitated by minor trauma.

  17. Acute achilles tendon rupture in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of AT rupture has increased in recent decades. AT ruptures frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. Ruptures also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athletic individuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT ruptures, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seismic and Tsunami Waveform Simulation based on Dynamic Rupture Scenarios: Anticipated Nankai-Tonankai Earthquakes, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T.; Fukuyama, E.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    Rupture scenarios of anticipated huge earthquakes based on earthquake physics and observational records should be useful for the hazard evaluation of future disastrous earthquakes. Hok et al. (2011, JGR) proposed possible dynamic rupture scenarios of anticipated Nankai-Tonankai huge earthquakes, southwest Japan using estimated slip deficit distribution and an appropriate fault friction law. These scenarios are quite useful to study the details of the wave propagation as well as potential earthquake and tsunami hazard (e.g. Kim et al. 2016, EPS). The objective in this study is to synthesize seismic and tsunami waveforms of the anticipated huge earthquakes, which could be useful for the future hazard assessment. We propose a method of synthesizing the waveforms, in particular, in the region of offshore focal area where seismic waves, ocean acoustic waves, and tsunamis simultaneously exist, which makes the wavefield very complicated. We calculated the seismic and tsunami waveforms caused by a dynamic rupture of huge earthquakes (Mw 8.5) southwestern Japan. There are two kinds of tsunami observations: ocean bottom pressure gauges detect tsunami as pressure change at the sea bottom and GPS tsunami gauges measure tsunami as vertical displacement at the sea surface. Our simulation results indicated that both tsunami records are significantly contaminated by seismic waves in a few minutes after the earthquake occurrence. The tsunami and seismic waves have different excitation mechanisms: seismic wave excitation strongly depends on the time scale of the rupture (moment rate), while tsunami excitation is determined by the static parameters (fault geometry and seismic moment). Therefore, for a reliable tsunami prediction, it is important to analyze observed tsunami records excluding the seismic waves that behave like tsunami near the source area.

  19. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Intracranial Aneurysms: Procedural Rupture versus Spontaneous Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H H; Ha, E J; Lee, J J; Yoo, D H; Cho, W-S; Kim, J E; Cho, Y D; Han, M H; Kang, H-S

    2017-11-01

    Procedural rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a devastating complication in endovascular treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with procedural rupture of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms compared with those with spontaneously ruptured aneurysms. A retrospective review was performed for 1340 patients with 1595 unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms that underwent endovascular coil embolization between February 2010 and December 2014. The clinical outcomes of patients with procedural rupture of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms were compared with those of 198 patients presenting with spontaneously ruptured aneurysms. In this series, procedural rupture developed in 19 patients (1.4% per patient and 1.2% per aneurysm), and the morbidity related to procedural rupture was 26.3% (95% confidence interval, 8.5%-61.4%) with no mortality. Hunt and Hess scale grades and hospitalization days of patients with procedural rupture were equivalent to those of patients presenting with spontaneous aneurysm rupture. Subsequent treatment procedures after hemorrhage (including lumbar drainage, extraventricular drainage, decompressive craniectomy, and permanent shunt) showed no difference between the 2 groups. The hemorrhage volumes were smaller in the procedural-rupture group ( P = .03), and the endovascular vasospasm therapies tended to be more frequently required in the spontaneous aneurysm-rupture group ( P = .08). At postictus 6 months, the proportion of modified Rankin Scale scores of ≥2 were lower in the procedural-rupture group (5.3% versus 26.8%, P = .049). In multivariate analysis, spontaneous aneurysm rupture was a significant risk factor for worse clinical outcome (OR = 14.9; 95% CI, 1.2-193.1; P = .039). This study showed better clinical outcomes in the procedural-rupture group. Even though there is a potential chance of aneurysm rupture during treatment, the clinical outcomes after procedural

  20. Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen expression varies between isolates causing severe and nonsevere malaria and is modified by acquired immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Staalsoe, Trine; Kurtzhals, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    of immunity, as disease-causing parasites appear to be those not controlled by preexisting VSA-specific Abs. In this work we report that VSA expressed by parasites from young Ghanaian children with P. falciparum malaria were commonly and strongly recognized by plasma Abs from healthy children in the same area......, and that the VSA expression pattern is modulated by immunity. This opens the possibility of developing morbidity-reducing vaccines targeting a limited subset of common and particularly virulent VSA.......In areas of endemic parasite transmission, protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is acquired over several years with numerous disease episodes. Acquisition of Abs to parasite-encoded variant surface Ags (VSA) on the infected erythrocyte membrane is important in the development...

  1. Neglected ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon mimics a soft tissue tumor in the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Chi-Lun; Yen, Tze-Hsun; Wu, Lien-Chen; Huang, Yi-You; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2014-04-01

    A wrist mass is rarely caused by a ruptured tendon in the forearm. The common pathologies are ganglia, tendon tenosynovitis, and giant cell tumors of tendon sheaths. Less common causes are nerve sheath tumors, vascular lesions, or an accessory muscle belly. The authors investigated a case of neglected ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon that mimics a mass in the wrist. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report in relevant literature. During investigation, the high-resolution musculoskeletal ultrasound suggested a soft tissue tumor or a ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon. The magnetic resonance imaging scan indicated an accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle belly. The diagnosis of ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon was confirmed by surgical exploration. This case indicates that ultrasound may be better suited than magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating a wrist mass for its accuracy, availability, and portability.

  2. Non-bleeding Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-bleeding Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. M Islam, P Deka, R Kapur, AM Ansari. Abstract. Rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon and most ruptured HCC present with hemoperitoneum and hemorrhagic shock. Management of ruptured HCC is different than non.ruptured one.

  3. Spontaneous Rupture of a Superior Gluteal Artery Mycotic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    George, Neal; Abdelghany, Mahmoud; Stark, Owen; Joshi, Medha

    2015-01-01

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are uncommon among all aneurysms and are usually a result of trauma. Streptococcus viridans bacteremia has been described in rare cases of extracranial mycotic aneurysms. Despite a variable clinical presentation, mycotic aneurysms of the superior gluteal artery could be the cause in patients with unexplained sciatica pain. Here we report a very rare case of spontaneous rupture of a superior gluteal artery mycotic aneurysm in a patient with underlying infective endocar...

  4. A study of solar magnetic fields below the surface, at the surface, and in the solar atmosphere - understanding the cause of major solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields govern all aspects of solar activity from the 11-year solar cycle to the most energetic events in the solar system, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). As seen on the surface of the sun, this activity emanates from localized concentrations of magnetic fields emerging sporadically from the solar interior. These locations are called solar Active Regions (ARs). However, the fundamental processes regarding the origin, emergence and evolution of solar magnetic fields as well as the generation of solar activity are largely unknown or remain controversial. In this dissertation, multiple important issues regarding solar magnetism and activities are addressed, based on advanced observations obtained by AIA and HMI instruments aboard the SDO spacecraft. First, this work investigates the formation of coronal magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), structures associated with major solar activity such as CMEs. In the past, several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of this major activity, which can be categorized in two contrasting groups (a) the MFR is formed in the eruption, and (b) the MFR pre-exists the eruption. This remains a topic of heated debate in modern solar physics. This dissertation provides a complete treatment of the role of MFRs from their genesis all the way to their eruption and even destruction. The study has uncovered the pre-existence of two weakly twisted MFRs, which formed during confined flaring 12 hours before their associated CMEs. Thus, it provides unambiguous evidence for MFRs truly existing before the CME eruptions, resolving the pre-existing MFR controversy. Second, this dissertation addresses the 3-D magnetic structure of complex emerging ARs. In ARs the photospheric fields might show all aspects of complexity, from simple bipolar regions to extremely complex multi-polar surface magnetic distributions. In this thesis, we introduce a novel technique to infer the subphotospheric configuration of emerging

  5. Near-surface Heating of Young Rift Sediment Causes Mass Production and Discharge of Reactive Dissolved Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Shih; Koch, Boris P.; Feseker, Tomas; Ziervogel, Kai; Goldhammer, Tobias; Schmidt, Frauke; Witt, Matthias; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Zabel, Matthias; Teske, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface heating of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass production and discharge of reactive dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the sediment heated up to ~100 °C, we found unexpectedly low DOC concentrations in the pore waters, reflecting the combined effect of thermal desorption and advective fluid flow. Heating experiments suggested DOC production to be a rapid, abiotic process with the DOC concentration increasing exponentially with temperature. The high proportions of total hydrolyzable amino acids and presence of chemical species affiliated with activated hydrocarbons, carbohydrates and peptides indicate high reactivity of the DOM. Model simulation suggests that at the local scale, near-surface heating of sediment creates short and massive DOC discharge events that elevate the bottom-water DOC concentration. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of high heat flow areas, the expulsion of reactive DOM is spotty at any given time. We conclude that hydrothermal heating of young rift sediments alter deep-ocean budgets of bioavailable DOM, creating organic-rich habitats for benthic life.

  6. Near-surface Heating of Young Rift Sediment Causes Mass Production and Discharge of Reactive Dissolved Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Shih; Koch, Boris P; Feseker, Tomas; Ziervogel, Kai; Goldhammer, Tobias; Schmidt, Frauke; Witt, Matthias; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Zabel, Matthias; Teske, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2017-03-22

    Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface heating of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass production and discharge of reactive dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the sediment heated up to ~100 °C, we found unexpectedly low DOC concentrations in the pore waters, reflecting the combined effect of thermal desorption and advective fluid flow. Heating experiments suggested DOC production to be a rapid, abiotic process with the DOC concentration increasing exponentially with temperature. The high proportions of total hydrolyzable amino acids and presence of chemical species affiliated with activated hydrocarbons, carbohydrates and peptides indicate high reactivity of the DOM. Model simulation suggests that at the local scale, near-surface heating of sediment creates short and massive DOC discharge events that elevate the bottom-water DOC concentration. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of high heat flow areas, the expulsion of reactive DOM is spotty at any given time. We conclude that hydrothermal heating of young rift sediments alter deep-ocean budgets of bioavailable DOM, creating organic-rich habitats for benthic life.

  7. Cancer cell death pathways caused by photothermal and photodynamic effects through gold nanoring induced surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yulu; Hsiao, Jen-Hung; Yu, Jian-He; Tseng, Po-Hao; Hua, Wei-Hsiang; Low, Meng-Chun; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Cai, Cheng-Jin; Hsieh, Cheng-Che; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C. C.; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2017-07-01

    The different death pathways of cancer cells under the conditions of the photothermal (PT), effect, photodynamic (PD) effect, and their combination are evaluated. By incubating cells with Au nanoring (NRI) either linked with the photosensitizer, AlPcS, or not, the illumination of a visible continuous laser for exciting the photosensitizer or an infrared femtosecond laser for exciting the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NRI, leads to various PT and PD conditions for study. Three different staining dyes are used for identifying the cell areas of different damage conditions at different temporal points of observation. The cell death pathways and apoptotic evolution speeds under different cell treatment conditions are evaluated based on the calibration of the threshold laser fluences for causing early-apoptosis (EA) and necrosis (NE) or late-apoptosis (LA). It is found that with the PT effect only, strong cell NE is generated and the transition from EA into LA is faster than that caused by the PD effect when the EA stage is reached within 0.5 h after laser illumination. By combining the PT and PD effects, in the first few hours, the transition speed becomes lower, compared to the case of the PT effect only, when both Au NRIs internalized into cells and adsorbed on cell membrane exist. When the Au NRIs on cell membrane is removed, in the first few hours, the transition speed becomes higher, compared to the case of the PD effect only.

  8. Diagnostic value of ultrasound, computed tomography, and angiography in ruptured aortic aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landtman, M.; Kivisaari, L.; Bondestam, S.; Taavitsainen, M.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Somer, K.

    1984-11-01

    Some ruptural aneurysms cause nonspecific symptoms and the patients are referred for radiological examination because of the problems of differential diagnosis from conditions such as renal colic, diverticulitis, herniated disc, aortic dissection etc. Seven such patients have been examined either with ultrasonography, computed tomography or angiography. The diagnostic methods are compared. The more recent US and CT imaging methods are sufficiently rapid and reliable for diagnostic purposes, which should improve the prognosis for patients requiring immediate surgery for ruptured aortic aneurysms.

  9. Diagnostic value of ultrasound, computed tomography, and angiography in ruptured aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landtman, M.; Kivisaari, L.; Bondestam, S.; Taavitsainen, M.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Somer, K.

    1984-01-01

    Some ruptural aneurysms cause nonspecific symptoms and the patients are referred for radiological examination because of the problems of differential diagnosis from conditions such as renal colic, diverticulitis, herniated disc, aortic dissection etc. Seven such patients have been examined either with ultrasonography, computed tomography or angiography. The diagnostic methods are compared. The more recent US and CT imaging methods are sufficiently rapid and reliable for diagnostic purposes, which should improve the prognosis for patients requiring immediate surgery for ruptured aortic aneurysms. (orig.)

  10. Vortex Imprints at the Wall, But Not in the Bulk, Distinguish Ruptured from Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Nicole; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms affect 3% of the population. Risk stratification of aneurysms is important, as rupture often leads to death or permanent disability. Image-based CFD analyses of patient-specific aneurysms have identified low and oscillatory wall shear stress to predict rupture. These stresses are sensed biologically at the luminal wall, but the flow dynamics related to aneurysm rupture requires further understanding. We have conducted two studies: one examines vortex dynamics, and the other, high frequency flow fluctuations in patient-specific aneurysms. In the first study, based on Q-criterion vortex identification, we developed two measures to quantify regions within the aneurysm where rotational flow is dominate: the ratio of volume or surface area where Q >0 vs. the total aneurysmal volume or surface area, respectively termed volume vortex fraction (VVF) and surface vortex fraction (SVF). Statistical analysis of 204 aneurysms shows that SVF, but not VVF, distinguishes ruptured from unruptured aneurysms, suggesting that once again, the local flow patterns on the wall is directly relevant to rupture. In the second study, high-resolution CFD (high spatial and temporal resolutions and second-order discretization schemes) on 56 middle cerebral artery aneurysms shows the presence of temporal fluctuations in 8 aneurysms, but such flow instability bears no correlation with rupture. Support for this work was partially provided by NIH grant (R01 NS091075-01) and a grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  11. Diagnosis of unruptured and ruptured aneurysms using magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Takeshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kashiwaba, Takeshi

    1994-05-01

    Most previous reports have explored the efficacy of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) as a noninvasive screening method for the detection of unruptured intracranial aneurysms and occlusive vascular disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) MRA in the identification of ruptured aneurysms presenting subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as well as unruptured aneurysms. Sixty-two consecutive patients with 36 ruptured and 32 unruptured aneurysms were examined. MR angiograms and conventional contrast angiograms were retrospectively reviewed with regard to the relation between the detectability on MRA and size of aneurysm, location, and influence of subarachnoid hematoma. The size of ruptured aneurysms was significantly larger than that of unruptured aneurysms. Twenty-seven of 29 ruptured aneurysms in acute stage (93%) was detected on MRA, whereas 29 of 36 unruptured aneurysms (81%) and none of 4 ruptured aneurysms in subacute stage (0%) were detectable. Individual vessel visualization and image quality of MRA in patients with acute SAH were satisfactory, although in patients with subacute SAH, MRA showed poor visualization of vessels due to T1-shortening of subacute surrounding hematoma and presence of delayed vasospasm. Main causes of failure to detect aneurysms on MRA included limitation of spatial resolution, limited projections obtainable with maximum-intensity-projection (MIP) techniques and subacute hematoma simulating flow signal on MIP reconstructions. Improvement of present limitation of MRA requires higher spatial resolution, higher contrast resolution and a more adequate reconstruction method. MRA was considered to be a safe and useful examination for intracranial aneurysms especially in patients with acute SAH. (author).

  12. The SCEC/USGS dynamic earthquake rupture code verification exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.A.; Barall, M.; Archuleta, R.; Dunham, E.; Aagaard, Brad T.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Bhat, H.; Cruz-Atienza, Victor M.; Dalguer, L.; Dawson, P.; Day, S.; Duan, B.; Ely, G.; Kaneko, Y.; Kase, Y.; Lapusta, N.; Liu, Yajing; Ma, S.; Oglesby, D.; Olsen, K.; Pitarka, A.; Song, S.; Templeton, E.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations of earthquake rupture dynamics are now common, yet it has been difficult to test the validity of these simulations because there have been few field observations and no analytic solutions with which to compare the results. This paper describes the Southern California Earthquake Center/U.S. Geological Survey (SCEC/USGS) Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, where codes that simulate spontaneous rupture dynamics in three dimensions are evaluated and the results produced by these codes are compared using Web-based tools. This is the first time that a broad and rigorous examination of numerous spontaneous rupture codes has been performed—a significant advance in this science. The automated process developed to attain this achievement provides for a future where testing of codes is easily accomplished.Scientists who use computer simulations to understand earthquakes utilize a range of techniques. Most of these assume that earthquakes are caused by slip at depth on faults in the Earth, but hereafter the strategies vary. Among the methods used in earthquake mechanics studies are kinematic approaches and dynamic approaches.The kinematic approach uses a computer code that prescribes the spatial and temporal evolution of slip on the causative fault (or faults). These types of simulations are very helpful, especially since they can be used in seismic data inversions to relate the ground motions recorded in the field to slip on the fault(s) at depth. However, these kinematic solutions generally provide no insight into the physics driving the fault slip or information about why the involved fault(s) slipped that much (or that little). In other words, these kinematic solutions may lack information about the physical dynamics of earthquake rupture that will be most helpful in forecasting future events.To help address this issue, some researchers use computer codes to numerically simulate earthquakes and construct dynamic, spontaneous

  13. Analysis of Rupture Directivity for the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake from the Rayleigh-Wave Phase Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Pan Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rupture directivity for the 2004 Sumatra earthquake is analyzed by examining differences between the phase-de lay times of Rayleigh-waves (in the 140 - 160 sec period range arising from the main shock and reference earth quakes. A long source-process time (~463.0 sec and large rupture length (~1164.0 km are de rived from this analysis of rupture directivity. The source-process time for this earth quake is larger than for either the 1960 Chile or 1964 Alaska earth quakes. This might be due to the length of the rupture that occurred during earth quake faulting. The estimated rise time for the 2004 Sumatra earthquake, 92.0 sec, is approximately 20% of the whole source duration and also larger than those for the 1960 Chile and 1964 Alaska earth quakes. This likely reflects a fundamental difference between the frictional properties of these earth quakes. When the rise time is taken into ac count, an estimated rupture velocity of approximately 3.1 km sec-1 is obtained. This value is higher than that found in previous studies carried out on the basis of hydro acoustic data and regional seismic net works. In this study, we obtain additional evidence from analysis of the surface-wave phase-de lay time which con firms the basic features of the rupturing of the 2004 Sumatra earth quake. The results can also provide some constraints for the study of source rupturing for this earthquake.

  14. Unusual case of pancreatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor associated with spontaneous splenic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Fadi K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous splenic rupture considered a relatively rare but life threatening. The three commonest causes of spontaneous splenic rupture are malignant hematological diseases, viral infections and local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. We describe a unique and unusual case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the tail of pancreas presented with massively enlarged spleen and spontaneous splenic rupture. Case presentation A 19 years old male patient with no significant past medical history presented to emergency room with abdominal pain and fatigue. Massively enlarged spleen was detected. Hypotension and rapid reduction of hemoglobin level necessitated urgent laparatomy. About 1.75 liters of blood were found in abdominal cavity. A large tumor arising from the tail of pancreas and local rupture of an enlarged spleen adjacent to the tumor were detected. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. To our knowledge, we report the first case of massively enlarged spleen that was complicated with spontaneous splenic rupture as a result of splenic congestion due to mechanical obstruction caused by an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the tail of pancreas. A review of the literature is also presented. Conclusion Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the tail of pancreas should be included in the differential diagnosis of the etiological causes of massively enlarged spleen and spontaneous splenic rupture.

  15. Modeling Changes in Bed Surface Texture and Aquatic Habitat Caused by Run-of-River Hydropower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, T. K.; Venditti, J. G.; Nelson, P. A.; Popescu, V.; Palen, W.

    2014-12-01

    Run-of-river (RoR) hydropower has emerged as an important alternative to large reservoir-based dams in the renewable energy portfolios of China, India, Canada, and other areas around the globe. RoR projects generate electricity by diverting a portion of the channel discharge through a large pipe for several kilometers downhill where it is used to drive turbines before being returned to the channel. Individual RoR projects are thought to be less disruptive to local ecosystems than large hydropower because they involve minimal water storage, more closely match the natural hydrograph downstream of the project, and are capable of bypassing trapped sediment. However, there is concern that temporary sediment supply disruption may degrade the productivity of salmon spawning habitat downstream of the dam by causing changes in the grain size distribution of bed surface sediment. We hypothesize that salmon populations will be most susceptible to disruptions in sediment supply in channels where; 1) sediment supply is high relative to transport capacity prior to RoR development, and 2) project design creates substantial sediment storage volume. Determining the geomorphic effect of RoR development on aquatic habitat requires many years of field data collection, and even then it can be difficult to link geomorphic change to RoR development alone. As an alternative, we used a one-dimensional morphodynamic model to test our hypothesis across a range of pre-development sediment supply conditions and sediment storage volumes. Our results confirm that coarsening of the median surface grain-size is greatest in cases where pre-development sediment supply was highest and sediment storage volumes were large enough to disrupt supply over the course of the annual hydrograph or longer. In cases where the pre-development sediment supply is low, coarsening of the median surface grain-size is less than 2 mm over a multiple-year disruption period. When sediment supply is restored, our results

  16. Spontaneous rupture of the pregnant uterus following salpingectomy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanirowski, Paweł Jan; Trojanowski, Seweryn; Słomka, Anna; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is a life-threatening obstetric complication in rare cases associated with previously performed salpingectomy. This paper presents an analysis of uterine rupture cases during pregnancy in patients after surgical removal of the fallopian tubes. The English and Polish language literature was reviewed for studies published between January 1, 1980 and September 30, 2014 to identify articles that described rupture of the uterus in women with a previous history of salpingectomy. Thirteen case reports and case series studies in 18 women were identified. 33% of cases of uterine rupture following salpingectomy occurred during intrauterine pregnancy, whereas the rest was associated with interstitial ectopic pregnancy. Laparoscopic salpingectomy more often resulted in rupture of the uterus during non-ectopic pregnancy as compared to laparotomy (4 vs. 2 cases, respectively). When interstitial pregnancies were excluded, uterine rupture was a cause of fetal death in 67% of reported gestations. There were no cases of maternal mortality. Conservative treatment was the preferred management option, and total hysterectomy was performed in only 2 patients. Particular attention should be paid to patients with a previous history of salpingectomy due to the risk of uterine rupture throughout the entire pregnancy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Ruptured Retina Artery Macroaneurysm Presenting with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 74-year-old hypertensive presented with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage. Examination showed a ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm. Control of systemic hypertension was associated with resolution. Risk factors and management are discussed. Ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm should be considered in ...

  18. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  20. Coiling of ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Rooij, W.J.J. van; Sluzewski, M.; Wijnalda, D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the technical feasibility of treating ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysms with detachable coils and to evaluate the anatomic and clinical results. METHODS: Over a period of 27 months, 12 patients with a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm were treated with detachable

  1. Ruptured hepatoblastoma treated with primary surgical resection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to review two cases of ruptured hepatoblastoma treated with primary surgical resection. Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver malignancy of childhood, although it remains infrequent. A rare, but serious condition is when the tumor presents with spontaneous rupture. This is a ...

  2. Treatment alternative for irreparable rotator cuff ruptures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The treatment of massive irreparable rotator cuff rupture has still no consensus among shoulder surgeons. It is assumed that symptomatic rotator cuff tendon rupture is accepted as irreparable if retraction amount of tendon is Patte stage 3 on MRI; degree of fatty atrophy is Goutallier stage 3 or 4; narrowing of ...

  3. Cause of a rare acute renal insufficiency: rupture aortocaval fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Erdal; Caliskan, Aytac; Tutun, Ufuk; Sahin, Serpil

    2014-08-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms can be complicated by some conditions and aortocaval fistula is one of them. Aortocaval fistula is an unusual entity. A male patient was admitted to the hospital for abdominal pain and leg oedema of three days duration. In addition, severe anuria was also noted. We determined a fistula from the right lateral wall of aneurysm to the distal of vena cava inferior. The aortocaval fistula was closed with pledged-reinforced 4/0 polypropylene suture in the aneurysmal wall. At the postoperative 10th day, he was discharged with normal renal function. After a long-term untreated fistula, right-sided heart failure, acute renal and hepatic insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thrombo-embolism can be seen in these patients. Increased venous pressure should be the reason for decreased arterial flow results in renal insufficiency. Emergency intervention in these patients saves the patient's life as well as prevents irreversible organ failure. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Delayed presentation of uterine rupture in a didelphys uterus misdiagnosed as appendicitis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linsen; Lin, Xiaoman; Sha, Suoyou; Yao, Libin; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Shao, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Uterine rupture during pregnancy caused by uterine dysplasia, such as the double uterus, is very rare and easily overlooked by the surgeon. A 25-year-old woman, at 17 weeks of gestation presented to our emergency center with acute right lower abdominal pain for more than 10 h. The initial diagnosis is acute appendicitis, but during the exploration, we found about 2500 mL of intraperitoneal hemorrhage, appendix was normal, pregnancy in one of the double uterine and ruptured at the right bottom. The pregnancy was removed and the uterine defect was repaired. Uterine rupture caused by double uterus is very rare and easily Ignored by the surgeon. The survival of patients suffered from uterine rupture depends on the time interval between rupture and intervention.

  5. Factors for simultaneous rupture assessment of active fault. Part 1. Fault geometry and slip-distribution based on tectonic geomorphological and paleoseismological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Ueta, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the magnitude of an earthquake caused by multiple active faults, taking into account the simultaneous effects. The simultaneity of adjacent active faults is often decided on the basis of geometric distances except for the cases in which paleoseismic records of these faults are well known. We have been studying the step area between the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault, which appeared as consecutive ruptures in the 1891 Nobi earthquake, since 2009. The purpose of this study is to establish innovation in valuation technique of the simultaneity of adjacent active faults in addition to the techniques based on the paleoseismic record and the geometric distance. The present work is intended to clarify the distribution of tectonic geomorphology along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault by high-resolution interpretations of airborne LiDAR DEM and aerial photograph, and the field survey of outcrops and location survey. As a result of topographic survey, we found consecutive tectonic topography which is left lateral displacement of ridge and valley lines and reverse scarplets along these faults in dense vegetation area. We have found several new outcrops in this area where the surface ruptures of the 1891 Nobi earthquake have not been known. At the several outcrops, humic layer whose age is from 14th century to 19th century by 14C age dating was deformed by the active fault. We conclude that the surface rupture of Nukumi fault in the 1891 Nobi earthquake is continuous to 12km southeast of Nukumi village. In other words, these findings indicate that there is 10-12km parallel overlap zone between the surface rupture of the southeastern end of Nukumi fault and the northwestern end of Neodani fault. (author)

  6. Modelling earthquake ruptures with dynamic off-fault damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Kurama; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann; Rougier, Esteban

    2017-04-01

    modelling earthquake ruptures. We then modelled earthquake ruptures allowing for coseismic off-fault damage with appropriate fracture nucleation and growth criteria. We studied the effect of different conditions such as rupture speed (sub-Rayleigh or supershear), the orientation of the initial maximum principal stress with respect to the fault and the magnitude of the initial stress (to mimic depth). The comparison between the sub-Rayleigh and supershear case shows that the coseismic off-fault damage is enhanced in the supershear case when compared with the sub-Rayleigh case. The orientation of the maximum principal stress also has significant difference such that the dynamic off-fault cracking is more likely to occur on the extensional side of the fault for high principal stress orientation. It is found that the coseismic off-fault damage reduces the rupture speed due to the dissipation of the energy by dynamic off-fault cracking generated in the vicinity of the rupture front. In terms of the ground motion amplitude spectra it is shown that the high-frequency radiation is enhanced by the coseismic off-fault damage though it is quickly attenuated. This is caused by the intricate superposition of the radiation generated by the off-fault damage and the perturbation of the rupture speed on the main fault.

  7. MRI of tibialis anterior tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Robert A.; DeMeo, Patrick J.; Kolman, Brett H.; Daffner, Richard H.; Sciulli, Robert L.; Roberts, Catherine C.

    2004-01-01

    Ruptures of the tibialis anterior tendon are rare. We present the clinical histories and MRI findings of three recent male patients with tibialis anterior tendon rupture aged 58-67 years, all of whom presented with pain over the dorsum of the ankle. Two of the three patients presented with complete rupture showing discontinuity of the tendon, thickening of the retracted portion of the tendon, and excess fluid in the tendon sheath. One patient demonstrated a partial tear showing an attenuated tendon with increased surrounding fluid. Although rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon is a rarely reported entity, MRI is a useful modality in the definitive detection and characterization of tibialis anterior tendon ruptures. (orig.)

  8. Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann

    We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  10. Ruptured gastroepiploic artery aneurysm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Ashrafi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastroepiploic artery aneurysms are extremely rare, with few reported cases in the literature. The risk of rupture however, is high and thus warrants attention. Presentation of case: Here we present a rare case of a women who presented to the emergency department in shock and was found to have a ruptured gastroepiploic artery aneurysm during surgical exploration. Suture ligation of the aneurysm was completed. Discussion: Although rare, gastroepiploic artery aneurysms have up to a 90% rate of rupture and therefore require intervention. A laparoscopic approach has been described however, in cases where rupture has occurred, urgent laparotomy and control of hemorrhage is needed. Conclusion: We describe a rare case of a ruptured gastroepiploic aneurysm that was successfully managed with urgent laparotomy and aneurysmal resection. Keywords: Gastroepiploic, Aneurysm, Hemorrhage, Case report

  11. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (TOC) and selected elements (P, Hg), the regional distribution maps show strong differences between the analysed fine fraction and the recalculated total sediment. Seeing that mud contents vary strongly between 0 and 100%, this can be explained by the well-known grain-size effect. To avoid (or at least minimise) this effect, further interpretations were based on the data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  12. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  13. Causes of global mean surface temperature slowdowns, trends and variations from months to a century, 1891-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, C. K.; Boucher, O.; Colman, A.; Parker, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The recent slowdown in the warming of global mean surface temperature (GST) has highlighted the influences of natural variability. This talk discusses reconstructions of the variations of GST down to the monthly time scale since 1891 using monthly forcing data. We show that most of the variations in annual, and to some extent sub-annual, GST since 1891 can be reproduced skillfully from known forcing factors external and internal to the climate system. This includes the slowdown in warming over about 1998-2013 where reconstruction skill is particularly high down to the multi-monthly time scale. The relative contributions of the several key forcing factors to GST continually vary, but most of the net warming since 1891 is reconstructed to be attributable to the net forcing due to increasing greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols. Separate analyses are carried out for three periods of GST slowdown:- 1896-1910, 1941-1976, together with 1998-2013 and some of its sub periods. We also study two periods where strong warming occurred, 1911-1940 and 1977-1997. Comparisons are made with the skill of average GST provided by 40 CMIP5 models. In the recent 1998-2013 slowdown, TSI forcing appears to have caused significant cooling, particularly over 2001-2010. This is additional to well documented cooling effects of an increased frequency of La Nina events, a negative Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and some increases in volcanic forcing. Although there are short-term features of the GST curve since 1891 that cannot be fully explained, the most serious disagreements between the reconstructions and observations occur in the Second World War, especially in 1944-1945. Here observed near worldwide SSTs may be biased significantly too warm. Despite this, our generally high reconstruction skill is consistent with a good understanding of the multiple causes of observed GST variations and the general veracity of the GST record since 1891.

  14. Rupture of the meniscofibular ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poyanli Oguz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The meniscofibular ligament is an anatomically defined ligament of the knee in humans. However, there are no data regarding the prognosis following injury to this ligament. Our case was a 42-year-old man who presented at our clinic with pain of the lateral side of his left knee. MRI of his left knee revealed the rupture of the meniscofibular ligament. The mechanism of injury was consistent with anatomical and mechanical studies of the meniscofibular ligament. The patient was treated conservatively for 1 year, but his pain did not resolve completely. A case series of patients with the same injury is required to establish an effective treatment for this rare injury.

  15. The rupture in the physics teacher’s pedagogical sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Louise Scarinci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the result of an observational research, carried out with a group of high school physics teachers in professional development. We departed from the recognition of the incipient learning in courses, as identified from the few changes resultant in teachers’ practices. While studying their attempts to take into classroom the proposals learned in the courses, we’ve observed that such attempts frequently originated a rupture in the pedagogical sequence. This caused a great distress and a tendency to return to the “old” practice. Of what does this rupture consist? Which obstacles may be causing them? This question lead us to study the characteristics of teachers’ practices and their evolution/oscillation, motivated by the professional development course. We’ve related the ruptures in their pedagogical sequence with the incoherence in teachers' strategies and attitudes when applying the teaching theory being learned, whereas still maintaining aspects of their practice founded into the old theory. We’ve concluded that the learning of a new teaching theory requires a ground attitudinal change, more fundamental than possible changes in the teaching strategies, these ones capable of planning.

  16. Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Joaquín

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen.

  17. EMG monitoring during functional non-surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, Tobias; Wohifarth, Kai; Fink, Matthias; Thermann, H; Rollnik, Jens D

    2002-07-01

    After surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture, neuromuscular changes may persist, even one year after surgery. We were interested whether these changes are also evident following a non-surgical functional therapy (Variostabil therapy boot/Adidas). Twenty-one patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture were enrolled in the study (mean age 38.5 years, range 24 to 60; 18 men, three women) and followed-up clinically and with surface EMG of the gastrocnemius muscles after four, eight, 12 weeks, and one year after rupture. EMG differences between the affected and non-affected side could only be observed at baseline and after four weeks following Achilles tendon rupture. The results from our study show that EMG changes are not found following non-surgical functional therapy.

  18. Dynamic rupture models of earthquakes on the Bartlett Springs Fault, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozos, Julian C.; Harris, Ruth A.; Murray, Jessica R.; Lienkaemper, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The Bartlett Springs Fault (BSF), the easternmost branch of the northern San Andreas Fault system, creeps along much of its length. Geodetic data for the BSF are sparse, and surface creep rates are generally poorly constrained. The two existing geodetic slip rate inversions resolve at least one locked patch within the creeping zones. We use the 3-D finite element code FaultMod to conduct dynamic rupture models based on both geodetic inversions, in order to determine the ability of rupture to propagate into the creeping regions, as well as to assess possible magnitudes for BSF ruptures. For both sets of models, we find that the distribution of aseismic creep limits the extent of coseismic rupture, due to the contrast in frictional properties between the locked and creeping regions.

  19. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst.

  20. Outcomes of preterm premature rupture of membranes in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacoste, Stephanie V; Jean-Pierre, Claudel; Baergen, Rebecca; Chasen, Stephen T

    2008-08-01

    To describe outcomes in twin pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Dichorionic twin pregnancies complicated by PPROM at premature rupture of membranes (PROM), latency from PROM to delivery, and infection were examined. In 49 twin pregnancies, the median gestational age at PROM was 31 weeks with a median latency between PROM and delivery of 0 days (interquartile range 0-6). Latency intervals of >or=2 and >or=7 days were achieved by 40.8% and 22.4%, respectively. PPROM at or= 2 days (70.6% vs. 25.0%) and >or=7 days (47.1% vs. 9.4%). There was a significant relationship between latency and clinical and histologic signs of infection. After 30 weeks, most twin pregnancies with PPROM delivered within 2 days. Infection appears to be a consequence rather than a cause of PPROM in most cases.

  1. Spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture: imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Glaucia Andrade e Silva; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous hepatic bleeding is a rare condition. Our aim was to describe the imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment using transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture. Three patients presented acute hemoperitoneum dur to hepatic rupture caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma, HELLP syndrome and a blunt hepatic trauma. The patients were submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen and subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. All patients underwent helical computed tomography before and after treatments. Computed tomography played an important role in the evaluation and follow-up in the therapeutic intervention. Different types of liver injuries were identified. Transcatheter arterial embolization blocked arterial hemorrhage in the patients who were hemodynamically unstable. The conclusion was: transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and well-tolerated treatment method for the management of hepatic rupture and computed tomography is an excellent method for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  2. Corpus Luteum Cyst Rupture - US Findings and Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Shang Hun; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Jeong, Yoong Ki [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hung [Dong Kang General Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To describe the US findings of corpus luteum cyst rupture in order to elucidate the associated clinical features. Twenty patients with proven corpus luteum cyst rupture were included in this study. The US findings of these patients were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the presence of designable cyst, size of the cyst, thickness and blood flow of the cyst wall, extension and echogenicity of peritoneal fluid, and involved site (right or left ovary). We also surveyed the clinical features such as the onset period according to the menstrual cycle, and the presence of suspectable cause. Fourteen of the 20 patients revealed designable cysts (mean diameter of 2.6 cm) with thick walled cysts (mean thickness, 4.6 mm, 2.4-6.8 mm) and increased blood flow. Six patients didn't reveal any cyst but only hematoma in adnexa. All patients had hemoperitoneum in the pelvic cavity, and the hemoperitoneum was extended to Morrison's pouch in 8 patients and to the subphrenic space in 6. The cysts occurred in the right adnexa in 15 patients and in the left in 5. Mean interval from the last menstrual period (LMP) was 26 days (13-44 days) and 6 of the 8 patients for whom it had been possible to obtain detailed history taking had had coitus just before the occurrence of symptom. When women who are hospitalized for acute abdomen and who are in luteal phase reveal US findings of hematoma or thick-walled cyst in adnexa and hemoperitoneum, a corpus luteum cyst rupture is highly suspected. In our case study the corpus luteum cyst rupture predominantly occurred in the right side, and the most suspectable cause was trauma such as coitus in the luteal phase

  3. Spontaneous Bladder Rupture Masquerading as Pseudo-diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raghavendran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is rare. Presentation is non-specific and in absence of history of trauma, radiation, inflammatory conditions and other leading causes, there is considerable diagnostic delay. Absence of clear cut diagnostic signs leads to increased morbidity and mortality. In many patients, omentum seals perforation, giving diverticular appearance in Cystogram. The objective of this case report is to highlight important specific diagnostic points in history and radiology which will help in clear, early diagnosis and treatment causing immense benefit to the patient. We would also like to highlight a specific radiological point to distinguish true from pseudo-diverticulum.

  4. PROBABLE CHARACTERISTICS ОF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ENVIRONMENT AT EARTH SURFACE CAUSED BY RADIO-ELECTRONIC AIDS OPERATING OVER EARTH SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mordachev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides results of modeling distribution of signal probability of radio-electronic aids located over the Earth surface at a specific height and determining an electromagnetic environment on its surface according to a power parameter and an input direction angle at an optionally selected observation point being on the earth surface.

  5. PROBABLE CHARACTERISTICS ОF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ENVIRONMENT AT EARTH SURFACE CAUSED BY RADIO-ELECTRONIC AIDS OPERATING OVER EARTH SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Mordachev

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides results of modeling distribution of signal probability of radio-electronic aids located over the Earth surface at a specific height and determining an electromagnetic environment on its surface according to a power parameter and an input direction angle at an optionally selected observation point being on the earth surface.

  6. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as massive hemothorax in a patient with type I neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Dae Wook; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Suk; Lee, Tae Hong; Moon, Tae Yong; Chung, Sung Woon

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of an acute hemothorax caused by a rupture of a left internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm in a 45-year-old woman with a type I neurofibromatosis, which was successfully treated using endovascular coil embolization

  7. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as massive hemothorax in a patient with type I neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Dae Wook; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Suk; Lee, Tae Hong; Moon, Tae Yong; Chung, Sung Woon [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We report a case of an acute hemothorax caused by a rupture of a left internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm in a 45-year-old woman with a type I neurofibromatosis, which was successfully treated using endovascular coil embolization.

  8. Emergency treatment of acute rupture of the descending thoracic aorta using endovascular stent-grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Philippe; Rollet, Gilles; Vidal, Vincent; Collart, Frédéric; Bartoli, Jean-Michel; Piquet, Philippe

    2006-11-01

    Open surgical management of acute rupture of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Endovascular stent-grafts (ESGs) could provide a less invasive treatment alternative to conventional open surgery. The purpose of this report detailing our experience using ESG for treatment of acute rupture of the DTA is to determine the indications for endovascular repair. From June 2000 to April 2005, 17 patients presenting rupture of the DTA were treated using commercially available ESGs at our institution. There were two women and 15 men, with a mean age of 41.9 +/- 20.5 years. The cause of aortic rupture was traumatic in 13 cases and nontraumatic in four. Treatment was undertaken immediately in 10 cases and delayed in seven (range 5-68 days, mean 23.5). In one patient, the proximal neck landing zone was prepared prior to endovascular repair. No patients died during the postoperative period. The technical success rate was 84%. One patient developed a proximal type 1 endoleak at the end of the procedure. Three complications, i.e., two iliac dissections and one femoral artery rupture, occurred during the procedure. No paraplegia was observed. Mean follow-up was 13.3 months (range 1-41). One patient treated for traumatic rupture was lost from follow-up 21 months after initial treatment. No procedure-related complication was observed in this traumatic rupture group. Control computed tomographic scan at 13 months following the procedure demonstrated no evidence of periprosthetic leak or false aneurysm. In the nontraumatic rupture group, two patients died of aortic rupture and one treated for aortobronchial fistula developed recurrent hemoptysis 23 months after initial treatment and required placement of two additional ESGs. The immediate outcome of covered stent-graft placement for management of acute aortic rupture of the DTA is good. However, long-term surveillance is mandatory, especially in patients treated for nontraumatic aortic

  9. Patellar tendon: From tendinopathy to rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rosso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Patellar tendinopathy is very common in patients complaining of anterior knee pain. Its aetiology is still unclear, but neovascularisation seems to play a role. Different treatments have been proposed overtime, from rehabilitation to platelet-rich-plasma injections, but there is no agreement on the best treatment protocol. The final stage of patellar tendinopathy is patellar tendon rupture. In these cases surgical treatment is often required. The aim of this literature review is to focus on the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of both patellar tendinopathy and rupture. We report the conservative treatments proposed for patellar tendinopathy and the surgical techniques described for its rupture.

  10. Deposits on heat exchanging surfaces, causes in the bleaching process and countermeasures; Belaeggningar paa vaermevaexlare, orsaker i blekprocessen och aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Staahl, Charlotte; Widell, Lars [AaF-Celpap AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Energy conservation in process industry implies to a large extent recovery of heat (or cold) from a process stream and its utilization for another process stream. The savings of energy that can be achieved depend on the process streams, but also on the efficiency of the heat exchange. A small driving temperature difference is a condition for an extensive recovery and a satisfactory preservation of its quality, i.e. its temperature. As process streams contain compounds or components that can precipitate and form deposits on heat exchanging surfaces, the recovery of heat is degraded. In the pulp and paper industry, two trends combine to increase the extent of fouling: a larger degree of closure for the process and a change in pH-profile caused by a switch to elementary chlorine free bleaching. In this study, the occurrence of deposits has been investigated for the mills that produce mechanical pulp and for the fiber line in mills producing chemical pulp. Deposits on the evaporator surfaces are treated in a parallel study. Except for some plants, deposits are not an important problem today. That does not mean that there has not been any problem or that problems will not occur. The origin of deposits lies in the chemistry of the process, but deposits have consequences for the thermal energy management. A list of possible actions in order to avoid deposits or to mitigate their consequences has been dressed in this report. They should be considered with the following order of priority: avoiding that the compounds that may form deposits enter at all the process, section 6.1; avoiding that these compounds form a deposit once they have entered the process, section 6.2; cleaning if nothing else helps or costs too much, section 6.3. Some of these methods are well known or are conventional changes in the processes. Some of these methods are less well proven or less well documented. In a longer time perspective, the kidney technology that is being developed could contribute to

  11. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  12. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  13. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  14. A case of a ruptured dermoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munemoto, Shigeru; Ishiguro, Shuso; Kimura, Akira; Kogure, Yuzaburou; Wakamatsu, Kouichi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Morimoto

    1988-01-01

    A case of a ruptured dermoid cyst presenting headaches and dizziness as the only symptoms is presented. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after complaining of headaches for 5 years and of dizziness for 1 week. The results of physical and neurological examinations were normal. An X-ray of the skull revealed an intracranial calcification in the left frontal region. CT disclosed calcification and a large low-density area in the left parasellar region and the frontal lobe. The mass consisted of two different areas of density. There were multiple, isolated, low-density spots in the left Sylvian fissure and the interpeduncular cistern. No abnormal enhancement was seen by CECT. Angiograms showed an elevation of the A 1 portion of ACA and a lateral shift of MCA. A left fronto-temporal craniotomy was performed. Chronic or past leptomeningitis was suspected because of the arachnoid-membrane thickening. Multiple fatty globules were present in the left Sylvian fissure. A large, soft, fatty tumor was completely removed. The histologic diagnosis was a dermoid cyst. After this operation, the headaches and dizziness were reduced. It is unclear whether the headaches were caused by the compression of the tumor or by the meningeal irritation of the fatty debris. According to the findings on the arachnoid membrane, however, it seems likely that fatty debris detached from the tumor spilled out intermittently from the cyst into the subarachnoid space, resulting in meningeal irritation. (author)

  15. Real-Time Detection of Rupture Development: Earthquake Early Warning Using P Waves From Growing Ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Large earthquakes with long rupture durations emit P wave energy throughout the rupture period. Incorporating late-onset P waves into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms could contribute to robust predictions of strong ground motion. Here I describe a technique to detect in real time P waves from growing ruptures to improve the timeliness of an EEW algorithm based on seismic wavefield estimation. The proposed P wave detector, which employs a simple polarization analysis, successfully detected P waves from strong motion generation areas of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture. An analysis using 23 large (M ≥ 7) events from Japan confirmed that seismic intensity predictions based on the P wave detector significantly increased lead times without appreciably decreasing the prediction accuracy. P waves from growing ruptures, being one of the fastest carriers of information on ongoing rupture development, have the potential to improve the performance of EEW systems.

  16. Uncertainties of Large-Scale Forcing Caused by Surface Turbulence Flux Measurements and the Impacts on Cloud Simulations at the ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Xie, S.; Tang, Q.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Two types of instruments, the eddy correlation flux measurement system (ECOR) and the energy balance Bowen ratio system (EBBR), are used at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to measure surface latent and sensible fluxes. ECOR and EBBR typically sample different land surface types, and the domain-mean surface fluxes derived from ECOR and EBBR are not always consistent. The uncertainties of the surface fluxes will have impacts on the derived large-scale forcing data and further affect the simulations of single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulation models (LES), especially for the shallow-cumulus clouds which are mainly driven by surface forcing. This study aims to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing caused by surface turbulence flux measurements and investigate the impacts on cloud simulations using long-term observations from the ARM SGP site.

  17. Bi-stage time evolution of nano-morphology on inductively coupled plasma etched fused silica surface caused by surface morphological transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lijuan; Bai, Yang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhengkun; Qiu, Keqiang; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yang, Ke; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate the surface nano-roughness during the inductively coupled plasma etching of fused silica, and discover a novel bi-stage time evolution of surface nano-morphology. At the beginning, the rms roughness, correlation length and nano-mound dimensions increase linearly and rapidly with etching time. At the second stage, the roughening process slows down dramatically. The switch of evolution stage synchronizes with the morphological change from dual-scale roughness comprising long wavelength underlying surface and superimposed nano-mounds to one scale of nano-mounds. A theoretical model based on surface morphological change is proposed. The key idea is that at the beginning, etched surface is dual-scale, and both larger deposition rate of etch inhibitors and better plasma etching resistance at the surface peaks than surface valleys contribute to the roughness development. After surface morphology transforming into one-scale, the difference of plasma resistance between surface peaks and valleys vanishes, thus the roughening process slows down.

  18. Rupture Process During the Mw 8.1 2017 Chiapas Mexico Earthquake: Shallow Intraplate Normal Faulting by Slab Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuwaki, R.; Yagi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A seismic source model for the Mw 8.1 2017 Chiapas, Mexico, earthquake was constructed by kinematic waveform inversion using globally observed teleseismic waveforms, suggesting that the earthquake was a normal-faulting event on a steeply dipping plane, with the major slip concentrated around a relatively shallow depth of 28 km. The modeled rupture evolution showed unilateral, downdip propagation northwestward from the hypocenter, and the downdip width of the main rupture was restricted to less than 30 km below the slab interface, suggesting that the downdip extensional stresses due to the slab bending were the primary cause of the earthquake. The rupture front abruptly decelerated at the northwestern end of the main rupture where it intersected the subducting Tehuantepec Fracture Zone, suggesting that the fracture zone may have inhibited further rupture propagation.

  19. [Comparison between two diagnostic tests for preterm rupture of membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Martínez, Jenny Judith; Soria López, Juan Antonio; Ambriz López, Roberto; Iglesias Benavides, José Luis

    2012-03-01

    Rupture premature of membranes occurs in 8% of all births constituting one of main causes of prematurity. Determine qualitatively the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone in vagina and used as diagnostic test to rupture of membranes. We performed a study of diagnostic test observational, transverse, comparative, prospective, not blind type; in 175 healthy pregnant woman with 20 to 42 weeks of gestation, with suspicion of vaginal liquid outlet, at the Obstetrics Department Academic Hospital "Dr Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez" during the period of April 2009 to June 2011, crystallography and vaginal human chorionic gonadotropin hormone test were performed. We analyzed 175 patients, average age was 22.35 years old, was obtained sensibility and specificity of 98.90% y 77.38% to crystallography and 93.41% y 73.81% to vaginal human chorionic gonadotropin hormone test, with value positive predictive of 79.44% and value negative predictive of 91.18% for this last. Determine qualitatively the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone in vagina is a diagnostic test useful for detecting premature rupture of membranes has been shown to be as effective as crystallography.

  20. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silveira Salvadori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEpithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Bomfim, Lucas Novais [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Maceio, AL, (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. (author)

  2. Reevaluation of chest radiography in aortic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, F. Jr.; Gutierrez, O.H.; Burgener, F.A.; Yee, W.K.; Katzberg, R.W.; Morris, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    Mediastinal widths in 50 volunteers with varying inspiration and positioning were compared with values obtained in 17 patients with known aortic rupture. Mediastinal width was significantly affected by the degree of inspiration and positioning in control subjects. Mediastinal width after rupture was outside normal 95% confidence limits in 12 of 17 cases (71%), as compared with inspiration-matched controls. Fourteen of seventeen patients with rupture (82%) had mediastina wider than 8.0 cm, but so did 23 of 150 controls (15%), all on expiratory films. On average, patients with rupture had wider mediastina for all degrees of inspiration, but deeper inspiration helped accentuate differences in width between these patients and normal controls

  3. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  4. Surgical treatment of distal biceps rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Karen M; Dodds, Seth D; Ahmad, Christopher S; Sethi, Paul M

    2010-03-01

    Rupture of the distal biceps tendon accounts for 10% of all biceps brachii ruptures. Injuries typically occur in the dominant elbow of men aged 40 to 49 years during eccentric contraction of the biceps. Degenerative changes, decreased vascularity, and tendon impingement may precede rupture. Although nonsurgical management is an option, healthy, active persons with distal biceps tendon ruptures benefit from early surgical repair, gaining improved strength in forearm supination and, to a lesser degree, elbow flexion. Biomechanical studies have tested the strength and displacement of various repairs; the suspensory cortical button technique exhibits maximum peak load to failure in vitro, and suture anchor and interosseous screw techniques yield the least displacement. Surgical complications include sensory and motor neurapraxia, infection, and heterotopic ossification. Current trends in postoperative rehabilitation include an early return to motion and to activities of daily living.

  5. Medical management of ruptured appendicitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brett C; Hamar, Benjamin D; Levine, Deborah; Roqué, Henry

    2009-08-01

    Ruptured appendicitis in pregnancy is an advanced stage of appendicitis that imposes significant maternal and fetal morbidity; the best treatment for the obstetric patient in this situation is unclear. In the first case, a nulliparous woman at 32 weeks of gestation presented with ruptured appendicitis. She was treated nonsurgically with intravenous antibiotics and had an uncomplicated vaginal delivery at term. In the second case, a nulliparous woman presented at 27 weeks of gestation with ruptured appendicitis and was treated nonsurgically with intravenous antibiotics. She had a recurrence of appendicitis at 32 weeks of gestation, and again was treated with medical management. She delivered a viable infant by cesarean at 34 weeks of gestation for breech presentation and preterm labor. Similar to in the nonpregnant population, medical management of ruptured appendicitis in pregnancy may be a reasonable treatment option.

  6. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurevich, Andrey V

    2009-06-01

    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  7. Traumatic Fundal Rupture of unscarred Uterus in a Primigravida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uterine rupture is an infrequent but life threatening obstetric emergency. Rupture of previously scarred uterus is often encountered especially in multiparous women, but the traumatic rupture of an unscarred primigravid uterus as presented here is a relatively rare event. We report a case of rupture of an ...

  8. Bladder And Uterine Rupture At Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of the uterus is still a major obstetric problem in developing countries. The urinary bladder is often affected especially when a lower segment Caesarean scar ruptures. We present a case of bladder rupture associated with uterine rupture in a patient who was attempting vaginal delivery after two previous Caesarean ...

  9. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-06

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissa Marçola Scandiuzzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducion: pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes (PROM are associated with bad outcomes and controvertial management. Although underlain mechanism is unknown, strong evidences point infection as the main cause underneath preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm labour. Objective: to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. Method: retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by PROM at University Hospital of Faculdade de Medicina Jundiaí, from march 2007 to june 2009. Results: the results showed a higher prevalence: age between 20 and 30 years (54.5%, caucasian (58.6%, unmarried (46%, non-smokers (72.82%, gestation LMP term (63.3% and USG (64.5%, number of prenatal consultations more than six (59.8%, multiparous (66.6%, obstetric history with normal vaginal delivery (PVN (56.3%, cervical dilatation at admission between 2 cm - 3 cm, evanescence 50%, ruptured membranes between 1 and 4 hours, conduct the spontaneous delivery (82.5%, type of delivery PVN (55,6%, newborn weighing 2,500 kg and 3,500 kg (61.6%, Apgar score greater than seven at 1 and 5 minutes (89.2% and 99.2% respectively, need for resuscitation (81,5%, Neo ICU (2.6% and length of the binomial two days. Conclusion: based on our results and in comparison with the literature review, we found a similar prevalence in our service and other services of those studies. The exception was the high prevalence of cesarean section over the other and the high number of pregnant women had not received prenatal care (22.9%.

  11. Morphologic and Hemodynamic Analysis in the Patients with Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms: Ruptured versus Unruptured.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkai Jing

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the impact of morphologic and hemodynamic factors on multiple intracranial aneurysms and aimed to identify which parameters can be reliable indexes as one aneurysm ruptured, and the others did not.Between June 2011 and May 2014, 69 patients harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms (69 ruptured and 86 unruptured were analyzed from 3D-digital subtraction angiography (DSA images and computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Morphologic and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis identified area under the curve (AUC and optimal thresholds separating ruptured from unruptured intracranial aneurysms for each parameter. Significant parameters were examined by binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent discriminators.Nine morphologic (size, neck width, surface area, volume, diameter of parent arteries, aspect ratio, size ratio, lateral/bifurcation type and regular/irregular type and 6 hemodynamic (WSSmean, WSSmin, OSI, LSA, flow stability and flow complexity parameters achieved statistical significance (p0.7. By binary logistic regression analysis, large aspect ratio and low WSSmean were the independently significant rupture factors (AUC, 0.924; 95% CI, 0.883-0.965.Large aspect ratio and low WSSmean were independently associated with the rupture status of multiple intracranial aneurysms.

  12. Morphologic and Hemodynamic Analysis in the Patients with Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms: Ruptured versus Unruptured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Linkai; Fan, Jixing; Wang, Yang; Li, Haiyun; Wang, Shengzhang; Yang, Xinjian; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The authors evaluated the impact of morphologic and hemodynamic factors on multiple intracranial aneurysms and aimed to identify which parameters can be reliable indexes as one aneurysm ruptured, and the others did not. Between June 2011 and May 2014, 69 patients harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms (69 ruptured and 86 unruptured) were analyzed from 3D-digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Morphologic and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified area under the curve (AUC) and optimal thresholds separating ruptured from unruptured intracranial aneurysms for each parameter. Significant parameters were examined by binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent discriminators. Nine morphologic (size, neck width, surface area, volume, diameter of parent arteries, aspect ratio, size ratio, lateral/bifurcation type and regular/irregular type) and 6 hemodynamic (WSSmean, WSSmin, OSI, LSA, flow stability and flow complexity) parameters achieved statistical significance (p0.7). By binary logistic regression analysis, large aspect ratio and low WSSmean were the independently significant rupture factors (AUC, 0.924; 95% CI, 0.883-0.965). Large aspect ratio and low WSSmean were independently associated with the rupture status of multiple intracranial aneurysms.

  13. Uterine rupture at Lagos University Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Omololu Adegbola; Adesumbo Kanyinsola Odeseye

    2017-01-01

    Background: Uterine rupture remains a major life-threatening obstetric disaster encountered in many developing countries and is associated with a high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, associated risk factors, trend, clinical presentation, management as well as maternal and fetal outcome of uterine rupture at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a ret...

  14. Diagnostic Modalities in Premature Rupture of Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Eskicioğlu; Esra Bahar Gur

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor is known as Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM). Early and correct diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent fetal and maternal risks that can be life threatening. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic ability of the tests in PROM. Materials and Methods: Nitrazine test, fern test, amnio-dye test, biochemical tests (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental alpha microglobulin-1) were evaluated in terms of effec...

  15. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Talving

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  16. Better Visual Outcome by Intraocular Lens Ejection in Geriatric Patients with Ruptured Ocular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Tadasu; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Kachi, Shu; Ito, Yasuki; Ueno, Shinji; Nonobe, Norie; Kataoka, Keiko; Suzumura, Ayana; Iwase, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Because of the popularity of cataract surgeries, aged individuals with ocular trauma commonly have a surgical wound in their eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of cases that were coincident with intraocular lens (IOL) ejection in the eyes with ruptured open-globe ocular injuries. Consecutive patients with open-globe ocular injuries were first reviewed. Patients’ characteristics, corrected distance visual acuities (CDVAs) over 3 years after the trauma, causes of injuries, traumatic wound patterns, and coexistence of retinal detachment were examined. The relationships between poor CDVA and the other factors, including the complications of crystalline lens and IOL ejection, were examined. A total of 105 eyes/patients [43 eyes with rupture, 33 with penetrating, 28 with intraocular foreign body (IOFB), and 1 with perforating injuries] were included. Rupture injuries were common in aged patients and were mostly caused by falls, whereas penetrating and IOFB injuries were common in young male patients. CDVAs of the eyes with rupture injuries were significantly worse than those of the eyes with penetrating or IOFB injuries. CDVA from more than 50% of the ruptured eyes resulted in no light perception or light perception to 20/500. CDVA of the ruptured eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection was significantly worse than that of those complicated by IOL ejection. The wounds of the ruptured eyes complicated by IOL ejection were mainly located at the superior corneoscleral limbus, whereas those of the eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection were located at the posterior sclera. There were significant correlations between poor CDVA and retinal detachment and crystalline lens ejection. These results proposed a new trend in the ocular injuries that commonly occur in aged patients; history of cataract surgery might affect the final visual outcome after open

  17. Data book of examination of the ruptured pipe at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    In order to investigate root cause of the pipe rupture, which took place at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 of Chubu Electric Power Company on November 7, 2001, a task force was established within the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and initiated a detailed investigation of the ruptured pipe. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was asked from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in response to the request from NISA to cooperate as an independent neutral organization with NISA and perform an examination of the ruptured pipe independently from Chubu Electric Power Company. JAERI accepted the request by considering the fact that JAERI is an integrated research institution for nuclear research and development, a prime research institution for nuclear safety research, a research institution with experience of root-cause investigation of various nuclear incidents and accidents of domestic as well as overseas, and a research institution provided with advanced examination facilities necessary for examination of the ruptured pipe. The JAERI examination group was formed at the Tokai Research Establishment and conducted detailed and thorough examination of the pieces taken from the ruptured pipe primarily in the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) with the use of tools such as scanning electron microscopes and other equipments. Purpose of examination was to provide technical information in order to identify causes of the pipe rupture through examination of the pieces taken from the ruptured region of the pipe. The result of the present examination has already been reported to NISA and has also been published as the JAERI-Tech report No.2001-94. This report is a data book containing the detailed data obtained by the present examination. (author)

  18. Better Visual Outcome by Intraocular Lens Ejection in Geriatric Patients with Ruptured Ocular Injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kaneko

    Full Text Available Ocular trauma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Because of the popularity of cataract surgeries, aged individuals with ocular trauma commonly have a surgical wound in their eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of cases that were coincident with intraocular lens (IOL ejection in the eyes with ruptured open-globe ocular injuries. Consecutive patients with open-globe ocular injuries were first reviewed. Patients' characteristics, corrected distance visual acuities (CDVAs over 3 years after the trauma, causes of injuries, traumatic wound patterns, and coexistence of retinal detachment were examined. The relationships between poor CDVA and the other factors, including the complications of crystalline lens and IOL ejection, were examined. A total of 105 eyes/patients [43 eyes with rupture, 33 with penetrating, 28 with intraocular foreign body (IOFB, and 1 with perforating injuries] were included. Rupture injuries were common in aged patients and were mostly caused by falls, whereas penetrating and IOFB injuries were common in young male patients. CDVAs of the eyes with rupture injuries were significantly worse than those of the eyes with penetrating or IOFB injuries. CDVA from more than 50% of the ruptured eyes resulted in no light perception or light perception to 20/500. CDVA of the ruptured eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection was significantly worse than that of those complicated by IOL ejection. The wounds of the ruptured eyes complicated by IOL ejection were mainly located at the superior corneoscleral limbus, whereas those of the eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection were located at the posterior sclera. There were significant correlations between poor CDVA and retinal detachment and crystalline lens ejection. These results proposed a new trend in the ocular injuries that commonly occur in aged patients; history of cataract surgery might affect the final visual outcome

  19. 613 cases of splenic rupture without risk factors or previously diagnosed disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey-Bassler F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rupture of the spleen in the absence of trauma or previously diagnosed disease is largely ignored in the emergency literature and is often not documented as such in journals from other fields. We have conducted a systematic review of the literature to highlight the surprisingly frequent occurrence of this phenomenon and to document the diversity of diseases that can present in this fashion. Methods Systematic review of English and French language publications catalogued in Pubmed, Embase and CINAHL between 1950 and 2011. Results We found 613 cases of splenic rupture meeting the criteria above, 327 of which occurred as the presenting complaint of an underlying disease and 112 of which occurred following a medical procedure. Rupture appeared to occur spontaneously in histologically normal (but not necessarily normal size spleens in 35 cases and after minor trauma in 23 cases. Medications were implicated in 47 cases, a splenic or adjacent anatomical abnormality in 31 cases and pregnancy or its complications in 38 cases. The most common associated diseases were infectious (n = 143, haematologic (n = 84 and non-haematologic neoplasms (n = 48. Amyloidosis (n = 24, internal trauma such as cough or vomiting (n = 17 and rheumatologic diseases (n = 10 are less frequently reported. Colonoscopy (n = 87 was the procedure reported most frequently as a cause of rupture. The anatomic abnormalities associated with rupture include splenic cysts (n = 6, infarction (n = 6 and hamartomata (n = 5. Medications associated with rupture include anticoagulants (n = 21, thrombolytics (n = 13 and recombinant G-CSF (n = 10. Other causes or associations reported very infrequently include other endoscopy, pulmonary, cardiac or abdominal surgery, hysterectomy, peliosis, empyema, remote pancreato-renal transplant, thrombosed splenic vein, hemangiomata, pancreatic pseudocysts, splenic artery aneurysm

  20. A Benchmarking setup for Coupled Earthquake Cycle - Dynamic Rupture - Tsunami Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Joern; Bader, Michael; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Uphoff, Carsten; Vater, Stefan; Wollherr, Stephanie; van Zelst, Iris

    2017-04-01

    We developed a simulation framework for coupled physics-based earthquake rupture generation with tsunami propagation and inundation on a simplified subduction zone system for the project "Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events" (ASCETE, funded by the Volkswagen Foundation). Here, we present a benchmarking setup that can be used for complex rupture models. The workflow begins with a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle model representing long term deformation along a planar, shallowly dipping subduction zone interface. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this model. The absolute stress field and material properties for a single slip event are used as initial conditions for a dynamic earthquake rupture model.The rupture simulation is performed with SeisSol, which uses an ADER discontinuous Galerkin discretization scheme with an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. The seafloor displacements resulting from this rupture are transferred to the tsunami model with a simple coastal run-up profile. An adaptive mesh discretizing the shallow water equations with a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme subsequently allows for an accurate and efficient representation of the tsunami evolution and inundation at the coast. This workflow allows for evaluation of how the rupture behavior affects the hydrodynamic wave propagation and coastal inundation. We present coupled results for differing earthquake scenarios. Examples include megathrust only ruptures versus ruptures with splay fault branching off the megathrust near the surface. Coupling to the tsunami simulation component is performed either dynamically (time dependent) or statically, resulting in differing tsunami wave and inundation behavior. The simplified topographical setup allows for systematic parameter studies and reproducible physical studies.

  1. Maternal serum copper and zinc levels and premature rupture of the foetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, M.; Jahed, F. S.; Yousefi, B.; Ghorbani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the correlation of zinc and copper serum concentration level, body mass index, age and parity with premature rupture of the membranes. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the fertility ward of Amiralmomenin Hospital of Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. It comprised 100 full-term pregnant women with and without premature rupture of the membranes and 50 non-pregnant women as controls. The diagnosis of rupture of membranes was made on the basis of gross leakage of fluid within the vagina and a positive nitrazin test. A sample of 5mL blood was collected. The levels of zinc and copper were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Mean values among the three equal groups were compared using standard analysis of variance. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Pregnant women with (p<0.027) and without (p<0.019) premature rupture of the membranes had significantly lower serum zinc concentration than non-pregnant women. Inversely, the maternal serum copper concentration level was higher in both groups of pregnant women than in the controls (p<0.001). However, the results suggest that the decreased plasma zinc concentration and increased copper concentration in pregnant women were not the cause of premature rupture of the membranes at term. Conclusion: Zinc and copper concentration levels in maternal serum had no effect on premature rupture of the membranes. (author)

  2. Blunt Traumatic Cardiac Rupture: Single-Institution Experiences over 14 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hee Yun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is rare. However, such cardiac ruptures carry a high mortality rate. This study reviews our experience treating blunt traumatic cardiac rupture. Methods: This retrospective study included 21 patients who experienced blunt traumatic cardiac rupture from 1999 to 2015. Every patient underwent surgery. Several variables were compared between survivors and fatalities. Results: Sixteen of the 21 patients survived, and 5 (24% died. No instances of intraoperative mortality occurred. The most common cause of injury was a traffic accident (81%. The right atrium was the most common location of injury (43%. Ten of the 21 patients were suspected to have cardiac tamponade. Significant differences were found in preoperative creatine kinase–myocardial band (CK-MB levels (p=0.042 and platelet counts (p= 0.004 between the survivors and fatalities. The patients who died had higher preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale scores (p=0.007, worse Trauma and Injury Severity Scores (p=0.007, and higher Injury Severity Scores (p=0.004 than those who survived. Conclusion: We found that elevated CK-MB levels, a low platelet count, and multi-organ traumatic injury were prognostic factors predicting poor outcomes of blunt cardiac rupture. If a patient with blunt traumatic cardiac rupture has these factors, clinicians should be especially attentive and respond promptly in order to save the patient’s life.

  3. Radiographic risk factors for contralateral rupture in dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2 and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3 of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. CONCLUSION: Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are

  4. Too hot to trot (barefoot)… A study of burns in children caused by sun heated surfaces in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Catherine; Kimble, Roy; Stockton, Kellie

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and describe the characteristics of burns in children caused by sun heated surfaces. Children presenting between January 2013 and February 2014 with a burn due to sun heated surfaces were included in the study. Fifteen children were identified representing 1.7% of new burns. The mean age was 18.3 months. All burns occurred during the warmer months between 11a.m. and 4p.m. and the feet were commonly involved. Most cases occurred in the child's home garden but six cases occurred in public play areas. Metal was the most common surface involved. Most burns were superficial partial thickness with two burns deep dermal partial thickness and one child needed a skin graft. Burns due to sun heated surfaces are relatively frequent. Parents need to be aware that in summer surfaces can become hot enough to cause burns to bare feet in young children. Play areas need to be shaded or covered in surfaces that do not become hot enough to cause burns and metal objects should not be left in the sun in children's play areas. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rupture-associated changes of cerebral aneurysm geometry: high-resolution 3D imaging before and after rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneiders, J. J.; Marquering, H. A.; van den Berg, R.; VanBavel, E.; Velthuis, B.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Majoie, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of geometric data of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms may yield risk factors for rupture. Data on changes of geometric measures associated with rupture are, however, sparse, because patients with ruptured aneurysms rarely have undergone previous imaging of the intracranial vasculature.

  6. Case report: spontaneous rupture of spleen in patient with Plasmodium ovale malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmerer, Raphael; Unger, Manuel; Voßen, Matthias; Forstner, Christina; Jalili, Ahmad; Starzengruber, Peter; Werzowa, Johannes; Ramharter, Michael; Winkler, Stefan; Thalhammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Malaria may lead to spontaneous splenic rupture as a rare but potentially lethal complication. Most frequently, this has been reported in patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, while other parasitic agents are less likely to be the cause.We report a 29-year-old British Caucasian, who after returning from a business trip in Democratic Republic Congo was diagnosed with tertian malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale.During his in-patient stay, the patient suffered a splenic rupture requiring immediate surgical intervention and splenectomy. Following this surgical intervention, there was an uneventful recovery, and the patient was discharged in a good general condition.

  7. Anterolateral papillary muscle rupture: an unusual complication of septic coronary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Mohammad Q; Lee, Howard R; DeValeria, Patrick A; Vinales, Karyne L; Surapaneni, Phani; Chaliki, Hari P

    2011-02-01

    In most cases, acute mitral valve regurgitation in the setting of infective endocarditis is caused by the destruction of either the mitral valve leaflets or the chordal apparatus. A 54-year-old woman had development of respiratory failure due to pulmonary oedema from severe acute mitral valve regurgitation in the setting of acute bacterial endocarditis. She was found to have a ruptured anterolateral papillary muscle from occlusion of the circumflex artery by embolic vegetations arising from the aortic valve. Although this occurrence is uncommon, an embolic phenomenon resulting in myocardial infarction and subsequent rupture of papillary muscle must be considered as a cause of acute severe mitral valve regurgitation.

  8. Coseismic ruptures of the 14/11/2001, Mw=7.8 Kokoxili earthquake near Hongshui Gou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Qi, X.; Zhu, Y.; Yang, J.; Klinger, Y.; Tapponnier, P.; van der Woerd, J.

    2003-04-01

    Field investigation of the Mw7.8, Kokoxili earthquake rupture near Hongshui Gou (92.2E), a site with prominent fluvial riser offsets long identified on SPOT images, reveals spectacular surface deformation. The earthquake surface break is mostly single-stranded, and characterized by a 10m wide zone of en échelon tension cracks that reflects nearly pure sinistral slip. Shallow north-dipping thrusts are observed in the interfluve and on the west-facing slope of the highest, oldest terrace riser. Incision by the river exposes the steep, geological fault contact in section, which juxtaposes Neogene red beds capped by terraces, to the south, with ancient Quaternary conglomerates to the north. The Neogene rocks are shistosed, and intensely sheared along the fault, together with the Quaternary beds. The gouge thus produced is being studied in thin sections and dated. Strong ground shaking caused parts of the steepest risers to collapse near the fault, creating parallel scarps, akin to normal faults, parallel to fluvial incision and perpendicular to the rupture. Such collapse makes it more difficult to measure the coseismic offset, but the fresh displacement of the youngest terrace risers across the Hongshui Gou confluence is between 3 and 5m. Young rill channels on the terrace surfaces east and west of Hongshui Gou show comparable offsets of 4 to 6.5 m. The highest riser on the left bank of the river is offset about 30m, while large stream channels incising the terrace surfaces farther east are offset by as much as 50 and 100m. Dating of the different terrace surfaces should constrain the local slip rate and average recurrence time of events comparable to that of November 2001.

  9. Rupture Characteristics of the 25 November 2016 Aketao Earthquake ( M w 6.6) in Eastern Pamir Revealed by GPS and Teleseismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Gang; Qiao, Xuejun; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Daiqin; Sun, Jianing; Yushan, Ailixiati; Yusan, Sulitan; Fang, Wei; Wang, Qi

    2018-02-01

    The 25 November 2016 Aketao, Xinjiang earthquake occurred on the northeastern margin of the Pamir plateau, rupturing the Muji fault on the northern segment of the Kongur Extensional System. We collected coseismic offsets at 7 GPS sites, which show that the fault experienced significate dextral slip with a near-field geodetic displacement of up to 12 cm along the strike. The joint inversion of GPS data and teleseismic P waveforms suggests a complex rupture pattern characterized by the unilateral propagation slip from the epicenter to the southeast for 60 km with a total seismic moment of 1.3 × 1019 Nm, corresponding to a magnitude of M w 6.7 earthquake. Our model of slip distribution shows two major slip patches with a slip amplitude up to 0.6 m, one located at shallow depths of 0-8 km close to the hypocenter with apparent surface breaks and the other, 40 km to the southeast, buried at a greater depth of 12 km. The rupture is dominated by a right-lateral strike slip with significant normal-slip components. The near-field GPS data enhances the spatial resolution of source model. Based on the preferred slip model, the static Coulomb Failure Stress change caused by 2016 Aketao earthquake suggests that the unzipped western and eastern ends of Muji fault and the northern segment of Kungai Fault are significantly promoted.

  10. Ruptured Endometriotic Cyst Mimicking Acute Appendicitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Özgür Ersoy

    2016-08-01

    A healthy male baby of 2,500 grams was delivered. In the abdominal exploration, all peritoneal surfaces were coated with a dark red- to brown-colored dense material, like mud. There were two endometriotic cysts in the left ovary; one had a 6-cm mean diameter and was ruptured, while the other was intact and had a mean diameter of 2–3 cm. Both cysts were excised and sent for pathologic examination. The patient had no postoperative problems over two days and was discharged. The final pathologic diagnosis was endometriotic cysts.

  11. Fratura proximal de tíbia após cirurgia extracapsular para correção de ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial em cão Tibial fracture caused by complications after an extracapsular suture for the repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline França dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCCr é a afecção ortopédica mais frequente no joelho de cães e a sutura fabelo-tibial é frequentemente utilizada na sua correção. Essa técnica pode estar associada com complicações incisionais, lesão tardia de menisco, edema associado ao material de sutura e infecção. O objetivo desta nota foi relatar a ocorrência de fratura proximal de tíbia em um cão, causada por complicação em sutura fabelo-tibial para correção de RLCCr. Um canino atendido em outro serviço foi submetido à osteossíntese com placa 2,0mm para correção de complicação em técnica extra-capsular, na qual houve fratura da tíbia na região do orifício criado para confecção da sutura fabelo-tibial. Houve falha dos implantes e a placa foi removida. A fratura foi estabilizada com fixador esquelético externo circular, sendo constatada, após 120 dias, consolidação.Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR is one of the most common orthopedic diseases in dogs and extracapsular suture with nylon is often used for its correction. This technique may be associated with incisional complications, post-surgical meniscus injury, swelling associated with suture material and infection. The objective of this study is to report a tibial fracture in a dog, caused by complications after an extracapsular suture for the repair of CCLR. An adult dog, which suffered a tibial fracture after an extracapsular fixation for a CCLR, underwent surgery for the fixation of the fracture with a 2.0mm plate, by a referring veterinarian, but the implant failed. The plate was removed and the fracture was stabilized with a circular fixator. Bone consolidation was observed after 120 days.

  12. Analysis of Ruptured Heater Tube of Degasser Condenser in Wolsong Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Lim, Y. S.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, S. W.; Jeong, M. K.; Hong, J. H

    2007-08-15

    In a degasser condenser in Wolsong unit 4, the cracks were found in the heater tube no. 6 and no. 7. To avoid additional damages in the specimen during a decontamination process for the previous analysis, the cracks were analyzed without any decontamination process in this work. We performed the investigation of the ruptured surface morphology, the EDS analysis of the ruptured surface, the microstructural analysis of Alloy 800H sheath tube and literature survey to find the failure mechanism. From the results, it was expected that the sheath tube has been exposed in a steam condition as the coolant level was decreased in the degasser condenser, leading to the rupture of the sheath tube.

  13. Coseismic rupturing stopped by Aso volcano during the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A; Satsukawa, T; Wang, M; Mohammadi Asl, Z; Fueta, R; Nakajima, F

    2016-11-18

    Field investigations and seismic data show that the 16 April 2016 moment magnitude (M w ) 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake produced a ~40-kilometer-long surface rupture zone along the northeast-southwest-striking Hinagu-Futagawa strike-slip fault zone and newly identified faults on the western side of Aso caldera, Kyushu Island, Japan. The coseismic surface ruptures cut Aso caldera, including two volcanic cones inside it, but terminate therein. The data show that northeastward propagation of coseismic rupturing terminated in Aso caldera because of the presence of magma beneath the Aso volcanic cluster. The seismogenic faults of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake may require reassessment of the volcanic hazard in the vicinity of Aso volcano. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karat C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E . coli , S . aureus , C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM.

  15. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Seref Corbacioglu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options. Keywords: Pseudoaneurysm, Superior gluteal artery, Pitfall, Angiography

  16. Dynamic Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are a series of earthquakes occurred in the Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyushu Region of Japan, including a magnitude 7.0 mainshock which struck at 01:25 JST on April 16, 2016 beneath Kumamoto City, at a depth of about 10 km, and a foreshock earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016, at a depth of about 11 km. This series earthquake killed at least 50 people and injured about 3,000 others in total. Severe damage occurred in Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures, with numerous structures collapsing and catching fire. More than 44,000 people were evacuated from their homes due to the disaster. Kumamoto Prefecture lies at the southern end of the Japan Median Tectonic Line, Japan's longest, where a system of active faults forks in two directions at the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. Specifically, the series of quakes ruptured the 81-km-long Hinagu Fault and 64-km-long Futagawa Fault to its north, as well as lesser but discernable interaction with the farther flung Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. A 27-km section of the Futagawa Fault Zone slid 3.5 meters. The earthquakes are occurring along the Beppu-Shimabara graben, with epicenters moving from west to east over time. In this study, we analyze the dynamic rupture process of this earthquake. Our analyzing procedure is as follows, 1) Obtain the spatial-temporal stress distribution on the fault surface from the kinematic source model inverted from strong motion data (Zhang & Zhen, the abstract of this meeting, No. EGU2017ASC20162770). Estimate the strength excess (yielding stress) and the frictional stress level for each subfault; 2) Estimate the critical slip-weakening distance Dc for each subfault assuming a simple slip-weakening law and according to the method of Mikumo et al. (2003); 3) Reconstruct the dynamic source rupture process using those dynamic source parameters with the slip-weakening friction law; and 4) Simultaneously, simulate the near source ground motions based on the

  17. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

    2015-01-01

    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair.

  18. Dynamic Rupture Simulations with Plastic Yielding in Fault Damage Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S. M.; Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Cui, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Observations of fault-zone trapped waves indicate that faults are surrounded by damage zones with reduced seismic velocities. We investigate how plastic effects around the fault, enhanced by the reduced strength of pre-fractured rocks inside the low-velocity zone (LVZ), affect ground motions at various distances from the fault. 3-D dynamic rupture simulations are performed with the AWP-ODC finite difference code, using a slip-weakening fault friction law, a Drucker-Prager (DP) yield criterion and depth-dependent stress. We simulate M 7.5 earthquakes with a LVZ embedded in a horizontally layered model, as well as M 7.7 earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault with a LVZ added to the 3D heterogeneous mesh (SCEC CVM 3c). Within a 500 m wide and 4 km deep inner fault zone, we assume a 30% reduction in shear-wave velocity with respect to wallrock, and a reduced Geological Strength Index (GSI) of 30, 50 or 75, representative of a fractured rock mass of poor, moderate and good quality, respectively. The Hoek-Brown criterion is then used to derive equivalent friction angles and cohesions, consistent with these GSI values, for the DP criterion. In the linear case, the presence of a LVZ increases mean near-surface peak slip rates by 50%, from 2 to 3 m/s. These amplifications are compensated by fault zone plasticity in poor and moderate quality rock masses, where near-surface peak slip rates average to 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s, respectively; no significant reduction is obtained in good quality (almost unfractured) fault zones. Trapping of seismic waves inside the LVZ results in reduced peak ground velocities (PGVs) outside of the fault zone even in the linear case; these reductions are more pronounced if plasticity is taken into account. Plasticity acts by truncating frequency-distribution curves of PGVs obtained near the fault. In the horizontally layered medium, the highest PGVs are reduced from 2.6 m/s to 2.2 for moderate, and to 1.7 m/s for poor quality fault zones. In

  19. The Computational Fluid Dynamics Rupture Challenge 2013—Phase I: prediction of rupture status in intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiga, G; Berg, P; Sugiyama, S; Kono, K; Steinman, D A

    2015-03-01

    Rupture risk assessment for intracranial aneurysms remains challenging, and risk factors, including wall shear stress, are discussed controversially. The primary purpose of the presented challenge was to determine how consistently aneurysm rupture status and rupture site could be identified on the basis of computational fluid dynamics. Two geometrically similar MCA aneurysms were selected, 1 ruptured, 1 unruptured. Participating computational fluid dynamics groups were blinded as to which case was ruptured. Participants were provided with digitally segmented lumen geometries and, for this phase of the challenge, were free to choose their own flow rates, blood rheologies, and so forth. Participants were asked to report which case had ruptured and the likely site of rupture. In parallel, lumen geometries were provided to a group of neurosurgeons for their predictions of rupture status and site. Of 26 participating computational fluid dynamics groups, 21 (81%) correctly identified the ruptured case. Although the known rupture site was associated with low and oscillatory wall shear stress, most groups identified other sites, some of which also experienced low and oscillatory shear. Of the 43 participating neurosurgeons, 39 (91%) identified the ruptured case. None correctly identified the rupture site. Geometric or hemodynamic considerations favor identification of rupture status; however, retrospective identification of the rupture site remains a challenge for both engineers and clinicians. A more precise understanding of the hemodynamic factors involved in aneurysm wall pathology is likely required for computational fluid dynamics to add value to current clinical decision-making regarding rupture risk. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Non-Anastomotic Rupture of a Woven Dacron Graft in the Descending Thoracic Aorta Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic structural failure of a Dacron graft resulting from the loss of structural integrity of the graft fabric can cause late graft complications. Late non-anastomotic rupture has traditionally been treated surgically via open thoracotomy. We report a case of the successful use of thoracic endovascular repair to treat a Dacron graft rupture in the descending aorta. The rupture occurred 20 years after the graft had been placed. Two stent grafts were placed at the proximal portion of the surgical graft, covering almost its entire length.

  1. Numerical comparisons of ground motion predictions with kinematic rupture modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y. O.; Zurek, B.; Liu, F.; deMartin, B.; Lacasse, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in large-scale wave simulators allow for the computation of seismograms at unprecedented levels of detail and for areas sufficiently large to be relevant to small regional studies. In some instances, detailed information of the mechanical properties of the subsurface has been obtained from seismic exploration surveys, well data, and core analysis. Using kinematic rupture modeling, this information can be used with a wave propagation simulator to predict the ground motion that would result from an assumed fault rupture. The purpose of this work is to explore the limits of wave propagation simulators for modeling ground motion in different settings, and in particular, to explore the numerical accuracy of different methods in the presence of features that are challenging to simulate such as topography, low-velocity surface layers, and shallow sources. In the main part of this work, we use a variety of synthetic three-dimensional models and compare the relative costs and benefits of different numerical discretization methods in computing the seismograms of realistic-size models. The finite-difference method, the discontinuous-Galerkin method, and the spectral-element method are compared for a range of synthetic models having different levels of complexity such as topography, large subsurface features, low-velocity surface layers, and the location and characteristics of fault ruptures represented as an array of seismic sources. While some previous studies have already demonstrated that unstructured-mesh methods can sometimes tackle complex problems (Moczo et al.), we investigate the trade-off between unstructured-mesh methods and regular-grid methods for a broad range of models and source configurations. Finally, for comparison, our direct simulation results are briefly contrasted with those predicted by a few phenomenological ground-motion prediction equations, and a workflow for accurately predicting ground motion is proposed.

  2. Rupture of Subcutaneous Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter by Stretching Exercise: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Nagayuki; Sakurada, Tsutomu; Hachisuka, Rina; Hisamichi, Michiko; Yazawa, Masahiko; Shibagaki, Yugo

    Rupture of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter is rare complication. Here, we report a case of catheter rupture that occurred because of exercise after partial catheter reimplantation.A 66-year-old man with a history of end-stage kidney disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy experienced refractory exit-site and tunnel infection. After the infected parts of the catheter were excised, a partial catheter reimplantation was performed. At the time of that surgery, a presternal location was selected for the new exit site, and a titanium extender was used to connect the two catheters. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3, but was readmitted for a pericatheter leak 5 days later. Fluoroscopy performed to investigate the cause demonstrated a pericatheter leak from the connecting portion between the titanium extender and the catheter.Surgery performed to repair the leak revealed that the catheter had ruptured. We believe that the cause of the rupture was mechanical stress induced by the patient's stretching exercise program. The PD catheter was made of silicone rubber with high elasticity. Even when such resilient materials are used, we recommend that, to avoid PD catheter rupture after partial reimplantation, clinicians should discourage the patient from stretching excessively.

  3. Fan-head shear rupture mechanism as a source of off-fault tensile cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation discusses the role of a recently identified fan-head shear rupture mechanism [1] in the creation of off-fault tensile cracks observed in earthquake laboratory experiments conducted on brittle photoelastic specimens [2,3]. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength) and self-sustaining tensile stress intensification along one side of the interface. The variation of tensile stress within the fan-head zone is like this: it increases with distance from the fracture tip up to a maximum value and then decreases. For the initial formation of the fan-head high local stresses corresponding to the fracture strength should be applied in a small area, however after completions of the fan-head it can propagate dynamically through the material at low shear stresses (even below the frictional strength). The fan-mechanism allows explaining all unique features associated with the off-fault cracking process observed in photoelastic experiments [2,3]. In these experiments spontaneous shear ruptures were nucleated in a bonded, precut, inclined and pre-stressed interface by producing a local pressure pulse in a small area. Isochromatic fringe patterns around a shear rupture propagating along bonded interface indicate the following features of the off-fault tensile crack development: tensile cracks nucleate and grow periodically along one side of the interface at a roughly constant angle (about 80 degrees) relative to the shear rupture interface; the tensile crack nucleation takes place some distance behind the rupture tip; with distance from the point of nucleation tensile cracks grow up to a certain length within the rupture head zone

  4. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  5. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E.; Walker, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  6. Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass - wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorum, T.; van Westen, C.J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, M.; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while

  7. Pedicle screw rupture: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio E.O. Giacaglia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a technical description related to the rupture of a titanium alloy pedicle screw and connecting bar implanted in dorsal vertebras of a patient. Only metallurgical facts are described, with no attempt to identify any imperfections in the clinical aspects related to the rupture. The results described here are based on extensive analysis of the broken materials in a material sciences specialized laboratory. Excluding an incorrect prosthesis implantation in the surgical procedure and a possible low bone density, an information not available to the research team, with high probability the rupture of metallic pieces used in the prosthetic implant, was produced by the low fatigue resistance resulting by an improper machining process and excessive bending of the connecting bar prior to implant.

  8. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains...... to be clarified, particularly the role of weight-bearing during early rehabilitation. Also, there is a need for a clinically applicable and accurate measurement to detect patients in risk of developing Achilles tendon elongation. PURPOSE: The aim of this PhD thesis was to evaluate non-operative treatment of acute...... Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS: In study I, a cross-sectional survey was performed investigating the chosen treatment protocols across Scandinavia. In study II, the effect of immediate weight-bearing on patient reported and functional outcomes was investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT...

  9. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment ofacute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains...... to be clarified, particularly the role of weight-bearing during early rehabilitation. Also, there is a need for a clinically applicable and accurate measurement to detect patients in risk of developing Achilles tendon elongation. PURPOSE: The aim of this PhD thesis was to evaluate non-operative treatment of acute...... Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS: In study I, a cross-sectional survey was performed investigating the chosen treatment protocols across Scandinavia. In study II, the effect of immediate weight-bearing on patient reported and functional outcomes was investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT...

  10. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  11. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  12. Pressure tube rupture in a closed tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, H.A.; Hadaller, G.I.; Stern, F.

    1985-06-01

    A study has been prepared on the feasibility of conducting pressure tube/calandria tube rupture tests in a closed tank, simulating a scaled-down calandria vessel. The study includes: i) a review of previous work, ii) an analytical investigation of the scaling problem of the calandria vessel and relevant in-core structures, iii) selection of a method for initiating pressure tube/calandria tube rupture, iv) a set of specifications for the test assembly, v) general arrangement drawings, vi) a proposal for a test matrix, vii) a survey and evaluation of existing facilities which could provide the required high pressure, temperature and fluid inventory, and viii) a cost estimate for the detailed design and construction, instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction, testing and reporting. The study concludes that it is both technically and practically feasible to conduct pressure tube rupture tests in a closed tank

  13. Ruptured Massa Intermedia Secondary to Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Damaty, Ahmed; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of ruptured massa intermedia (MI) as a sequela of hydrocephalus. A single case report is presented describing the sequelae of tumor bed hematoma after a posterior fossa hemangioblastoma resection in which the patient bled 3 days after surgery, resulting in secondary hydrocephalus and subsequently dilatation of the third ventricle, which resulted in rupture of the MI. The patient was managed on emergency basis with an external ventricular drain then endoscopically with a third ventriculostomy and clot extraction. Absent MI is not uncommon in hydrocephalic patients, and it is assumed to be the result of rupture from acute dilatation of the third ventricle. Our case report proves this assumption and documents the presence and absence of the MI before and after developing hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Why must a solar forcing be larger than a CO2 forcing to cause the same global mean surface temperature change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, Angshuman; Bala, Govindasamy; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that a solar forcing must be greater than a CO 2 forcing to cause the same global mean surface temperature change but a process-based mechanistic explanation is lacking in the literature. In this study, we investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for the lower efficacy of solar forcing compared to an equivalent CO 2 forcing. Radiative forcing is estimated using the Gregory method that regresses top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux against the change in global mean surface temperature. For a 2.25% increase in solar irradiance that produces the same long term global mean warming as a doubling of CO 2 concentration, we estimate that the efficacy of solar forcing is ∼80% relative to CO 2 forcing in the NCAR CAM5 climate model. We find that the fast tropospheric cloud adjustments especially over land and stratospheric warming in the first four months cause the slope of the regression between the TOA net radiative fluxes and surface temperature to be steeper in the solar forcing case. This steeper slope indicates a stronger net negative feedback and hence correspondingly a larger solar forcing than CO 2 forcing for the same equilibrium surface warming. Evidence is provided that rapid land surface warming in the first four months sets up a land-sea contrast that markedly affects radiative forcing and the climate feedback parameter over this period. We also confirm the robustness of our results using simulations from the Hadley Centre climate model. Our study has important implications for estimating the magnitude of climate change caused by volcanic eruptions, solar geoengineering and past climate changes caused by change in solar irradiance such as Maunder minimum. (letter)

  15. Technical meeting on 'Primary coolant pipe rupture event in liquid metal cooled fast reactors'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Liquid Metal cooled Fast Reactors (LMFR) or in accelerator driven sub-critical systems (ADS) with LMFR like sub-critical cores, the primary coolant pipes (PCP) connect the primary coolant pumps to the grid plate. A rupture in one of these pipes could cause significant loss of coolant flow to the core with severe consequences. In loop type reactors, all primary pipelines are provided with double envelopes and inter-space coolant leak monitoring systems that permit leak detection before break. Thus, the PCP rupture event can be placed in the beyond design basis event (BDBE) category. Such an arrangement is difficult to incorporate for pool type reactors, and hence it could be argued that the PCP rupture event needs to be analysed in detail as a design basis event (DBE, category 4 event). The primary coolant pipes are made of ductile austenitic stainless steel material and operate at temperatures of the cold pool and at comparatively low pressures. For such low stressed piping with negligible creep and embrittlement effects, it is of interest to discuss under what design provisions, for pool type reactors, the guillotine rupture of PCP could be placed in the BDBE category. The topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Primary Coolant Pipe Rupture Event in Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors' was called to enable the specialists to present the philosophy and analyses applied on this topic in the various Member States for different LMFRs. The scope of the Technical Meeting was to provide a global forum for information exchange on the philosophy applied in the various participating Member States and the analyses performed for different LMFRs with regard to the primary coolant pipe rupture event. More specifically, the objectives of the Technical Meeting were to review the safety philosophy for the PCP rupture event in pool type LMFR, to assess the structural reliability of the PCP and the probability of rupture under different conditions (with/without in-service inspection), to

  16. Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture: therapeutic options and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yu-Yun; Lu, Ming-Shian; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Yao-Kuang; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng Jing

    2009-09-01

    Cardiac rupture following blunt thoracic trauma is rarely encountered by clinicians, since it commonly causes death at the scene. With advances in traumatology, blunt cardiac rupture had been increasingly disclosed in various ways. This study reviews our experience of patients with suspected blunt traumatic cardiac rupture and proposes treatment protocols for the same. This is a 5-year retrospective study of trauma patients confirmed with blunt traumatic cardiac rupture admitted to a university-affiliated tertiary trauma referral centre. The following information was collected from the patients: age, sex, mechanism of injury, initial effective diagnostic tool used for diagnosing blunt cardiac rupture, location and size of the cardiac injury, associated injury and injury severity score (ISS), reversed trauma score (RTS), survival probability of trauma and injury severity scoring (TRISS), vital signs and biochemical lab data on arrival at the trauma centre, time elapsed from injury to diagnosis and surgery, surgical details, hospital course and final outcome. The study comprised 8 men and 3 women with a median age of 39 years (range: 24-73 years) and the median follow-up was 5.5 months (range: 1-35 months). The ISS, RTS, and TRISS scores of the patients were 32.18+/-5.7 (range: 25-43), 6.267+/-1.684 (range: 2.628-7.841), and 72.4+/-25.6% (range: 28.6-95.5%), respectively. Cardiac injuries were first detected using focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) in 4 (36.3%) patients, using transthoracic echocardiography in 3 (27.3%) patients, chest CT in 1 (9%) patient, and intra-operatively in 3 (27.3%) patients. The sites of cardiac injury comprised the superior vena cava/right atrium junction (n=4), right atrial auricle (n=1), right ventricle (n=4), left ventricular contusion (n=1), and diffuse endomyocardial dissection over the right and left ventricles (n=1). Notably, 2 had pericardial lacerations presenting as a massive haemothorax, which initially masked

  17. An observational and modeling study of impacts of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on surface energy and hydrological cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Chen; Guo Zhang; Michael Barlage; Ying Zhang; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Arjan Meddens; Guangsheng Zhou; William J. Massman; John Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks have killed billions of trees and affected millions of hectares of forest during recent decades. The objective of this study was to quantify responses of surface energy and hydrologic fluxes 2-3 yr following a spruce beetle outbreak using measurements and modeling. The authors used observations at the Rocky Mountains Glacier Lakes Ecosystem...

  18. Entropy Generation Analysis of Power-Law Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Caused by Micropatterned Moving Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Yazdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the first and second law analyses of power-law non-Newtonian flow over embedded open parallel microchannels within micropatterned permeable continuous moving surface are examined at prescribed surface temperature. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The dimensionless entropy generation number is formulated by an integral of the local rate of entropy generation along the width of the surface based on an equal number of microchannels and no-slip gaps interspersed between those microchannels. The velocity, the temperature, the velocity gradient, and the temperature gradient adjacent to the wall are substituted into this equation resulting from the momentum and energy equations obtained numerically by Dormand-Prince pair and shooting method. Finally, the entropy generation numbers, as well as the Bejan number, are evaluated. It is noted that the presence of the shear thinning (pseudoplastic fluids creates entropy along the surface, with an opposite effect resulting from shear thickening (dilatant fluids.

  19. Ultrastructural effects caused by the irradiation of Er:YAG laser on smooth surfaces of deciduous tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Denise G.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Watanabe-Sei, Ii

    1999-05-01

    Enamel surface morphologic alterations were investigated when an Er:YAG focused moistened laser radiation (λ =2.94μm) was applied on canine deciduous teeth enamel. The results were compared to the data already reported concerning permanent dental enamel. The results indicated that the ultrastructural effects obtained were very alike to permanent enamel literature reports.

  20. Consequences of expansion joint bellows rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows rupture frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe rupture frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows rupture. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows rupture would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows rupture and therefore reduce the impact that bellows rupture can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.

  1. Consequences of expansion joint bellows rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.

    1992-11-01

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows rupture frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe rupture frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows rupture. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows rupture would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows rupture and therefore reduce the impact that bellows rupture can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.

  2. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yee Leong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  3. Does small aneurysm size predict intraoperative rupture during coiling in ruptured and unruptured aneurysms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Muthusamy, Subramanian; Dowling, Richard; Yan, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    Aneurysm size is a possible risk factor for intraoperative rupture (IOR) during coiling procedures. We aim to determine if aneurysm size 4 mm or smaller predicts IOR. Between January 1997 and August 2010, 689 aneurysms in 595 patients were treated by coiling at a single institution. In all, 41 were excluded from statistical analysis due to missing data leaving 648 aneurysms in 562 patients. Demographic, clinical, and procedural outcomes were collected. We compared the rate of IOR in small aneurysms (≤4 mm) with larger aneurysms (>4 mm). We also compared the rate of IOR in ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms in the above categories. The overall rate of IOR was 4.9%. Aneurysms 4 mm or smaller were more than twice as likely to rupture on table compared to larger aneurysms (8.7% versus 3.9%; P=.022). Of note, ruptured aneurysms were more prone to IOR compared to unruptured aneurysms (7.0% versus 2.2%; P=.005). Aneurysm size 4 mm or smaller was a risk factor in small, ruptured aneurysms only (P=.019). In addition, unruptured aneurysms that were complicated by IOR were associated with higher rates of 30-day mortality (P<.001). Aneurysm size 4 mm or smaller is a risk factor for IOR in ruptured but not unruptured aneurysms. This additional risk factor should be considered when planning the management of small, ruptured aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPARISON OF CLADDING CREEP RUPTURE MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Macheret

    2000-06-12

    The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep rupture correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep rupture correlations.

  5. Unusual Complete Proximal Biceps Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah F. Raizah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Proximal biceps brachii tendon rupture is an unusual presentation in young individuals. This report is an extremely rare case of a complete rupture of the proximal biceps brachii tendon in a young patient as a result of a high-energy water-skiing injury. It was associated with displacement of the biceps muscle into the forearm with skin necrosis. The patient was treated successfully by débridement of the skin and complete resection of the biceps brachii muscle.

  6. Repair of distal biceps brachii tendon ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R H; Wiley, W B; Noble, J S; Kuczynski, D J

    2000-01-01

    This study consisted of 26 male patients with distal biceps tendon ruptures, 2 of whom had bilateral injuries, making the total number of ruptures 28. The average age at injury was 45 years. The treatment groups were the following: 3 were treated without surgery, 4 were repaired with brachialis tenodesis, and 21 were reattached to the radial tuberosity by the 2-incision Boyd-Anderson approach. Patients underwent follow-up a minimum of 14 months after surgery, with the average being 43 months. Outcome was evaluated based on the physical examination, isokinetic testing of strength and endurance of flexion and supination, and radiographic analysis.

  7. POVRATAK SPORTSKIM AKTIVNOSTIMA POSLIJE RUPTURE AHILOVE TETIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kezunović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals of the treatment of sports injuries is athletes’ early return to normal sporting activities. Time when the athletes will return to normal sporting activities, after Achilles tendon acute rupture, depends on the level of sports involvement. Average time of return to sport is usually between 5-6 months after rupture. Patients, who are treated using postoperative functional cast, can expect an average return to their sport a month earlier than those who after surgery used solid cast immobilization. The most important signs that indicate possible slow rehabilitation process are the pain and swelling after activity and late recovery of the tissue.

  8. [Development of Achilles tendon rupture in skiing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckert, K; Benedetto, K P; Vogel, A

    1983-06-01

    This is an analysis of decline of rupture of the Achilles tendon in skiing while there is a steady increase of skiing injuries. Three groups, equipped with three different types of ski boots were observed once on a plane slope on the other hand on a bump track. The simultaneous size of angle of knee and ankle was measured by telemetry. The high plastic ski boot, which obstructs the ankle forward and lateral is apart from the rise of heel in the boot, the safety binding and the new skiing style the main reason for decline of rupture of the Achilles tendon in skiing.

  9. Uterine rupture: A seven year review at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the obstetric risk factors, incidence, and causes of uterine rupture, management modalities, and the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in one of the largest tertiary level women care hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A 7-year retrospective analysis of 47 cases of uterine rupture was done. The charts of these patients were analyzed and the data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors, management, operative findings, maternal and fetal outcomes, and postoperative complications was studied. Results: The incidence of rupture was one in 1,633 deliveries (0.061%. The vast majority of patients had prior low transverse cesarean section (84.8%. The clinical presentation of the patients with rupture of the unscarred uterus was more dramatic with extensive tears compared to rupture with scarred uterus. The estimated blood loss ranged from 1,200 to 1,500 cc. Hemoperitoneum was identified in 95.7% of the patient and 83% of the patient underwent repair of rent with or without simultaneous tubal ligation. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed in five cases. There were no maternal deaths in our series. However, there were 32 cases of intrauterine fetal demise and five cases of stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture is a major contributor to maternal morbidity and neonatal mortality. Four major easily identifiable risk factors including history of prior cesarean section, grand multiparity, obstructed labor, and fetal malpresentations constitute 90% of cases of uterine rupture. Identification of these high risk women, prompt diagnosis, immediate transfer, and optimal management needs to be overemphasized to avoid adverse fetomaternal complications.

  10. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  11. Conservative Management of Azygous Vein Rupture in Blunt Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian McDermott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of successful conservative management of acute traumatic rupture of the azygous vein. A 48-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle collision. Primary survey revealed acute right intrathoracic haemorrhage. He remained haemodynamically stable with rapid infusion of warmed crystalloid solution and blood. Computed tomographic imaging showed a contained haematoma of the azygous vein. The patient was managed conservatively in the intensive care. Azygous vein laceration resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare condition that carries a universally poor prognosis unless the appropriate treatment is instituted. Clinical features include acute hypovolaemic shock, widened mediastinum on chest radiograph, and a right-sided haemothorax. Haemodynamic collapse necessitates immediate resuscitative thoracotomy. Interest in this injury stems from the severity of the clinical condition, difficulty in diagnosis, the onset of a rapidly deteriorating clinical course all of which can be promptly reversed by timely and appropriate treatment. Although it is a rare cause of intramediastinal haemorrhage, it is proposed that a ruptured azygous vein should be considered in every trauma case causing a right-sided haemothorax or widened mediastinum. All cases described in the literature to date involved operative management. We present a case of successful conservative management of this condition.

  12. Endoscopic adhesiolysis for extensive tibialis posterior tendon and Achilles tendon adhesions following compound tendon rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2013-01-01

    Tendon adhesion is one of the most common causes of disability following tendon surgery. A case of extensive peritendinous adhesions of the Achilles tendon and tibialis posterior tendon after compound rupture of the tendons was reported. This was managed by endoscopic adhesiolysis of both tendons. The endoscopic approach allows early postoperative mobilisation which can relieve the tendon adhesion.

  13. Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a young man with Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria Weinkouff; Huynh, Khiem Dinh; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are very rare in Marfan syndrome. We present a case with a young non-smoking and normotensive male with Marfan syndrome, who developed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm that presented with rupture to the retroperitoneal cavity causing life-threatening bleeding shock...

  14. Umbilical hernia rupture with evisceration of omentum from massive ascites: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of hernias is increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease with ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an acute rise in intra-abdominal pressure from straining for stool as the cause of a ruptured umbilical hernia.

  15. Proximal biceps rupture: management of an unusual injury in an arm wrestler

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, D A; Tennent, T D

    2007-01-01

    Arm wrestling may cause unusual injuries, which may require operative repair in the sporting individual. Injury to the proximal biceps as a consequence of arm wrestling has not been reported previously. The diagnosis and treatment of a 36‐year‐old man who sustained a proximal biceps rupture while arm wrestling and his operative management are described.

  16. Ruptured Aneurysm of Intercostal Arteriovenous Malformation Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Seon, Hyun Ju; Choi, Song; Jang, Nam Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare, with most being secondary to trauma or iatrogenic therapeutic procedures. Only one case of presumably congenital AVM has been reported. Here we report the first case of a ruptured aneurysm of intercostal AVM associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 32-year-old woman who experienced hypovolemic shock caused by massive hemothorax.

  17. An In Vitro Evaluation of Alumina, Zirconia, and Lithium Disilicate Surface Roughness Caused by Two Scaling Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Paolo; Buzzo, Ottavia; Buzzo, Maurizio; Mutinelli, Sabrina

    2017-02-01

    Plaque control is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal disease. Hand scaling instruments have been shown to be efficient for the removal of plaque; however, routine periodontal prophylactic procedures may modify the surface profile of restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the changes in roughness of alumina, zirconia, and lithium disilicate surfaces treated by two hand scaling instruments. Forty-eight alumina specimens, 48 zirconia specimens, and 48 lithium disilicate specimens, were selected. All specimens were divided into three groups of 16 each; one group for each material was considered the control group and no scaling procedures were performed; the second group of each material was exposed to scaling with steel curettes simulating standard clinical conditions; the third group of each material was exposed to scaling with titanium curettes. After scaling, the surface roughness of the specimens was evaluated with a profilometer. First, a statistical test was carried out to evaluate the difference in surface roughness before the scaling procedure of the three materials was effected (Kruskal-Wallis test). Subsequently, the effect of curette material (steel and titanium) on roughness difference and roughness ratio was analyzed throughout the entire sample and within each material group, and a nonparametric test for dependent values was conducted (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Finally, the roughness ratios of the three material groups were compared by means of a Kruskal-Wallis test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Upon completion of profilometric evaluation, representative specimens from each group were prepared for SEM evaluation to evaluate the effects of the two scaling systems on the different surfaces qualitatively. After scaling procedure, the roughness profile value increased in all disks. Classifying the full sample according to curette used, the roughness of the disks treated with a steel curette reached a

  18. Controlled hypotension versus normotensive resuscitation strategy for people with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Daniel H; Cacione, Daniel G; Baptista-Silva, Jose C C

    2016-05-13

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the pathological enlargement of the aorta and can develop in both men and women. Progressive aneurysm enlargement can lead to rupture. The rupture of an AAA is frequently fatal and accounts for the death from haemorrhagic shock of at least 45 people per 100,000 population. The outcome of people with ruptured AAA varies among countries and healthcare systems, with mortality ranging from 53% to 90%. Definitive treatment for ruptured AAA includes open surgery or endovascular repair. The management of haemorrhagic shock is crucial for the person's outcome and aims to restore organ perfusion and systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg through immediate and aggressive fluid replacement. This rapid fluid replacement is known as the normotensive resuscitation strategy. However, evidence suggests that infusing large volumes of cold fluid causes dilutional and hypothermic coagulopathy. The association of these factors may exacerbate bleeding, resulting in a 'lethal triad' of hypothermia, acidaemia, and coagulopathy. An alternative to the normotensive resuscitation strategy is the controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation strategy, with a target systolic blood pressure of 50 to 100 mm Hg. The principle of controlled or hypotensive resuscitation has been used in some management protocols for endovascular repair of ruptured AAA. It may be beneficial in preventing blood loss by avoiding the clot disruption caused by the rapid increase in systolic blood pressure; avoiding dilution of clotting factors, platelets and fibrinogen; and by avoiding the temperature decrease that inhibits enzyme activity involved in platelet and clotting factor function. To compare the effects of controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation and normotensive resuscitation strategies for people with ruptured AAA. The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Specialised Register (April 2016) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (CENTRAL (2016

  19. Changes in structure and properties of Nb2O5 anodic films caused by generating anion defects on their surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrachnyi, B.I.; Liashok, L.V.; Gomozov, V.P.; Skatkov, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the structure as well as in electrical and optical properties of Nb 2 O 5 anodic oxide films during the extraction of oxygen anions from near-surface layers of the film are considered. It is shown that the anion extraction brings about a phase transition in the film which is accompanied by a change in conductivity resulting from structure distortions occurring during disordering in Nb 2 O 5 . (author)

  20. Anterior infradiaphragmatic free gas following bronchial rupture: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Eamon; Chapeikin, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    Bronchial rupture is an uncommon injury that presents clinically and radiologically with tension or non-tension pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema caused by air leak and migration of free gas. Infradiaphragmatic gas has previously been demonstrated in mechanically ventilated patients with pneumomediastinum and is secondary to passage of air via anterior and posterior trans-diaphragmatic pathways. We present a case of bronchial rupture complicated by extensive infradiaphragmatic gas following mechanical ventilation that illustrates these pathways and some of the major radiographic signs associated with this injury Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  1. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm masquerading as isolated hip pain: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Wadhawan, Himanshu; Welch, Pedro; El-Salamani, Murad

    2008-05-01

    The rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a catastrophic event. Misdiagnosis by first-contact emergency physicians remains a serious concern. Varied and frequently nonspecific presentations lead to erroneous diagnostic impressions and cause significant delays in definitive intervention. We report the case of a 73-year-old man with a ruptured AAA presenting with isolated acute right hip pain without any classical features such as truncal pain or hypotension. Despite major advances in imaging and definitive treatment, a heightened awareness among emergency physicians remains the only effective means of improving detection and thereby survival.

  2. A Case of Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Complicated by Free Wall Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzayer, Hussain; Bossard, Matthias; Ahsan, Shoeb; Tsang, Michael; Whitlock, Richard; Sheth, Tej

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an unusual and underdiagnosed cause of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients might present in various ways including chest pain, ST-elevation ACS, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. In a few reports, it manifested initially as cardiac tamponade. The association of SCAD with free wall rupture is extremely rare. We present a unique case of a 70-year-old woman who initially presented with non-ST elevation ACS and was found to have SCAD on angiography, which was subsequently complicated by cardiac tamponade with free wall rupture. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Successful emergency splenectomy during cardiac arrest due to cytomegalovirus-induced atraumatic splenic rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glesner, Matilde Kanstrup; Madsen, Kristian Rørbæk; Nielsen, Jesper Meng Rahn

    2015-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with fever and a petechial rash on suspicion of meningitis. Shortly after arriving she developed cardiac arrest. Blood work up showed severe lactate acidosis, anaemia and thrombocytopenia. A focused assessment with sonography in trauma...... for 14 days with ganciclovir and meropenem and discharged on recovery. Atraumatic splenic rupture caused by viral infection is a rare condition although well described. In the case of our patient, thrombocytopenia added to the severity of the splenic rupture. A multidisciplinary team approach...

  4. Two-dimensional transient temperature distribution within a metal undergoing multiple phase changes caused by laser irradiation at the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, A.; Bishop, P.J. (Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Metal-laser interactions have become increasingly important due to advances in laser-machining processes, laser weaponry, and rocket propulsion using laser beams. An interesting physical phenomenon that is not well understood is the interaction of the metal plasma above a surface with a laser beam. Although most models neglect the natural convection, other papers, such as by Sparrow et al., have considered this effect and found it to be of importance at low energy fluxes. This study assumes that the laser beam has a spatial variation, and thus a two-dimensional model for the temperature distribution within the substrate is required. Further, it was assumed at first that the thermophysical properties are constant, but modifications were made to allow for different thermal conductivities of the liquid and solid phases. The model was developed to describe the physical processes until the vapor just forms, so that movement of the vapor away from the surface will not be considered. Natural convection will be neglected in the liquid pool, and radiation losses from the surface wil be neglected since these are very small in comparison to the energy absorbed from the high intensity laser beam.

  5. Fluid-Structure Simulations of a Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: Constant versus Patient-Specific Wall Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Voß

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics is intensively used to deepen the understanding of aneurysm growth and rupture in order to support physicians during therapy planning. However, numerous studies considering only the hemodynamics within the vessel lumen found no satisfactory criteria for rupture risk assessment. To improve available simulation models, the rigid vessel wall assumption has been discarded in this work and patient-specific wall thickness is considered within the simulation. For this purpose, a ruptured intracranial aneurysm was prepared ex vivo, followed by the acquisition of local wall thickness using μCT. The segmented inner and outer vessel surfaces served as solid domain for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI simulation. To compare wall stress distributions within the aneurysm wall and at the rupture site, FSI computations are repeated in a virtual model using a constant wall thickness approach. Although the wall stresses obtained by the two approaches—when averaged over the complete aneurysm sac—are in very good agreement, strong differences occur in their distribution. Accounting for the real wall thickness distribution, the rupture site exhibits much higher stress values compared to the configuration with constant wall thickness. The study reveals the importance of geometry reconstruction and accurate description of wall thickness in FSI simulations.

  6. A penalty-based nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for spontaneous rupture dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, R.; De Hoop, M. V.; Kumar, K.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulation of the dynamic rupture processes with slip is critical to understand the earthquake source process and the generation of ground motions. However, it can be challenging due to the nonlinear friction laws interacting with seismicity, coupled with the discontinuous boundary conditions across the rupture plane. In practice, the inhomogeneities in topography, fault geometry, elastic parameters and permiability add extra complexity. We develop a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method to simulate seismic wave phenomenon with slipping boundary conditions, including the fluid-solid boundaries and ruptures. By introducing a novel penalty flux, we avoid solving Riemann problems on interfaces, which makes our method capable for general anisotropic and poro-elastic materials. Based on unstructured tetrahedral meshes in 3D, the code can capture various geometries in geological model, and use polynomial expansion to achieve high-order accuracy. We consider the rate and state friction law, in the spontaneous rupture dynamics, as part of a nonlinear transmitting boundary condition, which is weakly enforced across the fault surface as numerical flux. An iterative coupling scheme is developed based on implicit time stepping, containing a constrained optimization process that accounts for the nonlinear part. To validate the method, we proof the convergence of the coupled system with error estimates. We test our algorithm on a well-established numerical example (TPV102) of the SCEC/USGS Spontaneous Rupture Code Verification Project, and benchmark with the simulation of PyLith and SPECFEM3D with agreeable results.

  7. The hemodynamics in intracranial aneurysm ruptured region with active contrast leakage during computed tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Lung; Wang, Yi-Chou; Liou, Tong-Miin; Lin, Chao-An

    2014-10-01

    Precise locations of rupture region under contrast agent leakage of five ruptured cerebral artery aneurysms during computed tomography angiography, which is to our knowledge for the first time, were successfully identified among 101 patients. These, together with numerical simulations based on the reconstructed aneurysmal models, were used to analyze hemodynamic parameters of aneurysms under different cardiac cyclic flow rates. For side wall type aneurysms, different inlet flow rates have mild influences on the shear stresses distributions. On the other hand, for branch type aneurysms, the predicted wall shear stress (WSS) correlates strongly with the increase of inlet vessel velocity. The mean and time averaged WSSes at rupture regions are found to be lower than those over the surface of the aneurysms. Also, the levels of the oscillatory shear index (OSI) are higher than the reported threshold value, supporting the assertion that high OSI correlates with rupture of the aneurysm. However, the present results also indicate that OSI level at the rupture region is relatively lower.

  8. Tubal rupture in ectopic pregnancy: is it predictable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, R S; Tasci, Y; Altay, M; Akkuş, M; Akkurt, O; Gelisen, O

    2015-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancies account for 10-15% of all maternal deaths. Rupture of an ectopic pregnancy is an urgent medical situation, therefore prediction of any tubal rupture before its occurrence is extremely important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tubal rupture rate in different treatment modalities in EP cases and to find a hCG level on admission and/or size of ectopic mass predictive for tubal rupture. Demographic data and medical data were extracted from patient charts for 211 cases who had diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Women with tubal rupture were compared to those without rupture. Expectant management, single dose methotrexate and primary surgical treatment were applied to 83 cases (39%), 93 cases (44%) and 35 cases (17%), respectively. The tubal rupture occurred in 14.7% of the study population. If the EP mass diameter is ectopic pregnancy cases, hCG level on admission and size of ectopic pregnancy mass can predict tubal rupture.

  9. Misdiagnosed uterine rupture of an advanced cornual pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Christian Linus Hastrup; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2012-01-01

    Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination...

  10. [Uterine rupture in the third trimester after a hysteroscopic metroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokri, A; Chekib, M; Fethi, Z; Anis, F; Sadok, M

    2000-01-01

    Uterine rupture during a pregnancy may occur following hysteroscopic metropasty. We report the case of a patient with a history of hysteroscopic resection complicated by of uterine rupture during pregnancy.

  11. Inelastic off-fault response and three-dimensional dynamics of earthquake rupture on a strike-slip fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.J.; Ma, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Large dynamic stress off the fault incurs an inelastic response and energy loss, which contributes to the fracture energy, limiting the rupture and slip velocity. Using an explicit finite element method, we model three-dimensional dynamic ruptures on a vertical strike-slip fault in a homogeneous half-space. The material is subjected to a pressure-dependent Drucker-Prager yield criterion. Initial stresses in the medium increase linearly with depth. Our simulations show that the inelastic response is confined narrowly to the fault at depth. There the inelastic strain is induced by large dynamic stresses associated with the rupture front that overcome the effect of the high confining pressure. The inelastic zone increases in size as it nears the surface. For material with low cohesion (~5 MPa) the inelastic zone broadens dramatically near the surface, forming a "flowerlike" structure. The near-surface inelastic strain occurs in both the extensional and the compressional regimes of the fault, induced by seismic waves ahead of the rupture front under a low confining pressure. When cohesion is large (~10 MPa), the inelastic strain is significantly reduced near the surface and confined mostly to depth. Cohesion, however, affects the inelastic zone at depth less significantly. The induced shear microcracks show diverse orientations near the surface, owing to the low confining pressure, but exhibit mostly horizontal slip at depth. The inferred rupture-induced anisotropy at depth has the fast wave direction along the direction of the maximum compressive stress.

  12. [Ketoconazole and clindamycin efficacy vs oral clindamycin in premature membranes rupture prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Huerta, Eugenio; Garibay Valencia, Miguel; Mirabent-González, Felio

    2008-07-01

    Vulvovaginitis is one of the main causes of premature membrane rupture. To evaluate effectiveness of a combination of ketoconazole (400 mg) and clindamycin (100 mg) in vaginal tablets, compared with clindamicyn alone (600 mg/daily) orally, for six days, to prevent premature membrane rupture in patients with vulvovaginitis. Longitudinal, prospective, comparative, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study in patients older than 18 years, during them third trimester of normoevolutive pregnancy with symptomatic vulvovaginitis. Patients were monitored as out patient. Genital secretion culture and fresh studies were made. Signs and symptoms were evaluated in regular intervals: 4, 7 and 11 days. Pregnancy control was performed every three weeks, until childbirth or premature membrane rupture. 105 patients were included: 53 in the group of ketoconazole and clindamicyn (1), and 52 in the group of clindamycin alone (2). Symptoms were similar in both groups of treatment, without statistically significant differences. A case of group 2 has premature membrane rupture (p = 0.495). C. albicans was cultured in 35% of group 2 and in 11% of group 2. No adverse events with treatments were reported. The combination of ketoconazole and cindamycin was effective to prevent premature membrane rupture in patients with vulvovaginitis.

  13. An unusual presentation of non pathological delayed splenic rupture: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, Suhail Aslam

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of Delayed Splenic Rupture poses a major challenge to even the most astute clinician, as it can mimic other medical emergencies. We present a case of an unusual presentation of delayed splenic rupture in a 23-year-old Caucasian man, who presented to the emergency department with a 2 day history of left upper quadrant pain. He initially denied any history of trauma. There were no signs of generalized peritonisim on examination but his haemoglobin level was low (8.9 gm\\/dl) for which there was no obvious cause identified. He was resuscitated and a computed tomography of the abdomen was performed. This revealed complete rupture of the splenic capsule with haemorrhagic fluid in the abdomen. With the computed tomography abdomen findings and further questioning of the patient, the only potential precipitating event that he could remember was a minor kick to the left upper quadrant more than 2 weeks ago while playing football. An urgent splenectomy was performed and histology confirmed complete rupture of the splenic capsule with a large adherent haematoma to the capsule. This case illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing delayed splenic rupture especially when accurate history is not available. A high index of suspicion is essential as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. Early diagnosis in suspected cases can be achieved by performing computed tomography of the abdomen.

  14. Simulation of the behaviour of a servo actuated check valve upon rupture of the feedwater pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.M. de; Perezagua, R.L.; Rosa, B. de la; Sanz, J.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generator replacement programme at Almaraz NPP, provides for the installation of a replacement damped non-return valve for the feedwater system. the function of this valve is to protect the steam generator in the event of a rupture in the feedwater pipe. Sudden closure of the check valve, against the flow and following rupture of the feedwater pipe, causes overpressure in the valve which is transmitted to the steam generator nozzle. It is therefore necessary to know this when designing the internal systems of the steam generator. Using the RELAP5/MODE3 code, it has been possible to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a check valve upon rupture of a feedwater pipe postulated outside the containment. The calculation model has been applied to different types of check valve. (Author)

  15. Choroidal rupture and optic nerve injury with equipment designated as 'child-safe'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Robert; Saldana, Manuel

    2012-08-27

    Blunt ocular trauma from a child's plastic foam-covered toy baseball bat caused traumatic optic neuropathy and choroidal rupture in a 9-year-old child. The examination revealed a visual acuity of 6/60, a relative afferent pupillary defect, optic nerve swelling, commotio retinae and retinal haemorrhages. There was no orbital fracture or intraorbital haematoma on CT scanning. Optical coherence tomography showed macular oedema and disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. The child was admitted for intravenous methylprednisolone and discharged on topical steroid treatment. At 1 month follow-up, visual acuity had improved to 6/12. Optic nerve swelling had resolved and the fundus had two crescent-shaped choroidal rupture scars. Choroidal rupture and optic neuropathy can be secondary to indirect trauma, and even when the mechanism of injury is with a piece of equipment designated as suitable for children, serious ocular injury can occur.

  16. Patterns of placental pathology in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Wells, J.; Post, M. D.; Donnelly, M.; Manco-Johnson, M. J.; Fisher, B. M.; Winn, V. D.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse neonatal outcomes. Subchorionic thrombi, with or without inflammation, may also be a significant pathological finding in PPROM. Patterns of inflammation and thrombosis may give insight into mechanisms of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with PPROM. To characterize histologic findings of placentas from pregnancies complicated by PPROM at altitude, 44 placentas were evaluated for gross and histological indicators of inflammation and thrombosis. Student’s t-test (or Mann–Whitney U-test), χ2 analysis (or Fisher’s exact test), mean square contingency and logistic regression were used when appropriate. The prevalence of histologic acute chorioamnionitis (HCA) was 59%. Fetal-derived inflammation (funisitis and chorionic plate vasculitis) was seen at lower frequency (30% and 45%, respectively) and not always in association with HCA. There was a trend for Hispanic women to have higher odds of funisitis (OR = 5.9; P = 0.05). Subchorionic thrombi were seen in 34% of all placentas. The odds of subchorionic thrombi without HCA was 6.3 times greater that the odds of subchorionic thrombi with HCA (P = 0.02). There was no difference in gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval, with the presence or absence of inflammatory or thrombotic lesions. These findings suggest that PPROM is caused by or can result in fetal inflammation, placental malperfusion, or both, independent of gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval; maternal ethnicity and altitude may contribute to these findings. Future studies focused on this constellation of PPROM placental findings, genetic polymorphisms and neonatal outcomes are needed. PMID:23828732

  17. An evaluation of surface-dose increase caused by the thermoplastic shell in head and neck radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Shin-ichi; Hayama, Kazuhide; Toyama, Michio; Ninomiya, Shuichi; Eguchi, Toru; Takase, Hiroshi; Maeda, Kadzuo (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan) Faculty of Dentistry (Niigata))

    1992-10-01

    Some kinds of the thermoplastic shells have been developed to improve the reproducibility of patient immobilization in head and neck radiotherapy treatment. Due to a build-up layer of high energy photons, the consideration of the surface-dose under the shell is important in radiotherapy treatment planning. This paper presents the precise evaluation of the surface-dose affected by the shell. The therapy machine used was 2.8 MV linac X-ray. The shell used was mesh sheet type thermoplastic shell. The TPR (tissue peak ratio) in the build-up layer was measured in various irradiation fields under the conditions with or without a wedge filter. The coefficients m' and K's of the power function of the build-up region were obtained from the relation between TPR and the irradiation fields. As a result, the coefficients were approximately intermediate values between cobalt-60 [gamma]-ray and 4.3 MV X-ray. When a wedge filter was used, the coefficients shifted toward those of higher energy. Before obtaining the dose distribution under the thermoplastic shell, film response was tested under the conditions of various irradiation fields and use of a wedge filter. The results showed that the film response was constant enough for dosimetry in the build-up region. Digital surface-absorbed dose distribution images under the shell were obtained using the microphotometer-microcomputer system. The digital image demonstrated a meshy dose pattern under the shell. In the area of a higher absorbed dose, the dose increases were in the range of 40-50%. The differences depended on not only the irradiation field and presence of a wedge-filter, but especially on the extent of expansion of the thermoplastic material in making the shell mask. (author).

  18. Rupture of the neck in nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Managan, R.A.; Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    We introduce a degree of freedom to describe the rupture of the neck in nuclear fission and calculate the point at which the neck ruptures as the nucleus descends dynamically from its fission saddle point. This is done by mentally slicing the system into two portions at its minimum neck radius and calculating the force required to separate the two portions while keeping their shapes fixed. This force is obtained by differentiating with respect to separation the sum of the Coulomb and nuclear interaction energies between the two portions. For nuclei throughout the Periodic Table we calculate this force along dynamical paths leading from the fission saddle point. The force is initially attractive but becomes repulsive when the neck reaches a critical size. For actinide nuclei the neck radius at which rupture occurs is about 2 fm. This increases the calculated translational kinetic energy of the fission fragments at infinity relative to that calculated for scission occurring at zero neck radius. With the effect of neck rupture taken into account, we calculate and compare with experimental results fission-fragment kinetic energies for two types of nuclear dissipation: ordinary two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation

  19. Ruptured Cervical Aneurysm with Neurofibromatosis | Smith | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case is presented of spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm of a lateral branch of the right thyrocervical trunk in a patient suffering from diffuse neurofibromatosis. The operative findings are reported. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 945 (1974). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  20. The electrocardiogram in traumatic right atrial rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Berg, MP

    1999-01-01

    We:report the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who had a traumatic rupture of the right atrium. On admission an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded which is highly remarkable and, retrospectively, suggestive for the diagnosis. The patient died soon after the EGG, and the diagnosis was

  1. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  2. Rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, Gijs; Pingen, Francien; Luitse, Jan; Goslings, Carel

    2006-01-01

    Rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon is rare. There is usually a delay in diagnosis, probably because it is an uncommon entity. Diagnosis is easy however, and recovery with surgical treatment is satisfactory if repair is performed within the first three months following the initial trauma. After

  3. The reactor Phenix - cartridge rupture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graftieaux, J.

    1967-01-01

    This report defines the role of cartridge rupture detection in the reactor Phenix. It gives the possible methods, their probable performances, their advantages and disadvantages. The final form of the installation will be determined mainly by the degree of safety required, by the technical possibilities of the reactor design and by the operational flexibility wanted. (author) [fr

  4. Rupture of uterus treated with suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klungsøyr, P; Kiserud, T

    1990-01-01

    Between August 1983 and August 1985, 63 patients in labor with uterine rupture were treated at Sidamo Regional Hospital, Yirgaalem, South Ethiopia, mainly by suture of the uterus. None of those operated on died. We recommend suturing as the treatment of choice. Hysterectomy is rarely indicated.

  5. CT and MRI of ruptured intracranial dermoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, G.; Demaerel, P.; Baert, A.L. (Leuven Univ. Hospital (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology); Casselman, J. (Akademisch Ziekenhuis St. Jan, Brugge (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology); Plets, C. (Leuven Univ. Hospital (Belgium). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Haene, I. de (Akademisch Ziekenhuis St. Jan, Brugge (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology)

    1991-04-01

    Two patients with ruptured intracranial dermoids, examined with both CT and MRI are reported. Clinical presentation was transient cerebral ischemia in one patient and acute meningeal signs in the other. CT scan showed typical fat density of the tumor and the subarachnoid space. On MRI both the tumor and the subarachnoid fat, were strongly hyperintense on T1-weighted images. (orig.).

  6. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, W.; Toelly, E.; Ebner, F.; Kullnig, P.

    1986-07-01

    Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of renal cysts is a rare occurrence. The contents of the cyst can perforate into the renal calyx system or into the perirenal space. Perforation into the peritoneal cavity has also been described (1, 2, 4, 5).

  7. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-26

    May 26, 2015 ... A retrospective review consisting of. 1449 patients reported the incidence around 0.067%.[3]. Here, we presented a case of isolated gallbladder rupture following a blunt abdominal injury. Case Report. A 39‑year‑old man with history of cholelithiasis, alcoholism‑related liver cirrhosis, and chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  9. Rupture process of the 2011 Lorca earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buforn Peiro, E.; Pro Munoz, C.; Cesca, S.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Udias Vallina, A.

    2012-01-01

    The focal mechanism of the Lorca 2011 earthquake has been estimated from the inversion of the seismic moment tensor at regional and P and SH waveforms at tele seismic distances. Results shown a reverse fault with planes oriented in E-W direction and shallow focus (4km). The rupture process may be explained using a extended fault (circular fracture of 2 km radius) and rupture velocity of 2.2 km/s. From this model we have generated velocity and acceleration synthetic records for a range of distances from 20 to 200 km. From joint inversion of these synthetic and observed data we have identify the WSW E NE plane as the rupture plane, with the rupture propagating to the WSW. The 2011 Lorca earthquake is an evidence of the complexity of the region, where we have normal (Lorca, 1977), reverse (Mula, 1999 and Lorca 2011) and strike-slip (Bullas (2002, 2005) motions, while the regional stress pattern corresponds to horizontal N-S compression, with the exception of Lorca 1977 shock. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Diagnosis of foetal membrane ruptures: Placental alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AbstRACt. Context: Pre‑labour rupture of membranes (PROM) is a common obstetric complication which presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in equivocal cases. Standard methods of diagnosis are limited by high false positives and negatives. This study compared the accuracy of a biomarker placental alpha ...

  11. Endovascular treatment of ruptured distal posterior inferior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Methods: 11 consecutive patients (7 women, 4 men, mean age of 49.2 years) with ruptured distal PICA aneurysms were studied retrospectively. All had onset of acute intraventricular or cerebellar haemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. (SAH). Hunt-Hess (HH) grades were H-H I in 1 patient, H-H II in ...

  12. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Emergency assessment and diagnosis as well as scrotal exploration are important components of the management of acute testicular rupture. Analysis of the literature proves that timely surgical intervention is crucial; early intervention results in higher rates of preservation and avoids the need for an orchidectomy.

  13. Medial ankle pain after lateral ligament rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Marti, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    After a severe ankle sprain the incidence of residual complaints, particularly on the medial side of the joint, is high. We studied a consecutive series of 30 patients who had operative repair of acute ruptures of lateral ligaments. During operation, arthroscopy revealed a fresh injury to the

  14. Ruptured hepatoblastoma treated with primary surgical resection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1]. ... episodes of syncope, with a hematocrit of 23. A computed ... ruptured tumor in the right lobe of the liver. The patient was then taken to the operating room, where a bleeding tumor was noted on the right side of the liter. Intraoperative.

  15. timber joists subjected to creep-rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Wood experiences a significant loss of strength and stiffness when loaded over period of time. This phenomenon is known as creep-rupture. Several models were developed for the estimation of the reduction of load carrying capacity of timber with time. In this paper, the results of time dependent structural reliability analysis ...

  16. PERINATAL AND MATERNAL OUTCOME IN PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    OpenAIRE

    Mercy Rodrigo; Abiramavalli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objectives of this study are 1) To find out the incidence of premature rupture of membranes, 2) To evaluate the aetiology of premature rupture of membranes, 3) To assess foetal and maternal outcome in premature rupture of membranes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective case control study was conducted in Govt. RSRM Lying In Hospital, Chennai, over a period of 6 months and 100 cases of spontaneous rupture of membranes attending the Department of Obstetrics an...

  17. On the unit rupture work of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Kovalenko, V.S.; Dyatel, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is the effect of the nature of the treated material treatment regimes on their unit rupture work at laser treatment in the regime of quasistationary evaporation. It is shown that the unit rupture work changes its values depending on the treatment regimes, coincidences between experimental and calculation values of unit rupture work are not being observed, especially for refractory metals of the 6th group and for solid alloys. Established are optimum regimes for determination of stable values of unit rupture work

  18. Tendon rupture as an adverse effect of rasagiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaucheur, Romain; Fetter, Damien; Gaillon, Gaëlle; Borden, Alaina; Maltête, David

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) was referred to our center for an adjustment of her antiparkinsonian medication. To reduce daily off-time, we introduced rasagiline 1 mg/d. Three days after starting this new treatment, she presented with intense arthralgia that symmetrically affected the shoulders, hands, and hips without myalgia. Ten days later, while walking, she experienced acute pain on the inner side of her right thigh, with the absence of any trauma. Findings of ultrasonography confirming the diagnosis of partial avulsion of the right harmstrings. Rasagiline was stopped immediately, and the arthralgia disappeared within 48 hours and did not recur. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a spontaneous tendon rupture possibly caused by rasagiline. Our observation emphasizes that, although often well tolerated, rasagiline may cause muscle and joint complications that could increase disability in patients with PD.

  19. Damage of niobium surfaces caused by bombardment with 4He+ ions of different energies typical for T-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, N.

    1979-01-01

    The surface damage of cold worked and annealed polycrystalline Nb irradiated at room temperature with He + ions sequentially at different energies over the range from 0.5 keV to 1.8 MeV has been investigated. The individual energy and the dose of the He + ion was chosen to match the theoretically calculated He + ion spectrum expected in the Tokamak T-20. In one set of irradiations, targets were irradiated at Kurchatov Institute starting with 0.5 keV 4 He + ions and extending up to 90 keV in eleven steps. Subsequently, the same area was irradiated at ANL starting at 150 keV and increased in eight steps up to 1.8 MeV. The irradiations were carried out for a total dose of 5.0 C/cm 2 . In another set of irradiations the sequence was reversed. Scanning electron microscopy results show formation of blisters and exfoliation. For the same dose the broad energy implant (due to sequential irradiation) appears to decrease the blister diameter and density as compared to irradiation with monoenergetic He + ions at a given energy (in the energy range considered). Some estimates of surface erosion yields due to blistering are given

  20. Therapeutic effect of enterprise stent-assisted embolization for very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feiyun; Li, Zhenbao; Fang, Xinggen; Zhao, Xintong; Liu, Jiaqiang; Wu, Degang; Lai, Niansheng

    2017-08-01

    Enterprise stent has been widespread used in wide-necked intracranial aneurysms and good efficacy has been achieved, but there are few reports on its applications in very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms in literatures. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Enterprise stent-assisted coiling embolization of very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms.We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and imaging data from 37 patients with very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms who had SAC using Enterprise stents performed from February 2012 to July 2016 in our department. Data collected and analyzed included patient demographics, morphologic features of the aneurysm, treatment results, and follow-up results. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).Enterprise stents were successfully implanted in all 37 patients with very small ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Of the 37 individuals, 28 patients exhibited complete occlusion at Raymond grade I, 5 patients exhibited occlusion at Raymond grade II, and 4 patients at Raymond grade III. Procedure-related complications occurred in 3 of 37 patients (8.1%), including 1 case of intraprocedure aneurysm rupture who died from cerebral herniation caused by severe postoperative cerebral ischemia during the hospital stay, and the other 2 complications were acute in-stent thrombosis, and occlusion of parent artery caused by falling-off internal carotid artery plaque, respectively. A total of 36 patients underwent postoperative clinical follow-up visits for 6 to 24 months of which 31 patients recovered (GOS ≥ 4). One patient had hemiplegic paralysis, and no rehemorrhage was found. A total of 25 patients underwent follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at 3-21 months postintervention, in whom there were 22 cases with complete occlusion, 2 cases with recurrence of aneurysm neck, and 1 case with in-stent restenosis, but there was no patient with neurologic deficits.The Enterprise