WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface relief hologram

  1. Highly-efficient all-dielectric Huygens' surface holograms (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Katie; Wang, Lei; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Subramania, Ganapathi; Liu, Sheng; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-04-01

    that lack dissipative losses and also suppress unwanted reflections without relying on cross-polarization schemes that additionally suffer from polarization-conversion losses. We now use such Huygens' surfaces in order to create a highly-efficient phase masks for the generation of optical holograms. By varying only one geometrical parameter, namely the lattice periodicity that can be controlled easily during the fabrication process we can effectively generate arbitrary hologram images from a 4-level phase discretization. In order to design the arrangement of the pixels in the metasurfaces, we calculate the phase mask required for a hologram generating the letters `hv' in the hologram plane. In the next step the Huygens' hologram is fabricated on a back-side polished SOI wafer by electron-beam lithography followed by a reactive-ion etching process. Then, we measure the phase of the generated hologram using a home-built Mach-Zehnder interferometer and perform a phase retrieval process to compare the experimental phase with the designed phase. Finally, we record the holographic image in the hologram plane and demonstrate that the device functionality is completely polarization insensitive with a transmission efficiency of 82%, in contrast to all the earlier works utilizing geometric phase. References [1] Yu et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 139 (2014). [2] Pfeiffer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013). [3] Monticone et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013). [4] Decker et al., Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813 (2015).

  2. Use of Computer-Generated Holograms in Security Hologram Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulanovs A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of computer-generated holograms (CGHs for the application as one of the security features in the relief-phase protective holograms. An improved method of calculating CGHs is presented, based on ray-tracing approach in the case of interference of parallel rays.

  3. Speckle noise reduction for computer generated holograms of objects with diffuse surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Athanasia; Blinder, David; Ahar, Ayyoub; Schretter, Colas; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography is mainly used today for metrology and microscopic imaging and is emerging as an important potential technology for future holographic television. To generate the holographic content, computer-generated holography (CGH) techniques convert geometric descriptions of a 3D scene content. To model different surface types, an accurate model of light propagation has to be considered, including for example, specular and diffuse reflection. In previous work, we proposed a fast CGH method for point cloud data using multiple wavefront recording planes, look-up tables (LUTs) and occlusion processing. This work extends our method to account for diffuse reflections, enabling rendering of deep 3D scenes in high resolution with wide viewing angle support. This is achieved by modifying the spectral response of the light propagation kernels contained by the look-up tables. However, holograms encoding diffuse reflective surfaces depict significant amounts of speckle noise, a problem inherent to holography. Hence, techniques to improve the reduce speckle noise are evaluated in this paper. Moreover, we propose as well a technique to suppress the aperture diffraction during numerical, viewdependent rendering by apodizing the hologram. Results are compared visually and in terms of their respective computational efficiency. The experiments show that by modelling diffuse reflection in the LUTs, a more realistic yet computationally efficient framework for generating high-resolution CGH is achieved.

  4. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  5. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M [Laboratoire POMA, Universite d' Angers, CNRS FRE 2988, 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S, E-mail: herve.leblond@univ-angers.f [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-10-28

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  6. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M; Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  7. Theoretical modeling and design of photonic structures in zeolite nanocomposites for gas sensing. Part I: surface relief gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, D; Naydenova, I

    2017-12-01

    The suitability of holographic structures fabricated in zeolite nanoparticle-polymer composite materials for gas sensing applications has been investigated. Theoretical modeling of the sensor response (i.e., change in hologram readout due to a change in refractive index modulation or thickness as a result of gas adsorption) of different sensor designs was carried out using Raman-Nath theory and Kogelnik's coupled wave theory. The influence of a range of parameters on the sensor response of holographically recorded surface and volume photonic grating structures has been studied, namely the phase difference between the diffracted and probe beam introduced by the grating, grating geometry, thickness, spatial frequency, reconstruction wavelength, and zeolite nanoparticle refractive index. From this, the optimum fabrication conditions for both surface and volume holographic gas sensor designs have been identified. Here, in part I, results from theoretical modeling of the influence of design on the sensor response of holographically inscribed surface relief structures for gas sensing applications is reported.

  8. Topology-optimized broadband surface relief transmission grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob; Ryder, Christian P.; Nielsen, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a design methodology for systematic design of surface relief transmission gratings with optimized diffraction efficiency. The methodology is based on a gradient-based topology optimization formulation along with 2D frequency domain finite element simulations for TE and TM polarized plane...

  9. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... ometric pattern in photosensitive materials such as photoresists and many other types of photopolymers that are capable of generating surface relief structures. Indigenous devel- opment of such diffraction gratings has been taken up in our department for laser and spectroscopic applications. The purpose ...

  10. Interferometric Surface Relief Measurements with Subnano/Picometer Height Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, Evgeny; Kosolobov, Sergey; Kulikov, Rodion; Latyshev, Alexander; Sitnikov, Sergey; Vykhristyuk, Ignat

    2017-10-01

    We present an optical interference system nanoprofiler MNP-1 designed for high-precision noncontact measurement of surface relief with subnanometer resolution (root mean square of measured values), based on partial scanning of interference signal. The paper describes the construction of the measurement system with Linnik interferometer and the algorithm for nanorelief surface reconstruction. Experimental measurement results of silicon sample with profile height of surface structure of one interatomic distance obtained by MNP-1 are shown. It was proposed to use an atomically smooth surface as the reference mirror in the interferometer MNP-1 that allowed us to measure monatomic steps of the presented silicon sample. Monatomic steps of 0.31 nm in height on silicon (111) surface were measured with resolution up to 5 pm.

  11. Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, NCR; Nikolova, Ludmila; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Azobenzene polymers and oligomers show intriguing surface relief features when irradiated with polarized laser light. We show through atomic force microscopic investigation of side-chain azobenzene polymers after irradiation through an amplitude mask that large peaks or trenches result depending...... on the architecture of the polymer. Extensive mass transport over long distances has been observed, paving the way for easy replication of nanostructures. We also show that it is possible to store microscopic images as topographic features in the polymers just through polarized light irradiation. (C) 1999 American...

  12. Holograms a cultural history

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Sean F

    2016-01-01

    Holograms have been in the public eye for over a half-century, but their influences have deeper cultural roots. No other visual experience is quite like interacting with holograms; no other cultural product melds the technological sublime with magic and optimism in quite the same way. As holograms have evolved, they have left their audiences alternately fascinated, bemused, inspired or indifferent. From expressions of high science to countercultural art to consumer security, holograms have represented modernity, magic and materialism. Their most pervasive impact has been to galvanize hopeful technological dreams. This book explores how holograms found a place in distinct cultural settings. Engineers, artists, hippies and hobbyists have played with, and dreamed about, holograms. This book explores the technical attractions and cultural uses of the hologram, how they were shaped by what came before them, and how they have matured to shape our notional futures. Today, holograms are in our pockets (as identity do...

  13. Relief Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    Relief sculpture is an art form that is midway between painting and sculpture in the round. It is a process in which the subject stands out or projects a surface from the background. The surface has several levels. It can be low relief or high relief (deep or almost round) or anywhere in between. The most common example of low relief is a coin…

  14. Surface relief gratings in azobenzene supramolecular systems based on polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa; Sobolewska, Anna; Stumpe, Joachim; Hamryszak, Lukasz; Bujak, Piotr

    2012-12-01

    The paper describes formation of new supramolecular azopolymers based on hydrogen bonds as perspective materials for laser induced surface relief gratings (SRGs) and for polarization gratings. Supramolecular films were built on the basis of hydrogen bonds between the functional groups of polymer and azobenzene derivatives, that is 4-[4-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)phenylazo]-pyridine and 4-[4-(6-hydroxyhexyloxy)phenylazo]pyridine. Polymers with imide rings, i.e., poly(esterimide)s and poly(etherimide)s, with phenolic hydroxyl or carboxylic groups were applied as matrixes for polymer-dye supramolecular systems. They revealed glass transition temperatures (Tg) in the range of 170-260 °C, whereas supramolecular systems exhibited lower Tg (88-187 °C). The polymers were easily soluble in aprotic polar solvents and exhibited remarkable good film forming properties. Moreover, new chromophore 4-[4-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)phenylazo]pyridine was synthesized and characterized. The light induced SRGs formation and simultaneous formation of the polarization gratings were explored in prepared polymer-chromophore assembles films using a holographic grating recording technique. First time to the best of our knowledge SRGs were formed in hydrogen-bonded supramolecular systems based on polyimides. The highest SRG amplitude and thus the highest diffraction efficiency were obtained in poly(esterimide)s with the hydroxyl functional group. Additionally, the thermal stability of the photoinduced surface gratings and polarization gratings were tested revealing in the case of the SRGs partial stability and almost complete erasure of the polarization gratings.

  15. Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Todorov, T

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the polarization properties of holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters in which an anisotropic grating that is due to photoinduced linear and circular birefringence is recorded in the volume of the material and a relief grating appears on the surface. A theoretical...... in the appearance of a surface relief with doubled frequency....

  16. Specificity of Correlation Pattern Recognition Methods Application in Security Holograms Identity Control Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlokazov, E. Yu.; Starikov, R. S.; Odinokov, S. B.; Tsyganov, I. K.; Talalaev, V. E.; Koluchkin, V. V.

    Automatic inspection of security hologram (SH) identity is highly demanded issue due high distribution of SH worldwide to protect documents such as passports, driving licenses, banknotes etc. While most of the known approaches use inspection of SH design features none of these approaches inspect the features of its surface relief that is a direct contribution to original master matrix used for these holograms production. In our previous works we represented the device that was developed to provide SH identification by processing of coherent responses of its surface elements. Most of the algorithms used in this device are based on application of correlation pattern recognition methods. The main issue of the present article is a description of these methods application specificities.

  17. A Surface Relief Meter Based on Trinocular Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, V.G.S.; Sablik, P.W.; Balendonck, J.; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for the relief meter being developed, appears to function well, when used with the artificial images. The described matching criterion leads to high matching percentages, and accurate results. The percentage of mismatches is reduced to practically zero for the tested scenes. Future work

  18. Phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for the fabrication of complex computer-generated phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by means of partial-exposure e-beam lithography and subsequent carefully controlled partial development. Following the development, the pattern appears (rendered in relief) in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 3 mm square, and consisted of up to 10 millions of 0.3-2.0-micron square pixels. Data files were up to 60 Mb-long, and the exposure times ranged to several hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated with a diffraction-limited optical performance of 83-percent efficiency.

  19. Anticounterfeit holograms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dahsiung; Zhou, Jing; Pei, Wen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuhuai; Cao, Yulin

    1995-02-01

    The Chinese holography industry has been given an enormous boost by the energetic sales and technology transfer of several western businesses. It is a fast growing industry which can keep up with domestic demand for anti-counterfeit embossed holograms because product counterfeiting is so rife internally. Tax papers, stamps, plastic cards, identification cards, and many packaged goods are authenticated with embossed holograms. Up to now, about 1,000 kinds of products in China have used holograms to protect themselves. Anti-counterfeit holograms with secret codes have also been used. After dependence on imports, China is rapidly developing its own sources of equipment, holographic materials, and embossing substrates. The quality of this equipment and materials is improving. The new Chinese Holography Association, a national industry association aiming to develop the application of holograms and to promote cooperation between organizations, was established in 1993. The CHA has requested affiliation to the International Hologram Manufacturers Association, a move which should improve the communication between the Chinese industry and the rest of the world industry.

  20. Modelling the Influence of Ground Surface Relief on Electric Sounding Curves Using the Integral Equations Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of electrical sounding of a medium with ground surface relief is modelled using the integral equations method. This numerical method is based on the triangulation of the computational domain, which is adapted to the shape of the relief and the measuring line. The numerical algorithm is tested by comparing the results with the known solution for horizontally layered media with two layers. Calculations are also performed to verify the fulfilment of the “reciprocity principle” for the 4-electrode installations in our numerical model. Simulations are then performed for a two-layered medium with a surface relief. The quantitative influences of the relief, the resistivity ratios of the contacting media, and the depth of the second layer on the apparent resistivity curves are established.

  1. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  2. Designing security holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Randy; Long, Michael; Newcomb, Diana

    2004-06-01

    Over the years, holograms have evolved from purely decorative images to bona fide security devices. During this evolution, highly secure technologies have been developed specifically for product and document protection. To maximize the security potential of these hologram technologies requires a holistic approach. A hologram alone is not enough. To be effective it must be part of a security program and that security program needs to inform the design and development of the actual hologram. In the most elementary case the security program can be as simple as applying a tamper evident label for a one-day event. In a complex implementation it would include multi-level technologies and corresponding verification methods. A holistic approach is accomplished with good planning and articulation of the problem to be solved, and then meeting the defined security objectives. Excellent communication among all the stakeholders in a particular project is critical to the success of the project. The results of this dialogue inform the design of the security hologram.

  3. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabholkar, A.; Murthy, S.

    2007-06-01

    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d ( d = 3, . . . , 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings. (author)

  4. Computer-assisted time-averaged holograms of the motion of the surface of the mammalian tympanic membrane with sound stimuli of 0.4 to 25 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowski, John J.; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Hulli, Nesim; Hernandez-Montes, Maria; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

    2009-01-01

    Time-averaged holograms describing the sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric preparations from three mammalian species and one live ear were measured using opto-electronic holography. This technique allows rapid measurements of the magnitude of motion of the tympanic membrane surface at frequencies as high as 25 kHz. The holograms measured in response to low and middle-frequency sound stimuli are similar to previously reported time-averaged holograms. However, at higher frequencies (f > 4 kHz), our holograms reveal unique TM surface displacement patterns that consist of highly-ordered arrangements of multiple local displacement magnitude maxima, each of which is surrounded by nodal areas of low displacement magnitude. These patterns are similar to modal patterns (two-dimensional standing waves) produced by either the interaction of surface waves traveling in multiple directions or the uniform stimulation of modes of motion that are determined by the structural properties and boundary conditions of the TM. From the ratio of the displacement magnitude peaks to nodal valleys in these apparent surface waves, we estimate a Standing Wave Ratio of at least 4 that is consistent with energy reflection coefficients at the TM boundaries of at least 0.35. It is also consistent with small losses within the uniformly stimulated modal surface waves. We also estimate possible TM surface wave speeds that vary with frequency and species from 20 to 65 m/s, consistent with other estimates in the literature. The presence of standing wave or modal phenomena has previously been intuited from measurements of TM function, but is ignored in some models of tympanic membrane function. Whether these standing waves result either from the interactions of multiple surface waves that travel along the membrane, or by uniformly excited modal displacement patterns of the entire TM surface is still to be determined. PMID:19328841

  5. GROUND SURFACE VISUALIZATION USING RED RELIEF IMAGE MAP FOR A VARIETY OF MAP SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chiba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods to express topographical features of ground surface. In which, contour map has been the traditional method and along with development of digital data, surface model such as shaded relief map has been using for ground surface expression. Recently, data acquisition has been developed very much quick, demanding more advanced visualization method to express ground surface so as to effectively use the high quality data. In this study, the authors using the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008 to express ground surface visualization for a variety of map scales. The authors used 30 m mesh data of SRTM to show the topographical features of western Mongolian and micro-topographical features of ground surface in tectonically active regions of Japan. The results show that, compared to traditional and other similar methods, the RRIM can express ground surface more precisely and 3-dimensionally, suggested its advanced usage for many fields of topographical visualization.

  6. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... filometry [7–9] and monitoring of surface self-diffusion of solids under ultrahigh vacuum conditions [10]. In the present work, recording parameters, i.e. exposure time and deve- lopment time for fabrication of such holographic gratings have been optimized to obtain nearly perfect sinusoidal profiles in the ...

  7. Ubiquitous Creation of Bas-Relief Surfaces with Depth-of-Field Effects Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Sohn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new method to automatically generate digital bas-reliefs with depth-of-field effects from general scenes. Most previous methods for bas-relief generation take input in the form of 3D models. However, obtaining 3D models of real scenes or objects is often difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. From this motivation, we developed a method that takes as input a set of photographs that can be quickly and ubiquitously captured by ordinary smartphone cameras. A depth map is computed from the input photographs. The value range of the depth map is compressed and used as a base map representing the overall shape of the bas-relief. However, the resulting base map contains little information on details of the scene. Thus, we construct a detail map using pixel values of the input image to express the details. The base and detail maps are blended to generate a new depth map that reflects both overall depth and scene detail information. This map is selectively blurred to simulate the depth-of-field effects. The final depth map is converted to a bas-relief surface mesh. Experimental results show that our method generates a realistic bas-relief surface of general scenes with no expensive manual processing.

  8. Ubiquitous Creation of Bas-Relief Surfaces with Depth-of-Field Effects Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Bong-Soo

    2017-03-11

    This paper describes a new method to automatically generate digital bas-reliefs with depth-of-field effects from general scenes. Most previous methods for bas-relief generation take input in the form of 3D models. However, obtaining 3D models of real scenes or objects is often difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. From this motivation, we developed a method that takes as input a set of photographs that can be quickly and ubiquitously captured by ordinary smartphone cameras. A depth map is computed from the input photographs. The value range of the depth map is compressed and used as a base map representing the overall shape of the bas-relief. However, the resulting base map contains little information on details of the scene. Thus, we construct a detail map using pixel values of the input image to express the details. The base and detail maps are blended to generate a new depth map that reflects both overall depth and scene detail information. This map is selectively blurred to simulate the depth-of-field effects. The final depth map is converted to a bas-relief surface mesh. Experimental results show that our method generates a realistic bas-relief surface of general scenes with no expensive manual processing.

  9. Compartmentalized liquid crystal alignment induced by sparse polymer ribbons with surface relief gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhichao; Zhang, Xinzheng; Shi, Bin; Li, Wei; Luo, Weiwei; Drevensek-Olenik, Irena; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-15

    We report on the liquid crystal (LC) alignment induced by sparse polymer ribbons fabricated by the two-photon polymerization-based direct laser writing method. Each ribbon is fabricated by a single scan of the laser through the photoresist and possesses surface relief gratings on both sides. The relief gratings are caused by the optical interference between the incident and reflected laser beams. With the aid of these relief gratings, LC molecules can be well aligned along the selected direction of the ribbons. LC cells with the Z-shaped and checkerboard-type microstructures are constructed based on the sparse out-of-plane polymeric ribbons. Our results show that with such polymer ribbons a compartmentalized LC alignment in the arbitrary microstructures can be realized.

  10. Light induced conch-shaped relief in an azo-polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Mizuki; Juman, Guzhaliayi; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige

    2014-03-01

    We have discovered that a novel chiral structured surface relief (termed `conch'-shaped surface relief) with a height of over 1 μm can be formed in an azo-polymer film merely by employing circularly polarized optical vortex irradiation with a total angular momentum of j = +/-2. The temporal evolution of the conch-shaped surface relief in the azo-polymer film was also observed. The results provide physical insight into how the angular momentum of light is transferred to a material through mass transport by cis-trans photo-isomerization. Such conch-shaped surface reliefs with chirality, in which functional chemical composites can be doped, enable new applications, such as planar chiral metamaterials, plasmonic holograms, and identification of chiral chemical composites.

  11. Optimizing the efficiency of femtosecond-laser-written holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Hansen, Henrik Dueholm; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated for diffe......Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated...... the optimal hole size. For a coverage (i.e. relative laser-structured area) of ∼43 %, the efficiency reaches ∼10 %, which corresponds to a relative power transferred to one reconstructed image of ∼20 %. The efficiency as a function of pitch (for fixed coverage) is fairly constant from 2 to 6 μm....

  12. Surface Relief and Internal Structure in Fatigued Stainless Sanicro 25 Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Kuběna, Ivo; Mazánová, Veronika; Heczko, Milan; Man, Jiří

    47A, č. 5 (2016), s. 1907-1911 ISSN 1073-5623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32665S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : surface relief * dislocation structure * Sanicro 25 * extrusion * intrusion Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.874, year: 2016

  13. Study of Surface Relief Evolution in Cyclically Strained Superalloy IN738LC Using Advanced Experimental Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juliš, M.; Kusmič, D.; Pospíšilová, S.; Průša, S.; Obrtlík, Karel; Dluhoš, J.; Podrábský, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, S (2011), s. 814-815 ISSN 0009-2770. [Lokálne mechanické vlastnosti 2010. Smolenice, 10.11.2010-12.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/2065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Inconel 738LC * low cycle fatigue * surface relief Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2011

  14. Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dandan; Yue, Fuyong; Li, Guixin; Zheng, Guoxing; Chan, Kinlong; Chen, Shumei; Chen, Ming; Li, King Fai; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Cheah, Kok Wai; Yue Bun Pun, Edwin; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Xianzhong

    2015-09-01

    Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices.

  15. The hologram principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Written by Martin Richardson (an acclaimed leader and pioneer in the field) and John Wiltshire, The Hologram: Principles and Techniques is an important book that explores the various types of hologram in their multiple forms and explains how to create and apply the technology. The authors offer an insightful overview of the currently available recording materials, chemical formulas, and laser technology that includes the history of phase imaging and laser science. Accessible and comprehensive, the text contains a step-by-step guide to the production of holograms. In addition, The Hologram outlines the most common problems encountered in producing satisfactory images in the laboratory, as well as dealing with the wide range of optical and chemical techniques used in commercial holography. The Hologram is a well-designed instructive tool, involving three distinct disciplines: physics, chemistry, and graphic arts. This vital resource offers a guide to the development and understanding of the recording of mater...

  16. Holograms for the Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newswanger, Craig; Klug, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Traditional holography subject matter has been generally limited to small dead things (SMD). Pulse lasers and the advent of holographic stereography have made it easier to make holograms of scaled objects and those that live (un-SMD), at a cost of single dimensional parallax or monochromaticity. While stunning results have been produced, all of these required access to a lab, expensive lasers and optics, and infinite patience, care and skill to collect and record content. This complexity has generally kept holography out of reach for the masses. The recent introduction of new 3D data sources, free or inexpensive composition and editing software, and fast, consistent print services may make it possible to finally 'democratize' holography, and enable image makers to focus on message rather than medium. This paper will outline several photogrammetry-based methods for producing 3D content for holograms (with a camera and mouse finger), software applications for editing, positioning and lighting, and production means that are usable by anyone, from novice to professional. We will present step-by-step examples and display results depicting various subject matter, from color holographic portraits made from smart phone input to holographic maps made from movies collected with remote control airplanes. The aim is to inspire image making, spontaneity, and maybe even social media-based collaboration to make EVERYONE a holographer.

  17. Modelling Periglacial Processes on Low-Relief High-Elevation Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, D.L.

    Are low-relief high-elevation surfaces generally a result of uplift of flat surfaces formed close to sea-level or can they be formed "in situ" by climate dependent surface processes such as those associated with glaciation? This question is important to resolve in order to understand the geological...... as a function of mean annual air temperature and sediment thickness. This allows us to incorporate periglacial processes into a long-term landscape evolution model where surface elevation, sediment thickness, and climate evolve over time. With this model we are able to explore the slow feedbacks between...... periglacial erosion, sediment transport, and the evolving topography. We show that smooth peaks, convex hillslopes, and a few meters thick regolith cover at high elevation are emergent properties of the landscape evolution model. By varying climate and other model parameters, we discuss how the landscape...

  18. Biphotonic holographic gratings in azobenzene polyesters: Surface relief phenomena and polarization effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, C.; Alcalá, R.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Biphotonic holographic gratings have been recorded in a side-chain azobenzene liquid crystalline polyester using a blue incoherent source and a He-Ne laser. Intensity gratings and the appearance of surface relief have been observed when two linearly polarized beams from a He-Ne laser are made...... to interfere on a film illuminated with blue light. Polarized holographic gratings are also created with two orthogonally circularly polarized He-Ne beams. All these gratings are stable in darkness but can be erased with blue light. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  19. Surface relief grating formation on a single crystal of 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hideyuki; Tanino, Takahiro; Shirota, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Surface relief grating (SRG) formation on an organic single crystal by irradiation with two coherent laser beams has been demonstrated by using 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene (DAAB). It was found that the SRG formation was greatly depending upon both the coordination of the crystal and the polarization of the writing beams. The dependence of the polarization of writing beams on the SRG formation using the single crystal was found to be quite different from that reported for amorphous polymers and photochromic amorphous molecular materials, suggesting that the mechanism of the SRG formation on the organic crystal is somewhat different from that on amorphous materials

  20. Nanometric holograms based on a topological insulator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zengji; Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Gu, Min

    2017-05-01

    Holography has extremely extensive applications in conventional optical instruments spanning optical microscopy and imaging, three-dimensional displays and metrology. To integrate holography with modern low-dimensional electronic devices, holograms need to be thinned to a nanometric scale. However, to keep a pronounced phase shift modulation, the thickness of holograms has been generally limited to the optical wavelength scale, which hinders their integration with ultrathin electronic devices. Here, we break this limit and achieve 60 nm holograms using a topological insulator material. We discover that nanometric topological insulator thin films act as an intrinsic optical resonant cavity due to the unequal refractive indices in their metallic surfaces and bulk. The resonant cavity leads to enhancement of phase shifts and thus the holographic imaging. Our work paves a way towards integrating holography with flat electronic devices for optical imaging, data storage and information security.

  1. Imaging properties of Young holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, Peter V.; Polyanskaya, G. V.

    1995-11-01

    Inequality of imaging by Young holograms from complementary diffraction devices are grounded using a stationary phase principle which causes a reduced recording distributivity. A holographic method for determination of an angular dependence of the secondary wave amplitude function associated with a diffraction screen edge is proposed, and the Rubinowicz representation for a diffraction integral at the primary illuminated are is verified on this basis.

  2. Coseismic landslides reveal near-surface rock strength in a high-relief tectonically active setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Sean F.; Clark, Marin K.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    We present quantitative estimates of near-surface rock strength relevant to landscape evolution and landslide hazard assessment for 15 geologic map units of the Longmen Shan, China. Strength estimates are derived from a novel method that inverts earthquake peak ground acceleration models and coseismic landslide inventories to obtain material proper- ties and landslide thickness. Aggregate rock strength is determined by prescribing a friction angle of 30° and solving for effective cohesion. Effective cohesion ranges are from 70 kPa to 107 kPa for 15 geologic map units, and are approximately an order of magnitude less than typical laboratory measurements, probably because laboratory tests on hand-sized specimens do not incorporate the effects of heterogeneity and fracturing that likely control near-surface strength at the hillslope scale. We find that strength among the geologic map units studied varies by less than a factor of two. However, increased weakening of units with proximity to the range front, where precipitation and active fault density are the greatest, suggests that cli- matic and tectonic factors overwhelm lithologic differences in rock strength in this high-relief tectonically active setting.

  3. High laser damage threshold surface relief micro-structures for anti-reflection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.; MacLeod, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    Microstructures built into the surfaces of an optic or window, are an effective replacement for thin-film coatings in anti-reflection (AR) and narrow-band filter applications. AR microstructures exhibit particularly noteworthy performance where an average reflection loss of less than 0.2% over a four-octave range (400-1800nm) has been demonstrated, and a loss of less than 0.03% is routinely achieved for narrow-band applications. Because AR micro-textures provide a gradual change in the refractive index at a material boundary, it is expected that light can propagate through the boundary without material damage at energy levels that are much higher than that found with thin-film interference coatings. Recently, it was shown that the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of an inexpensive borosilicate glass window containing AR microstructures was nearly 57 J/cm2 at 1064nm (20ns pulse). This LIDT is two to three times greater than the damage threshold of single-layer sol-gel AR coatings on fused silica often reported in the literature. The development of surface relief AR textures for use in high-energy laser applications is presented. Data from scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, reflection measurements, and LIDT testing, is shown for high performance AR microstructures fabricated in fused silica, and borosilicate glass. Results of LIDT testing at wavelengths ranging from the near ultraviolet through the near infrared confirm the initial result that AR microstructures can operate at pulsed laser power levels at least two times higher than thin-film coatings. For near infrared applications such as laser weapons and fiber optic communications requiring high performance AR, LIDT levels for AR microstructures in fused silica are found to be at least five times greater than conventional multi-layer thin film coatings. An initial surface absorption test at 1064nm shows that AR microstructures may also exhibit improved lifetimes within continuous wave laser systems.

  4. Surface-Relief Gratings in Halogen-Bonded Polymer–Azobenzene Complexes: A Concentration-Dependence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpel, Jelle E.; Marco, Saccone; Valentina, Dichiarante; Ossi, Lehtonen; Matti, Virkki; Pierangelo, Metrangolo; Arri, Priimagi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, supramolecular complexes comprising a poly(4-vinylpyridine) backbone and azobenzene-based halogen bond donors have emerged as a promising class of materials for the inscription of light-induced surface-relief gratings (SRGs). The studies up to date have focused on building supramolecular hierarchies, i.e., optimizing the polymer-azobenzene noncovalent interaction for efficient surface patterning. They have been conducted using systems with relatively low azobenzene content, a...

  5. Holograms and authentication: meeting future demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Ian M.

    2004-06-01

    The use of holograms as authentication or security devices is the most valuable application of holograms yet devised. In 20 years, this has developed from the first use of a hologram on credit cards, to the situation today where governments turn to holograms as a key security feature on the protected documents they issue, including banknotes, identity documents and tax banderols. At the same time, holograms (and related devices) are the most recognised visible feature used to authenticate and protect branded and OEM products; this sector covers the gamut from CD jewel-box seals to the protection of safety-related items such as medicines and vehicle replacement parts. There has been creative synergy between the commercial suppliers of such holograms and the practical holography community. But new technologies are coming forward to challenge the role of holograms, a challenge that is aided by the counterfeiting of security holograms. What are the characteristics of those technologies and can holograms provide similar resources to users? Examples of collaboration between hologram producers and producers of other technologies to create combination devices suggest a possible route forward for holography to maintain its role in authentication and security. By scrutinising and adapting to needs, often by combination with other techniques, holographers may be able to retain their role in this important application.

  6. Texture formation in melt-solidified YBa 2Cu 3O z thick films by artificial surface reliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodilin, E. A.; Reddy, E. S.; Noudem, J. G.; Tarka, M.; Schmitz, G. J.

    2002-06-01

    Effects of surface reliefs on texturing multi-component functional materials, of thickness in the order of 50-100 μm are reported. As an example, YBa 2Cu 3O z crystals were biaxially aligned on untextured polycrystalline Ag-Pd substrates. Artificial surface reliefs resulted in up to 75-85% alignment within 10° of 0.1-1 mm square crystals of YBa 2Cu 3O z in the case of symmetry-matching patterns. Unlike artificial epitaxy of thin (<1 μm) films, the crystal alignment was achieved reproducibly by mechanical patterning of the substrates at a much larger, sub-millimeter length scale. The origin of texture formation—based on various factors like topographic wall effects, crystallization pressure, surface tension, solute redistribution and capillarity—is discussed. Possible applications of this approach for superconducting coated conductors or in the field of multiseeded substrates are highlighted.

  7. Efficiency of quantum volume hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, D. V.; Sokolov, I. V.

    2012-11-01

    We discuss storage and retrieval efficiency of parallel spatially multimode quantum memory for light - quantum volume hologram. The introduced in [D.V. Vasyliev, I.V. Sokolov, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 81, 020302(R) (2010)] scheme is based on the counter-propagating (non-collinear in general case) quantum signal wave and strong classical reference wave in presence of the Raman-type off-resonant interaction with atomic spins rotating in the magnetic field. By the forward-propagating retrieval the quantum volume hologram is less sensitive to diffraction [D.V. Vasyliev, I.V. Sokolov, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 81, 020302(R) (2010)] and therefore is capable of achieving high density of storage of spatial modes. We propose to use for the forward-propagating retrieval the signal temporal eigenmodes of the whole write-in and readout memory cycle. As compared to the approach when there are used the eigenmodes optimal only for the write-in stage of the memory, our proposal allows for better efficiencies for given physical parameters of the scheme, and, hence, for higher quantum capacity of parallel quantum memory. We also demonstrate that for the backward-propagating retrieval of quantum volume hologram the collective spin wave momentum inversion is needed, which is achieved by means of the π-pulse of stimulated Raman scattering of counter-propagating classical waves.

  8. Holographic recording of surface relief gratings in stilbene azobenzene derivatives at 633 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozols, A; Saharov, D; Kokars, V; Kampars, V; Maleckis, A; Mezinskis, G; Pludons, A, E-mail: aozols@latnet.l [Faculty of Material Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Azenes iela 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia)

    2010-11-01

    Holographic recording in stilbene azobenzene derivatives by He-Ne 633 nm laser light has been experimentally studied. It was found that surface relief gratings (SRG) can be recorded by red light. Usually shorter wavelengths are used to induce the trans-cis photo-isomerization in organic materials. SRG with 2 {mu}m period and an amplitude of 130 nm have been recorded with 0.88 W/cm{sup 2} light in about 20 minutes in amorphous films of 3-(4-(bis(2-(trityloxy)ethyl)amino)phenyl)-2-(4-(2-bromo-4-nitrophenyl) diazenyl)phenyl)acrylonitrile spin-coated on glass substrates. Self-diffraction efficiency up to 17.4% and specific recording energy down to 114 J/(cm{sup 2}%) were measured. The recorded SRG were stable as proved by subsequent AFM measurements. The photo-induced changes in absorption spectra did not reveal noticeable signs of trans-cis transformations. Rather, spectrally uniform bleaching of the films took place. We conclude that a photothermally stimulated photo-destruction of chromophores is responsible for the SRG recording. The recording of stable SRG in the stilbene azobenzene derivatives we studied is accompanied by the recording of relaxing volume-phase gratings due to the photo-orientation of chromophores by the linearly polarized recording light. It should also be noted that holographic recording efficiency in stilbene azobenzene derivatives exhibit an unusual non-monotonic sample storage-time dependence presumably caused by the peculiarities of structural relaxation of the films.

  9. The effect of occlusal surface relief of dies on marginal adaptation of metal-ceramic casting copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Fariba Saleh; Abolfazli, Nader; Mahboub, Farhang; Razavi, Fariba Emadian

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of occlusal relief of dies on internal adaptation of metal-ceramic casting copings. Standardized preparations were made on 80 extracted third molar teeth. Impressions were made with poly(vinyl siloxane), and stone dies were prepared. Dies were covered with four layers of die spacer, covering the entire preparation together with the occlusal surface excluding the apical 0.5 mm of the preparation in group 1 (40 specimens), and covering the same area excluding the occlusal surface in group 2 (40 specimens). Copings were cast using nickel-chromium-based metal ceramic alloy and cemented using zinc phosphate cement. The specimens were sectioned along the long axis. Internal discrepancies were recorded with a 0.001-mm resolution stereoscope at 6 points: the middle of the occlusal surface (MO), middle of the lingual wall (ML), middle of the buccal wall (MB), middle of the buccal shoulder finish line (MSH), middle of the lingual chamfer finish line (MCH), and middle of the buccal bevel finish line (MBL). Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Significance level was set at p die with no relief. Leaving the occlusal part of the die uncovered with the die spacer improved the crown seating considerably in the occlusal surface as well as shoulder and bevel margins. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Polarization volume holograms in layers of polymethylmethacrylate with phenanthrenequinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmysh, D. N.; Mahilny, U. V.

    2013-11-01

    Polarization volume holograms are recorded in the polymethylmethacrylate layers that contain phenanthrenequinone at a molar content of 2.5-3%. The effect of the polarization of recording beams on the kinetics of diffraction efficiency and properties of holograms is analyzed. Polarization hologram recording in the polymethylmethacrylate layers with phenanthrenequinone and a relatively high optical stability of the holograms are demonstrated.

  11. Application of photopolymer holograms for the anticounterfeit protection of banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Nina V.; Yamnikov, Leonid S.; Turkina, Elena S.; Semenov, Erick G.; Bulygin, Theodor V.; Levin, Gennady G.

    1998-04-01

    The article analyses holograms counterfeiting techniques and presents grounds for the choice of the optimum type of holograms best protected against counterfeiting -- volume holograms. There is a description of these holograms registration process on DuPont OmniDex photopolymer film and the analysis of the perspective of their use during banknotes production.

  12. Tectonics, climate and mountain building in the forearc of southern Peru recorded in the 10Be chronology of low-relief surface abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Audin, L.; Finkel, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Regional low-relief surfaces have long been recognized as key features to understanding the response of landscapes to surface uplift. The canonical models of low-relief surface formation involve an extended period of tectonic quiescence during which, the fluvial systems bevel the landscape to a uniform elevation. This quiescent period is punctuated by a period(s) of surface uplift, which causes fluvial incision thereby abandoning the low-relief landscape. Over time, as rivers continue to incise in response to changes in sediment supply, river discharge, and base level fall, pieces of the relict low-relief landscape are left as abandoned remnants stranded above active channels. By determining the age of abandoned surfaces, previous workers have identified the onset of a change in the tectonic or climatic setting. One key assumption of this model is that the low-relief surfaces are truly abandoned with no current processes further acting on the surface. To improve our understanding of the underlying assumptions and problems of low-relief surface formation, we have used detailed mapping and absolute dating with cosmogenic 10Be to investigate surfaces in the hyperarid forearc region of southern Peru between ~14° and 18°S. Within this region, marine terraces and strath terraces reflect Plio-Pleistocene surface uplift, and together with the hyperarid climate, ongoing surface uplift provides a perfect natural laboratory to examine the processes affecting low-relief surface abandonment and preservation. With our new chronology we address: 1) the space and time correlations of surfaces, 2) incision rates of streams in response to base-level fall, and 3) surface erosion rates. Multiple surfaces have yielded 10Be surface abandonment ages that span >2 Ma - ~35 ka. While most of the surfaces we have dated are considerably less than 1 Ma, we have located two surfaces which are likely older than 2 Ma and constrain regional erosion rates to be level are known, we can estimate

  13. Holograms preparation using commercial fluorescent benzyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorantes-GarcIa, V; Olivares-Perez, A; Ordonez-Padilla, M J; Mejias-Brizuela, N Y, E-mail: valdoga@Hotmail.com, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Coordinacion de Optica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro N0 1, Santa Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    We have been able to make holograms with substances such as fluorescence thought of light blue laser to make transmissions holograms, using ammonium dichromate as photo-sensitizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix. Ammonium dichromate inhibit the fluorescence properties of inks, both mixed in a (PVA) matrix, but we avoid this chemical reaction and we show the results to use the method of painting hologram with fluorescents ink and we describe how the diffraction efficiency parameter changes as a function of the ink absorbed by the emulsion recorded with the gratings, we got good results, making holographic gratings with a blue light from laser diode 470 nm. And we later were painting with fluorescent ink, integrating fluorescence characteristics to the hologram.

  14. 3D HOLOGRAM PENGENALAN ALAT TRANSPORTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jumal Wahda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alat transportasi merupakan salah satu kebutuhan utama manusia untuk menunjang berbagai kegiatan sehari-hari. Alat transportasi dalam pengelompokannya dapat berupa alat transportasi darat, udara dan laut. Alat transportasi tersebut antara lain adalah : mobil, sepeda motor, bus umum, taksi, sepeda, becak, pesawat terbang, kapal laut dan lain-lain. Umumnya didaerah perkotaan alat transportasi lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan pedesaan. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan sebuah edukasi yang menyenangkan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat mengenai alat transportasi. “3D Hologram Pengenalan Alat Transportasi” adalah sebuah 3D hologram tentang edukasi mengenai alat transportasi. Dengan adanya “3D Hologram Pengenalan Alat Transportasi”, diharapkan mampu membuat pengguna lebih mengenali alat transportasi khususnya di Indonesia. Dari hasil pengujian didapatkan bahwa “3D Hologram Pengenalan Alat Transportasi” mampu memberikan informasi dan pengetahuan kepada pengguna transportasi di Indonesia.

  15. Denudational surface processes and trends of relief development in mountain valleys in western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2014-05-01

    The various rates at which mountain landscapes are changing today are a response to (i) the long-term landscape history, (ii) the contemporary imprint of current tectonic activity, (iii) climate variability and (iv) anthropogenic influences. Large areas of the Norwegian mountainous fjord landscapes are today occupied by hillslopes which reflect the influence of glacial inheritance from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a direct response to climate variability during the Pleistocene. This study deals with the quantitative analysis of denudational slope processes and relief development occurring in selected mountain valleys in western Norway from the end of the LGM until today. The main focus of this research is two-fold: (i) analyzing the complexity of hillslope development since the LGM in glacially formed valleys, and (ii) assessing the spatio-temporal variability, controls and rates of relevant denudational slope processes operating under Holocene to contemporary environmental conditions in western Norway. Five years of research (2009-2013) were conducted in two steep, parabolic-shaped and glacier-connected neighbouring drainage basins, Erdalen (79.5 km2) and Bødalen (60.1 km2), located on the western side of the Jostedalsbreen ice cap in western Norway. The process-based approach applied encompasses techniques and methods for geomorphic process analysis of past (e.g. DEM/GIS based spatial data analysis, geophysical investigation of slope storage) and contemporary (process monitoring in field, in-depth studies of relevant slope processes) denudational process activity. The main results of this work reveal that the Holocene to contemporary slope processes and the connected relief development during this time period are primarily controlled by the imprint of the glacial history of the study areas which can be seen as a direct response to climate variability. Apart from that, a significant influence of the Little Ice Age (LIA) glacier advance on hillslope

  16. Accurate relief of the die surface of the wax pattern prior to casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, C G

    1977-06-01

    A quick, simple technique has been described to mark, identify, and remove interferences from the inner surface of a wax pattern. Problems in the seating of simple and complex castings are virtually eliminated.

  17. New fully functioning digital hologram recording system and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Der-Kuan; Alcaraz Rivera, Miguel; Báez, Javier; Cruz-Lopez, María Luisa

    2010-10-01

    We propose a low-cost optical system that is able to simply generate computer-generated holograms and rainbow type and true-color Lippmann type holograms. In this system, a microimaging system is applied to reduce the digitized optical data/patterns to achieve about 0.45 μm of optical resolution for rainbow hologram recording and an about 60-deg viewing angle for the Lippmann hologram. The system is designed as a turn-key machine switching between different operating modes. Custom-generated software is applied to calculate and write digital fringe patterns at real-time speed. Applications for the digital rainbow hologram include computer-generated holograms, anticounterfeiting security labels, 3-D display, and 2-D/3-D truecolor holographic stereogram images for the Lippmann hologram. This single-process synthesizing system can be considered as a fully functioning hologram printer.

  18. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  19. Surface-Relief Gratings in Halogen-Bonded Polymer–Azobenzene Complexes: A Concentration-Dependence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle E. Stumpel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, supramolecular complexes comprising a poly(4-vinylpyridine backbone and azobenzene-based halogen bond donors have emerged as a promising class of materials for the inscription of light-induced surface-relief gratings (SRGs. The studies up to date have focused on building supramolecular hierarchies, i.e., optimizing the polymer–azobenzene noncovalent interaction for efficient surface patterning. They have been conducted using systems with relatively low azobenzene content, and little is known about the concentration dependence of SRG formation in halogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes. Herein, we bridge this gap, and study the concentration dependence of SRG formation using two halogen-bond-donating azobenzene derivatives, one functionalized with a tetrafluoroiodophenyl and the other with an iodoethynylphenyl group. Both have been previously identified as efficient molecules in driving the SRG formation. We cover a broad concentration range, starting from 10 mol % azobenzene content and going all the way up to equimolar degree of complexation. The complexes are studied as spin-coated thin films, and analyzed by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical diffraction arising during the SRG formation. We obtained diffraction efficiencies as high as 35%, and modulation depths close to 400 nm, which are significantly higher than the values previously reported for halogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes.

  20. Surface-Relief Gratings in Halogen-Bonded Polymer-Azobenzene Complexes: A Concentration-Dependence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpel, Jelle E; Saccone, Marco; Dichiarante, Valentina; Lehtonen, Ossi; Virkki, Matti; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Priimagi, Arri

    2017-10-28

    In recent years, supramolecular complexes comprising a poly(4-vinylpyridine) backbone and azobenzene-based halogen bond donors have emerged as a promising class of materials for the inscription of light-induced surface-relief gratings (SRGs). The studies up to date have focused on building supramolecular hierarchies, i.e., optimizing the polymer-azobenzene noncovalent interaction for efficient surface patterning. They have been conducted using systems with relatively low azobenzene content, and little is known about the concentration dependence of SRG formation in halogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes. Herein, we bridge this gap, and study the concentration dependence of SRG formation using two halogen-bond-donating azobenzene derivatives, one functionalized with a tetrafluoroiodophenyl and the other with an iodoethynylphenyl group. Both have been previously identified as efficient molecules in driving the SRG formation. We cover a broad concentration range, starting from 10 mol % azobenzene content and going all the way up to equimolar degree of complexation. The complexes are studied as spin-coated thin films, and analyzed by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical diffraction arising during the SRG formation. We obtained diffraction efficiencies as high as 35%, and modulation depths close to 400 nm, which are significantly higher than the values previously reported for halogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes.

  1. Compensation of Hologram Distortion by Controlling Defocus Component in Reference Beam Wavefront for Angle Multiplexed Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, T.; Kinoshita, N.; Ishii, N.; Kamijo, K.; Kawata, Y.; Kikuchi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Holographic memory has the potential to function as a recording system with a large capacity and high data-transfer-rate. Photopolymer materials are typically used as a write-once recording medium. When holograms are recorded on this medium, they can distort due to shrinkage or expansion of the materials, which degrades the reconstructed image and causes a higher bit error rate (bER) of the reproduced data. We propose optically compensating for hologram distortion by controlling aberration components in the reference beam wavefront while reproducing data, thereby improving the reproduced data quality. First, we investigated the relation between each aberration component of the reference beam and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reproduced data using numerical simulation and found that horizontal tilt and the defocus component affect the SNR. Next, we experimentally evaluated the reproduced data by controlling the defocus component in the reference beam and found that the bER of the reproduced data could be decreased by controlling the defocus center with respect to the hologram position and phase modulation depth of the defocus component. Then, we investigated a practical control method of the defocus component using an evaluation value similar to the definition of the SNR for actual data reproduction from holograms. Using a defocus controlled wavefront enabled us to decrease the bER from 3.54 x 10^-3 with a plane wave to 3.14 x 10^-4. We also investigated how to reduce the bERs of reproduced data in angle multiplexed holograms. By using a defocus controlled wavefront to compensate for hologram distortion on the 40th data page in 80-page angle multiplexed holograms, the bERs of all pages could be decreased to less than 1x10^-3. We showed that controlling the defocus component is an effective way to compensate for hologram distortion and to decrease the bER of reproduced data in holographic memory.

  2. SEARCH AUTOMATION OF BINARIZATION OPTIMUM LEVEL FOR SYNTHESIZED HOLOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Nikanorov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the features of synthesized holograms suitable for practical use. It is established that binary holograms are the first of all suitable ones for successful application in practice. In order to select the most suitable (optimal level of hologram binarization, we propose a criterion for estimating the quality of an image reconstructed with a binary hologram. An algorithm is developed to find the optimal level. On the basis of the conducted experiments it is established that the introduction of the developed module gives the possibility to reduce the search time of the optimal binarization level of the hologram by eleven times in comparison with manual search.

  3. Digital holograms for laser mode multiplexing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, T

    2014-10-02

    Full Text Available beams,” Optics Express 17(26), 23389–23395 (2009). 12. Arrizo´n, V., Ruiz, U., Carrada, R., and Gonza´lez, L. A., “Pixelated phase computer holograms for the accurate encoding of scalar complex fields,” JOSA A 24(11), 3500–3507 (2007). 13. McLaren, M...

  4. Laser beam characterization with digital holograms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We show how laser beam characterization may be done in real-time with digital holograms. We illustrate the power of the techniques by applying them to a variety of laser sources, from fibers to solid-state....

  5. Can methylphenidate objectively provide relief in patients with uncontrolled blepharospasm? A pilot study using surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kristina M; Ramey, Nicholas A; Richard, Michael J; Woodward, Donald J; Woodward, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether there is an objective benefit to prescribing Ritalin for patients with uncontrolled blepharospasm exists. Seven subjects with benign essential blepharospasm, who were being treated with botulinum toxin injections and Ritalin LA, were recruited for this pilot study. Patients were asked to participate during the period of time when symptoms were beginning to return. Subjects underwent video and surface electromyography (sEMG) monitoring before and 2 hours after the administration of Ritalin. Mean sEMG potential for each eye was compared before and after the administration of Ritalin. Subjects also rated their disability based on a previously developed and reproducible blepharospasm functional disability scale. Functional Disability Scores were compared, and post-Ritalin treatment benefit was determined. The mean voltage of the sEMG was lower in 13 of 14 eyes after the administration of Ritalin. For the right eye, the voltage decreased by 50% (106.4 ± 13.6 mV to 52.7 ± 7.1 mV, p = 0.015), and for the left eye, by 31% (81.9 ± 9.7 mV to 56.6 ± 6.1 mV, p = 0.031). The Functional Disability Scores were also lower after the administration of Ritalin than before (p = 0.016). A significant decrease in mean voltage after the administration of Ritalin was found in this preselected group of patients. Subjective improvement with decreased disability and increased functional benefit was also found in all subjects. Based on the results of this study, a randomized, controlled study comparing Ritalin versus placebo is needed to determine whether Ritalin should be routinely prescribed for benign essential blepharospasm during the symptomatic window period.

  6. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  7. Advanced synthetic holograms for security purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotačka, Libor; Vízdal, Petr; Behounek, Tomás

    2009-05-01

    Our paper deals with the recent advances in synthetically written optical security devices (DOVIDs) and holograms. The synthesized holographic security elements are recorded with a resolution reaching 500.000 dpi and are specially developed for the "layman-level" security of the most important state valuables and documents, like banknotes and identity cards. We especially pay an attention to such holographic features being impossible to originate through conventional optical holography of matrix based devices.

  8. Hololujah; A One Kilometre Art Hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David

    2013-02-01

    This paper will outline the production of the white light transmission achromatic image art hologram titled Hololujah displaying forward projecting real imagery of text and measuring 100,000 × 3.5 cm. Materials and methods: The paper will cover the use of Slavich VRP-M film 33.3 × 1.05 metres that was exposed and processed as thirty-three and a third 100 × 105 cm frames. These thirty-three and a third frames were subsequently cut into one thousand 100 × 3.5 cm strips with their ends cold laminated together to form the kilometre length hologram. This paper will expand on the use of a Coherent Compass 315M, 532 nm, 150 mW DPSS laser diode in a lensless setup, using a single beam through diffuse glass, no isolation systems and a two minute exposure time with the film lying flat on the floor. Lastly, this paper will illustrate how the hologram was produced in a 220 × 200 × 300 cm confined area of a suburban bedroom. Theme: This artwork is a comment on the social networking site Twitter.

  9. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... neck, shoulder, knee, or elbow) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Hypnosis is a focused state of concentration. With self- ...

  10. Development of high-index optical coating for security holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadir A. G.

    2000-10-01

    Over the past few years security holograms have grown into a complex business to prevent counterfeiting of security cards, banknotes and the like. Rapid advances in holographic technology have led to a growing requirement for optical materials and coating methods to produce such holograms at reasonable costs. These materials have specific refractive indices and are used to fabricate semi- transparent holograms. The present paper describes a coating process to deposit optical coating on flexible films inside a vacuum web metallizer for the production of high quality semi-transparent holograms.

  11. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  12. Wavefront reconstruction using computer-generated holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christian; Flamm, Daniel; Schmidt, Oliver A.; Duparré, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new method to determine the wavefront of a laser beam, based on modal decomposition using computer-generated holograms (CGHs). Thereby the beam under test illuminates the CGH with a specific, inscribed transmission function that enables the measurement of modal amplitudes and phases by evaluating the first diffraction order of the hologram. Since we use an angular multiplexing technique, our method is innately capable of real-time measurements of amplitude and phase, yielding the complete information about the optical field. A measurement of the Stokes parameters, respectively of the polarization state, provides the possibility to calculate the Poynting vector. Two wavefront reconstruction possibilities are outlined: reconstruction from the phase for scalar beams and reconstruction from the Poynting vector for inhomogeneously polarized beams. To quantify single aberrations, the reconstructed wavefront is decomposed into Zernike polynomials. Our technique is applied to beams emerging from different kinds of multimode optical fibers, such as step-index, photonic crystal and multicore fibers, whereas in this work results are exemplarily shown for a step-index fiber and compared to a Shack-Hartmann measurement that serves as a reference.

  13. Phase holograms in PMMA with proximity effect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, R. E.

    1993-08-01

    Complex computer generated phase holograms (CGPH's) have been fabricated in PMMA by partial e-beam exposure and subsequent partial development. The CGPH was encoded as a sequence of phase delay pixels and written by the JEOL JBX-5D2 E-beam lithography system, a different dose being assigned to each value of phase delay. Following carefully controlled partial development, the pattern appeared rendered in relief in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The exposure dose was in the range 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and very aggressive development in pure acetone led to low contrast. This enabled etch depth control to better than plus or minus lambda(sub vis)/60. That result was obtained by exposing isolated 50 micron square patches and measuring resist removal over the central area where the proximity effect dose was uniform and related only to the local exposure. For complex CGPH's with pixel size of the order of the e-beam proximity effect radius, the patterns must be corrected for the extra exposure caused by electrons scattered back up out of the substrate. This has been accomplished by deconvolving the two-dimensional dose deposition function with the desired dose pattern. The deposition function, which plays much the same role as an instrument response function, was carefully measured under the exact conditions used to expose the samples. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 1 cm square, and consisted of up to 100 million 0.3-2.0 micron square pixels. Data files were up to 500 MB long and exposure times ranged to tens of hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated that had diffraction limited optical performance with better than 85 percent efficiency.

  14. Properties Of Reflection Holograms Recorded In Polaroid's DMP-128 Photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwall, R. T.; Troll, M.; Vetterling, W. T.

    1987-06-01

    Optical and microstructural properties of reflection holograms recorded in DMP-128 are reported. The optical properties are determined from transmission spectra of the holograms by ignoring the relatively small effects of light scattering and absorption. Microstructure is revealed by light and electron microscopic examination of hologram sections prepared either by diamond grit abrasion or by freeze fracture. Fringe planes are clearly seen with both sectioning procedures. The spacing between adjacent planes is strongly affected by processing conditions. Standard processing produces reflection holograms with fringe plane spacing that decreases continuously from the film:substrate interface to the film:air interface. These holograms have wide spectral bandwidths (100-200nm) and irregular band shapes. Narrow bandwidth holograms are produced from slightly more complicated processing steps. The optical properties of both types of holograms are compared to a theoretical model developed to account for nonuniform fringe plane spacing. Important experimental features such as spectral bandwidth and diffraction efficiency are readily explained by the theory and the observed microstructure.

  15. Influence of Softening Temperature of Azobenzene Polymers and External Electric Field on Diffraction Efficiency of Polarization Holograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolay Davidenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the diffraction efficiency and recording velocity was found in the films of copolymers 4-((2- nitrophenyl diazeniylphenylmethacrylate with octylmethacrylate at room temperature holographic recording for copolymer with less softening temperature. Effect of strengthening of the diffraction efficiency was observed when charging surface of the films with recorded hologram in crown discharge.

  16. Two-dimensional Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite surface-relief grating couplers and their vertical input coupling properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Mu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gang; Liu, Changlong

    2017-11-01

    By etching two SiO2 optical waveguide slabs separately implanted with 90 keV Ag ions and 60 keV Cu ions at the same dose of 6 × 1016 cm-2, two-dimensional Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 nanocomposite surface-relief grating couplers with 600-nm periodicity and 100-nm thickness were fabricated, and their structural and vertical input coupling properties were investigated. Experimental results revealed that the two couplers could convert light beams at wavelengths of 620-880 nm into guided waves with different efficiencies, highlighting the special importance of metal nanoparticles (NPs). Further discussions also revealed that owing to the introduction of periodically distributed metal NPs, the periodical phase modification of the transmitted beam was enhanced drastically, and the nanocomposite veins could behave as efficient light scatterers. As a result, the two couplers were much larger in coupling efficiency than the NP-free one with identical morphological parameters. The above findings may be useful to construct thin and short but efficient surface-relief grating couplers on glass optical waveguides.

  17. Submicron confocal Raman imaging of holograms in multicomponent photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, C. R.; Harris, T. D.; Harris, A. L.; Schilling, M. L.

    1998-04-01

    We report submicron chemical imaging of optical holograms in multicomponent photopolymers using a confocal scanning Raman microscope. The microscope is sensitive to the submicron, ˜1% concentration variations of the polymeric components that form refractive index modulations (Δn) responsible for hologram diffraction. Concentration variations are established by both small molecule diffusion and polymer matrix swelling during hologram writing. Both density and composition variations contribute to Δn. These measurements demonstrate that submicron Raman microscopy is applicable to multicomponent organic, inorganic, and hybrid materials as a route to correlate materials chemistry/morphology with their physical properties.

  18. Diffraction efficiency and noise analysis of hidden image holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Puodžiukynas, Linas

    2017-01-01

    The simplified approach for analysis of hidden image holograms is discussed in this paper. Diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio of reconstructed images were investigated using direct measurements technique and digitized image analysis employing “ImageJ” software. All holograms were...... energy densities demonstrated improved diffraction efficiency and reduced signal to noise ratio of the reconstructed image. The best diffraction efficiency at sufficient signal to noise ratio was obtained using exposure energy density in the range from 150 to 200 J/m2 during the hologram writing process....

  19. Volume Hologram Formation in SU-8 Photoresist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the mechanism of volume hologram formation in photosensitive polymers, light-induced material response is analyzed in commonly used epoxy-based negative photoresist Epon SU-8. For this purpose, time-resolved investigation of volume holographic grating growth is performed in the SU-8 based host–guest system and in the pure SU-8 material, respectively. The comparison of grating growth curves from doped and undoped system allows us to draw conclusions on the impact of individual components on the grating formation process. The successive formation of transient absorption as well as phase gratings in SU-8 is observed. Influence of exposure duration and UV flood cure on the grating growth are investigated. Observed volume holographic grating formation in SU-8 can be explained based on the generation and subsequent diffusion of photoacid as well as time-delayed polymerization of exposed and unexposed areas.

  20. Methods of compression of digital holograms, based on 1-level wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatova, E A; Cheremkhin, P A; Evtikhiev, N N

    2016-01-01

    To reduce the size of memory required for storing information about 3D-scenes and to decrease the rate of hologram transmission, digital hologram compression can be used. Compression of digital holograms by wavelet transforms is among most powerful methods. In the paper the most popular wavelet transforms are considered and applied to the digital hologram compression. Obtained values of reconstruction quality and hologram's diffraction efficiencies are compared. (paper)

  1. Submicron Confocal Raman Microscopy of Optical Holograms in Multicomponent Photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, C. R.; Harris, T. D.; Harris, A. L.; Schilling, M. L.

    1998-03-01

    We demonstrate submicron chemical imaging of optical holograms in multicomponent photopolymers using a scanning confocal Raman microscope. Our microscope is sensitive to the submicron, <1 percent concentration variations of the polymeric components that form the refractive index modulation responsible for hologram diffraction. Photopolymers are attractive media for holographic data storage, yet the mechanisms for generating the refractive index modulations responsible for hologram diffraction remain poorly understood. We obtain the first direct chemical evidence showing that these concentration modulations are established both by monomer diffusion and by polymer matrix swelling during hologram writing. Spatial variations in both density and composition contribute to the refractive index modulation. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of submicron Raman microscopy in chemically imaging photodegradable organic and biological materials.

  2. LED-based digital hologram reconstruction by compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiawen; Yang, Chuping; Qin, Yi; Li, Hai

    2015-10-01

    LED-based digital hologram, considered as low-coherence digital hologram, is confined to in-line holography because the interference fringes could be observed only when the angle between the object and reference wave is small enough. So, phase-shifting technique is usually employed. But it is not fit for dynamic analysis for demanding more than one hologram. A numerical reconstruction method based on compressive sensing theory for single LED-based digital hologram is proposed to achieve dynamic analysis. By this method, the out-of-focus twin image and the coherent noise can be inhibited to some extent. The theory is presented in detail, and experimental result on LED-based digital holography with USAF pattern as test target, is performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the method.

  3. Quickly Updatable Hologram Images Using Poly(N-vinyl Carbazole (PVCz Photorefractive Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sakai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quickly updatable hologram images using photorefractive (PR polymer composite based on poly(N-vinyl carbazole (PVCz is presented. PVCz is one of the pioneer materials of photoconductive polymers. PR polymer composite consists of 44 wt % of PVCz, 35 wt % of 4-azacycloheptylbenzylidene-malonitrile (7-DCST as a nonlinear optical dye, 20 wt % of carbazolylethylpropionate (CzEPA as a photoconductive plasticizer and 1 wt % of 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF as a sensitizer. PR composite gives high diffraction efficiency of 68% at E = 45 V μm−1. Response speed of optical diffraction is the key parameter for real-time 3D holographic display. The key parameter for obtaining quickly updatable holographic images is to control the glass transition temperature lower enough to enhance chromophore orientation. Object image of the reflected coin surface recorded with reference beam at 532 nm (green beam in the PR polymer composite is simultaneously reconstructed using a red probe beam at 642 nm. Instead of using a coin object, an object image produced by a computer was displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM and used for the hologram. The reflected object beam from an SLM was interfered with a reference beam on PR polymer composite to record a hologram and simultaneously reconstructed by a red probe beam.

  4. Effects of surface relief on the texture formation of melt-solidified YBa 2Cu 3O z thick films on metal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodilin, E. A.; Reddy, E. S.; Noudem, J. G.; Tarka, M.; Schmitz, G. J.

    2002-08-01

    Biaxial orientation of up to 75-85% of YBa 2Cu 3O z square crystals of 0.1-1 mm size was achieved on polycrystalline Ag-Pd substrates with artificial surface reliefs by adopting the principles of artificial epitaxy and a shape-preserving low-temperature infiltration process. Unlike artificial epitaxy for thin films, the crystal alignment was attained reproducibly by mechanical patterning of the substrates at a large, millimeter length-scale. Texture formation might be related to various factors like solute redistribution in a multicomponent system, capillarity, crystallization pressure and wall effects. Possible applications of this approach for coated conductors or in the field of multiseeded substrates are discussed.

  5. Computer Generated Hologram System for Wavefront Measurement System Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) have been used for some time to calibrate interferometers that require nulling optics. A typical scenario is the testing of aspheric surfaces with an interferometer placed near the paraxial center of curvature. Existing CGH technology suffers from a reduced capacity to calibrate middle and high spatial frequencies. The root cause of this shortcoming is as follows: the CGH is not placed at an image conjugate of the asphere due to limitations imposed by the geometry of the test and the allowable size of the CGH. This innovation provides a calibration system where the imaging properties in calibration can be made comparable to the test configuration. Thus, if the test is designed to have good imaging properties, then middle and high spatial frequency errors in the test system can be well calibrated. The improved imaging properties are provided by a rudimentary auxiliary optic as part of the calibration system. The auxiliary optic is simple to characterize and align to the CGH. Use of the auxiliary optic also reduces the size of the CGH required for calibration and the density of the lines required for the CGH. The resulting CGH is less expensive than the existing technology and has reduced write error and alignment error sensitivities. This CGH system is suitable for any kind of calibration using an interferometer when high spatial resolution is required. It is especially well suited for tests that include segmented optical components or large apertures.

  6. Changing thoughts: a series of digital art holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Light is the one key essential quality of holography and as such holograms are morphologically closer to 'Optical', 'Kinetic' and 'Light Art'. In my attempt to explore this 'Kinetic' feature I collaborated Martin Richardson in the Modern Holography Program at DeMontfort University, in Leicester between March 2010 and 2011, to produce a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars with an open and experiential reference to light capture as energetic element. These holograms were filmed using a 35mm digital camera on a moving rail system and are as such 'Stereogram's', then printed by GEOLA in Lithuania as reflection holograms measuring 50cm x 60cm. The title of this series of digital stereographic holograms is 'Changing Thoughts'. They allude to the interrelationship the observer has in assuming an understanding of what they see, only to suddenly change when they find out that what they are seeing is actually something quite different to what they had understood. Much critical theorization, in recent times, has focused on the body and related to the work of Merleau-Ponty. And to António Damásio, the word images, means mental patterns with each sensorial way. Not only related at "visual" images nor static objects. But also sonorous images, or body inside images like those described by Einstein when he was trying to solve problems.

  7. 3D HOLOGRAM KATALOG MEBEL KOMUNITAS “PESONA BAHARI”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suroso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Media promosi dari waktu ke waktu semakin berkembang, dari  pembicaraan orang ke orang sampai memasuki era  digital  sesuai perkembangan teknologi saat  ini.  Dimana pada  era  digital ini  banyak bermunculan aplikasi–aplikasi yang digunakan sebagai media promosi. Dalam hal ini media yang akan dikembangkan adalah media promosi dengan 3D hologram yaitu membuat sebuah 3D hologram katalog mebel pesona bahari yang masih dalam bentuk buku atau gambar 2D yang nantinya akan menampilkan detail jenis suatu barang mebel yang akan dipromosikan. 3D hologram merupakan salah satu contoh perkembangan teknologi yang masih tergolong baru pada saat ini, dimana 3D hologram akan menampilkan bentuk barang yang menyerupai bentuk aslinya. Dengan metode pengembangan multimedia yang dikembangkan oleh sutopo yaitu concept, design, material collecting, assembly, testing, dan distribution.Animasi akan dibangun dimulai dari pengonsepan animasi sampai pada akhirnya animasi akan didisbrusikan kepada masyarakat umum yang membutuhkan. Aplikasi yang akan didistribusikan berupa aplikasi jadi dimana di dalam aplikasi tersebut berisi animasi 3D Hologram barang-barang mebel yang telah ditentukan.

  8. Efficient Verification of Holograms Using Mobile Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Andreas Daniel; Arth, Clemens; Grubert, Jens; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    Paper documents such as passports, visas and banknotes are frequently checked by inspection of security elements. In particular, optically variable devices such as holograms are important, but difficult to inspect. Augmented Reality can provide all relevant information on standard mobile devices. However, hologram verification on mobiles still takes long and provides lower accuracy than inspection by human individuals using appropriate reference information. We aim to address these drawbacks by automatic matching combined with a special parametrization of an efficient goal-oriented user interface which supports constrained navigation. We first evaluate a series of similarity measures for matching hologram patches to provide a sound basis for automatic decisions. Then a re-parametrized user interface is proposed based on observations of typical user behavior during document capture. These measures help to reduce capture time to approximately 15 s with better decisions regarding the evaluated samples than what can be achieved by untrained users.

  9. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  10. Humanitarian relief supply chain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper models a humanitarian relief chain that includes a relief goods supply chain and an evacuation chain in case of a natural disaster. Optimum network flow is studied for both the chains by considering three conflicting objectives, namely demand satisfaction in relief chain, demand satisfaction in evacuation chain ...

  11. Interferometric key readable security holograms with secrete-codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new method is described to create secrete-codes in the security holograms for enhancing their anti-counterfeiting characteristics. ... Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector 30, Chandigarh 160 030, India; Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125 001, India ...

  12. Interferometric key readable security holograms with secrete-codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To imitate these codes is difficult as pure phase objects having complex phase distribution function are used to modulate the object beam that is recorded in conjunction with an encoded interferometric reference beam derived from a key hologram. Lloyd's folding mirror interferometer is used to convert phase variations of ...

  13. Interferometric key readable security holograms with secrete-codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new method is described to create secrete-codes in the security holograms for enhancing their anti-counterfeiting characteristics. To imitate these codes is difficult as pure phase objects having complex phase distribution function are used to modulate the object beam that is recorded in conjunction with an ...

  14. Detection of viability of micro-algae cells by optofluidic hologram pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yu, Xiaomei; Wang, Yanjuan; Pan, Xinxiang; Li, Dongqing

    2018-03-01

    A rapid detection of micro-algae activity is critical for analysis of ship ballast water. A new method for detecting micro-algae activity based on lens-free optofluidic holographic imaging is presented in this paper. A compact lens-free optofluidic holographic imaging device was developed. This device is mainly composed of a light source, a small through-hole, a light propagation module, a microfluidic chip, and an image acquisition and processing module. The excited light from the light source passes through a small hole to reach the surface of the micro-algae cells in the microfluidic chip, and a holographic image is formed by the diffraction light of surface of micro-algae cells. The relation between the characteristics in the hologram pattern and the activity of micro-algae cells was investigated by using this device. The characteristics of the hologram pattern were extracted to represent the activity of micro-algae cells. To demonstrate the accuracy of the presented method and device, four species of micro-algae cells were employed as the test samples and the comparison experiments between the alive and dead cells of four species of micro-algae were conducted. The results show that the developed method and device can determine live/dead microalgae cells accurately.

  15. Occlusion culling and calculation for a computer generated hologram using spatial frequency index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Huang, Yingqing; Yan, Xingpeng; Jiang, Xiaoyu

    2015-10-01

    A spatial frequency index method is proposed to cull occlusion and generate a hologram. Object points with the same spatial frequency are put into a set for their mutual occlusion. The hidden surfaces of the three-dimensional (3D) scene are quickly removed through culling the object points that are furthest from the hologram plane in the set. The phases of plane wave, which are only interrelated with the spatial frequencies, are precomputed and stored in a table. According to the spatial frequency of the object points, the phases of plane wave for generating fringes are obtained directly from the table. Three 3D scenes are chosen to verify the spatial frequency index method. Both numerical simulation and optical reconstruction are performed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can cull the hidden surfaces of the 3D scene correctly. The occlusion effect of the 3D scene can be well reproduced. The computational speed is better than that obtained using conventional methods but is still time-consuming.

  16. Reconstruction of on-axis lensless Fourier transform digital hologram with the screen division method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongzhen; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yong; Li, Dong; Chen, Zhu; Zheng, Fanglan; Yu, Deqiang

    2017-10-01

    An effective approach for reconstructing on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital hologram by using the screen division method is proposed. Firstly, the on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram is divided into sub-holograms. Then the reconstruction result of every sub-hologram is obtained according to the position of corresponding sub-hologram in the hologram reconstruction plane with Fourier transform operation. Finally, the reconstruction image of on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram can be acquired by the superposition of the reconstruction result of sub-holograms. Compared with the traditional reconstruction method with the phase shifting technology, in which multiple digital holograms are required to record for obtaining the reconstruction image, this method can obtain the reconstruction image with only one digital hologram and therefore greatly simplify the recording and reconstruction process of on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital holography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is well proved with the experimental results and it will have potential application foreground in the holographic measurement and display field.

  17. Fast distributed large-pixel-count hologram computation using a GPU cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuechao; Xu, Xuewu; Liang, Xinan

    2013-09-10

    Large-pixel-count holograms are one essential part for big size holographic three-dimensional (3D) display, but the generation of such holograms is computationally demanding. In order to address this issue, we have built a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster with 32.5 Tflop/s computing power and implemented distributed hologram computation on it with speed improvement techniques, such as shared memory on GPU, GPU level adaptive load balancing, and node level load distribution. Using these speed improvement techniques on the GPU cluster, we have achieved 71.4 times computation speed increase for 186M-pixel holograms. Furthermore, we have used the approaches of diffraction limits and subdivision of holograms to overcome the GPU memory limit in computing large-pixel-count holograms. 745M-pixel and 1.80G-pixel holograms were computed in 343 and 3326 s, respectively, for more than 2 million object points with RGB colors. Color 3D objects with 1.02M points were successfully reconstructed from 186M-pixel hologram computed in 8.82 s with all the above three speed improvement techniques. It is shown that distributed hologram computation using a GPU cluster is a promising approach to increase the computation speed of large-pixel-count holograms for large size holographic display.

  18. Passive margin high altitude low relief surfaces: old or new? Testing the glacial/periglacial buzzsaw hypothesis on the landscape of Southern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthling, Ivar

    2015-04-01

    Low relief surfaces at relatively high altitude are a main characteristic of the landscape in Southern Norway. These surfaces have for more than a century been regarded as old surfaces, originally developed as low altitude peneplains and later tectonically uplifted during the Cenozoic (e.g. LidmarBergstrom et al., 2000). Recently, this standard model has been challenged by models suggesting more recent uplift from erosionally driven isostatic adjustments during Pliocene and Pleistocene (Nielsen et al., 2009) or also earlier (Gołędowski et al., 2013). These models differ in opinion as to how and when the surfaces actually have developed from denudational processes in increasingly colder climates, unconstrained by a common base level, but both a glacial and a periglacial 'buzzsaw' have been invoked. If this interpretation is correct, it provides an example of large-scale periglacial bedrock landscape development and further underlines the importance of cryo-conditioning for long-term landscape development (Berthling and Etzelmüller, 2011) and the interconnected role of earth surface processes in cold climates. According to (French, 2007), however, large scale periglacial landscapes are rare or non-existent. Testing the periglacial 'buzzsaw' is therefore important, both for addressing the potential general long-term effects of periglacial processes on landscape development, and specifically to evaluate the mentioned models for Cenozoic landscape development. Here, we assess both the standard model and the glacial/periglacial 'buzzsaw' hypotheses on the Southern Norway landscape development, based on available field relationships. The periglacial 'buzzsaw' involves two aspects: sediment production by frost weathering, and sediment transport by periglacial mass wasting, i.e. solifluction and/or permafrost creep. Several studies evaluate frost weathering at the landscape scale, but periglacial mass wasting - especially regarding solifluction - has mainly been

  19. Design and visualization of synthetic holograms for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škeren, M; Nývlt, M; Svoboda, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a software for the design and visualization of holographic elements containing full scale of visual effects. It enables to simulate an observation of the holographic elements under general conditions including different light sources with various spectral and coherence properties and various geometries of reconstruction. Furthermore, recent technologies offer interesting possibilities for the 3D visualization such as the 3D techniques based on shutter or polarization glasses, anaglyphs, etc. The presented software is compatible with the mentioned techniques and enables an application of the 3D hardware tools for visualization. The software package can be used not only for visualization of the existing designs, but also for a fine tuning of the spatial, kinetic, and color properties of the hologram. Moreover, the holograms containing all types of the 3D effects, general color mixing, kinetic behavior, diffractive cryptograms, etc. can be translated using the software directly to a high resolution micro-structure.

  20. Reconstruction dynamics of recorded holograms in photochromic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Mona; Pavel, Eugen; Nicolae, Vasile B

    2011-06-20

    We have investigated the dynamics of the record-erase process of holograms in photochromic glass using continuum Nd:YVO₄ laser radiation (λ=532 nm). A bidimensional microgrid pattern was formed and visualized in photochromic glass, and its diffraction efficiency decay versus time (during reconstruction step) gave us information (D, Δn) about the diffusion process inside the material. The recording and reconstruction processes were carried out in an off-axis setup, and the images of the reconstructed object were recorded by a CCD camera. Measurements realized on reconstructed object images using holograms recorded at a different incident power laser have shown a two-stage process involved in silver atom kinetics.

  1. Phase holograms formed by silver halide (sensitized) gelatin processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, W R; Gladden, J W; Eastes, J W

    1980-05-01

    A novel recording process for the formation of phase volume holograms at up to 1500 cycles/mm is described. The term silver halide (sensitized) gelatin or SHG denotes an all-gelatin phase material, which records the initial image information through photon absorption by the silver halide. Our process uses a reversal bleach that dissolves the developed silver image and cross-links the gelatin molecules in the vicinity of the developed image. Experiments have determined the stored image as refractive-index differences within the remaining gelatin. The major attributes of SHG holograms are (1) panchromatic response, (2) 100:1 greater light sensitivity than dichromate (sensitized) gelatin, and (3) elimination of darkening (printout) effects.

  2. Far-field and Fresnel Liquid Crystal Geometric Phase Holograms via Direct-Write Photo-Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study computer-generated geometric-phase holograms (GPHs realized by photo-aligned liquid crystals, in both simulation and experiment. We demonstrate both far-field and Fresnel holograms capable of producing far-field and near-field images with preserved fidelity for all wavelengths. The GPHs are fabricated by patterning a photo-alignment layer (PAL using a direct-write laser scanner and coating the surface with a polymerizable liquid crystal (i.e., a reactive mesogen. We study various recording pixel sizes, down to 3 μm, that are easily recorded in the PAL. We characterize the fabricated elements and find good agreement with theory and numerical simulation. Because of the wavelength independent geometric phase, the (phase fidelity of the replay images is preserved for all wavelengths, unlike conventional dynamic phase holograms. However, governed by the diffraction equation, the size and location of a reconstructed image depends on the replay wavelength for far-field and near-field GPHs, respectively. These offer interesting opportunities for white-light holography.

  3. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@nano.cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Karimi, Ebrahim [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  4. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Carlo Gazzadi, Gian; Karimi, Ebrahim; Mafakheri, Erfan; Boyd, Robert W.; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science

  5. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Beléndez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW. The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  6. Integrated large view angle hologram system with multi-slm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ChengWei; Liu, Juan

    2017-10-01

    Recently holographic display has attracted much attention for its ability to generate real-time 3D reconstructed image. CGH provides an effective way to produce hologram, and spacial light modulator (SLM) is used to reconstruct the image. However the reconstructing system is usually very heavy and complex, and the view-angle is limited by the pixel size and spatial bandwidth product (SBP) of the SLM. In this paper a light portable holographic display system is proposed by integrating the optical elements and host computer units.Which significantly reduces the space taken in horizontal direction. CGH is produced based on the Fresnel diffraction and point source method. To reduce the memory usage and image distortion, we use an optimized accurate compressed look up table method (AC-LUT) to compute the hologram. In the system, six SLMs are concatenated to a curved plane, each one loading the phase-only hologram in a different angle of the object, the horizontal view-angle of the reconstructed image can be expanded to about 21.8°.

  7. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  8. Generation of Binary Off-axis Digital Fresnel Hologram with Enhanced Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wai Ming Tsang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of high resolution printer and digital micromirror device (DMD has enabled real, off-axis holograms to be printed, or projected onto a screen. As most printers and DMD can only reproduce binary dots, the pixels in a hologram have to be truncated to 2 levels. However, direct binarizing a hologram will lead to severe degradation on its reconstructed image. In this paper, a method for generating binary off-axis digital Fresnel hologram is reported. A hologram generated with the proposed method is referred to as the "Enhanced Sampled Binary Hologram" (ESBH. The reconstructed image of the ESBH is superior in visual quality as compare with the one obtained with existing technique, and also resistant to noise contamination.

  9. Multiplex hologram representations of space-variant optical systems using ground-glass encoded reference beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M I; Walkup, J F; Hagler, M O

    1982-04-01

    Multiplex holograms can accurately represent 2-D space-variant optical systems if hologram-to-hologram cross talk can be reduced to an acceptable level. In the experiments reported here the combination of ground-glass diffusers with chirped wave front illumination proved to be an effective means of suppressing this cross talk. The residual cross talk distribution and intensity depend both on the signal and the optical system. The experiments also show that overlapping outputs from multiplexed holograms add coherently in amplitude. In addition, an accurate holographic representation of an extremely space-variant system is presented.

  10. Multi-wavelengths digital holography: reconstruction, synthesis and display of holograms using adaptive transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmolo, P; Finizio, A; Paturzo, M; Ferraro, P; Javidi, B

    2012-05-01

    A method based on spatial transformations of multiwavelength digital holograms and the correlation matching of their numerical reconstructions is proposed, with the aim to improve superimposition of different color reconstructed images. This method is based on an adaptive affine transform of the hologram that permits management of the physical parameters of numerical reconstruction. In addition, we present a procedure to synthesize a single digital hologram in which three different colors are multiplexed. The optical reconstruction of the synthetic hologram by a spatial light modulator at one wavelength allows us to display all color features of the object, avoiding loss of details.

  11. Stereo-hologram in discrete depth of field (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanghoon; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-05-01

    In holographic space, continuous object space can be divided as several discrete spaces satisfied each of same depth of field (DoF). In the environment of wearable device using holography, specially, this concept can be applied to macroscopy filed in contrast of the field of microscopy. Since the former has not need to high depth resolution because perceiving power of eye in human visual system, it can distinguish clearly among the objects in depth space, has lower than optical power of microscopic field. Therefore continuous but discrete depth of field (DDoF) for whole object space can present the number of planes included sampled space considered its DoF. Each DoF plane has to consider the occlusion among the object's areas in its region to show the occluded phenomenon inducing by the visual axis around the eye field of view. It makes natural scene in recognition process even though the combined discontinuous DoF regions are altered to the continuous object space. Thus DDoF pull out the advantages such as saving consuming time of the calculation process making the hologram and the reconstruction. This approach deals mainly the properties of several factors required in stereo hologram HMD such as stereoscopic DoF according to the convergence, least number of DDoFs planes in normal visual circumstance (within to 10,000mm), the efficiency of saving time for taking whole holographic process under the our method compared to the existing. Consequently this approach would be applied directly to the stereo-hologram HMD field to embody a real-time holographic imaging.

  12. Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone PMMA media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahilny, U. V.; Marmysh, D. N.; Tolstik, A. L.; Matusevich, V.; Kowarschik, R.

    2008-08-01

    For phase holographic gratings in layers of polymethylmethacrylate, containing phenanthrenequinone in high concentration (nearly 3 mol%), a discrepancy between experimental (up to 9) and estimated (~45) magnitudes of the thermal diffusion amplification coefficient has been revealed. Analysis of plausible reasons of the lower experimental efficiency of the diffusion amplification has been carried out. The influence of material deformations on the reflection grating formation process was investigated experimentally. It is shown that thermoactivated amplification of holograms under high phenanthrenequinone concentration and its profound modulation are depressed by the arising density 'grating'.

  13. GPC-enhanced read-out of holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2015-01-01

    The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method has been demonstrated to reshape light efficiently to match the input beam profile requirement of different illumination targets. A spatially coherent beam can be GPC-shaped into a variety of static and dynamic profiles to match e.g. fixed commercially...... available modulation systems or for more irregular and dynamic shapes such as found in advanced optogenetic light-excitations of neurons. In this work, we integrate a static GPC light shaper to illuminate a phase-only spatial light modulator encoding dynamic phase holograms. The GPC-enhanced phase...... truncation. The phase flatness of the GPC-enhanced readout beam has also been investigated....

  14. Unexpected death holograms: Animitas urban appeal in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautaro Ojeda Ledesma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at performing an integral analysis of the relation between popular religiousness and urban space in Chilean animitas [little shrines] practices. In order to do this, we propose a multipurpose analysis scheme, holding the concept of "unexpected death hologram". This scheme puts forward three supplementary classifications: animita as a holographic subject, as a holographic object and as a holographic place. Finally, these three classifications supplemented by interviews and topologic analyses show almost all the sociospatial factors present in this practice, accounting for the urban importance that this type of popular practice has

  15. Resemblance of the properties of superimposed volume holograms to the properties of human memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, V. V.

    2006-09-01

    According to current concepts in psychology, a collection of patterns stored in human memory has the property of integrity and contains new information not contained in the individual patterns. It is shown that superimposed volume holograms possess similar properties if the information in them is written by a method that excludes the appearance of crosstalk of the holograms.

  16. The complete book of holograms how they work and how to make them

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Joseph Emil

    2001-01-01

    Clear, thorough account, without complicated mathematics, explains the two models of holography - the geometric and the zone plate - and different types of holograms, including transmission, reflection, phase, projection, rainbow, and multiplex. They also show basic setups for making holograms and provide step-by-step instructions so readers can make their own.

  17. A Scanning Hologram Recorded by Phase Conjugate Property of Nonlinear Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zi-Liang, Ping; Dalsgaard, Erik

    1996-01-01

    A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given.......A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given....

  18. All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2017-11-22

    Metasurfaces are unique subwavelength geometries capable of engineering electromagnetic waves at will, delivering new opportunities for holography. Most previous meta-holograms, so-called phase-only meta-holograms, modulate only the amplitude distribution of a virtual object, and require optimizing techniques to improve the image quality. However, the phase distribution of the reconstructed image is usually overlooked in previous studies, leading to inevitable information loss. Here, we demonstrate all-dielectric meta-holograms that allow tailoring of both the phase and amplitude distributions of virtual objects. Several longitudinal manipulations of the holographic images are theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, including shifting, stretching, and rotating, enabling a large depth of focus. Furthermore, a new meta-hologram with a three-dimensional holographic design method is demonstrated with an even enhanced depth of focus. The proposed meta-holograms offer more freedom in holographic design and open new avenues for designing complex three-dimensional holography.

  19. Fragment volume determination in bullet/armor holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Watts, David B.; Marsh, James S.; Gordon, Joseph E.; Anderson, Christopher S.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents automatic data reduction techniques for determining bullet and fragment volumes, positions, and momenta from holograms of bullets penetrating armor. The holography technique and the computer data reduction methods are described. Initial results are shown and sources of error in the technique are described. 2D digital images of the hologram are computationally combined by running a backprojection algorithm to produce a 3D array that represents the space containing the bullet and fragments. Thresholding the numbers in this space from the backprojection algorithm produces a representation of the bullet and fragments. Methods of automatically counting the voxels (3D picture elements) that occur in separated fragments have been programmed. These programs also find the centroids and shapes of the fragments and determine velocity using timing information. Volume errors are 40% in current results. These errors could be reduced to less than 3% if the described error sources were eliminated. Future work to improve the algorithms and the holographic process is described.

  20. Binary encoded computer generated holograms for temporal phase shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphawan, Angela

    2011-11-07

    The trend towards real-time optical applications predicates the need for real-time interferometry. For real-time interferometric applications, rapid processing of computer generated holograms is crucial as the intractability of rapid phase changes may compromise the input to the system. This paper introduces the design of a set of binary encoded computer generated holograms (CGHs) for real-time five-frame temporal phase shifting interferometry using a binary amplitude spatial light modulator. It is suitable for portable devices with constraints in computational power. The new set of binary encoded CGHs is used for measuring the phase of the generated electric field for a real-time selective launch in multimode fiber. The processing time for the new set of CGHs was reduced by up to 65% relative to the original encoding scheme. The results obtained from the new interferometric technique are in good agreement with the results obtained by phase shifting by means of a piezo-driven flat mirror.

  1. Paper relief architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latka, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which

  2. Floating full-color image with computer-generated alcove rainbow hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the floating full color image display with the computer-generated hologram (CGH). The floating image, when utilized as a 3D display, gives strong impression to the viewer. In our previous study, to change the CGH shape from the flat type to the half cylindrical type, the floating image from the output CGH has the nearly 180 degrees viewing angle. However, since the previous CGH does not have wavelength-selectivity, reconstructed image only has a single color. Also, the huge calculation amount of the fringe pattern is big problem. Therefore, we now propose the rainbow-type computer generated alcove hologram. To decrease the calculation amount, the rainbow hologram sacrifices the vertical parallax. Also, this hologram can reconstruct an image with white light. Compared with the previous study of the Fresnel type, the calculation speed becomes 165 times faster. After calculation, we print this hologram with a fringe printer, and evaluate reconstructed floating full color images. In this study, we introduce the computer-generated rainbow hologram into the floating image display. The rainbow hologram can reconstruct full color image with white light illumination. It can be recorded by using a horizontal slit to limit the vertical parallax. Therefore, the slit changes into the half cylindrical slit, the wide viewing angle floating image display can reconstruct full color image.

  3. Image design and replication for image-plane disk-type multiplex holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Yih-Shyang

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication methods and parameter design for both real-image generation and virtual-image display in image-plane disk-type multiplex holography are introduced in this paper. A theoretical model of a disk-type hologram is also presented and is then used in our two-step holographic processes, including the production of a non-image-plane master hologram and optical replication using a single-beam copying system for the production of duplicated holograms. Experimental results are also presented to verify the possibility of mass production using the one-shot holographic display technology described in this study.

  4. OAM beams from incomplete computer generated holograms projected onto a DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambale, Niña Angelica F.; Doblado, Gerald John H.; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2017-09-01

    We show that optical beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated even with incomplete computer generated holograms (CGH). These holograms are made such that random portions of it do not contain any information. We observe that although the beams produced with these holograms are less intense, these beams maintain their shape and that their topological charges are not affected. Furthermore, we show that superposition of two or more beams can be created using separate incomplete CGHs interspersed together. Our result is significant especially since most method to generate beams with OAM for various applications rely on pixelated devices or optical elements with imperfections.

  5. Multiplexing 200 spatial modes with a single hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Bhebhe, Nkosiphile; Mahonisi, Nyiku; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The on-demand tailoring of light's spatial shape is of great relevance in a wide variety of research areas. Computer-controlled devices, such as spatial light modulators (SLMs) or digital micromirror devices, offer a very accurate, flexible and fast holographic means to this end. Remarkably, digital holography affords the simultaneous generation of multiple beams (multiplexing), a tool with numerous applications in many fields. Here, we provide a self-contained tutorial on light beam multiplexing. Through the use of several examples, the readers will be guided step by step in the process of light beam shaping and multiplexing. Additionally, we provide a quantitative analysis on the multiplexing capabilities of SLMs to assess the maximum number of beams that can be multiplexed on a single SLM, showing approximately 200 modes on a single hologram.

  6. Diffraction behavior of a birefringence grating and a surface relief grating recorded on an azo polymer film by using writing beams with a (+45 .deg. , -45 .deg. ) polarization combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ui-Jung; Kim, Jung-Sung; Oh, Cha-Hwan; Lee, Geon-Joon; Lee, Young-Pak; Song, Seok-Ho; Kim, Pill-Soo; Han, Yang-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    By employing an orthogonal linear-polarization combination, (+45 .deg. ,-45 .deg. ), we prepared a surface relief grating (SRG) and a birefringence grating (BG) on an azo polymer film. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the SRG height gradually increased, and the height was 56.5 nm at an input fluence of 63 J/cm 2 . All the diffraction orders from the gratings were measured simultaneously, and the BG characteristics were analyzed from the s and the p components of the first-order diffraction beam and the measured SRG height. The BG showed an abrupt increase in the beginning of writing, but decreased shortly later, and became smaller than the SRG at a few minutes after writing. The phase shift between the two gratings was determined to be π, which is crucial for determining the SRG formation mechanism.

  7. LightLeaves: computer controlled kinetic reflection hologram installation and a brief discussion of earlier work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors Chen, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    LightLeaves is an installation combining leaf shaped, white light reflection holograms of landscape images with a special kinetic lighting device that houses a lamp and moving leaf shaped masks. The masks are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller and servomotors that position the masks in front of the illumination source of the holograms. The work is the most recent in a long series of landscapes that combine multi-hologram installations with computer controlled devices that play with the motion of the holograms, the light, sound or other elements in the work. LightLeaves was first exhibited at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts in a show titled E ye Spy: Playing with Perception .

  8. Highly efficient volume hologram multiplexing in thick dye-doped jelly-like gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarkevich, Vasili M; Rubinov, Anatoli N; Efendiev, Terlan Sh

    2014-08-01

    Dye-doped jelly-like gelatin is a thick-layer self-developing photosensitive medium that allows single and multiplexed volume phase holograms to be successfully recorded using pulsed laser radiation. In this Letter, we present a method for multiplexed recording of volume holograms in a dye-doped jelly-like gelatin, which provides significant increase in their diffraction efficiency. The method is based on the recovery of the photobleached dye molecule concentration in the hologram recording zone of gel, thanks to molecule diffusion from other unexposed gel areas. As an example, an optical recording of a multiplexed hologram consisting of three superimposed Bragg gratings with mean values of the diffraction efficiency and angular selectivity of ∼75% and ∼21', respectively, is demonstrated by using the proposed method.

  9. A Flock of Words: live music performance with holograms and interactive multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Doris K.

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes A Flock of Words, a cross-media music performance realized in collaboration with composer Robert Rowe. An interactive computer system linked large-scale holograms, video projection, animation, robotic lighting effects, and computer music. With a text from Elias Cannetti's Crowds and Power, an artificial-life algorithm animates swarming words. Projected onto the large holograms, the text flies in and out of linear readability, set off by computer music signals. A Flock of Words uses custom computer software to analyze the music being performance by an ensemble of human players and guide the simultaneous projection of real-time animation onto holograms, video, holographic lighting, and computer music. To stage the piece, we created an interactive computer system combining large-scale holograms, video projection, animation, robotic lighting effects, and computer music. The real-time animation was an adaptation of Craig Reynolds's Boids algorithm, which we dubbed `woids', and was used for animating flocking words.

  10. Speckle noise suppression using part of pixels in a single-exposure digital hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junmin; Zhou, Zhehai; Li, Fubing; Zheng, Qingyu; Liu, Gang

    2017-05-01

    A method is proposed to suppress speckle noise using only part of the pixels in a single-exposure digital hologram. Different holographic patterns are first generated from a single-exposure digital hologram using specially designed binary masks; then, these holographic patterns are reconstructed according to the Fresnel transform. The reconstructed images are superposed and averaged on the intensity to achieve the suppression of speckle noise. The entire denoising process does not need any additional digital holograms or specific requirements for recording a hologram. Theoretical simulation and experiment verification were carried out and confirm that the proposed method is a very convenient and effective way to suppress speckle noise in digital holography. The proposed method has wide applications in holographic imaging, holographic storage, and art display.

  11. Compression of computer generated phase-shifting hologram sequence using AVC and HEVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yafei; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Dufaux, Frederic

    2013-09-01

    With the capability of achieving twice the compression ratio of Advanced Video Coding (AVC) with similar reconstruction quality, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is expected to become the newleading technique of video coding. In order to reduce the storage and transmission burden of digital holograms, in this paper we propose to use HEVC for compressing the phase-shifting digital hologram sequences (PSDHS). By simulating phase-shifting digital holography (PSDH) interferometry, interference patterns between illuminated three dimensional( 3D) virtual objects and the stepwise phase changed reference wave are generated as digital holograms. The hologram sequences are obtained by the movement of the virtual objects and compressed by AVC and HEVC. The experimental results show that AVC and HEVC are efficient to compress PSDHS, with HEVC giving better performance. Good compression rate and reconstruction quality can be obtained with bitrate above 15000kbps.

  12. Quality of reconstruction of compressed off-axis digital holograms by frequency filtering and wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A; Kurbatova, Ekaterina A

    2018-01-01

    Compression of digital holograms can significantly help with the storage of objects and data in 2D and 3D form, its transmission, and its reconstruction. Compression of standard images by methods based on wavelets allows high compression ratios (up to 20-50 times) with minimum losses of quality. In the case of digital holograms, application of wavelets directly does not allow high values of compression to be obtained. However, additional preprocessing and postprocessing can afford significant compression of holograms and the acceptable quality of reconstructed images. In this paper application of wavelet transforms for compression of off-axis digital holograms are considered. The combined technique based on zero- and twin-order elimination, wavelet compression of the amplitude and phase components of the obtained Fourier spectrum, and further additional compression of wavelet coefficients by thresholding and quantization is considered. Numerical experiments on reconstruction of images from the compressed holograms are performed. The comparative analysis of applicability of various wavelets and methods of additional compression of wavelet coefficients is performed. Optimum parameters of compression of holograms by the methods can be estimated. Sizes of holographic information were decreased up to 190 times.

  13. Fabrication of digital rainbow holograms and 3-D imaging using SEM based e-beam lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, An; Firsov, A; Loechel, B; Erko, A; Svintsov, A; Zaitsev, S

    2014-11-17

    Here we present an approach for creating full-color digital rainbow holograms based on mixing three basic colors. Much like in a color TV with three luminescent points per single screen pixel, each color pixel of initial image is presented by three (R, G, B) distinct diffractive gratings in a hologram structure. Change of either duty cycle or area of the gratings are used to provide proper R, G, B intensities. Special algorithms allow one to design rather complicated 3D images (that might even be replacing each other with hologram rotation). The software developed ("RainBow") provides stability of colorization of rotated image by means of equalizing of angular blur from gratings responsible for R, G, B basic colors. The approach based on R, G, B color synthesis allows one to fabricate gray-tone rainbow hologram containing white color what is hardly possible in traditional dot-matrix technology. Budgetary electron beam lithography based on SEM column was used to fabricate practical examples of digital rainbow hologram. The results of fabrication of large rainbow holograms from design to imprinting are presented. Advantages of the EBL in comparison to traditional optical (dot-matrix) technology is considered.

  14. Embedding intensity image into a binary hologram with strong noise resistant capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhaoyong; Jiao, Shuming; Zou, Wenbin; Li, Xia

    2017-11-01

    A digital hologram can be employed as a host image for image watermarking applications to protect information security. Past research demonstrates that a gray level intensity image can be embedded into a binary Fresnel hologram by error diffusion method or bit truncation coding method. However, the fidelity of the retrieved watermark image from binary hologram is generally not satisfactory, especially when the binary hologram is contaminated with noise. To address this problem, we propose a JPEG-BCH encoding method in this paper. First, we employ the JPEG standard to compress the intensity image into a binary bit stream. Next, we encode the binary bit stream with BCH code to obtain error correction capability. Finally, the JPEG-BCH code is embedded into the binary hologram. By this way, the intensity image can be retrieved with high fidelity by a BCH-JPEG decoder even if the binary hologram suffers from serious noise contamination. Numerical simulation results show that the image quality of retrieved intensity image with our proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art work reported.

  15. Design, simulation, and optimization of an RGB polarization independent transmission volume hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum Hassan

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology such as optical communication, medical imaging, spectroscopy and astronomy. The goal of this dissertation is to design a volume phase holographic grating that provides diffraction efficiencies of at least 70% for the entire visible wavelengths and higher than 90% for red, green, and blue light when the incident light is unpolarized. First, the complete design, simulation and optimization of the volume hologram are presented. The optimization is done using a Monte Carlo analysis to solve for the index modulation needed to provide higher diffraction efficiencies. The solutions are determined by solving the diffraction efficiency equations determined by Kogelnik's two wave coupled-wave theory. The hologram is further optimized using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis to correct for effects of absorption omitted by Kogelnik's method. Second, the fabrication or recording process of the volume hologram is described in detail. The active region of the volume hologram is created by interference of two coherent beams within the thin film. Third, the experimental set up and measurement of some properties including the diffraction efficiencies of the volume hologram, and the thickness of the active region are conducted. Fourth, the polarimetric response of the volume hologram is investigated. The polarization study is developed to provide insight into the effect of the refractive index modulation onto the polarization state and diffraction efficiency of incident light.

  16. Digital adaptive optics confocal microscopy based on iterative retrieval of optical aberration from a guidestar hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Thapa, Damber; Yao, Xincheng

    2017-04-03

    Guidestar hologram based digital adaptive optics (DAO) is one recently emerging active imaging modality. It records each complex distorted line field reflected or scattered from the sample by an off-axis digital hologram, measures the optical aberration from a separate off-axis digital guidestar hologram, and removes the optical aberration from the distorted line fields by numerical processing. In previously demonstrated DAO systems, the optical aberration was directly retrieved from the guidestar hologram by taking its Fourier transform and extracting the phase term. For the direct retrieval method (DRM), when the sample is not coincident with the guidestar focal plane, the accuracy of the optical aberration retrieved by DRM undergoes a fast decay, leading to quality deterioration of corrected images. To tackle this problem, we explore here an image metrics-based iterative method (MIM) to retrieve the optical aberration from the guidestar hologram. Using an aberrated objective lens and scattering samples, we demonstrate that MIM can improve the accuracy of the retrieved aberrations from both focused and defocused guidestar holograms, compared to DRM, to improve the robustness of the DAO.

  17. The 'hidden image' effect in security holograms and its personalization by laser demetallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanovs, Andrejs; Tamanis, Edmunds; Kolbjonoks, Vadims

    2013-05-01

    The given work investigates principles of recording, calculation, and security aspects of `hidden image' effect in digital holograms that are intended for security applications. Dot-matrix and image-matrix technologies of optical recording can be widely used for recording protective holograms with such type of security features. When a collimated laser beam falls on and then is reflected from the section of holograms, containing a protective `hidden image' element, a graphic image can be seen in the projection of diffracted light on the frosted screen. The present work also discusses a method of personalizing the `hidden image' effect with the help of laser demetallization. In this way the hidden image can be individualized for each hologram sticker and contain additional information such as a number, text or logotype. The attractiveness of this method is in the possibility of achieving a considerable increase of the protective characteristic of holograms and incorporating additional variable information in them, as well as in providing both visual and automatic ways of checking authenticity of a hologram.

  18. FEATURES OF MULTIPLEXED HOLOGRAMS RECORDING IN PHOTO-THERMO-REFRACTIVE GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ivanov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out calculations of recording conditions for multiplexed holograms in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR glass. The proposed calculation sets the link between such parameters as: the angle between recording beams and the angle of sample rotation, operating wavelength, the angle of incidence on the element, output angle. To study recording features of multiplexed holograms on PTR glass several elements was made. Six holograms in each element were recorded with various exposures. All samples were heat-treated at one temperature around glass transition temperature. It has been demonstrated that at the recording of several gratings with a total exposure exceeding an optimal value for a given material, the total value of the refractive index modulation amplitude (n1 reaches the maximum attainable magnitude that is equivalent to a value of a single hologram with optimal exposure. It has been found that refractive index dynamic range of the material distributes between the gratings in accordance with the ratio between exposure times if holograms exposures have significant differences. In the present paper six-channel multiplexer was recorded for a wavelength equal to 632.8 nm (He-Ne laser. The diffraction angles correspond to calculations mentioned above. The n1 value in each grating is equal to the value of the highest attainable value of the value of n1 divided by the total number of multiplexed holograms.

  19. Hologram QSAR model for the prediction of human oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Tiago L; Montanari, Carlos A; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2007-12-15

    A drug intended for use in humans should have an ideal balance of pharmacokinetics and safety, as well as potency and selectivity. Unfavorable pharmacokinetics can negatively affect the clinical development of many otherwise promising drug candidates. A variety of in silico ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) models are receiving increased attention due to a better appreciation that pharmacokinetic properties should be considered in early phases of the drug discovery process. Human oral bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic property, which is directly related to the amount of drug available in the systemic circulation to exert pharmacological and therapeutic effects. In the present work, hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships (HQSAR) were performed on a training set of 250 structurally diverse molecules with known human oral bioavailability. The most significant HQSAR model (q(2)=0.70, r(2)=0.93) was obtained using atoms, bond, connection, and chirality as fragment distinction. The predictive ability of the model was evaluated by an external test set containing 52 molecules not included in the training set, and the predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental values. The HQSAR model should be useful for the design of new drug candidates having increased bioavailability as well as in the process of chemical library design, virtual screening, and high-throughput screening.

  20. Two schemes for rapid generation of digital video holograms using PC cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanhoon; Song, Joongseok; Kim, Changseob; Park, Jong-Il

    2017-12-01

    Computer-generated holography (CGH), which is a process of generating digital holograms, is computationally expensive. Recently, several methods/systems of parallelizing the process using graphic processing units (GPUs) have been proposed. Indeed, use of multiple GPUs or a personal computer (PC) cluster (each PC with GPUs) enabled great improvements in the process speed. However, extant literature has less often explored systems involving rapid generation of multiple digital holograms and specialized systems for rapid generation of a digital video hologram. This study proposes a system that uses a PC cluster and is able to more efficiently generate a video hologram. The proposed system is designed to simultaneously generate multiple frames and accelerate the generation by parallelizing the CGH computations across a number of frames, as opposed to separately generating each individual frame while parallelizing the CGH computations within each frame. The proposed system also enables the subprocesses for generating each frame to execute in parallel through multithreading. With these two schemes, the proposed system significantly reduced the data communication time for generating a digital hologram when compared with that of the state-of-the-art system.

  1. Bit-mapped Holograms Using Phase Transition Mastering (PTM) and Blu-ray Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent advances made in data storage, cloud computing, and Blu-ray mastering technology, it is now straight forward to calculate, store, transfer, and print bitmapped holograms that use terabytes of data and tera-pixels of information. This presentation reports on the potential of using the phase transition mastering (PTM) process to construct bitmapped, computer generated holograms with spatial resolutions of 5000 line-pairs/mm (70 nm pixel width). In particular, for Blu-ray disk production, Sony has developed a complete process that could be alternately deployed in holographic applications. The PTM process uses a 405 nm laser to write phase patterns onto a layer of imperfect transition metal oxides that is deposited onto an 8 inch silicon wafer. After the master hologram has been constructed, its imprint can then be cheaply mass produced with the same process as Blu-ray disks or embossed holograms. Unlike traditional binary holograms made with expensive e-beam lithography, the PTM process has the potential for multiple phase levels using inexpensive optics similar to consumer-grade desktop Blu-ray writers. This PTM process could revolutionise holography for entertainment, industrial, and scientific applications.

  2. An Evaluation Of Holograms In Training And As Job Performance Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Allan H.

    1986-08-01

    Experimentation was carried out to evaluate holograms for use in training and as job aids. Holograms were compared against line drawings and photographs as methods of presenting visual information needed to accomplish a number of tasks. The dependent variables were assembly speed and assembly errors with people unstressed, assembly speed and assembly errors with people stressed, the percentage of discovered errors in assemblies, the number of correct assemblies misidentified as erroneous, and information extraction. Holograms generally were as good as or better visual aids than either photographs or line drawings. The use of holograms tends to reduce errors rather than speed assembly time in the assembly tasks used in these experiments. They also enhance the discovery of errors when the subject is attempting to locate assembly errors in a construction. The results of this experimentation suggest that serious consideration should be given to the use of holography in the development of job aids and in training. Besides these advantages for job aids, other advantages we found are that when page formated information is stored in man-readable holograms they are still useable when scratched or damaged even when similarly damaged microfilm is unuseable. Holography can also be used to store man and machine readable data simultaneously. Such storage would provide simplified backup in the event of machine failure, and it would permit the development of compatible machine and manual systems for job aid applications.

  3. X-ray fluorescence hologram data collection with a cooled avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Matsubara, E I; Kishimoto, S; Mori, T; Tanaka, M

    2002-01-01

    A high counting rate X-ray detector with an appropriate energy resolution is desired for high quality X-ray fluorescence hologram measurements because a holographic pattern is detected as extremely small intensity variations of X-ray fluorescence on a large intensity background. A cooled avalanche photodiode (APD), which has about 10% energy resolution and is designed for a high counting rate, fits the above requirements. Reconstructed atomic images from experimental holograms using the APD system provide us a clear view of the first and second neighbor atoms around an emitter. The present result proved that a combination of this APD system and a synchrotron X-ray source enables us to measure a high quality hologram for a reasonable measurement time.

  4. Evaluation of polycarbonate substrate hologram recording medium regarding implication of birefringence and thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toishi, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Tomiji; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Sugiki, Mikio; Watanabe, Kenjiro

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate photopolymer media using a polycarbonate (PC) substrate. In holographic data storage medium, substrates that sandwich the photopolymer material are needed to protect the photopolymer material against exogenous shock and open air. An optical glass such as BK-7 is normally used as a substrate, but a PC substrate has a cost advantage and is easy to fabricate compared with optical glass. For holographic recording and reading, however, the high birefringence and high thermal expansion of a PC substrate are significant problems. First, we analyze the degree of degradation of output power by the polarization change and estimate the threshold value of birefringence to record hologram normally. Next, we estimate the temperature tolerance of hologram readout with polycarbonate substrate hologram medium. These analyses results indicate the possible usage of the PC substrate as holographic recording media.

  5. Depth compensating calculation method of computer-generated holograms using symmetry and similarity of zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni

    2017-10-01

    Computer-generated hologram (CGH) is a promising 3D display technology while it is challenged by heavy computation load and vast memory requirement. To solve these problems, a depth compensating CGH calculation method based on symmetry and similarity of zone plates is proposed and implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU). An improved LUT method is put forward to compute the distances between object points and hologram pixels in the XY direction. The concept of depth compensating factor is defined and used for calculating the holograms of points with different depth positions instead of layer-based methods. The proposed method is suitable for arbitrary sampling objects with lower memory usage and higher computational efficiency compared to other CGH methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by numerical and optical experiments.

  6. Compression of digital hologram for three-dimensional object using Wavelet-Bandelets transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Le Thanh; Ali, Zulfiqar; Quang, Pham Duc; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Nam

    2011-04-25

    In the transformation based compression algorithms of digital hologram for three-dimensional object, the balance between compression ratio and normalized root mean square (NRMS) error is always the core of algorithm development. The Wavelet transform method is efficient to achieve high compression ratio but NRMS error is also high. In order to solve this issue, we propose a hologram compression method using Wavelet-Bandelets transform. Our simulation and experimental results show that the Wavelet-Bandelets method has a higher compression ratio than Wavelet methods and all the other methods investigated in this paper, while it still maintains low NRMS error.

  7. Speckle reduction of reconstructions of digital holograms using three dimensional filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycock, Jonathan; McDonald, John B.; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a new digital signal processing technique that reduces speckle in reconstructions of digital holograms. This is achieved by convolving the three dimensional intensity pattern (the intensity of the propagated DH at a series of different distances) with a 3D point spread function in all three dimensions (x,y,z). It is based on the fact that the addition of different independent speckle images on an intensity basis reduces the speckle content. We provide quantitative results in terms of speckle index and resolution, and show that filtering in the z direction has the added benefit of an increase in the depth of focus of the digital hologram reconstruction.

  8. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  9. Decongestants: OTC Relief for Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  10. Modelling the spatial shape of nondiffracting beams: Experimental generation of Frozen Waves via computer generated holograms

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Tárcio A.; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Gesualdi, Marcos R. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we implement experimentally the spatial shape modelling of nondiffracting optical beams via computer generated holograms. The results reported here are the experimental confirmation of the so called Frozen Wave method, developed few years ago. Optical beams of this type can possess potential applications in optical tweezers, medicine, atom guiding, remote sensing, etc..

  11. Modeling of light-emitting diode wavefronts for the optimization of transmission holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthaus, Daniela; Giehl, Markus; Sandfuchs, Oliver; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2017-06-20

    The objective of applying transmission holograms in automotive headlamp systems requires the adaptation of holograms to divergent and polychromatic light sources like light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, four different options to describe the scalar light waves emitted by a typical automotive LED are regarded. This includes a new approach to determine the LED's wavefront from interferometric measurements. Computer-generated holograms are designed considering the different LED approximations and recorded into a photopolymer. The holograms are reconstructed with the LED and the resulting images are analyzed to evaluate the quality of the wave descriptions. In this paper, we show that our presented new approach leads to better results in comparison to other wave descriptions. The enhancement is evaluated by the correlation between reconstructed and ideal images. In contrast to the next best approximation, a spherical wave, the correlation coefficient increased by 0.18% at 532 nm, 1.69% at 590 nm, and 0.75% at 620 nm.

  12. Single-mode 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with Zn-diffusion and oxide-relief apertures for > 50 Gbit/sec OOK and 4-PAM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jyehong; Ledentsov, N. N.; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2017-02-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) has become the most important light source in the booming market of short-reach (targeted at 56 Gbit/sec data rate per channel (CEI-56G) with the total data rate up to 400 Gbit/sec. However, the serious modal dispersion of multi-mode fiber (MMF), limited speed of VCSEL, and its high resistance (> 150 Ω) seriously limits the >50 Gbit/sec linking distance (50 Gbit/sec transmission due to that it can save one-half of the required bandwidth. Nevertheless, a 4.7 dB optical power penalty and the linearity of transmitter would become issues in the 4-PAM linking performance. Besides, in the modern OI system, the optics transreceiver module must be packaged as close as possible with the integrated circuits (ICs). The heat generated from ICs will become an issue in speed of VSCEL. Here, we review our recent work about 850 nm VCSEL, which has unique Zn-diffusion/oxide-relief apertures and special p- doping active layer with strong wavelength detuning to further enhance its modulation speed and high-temperature (85°C) performances. Single-mode (SM) devices with high-speed ( 26 GHz), reasonable resistance ( 70 Ω) and moderate output power ( 1.5 mW) can be achieved. Error-free 54 Gbit/sec OOK transmission through 1km MMF has been realized by using such SM device with signal processing techniques. Besides, the volterra nonlinear equalizer has been applied in our 4-PAM 64 Gbit/sec transmission through 2-km OM4 MMF, which significantly enhance the linearity of device and outperforms fed forward equalization (FFE) technique. Record high bit-rate distance product of 128.km is confirmed for optical-interconnect applications.

  13. The Effect of Ion Irradiation on Nanocrystallization and Surface Relief of a Ribbon from Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, I. Yu.; Gushchina, N. V.; Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Makhinko, F. F.; Stepanov, A. V.; Medvedev, A. I.; Starodubtsev, Yu. N.; Belozerov, V. Ya.; Loginov, B. A.

    2018-02-01

    Using the methods of X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, the process of crystallization of an amorphous Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 alloy irradiated with accelerated Ar+ ions is investigated. It is found out that an irradiation by the Ar+ ions with the energy 30 keV at the ion current density 300 μA/cm2 (fluence 3.75·1015 cm-2, irradiation time 2 s, ion-beam short-duration heating up to 350°C, which is 150°C lower than the thermal crystallization threshold) results in a complete crystallization of this amorphous alloy (throughout the bulk of a 25 μm ribbon) followed by precipitation of solid solution crystals of α-Fe(Si), close in its composition to Fe80Si20, stable phase of Fe3Si, and metastable hexagonal phases. By the methods of atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy it is shown that nanocrystallization caused by ion irradiation is accompanied by surface relief changes both on the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 alloy ribbon at the depth exceeding by a factor of 103 that of the physical ion penetration for this material. The data obtained, taking into account a significant temperature decrease and multiple acceleration of the crystallization process, serve an evidence of the radiation-dynamic influence of accelerated ions on the metastable amorphous medium.

  14. Shaded Relief Images for Cartographic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Relief: Cache, OK 133 C18 Orthonormal Shaded Relief Image With Variable Sun Azimuth Merged With SIMCON Contours (20-meters Interval) 134 CI 9 Relief...lines generated by the program SIMCON 3 9 have been overlaid by FTL-developed software. 3 9 Thle next two imiages illustrate the relief contour option of

  15. Alternative approach to develop digital hologram interaction system by bounding volumes for identifying object collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungjin; Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Son, Jung-Young

    2013-05-01

    Digital holography technology has been considered a powerful method for reconstructing real objects and displaying completed 3D information. Although many studies on holographic displays have been conducted, research on interaction methods for holographic displays is still in an early stage. For developing an appropriate interaction method for digital holograms, a two-way interaction which is able to provide natural interaction between humans and holograms should be considered. However, digital holography technology is not yet fully developed to make holograms capable of naturally responding to human behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose an alternative interaction method capable of applying it to interacting with holograms in the future. In order to propose an intuitive interaction method based on computer-generated objects, we utilized a depth camera, Kinect, which provides depth information per pixel. In doing so, humans and environment surrounding them were captured by the depth camera. The captured depth images were simulated on a virtual space and computer graphic objects were generated on the same virtual space. Detailed location information of humans was continuously extracted to provide a natural interaction with the generated objects. In order to easily identify whether two objects were overlapped or not, bounding volumes were generated around both humans and objects, respectively. The local information of the bounding volumes was correlated with one another, which made it possible for humans to control the computer-generated objects. Then, we confirmed a result of interaction through computer generated holograms. As a result, we obtained extreme reduction of computation time accuracy within 80% through bounding volume.

  16. Full parallax three-dimensional computer generated hologram with occlusion effect using ray casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Tan, Qiaofeng; Jin, Guofan

    2013-01-01

    Holographic display is capable of reconstructing the whole optical wave field of a three-dimensional (3D) scene. It is the only one among all the 3D display techniques that can produce all the depth cues. With the development of computing technology and spatial light modulators, computer generated holograms (CGHs) can now be used to produce dynamic 3D images of synthetic objects. Computation holography becomes highly complicated and demanding when it is employed to produce real 3D images. Here we present a novel algorithm for generating a full parallax 3D CGH with occlusion effect, which is an important property of 3D perception, but has often been neglected in fully computed hologram synthesis. The ray casting technique, which is widely used in computer graphics, is introduced to handle the occlusion issue of CGH computation. Horizontally and vertically distributed rays are projected from each hologram sample to the 3D objects to obtain the complex amplitude distribution. The occlusion issue is handled by performing ray casting calculations to all the hologram samples. The proposed algorithm has no restriction on or approximation to the 3D objects, and hence it can produce reconstructed images with correct shading effect and no visible artifacts. Programmable graphics processing unit (GPU) is used to perform parallel calculation. This is made possible because each hologram sample belongs to an independent operation. To demonstrate the performance of our proposed algorithm, an optical experiment is performed to reconstruct the 3D scene by using a phase-only spatial light modulator. We can easily perceive the accommodation cue by focusing our eyes on different depths of the scene and the motion parallax cue with occlusion effect by moving our eyes around. The experiment result confirms that the CGHs produced by our algorithm can successfully reconstruct 3D images with all the depth cues.

  17. Cascaded adaptive-mask algorithm for twin-image removal and its application to digital holograms of ice crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Sebastian M F

    2009-01-10

    An iterative Gerchberg-Saxton-type algorithm with a support constraint for twin-image removal from reconstructed Gabor inline holograms of single plane objects is described. It is applied to simulated holograms and to holograms of ice crystals recorded in the laboratory and in atmospheric clouds in situ. The algorithm is characterized by a distinction between object and background region and an iterative adaption of the object mask. Applying the algorithm to recorded inline holograms of atmospheric objects, the twin-image artifacts are removed successfully, for the first time allowing for a proper access to the in situ phase information on atmospheric ice crystals. It is also demonstrated that, after application of the algorithm, previously indiscernible internal object features can become visible for large Fresnel numbers.

  18. A strong adaptable autofocusing approach of off-axis infrared digital holography under different quality conditions of holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative autofocusing criterion for the reconstruction of infrared digital holograms. This criterion has the advantages of fast, efficient and precision when determining the reconstruction distance of off-axis digital holography. This criterion is a mean-free high frequency calculation process. We focus on the problem of mean value drifting found in previous published methods and design our new approach to solve it. Unlike the previous methods perform well only with high quality holograms, our method is effective for both high and low quality holograms. Even when hologram is degraded by destructive interference, our method still performs well. This method helps to automatically determine the precise reconstruction distance, and we are sure that this technology can be applied in industrial applications in the future.

  19. Stress relief of transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment

  20. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  1. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200

  2. High-efficiency photorealistic computer-generated holograms based on the backward ray-tracing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Zhidong; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Hui; Zhao, Linmin

    2018-03-01

    Holographic displays can provide the complete optical wave field of a three-dimensional (3D) scene, including the depth perception. However, it often takes a long computation time to produce traditional computer-generated holograms (CGHs) without more complex and photorealistic rendering. The backward ray-tracing technique is able to render photorealistic high-quality images, which noticeably reduce the computation time achieved from the high-degree parallelism. Here, a high-efficiency photorealistic computer-generated hologram method is presented based on the ray-tracing technique. Rays are parallelly launched and traced under different illuminations and circumstances. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with the traditional point cloud CGH, the computation time is decreased to 24 s to reconstruct a 3D object of 100 ×100 rays with continuous depth change.

  3. Accelerated algorithm for three-dimensional computer generated hologram based on the ray-tracing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z. W.; Zang, J. L.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-06-01

    An accelerated algorithm for three-dimensional computer generated holograms (CGHs) based on the ray-tracing method is proposed. The complex amplitude distribution from the center point of an object is calculated in advance and the field distributions of rest points on the hologram plane can be given by doing a small translation and an aberration to the pre-calculated field. A static two-dimensional car, a three-dimensional teapot, and a dynamic three-dimensional rotating teapot are reconstructed from CGHs calculated with the accelerated algorithm to prove its validity. The simulation results demonstrate that the accelerated algorithm is eight times faster than the conventional ray-tracing algorithm.

  4. Phase-only stereoscopic hologram calculation based on Gerchberg–Saxton iterative algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xinyi; Xia Jun

    2016-01-01

    A phase-only computer-generated holography (CGH) calculation method for stereoscopic holography is proposed in this paper. The two-dimensional (2D) perspective projection views of the three-dimensional (3D) object are generated by the computer graphics rendering techniques. Based on these views, a phase-only hologram is calculated by using the Gerchberg–Saxton (GS) iterative algorithm. Comparing with the non-iterative algorithm in the conventional stereoscopic holography, the proposed method improves the holographic image quality, especially for the phase-only hologram encoded from the complex distribution. Both simulation and optical experiment results demonstrate that our proposed method can give higher quality reconstruction comparing with the traditional method. (special topic)

  5. Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V V; Han, M G; Zhu, Y

    2013-11-01

    We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  7. Fast generation of video hologram patterns by use of motion vectors of three-dimensional objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Bin; Choi, Hee-Min; Kwon, Min-Woo; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2013-03-01

    Thus far, various approaches to generate the computer-generated holograms (CGHs) of 3-D objects have been suggested but, most of them have been applied to the still images, not to the video images due to their computational complexity. Recently, a method to fast compute the CGH patterns of 3-D video images has been proposed by combined use of data compression and novel look-up table (N-LUT) techniques. In this method, temporally redundant data of 3-D video images are removed with the differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) algorithm and then the CGH patterns for these compressed video images are calculated with the N-LUT method. However, as the 3-D objects move rapidly, image differences between the video frames may increase, which results in a massive growth of calculation time of the video holograms. Therefore, we propose a novel approach to significantly reduce the computation time of 3-D video holograms by employing a new concept of motion-vector of the 3-D object. In the proposed method, 3-D objects are firstly segmented from the 1st frame of the 3-D videos, and the CGH patterns for each segmented object are computed with the N-LUT algorithm. Secondly, motion vectors between each segmented object and the corresponding objects in the consecutive 3-D video frames are calculated. Thirdly, the CGH patterns for each segmented object are shifted with the calculated motion vectors. Finally, all these shifted CGH patterns are added up to generate the hologram patterns of the consecutive 3-D video frames. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed method, experiments are performed and the results are comparatively discussed with the conventional methods in terms of the number of object points and computation time.

  8. Reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its conoscopic hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnier, Laurent M.; Sirat, Gabriel Y.

    1992-12-01

    Conoscopic holography is a method for recording holograms with incoherent light, first presented in 1985. Its applications range from 3D microscopy to 3D satellite imaging and include robotics. The Point Spread Function (PSF) is a Gabor Zone Pattern, which is known to have zeros in Fourier space. We present an experimental technique to obtain an invertible PSF with an experimental image reconstruction, and an original algorithm to find the object shape, validated with both simulations and first experimental results.

  9. Wavelet processing and digital interferometric contrast to improve reconstructions from X-ray Gabor holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Juan C; Misawa, Masaki; Matsuda, Kiyofumi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Yasumoto, Masato

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the application of an undecimated wavelet transformation together with digital interferometric contrast to improve the resulting reconstructions in a digital hard X-ray Gabor holographic microscope is shown. Specifically, the starlet transform is used together with digital Zernike contrast. With this contrast, the results show that only a small set of scales from the hologram are, in effect, useful, and it is possible to enhance the details of the reconstruction.

  10. Hologram representation of design data in an expert system knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.; Klon, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel representational scheme for design object descriptions is presented. An abstract notion of modules and signals is developed as a conceptual foundation for the scheme. This abstraction relates the objects to the meaning of system descriptions. Anchored on this abstraction, a representational model which incorporates dynamic semantics for these objects is presented. This representational model is called a hologram scheme since it represents dual level information, namely, structural and semantic. The benefits of this scheme are presented.

  11. Consensus hologram QSAR modeling for the prediction of human intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Tiago L; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2012-04-15

    Consistent in silico models for ADME properties are useful tools in early drug discovery. Here, we report the hologram QSAR modeling of human intestinal absorption using a dataset of 638 compounds with experimental data associated. The final validated models are consistent and robust for the consensus prediction of this important pharmacokinetic property and are suitable for virtual screening applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diffraction from relief gratings on a biomimetic elastomer cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Raphael A.; Aranas, Erika B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic optical elements combine the optimized designs of nature with the versatility of materials engineering. We employ a beetle carapace as the template for fabricating relief gratings on an elastomer substrate. Biological surface features are successfully replicated by a direct casting procedure. Far-field diffraction effects are discussed in terms of the Fraunhofer approximation in Fourier space.

  13. Analysis of the Holart Report project: recording and publishing sales data for fine art holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellerbach, Gary A.

    1995-02-01

    At Lake Forest College's Fourth International Symposium on Display Holography (July 1991), the author first formulated an idea to promote fine art holography by recording and publishing sale prices for art holograms. The idea was mentioned to several prominent artists in attendance, and the response was enthusiastic. The author formed a new company to publish the world's first journal of international art hologram sales, the Holart Report. Holart Report published four quarterly issues, beginning in May 1992. During that time, the publisher created a significant database of hologram art sales and reported tens of thousands of dollars in holographic art transactions. In February 1993 the author's new job obligations and a general lack of support for the project forced him to suspend publication of Holart Report. This paper attempts to answer serious questions surrounding the experience. What problems were encountered? What benefits, if any, did Holart provide during its short lifetime? Why were many in the holographic art community reluctant to support the project? In retrospect, what should have been done differently to ensure greater success? Lastly, the author states his belief that the idea remains feasible and valuable. The database is intact and the publishing template established. The lessons learned can be used to produce a much improved new version of Holart Report or a similar publication.

  14. The Team Approach to Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... with her quality of life, and acupuncture brought relief from severe shoulder pain. "I'm functional again. That's the best way ...

  15. Quantitative studies of the morphology of the south Poland using Relief Index (RI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szypuła Bartłomiej

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a new morphometric index named Relief Index (RI. RI is the ratio of the total length of the contour lines and the surface area at which they occur. This easily calculated index provides an objective quantitative measure of relief variability as an important feature in geomorphological studies. To achieve this goal, a highly detailed morphometric analysis was carried out using a high-resolution (1m×1m DEM. Twenty one sample areas in southern Poland were examined. These analyses showed RI, as a good tool for rapidly evaluating topography heterogeneity in division into relief classes. I distinguished 4 classes of the Relief Index that classify earth surface considering the variability of the relief. Results of the calculations demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between RI and the local relief and slopes, but there is no correlation between RI and planar curvatures and TWI. The relief of the sample areas were analysed using geomorphometric parameters (slopes, local relief, planar curvatures. Moreover the influence of the DEM resolution on Relief Index values was examined.

  16. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in §§ 69.709(c) or 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I... section 272 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, or § 64.1903 of this chapter, the price cap LEC...

  17. 28 CFR 36.504 - Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.504 Relief. (a) Authority of court. In a civil action under § 36.503, the court— (1) May grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including... disabilities; (2) May award other relief as the court considers to be appropriate, including monetary damages...

  18. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Duerst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  19. HoloTrap: Interactive hologram design for multiple dynamic optical trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleguezuelos, E.; Carnicer, A.; Andilla, J.; Martín-Badosa, E.; Montes-Usategui, M.

    2007-06-01

    This work presents an application that generates real-time holograms to be displayed on a holographic optical tweezers setup; a technique that allows the manipulation of particles in the range from micrometres to nanometres. The software is written in Java, and uses random binary masks to generate the holograms. It allows customization of several parameters that are dependent on the experimental setup, such as the specific characteristics of the device displaying the hologram, or the presence of aberrations. We evaluate the software's performance and conclude that real-time interaction is achieved. We give our experimental results from manipulating 5 μm microspheres using the program. Program summaryTitle of program: HoloTrap Catalogue identifier:ADZB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZB_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: General computer Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: Windows, Linux Programming language used: Java Memory required to execute with typical data: up to 34 MB including the Java Virtual Machine No. of bits in a word: 8 bits No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 471 145 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 141 457 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: To calculate and display holograms for generating multiple and dynamic optical tweezers to be reconfigured interactively. Method of solution: Fast random binary mask for the simultaneous codification of multiple phase functions into a phase modulation device. Typical running time: Up to 10 frames per second Unusual features of the program: None References: The method for calculating holograms can be found in [M. Montes-Usategui, E. Pleguezuelos, J. Andilla

  20. Photovoltaic application for disaster relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.

  1. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  2. The Hologram in My Hand: How Effective is Interactive Exploration of 3D Visualizations in Immersive Tangible Augmented Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Benjamin; Sicat, Ronell; Beyer, Johanna; Cordeil, Maxime; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2018-01-01

    We report on a controlled user study comparing three visualization environments for common 3D exploration. Our environments differ in how they exploit natural human perception and interaction capabilities. We compare an augmented-reality head-mounted display (Microsoft HoloLens), a handheld tablet, and a desktop setup. The novel head-mounted HoloLens display projects stereoscopic images of virtual content into a user's real world and allows for interaction in-situ at the spatial position of the 3D hologram. The tablet is able to interact with 3D content through touch, spatial positioning, and tangible markers, however, 3D content is still presented on a 2D surface. Our hypothesis is that visualization environments that match human perceptual and interaction capabilities better to the task at hand improve understanding of 3D visualizations. To better understand the space of display and interaction modalities in visualization environments, we first propose a classification based on three dimensions: perception, interaction, and the spatial and cognitive proximity of the two. Each technique in our study is located at a different position along these three dimensions. We asked 15 participants to perform four tasks, each task having different levels of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost all cases.

  3. The Hologram in My Hand: How Effective is Interactive Exploration of 3D Visualizations in Immersive Tangible Augmented Reality?

    KAUST Repository

    Bach, Benjamin

    2017-08-29

    We report on a controlled user study comparing three visualization environments for common 3D exploration. Our environments differ in how they exploit natural human perception and interaction capabilities. We compare an augmented-reality head-mounted display (Microsoft HoloLens), a handheld tablet, and a desktop setup. The novel head-mounted HoloLens display projects stereoscopic images of virtual content into a user\\'s real world and allows for interaction in-situ at the spatial position of the 3D hologram. The tablet is able to interact with 3D content through touch, spatial positioning, and tangible markers, however, 3D content is still presented on a 2D surface. Our hypothesis is that visualization environments that match human perceptual and interaction capabilities better to the task at hand improve understanding of 3D visualizations. To better understand the space of display and interaction modalities in visualization environments, we first propose a classification based on three dimensions: perception, interaction, and the spatial and cognitive proximity of the two. Each technique in our study is located at a different position along these three dimensions. We asked 15 participants to perform four tasks, each task having different levels of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost all cases.

  4. Application of Mathematical Symmetrical Group Theory in the Creation Process of Digital Holograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Pérez-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an algorithm to reduce the multiplicative computational complexity in the creation of digital holograms, where an object is considered as a set of point sources using mathematical symmetry properties of both the core in the Fresnel integral and the image. The image is modeled using group theory. This algorithm has multiplicative complexity equal to zero and an additive complexity (k-1N2 for the case of sparse matrices or binary images, where k is the number of pixels other than zero and N2 is the total of points in the image.

  5. Topological transformation of fractional optical vortex beams using computer generated holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Satyajit; Brundavanam, Maruthi M.

    2018-04-01

    Optical vortex beams with fractional topological charges (TCs) are generated by the diffraction of a Gaussian beam using computer generated holograms embedded with mixed screw-edge dislocations. When the input Gaussian beam has a finite wave-front curvature, the generated fractional vortex beams show distinct topological transformations in comparison to the integer charge optical vortices. The topological transformations at different fractional TCs are investigated through the birth and evolution of the points of phase singularity, the azimuthal momentum transformation, occurrence of critical points in the transverse momentum and the vorticity around the singular points. This study is helpful to achieve better control in optical micro-manipulation applications.

  6. Laser memory (hologram) and coincident redundant multiplex memory (CRM-memory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostojic, Branko

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that besides the memory which remembers the object by memorising of the phases of the interferenting waves of the light (i.e. hologram) it is possible to construct the memory which remembers the object by memorising of the phases of the interferenting impulses (CFM-memory). It is given the mathematical description of the memory, based on the experimental model. Although in the paper only the technical aspect of CRM memory is given. It is mentioned the possibility that the human memory has the same principle and that the invention of CRM memory is due to cybernetical analysis of the system human eye-visual cortex

  7. Studying the Recent Improvements in Holograms for Three-Dimensional Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Displayers tend to become three-dimensional. The most advantage of holographic 3D displays is the possibility to observe 3D images without using glasses. The quality of created images by this method has surprised everyone. In this paper, the experimental steps of making a transmission hologram have been mentioned. In what follows, current advances of this science-art will be discussed. The aim of this paper is to study the recent improvements in creating three-dimensional images and videos by means of holographic techniques. In the last section we discuss the potentials of holography to be applied in future.

  8. Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Mori, Ryota; Kikunaga, Shuhei; Arai, Yasuhiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-15

    Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography that selectively extracts wavelength information from five wavelength-multiplexed holograms is presented. Specific phase shifts for respective wavelengths are introduced to remove the crosstalk components and extract only the object wave at the desired wavelength from the holograms. Object waves in multiple wavelengths are selectively extracted by utilizing 2π ambiguity and the subtraction procedures based on phase-shifting interferometry. Numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is also experimentally demonstrated.

  9. Very large computer generated holograms for precision metrology of aspheric optical surfaces, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both ground and space telescopes employ aspheric mirrors. A particular example is the X-ray telescope where primary and secondary mirrors have nearly cylindrical...

  10. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  11. Dynamical hologram generation for high speed optical trapping of smart droplet microtools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, P M P; Munro, I; Grace, E J; Casey, D R; Phillips, J; Klug, D R; Ces, O; Neil, M A A

    2012-07-01

    This paper demonstrates spatially selective sampling of the plasma membrane by the implementation of time-multiplexed holographic optical tweezers for Smart Droplet Microtools (SDMs). High speed (>1000fps) dynamical hologram generation was computed on the graphics processing unit of a standard display card and controlled by a user friendly LabView interface. Time multiplexed binary holograms were displayed in real time and mirrored to a ferroelectric Spatial Light Modulator. SDMs were manufactured with both liquid cores (as previously described) and solid cores, which confer significant advantages in terms of stability, polydispersity and ease of use. These were coated with a number of detergents, the most successful based upon lipids doped with transfection reagents. In order to validate these, trapped SDMs were maneuvered up to the plasma membrane of giant vesicles containing Nile Red and human biliary epithelial (BE) colon cancer cells with green fluorescent labeled protein (GFP)-labeled CAAX (a motif belonging to the Ras protein). Bright field and fluorescence images showed that successful trapping and manipulation of multiple SDMs in x, y, z was achieved with success rates of 30-50% and that subsequent membrane-SDM interactions led to the uptake of Nile Red or GFP-CAAX into the SDM.

  12. Comparison of the different approaches to generate holograms from data acquired with a Kinect sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Hoon; Leportier, Thibault; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Song, Jin Dong; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-05-01

    Data of real scenes acquired in real-time with a Kinect sensor can be processed with different approaches to generate a hologram. 3D models can be generated from a point cloud or a mesh representation. The advantage of the point cloud approach is that computation process is well established since it involves only diffraction and propagation of point sources between parallel planes. On the other hand, the mesh representation enables to reduce the number of elements necessary to represent the object. Then, even though the computation time for the contribution of a single element increases compared to a simple point, the total computation time can be reduced significantly. However, the algorithm is more complex since propagation of elemental polygons between non-parallel planes should be implemented. Finally, since a depth map of the scene is acquired at the same time than the intensity image, a depth layer approach can also be adopted. This technique is appropriate for a fast computation since propagation of an optical wavefront from one plane to another can be handled efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. Fast computation with depth layer approach is convenient for real time applications, but point cloud method is more appropriate when high resolution is needed. In this study, since Kinect can be used to obtain both point cloud and depth map, we examine the different approaches that can be adopted for hologram computation and compare their performance.

  13. Efficient generation of 3D hologram for American Sign Language using look-up table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Sup; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2010-02-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is one of the languages giving the greatest help for communication of the hearing impaired person. Current 2-D broadcasting, 2-D movies are used the ASL to give some information, help understand the situation of the scene and translate the foreign language. These ASL will not be disappeared in future three-dimensional (3-D) broadcasting or 3-D movies because the usefulness of the ASL. On the other hands, some approaches for generation of CGH patterns have been suggested like the ray-tracing method and look-up table (LUT) method. However, these methods have some drawbacks that needs much time or needs huge memory size for look-up table. Recently, a novel LUT (N-LUT) method for fast generation of CGH patterns of 3-D objects with a dramatically reduced LUT without the loss of computational speed was proposed. Therefore, we proposed the method to efficiently generate the holographic ASL in holographic 3DTV or 3-D movies using look-up table method. The proposed method is largely consisted of five steps: construction of the LUT for each ASL images, extraction of characters in scripts or situation, call the fringe patterns for characters in the LUT for each ASL, composition of hologram pattern for 3-D video and hologram pattern for ASL and reconstruct the holographic 3D video with ASL. Some simulation results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method in efficient generation of CGH patterns for ASL.

  14. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,'' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task

  15. Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of

  16. Determination of refractive index and absorbance modulation amplitudes from angular selectivity of holograms in polymer material with phenanthrenequinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Vladimir; Veniaminov, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude and phase contributions to mixed volume holographic gratings were extracted from measured contours of angular selectivity. Holograms for the investigation were recorded in the glassy polymer material with phenan-threnequinone (PQ) using the DPSS CW laser (532 nm) and then self-developed due to molecular diffusion of PQ, reaching diffraction efficiency about 40%. Refractive index and absorbance modulation amplitudes of those holograms were obtained as adjustable parameters from theoretical equations by fitting angular dependencies of zeros and 1st orders diffraction efficiency measured at 450, 473, 532, and 633 nm at the different stages of hologram development. Mixed gratings manifest themselves in asymmetrical transmittance selectivity contours with one minimum and one maximum shifted with respect to the Bragg angle, while symmetrical contours with a minimum or a maximum at the Bragg angle are characteristic of pure phase and amplitude gratings, respectively. In the course of a hologram development, it converts from a predominantly amplitude-mixed to almost purely phase one in the case of readout using a light within the absorption band of PQ and maintains the phase nature besides it. The value of refractive index amplitude is ranging from 5×10-6 to 10-4 and the value of absorbance amplitude is up to 140 m-1.

  17. 3D real holographic image movies are projected into a volumetric display using dynamic digital micromirror device (DMD) holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebschman, Michael L.; Hunt, Jeremy; Garner, Harold R.

    2006-04-01

    The Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is being used as the recording medium for display of pre-calculated digital holograms. The high intensity throughput of the reflected laser light from DMD holograms enables volumetric display of projected real images as well as virtual images. A single DMD and single laser projector system has been designed to reconstruct projected images in a 6''x 6''x 4.5'' volumetric display. The volumetric display is composed of twenty-four, 6''-square, PSCT liquid crystal plates which are each cycled on and off to reduce unnecessary scatter in the volume. The DMD is an XGA format array, 1024x768, with 13.6 micron pitch mirrors. This holographic projection system has been used in the assessment of hologram image resolution, maximum image size, optical focusing of the real image, image look-around, and physiological depth cues. Dynamic movement images are projected by transferring the appropriately sequenced holograms to the DMD at movie frame rates.

  18. HOLRED - a machine to reproduce and photograph real images from holograms taken in the 15 foot bubble chamber at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nailor, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the design criteria and philosophy behind a machine to reproject and photograph the real images of neutrino interactions from holograms taken there in the coming run. Detailed analysis of the vertex region of these events will be done from the photographs. (orig./HSI)

  19. Digital hologram transformations for RGB color holographic display with independent image magnification and translation in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Piotr L; Zaperty, Weronika; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    A new framework for in-plane transformations of digital holograms (DHs) is proposed, which provides improved control over basic geometrical features of holographic images reconstructed optically in full color. The method is based on a Fourier hologram equivalent of the adaptive affine transformation technique [Opt. Express18, 8806 (2010)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.18.008806]. The solution includes four elementary geometrical transformations that can be performed independently on a full-color 3D image reconstructed from an RGB hologram: (i) transverse magnification; (ii) axial translation with minimized distortion; (iii) transverse translation; and (iv) viewing angle rotation. The independent character of transformations (i) and (ii) constitutes the main result of the work and plays a double role: (1) it simplifies synchronization of color components of the RGB image in the presence of mismatch between capture and display parameters; (2) provides improved control over position and size of the projected image, particularly the axial position, which opens new possibilities for efficient animation of holographic content. The approximate character of the operations (i) and (ii) is examined both analytically and experimentally using an RGB circular holographic display system. Additionally, a complex animation built from a single wide-aperture RGB Fourier hologram is presented to demonstrate full capabilities of the developed toolset.

  20. A low-cost alternative to the optical experiment commercially known as “Magic Hologram – 3D Mirage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique Moura Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a low-cost alternative to the commercialized experiment called “Magic Hologram – Mirage 3D”, which reproduces the real image of an object that is seen three-dimensionally in the air. An analysis of this alternative is carried out, indicating educational aspects of its use in the classroom in quantitative terms.

  1. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect

  2. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  3. Digital Relief of the Mental Foramen for a CAD/CAM-Fabricated Mandibular Denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kurtz, Kenneth S

    2018-02-01

    Relief of the intaglio surface of a denture base is conventionally performed using thin wax and soft metal foil attached to the master cast. The following report highlights a new relief procedure for the mental foramen using a CT double scan technique on the CAD/CAM dentures fabricated for the patient with paresthesia of the left lower lip and chin during mastication. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including valves, frangible (rupture) disks, vacuum vents and combination devices must certify that the... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... pressure relief valves. A secondary pressure relief system consisting of another pressure relief valve in...

  5. Accelerated computation of hologram patterns by use of interline redundancy of 3-D object images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Choe, Woo-Young; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-09-01

    We present a new approach for accelerated computation of hologram patterns of a three-dimensional (3-D) image by taking into account of its interline redundant data. Interline redundant data of a 3-D image are extracted with the differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) algorithm, and then the CGH patterns for these compressed line images are generated with the novel lookup table (N-LUT) technique. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed method, experiments with four kinds of 3-D test objects are carried out, and the results are comparatively discussed with the conventional methods in terms of the number of object points and the computation time. Experimental results show that the number of calculated object points and the computation time for one object point have been reduced by 73.3 and 83.9%, on the average, for four test 3-D images in the proposed method employing a top-down scanning method, compared to the conventional method.

  6. Three-dimensional imaging using computer-generated holograms synthesized from 3-D Fourier spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Toyohiko; Miura, Ken-ichi; Sando, Yusuke; Itoh, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Computer-generated holograms(CGHs) synthesized from projection images of real existing objects are considered. A series of projection images are recorded both vertically and horizontally with an incoherent light source and a color CCD. According to the principles of computer tomography(CT), the 3-D Fourier spectrum is calculated from several projection images of objects and the Fresnel CGH is synthesized using a part of the 3-D Fourier spectrum. This method has following advantages. At first, no-blur reconstructed images in any direction are obtained owing to two-dimensionally scanning in recording. Secondarily, since not interference fringes but simple projection images of objects are recorded, a coherent light source is not necessary. Moreover, when a color CCD is used in recording, it is easily possible to record and reconstruct colorful objects. Finally, we demonstrate reconstruction of biological objects.

  7. High collimated coherent illumination for reconstruction of digitally calculated holograms: design and experimental realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Alexander; Dubinin, German; Dubynin, Sergey; Yanusik, Igor; Kim, Sun Il; Choi, Chil-Sung; Song, Hoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Putilin, Andrey; Kopenkin, Sergey; Borodin, Yuriy

    2017-06-01

    Future commercialization of glasses-free holographic real 3D displays requires not only appropriate image quality but also slim design of backlight unit and whole display device to match market needs. While a lot of research aimed to solve computational issues of forming Computer Generated Holograms for 3D Holographic displays, less focus on development of backlight units suitable for 3D holographic display applications with form-factor of conventional 2D display systems. Thereby, we report coherent backlight unit for 3D holographic display with thickness comparable to commercially available 2D displays (cell phones, tablets, laptops, etc.). Coherent backlight unit forms uniform, high-collimated and effective illumination of spatial light modulator. Realization of such backlight unit is possible due to holographic optical elements, based on volume gratings, constructing coherent collimated beam to illuminate display plane. Design, recording and measurement of 5.5 inch coherent backlight unit based on two holographic optical elements are presented in this paper.

  8. Wave-front reconstruction without twin-image blurring by two arbitrary step digital holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gu L; Lin, Ching Yang; Yau, Hon Fai; Kuo, Ming Kuei; Chang, Chi Ching

    2007-09-03

    We discuss a novel approach for numerical wave-front reconstruction which utilizes arbitrary phase step digital holography. Our experimental results demonstrate that only two digital holograms and a simple estimation procedure are required for twin-image suppression, and for numerical reconstruction. One advantage of this approach is its simplicity. Only one estimate equation needs be applied. In addition the optical system can be constructed from inexpensive, generally available elements. Another advantage is the effectiveness of the method. The tolerance of the estimated value is less than 1% different than the actual value. This means that the quality of the reconstructed image is superior. This novel approach should make the application of digital holography easier and more widely available.

  9. Quantum hologram of macroscopically entangled light via the mechanism of diffuse light storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, L V; Sokolov, I M; Kupriyanov, D V; Havey, M D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a quantum memory scheme for light diffusely propagating through a spatially disordered atomic gas. A unique characteristic is enhanced trapping of the signal light pulse by quantum multiple scattering, which can be naturally integrated with the mechanism of stimulated Raman conversion into a long-lived spin coherence. Then, the quantum state of the light can be mapped onto the disordered atomic spin subsystem and can be stored in it for a relatively long time. The proposed memory scheme can be applicable for storage of the macroscopic analogue of the Ψ (−) Bell state and the prepared entangled atomic state performs its quantum hologram, which suggests the possibility of further quantum information processing. (paper)

  10. Reconstruction of Double-Exposed Terahertz Hologram of Non-isolated Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Qi; Chen, Guanghao

    2016-04-01

    When the non-isolated imaging objects are complex or critical imaging precision is required, single-exposure digital hologram technique may be insufficient. So in this paper, double-exposure method is adopted in 2.52-THz inline digital holography simulations and experiments. Experimental results indicate that, compared with the results reconstructed by single-exposure amplitude-constrained phase retrieval algorithm (S-APRA), double-exposure phase-constrained phase retrieval algorithm (D-PPRA) increases the contrast of the reconstruction image by 0.146 and double-exposure amplitude-constrained phase retrieval algorithm (D-APRA) increases the contrast by 0.225. In addition, when applied to non-isolated object reconstruction, phase retrieval algorithms with only amplitude constraint on the object plane work better than those with both amplitude and phase constraints.

  11. Fast calculation method of computer-generated hologram using a depth camera with point cloud gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Shi, Chen-Xiao; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Piao, Yan-Ling; Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam

    2018-03-01

    We propose a fast calculation method for a computer-generated hologram (CGH) of real objects that uses a point cloud gridding method. The depth information of the scene is acquired using a depth camera and the point cloud model is reconstructed virtually. Because each point of the point cloud is distributed precisely to the exact coordinates of each layer, each point of the point cloud can be classified into grids according to its depth. A diffraction calculation is performed on the grids using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain a CGH. The computational complexity is reduced dramatically in comparison with conventional methods. The feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by numerical and optical experiments.

  12. Digital holography super-resolution for accurate three-dimensional reconstruction of particle holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Nicolas; Fournier, Corinne

    2015-01-15

    In-line digital holography (DH) is used in many fields to locate and size micro or nano-objects spread in a volume. To reconstruct simple shaped objects, the optimal approach is to fit an imaging model to accurately estimate their position and their characteristic parameters. Increasing the accuracy of the reconstruction is a big issue in DH, particularly when the pixel is large or the signal-to-noise ratio is low. We suggest exploiting the information redundancy of videos to improve the reconstruction of the holograms by jointly estimating the position of the objects and the characteristic parameters. Using synthetic and experimental data, we checked experimentally that this approach can improve the accuracy of the reconstruction by a factor more than the square root of the image number.

  13. Laparoscopic Adhesiolysis and Relief of Chronic Pelvic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Nezhat, Farr R.; Crystal, Ruth Ann; Nezhat, Ceana H.; Nezhat, Camran R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic enterolysis in patients with chronic pelvic pain following hysterectomy. Methods: Forty-eight patients were evaluated at time intervals from 2 weeks to 5 years after laparoscopic enterolysis. Patients were asked to rate postoperative relief of their pelvic pain as complete/near complete relief (80-100% pain relief), significant relief (50-80% pain relief), or less than 50% or no pain relief. Results: We found that after 2...

  14. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  15. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  16. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  17. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.

  18. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  19. Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodman, William

    2004-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations...

  20. Seeking Allergy Relief: When Breathing Becomes Bothersome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe June 2016 Print this issue Seeking Allergy Relief When Breathing Becomes Bothersome En español Send ... Preschoolers Benefit from Peanut Allergy Therapy Wise Choices Allergy Symptoms Runny or stuffy nose Sneezing Itchy nose, ...

  1. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  2. Antidiarrheal Medicines: OTC Relief for Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  3. Lake Bathymetric DEM Shaded Relief Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...

  4. Environmental conditions influence for real-time hologram formation on dichromated polyvinyl alcohol NiCl2·6H2O doped films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R C; Olivares-Perez, A; Fuentes-Tapia, I; Rios-Velasco, M A

    2011-01-01

    The real-time holographic gratings recording are studied by the presence of a metallic salt. The experimental process refers to analysis of diffraction efficiency by the influence of humidity in the coating solution on holograms formation in presence of electrical potential. The diffraction efficiency is measured as a function of the exposure energy until reach the saturation. The influence of the hologram parameters to get the diffraction efficiency is studied at room conditions.

  5. Fast generation of three-dimensional video holograms by combined use of data compression and lookup table techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2008-11-10

    Even though there are many types of methods to generate CGH (computer-generated hologram) patterns of three-dimensional (3D) objects, most of them have been applied to still images but not to video images due to their computational complexity in applications of 3D video holograms. A new method for fast computation of CGH patterns for 3D video images is proposed by combined use of data compression and lookup table techniques. Temporally redundant data of the 3D video images are removed with the differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) algorithm, and then the CGH patterns for these compressed videos are generated with the novel lookup table (N-LUT) technique. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed method, some experiments with test 3D videos are carried out, and the results are comparatively discussed with the conventional methods in terms of the number of object points and computation time.

  6. The schemes and methods for producing of the visual security features used in the color hologram stereography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, D. S.; Zherdev, A. Y.; Odinokov, S. B.; Markin, V. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Visual security elements used in color holographic stereograms - three-dimensional colored security holograms - and methods their production is describes in this article. These visual security elements include color micro text, color-hidden image, the horizontal and vertical flip - flop effects by change color and image. The article also presents variants of optical systems that allow record the visual security elements as part of the holographic stereograms. The methods for solving of the optical problems arising in the recording visual security elements are presented. Also noted perception features of visual security elements for verification of security holograms by using these elements. The work was partially funded under the Agreement with the RF Ministry of Education and Science № 14.577.21.0197, grant RFMEFI57715X0197.

  7. Research on the superimposed frame number of terahertz digital holograms in double-exposed phase retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-qi; Li, Qi; Chen, Guang-hao

    2015-10-01

    Phase retrieval algorithm is gradually applied to the terahertz in-line digital holography, as its effectiveness in the removal of the zero-order diffraction light and twin image. Based on the experiments, the reconstruction results of the double-exposed phase retrieval algorithm are obtained which demonstrate that the method can improve the quality of reconstructed images, compared to the angular spectrum method. Furthermore, the influence of the superimposed frame number of the holograms in double-exposed phase retrieval algorithm is discussed. The result shows that the recording time can be reduced by reasonably decreasing the frames of the holograms and it contributes to real-time imaging and the algorithm practicality is also further improved.

  8. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a vacuum...

  9. Optimum aberration coefficients for recording high-resolution off-axis holograms in a Cs-corrected TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the impressive improvements in high-resolution electron microscopy, the Cs-corrector also has significantly enhanced the capabilities of off-axis electron holography. Recently, it has been shown that the signal above noise in the reconstructable phase can be significantly improved by combining holography and hardware aberration correction. Additionally, with a spherical aberration close to zero, the traditional optimum focus for recording high-resolution holograms (“Lichte's defocus”) has become less stringent and both, defocus and spherical aberration, can be selected freely within a certain range. This new degree of freedom can be used to improve the signal resolution in the holographically reconstructed object wave locally, e.g. at the atomic positions. A brute force simulation study for an aberration corrected 200 kV TEM is performed to determine optimum values for defocus and spherical aberration for best possible signal to noise in the reconstructed atomic phase signals. Compared to the optimum aberrations for conventional phase contrast imaging (NCSI), which produce “bright atoms” in the image intensity, the resulting optimum values of defocus and spherical aberration for off-axis holography enable “black atom contrast” in the hologram. However, they can significantly enhance the local signal resolution at the atomic positions. At the same time, the benefits of hardware aberration correction for high-resolution off-axis holography are preserved. It turns out that the optimum is depending on the object and its thickness and therefore not universal. -- Highlights: ► Optimized aberration parameters for high-resolution off-axis holography. ► Simulation and analysis of noise in high-resolution off-axis holograms. ► Improving signal resolution in the holographically reconstructed phase shift. ► Comparison of “black” and “white” atom contrast in off-axis holograms.

  10. Effect of the Power Balance® hologram on balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Merino Marban, Daniel Mayorga Vega, Emilio Fernández Rodríguez, Francisco José Santana Pérez, Oscar Romero Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the body’s energy field, the inventors of Power Balance® have created a hologram that theoretically runs through frequencies that are in our natural environment. Its creators say that people may experience improve balance, strength, flexibility, endurance, concentration, coordination and recovery time, among others. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of Power Balance® hologram on balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination in university students. A sample of 105 young volunteers’ physical education students (age 20.91 ± 3.36 years, mass 69.69 ± 11.35 kg, height 171.70 ± 8.07 cm was used. A between-group experimental design with double-blind control group was used to evaluate the possible effects of the Power Balance ® on the dynamic balance, flexibility, abdominal strength, endurance and speed-coordination measured with the Dynamic Balance Test, Sit and Reach, Sit-ups in 30 seconds and Race 10 x 5 m, respectively. A t of Student for independent and dependent samples was used to assess the potential effects between-group and intra-group, respectively. Power Balance®’s hologram produces no significant effects on the balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination among university students

  11. Controlling the optical fiber output beam profile by focused ion beam machining of a phase hologram on fiber tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiho; Sparkes, Martin; O'Neill, William

    2015-02-01

    A phase hologram was machined on an optical fiber tip using a focused ion beam (FIB) system so that a ring-shaped beam emerges from the fiber tip. The fiber used for this work was a commercial single-mode optical fiber patch cable for a design wavelength of 633 nm with a germanosilicate core. The ring-shaped beam was chosen to ensure a simple geometry in the required phase hologram, though the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm can be used to calculate a hologram for an arbitrary beam shape. The FIB machining took approximately 45 min at 30 kV and 200 pA. The radius of the resulting ring beam was 0.083 m at 1 m standoff, as compared to 0.1 m as was initially desired. Results suggest that this imaging technique may provide a basis for a beam-shaping method with several advantages over the current commercial solutions, having permanent alignment, compactness, and mechanical robustness. However, it would appear that minimizing the speckle pattern will remain a critical challenge for this technique to become widely implemented.

  12. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury

  13. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  14. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  15. Optimal Laser Phototherapy Parameters for Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Rohit J; Rubatt, Sarah; Enwemeka, Chukuka S; Huddleston, Wendy E

    2018-03-27

    Studies on laser phototherapy for pain relief have used parameters that vary widely and have reported varying outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal parameter ranges of laser phototherapy for pain relief by analyzing data aggregated from existing primary literature. Original studies were gathered from available sources and were screened to meet the pre-established inclusion criteria. The included articles were then subjected to meta-analysis using Cohen's d statistic for determining treatment effect size. From these studies, ranges of the reported parameters that always resulted into large effect sizes were determined. These optimal ranges were evaluated for their accuracy using leave-one-article-out cross-validation procedure. A total of 96 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis and yielded 232 effect sizes. The average effect size was highly significant: d = +1.36 (confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.04-1.68). Among all the parameters, total energy was found to have the greatest effect on pain relief and had the most prominent optimal ranges of 120-162 and 15.36-20.16 J, which always resulted in large effect sizes. The cross-validation accuracy of the optimal ranges for total energy was 68.57% (95% CI = 53.19-83.97). Fewer and less-prominent optimal ranges were obtained for the energy density and duration parameters. None of the remaining parameters was found to be independently related to pain relief outcomes. The findings of meta-analysis indicate that laser phototherapy is highly effective for pain relief. Based on the analysis of parameters, total energy can be optimized to yield the largest effect on pain relief.

  16. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  17. Occlusion processing for computer generated hologram by conversion between the wavefront and light-ray information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakunami, Koki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2013-02-01

    In the field of computational holography for three-dimensional (3D) display, the mutual occlusion of objects is one of the crucial issues. We propose a new mutual occlusion processing that is achieved by the conversion between the light-ray and wavefront on a virtual plane called ray-sampling (RS) plane located at near the interrupting object. The wavefront coming from background scene is converted into light-ray information at the RS plane by using Fourier transform based on the angular spectrum theory, then the converted light-rays are overwritten with those from interrupting object in the light-ray domain as an occlusion culling process. The ray information after the occlusion process is reconverted into wavefront by inverse Fourier transform at each RS point, then wave propagation from RS plane to hologram is computed by general light diffraction computation techniques. Since the light-ray information is used for the occlusion processing, our approach can realize a correct occlusion effect by a simple algorithm. In addition, high resolution 3D image can be reconstructed with wavefront-based technique. In the numerical simulation, we demonstrate that our approach for deep 3D scene with plural objects can realize a correct occlusion culling for varying observation angle and focusing distance.

  18. Computer-generated holograms (CGH) realization: the integration of dedicated software tool with digital slides printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Vittorio; Francini, Franco

    1997-12-01

    Last generation of digital printer is usually characterized by a spatial resolution enough high to allow the designer to realize a binary CGH directly on a transparent film avoiding photographic reduction techniques. These devices are able to produce slides or offset prints. Furthermore, services supplied by commercial printing company provide an inexpensive method to rapidly verify the validity of the design by means of a test-and-trial process. Notably, this low-cost approach appears to be suitable for a didactical environment. On the basis of these considerations, a set of software tools able to design CGH's has been developed. The guidelines inspiring the work have been the following ones: (1) ray-tracing approach, considering the object to be reproduced as source of spherical waves; (2) Optimization and speed-up of the algorithms used, in order to produce a portable code, runnable on several hardware platforms. In this paper calculation methods to obtain some fundamental geometric functions (points, lines, curves) are described. Furthermore, by the juxtaposition of these primitives functions it is possible to produce the holograms of more complex objects. Many examples of generated CGHs are presented.

  19. Inverted Relief in volcanic landscapes, an old idea with new observations in the Chaîne des Puys

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Karátson, Dávid

    2016-04-01

    The concept of volcanic inverted relief is almost as old as geology. It was identified by Desmarest (1870) in Central France, and by Whitney (1879) in California, and quickly began to be used as a tool in the uniformitarianism / catastrophism argument. In the 20th century inverted relief was identified and described in many volcanic fields by Cotton, later explored in Australia by Ollier, and most of the known examples presented in their textbooks are from Australia.Study continued in Central France, in the 19th and 20th centuries, notably on the Montagne de la Serre at the southern end of the Chaîne des Puys. This latter site has the advantage of having multiple ages of inverted relief stacked closely together over a rift margin fault. This creates especially clear and intricate inverted relief types. However, apart from these studies inverted relief has received little attention, yet is acknowledged to be present in most volcanic environments to some degree. The advent of planetary geology has partly brought inverted relief back to the fore, as it is clearly present on Mars. We review the characteristics of inverted relief and discuss their use as a tracer of long-term landscape evolution. At a broad scale it can be used for determining differential erosion rates. In turn, these can be used for assessing feedback processes between erosion, exhumation and mantle melting in rifts. Inverted relief also protects surfaces that can then record tectonic movement. This is used to clarify the structure of the Limagne Rift margin. At a more local scale, the inverted relief is often characterised by landsliding and deep seated gravitational deformation that is an important hazard in volcanic terrains. Several inverted relief related landslide disasters are recorded in the French Massif Central, and a landslide map is presented for the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault area. Finally a global review of inverted relief geosites is presented.

  20. Use of Numerical Simulation to Measure the Effect of Relief Wells for Decreasing Uplift in a Homogeneous Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Salmasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relief wells are used extensively to relieve excess hydrostatic pressure in pervious foundation strata overlain by impervious top strata, conditions which often exist landward of levees and downstream of dams and hydraulic structures. Placing well outlets in below-surface trenches or collector pipes helps dry up seepage areas downstream of levees and dams. Relief wells are often used in combination with seepage control measures, such as upstream blankets, downstream seepage berms, and grouting. Draining seepage water into relief wells decreases uplift and prevents piping. This study examined the effect of relief wells with different diameters at different distances downstream of a homogeneous earth dam using Seep/W software. Also the effect of upstream water level of reservoir on seepage flow to each well was carried out. Results show that by decreasing the distance between relief wells and increasing the diameter of the relief wells, total uplift pressure decreases. The optimum distance between relief wells to decrease uplift pressure was found to be 5 m. The proposed method is recommended in designing relief wells by providing optimum diameter and distance of wells for the sustained yield.

  1. Emergency networking: famine relief in ant colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sendova-Franks, A.B.; Hayward, R.; Wulf, B.; Klimek, T.; James, R.; Planque, R.; Britton, N.F.; Franks, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Resource distribution is fundamental to social organization, but it poses a dilemma. How to facilitate the spread of useful resources but restrict harmful substances? This dilemma reaches a zenith in famine relief. Survival depends on distributing food fast but that could increase vulnerability to

  2. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  3. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  4. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  5. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H 2 O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  6. Reading, Writing and Drawing in Relief: The IPO Relief-Drawing Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melotte, H. E. M.; Engel, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    The article describes an improved relief drawing set designed for use with visually impaired persons that allows durable, tangible, and visible embossed images to be made with a ball-point pen. (Author/PHR)

  7. Production of an optimized matrix hologram and development of a copying process for large format holograms for solar applications. Final report; Herstellung von optimierten Materhologrammen und Entwicklung eines Kopierverfahrens fuer grossformatige Hologramme fuer die Solaranwendung; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanoff, C.G.; Brasseur, O.; Froehlich, K.; Kubitzek, R.; Schuette, H.; Tropartz, S.

    1992-07-15

    The aim of the research project is the development of a technique for reasonably priced mass- production of large area holographic focussers for photo-electrics. The holograms up to 1 m{sup 2} in size simultaneously act as spectrum dispersing and focussing optical elements, which focus the sunlight in discrete bands on spectrally matched solar cells. The three most important characteristics of the holographic focussers are the refractive efficiency, the spectrum bandwidth and the central working wavelength. The optimum values of the parameters conditional on the variation of the layer thickness and the mean refractive index via the aperture of the hologram and on the ability of the layer to make large modulations of the refractive index possible. The mass-production of large format holographic lenses demands precise coating of the carrier substrate of the hologram copies with dichromate gelatine and is done with the aid of a scanning copying process. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens ist die Entwicklung einer Technololgie fuer die preiswerte serielle Herstellung von grossflaechigen holographischen Konzentratoren fuer die Photovoltaik. Die bis zu 1 m{sup 2} grossen Hologramme wirken gleichzeitig als spektral dispergierende und fokussierende optische Elemente, die das Sonnenlicht in diskreten Baendern auf spektral angepasste Solarzellen konzentrieren. Die drei wichtigsten Charakteristiken der holographischen Konzentratoren sind die Beugungseffizienz, die spektrale Bandbreite und die zentrale Arbeitswellenlaenge. Die optimalen Werte dieser Parameter sind eindeutig durch die Variation der Schichtdicke und des mittleren Brechungsindexes ueber die Apertur des Hologramms sowie durch die Faehigkeit der Schicht, grosse Brechnungsindexmodulation zu ermoeglichen, bedingt. Die serielle Fertigung der grossformatigen holographischen Linsen verlangt eine praezise Beschichtung der Traegersubstrate der Hologrammkopien mit Dichromat-Gelatine und erfolgt mit Hilfe eines

  8. Relief Effects on the L-Band Emission of a Bare Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Völksch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a combined experimental and model study, we investigated effects of surface topography (relief on the thermal L-band emission of a sandy soil. To this end, brightness temperatures of two adjacent footprint areas were measured quasi-simultaneously with an L-band radiometer at the observation angle of 55° relative to nadir for one year. One footprint featured a distinct relief in the form of erosion gullies with steep slopes, whereas the surface of the second footprint was smooth. Additionally, hydrometeorological variables, in situ soil moisture and temperature were measured, and digital terrain models of the two scenes were derived from terrestrial laser scanning. A facet model, taking into account the topography of the footprint surfaces as well as the antenna’s directivity, was developed and brightness temperatures of both footprints were simulated based on the hydrometeorological and in situ soil data. We found that brightness temperatures of the footprint with the distinct surface relief were increased at horizontal and decreased at vertical polarization with respect to those of the plane footprint. The simulations showed that this is mainly due to modifications of local (facet observation angles and due to polarization mixing caused by the pronounced relief. Measurements furthermore revealed that brightness temperatures of both areas respond differently to changing ambient conditions indicating differences in their hydrological properties.

  9. Teaching with AR as a Tool for Relief Visualization: Usability and Motivation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Carlos Carbonell; Perez, Jose Luis Saorin; Cantero, Jorge de la Torre

    2018-01-01

    In the field of geographical and environmental education, maps and geo-referenced information are frequently used, in which the earth's surfaces are represented in a two-dimensional (2D) way. Students have difficulty interpreting the relief representation and switching between 2D and 3D scenarios. Digital terrain modelling is added to the…

  10. Mechanical Designs for Relief Valves for Cryogenic Apparatuses and Installations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    There are also pressure relief valves with warm seat available on which the set pressure is based on an adjustment of forces by permanent magnets. Pressure vessel rules allows also the choice for an active triggered pressure relief valve (Cont...

  11. Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from other drug classes with distinct mechanisms of pain relief (such as antidepressants) may be used in combination ... disabling, but anti-seizure drugs may provide moderate pain relief. Neuropathic pain. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www. ...

  12. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  13. Use of Numerical Simulation to Measure the Effect of Relief Wells for Decreasing Uplift in a Homogeneous Earth Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin Salmasi; Behnam Mansuri; Amir Raufi

    2015-01-01

    Relief wells are used extensively to relieve excess hydrostatic pressure in pervious foundation strata overlain by impervious top strata, conditions which often exist landward of levees and downstream of dams and hydraulic structures. Placing well outlets in below-surface trenches or collector pipes helps dry up seepage areas downstream of levees and dams. Relief wells are often used in combination with seepage control measures, such as upstream blankets, downstream seepage berms, and groutin...

  14. Pixel-size-maintained image reconstruction of digital holograms on arbitrarily tilted planes by the angular spectrum method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Jun; Hong, Chung Ki

    2008-06-01

    We present an effective method for the pixel-size-maintained reconstruction of images on arbitrarily tilted planes in digital holography. The method is based on the plane wave expansion of the diffraction wave fields and the three-axis rotation of the wave vectors. The images on the tilted planes are reconstructed without loss of the frequency contents of the hologram and have the same pixel sizes. Our method shows good results in the extreme cases of large tilting angles and in the region closer than the paraxial case. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.

  15. Ultrafast layer based computer-generated hologram calculation with sparse template holographic fringe pattern for 3-D object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Gu; Man Ro, Yong

    2017-11-27

    In this paper, we propose a new ultrafast layer based CGH calculation that exploits the sparsity of hologram fringe pattern in 3-D object layer. Specifically, we devise a sparse template holographic fringe pattern. The holographic fringe pattern on a depth layer can be rapidly calculated by adding the sparse template holographic fringe patterns at each object point position. Since the size of sparse template holographic fringe pattern is much smaller than that of the CGH plane, the computational load can be significantly reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 10-20 msec for 1024x1024 pixels providing visually plausible results.

  16. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section 230.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual...

  17. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring...

  18. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71 Marking...

  19. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64...

  20. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one relief valve setting must have one of the following arrangements: (a) Relief valves that: (1) Are set and...

  1. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154...

  2. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except a relief valve may vent to a common tank relief valve header if the back pressure is included in... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3...

  3. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  4. Libraries and information provision for African relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsemieke Wishart

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research article explores the concept that libraries as communication centres in sub-Saharan Africa can play a vital role in bringing poverty relief by providing greater access to information through modern technology. It discusses the patrons who can benefit from community information centres and explores their particular needs. I have researched how modern tools like the Internet, computers, e-readers and cell phones can bring valuable information to impoverished citizens. My research was conducted through reading research papers using article databases, books and Internet websites. The future for libraries in sub-Saharan Africa is bright, as new technology opens up vast opportunities to share information in a way that is accessible, affordable and adaptable to the needs of the African people. I recommend that librarians and relief organisations in Southern Africa seriously consider using modern technology to provide information that will empower its citizens.

  5. Photobiomodulation: Implications for Anesthesia and Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Roberta T; Armati, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    This review examines the evidence of neural inhibition as a mechanism underlying pain relief and anesthetic effect of photobiomodulation (PBM). PBM for pain relief has also been used for more than 30 years; however, the mechanism of its effectiveness has not been well understood. We review electrophysiological studies in humans and animal models and cell culture studies to examine neural responses to PBM. Evidence shows that PBM can inhibit nerve function in vivo, in situ, ex vivo, and in culture. Animal studies using noxious stimuli indicate nociceptor-specific inhibition with other studies providing direct evidence of local conduction block, leading to inhibited translation of pain centrally. Evidence of PBM-disrupted neuronal physiology affecting axonal flow, cytoskeleton organization, and decreased ATP is also presented. PBM changes are reversible with no side effects or nerve damage. This review provides strong evidence in neuroscience identifying inhibition of neural function as a mechanism for the clinical application of PBM in pain and anesthesia.

  6. Venting of gas deflagrations through relief pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safety locations by means of relief pipes for the discharge of hot combustion products or blast waves (NFPA 68, 2002). The presence of the duct is likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to simply vented vessels posing a problem for the proper design of this venting configuration. The phenomenology of the vented explosion is complicated as the interaction of combustion in the duct with primary combustion in...

  7. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... Astable sinusoidal pattern generated using a two-beam laser interferometric technique was recorded in thin films of positive photoresist deposited on glass substrates. Several gratings were generated by varying the exposure time of interference pattern and time of chemical development of exposed media.

  8. Quantitative Model of the Surface Relief Formation in Cyclic Straining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Man, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2015), s. 675-680 ISSN 0587-4246. [ISPMA 2014 - International Symposium on Physics of Materials /13./. Praha, 31.08.2015-04.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32665S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fatigue * extrusion * intrusion * crack * initiation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  9. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  10. A transportable system for the in situ recording of color Denisyuk holograms of Greek cultural heritage artifacts in silver halide panchromatic emulsions and an optimized illuminating device for the finished holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarakinos, A; Lembessis, A; Zervos, N

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will present the Z-Lab transportable color holography system, the HoLoFoS illuminator and results of actual in situ recording of color Denisyuk holograms of artifacts on panchromatic silver halide emulsions. Z-lab and HoLoFoS were developed to meet identified prerequisites of holographic recording of artifacts: a) in situ recording b) a high degree of detail and color reproduction c) a low degree of image distortions. The Z-Lab consists of the Z3 RGB camera, its accessories and a mobile darkroom. HoLoFoS is an RGB LED-based lighting device for the display of color holograms. The device is capable of digitally controlled intensity mixing and provides a beam of uniform color cross section. The small footprint and emission characteristics of the device LEDs result in a narrow band, quasi point source at selected wavelengths. A case study in recording and displaying 'Optical Clones' of Greek cultural heritage artifacts with the aforementioned systems will also be presented.

  11. A transportable system for the in situ recording of color Denisyuk holograms of Greek cultural heritage artifacts in silver halide panchromatic emulsions and an optimized illuminating device for the finished holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakinos, A.; Lembessis, A.; Zervos, N.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we will present the Z-Lab transportable color holography system, the HoLoFoS illuminator and results of actual in situ recording of color Denisyuk holograms of artifacts on panchromatic silver halide emulsions. Z-lab and HoLoFoS were developed to meet identified prerequisites of holographic recording of artifacts: a) in situ recording b) a high degree of detail and color reproduction c) a low degree of image distortions. The Z-Lab consists of the Z3RGB camera, its accessories and a mobile darkroom. HoLoFoS is an RGB LED-based lighting device for the display of color holograms. The device is capable of digitally controlled intensity mixing and provides a beam of uniform color cross section. The small footprint and emission characteristics of the device LEDs result in a narrow band, quasi point source at selected wavelengths. A case study in recording and displaying 'Optical Clones' of Greek cultural heritage artifacts with the aforementioned systems will also be presented.

  12. Diffraction properties of windshield laminated photopolymer holograms Propriétés de diffraction d'hologrammes de photopolymères laminés sur des pare-brises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Weichung; Chi, Sien

    1998-04-01

    A hologram laminated into a windshield has an important application in automotive head-up displays. In general, properties of these holograms change during processing. The changes of the diffraction properties are characterized by the diffraction efficiency measurement. The photopolymer hologram, which is sandwiched between a polyvinybutyral layer and glass ply, is treated at high temperature up to 0150-536X/29/2/006/img6 and about 0150-536X/29/2/006/img7 pressure, as used in a standard windscreen production process. The pressure effect on diffraction properties of windshield laminated photopolymer holograms is investigated. Non-slanted and slanted holograms are analysed and compared with the experimental data.

  13. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area. The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water. The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of

  14. Parallel computing of a digital hologram and particle searching for microdigital-holographic particle-tracking velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Shin-ichi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Sato, Kazuho; Ito, Tomoyoshi; Yamamoto, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a parallel algorithm for microdigital-holographic particle-tracking velocimetry. The algorithm is used in (1) numerical reconstruction of a particle image computer using a digital hologram, and (2) searching for particles. The numerical reconstruction from the digital hologram makes use of the Fresnel diffraction equation and the FFT (fast Fourier transform),whereas the particle search algorithm looks for local maximum graduation in a reconstruction field represented by a 3D matrix. To achieve high performance computing for both calculations (reconstruction and particle search), two memory partitions are allocated to the 3D matrix. In this matrix, the reconstruction part consists of horizontally placed 2D memory partitions on the x-y plane for the FFT, whereas, the particle search part consists of vertically placed 2D memory partitions set along the z axes.Consequently, the scalability can be obtained for the proportion of processor elements,where the benchmarks are carried out for parallel computation by a SGI Altix machine

  15. Technology and information sharing in disaster relief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerge, Benedikte Alkjærsig; Clark, Nathan Edward; Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under...... the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA). The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete...

  16. Music as a form of stress relief

    OpenAIRE

    Čadež, Nežka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find out, whether the modern music has a relaxing effect on today’s youngsters. The theoretical part will present the period of adolescence and especially all the challenges they face during this time. These challenges can represent a high amount of stress in a youngster’s life, and one of the ways of stress relief is music. In addition to having a relaxing effect, music also enables them to shape their identity and to integrate into groups of people that share the...

  17. [Body integrity identity disorder, relief after amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, R M; Braam, A W; de Boer-Kreeft, N; Sonnen, M P A M

    2014-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person, for no apparent physical reason, is tormented by the experience that a body-part, such as a limb, does not really belong to the body. Patients experience an intense desire for the limb to be amputated (a 'desire' formerly referred to as 'apotemnophilia'). We report on a 58-year-old male patient with BIID who froze one of his legs so that he could amputate it himself. A surgeon ultimately intervened and amputated the leg professionally. The patient was extremely relieved and was still experiencing relief at a follow-up three years later.

  18. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.

    1978-01-18

    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice.

  19. EC Hidraulic Drive Cylinder Relief Vlave Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-04-03

    This engineering note documents the testing of the set pressure of the EC hydraulic drive cylinder relief valve. The purpose of the relief valve is to provide a safety measure in the event that oil becomes trapped in the rod side of the cylinder and pressure is applied to the cap side. The note includes an explanation of the procedure used and a summary of the result of the testing done on February 14, 1991 by Gary Trotter. The result was that the cylinder relief valve relieved at the correct set pressure of 10,500 psig. The basic concern is for the protection of the cylinder. The pump is capable of providing up to 10,500 psi of pressure to either side of the cylinder. The cylinder is rated for 10,500 psi. Under normal operating conditions, the valves would be open, and the pumping pressure would automatically flow oil into one side, and remove oil from the other side. If, however, the valve for the other side was closed, so that oil could not be removed, then the pressure would build in that side. If the rod side is pressurized to the maximum pump pressure of 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area ratio of 2.29 results in a pressure of approximately 4600 psi in the cap side, which is well under the rated pressure. If, however, the cap side is pressurized to 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area would produce a pressure of approximately 24,000 psi in the rod side, which could damage the cylinder. Therefore, the pressure on the rod side must be limited to the rated pressure of 10,500 psi. In reality, the maximum operating force on the piston would be under 11,000 Ibs., which would result in the maximum cylinder pressure being under 8000 psi to the rod side, and under 3500 psi to the cap side. Therefore, the relief is only needed as a safety precaution in the case that oil becomes trapped.

  20. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice

  1. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, T.J.; Bissert, P.T.; Homce, G.T.; Yonkey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, ...

  2. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pain relief by Cyberknife radiosurgery for spinal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung; Chun, Mison

    2012-01-01

    To report pain relief effect in patients with spinal metastases treated with Cyberknife® and to analyze the factors associated with pain relapse after initial pain relief. We retrospectively analyzed patients with spinal metastasis treated with stereotactic body radiosurgery between April 2007 and June 2009. A total of 57 patients with 73 lesions were available for analysis with a median follow-up of 6.8 months (range, 1-30). Pain was assessed by a verbal/visual analogue scale at each visit: from 0 to 10. Pain relief was defined as a decrease of at least three levels of the pain score without an increase in analgesic use. Complete relief was defined as no analgesics or a score 0 or 1. Pain relief was achieved in 88% of the lesions, with complete relief in 51% within 7 days from the start of radiosurgery. The median duration of pain relief was 3.2 months (range, 1-30). Pain reappeared in 16 patients (27%). Spinal cord compression (P = 0.001) and performance status (P = 0.01) were predictive of pain relapse by multivariate Cox analysis. All 6 patients treated with solitary spinal metastasis experienced pain relief; 5 of them were alive without evidence of disease at a median of 16 months (range, 7-30). As previous studies have shown, our study confirms that pain relief with spinal radiosurgery is around 90%. In particular, long-term pain relief and disease control was observed in patients with solitary spinal metastasis.

  4. Kafka on the Gulf : Male Identity, Space, and Globalization in Dave Eggers's 'A Hologram for the King' and Arnon Grunberg's 'The Man without Illness'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besser, S.; van Dijk, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, two curiously similar novels appeared in the Netherlands and the United States: Dave Eggers's A Hologram for the King and Arnon Grunberg's The Man without Illness. Both feature Western male protagonists who travel to the Gulf region for business purposes and utterly fail. This article

  5. Corporeality as the Hologram of Mythological Content (Based on the Prose of the Ukrainian Diaspora of the 1920s–1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Slonovska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role and the place of the artistic truth and artistic speculation are a promising area of theoretical and practical explorations. The focus of this study is on the mythical-poetic hologram of the human body as a specific information carrier which comprises a range of important markers.

  6. Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    .... Reducing this debt to a sustainable level has been a priority of the U.S. government. Since 2003, debt relief negotiations have taken place in a variety of fora and led to the cancellation of a significant amount of Iraq's external debt...

  7. All-optical bypass-exchange switch based on two types of photorefractive hologram Valve optique pour commutations basée sur deux types d'hologramme photoréfractifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaona; Liu, Liren; Wang, Feng

    1998-02-01

    We demonstrate a scheme of using two types of recorded photorefractive hologram - a photovoltaic hologram and a standard photorefractive hologram - to implement an all-optical bypass-exchange switch. A programmable polarization analyser array is used to select the desired operation. Issues about the elimination of noise are discussed with the help of previous calculations by Yeh and Gu et al. As the system can be implemented in one single-block photorefractive crystal, it has the properties of compactness and miniaturization. Moreover, as the input and output signals propagate in a direction normal to the switching array the switch is extremely suitable for a multistage interconnected network.

  8. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Kwan, Saskia; Ahmed, Alysha-Karima; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

  9. Study of safety relief valve operation under ATWS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutmacher, E.S.; Nesmith, B.J.; Brukiewa, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis project has been performed to determine if recent (since mid-1975) data has been reported which could influence the current approach to predicting PWR relief valve capacity under ATWS conditions. This study was conducted by the Energy Technology Engineering Center for NRC. Results indicate that the current relief valve capacity model tends to predict less capacity than actually obtains; however, no experimental verification at PWR ATWS conditions was found. Other project objectives were to establish the availability of methods for evaluating reaction forces and back pressure effects on relief valve capacity, and to determine if facilities exist which are capable of testing PWR relief valves at ATWS conditions

  10. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan

    2005-01-01

    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  11. VA administrators breahe a sigh of relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. On May 30, Eric Shinseki, the Secretary for Veterans Affairs (VA, resigned under pressure amidst a growing scandal regarding falsification of patient wait times at nearly 40 VA medical centers. Before leaving office Shinseki fired Sharon Helman, the former hospital director at the Phoenix VA, where the story first broke, along with her deputy and another unnamed administrator. In addition, Susan Bowers, director of VA Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN 18 and Helman’s boss, resigned. Robert Petzel, undersecretary for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA, head of the VA hospitals and clinics, had resigned earlier. You could hear the sigh of relief from the VA administrators. With their bosses resigning left and right, the VA leadership in shambles and the reputation of the VA soiled for many years to come, why are the VA administrators relieved? The simple answer is that nothing has really changed. There for a moment it looked ...

  12. Pain relief that matters to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Bjerre, Eik; Hansen, Maria Damkjær

    2017-01-01

    relief. Subgroup analyses showed that the definition of improved patients (one or several categories improvement or meaningful change) and the design of studies (single or multiple measurements) also influenced MCID values. CONCLUSIONS: The MCID in acute pain varied greatly between studies......BACKGROUND: The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is used to interpret the clinical relevance of results reported by trials and meta-analyses as well as to plan sample sizes in new studies. However, there is a lack of consensus about the size of MCID in acute pain, which is a core...... symptom affecting patients across many clinical conditions. METHODS: We identified and systematically reviewed empirical studies of MCID in acute pain. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library, and included prospective studies determining MCID using a patient-reported anchor and a one...

  13. Dimentional welding control using vibratory stress relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Casanova García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of applying vibratory stress relief to controlling deformations due to internal stresses on plates pro-duced by welding was evaluated in this research. The magnitude of distortion produced in three groups of specimens which had been treated with vibration during and after welding was also evaluated. The specimens consisted of aus-tenitic stainless steel plates which tend to become deformed due to high expansion and shrinkage coefficient and low thermal conductivity during arc welding. Their deformation was quantified by measuring the vertical distance which the end of the plate moved after the welding bead was applied. The magnitude of stress produced by the effect of vi-bration was measured too. The results revealed a clear reduction of the final deformation in treated specimens com-pared to non-treated ones. It was also found that the magnitude of stress produced during vibration had no impor-tant effect on the treatment’s effectiveness.

  14. Shaded Relief Image of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image shows two islands, Miquelon and Saint Pierre, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands, along with five smaller islands, are a self-governing territory of France. A thin barrier beach divides Miquelon, with Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelonto the south. Saint Pierre Island is located to the lower right. With the islandsi location in the north Atlantic Ocean and their deep water ports, fishing is the major part of the economy. The maximum elevation of the island is 240 meters (787 feet). The land mass of the islands is about 242 square kilometers, or 1.5 times the size of Washington DC.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASAis Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  15. [Deep Relief sonophoresis in degenerative changes of the knee joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zjuzin, Nada; Muftić, Mirsad; Avdić, Dijana; Zubcević, Haris; Stefanovski, Mihajlo; Stefanovski, Gordana; Lukać, Tamara; Hotić, Asia; Halilbegović, Emir; Kapidzić, Nedima

    2004-01-01

    We analysed 130 persons with osteoarthritis of knee and compared efficiency Deep Relief gel with sonophoresis and ultrasound with standard gel. Deep Relief has significant better effect for less pain and better improvement of functional capacity in comparison with ultrasound. Results of examination are statistic significant.

  16. Reward, motivation and emotion of pain and its relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Frank; Navratilova, Edita

    2016-01-01

    The experience of pain depends on interpretation of context and past experience that guide the choice of an immediate behavioral response and influence future decisions of actions to avoid harm. The aversive qualities of pain underlie its physiological role in learning and motivation. In this review, we highlight findings from human and animal investigations that suggest that both pain, and the relief of pain, are complex emotions that are comprised of feelings and their motivational consequences. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. How relief of pain aversiveness occurs is not well understood. Termination of aversive states can directly provide relief as well as reinforce behaviors that result in avoidance of pain. Emerging preclinical data also suggests that relief may elicit a positive hedonic value that results from activation of neural cortical and mesolimbic brain circuits that may also motivate behavior. Brain circuits mediating the reward of pain relief, as well as relief-induced motivation are significantly impacted as pain becomes chronic. In chronic pain states, the negative motivational value of nociception may be increased while the value of the reward of pain relief may decrease. As a consequence, the impact of pain on these ancient, and conserved brain limbic circuits suggest a path forward for discovery of new pain therapies. PMID:28106670

  17. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  18. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 76.15-40 Section 76.15-40 Shipping... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide is...

  19. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  20. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What relief will MMS grant? 203.53 Section 203.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE...-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will MMS grant? (a) If we approve your application and you meet...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...(b). (3) Installation of safety vent and pressure relief valve—(i) Inlet piping. (A) The opening... valve, set as required in § 179.401-1, may be used in lieu of the safety vent, provided it meets the... structure, trucks and safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited. All...

  2. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... meetings to which the telecommunications industry and the public are invited on area code relief for a... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING...

  3. 78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    .... These notices or letters do not include notices issued pursuant to section 6223 relating to Tax Equity... contains proposed regulations relating to relief from joint and several tax liability under section 6015 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and relief from the Federal income tax liability resulting from the...

  4. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W; Seymour, Ben

    2018-02-27

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty ('associability') signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. © 2018, Zhang et al.

  5. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W

    2018-01-01

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty (‘associability’) signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. PMID:29482716

  6. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Shaded relief, color as height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  7. Environmental conditions influence for real-time hologram formation on dichromated polyvinyl alcohol NiCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O doped films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R C; Olivares-Perez, A; Fuentes-Tapia, I; Rios-Velasco, M A, E-mail: rfontanilla@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx, E-mail: ifuentes@inaoep.mx, E-mail: moni_arv@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro No. 1 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    The real-time holographic gratings recording are studied by the presence of a metallic salt. The experimental process refers to analysis of diffraction efficiency by the influence of humidity in the coating solution on holograms formation in presence of electrical potential. The diffraction efficiency is measured as a function of the exposure energy until reach the saturation. The influence of the hologram parameters to get the diffraction efficiency is studied at room conditions.

  8. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of reward from pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The human experience of pain is multidimensional and comprises sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Preclinical assessment of pain has been largely focused on the sensory features that contribute to nociception. The affective (aversive) qualities of pain are clinically significant but have received relatively less mechanistic investigation in preclinical models. Recently, operant behaviors such as conditioned place preference, avoidance, escape from noxious stimulus, and analgesic drug self-administration have been used in rodents to evaluate affective aspects of pain. An important advance of such operant behaviors is that these approaches may allow the detection and mechanistic investigation of spontaneous neuropathic or ongoing inflammatory/nociceptive (i.e., nonevoked) pain that is otherwise difficult to assess in nonverbal animals. Operant measures may allow the identification of mechanisms that contribute differentially to reflexive hypersensitivity or to pain affect and may inform the decision to progress novel mechanisms to clinical trials for pain therapy. Additionally, operant behaviors may allow investigation of the poorly understood mechanisms and neural circuits underlying motivational aspects of pain and the reward of pain relief. PMID:23496247

  10. Technology and Information Sharing in Disaster Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter; Raju, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA). The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led to increases in user activity. We supplement the data-driven approach with evidence from semi-structured interviews with administrators and key users, as well as a survey among all users specifically designed to capture and assess the elements highlighted by both interviews and data analysis.

  11. Occlusal relief changes with molar wear in Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'kirera, Francis; Ungar, Peter S

    2003-06-01

    Most research on primate tooth form-function relationships has focused on unworn teeth. This study presents a morphological comparison of variably worn lower second molars (M(2)s) of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla; n=47) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes; n=54) using dental topographic analysis. High-resolution replicas of occlusal surfaces were prepared and scanned in 3D by laser scanning. The resulting elevation data were used to create a geographic information system (GIS) for each tooth. Occlusal relief, defined as the ratio of 3D surface area to 2D planometric area of the occlusal table, was calculated and compared between wear stages, taxa, and sexes. The results failed to show a difference in occlusal relief between males and females of a given taxon, but did evince differences between wear stages and between taxa. A lack of significant interaction between wear stage and taxon factors suggests that differences in occlusal relief between chimpanzees and gorillas are maintained throughout the wear sequence. These results add to a growing body of information on how molar teeth change with wear, and how differences between primate species are maintained at comparable points throughout the wear sequence. Such studies provide new insights into form-function relationships, which will allow us to infer certain aspects of diet in fossils with worn teeth.

  12. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2009-05-01

    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."

  13. Morphodynamical geodiversity of the Earth's crust, relief, and landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastochkin, Alexander; Zhirov, Andrey; Boltramovich, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    Morphodynamical geodiversity of the Earth's crust is determined by tectonic flows, which create various folded, faulted and injective dislocations. Folded dislocations (plicatives) correspond in plan to the eight types of conic cross-sections and in profile - to variation of the amplitudes. Faulted dislocations (disjunctives) are reflected in the angles of fault planes and the amplitudes of displacements. Injective dislocations vary in size and amplitudes of their vertical penetrations inside sedimentary layers and on the Earth's surface. In turn, surface and above-the-surface material and energy flows, or geoflows, create geotops - elementary landscapes that are tied up to corresponding elementary surfaces. Geotops are responsible for the morphodynamical geodiversity of relief and landscapes. Within the three-dimensional space of the geotop each geoflow can be divided into currents and links. The first of which are transverse to the front of the geoflow, the second - the longitudinal. Geotops and geoflows, mainly descending and lateral, influence each other according to their specifics: lithological, biological, hydrological, thermobaric features, etc. This interaction determines the geodiversity as a whole. By their altitude, gradient and dip azimuth, geotops can be classified as initial (upper), transit (slope) and terminal (lower) - with respect to descending geoflows. By their functional role, geotops can also be divided into: 1) flat-topped and flat-bottomed geotops that are out of the descending geoflows; 2) upper disintegrating geotops (apices, ridges); 3) translators (geotops of faces and feet); 4) vertical barriers (cliffs); 5) intermediate accumulators (terraces); 6) lower accumulators (basins) and conductors (valleys). Geotops and their elementary surfaces influence also the geometry of geoflows, performing the function of disintegrators (centrifugal and bilateral ones), concentrators (centripetal and bilateral ones) or just conductors (straight ones

  14. Glacial erosion of high-elevation low-relief summits on passive continental margins constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    We present a new, extensive in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al dataset from high-elevation low-relief summits along Sognefjorden in Norway. Contrary to previous studies of high-elevation low-relief summits in cold regions, we find only limited cosmogenic nuclide inheritance in bedrock surfaces......, indicating that warm-based ice eroded the summits during the last glacial period. From the isotope concentrations we model denudation histories using a recently developed Monte Carlo Markov Chain inversion model (Knudsen et al, 2015). The model relies on the benthic d18O curve (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005...

  15. New photoresponsible polymers based on the polymerisable azo-diphenyldiacetylene (AZ-DPDA) liquid crystalline monomers for rewritable holograms (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Ka, Jae-Won; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Yeong-Joon; Seo, Young Beom

    2017-02-01

    The development of high performance and large area photoresponsive materials for hologram have been one of the great challenges in order to realize holographic 3D display technology which needs no special eyewear. Desirable hologram materials should provide the high diffraction efficiency, fast response, high resolution, stable and reversible storage, low-energy consuming in the recording and reading processes as well as easy mass production. Azobenzene-containing polymers has been recognized as one of the promising candidate materials for holography because they can modulate effectively due to the photosensitivity and reversibility of azo moieties. In addition, polymer systems have several advantages such as simple fabrication, flexibility, thermal stability, and large scale production. It has been reported that highly birefringent azotolan-containing liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) film can induce a large change in refractive index upon exposure to actinic light. Analogously, we prepared new photochromic polymers based on the polymerisable liquid crystalline acrylate monomers (RMs) containing azo and highly birefringent diphenyldiacetylen (DPDA) mesogenic units connected directly. Evaluation of new polymers for rewritable hologram media will be discussed.

  16. 78 FR 8691 - Notice of Availability of Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... through a recipient. II. Emergency Relief Program Information for Hurricane Sandy Relief A. Description... Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION... impacted by Hurricane Sandy, which [[Page 8692

  17. Deformation relief evolution during sliding friction of Hadfield steel single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Novitskaya, O. S.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with the evolution of the deformation relief formed on lateral faces of single crystals of Hadfield steel during dry sliding friction. The use of single crystals with the predetermined orientation enables to analyze the development of shear systems subject to the duration of tribological tests. As the test duration increases, slip bands are curved and thicken in the near-surface region. After 24 hours of friction, single crystals of Hadfield steel demonstrate the maximum hardening. Afterwards, the wear process begins, which is followed by the repeated strain hardening of the specimens. After 48 hours of friction, the height of the deformation relief nearly halves on all of the three faces, as compared to that observed after 24 hours of friction. Differences in the propagation height of slip bands on the faces occur due to the uneven running-in as well as the complex involvement pattern of shear systems into the deformation process.

  18. Acupuncture as pain relief during delivery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... assessed by a visual analogue scale, birth experience and satisfaction with delivery, and pain relief evaluated at 2 months postpartum. Secondary obstetric outcomes were duration of labor, use of oxytocin, mode of delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, Apgar score, and umbilical cord pH value. Analysis complied...... to existing pain relief methods....

  19. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  20. Temperature effect on the formation of a relief of diamond-like carbon coatings and its modification by ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubshtein, A.P.; Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.; Yugov, V.A.; Vladimirov, A.B.; Plotnikov, S.A.; Ponosov, Yu.S

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of pulsed arc sputtering of a graphite target the diamond-like coatings (DLC) ∼1.5 μm thick are deposited on a steel R6M5 substrate. The relief of the coatings obtained under various temperature conditions is investigated. Variations of carbon DLC surfaces are followed after their bombardment with accelerated argon or chemically active oxygen ions. Argon ion bombardment is established to be preferred for producing a smoothed-out DLC relief. It is shown that a DLC relief should be taken into account when measuring microhardness. It is recommended that transformation of interatomic bonds in irradiated subsurface layers be taken into consideration if information index of methods applied constitutes several monolayers [ru

  1. Encryption techniques to the design of e-beam-generated digital pixel hologram for anti-counterfeiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hau P.; Bao, Nai-Keng; Kwok, Wing O.; Wong, Wing H.

    2002-04-01

    The application of Digital Pixel Hologram (DPH) as anti-counterfeiting technology for products such as commercial goods, credit cards, identity cards, paper money banknote etc. is growing important nowadays. It offers many advantages over other anti-counterfeiting tools and this includes high diffraction effect, high resolving power, resistance to photo copying using two-dimensional Xeroxes, potential for mass production of patterns at a very low cost. Recently, we have successfully in fabricating high definition DPH with resolution higher than 2500dpi for the purpose of anti-counterfeiting by applying modern optical diffraction theory to computer pattern generation technique with the assist of electron beam lithography (EBL). In this paper, we introduce five levels of encryption techniques, which can be embedded in the design of such DPHs to further improve its anti-counterfeiting performance with negligible added on cost. The techniques involved, in the ascending order of decryption complexity, are namely Gray-level Encryption, Pattern Encryption, Character Encryption, Image Modification Encryption and Codebook Encryption. A Hong Kong Special Administration Regions (HKSAR) DPH emblem was fabricated at a resolution of 2540dpi using the facilities housed in our Optoelectronics Research Center. This emblem will be used as an illustration to discuss in details about each encryption idea during the conference.

  2. Enhancing performance of LCoS-SLM as adaptive optics by using computer-generated holograms modulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Wei; Lyu, Bo-Han; Wang, Chen; Hung, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-05-01

    We have already developed multi-function and easy-to-use modulation software that was based on LabVIEW system. There are mainly four functions in this modulation software, such as computer generated holograms (CGH) generation, CGH reconstruction, image trimming, and special phase distribution. Based on the above development of CGH modulation software, we could enhance the performance of liquid crystal on silicon - spatial light modulator (LCoSSLM) as similar as the diffractive optical element (DOE) and use it on various adaptive optics (AO) applications. Through the development of special phase distribution, we are going to use the LCoS-SLM with CGH modulation software into AO technology, such as optical microscope system. When the LCOS-SLM panel is integrated in an optical microscope system, it could be placed on the illumination path or on the image forming path. However, LCOS-SLM provides a program-controllable liquid crystal array for optical microscope. It dynamically changes the amplitude or phase of light and gives the obvious advantage, "Flexibility", to the system

  3. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  4. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  5. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  6. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  7. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Western Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  8. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides a comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a seamless...

  9. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  10. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  11. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northwest Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  12. Optimized Positioning of Pre-Disaster Relief Force and Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tean, Ee S

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis develops a two-stage stochastic optimization model to provide guidance in the pre-positioning of relief units and assets, where budget, physical limitations and logistics are taken into account...

  13. Decision-making tools for distribution networks in disaster relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    The devastation caused by the 2010 earthquake in Haiti was compounded by the significant logistical : challenges of distributing relief to those in need. Unfortunately this is the case with many disasters. : Rapid and efficient distribution of water,...

  14. Antiemetic Medicines: OTC Relief for Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  15. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This shaded relief image of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth.Most of the peninsula is visible here, along with the island of Cozumel off the east coast. The Yucatan is a plateau composed mostly of limestone and is an area of very low relief with elevations varying by less than a few hundred meters (about 500 feet.) In this computer-enhanced image the topography has been greatly exaggerated to highlight a semicircular trough, the darker green arcing line at the upper left corner of the peninsula. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km. wide (3 miles), so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it, and is a surface expression of the crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode on the vicinity of the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwestern slopes appear bright and southeastern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 1.5 m

  16. 30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) To take cumulative reports and payments relief...

  17. 30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You may obtain accounting and auditing relief under...

  18. 30 CFR 204.203 - What is the other relief option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.203 What is the other relief option? (a) Under this relief option, you may request any type of accounting and auditing relief that is appropriate for production from your marginal property, provided it is not prohibited under...

  19. 30 CFR 204.211 - When may MMS rescind relief for a property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS rescind relief for a property? 204... MMS rescind relief for a property? (a) MMS may retroactively rescind the relief for your property if MMS determines that your property was not eligible for the relief obtained under this subpart because...

  20. Angular multiplexing holograms of four images recorded on photopolymer films with recording-film-thickness-dependent holographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osabe, Keiichi; Kawai, Kotaro

    2017-03-01

    In this study, angular multiplexing hologram recording photopolymer films were studied experimentally. The films contained acrylamide as a monomer, eosin Y as a sensitizer, and triethanolamine as a promoter in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix. In order to determine the appropriate thickness of the photopolymer films for angular multiplexing, photopolymer films with thicknesses of 29-503 μm were exposed to two intersecting beams of a YVO laser at a wavelength of 532 nm to form a holographic grating with a spatial frequency of 653 line/mm. The diffraction efficiencies as a function of the incident angle of reconstruction were measured. A narrow angular bandwidth and high diffraction efficiency are required for angular multiplexing; hence, we define the Q value, which is the diffraction efficiency divided by half the bandwidth. The Q value of the films depended on the thickness of the films, and was calculated based on the measured diffraction efficiencies. The Q value of a 297-μm-thick film was the highest of the all films. Therefore, the angular multiplexing experiments were conducted using 300-μm-thick films. In the angular multiplexing experiments, the object beam transmitted by a square aperture was focused by a Fourier transform lens and interfered with a reference beam. The maximum order of angular multiplexing was four. The signal intensity that corresponds to the squared-aperture transmission and the noise intensity that corresponds to transmission without the square aperture were measured. The signal intensities decreased as the order of angular multiplexing increased, and the noise intensities were not dependent on the order of angular multiplexing.

  1. Creative by Way of Adaption: Ramayana Relief of Prambanan Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeprapto Soedjono

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas tentang proses penciptaan karya seni berdasarkan teori adaptasi sebagaimana yang didiskusikan oleh Linda Hutcheon dalam bukunya yang berjudul: A Theory of Adaptation. Penekanan pembahasan lebih diletakkan pada aspek-aspek estetis visual yang terdapat pada karya seni relief naratif yang mengelilingi sepanjang dinding bagian dalam candi Prambanan di Kalasan, Yogyakarta. Sebagaimana tema relief yang diadaptasi dari ceritera legenda Ramayana yang ditulis oleh Walmiki pada waktu silam, maka proses penciptaan relief tersebut pada masa berikutnya diyakini mengikuti prosedur teori adaptasi tersebut.   This article aims to discuss the creation of arts based upon the theory of adaptation that had been laid on by Linda Hutcheon in her book called A Theory of Adaptation. The discussion has put emphasis on the elaboration of any visual aesthetics aspects embodied within the Ramayana sculptural program in the narrative relief which is encircling along Prambanan temple inner wall in Kalasan, Yogyakarta. Since the relief’s theme is derived from the ancient epic story of Ramayana legend (by Valmiki, it is plausible that the later creative process of the relief work was created through the adaptation theory procedure.

  2. Bridging the sanitation gap between disaster relief and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky

    2015-10-01

    By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  3. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine...... for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  4. Challenges and opportunities for humanitarian relief in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Trueman W; Burkle, Frederick M; Vaughn, Andrew F; Chotani, Rashid; Brennan, Richard J

    2002-06-15

    Afghanistan is in the midst of a profound humanitarian crisis resulting primarily from long-standing armed conflict, a devastating drought, and massive population migration. The economy, government, and health care system are in shambles. Currently, as many as 5 million Afghans are in camps either as refugees in neighboring countries or as internally displaced persons within Afghanistan. Much of the rest of the population is in dire need of basic essentials such as food, water, shelter, and basic medical care. Those attempting to carry out humanitarian relief face many daunting challenges, such as reaching remote locations, coping with a dangerous security situation, and working with limited resources. However, there are opportunities in the short run to save many lives and substantially improve the plight of Afghans by carrying out appropriate and effective emergency relief programs. Over the long term, effective medical and public health relief efforts will be an essential part of rehabilitating and rebuilding this devastated country.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  6. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude (about 111 by 111 kilometers or 69 by 69 miles) Location: 12.5 degrees South latitude, 67.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image: Elevation data, colored height with shaded relief Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  7. Experiences in disaster-related mental health relief work: An exploratory model for the interprofessional training of psychological relief workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, ZhengJia; Wang, HongTao; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies. The proposed model identifies areas for the comprehensive training of relief workers and aims to address the importance of people-centred mental health service provisions, ensure intentional and strategic training of relief workers using interprofessional concepts and strategies, and use culturally attuned and community-informed strategies in mental health training practices.

  8. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-05-13

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2015 Niewalda et al.

  9. Synapsin Determines Memory Strength after Punishment- and Relief-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: “negative” memories for stimuli preceding them and “positive” memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of “relief.” Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training (“forward conditioning” of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training (“backward conditioning” of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. PMID:25972175

  10. Subducted oceanic relief locks the shallow megathrust in central Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, Jean-Yves; Sanclemente, Eddy; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Leprêtre, Angélique; Ribodetti, Alessandra; Jarrin, Paul; Chlieh, Mohamed; Graindorge, David; Charvis, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Whether subducted oceanic reliefs such as seamounts promote seismic rupture or aseismic slip remains controversial. Here we use swath bathymetry, prestack depth-migrated multichannel seismic reflection lines, and wide-angle seismic data collected across the central Ecuador subduction segment to reveal a broad 55 km × 50 km, 1.5-2.0 km high, low height-to-width ratio, multipeaked, sediment-bare, shallow subducted oceanic relief. Owing to La Plata Island and the coastline being located, respectively, 35 km and 50-60 km from the trench, GPS measurements allow us to demonstrate that the subducted oceanic relief spatially correlates to a shallow, 80 km × 55 km locked interplate asperity within a dominantly creeping subduction segment. The oceanic relief geometrical anomaly together with its highly jagged topography, the absence of a subduction channel, and a stiff erosive oceanic margin are found to be long-term geological characteristics associated with the shallow locking of the megathrust. Although the size and level of locking observed at the subducted relief scale could produce an Mw >7+ event, no large earthquakes are known to have happened for several centuries. On the contrary, frequent slow slip events have been recorded since 2010 within the locked patch, and regular seismic swarms have occurred in this area during the last 40 years. These transient processes, together with the rough subducted oceanic topography, suggest that interplate friction might actually be heterogeneous within the locked patch. Additionally, we find that the subducted relief undergoes internal shearing and produces a permanent flexural bulge of the margin, which uplifted La Plata Island.

  11. Pain relief and clinical outcome: from opioids to balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1996-01-01

    If it is generally accepted that adequate postoperative pain relief will improve outcome from surgery, several controlled trials demonstrated this only for lower body surgical procedures with epidural and spinal anesthetics. Important effects on outcome were not shown when postoperative opioids...... were administered with patient controlled (PCA) or epidural techniques. However, the most optimal pain relief seems to be best achieved with balanced analgesia techniques using combinations of epidural opioids and local anesthetics and systemic non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Future efforts...... should aim at including physical rehabilitation programs in the pain treatment regimen....

  12. Percutaneous Relief of Tension Pneumomediastinum in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Helen Hoi-lun; Kwok, Philip Chong-hei; Lai, Albert Kwok-hung; Fan, Tsz Wo; Chan, Susan Chi-hum; Miu, Ting Yat; Chan, Grace Lai-har

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the experience of relieving tension pneumomediastinum by a fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous method. We inserted a percutaneous drainage catheter with a Heimlich valve under fluoroscopic guidance to relieve the tension pneumomediastinum in a 2-year-old girl who suffered from dermatomyositis with lung involvement. This allowed immediate relief without the need for surgery. The procedure was repeated for relapsed tension pneumomediastinum. Good immediate results were achieved in each attempt. We conclude that percutaneous relief of pneumomediastinum under fluoroscopic guidance can be performed safely and rapidly in patients not fit for surgery

  13. Hypsometry and relief analysis of the southern termination of the Calabrian arc, NE-Sicily (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavano, F.; Catalano, S.; Romagnoli, G.; Tortorici, G.

    2018-03-01

    Tectonic forcing causes the relief-building of mountain chains and enforces the surficial processes in a persistent dismantling of rock volumes, continuously modelling Earth's surface. Actually, we observe transient landscapes that have temporarily recorded tectonic forcing as a codified signal. The Late Quaternary tectonic evolution of northeastern Sicily, located along the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary at the southern termination of the Calabrian arc, has been dominated by intense Plio-Pleistocene dynamics that severely modified the Late Miocene landscape. The present work aims to investigate geomorphically northeastern Sicily, essentially focusing on the hypsometric and relief analyses of the region in order to define how the topography responds to the post-Pliocene tectonic deformation. We apply different relief morphometric indices (Hypsometric Integral, Topographic Relief and Topographic Dissection) measured for each differently sized moving window, and we use different swath topographic profiles as well. Our analysis evidences differential morphological responses between distinct morphotectonic domains of the studied area, led by the combination of earlier morphological background and Late Quaternary tectonic deformation stages of the region. In addition, in the context of a constant and uniform tectonic uplift, the results define the general space- and time-relating pathways of the landscape geomorphic metrics. This enables us to bring out the controls of the vertical scale of landscape on hypsometry, exploring their mutual relationships. Finally, we reconstruct the Late Quaternary morphotectonic evolution of the region, defining the role played by the main tectonic alignments on the present geomorphic setting.

  14. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Immediate Pain Relief After an Injection into the Sacroiliac Joint with Anesthetic and Corticosteroid Predict Subsequent Pain Relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Byron J; Huynh, Lisa; Levin, Josh; Rinkaekan, Pranathip; Kordi, Ramin; Kennedy, David J

    2018-02-01

    To determine if immediate pain response following an injection with local anesthetic and corticosteroid predicts subsequent relief. Prospective observational cohort. An institutional review board-approved prospective study from a single academic medical center. Patients with clinical diagnosis of sacroiliac (SIJ) pain and referred for SIJ injection were enrolled; 1 cc of 2% lidocaine and 1 cc of triamcinolone 40 mg/mL were injected into the SIJ. Pain score on 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) during provocation maneuvers was recorded immediately before injection, immediately after injection, and at two and four weeks of follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was also recorded. Various cutoffs were identified to establish positive anesthetic response and successful outcomes at follow-up. These were used to calculated likelihood ratios. Of those with 100% anesthetic response, six of 11 (54.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]+/-29.4%, +LR 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-5.9) demonstrated 50% or greater pain relief at follow-up, and four of 11 (36.5%, 95% CI+/-28.4%, +LR 3.00, 95% CI = 1.4-5.1) had 100% relief at two to four weeks. Fourteen of 14 (100%, 95% CI+/-21.5%, -LR 0.0, 95% CI = 0.0-2.1) with an initial negative block failed to achieve 100% relief at follow-up. Patients who fail to achieve initial relief after SIJ injection with anesthetic and steroid are very unlikely to achieve significant pain relief at follow-up; negative likelihood ratios (LR) in this study, based on how success is defined, range between 0 and 0.9. Clinically significant positive likelihood ratios of anesthetic response to SIJ injection are more limited and less robust, but are valuable in predicting 50% relief or 100% relief at two to four weeks. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Three-directional motion compensation-based novel-look-up-table for video hologram generation of three-dimensional objects freely maneuvering in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Bin; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2014-07-14

    A new three-directional motion compensation-based novel-look-up-table (3DMC-NLUT) based on its shift-invariance and thin-lens properties, is proposed for video hologram generation of three-dimensional (3-D) objects moving with large depth variations in space. The input 3-D video frames are grouped into a set of eight in sequence, where the first and remaining seven frames in each set become the reference frame (RF) and general frames (GFs), respectively. Hence, each 3-D video frame is segmented into a set of depth-sliced object images (DOIs). Then x, y, and z-directional motion vectors are estimated from blocks and DOIs between the RF and each of the GFs, respectively. With these motion vectors, object motions in space are compensated. Then, only the difference images between the 3-directionally motion-compensated RF and each of the GFs are applied to the NLUT for hologram calculation. Experimental results reveal that the average number of calculated object points and the average calculation time of the proposed method have been reduced compared to those of the conventional NLUT, TR-NLUT and MPEG-NLUT by 38.14%, 69.48%, and 67.41% and 35.30%, 66.39%, and 64.46%, respectively.

  17. Quantitative measurement of mean inner potential and specimen thickness from high-resolution off-axis electron holograms of ultra-thin layered WSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Florian, E-mail: f.winkler@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute 5 (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Tavabi, Amir H. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute 5 (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Barthel, Juri [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Gemeinschaftslabor für Elektronenmikroskopie (GFE), RWTH Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Duchamp, Martial [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute 5 (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Yucelen, Emrah [FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Eindhoven 5600 KA (Netherlands); Borghardt, Sven; Kardynal, Beata E. [Peter Grünberg Institute 9 (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); and others

    2017-07-15

    The phase and amplitude of the electron wavefunction that has passed through ultra-thin flakes of WSe{sub 2} is measured from high-resolution off-axis electron holograms. Both the experimental measurements and corresponding computer simulations are used to show that, as a result of dynamical diffraction, the spatially averaged phase does not increase linearly with specimen thickness close to an [001] zone axis orientation even when the specimen has a thickness of only a few layers. It is then not possible to infer the local specimen thickness of the WSe{sub 2} from either the phase or the amplitude alone. Instead, we show that the combined analysis of phase and amplitude from experimental measurements and simulations allows an accurate determination of the local specimen thickness. The relationship between phase and projected potential is shown to be approximately linear for extremely thin specimens that are tilted by several degrees in certain directions from the [001] zone axis. A knowledge of the specimen thickness then allows the electrostatic potential to be determined from the measured phase. By using this combined approach, we determine a value for the mean inner potential of WSe{sub 2} of 18.9±0.8 V, which is 12% lower than the value calculated from neutral atom scattering factors. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of high resolution electron holograms of WSe{sub 2}. • Local specimen thickness determination and estimation of tilt angle. • Mean inner potential evaluation of WSe2 avoiding dynamical diffraction.

  18. A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Mary

    2013-01-01

    School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

  19. Pain Relief in Postabortion Care Practiced by Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anxiolytics. The general anesthesia and paracervical block were offered only by the doctors. Table 3 shows the various sociodemographic variables and their association with the use of pain relief in PAC offered by the healthcare professionals. Only 115 (41.1%) and 55 (35.0%) of the health professionals in the rural and.

  20. Bas-relief generation using adaptive histogram equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianfang; Rosin, Paul L; Martin, Ralph R; Langbein, Frank C

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to automatically generate bas-reliefs based on adaptive histogram equalization (AHE), starting from an input height field. A mesh model may alternatively be provided, in which case a height field is first created via orthogonal or perspective projection. The height field is regularly gridded and treated as an image, enabling a modified AHE method to be used to generate a bas-relief with a user-chosen height range. We modify the original image-contrast-enhancement AHE method to use gradient weights also to enhance the shape features of the bas-relief. To effectively compress the height field, we limit the height-dependent scaling factors used to compute relative height variations in the output from height variations in the input; this prevents any height differences from having too great effect. Results of AHE over different neighborhood sizes are averaged to preserve information at different scales in the resulting bas-relief. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed algorithm is simple and yet largely preserves original shape features. Experiments show that our results are, in general, comparable to and in some cases better than the best previously published methods.

  1. Building relations with women's organisations in relief work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, F

    1997-02-01

    An Oxfam Emergency Team arrived in Ingushetia in the Northern Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union in August 1996 to set up a program of shelter, rehabilitation, and relief in response to the large influx of people displaced by conflicts in the neighboring republics of Chechnya and North Ossetia. The team was also tasked with contacting community organizations such as women's groups and developing a relationship with them through joint relief work. The Chechen population was comprised of mainly women, children, and the elderly. The internally displaced population of 100,000 people is now scattered throughout the republic in collective centers and host families. Small committees of women were formed to help identify the most vulnerable residents and to distribute winter clothing. It was found during the relief work that fledgling women's groups are establishing themselves as vehicles for change, increasingly open to work with and learn from international organizations such as Oxfam. The Chechen branch of the Union of North Caucasian Women and the Ingushetian ALMOS played leading roles in peacemaking, human rights observance, and humanitarian relief.

  2. Pentazocine Pain Relief in Adult Patients With Acute Abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Results: Twenty patients in the PZ group and 9 patients in the control group had a VAS score drop. >12mm. ... investigate the safety of early administration of pentazocine in adult patients with acute abdominal pain. ... significant pain relief compared to a placebo, and whether pentazocine administration to patients with.

  3. Topical cryotherapy-use for relief of pain and spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, S; Knott, M

    1966-09-01

    Cold applications are sometimes of pronounced symptomatic benefit in some rheumatic disorders such as acute myalgia; in the temporary relief of spasticity; in helping to release tight structures in poliomyelitis and allied diseases; and in temporary recovery of energy in multiple sclerosis.

  4. Topical Cryotherapy—Use for Relief of Pain and Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Sedgwick; Knott, Margaret

    1966-01-01

    Cold applications are sometimes of pronounced symptomatic benefit in some rheumatic disorders such as acute myalgia; in the temporary relief of spasticity; in helping to release tight structures in poliomyelitis and allied diseases; and in temporary recovery of energy in multiple sclerosis. PMID:18730022

  5. Trends in intraoperative pain relief in anesthesized Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    Aim: The study aims at examining the current trend in intraoperative pain relief in patients of pediatric age at the. University of ... skills acquisition of physicians and other relevant health care personnel in the development ofpediatric acute pain service (PAPS) .... foreign body removal (13 i.e.1.9%), skin graft. (18 i.e. 2.7%) ...

  6. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More than 600 over-the- ...

  7. 27 CFR 19.251 - Relief of surety from bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deposits wholly subsequent to the effective date of the new or superseding bond. Notwithstanding such relief, the surety shall remain liable for the tax on all distilled spirits or wines produced, or for... bond for all spirits or wines on hand or in transit to the bonded premises or bonded wine cellar, as...

  8. Seismic assessment of the Pickering pressure relief duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of the study are to examine the structural response of the Pickering pressure relief duct when subjected to earthquake ground motion and to estimate the seismic withstand capacity of various components of the structural system on the basis of performance criteria consistent with the safety function of the duct. (author). 24 refs., 16 tabs., 31 figs

  9. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  10. Civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines engagements between civilian actors, the Philippine security forces and the US military during disaster response operations. The Philippine disaster framework recognises the military's role in disaster relief and has existing mechanisms for accepting international assistance and procedures for ...

  11. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.68 Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR... individual, a trust, an estate, or a partnership, or a corporation, whose solvency and financial...

  12. Pain relief using paraceevical block in patients undergoing manual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate pain relief using paracervical nerve block with 1% lignocaine injection in patients undergoing uterine evacuation by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) for the treatment of incomplete abortion. Design: A randomized double blind clinical trial. Setting: Marie Stopes Health Centre, Nairobi. Methods: One ...

  13. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge of and attitude towards pain relief during labour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study determined women's knowledge of and attitudes to pain relief during labour. Methods: This descriptive study included 151 women, 18 years or older, attending the antenatal clinic of Cecilia Makiwane Hospital. Women were interviewed using a questionnaire that determined their knowledge of and ...

  15. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... with a normal vent. Such vents must be set to open at not less than 1 psig and must be designed to... requirements in § 178.345-10(b), after August 31, 1996, each pressure relief valve must be able to withstand a...

  16. civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    and Natural Resources (DENR) and Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and the. Tacloban City chapter of the ... focus group discussions were conducted with 18 officers and enlisted men from the. 8th Regional .... rescue and disaster relief teams, and their accompanying equipment and supplies. Assistance by way of ...

  17. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2) v2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two-minute gridded global relief for both ocean and land areas are available in the ETOPO2v2 (2006) database. ETOPO2v2 replaced ETOPO2 (2001). The historic 2-minute...

  18. Pain Relief in Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: This study showed that 600 mg intramuscular paracetamol provides similar and modest pain relief in labor when compared to 100 mg intramuscular tramadol. It also has fewer maternal adverse effects and favorable neonatal outcome such as tramadol. It is concluded that intramuscular paracetamol is simple, ...

  19. Bathymetry, Multibeam, and Coastal Relief: Data on Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, G. F.; Virden, W. T.; Divins, D. L.; Fox, C. G.; Habermann, T.

    2004-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), Boulder, Colorado is distributing increasing quantities of data via the Internet. With evolving technology and broader bandwidth, it is possible to deliver large volumes (up to 2 GB) of data directly over the Internet and to provide server-side-generated products and services with more user options. In 2004, NGDC (www.ngdc.noaa.gov) initiated a web-based multibeam bathymetric data system,leveraging off geospatial and relational database technologies being utilized at the Center. The system has an ESRI ArcIMS interface, which handles the geospatial character of the data, and provides a standardized GIS interface and tool suite. All of this rests on a foundation Oracle database containing an inventory and metadata. It also uses software developed at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, which scripts the National Science Foundation-supported software packages: MBSystem (for managing multibeam data) and Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) (for mapping and display). In whole, the MultiBeam Bathymetric Data Base (MBBDB) (Virden, et al., "Multibeam Bathymetric Data at NOAA/NGDC," OTO '04) enables the web user to browse, discover, review, select, map, and download multibeam data directly, without human intervention by NGDC. A similar development, the NGDC Coastal Relief Model (CRM), http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/coastal/coastal.html, is available for download at a variety of sampling intervals. This data set is built on multibeam and conventional offshore hydrography, resampled into a 3 arc-second lat-lon grid, which is matched to a 3 arc-second version of the USGS National Elevation Database (NED). The resulting fusion gives a continuous elevation surface model from the seafloor, across the coastline and onto the land. These data provide the foundation for a multitude of environmental studies and models, such as Tsunami or storm surge propagation, run up, and inundation

  20. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the inspiration for Arthur Conan

  1. Barriers to spousal contribution to childbirth pain relief in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Africa in SRTM 3-D, Anaglyph of Shaded Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This stereoscopic shaded relief image shows Africa's topography as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. Also shown are Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and other adjacent regions. Previously, much of the topography here was not mapped in detail. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns and for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications. The image shown here is greatly reduced from the original data resolution, but still provides a good overview of the continent's landforms. It is best viewed while panning at full resolution while using image display software. The northern part of the continent consists of a system of basins and plateaus, with several volcanic uplands whose uplift has been matched by subsidence in the large surrounding basins. Many of these basins have been infilled with sand and gravel, creating the vast Saharan lands. The Atlas Mountains in the northwest were created by convergence of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates. The geography of the central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression that rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands. Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari Basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain that widens out in Mozambique in the southeast. Specific noteworthy features one may wish to explore in this scene include (1) the Richat Structure in Mauritania, a 'bull's eye

  3. Africa in SRTM 3-D, Anaglyph of Shaded Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This stereoscopic shaded relief image shows Africa's topography as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. Also shown are Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and other adjacent regions. Previously, much of the topography here was not mapped in detail. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns and for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications. The image shown here is greatly reduced from the original data resolution, but still provides a good overview of the continent's landforms. It is best viewed while panning at full resolution while using image display software. The northern part of the continent consists of a system of basins and plateaus, with several volcanic uplands whose uplift has been matched by subsidence in the large surrounding basins. Many of these basins have been infilled with sand and gravel, creating the vast Saharan lands. The Atlas Mountains in the northwest were created by convergence of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates. The geography of the central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression that rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands. Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari Basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain that widens out in Mozambique in the southeast. Specific noteworthy features one may wish to explore in this scene include (1) the Richat Structure in Mauritania, a 'bull's eye

  4. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200-foot)-long mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 1720 by 1670 kilometers (1068 by 1036 miles) Location: 14.5 degrees North latitude, 85.0 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  5. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  6. Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ju-Hee; Jung, Duk-Young; Park, Jong Bae; Lee, Hae Seong

    2008-06-01

    A new constructive method of fabricating a nanoparticle self-assembly on the patterned surface of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) relief nanostructure was demonstrated. Patterned PDMS templates with close-packed microwells were fabricated by molding against a self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene spheres. Alkanethiol-functionalized gold nanoparticles with an average particle size of 2.5 nm were selectively deposited onto a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer printed on the substrate by the micro-contact printing (μCP) of the prepared PDMS microwell, in which the patterned gold nanoparticles consisted of close-packed hexagons with an average diameter of 370 nm. In addition, two-dimensional colloidal crystals derived from PMMA microspheres with a diameter of 380 nm and a negative surface charge were successfully formed on the hemispherical microwells by electrostatic force using positively charged PAH-coated PDMS as a template to produce multidimensional nanostructures.

  7. Holograms as complex media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2005-08-01

    Complex media can be grown, found in nature, or manufactured.. Holography is one way of fabricating such media. Here I review some examples of holographically manufactured complex media and speculate about some that could be made.

  8. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 42 to 51.5 degrees North latitude, 5.5 West to 8 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000

  9. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  10. Integration of real-time mapping technology in disaster relief distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Vehicle routing for disaster relief distribution involves many challenges that distinguish this problem from those in commercial settings, given the time sensitive and resource constrained nature of relief activities. While operations research approa...

  11. Beyond Pain Relief: Total Knee Replacement Surgery | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relief: Total Knee Replacement Surgery Follow us Beyond Pain Relief: Total Knee Replacement Surgery Photo: AdobeStock With total knee replacement surgery, researchers are looking beyond simply reducing pain. The hope is to return patients to the ...

  12. Design of computer-generated hologram with ring focus for nonmechanical corneal trephination with Er:YAG laser in penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbucher, A; Seitz, B; Kus, M M; van der Heyd, G; Köchle, M; Naumann, G O

    1999-01-01

    To calculate a beam-shaping optical element for homogeneous intensity distribution within a focal ring to be used in nonmechanical trephination with the Er:YAG laser in penetrating keratoplasty instead of a spot guiding device. The phase distribution behind a holographic optical element (HOE) k psi(u) can be described by the addition of the hologram phase phiH(u) to the beam phase phiE(u): k psi(u) = phiH(u) + phiE(u), k = 2pi/lambda, where u denotes the coordinates inside the hologram aperture, k an integer, and lambda the laser wavelength. To avoid discontinuous wavefronts leading to speckle noise, a smooth phase function is necessary. After transforming the hologram aperture coordinates into the focal plane x in a focal distance f, psi can be retrieved from the slope equation: inverted delta psi(u) = x(u) - u/f. Creating a ring focus can be reduced to an essentially one-dimensional problem by separation of variables due to the symmetry condition. We calculated a computer-generated eight-level phase-only HOE with 4096 x 4096 pixels from a Gaussian-distributed 2.94 Er:YAG laser spot with a beam diameter of 10 mm and a focal distance of 100 mm. Thereby, a ring focus with an inner/outer radius of 7/8 mm can be created. To avoid Poisson's spo, the symmetry of the problem was broken by circular modulation of the phase leading to a spiral-like structure. The calculated efficiency of the HOE relating the energy within the ring to the total energy was 91%. With an HOE it is possible to redistribute the energy along the desired focal ring. The HOE design can be adapted to the intensity distribution of the impinging laser beam with its characteristic aperture shape. A circular homogeneous corneal trephination depth is possible, because the energy fluctuation from pulse to pulse does not locally affect the ablation process. A ring focus for the Er:YAG laser has the potential to render superfluous a manual beam control via micromanipulator and to allow a more rapid and more

  13. knowledge, attitude and use of pain relief in labour among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... benefits in terms of pain relief are well-recognised. In some cases like in cardiac diseases in pregnancy, pain relief is an important component of labour management. Pain relief by epidural analgesia in labour is however not a common practice in Kenya. Two surveys done in Hong Kong public hospitals.

  14. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to relieve...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical current...

  17. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow? MMS will not approve your request for...

  18. 46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64.69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64...

  19. 30 CFR 204.202 - What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing Relief § 204.202 What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option? (a) The... information on Form MMS-2014 for the calendar year, the same as if it were a monthly report; and (5) Report... section until the date MMS receives it. (d) If you take relief you are not qualified for, you may be...

  20. Humanitarian relief supply chain: a multi-objective model and solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper models a humanitarian relief chain that includes a relief goods supply chain and an evacuation chain in case of a natural disaster. Optimum network flow is studied for both the chains by considering three conflicting objectives, namely demand satisfaction in relief chain, demand satisfaction in evacuation chain ...

  1. Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pain is fundamentally unpleasant, a feature that protects the organism by promoting motivation and learning. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. The aversiveness of pain, as well as the reward from relief of pain, is encoded by brain reward/motivational mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In this Review, we describe current knowledge of the impact of acute and chronic pain on reward/motivation circuits gained from preclinical models and from human neuroimaging. We highlight emerging clinical evidence suggesting that anatomical and functional changes in these circuits contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. We propose that assessing activity in these conserved circuits can offer new outcome measures for preclinical evaluation of analgesic efficacy to improve translation and speed drug discovery. We further suggest that targeting reward/motivation circuits may provide a path for normalizing the consequences of chronic pain to the brain, surpassing symptomatic management to promote recovery from chronic pain. PMID:25254980

  2. Production of Decorative Cast Metal Matrix Composites with a Complex Relief and Nonmetal Reinforcement Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Spasova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is relevant to the research of possibilities for the production of decorative complex relief metal matrix composites (MMCs of the “invitro” type, with unformed and unchanging reinforcement (strengthening phase in the process of creating a composite. The research on the methods of metal matrix composites development in this paper has been brought to the application of different space vacuum schemes for composite synthesisof vacuuming the space for composites synthesis by using the notion of the “capillary forming”. In this method the metal matrix (copper alloy melt was infiltrated in the space between the pellets of reinforcement phase (quartz particles – SiO2, whereas the classical method adopted for the obtaining MMCs “in vitro”, uses a mechanism of forced insertion of the reinforcement phase into the ready for use melt, followed by homogenization of the composite structure. In the particular case, because the obtained composite will have a complex relief three-dimensional surface, the conditions for compacting the building phases in the three directions x, y, z should be virtually equalized. In order to accomplish the task set, a laboratory system is developed. The experiments were conducted with laboratory equipment elaborated on the base of another equipment for "capillary forming" with extra vacuum. The structures of the obtained MMCs were tested by metallographic analysis.

  3. Trends in intraoperative pain relief in anesthesized Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Intraoperative period, pain relief, trends. Arrière-plan: De nouveaux médicaments et nouvelles modalités pour soulager la douleur peropératoire est la tendance actuelle dans la gestion de la douleur. L'étude vise à examiner la tendance actuelle dans le soulagement de la douleur peropératoire chez les patients ...

  4. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K; Mathew, Supriya; Garnett, Stephen T

    2018-02-26

    Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%), 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected temperature

  5. Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidan, Fadel; Martucci, Katherine T.; Kraft, Robert A.; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; be...

  6. Mechanisms of pain relief by vibration and movement.

    OpenAIRE

    Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H

    1992-01-01

    Mechanisms of pain relief induced by vibration and movement were investigated. A CO2 laser beam, which is useful for pure nociceptive stimulation, was used for recording pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials (pain SEPs) and for measuring pain threshold and reaction time (RT). Concurrently applied vibratory stimuli to and active movements of the fingers significantly reduced and prolonged pain SEPs, increased pain threshold, and prolonged RT, indicating that an increase in the inhibitor...

  7. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%, 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected

  8. What helps when it hurts: children's views on pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, L S; Sheikh, A; Oulton, K

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies have focused on children's views of sources of pain and only secondarily explored their views on pain-relief strategies. An exploratory cross-sectional descriptive design and 'draw and write' technique were used to investigate what children think helps them when they have pain. The sample (n = 71) was comprised of 33% boys and 67% girls, with an age range of 4-16 years (mean +/- SD: 9.25 +/- 3.04). Four overarching themes were derived that were common to both the texts and drawings: 'People who help', 'What I do that helps', 'What other people do that helps' and 'Things that help'. Children also described their emotional reactions to pain or pain relief. Multiple themes were represented in most of the texts and drawings. There were few differences in the themes present in the children's texts and drawings based on developmental age and no differences based on gender. Children across the three developmental age groups view themselves as active agents in pain relief. Although less than half of the children described specific behaviours they had taken, almost all children indicated their active role as the central figure in relation to use of objects or the actions of others.

  9. A nondimensional framework for exploring the relief structure of landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Stuart W. D.; Mudd, Simon M.; Hurst, Martin D.; Milodowski, David T.

    2016-04-01

    Considering the relationship between erosion rate and the relief structure of a landscape within a nondimensional framework facilitates the comparison of landscapes undergoing forcing at a range of scales, and allows broad-scale patterns of landscape evolution to be observed. We present software which automates the extraction and processing of relevant topographic parameters to rapidly generate nondimensional erosion rate and relief data for any landscape where high-resolution topographic data are available. Individual hillslopes are identified using a connected-components technique which allows spatial averaging to be performed over geomorphologically meaningful spatial units, without the need for manual identification of hillslopes. The software is evaluated on four landscapes across the continental United States, three of which have been studied previously using this technique. We show that it is possible to identify whether landscapes are in topographic steady state. In locations such as Cascade Ridge, CA, a clear signal of an erosional gradient can be observed. In the southern Appalachians, nondimensional erosion rate and relief data are interpreted as evidence for a landscape decaying following uplift during the Miocene. An analysis of the sensitivity of this method to free parameters used in the data smoothing routines is presented which allows users to make an informed choice of parameters when interrogating new topographic data using this method. A method to constrain the critical gradient of the nonlinear sediment flux law is also presented which provides an independent constraint on this parameter for three of the four study landscapes.

  10. Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eJepma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (i the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (ii the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (iii the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.

  11. Acupuncture as pain relief during delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Hvidman, Lone

    2009-03-01

    Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain assessed by a visual analogue scale, birth experience and satisfaction with delivery, and pain relief evaluated at 2 months postpartum. Secondary obstetric outcomes were duration of labor, use of oxytocin, mode of delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, Apgar score, and umbilical cord pH value. Analysis complied with the intention-to-treat principle. Use of pharmacological and invasive methods was significantly lower in the acupuncture group (acupuncture vs traditional, p Pain scores were comparable. Acupuncture did not influence the duration of labor or the use of oxytocin. Mean Apgar score at 5 minutes and umbilical cord pH value were significantly higher among infants in the acupuncture group compared with infants in the other groups. Acupuncture reduced the need for pharmacological and invasive methods during delivery. Acupuncture is a good supplement to existing pain relief methods.

  12. Fertility and Symptom Relief following Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Pitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine success of robot-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy (RALM measured by sustained symptom relief and fertility. Methods. This is a retrospective survey of 426 women who underwent RALM for fibroids, symptom relief, or infertility at three practice sites across the US. We examined rates of symptom recurrence and pregnancy and factors associated with these outcomes. Results. Overall, 70% of women reported being symptom-free, with 62.9% free of symptoms after three years. At >3 years, 66.7% of women who underwent surgery to treat infertility and 80% who were also symptom-free reported achieving pregnancy. Factors independently associated with symptom recurrence included greater time after surgery, preoperative dyspareunia, multiple fibroid surgeries, smoking after surgery, and preexisting diabetes. Factors positively correlated with achieving pregnancy included desiring pregnancy, prior pregnancy, greater time since surgery, and Caucasian race. Factors negatively correlated with pregnancy were advanced age and symptom recurrence. Conclusions. This paper, the first to examine symptom recurrence after RALM, demonstrates both short- and long-term effectiveness in providing symptom relief. Furthermore, RALM may have the potential to improve the chance of conception, even in a population at high risk of subfertility, with greater benefits among those who remain symptom-free. These findings require prospective validation.

  13. Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Katherine T.; Kraft, Robert A.; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; before meditation training) to mindfulness meditation (after meditation training) on state anxiety across the same subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects, with no prior meditation experience, participated in 4 d of mindfulness meditation training. ATB did not reduce state anxiety, but state anxiety was significantly reduced in every session that subjects meditated. Meditation-related anxiety relief was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Meditation-related activation in these regions exhibited a strong relationship to anxiety relief when compared to ATB. During meditation, those who exhibited greater default-related activity (i.e. posterior cingulate cortex) reported greater anxiety, possibly reflecting an inability to control self-referential thoughts. These findings provide evidence that mindfulness meditation attenuates anxiety through mechanisms involved in the regulation of self-referential thought processes. PMID:23615765

  14. Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Fadel; Martucci, Katherine T; Kraft, Robert A; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; before meditation training) to mindfulness meditation (after meditation training) on state anxiety across the same subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects, with no prior meditation experience, participated in 4 d of mindfulness meditation training. ATB did not reduce state anxiety, but state anxiety was significantly reduced in every session that subjects meditated. Meditation-related anxiety relief was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Meditation-related activation in these regions exhibited a strong relationship to anxiety relief when compared to ATB. During meditation, those who exhibited greater default-related activity (i.e. posterior cingulate cortex) reported greater anxiety, possibly reflecting an inability to control self-referential thoughts. These findings provide evidence that mindfulness meditation attenuates anxiety through mechanisms involved in the regulation of self-referential thought processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evaluation of an International Disaster Relief Team After Participation in an ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Yong Sung; Hwang, Sung Oh; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyung Chul

    2016-10-01

    Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module. The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered "I knew my duty" (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered "I clearly knew my duty" (4.5±0.5). The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1-5).

  16. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  17. Relief as a reward: hedonic and neural responses to safety from pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Leknes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Relief fits the definition of a reward. Unlike other reward types the pleasantness of relief depends on the violation of a negative expectation, yet this has not been investigated using neuroimaging approaches. We hypothesized that the degree of negative expectation depends on state (dread and trait (pessimism sensitivity. Of the brain regions that are involved in mediating pleasure, the nucleus accumbens also signals unexpected reward and positive prediction error. We hypothesized that accumbens activity reflects the level of negative expectation and subsequent pleasant relief. Using fMRI and two purpose-made tasks, we compared hedonic and BOLD responses to relief with responses during an appetitive reward task in 18 healthy volunteers. We expected some similarities in task responses, reflecting common neural substrates implicated across reward types. However, we also hypothesized that relief responses would differ from appetitive rewards in the nucleus accumbens, since only relief pleasantness depends on negative expectations. The results confirmed these hypotheses. Relief and appetitive reward task activity converged in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which also correlated with appetitive reward pleasantness ratings. In contrast, dread and pessimism scores correlated with relief but not with appetitive reward hedonics. Moreover, only relief pleasantness covaried with accumbens activation. Importantly, the accumbens signal appeared to specifically reflect individual differences in anticipation of the adverse event (dread, pessimism but was uncorrelated to appetitive reward hedonics. In conclusion, relief differs from appetitive rewards due to its reliance on negative expectations, the violation of which is reflected in relief-related accumbens activation.

  18. Relief as a reward: hedonic and neural responses to safety from pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Lee, Michael; Berna, Chantal; Andersson, Jesper; Tracey, Irene

    2011-04-07

    Relief fits the definition of a reward. Unlike other reward types the pleasantness of relief depends on the violation of a negative expectation, yet this has not been investigated using neuroimaging approaches. We hypothesized that the degree of negative expectation depends on state (dread) and trait (pessimism) sensitivity. Of the brain regions that are involved in mediating pleasure, the nucleus accumbens also signals unexpected reward and positive prediction error. We hypothesized that accumbens activity reflects the level of negative expectation and subsequent pleasant relief. Using fMRI and two purpose-made tasks, we compared hedonic and BOLD responses to relief with responses during an appetitive reward task in 18 healthy volunteers. We expected some similarities in task responses, reflecting common neural substrates implicated across reward types. However, we also hypothesized that relief responses would differ from appetitive rewards in the nucleus accumbens, since only relief pleasantness depends on negative expectations. The results confirmed these hypotheses. Relief and appetitive reward task activity converged in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which also correlated with appetitive reward pleasantness ratings. In contrast, dread and pessimism scores correlated with relief but not with appetitive reward hedonics. Moreover, only relief pleasantness covaried with accumbens activation. Importantly, the accumbens signal appeared to specifically reflect individual differences in anticipation of the adverse event (dread, pessimism) but was uncorrelated to appetitive reward hedonics. In conclusion, relief differs from appetitive rewards due to its reliance on negative expectations, the violation of which is reflected in relief-related accumbens activation.

  19. Analysis of preservice inspection relief requests and recommendations for ASME code changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.F.

    1985-05-01

    NRC regulations require that preservice inspection (PSI) of nuclear plants be performed in accordance with referenced editions and addenda of Division 1 rules of Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components'', of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code). The regulations permit applicants to request and obtain relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical. Applicant requests for relief from preservice inspection (PSI) requirements were compiled and analyzed. From this data, covering a total of 178 relief requests, common problems with examination requirements were identified. Changes to examination requirements to solve selected problems are proposed. By following later ASME Code requirements, 46 out of the 178 relief requests can be eliminated. Implementing proposed Code changes would eliminate another 25 relief requests, leaving 107 relief requests out of the original 178 relief requests covered by this survey

  20. Effect of tip relief on endurance characteristics of super nitralloy and AISI M-50 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted with two groups of 8.89-centimeter (3.5-in.) pitch diameter spur gears with standard 20 deg involute profile with tip relief made of CVM Super-Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 at a temperature of 350 K (170 F). Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief had a life 150 percent that of gears without tip relief. An increased scoring phenomenon was noted with the Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief. Through-hardened AISI M-50 gears with tip relief failed due to tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had a life approximately 40 times greater than the AISI M-50 gears with tip relief.

  1. Pressure relief protection in cryostats: CERN’s experience on LHC and HIE Isolde

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Cryostats contain large cold surfaces, cryogenic fluids, and sometimes large stored energy (e.g. energized magnets), with the potential risk of sudden liberation of energy through thermodynamic transformations of the fluids, which can be uncontrolled and lead to a dangerous increase of pressure inside the cryostat envelopes. The consequence, in the case of a rupture of the envelopes, may be serious for personnel (injuries from deflagration, burns, and oxygen deficiency hazard) as well as for the equipment. Performing a thorough risk analysis is an essential step to identify and understand risk hazards that may cause a pressure increase and in order to assess consequences, define mitigation actions, and design adequate safety relief devices to limit pressure accordingly. Lessons learnt from real cases are essential for improving safety awareness for future projects: LHC and HIE Isolde are amongst these examples.

  2. Research and Evaluation of Relief Effect on Total Carbon Changes in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Pranskevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil is one of the major subsystems of the natural landscape of land and serves to the man as the main source of food resources for exclusive importance. One of the burning problems of mankind in the future will be the preservation of land soils, their fertility and health status under conditions of the increased pressure of human and the degradation of natural landscape conditions. As an additional negative factor taking place in nature is that the Earth will have to overcome the effects of global warming that will inevitably occur in Lithuanian agriculture. This paper examines the general evolution of carbon considering relief. Currently, the erosion of soil surface in Lithuania makes 30–50 %. Soil affected by erosion losses its fertility thus promoting further degradation of land.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Environmental relief effects through nanotechnological processes and products; Entlastungseffekte fuer die Umwelt durch nanotechnische Verfahren und Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeldt, Michael; Gleich, Armin von [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technikgestaltung und Technologieentwicklung, FB Produktionstechnik; Petschow, Ulrich; Pade, Christian; Sprenger, Rolf-Ulrich [Institut fuer oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung gGmbH, Berlin (Germany). FB Umweltoekonomie und -politik

    2010-06-15

    The top priority of the research project ''Environmental Relief Effects through Nanotechnological Processes and Products'' was to identify and quantify, to the extent possible and by means of selected examples, the environmental and sustainability opportunities and risks associated with this rapidly developing line of technology. Environmental relief potentials are understood here to include not only environmental engineering in the narrower sense (end-of-pipe technologies), but also and specifically process, production, and product-integrated environmental protection. The project consisted of four stages: 1. Analysis of products and processes already on the market or soon to be made available and application 2. Examination and initial qualitative assessment of each of the products and processes with respect to its potential for environmental relief (or burden, as the case may be) 3. In-depth life cycle analysis and assessment of four selected processes or products as compared to conventional processes or products (Manufacture of solderable surface finishes on printed circuit boards, MW carbon nanotube application for foils in the semiconductor industry, Lithium batteries for energy, storage, Ultradur {sup registered} High Speed plastic) 4. An appraisal of nanotechnology employment effects. (orig.)

  4. Effect of die relief on the seating, fit and retention of cast gold crowns cemented on human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H H; Ibbetson, R J

    2000-02-01

    Die relief, by means of a paint-on die spacing material, is the most common method of achieving sufficient space between metal castings and tooth surfaces for cement to flow during seating. Several studies have determined the influence of cementing variables on crowns made for metal and plastic test dies. This study assessed the influence of die relief upon the seating and retention of cast gold crowns constructed for natural human teeth. Standard full crown preparations were made for 10 matched pairs of extracted human third molars, one each of which had been relieved with die spacer of approximately 40 microns thickness. Crowns were made by the indirect technique and were cemented with zinc phosphate cement in a static/dynamic jig. Seating behaviour and vertical discrepancies were measured electronically. Tensile bond strengths were determined in a universal testing machine. Results showed that die relief reduced vertical seating discrepancy associated with cementation by up to 79 microns. Differences between paired relieved and unrelieved samples were significant (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in tensile bond between paired relieved and unrelieved crowns.

  5. Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Silver Gratings for Optimal SERS Response.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalachyova, Y.; Mareš, D.; Lyutakov, O.; Koštejn, Martin; Lapčák, L.; Svorčík, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 17 (2015), s. 9506-9512 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : enhanced raman-scattering * metallic surface * relief gratings Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.509, year: 2015

  6. Single-exposure two-dimensional superresolution in digital holography using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Luis; Zalevsky, Zeev; Micó, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    We present a new implementation capable of producing two-dimensional (2D) superresolution (SR) imaging in a single exposure by aperture synthesis in digital lensless Fourier holography when using angular multiplexing provided by a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array. The system performs the recording in a single CCD snapshot of a multiplexed hologram coming from the incoherent addition of multiple subholograms, where each contains information about a different 2D spatial frequency band of the object's spectrum. Thus, a set of nonoverlapping bandpass images of the input object can be recovered by Fourier transformation (FT) of the multiplexed hologram. The SR is obtained by coherent addition of the information contained in each bandpass image while generating an enlarged synthetic aperture. Experimental results demonstrate improvement in resolution and image quality.

  7. Immediate pain relief by microvascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, N.U.; Ali, M.; Khan, H.M.; Ishaq, M.; Khattak, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trigeminal neuralgia is a common entity which is managed by neurosurgeons in day to day practice. Up-till now many treatment options have been adopted for it but micro-vascular decompression is much impressive in terms of pain control and recurrence rate in all of them. The objective of study was known the efficacy of micro vascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia by using muscle patch in terms of immediate pain relief. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Neurosurgery Department lady reading hospital, Peshawar from January 2010 to December 2012. All patients who underwent micro vascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia were included in the study. Patients were assessed 72 hours after the surgery by borrow neurological institute pain scale (BNIP scale) for pain relief and findings were documented on predesigned proforma. Data was analysed by SPSS-17. Results: Total 52 patients were included in this study. Among these 32 (61.53 percentage) were female and 20 (38.46 percentage) were males having age from 22-76 years (mean 49 years). Right side was involved in 36 (69.23 percentage) and left side in 16 (30.76 percentage) patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 6 months to 16 years (mean 8 years). History of dental extraction and peripheral neurectomy was present in 20 (38 percentage) and 3(5.76 percentage) patients while V3 was most commonly involved branch with 28(57.69 percentage) frequency and combined V2,V3 involvement was 1 (11.53 percentage). Superior cerebellar artery was most common offending vessel in 46(88.46 percentage) while arachnoid adhesions were in 2(3.84 percentage) patients. We assessed patient immediate postoperatively using BNIP pain scale. Conclusion: Micro-vascular decompression is most effective mode of treatment for trigeminal neuralgia in terms of immediate pain relief. (author)

  8. Inadequate pain relief among patients with primary knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laires, Pedro A; Laíns, Jorge; Miranda, Luís C; Cernadas, Rui; Rajagopalan, Srini; Taylor, Stephanie D; Silva, José C

    Despite the widespread treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), data on treatment patterns, adequacy of pain relief, and quality of life are limited. The prospective multinational Survey of Osteoarthritis Real World Therapies (SORT) was designed to investigate these aspects. To analyze the characteristics and the patient reported outcomes of the Portuguese dataset of SORT at the start of observation. Patients ≥50 years with primary knee OA who were receiving oral or topical analgesics were eligible. Patients were enrolled from seven healthcare centers in Portugal between January and December 2011. Pain and function were evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and WOMAC. Quality of life was assessed using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Inadequate pain relief (IPR) was defined as a score >4/10 on item 5 of the BPI. Overall, 197 patients were analyzed. The median age was 67.0 years and 78.2% were female. Mean duration of knee OA was 6.2 years. IPR was reported by 51.3% of patients. Female gender (adjusted odds ratio - OR 2.15 [95%CI 1.1, 4.5]), diabetes (OR 3.1 [95%CI 1.3, 7.7]) and depression (OR 2.24 [95%CI 1.2, 4.3]) were associated with higher risk of IPR. Patients with IPR reported worst outcomes in all dimensions of WOMAC (p<0.001) and in all eight domains and summary components of SF-12 (p<0.001). Our findings indicate that improvements are needed in the management of pain in knee OA in order to achieve better outcomes in terms of pain relief, function and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... of respiratory depression was seen and 20% of the children had pruritus. There were four dural punctures and three catheters slipped out accidentally, but otherwise the treatment was continued as long as it was considered necessary (1-11 days). The use of postoperative ventilatory support decreased during...

  10. Vibration stress relief of DH 36 rectangle welded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqi; Fang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    Vibration stress relief (VSR) is widely used in reducing residual stress in welded structures. However, the effectiveness of this method is still instable in some circumstance. In this study, a covert negative treatment phenomenon was investigated, i.e. natural frequency of welded structures decreased after VSR but residual stress in one direction increased. When the alteration of natural frequency after VSR is significant, the residual stresses in both the longitudinal and transversal directions shall decrease. Otherwise, residual stresses may increase on one direction. Thus, sufficient power shall be applied to the welded structures to avoid negative results.

  11. Evaluation of Congestion Relief Proposals in a Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir C. Fowdur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing three different solutions suggested for traffic congestion relief in Port Louis, the busiest city of Mauritius. It evaluates the impact of the three alternatives which are the use of Light Rail Transit (LRT as an alternative mode of transport, the construction of a Ring road around Port Louis, and the upgrading of the current bus network into a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system. The impact of these three solutions has been evaluated by performing Traffic Cellular Automata (TCA simulations. Our studies reveal that the Ring road will lead to more congestion while introducing the LRT or upgrading the current bus network will reduce congestion significantly.

  12. Pakistan Earthquake Relief Operations: Leveraging Humanitarian Missions for Strategic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    pilots, relief missions had not previously been flown at night . But a little girl’s life was at stake, so Crocker authorized one of the State...with the Pakistani military, to Ambassador Crocker’s decision to launch a dangerous night mission to save the life of a 5-year-old girl, to Lance...PRISM 2, no. 1 leSSoNS leaRNed | 131 On Christmas morning 2005, at Saint Patrick’s Catholic Church in Auckland , New Zealand, a priest stepped up to

  13. 77 FR 71131 - Implementation of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012; Establishment of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Contact Registered PSAP Numbers 10. Section 6507(b)(5) of the Tax Relief Act directs the Commission to... underlying section 6507 of the Tax Relief Act. In addition, section 6003 of the Tax Relief Act directs the.... Definitions. As noted above, the Tax Relief Act does not define ``automatic dialing'' or ``robocall...

  14. Does pain relief by CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids predict pain relief after decompression surgery for cervical nerve root compression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Alexander; Dietrich, Tobias J; Farshad, Mazda

    2016-10-01

    The relationship of pain relief from a recently presented CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids to surgical decompression as a treatment for single-level cervical radiculopathy is not clear. This retrospective study aimed to compare the immediate and 6-week post-injection effects to the short- and long-term outcomes after surgical decompression, specifically in regard to pain relief. Patients (n = 39, age 47 ± 10 years) who had undergone CT-guided indirect injection with local anesthetics and steroids as an initial treatment for single cervical nerve root radiculopathy and who subsequently needed surgical decompression were included retrospectively. Pain levels (VAS scores) were monitored before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after injection (n = 34), as well as 6 weeks (n = 38) and a mean of 25 months (SD ± 12) after surgical decompression (n = 36). Correlation analysis was performed to find potential associations of pain relief after injection and after surgery to investigate the predictive value of post-injection pain relief. There was no correlation between immediate pain relief after injection (-32 ± 27 %) and 6 weeks later (-7 ± 19 %), (r = -0.023, p = 0.900). There was an association by tendency between immediate pain relief after injection and post-surgical pain relief at 6 weeks (-82 ± 27 %), (r = 0.28, p = 0.08). Pain relief at follow-up remained high at -70 ± 21 % and was correlated with the immediate pain amelioration effect of the injection (r = 0.37, p = 0.032). Five out of seven patients who reported no pain relief from injection had a pain relief from surgery in excess of 50 %. The amount of immediate radiculopathic pain relief after indirect cervical nerve root injection is associated with the amount of pain relief achieved at long-term follow-up after surgical decompression of single-level cervical radiculopathy

  15. Humanitarian power : Canadian electrical techies help hurricane relief in Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, N.

    1999-04-01

    A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces` Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995.

  16. Humanitarian power : Canadian electrical techies help hurricane relief in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, N.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces' Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995

  17. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  18. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Joy L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress, sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.

  19. Putting Qumran, Jesus and his movement into relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After referring briefly to the fantasies regarding the origins of Christianity as elicited by the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 (Dupont-Sommer, Allegro, Thiering, the purpose of the contribution is to put the Jesus movement into relief in the context of first-century Judaism. The identity of the Qumranites is argued to be Essene scribes. The identity, ideology and practices of the latter are compared with those of Jesus of Nazareth and the movement he elicited using the following rubrics: (1 Jesus, the teacher of righteousness and the powers that be; (2 asceticism versus itinerary charismaticism; (3 caring versus lack of caring for the sick, poor and marginalised; (4 elitist priests and scribes versus lower-class peasants; (5 the interpretation of the law; (6 religious and daily practices (baptism, ritual meal, sacrifice, prayer, community of possessions, scribal activity; (7 religious views or ideology (kingdom of God, the new covenant, light and darkness, politics. The result is a picture of Jesus (with his focus on human suffering in sharp relief versus Qumran and facets of the early church.

  20. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant intervi......This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key......-informant interviews, the article investigates the nature and extent of corruption in pre- and post-disaster interventions in Khulna before and after Cyclone Aila in May 2009. Ninety nine percent of households reported losses from corrupt practices. Post-disaster interventions (such as food aid and public works...... schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  1. Occupational Trauma and Mental Illness: Combat, Peacekeeping or Relief Work and the NCS-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connorton, Ellen; Perry, Melissa J.; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Objective Peacekeepers, relief workers and military members experience multiple traumas, and trauma is believed to increase risk for psychiatric distress. We examined whether combat and/or peacekeeping or relief work was associated with subsequent mental illness. Methods Using data from the US National Co-morbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) (n = 2,383), we estimated whether combat, peacekeeping or relief work were associated with increased prevalence of mental illness through bivariate cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression. Results Combat was associated with increased subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol or drug issues more than peacekeeping or relief work. Conclusions Combat, alone or combined with peacekeeping/relief work, appears to be a risk factor for subsequent PTSD and issues with drugs and alcohol. Peacekeeping/relief work without combat does not appear to be associated with these diagnoses. PMID:22173283

  2. Bacterial communities in pigmented biofilms formed on the sandstone bas-relief walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue-green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue-green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics.

  3. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    pressure relief maneuvers on ischial interface pressure and blood flow in people with spinal cord injury”, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 95 no.7, pp. 1350-1357, July 2014. ...0 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0387 TITLE: Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with...Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting

  4. Intra-articular hip injection: does pain relief correlate with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ajit J.; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Alizadeh, Ahmadreza; Klein, Devon A.

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular injection is being used widely for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the hip. However, its efficacy is not always predictable in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of radiographic severity of OA was predictive of the response to intra-articular injection of local anesthetic with corticosteroid and to determine the relationship between immediate pain relief resulting from the anesthetic and delayed pain relief resulting from corticosteroid administration. This retrospective study included 217 patients (220 injections) with diagnosis of hip OA who underwent a fluoroscopically guided therapeutic hip injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid. Hip radiographs were scored using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Immediate and delayed pain relief was documented using a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether age, gender or radiographic severity of OA were independent predictors of pain relief. Degree of agreement between immediate and delayed response was assessed with the kappa coefficient. Immediate pain relief was reported in 68.2% of hips and delayed relief in 71.4% of hips. A high level of agreement was observed between immediate and delayed pain relief (kappa = 0.80, p < 0.001). 94% of patients reporting immediate relief also reported relief 2 weeks later. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that neither gender nor age was related to immediate or delayed pain relief. Only severity of OA (based on radiographic analysis) was observed to be predictive of pain relief. Pain relief following intra-articular hip injection correlated with radiographic severity of OA. This intervention may be of therapeutic and prognostic value in patients awaiting hip arthroplasty. (orig.)

  5. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan, and

  6. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eDeutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors (Mowrer, 1951; Ostafin & Brooks, 2011, self destructive behaviors (Favazza, 1998; Franklin, Lee, Hanna, & Prinstein, 2013, and social influence (Dolinski & Nawrat, 1998. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  7. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Saskia; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience (“liking”) of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward (“wanting”), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief “won” in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality. PMID:26464995

  8. Holographic otoscope for nanodisplacement measurements of surfaces under dynamic excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Moreno, J M; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J; Harrington, Ellery; Cheng, Jeffrey T; Scarpino, C; Santoyo, F Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel holographic otoscope system for measuring nanodisplacements of objects subjected to dynamic excitation. Such measurements are necessary to quantify the mechanical deformation of surfaces in mechanics, acoustics, electronics, biology, and many other fields. In particular, we are interested in measuring the sound-induced motion of biological samples, such as an eardrum. Our holographic otoscope system consists of laser illumination delivery (IS), optical head (OH), and image processing computer (IP) systems. The IS delivers the object beam (OB) and the reference beam (RB) to the OH. The backscattered light coming from the object illuminated by the OB interferes with the RB at the camera sensor plane to be digitally recorded as a hologram. The hologram is processed by the IP using the Fresnel numerical reconstruction algorithm, where the focal plane can be selected freely. Our holographic otoscope system is currently deployed in a clinic, and is packaged in a custom design. It is mounted in a mechatronic positioning system to increase its maneuverability degrees to be conveniently positioned in front of the object to be measured. We present representative results highlighting the versatility of our system to measure deformations of complex elastic surfaces in the wavelength scale including a copper foil membrane and postmortem tympanic membrane. SCANNING 33: 342-352, 2011. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Human milk for neonatal pain relief during ophthalmoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laiane Medeiros; Castral, Thaíla Corrêa; Montanholi, Liciane Langona; Daré, Mariana Firmino; Silva, Aline Carolina de Araújo; Antonini, Sonir Roberto Rauber; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2013-10-01

    Ophthalmoscopy performed for the early diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is painful for preterm infants, thus necessitating interventions for minimizing pain. The present study aimed to establish the effectiveness of human milk, compared with sucrose, for pain relief in premature infants subjected to ophthalmoscopy for the early diagnosis of ROP. This investigation was a pilot, quasi-experimental study conducted with 14 premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a university hospital. Comparison between the groups did not yield a statistically significant difference relative to the crying time, salivary cortisol, or heart rate (HR). Human milk appears to be as effective as sucrose in relieving acute pain associated with ophthalmoscopy. The study's limitations included its small sample size and lack of randomization. Experimental investigations with greater sample power should be performed to reinforce the evidence found in the present study.

  10. Western Tibet relief evolution, insight from sedimentary record and thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahéo, Gweltaz; Gourbet, Loraine; Hervé Leloup, Philippe; Sorrel, Philippe; Shuster, David L.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Quillévéré, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    The Tibetan plateau is defined as a low relief high elevation zone, resulting from India-Asia convergence. However, its morphology is relatively heterogeneous. Especially the western Tibetan plateau is characterized by a strong relief, numerous peaks higher than 6000 m.a.s.l. and large (up to 10 km), deep (1-2 km) valleys. We investigate the origin of this particular morphology, coupling geomorphologic studies with sedimentary records and (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The western Tibet Tertiary sedimentation is mostly characterized by conglomerates, red sandstone and siltstones related with alluvial fan deposits. Zircon U-Pb dating of interbedded trachyte flows implies that deposition started before 25 Ma and was still ongoing at 20 Ma. These continental, detrital deposits are filling wide open valleys during probable arid climatic conditions. Such valleys are thus interpreted as inherited basins, paleovalleys, formed before detrital sedimentation i.e. at ~25 Ma. Moreover, rare marine sediments were observed below the detrital deposits. Foraminifera suggest an Oligocene age, which implies that the paleovalleys already existed during the Oligocene, and that the emersion of the Western Tibetan Plateau occurred between the Oligocene and 25 Ma. This emersion thus occurred much later than the India-Asia collision (~50-45Ma) but is compatible with the onset of the main thickening phase of the Indian plate. The orientation of the inherited valley axis appears to be that of active strike slip faults that induced eastward extrusion of Western Tibet. This suggests that such extrusion was already active at the time of sedimentation (both marine and continental). Thus extrusion was also active during the plateau emersion at Oligocene time. The morphology of the valleys, and their sedimentary infilling, suggest that a significant relief, similar to present-day one (about 1000-2000m between valleys floor and surrounding peaks) already existed at the time of sedimentation. This

  11. Numerical study of emergency cryogenics gas relief into confined spaces

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The presented work focuses on the risk analysis and the consequences of the unexpected leak to the tunnel of cryogenics gases. Formation of the gas mixture and its propagation along tunnels is an important issue for the safe operation of cryogenic machines, including superconducting accelerators or free electron lasers. As the cryogenics gas the helium and argon will be considered. A minimal numerical model will be presented and discussed. Series of numerical results related to emergency helium relief to the CERN tunnel and related to unexpected leak of the argon to an underground tunnel, will be shown. The numerical results will show temperature distribution, oxygen deficiency and gas cloud propagation in function of intensity of the leak and intensity of the ventilation.

  12. Acupucture as pain relief during delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain...... with the intention-to-treat principle. Results: Use of pharmacological and invasive methods was significantly lower in the acupuncture group (acupuncture vs traditional, p acupuncture vs TENS, p = 0.031). Pain scores were comparable. Acupuncture did not influence the duration of labor or the use of oxytocin...

  13. Gain-Based Relief for Invasion of Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirko Harder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many common law jurisdictions, some or all instances of invasion of privacy constitute a privacy-specific wrong either at common law (including equity or under statute. A remedy invariably available for such a wrong is compensation for loss. However, the plaintiff may instead seek to claim the profit the defendant has made from the invasion. This article examines when a plaintiff is, and should be, entitled to claim that profit, provided that invasion of privacy is actionable as such. After a brief overview of the relevant law in major common law jurisdictions, the article investigates how invasion of privacy fits into a general concept of what is called ‘restitution for wrongs’. It will be argued that the right to privacy is a right against the whole world and as such forms a proper basis of awarding gain-based relief for the unauthorised use of that right.

  14. Human milk for neonatal pain relief during ophthalmoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiane Medeiros Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmoscopy performed for the early diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is painful for preterm infants, thus necessitating interventions for minimizing pain. The present study aimed to establish the effectiveness of human milk, compared with sucrose, for pain relief in premature infants subjected to ophthalmoscopy for the early diagnosis of ROP. This investigation was a pilot, quasi-experimental study conducted with 14 premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a university hospital. Comparison between the groups did not yield a statistically significant difference relative to the crying time, salivary cortisol, or heart rate (HR. Human milk appears to be as effective as sucrose in relieving acute pain associated with ophthalmoscopy. The study’s limitations included its small sample size and lack of randomization. Experimental investigations with greater sample power should be performed to reinforce the evidence found in the present study.

  15. Pain Relief in Nonhuman Primate Models of Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierboom, Michel P M; Breedveld, Elia; Keehnen, Merei; Klomp, Rianne; Bakker, Jaco

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis are important in the elucidation of etiopathogenic mechanisms of the disease and for the development of promising new therapies. Species specificity of new biological compounds and their mode of action preclude safety and efficacy testing in rodent models of disease. Nonhuman primates (NHP) can fill this niche and provide the only relevant model. Over the last two decades models of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were developed in the rhesus monkey and the common marmoset. However, NHP are higher-order animals and complex sentient beings. So especially in models where pain is an intricate part of the disease, analgesia needs to be addressed because of ethical considerations. In our model, a morphine-based pain relief was used that does not interfere with the normal development of disease allowing us to evaluate important mechanistic aspects of the arthritis.

  16. Ensuring Pain Relief for Children at the End of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Grégoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain management in the context of pediatric palliative care can be challenging. The present article reviews, through a case-based presentation, the nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods used to ensure adequate pain control in children facing end of life. Details on the impressive range of opioid dosages required and routes of administration are highlighted from published literature and clinical experience. Where available, evidence-based recommendations are provided. Potential side effects of pain medication and barriers to good pain control are discussed. Novel analgesics and innovative delivery methods are presented as future tools enhancing pain relief at the end of life. Some challenges to ethically grounded research in this important context of care are reviewed.

  17. Pemanfaatan Frekuensi Untuk Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penanganan kejadian yang terkait dengan Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR di Indonesia yang merupakan negara yang rawan terhadap bencana dan permasalahan sosial membutuhkan komunikasi yang intensif. Penelitian ini mengkaji mengenai kondisi pemanfaatan frekuensi PPDR di Indonesia dan strategi pengembangan ke depannya dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem komunikasi pada instansi PPDR di Indonesia tidak mendukung interoperabilitas dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang terkoordinasi. Selain itu, pita frekuensi yang digunakan merupakan pita sempit yang tidak mendukung aplikasi video dan data kecepatan tinggi yang dibutuhkan dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang lebih efektif. Oleh karena itu, dalam perencanaan alokasi frekuensi ke depannya, pemerintah perlu mengintegrasikan pita lebar ke dalam perencanaan sistem Government Radio Network (GRN.

  18. Seeking relief: Bankruptcy and health outcomes of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the impact of declaring consumer bankruptcy on the physical and mental health of adult women and if outcomes differed depending on whether the filer received automatic debt discharge under Chapter 7 compared to a debt repayment plan with Chapter 13. Sample data consisted of women from the NLSY79 cohort who completed the age 40 and 50 health modules as of the most recent wave. Results indicated a negative effect of bankruptcy on self-assessed health, whereas prior health history explained its negative relationship with depressive symptoms. Debt liquidation under Chapter 7 was associated with poor physical health relative to those who did not file and with depressive symptoms relative to Chapter 13 repayment plan filers. Poor health is an unintended consequence for women who seek financial relief through bankruptcy.

  19. Partial compensation interferometry for measurement of surface parameter error of high-order aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Li, Tengfei; Hu, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Surface parameters are the properties to describe the shape characters of aspheric surface, which mainly include vertex radius of curvature (VROC) and conic constant (CC). The VROC affects the basic properties, such as focal length of an aspheric surface, while the CC is the basis of classification for aspheric surface. The deviations of the two parameters are defined as surface parameter error (SPE). Precisely measuring SPE is critical for manufacturing and aligning aspheric surface. Generally, SPE of aspheric surface is measured directly by curvature fitting on the absolute profile measurement data from contact or non-contact testing. And most interferometry-based methods adopt null compensators or null computer-generated holograms to measure SPE. To our knowledge, there is no effective way to measure SPE of highorder aspheric surface with non-null interferometry. In this paper, based on the theory of slope asphericity and the best compensation distance (BCD) established in our previous work, we propose a SPE measurement method for high-order aspheric surface in partial compensation interferometry (PCI) system. In the procedure, firstly, we establish the system of two element equations by utilizing the SPE-caused BCD change and surface shape change. Then, we can simultaneously obtain the VROC error and CC error in PCI system by solving the equations. Simulations are made to verify the method, and the results show a high relative accuracy.

  20. The importance of context: when relative relief renders pain pleasant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C; Snyder, Gregory D; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

    2013-03-01

    Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that "it could be worse" can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the "relative relief context," moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a "hedonic flip," such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This "hedonic flip" was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. "Pleasant pain" also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced "hedonic flip" of pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  1. The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain pleasant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C.; Snyder, Gregory D.; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that “it could be worse” can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the “relative relief context,” moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a “hedonic flip,” such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This “hedonic flip” was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. “Pleasant pain” also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced “hedonic flip” of pain. PMID:23352758

  2. Bilateral CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy for cancer pain relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegul, I.; Erhan, E.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for treating unilateral cancer pain, however, bilateral cordotomy can be required on some occasions. We evaluated the effectiveness and complications of bilateral cordotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-four patients who suffered from unilateral cancer pain underwent CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy. The procedure was repeated in 22 patients, and nine patients had bilateral cordotomy. Effectiveness and complications were recorded after each procedure. RESULTS: Of nine patents (three women and six men) having bilateral percutaneous cordotomy in our study, four patients had mirror pain after the first procedure. In the remaining five patients the contralateral pain was due to new pain sites. The pain scores before and after the first procedure were 9.3 (range 7-10) and 1.2 (range 0-3), respectively. After the first procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was achieved in all patients. The duration between the two procedures ranged from 7-243 days (mean 59.8 days). The pain scores before and after the second procedure were 8.4 (range 5-10) and 1.6 (range 0-4), respectively. After the second procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was reported in all patients. There were no complications in four patients. One patient developed transient motor deficit after the first procedure. Other complications (nausea/vomiting, headache, ipsilateral neck pain, postcordotomy dysesthesia) were mild and transient. CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for the treatment of severe unilateral cancer pain syndromes. The procedure can be repeated on the other side at least 1 week later. These results show that the success on the second side appears to be similar to the first side with low complication rate for both procedures

  3. Bilateral CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy for cancer pain relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegul, I. E-mail: iyegul@med.ege.edu.tr; Erhan, E. E-mail: elvanerhan@yahoo.com

    2003-11-01

    AIM: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for treating unilateral cancer pain, however, bilateral cordotomy can be required on some occasions. We evaluated the effectiveness and complications of bilateral cordotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-four patients who suffered from unilateral cancer pain underwent CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy. The procedure was repeated in 22 patients, and nine patients had bilateral cordotomy. Effectiveness and complications were recorded after each procedure. RESULTS: Of nine patents (three women and six men) having bilateral percutaneous cordotomy in our study, four patients had mirror pain after the first procedure. In the remaining five patients the contralateral pain was due to new pain sites. The pain scores before and after the first procedure were 9.3 (range 7-10) and 1.2 (range 0-3), respectively. After the first procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was achieved in all patients. The duration between the two procedures ranged from 7-243 days (mean 59.8 days). The pain scores before and after the second procedure were 8.4 (range 5-10) and 1.6 (range 0-4), respectively. After the second procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was reported in all patients. There were no complications in four patients. One patient developed transient motor deficit after the first procedure. Other complications (nausea/vomiting, headache, ipsilateral neck pain, postcordotomy dysesthesia) were mild and transient. CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for the treatment of severe unilateral cancer pain syndromes. The procedure can be repeated on the other side at least 1 week later. These results show that the success on the second side appears to be similar to the first side with low complication rate for both procedures.

  4. Pain relief for premature infants during ophthalmology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Yogavijayan; Smith, Roger; Wright, Ian M R; Hartley, Leo

    2011-06-01

    The ophthalmological examination of premature infants, which is essential for the detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), can be painful and distressing for the infant. Various researchers have investigated the benefits of topical anesthesia, oral sucrose, and non pharmacological intervention for pain relief. The purpose of this study is to review the current state of knowledge on the effectiveness of these approaches. A literature search was performed with MEDLINE (January 1980 to January 2011) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Issue 1 of 4 (January 2011), to determine the currently available evidence on methods of pain relief for premature infants undergoing ROP examination. Most studies supported the use of topical proparacaine, which marginally decreased pain without any side effects. Oral sucrose did not significantly reduce pain scores during ROP examinations, and withholding feeding before the examination was not beneficial. Infants given pacifiers had lower pain scores than those without pacifiers, and infants who were nested experienced less distress during and after the procedure. Conflicting data existed on the benefits of different examination techniques, but the insertion of a lid speculum appeared to be the most uncomfortable aspect of the screening examination. Topical anesthetics marginally reduce pain during eye examination in premature infants. Contrary to standard practice, it appears that patients are more comfortable if they are fed before the examination, and there is no benefit of oral sucrose. Nonpharmacological interventions, including sucking on a pacifier and nesting, may also be beneficial. Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GPU-based implementation of an accelerated SR-NLUT based on N-point one-dimensional sub-principal fringe patterns in computer-generated holograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Min Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated spatial redundancy-based novel-look-up-table (A-SR-NLUT method based on a new concept of the N-point one-dimensional sub-principal fringe pattern (N-point1-D sub-PFP is implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU for fast calculation of computer-generated holograms (CGHs of three-dimensional (3-Dobjects. Since the proposed method can generate the N-point two-dimensional (2-D PFPs for CGH calculation from the pre-stored N-point 1-D PFPs, the loading time of the N-point PFPs on the GPU can be dramatically reduced, which results in a great increase of the computational speed of the proposed method. Experimental results confirm that the average calculation time for one-object point has been reduced by 49.6% and 55.4% compared to those of the conventional 2-D SR-NLUT methods for each case of the 2-point and 3-point SR maps, respectively.

  6. Effective memory reduction of the novel look-up table with one-dimensional sub-principle fringe patterns in computer-generated holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Man; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2012-05-21

    We propose a novel approach to massively reduce the memory of the novel look-up table (N-LUT) for computer-generated holograms by employing one-dimensional (1-D) sub-principle fringe patterns (sub-PFPs). Two-dimensional (2-D) PFPs used in the conventional N-LUT method are decomposed into a pair of 1-D sub-PFPs through a trigonometric relation. Then, these 1-D sub-PFPs are pre-calculated and stored in the proposed method, which results in a remarkable reduction of the memory of the N-LUT. Experimental results reveal that the memory capacity of the LUT, N-LUT and proposed methods have been calculated to be 149.01 TB, 2.29 GB and 1.51 MB, respectively for the 3-D object having image points of 500 × 500 × 256, which means the memory of the proposed method could be reduced by 103 × 10(6) fold and 1.55 × 10(3) fold compared to those of the conventional LUT and N-LUT methods, respectively.

  7. Methane evasion and oxidation in the Big Cypress National Preserve—a low relief carbonate wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N. D.; Bianchi, T. S.; Cohen, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Quintero, C.; Brown, A.; Osborne, T.; Sawakuchi, H. O.

    2016-12-01

    The Big Cypress National Preserve is a low relief carbonate wetland characterized by unique basin patterning known as "cypress domes." Here we examine the concentration and stable isotopic composition of methane in pore waters, surface waters, and bubbles from the sediment across horizontal gradients in four domes during three sampling campaigns. The proportion of methane oxidized in surface waters was estimated based on isotopic differences between surface water and pore waters/bubbles. Rates of methane evasion from surface waters, soils, and cypress knees to the atmosphere were also measured. Surface water CH4 concentrations ranged from 170 to 4,533 ppm with the highest levels generally being observed during wet periods. Pore water CH4 concentrations ranged from 748 to 75,213 ppm. The concentration of methane in bubbles ranged from 6.5 to 71%. The stable isotopic composition of CH4 ranged from -69.2 to -43.8‰ for all samples and was generally more enriched in surface waters compared to bubbles and porewaters, particularly in the two domes that were persistently inundated throughout the year. Based on these isotopic values, the average percentage of surface water CH4 that was oxidized was 37 ± 16% (maximum of 67%) and 19 ± 4% (maximum of 47%) in the two domes that are persistently inundated versus the two domes that are not inundated during the dry season, respectively. The average rate of CH4 evasion was 3.6 ± 1.6 mmol m-2 d-1 via diffusion, 7.6 ± 4.7 mmol m-2 d-1 via ebullition, 10.9 ± 11.4 mmol m-2 d-1­ from soil surfaces, and 34.3 ± 27.4 mmol m-2 d-1 from cypress knees. These results indicate that CH4 is produced in great quantities in inundated sediments, particularly in the center of the cypress domes. Diffusive fluxes from surface waters are suppressed by microbial oxidation in the water column, whereas ebullition from sediments and evasion through cypress knees, and likely other vascular vegetation, are the primary pathways for CH4 outgassing.

  8. Effect of Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief paste on the strength of adhesion of composite resin in dental pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila Rodriguez, Amanda; Sas Rosero, Cristina de

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the toothpaste Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief on the strength of adhesion was analyzed, through in vitro studies, in dental pieces that have been previously treated with a protocol that simulates dental hypersensitivity. Several dental pieces were taken as study samples and divided into groups. The Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief TM desensitizing paste was applied to the non-crown surfaces of the teeth, with the exception of the negative control group which remained without the application. Positive control protocols, prophylaxis with the use of fluorinated prophylactic paste, 400 grit sandpaper, phosphoric acid and negative control were applied. Subsequently, a Brilliant NG TM dentin photocurable resin crown was constructed for the groups to which the indicated protocols were applied. The greatest strength of adhesion was presented by the group Prophylaxis. It is assumed that a second application of orthophosphoric acid is able to de-blot even more the dental tubules and with this improve the adhesion. An improvement in the adhesion of resin on the tooth surface is provided when performing a dental prophylaxis using prophylactic paste and a rubber cup, before restoring a tooth. Sandpaper 400 prevents an improvement in the adhesion of resins. The results with the negative control group were unexpected and may be due to errors in the treatment process [es

  9. Pentazocine pain relief in adult patients with acute abdominal ain: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reported studies in the African population, on early pain relief in patients with acute abdominal pain are few. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of pentazocine (PZ) on pain relief, diagnostic accuracy and treatment decisions in patients with acute abdominal pain. Methods: This was a ...

  10. State Tax Relief for the Poor. State Fiscal Brief No. 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, David S.; Gold, Steven D.

    This brief summarizes some of the highlights of the book "State Tax Relief for the Poor," by David S. Liebschutz and Steven D. Gold. It examines the policies that states can adopt to provide tax relief for the poor. Although poor families are generally exempt from the federal income tax, they still pay a large amount of taxes to state and local…

  11. A neurogenetic dissociation between punishment-, reward- and relief-learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ayse Yarali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available What is particularly worth remembering about a traumatic experience is what brought it about, and what made it cease. For example, fruit flies avoid an odour which during training had preceded electric shock punishment; on the other hand, if the odour had followed shock during training, it is later on approached as a signal for the relieving end of shock. We provide a neurogenetic analysis of such relief learning. Blocking, using UAS-shibirets1, the output from a particular set of dopaminergic neurons defined by the TH-Gal4 driver partially impaired punishment learning, but left relief learning intact. Thus, with respect to these particular neurons, relief learning differs from punishment learning. Targeting another set of dopaminergic/ serotonergic neurons defined by the DDC-Gal4 driver on the other hand affected neither punishment nor relief learning. As for the octopaminergic system, the tbhM18 mutation, compromising octopamine biosynthesis, partially impaired sugar-reward learning, but not relief learning. Thus, with respect to this particular mutation, relief learning and reward learning are dissociated. Finally, blocking output from the set of octopaminergic/ tyraminergic neurons defined by the TDC2-Gal4 driver affected neither reward, nor relief learning. We conclude that regarding the used genetic tools, relief learning is neurogenetically dissociated from both punishment and reward learning.

  12. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....5870 Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a peripheral nerve... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain...

  13. Oscillatory neural representations in the sensory thalamus predict neuropathic pain relief by deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongzhi; Green, Alexander L; Hyam, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, James; Aziz, Tipu Z; Wang, Shouyan

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the function of sensory thalamic neural activity is essential for developing and improving interventions for neuropathic pain. However, there is a lack of investigation of the relationship between sensory thalamic oscillations and pain relief in patients with neuropathic pain. This study aims to identify the oscillatory neural characteristics correlated with pain relief induced by deep brain stimulation (DBS), and develop a quantitative model to predict pain relief by integrating characteristic measures of the neural oscillations. Measures of sensory thalamic local field potentials (LFPs) in thirteen patients with neuropathic pain were screened in three dimensional feature space according to the rhythm, balancing, and coupling neural behaviours, and correlated with pain relief. An integrated approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis is proposed to integrate the multiple measures and provide a predictive model. This study reveals distinct thalamic rhythms of theta, alpha, high beta and high gamma oscillations correlating with pain relief. The balancing and coupling measures between these neural oscillations were also significantly correlated with pain relief. The study enriches the series research on the function of thalamic neural oscillations in neuropathic pain and relief, and provides a quantitative approach for predicting pain relief by DBS using thalamic neural oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument...

  15. 40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 60.482-4a Section 60.482-4a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an...

  16. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 63.165 Section 63.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with an instrument reading of less than 500 parts...

  17. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument...

  18. 40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service. 60.482-4 Section 60.482-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions...

  19. The Unintended Consequences of Property Tax Relief: New York's STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Ho; Duncombe, William; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yinger, John

    2014-01-01

    New York's School Tax Relief Program, STAR, provides state-funded property tax relief for homeowners. Like a matching grant, STAR changes the price of education, thereby altering the incentives of voters and school officials and leading to unintended consequences. Using data for New York State school districts before and after STAR was…

  20. 30 CFR 203.1 - What is MMS's authority to grant royalty relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is MMS's authority to grant royalty relief... REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES General Provisions § 203.1 What is MMS's authority... under a Development Operations Coordination Document (DOCD) or a supplementary DOCD, that MMS approved...

  1. Attitude of Nigerian Mothers to Labour Pain and its Relief | Akpan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attitude of 110 mothers to labour pains and its relief were assessed 24 hours after normal vaginal deliveries in the post-natal ward of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. The study was carried out with the view of formally introducing pain relief in labour (epidural analgesia in the University of Calabar Teaching ...

  2. 77 FR 59408 - Finding of Equivalence; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels Carrying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section VIII with respect to...; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk AGENCY: Coast...-ENG Policy Letter 04-12, ``Alternative Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Vessels Carrying Liquefied...

  3. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and fittings. 178.337-9 Section 178.337-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1... encountered. (b) Piping, valves, hose, and fittings. (1) The burst pressure of all piping, pipe fittings, hose...

  4. 49 CFR 178.338-8 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fittings. 178.338-8 Section 178.338-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE....338-8 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. Each tank... subchapter. (b) Piping, valves, and fittings. (1) The burst pressure of all piping, pipe fittings, hoses and...

  5. "There Is a Lot that I Want to Do": Reflections on the Relief Efforts in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrottes, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010, Harvard Educational Review editor Raygine DiAquoi interviewed Maryse Desgrottes, the mother of a close friend and a visible presence in the relief efforts in Petit Goave, Haiti. Desgrottes, a former physician's assistant turned educator and school superintendent, shares the story of her involvement in Haiti's relief efforts since…

  6. Reduction of Noise and Vibration of Spur Gear by Using Asymmetric Teeth Profiles with Tip Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of noise and vibration in spur gear experimentally by using asymmetric teeth profiles with tip relief was presented. Both of classical (symmetric and asymmetric (with and without tip relief spur gears are used in this work. Gear test rig was constructed to achieve torsional vibration measuring, and two modified cutters are designed and manufactured to achieve tooth profile modifications. First to cut asymmetric gear tooth with pressure angles (14.5o/25 o without tip relief for loaded and unloaded tooth sides respectively, and second to cut asymmetric gear tooth with pressure angles (14.5o/25 o for loaded and unloaded tooth sides respectively with tip relief to achieve best dynamic performance. Dynamic load factor, transmission error and noise level are carried out in this work. Final results showed improvement in dynamic load factor and noise level for asymmetric gear (with and without tip relief compared with classical spur gear .

  7. Davenport Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Davenport Ranges of central Australia have been inferred to be among the oldest persisting landforms on Earth, founded on the belief that the interior of Australia has been tectonically stable for at least 700 million years. New rock age dating techniques indicate that substantial erosion has probably occurred over that time period and that the landforms are not nearly that old, but landscape evolution certainly occurs much slower here (at least now) than is typical across Earth's surface. Regardless of their antiquity, the Davenport Ranges exhibit a striking landform pattern as shown in this display of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Quartzites and other erosion resistant strata form ridges within anticlinal (arched up) and synclinal (arched down) ovals and zigzags. These structures, if not the landforms, likely date back at least hundreds of millions of years, to a time when tectonic forces were active. Maximum local relief is only about 60 meters (about 200 feet), which is enough to contrast greatly with the extremely low relief surrounding terrain. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (image top to bottom) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  8. Microscopic observation of zenithal bistable switching in nematic devices with different surface relief structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uche, C; Elston, S J; Parry-Jones, L A

    2005-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals have been shown to exhibit zenithal electro-optic bistability in devices containing sinusoidal and deformed sinusoidal gratings. Recently it has been shown that zenithal bistable states can also be supported at isolated edges of square gratings. In this paper, we present microscopic observations of bistability in cells containing sinusoidal gratings and long-pitch square gratings. We have also investigated a novel display based on square wells. High frame-rate video microscopy was used to obtain time-sequenced images when the devices were switched with monopolar pulses. These show that zenithal bistable switching can occur by two different processes: (i) domain growth (observed in cells containing sinusoidal gratings) and (ii) homogenous switching (observed in cells containing isolated edges

  9. Study of surface relief evolution in fatigued 316L austenitic stainless steel by AFM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 351, 1-2 (2003), s. 123-132 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041001; GA AV ČR IAA2041201; GA ČR GA106/00/D055; GA ČR GA106/01/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : fatigue * atomic force microscopy * persistent slip band Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.365, year: 2003

  10. Atomic force microscopy of surface relief in individual grains of fatigued 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Obrtlík, Karel; Blochwitz, C.; Polák, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 15 (2002), s. 3767-3780 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/D055; GA ČR GA106/01/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : fatigue * persistent slip band * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2002

  11. AFM study of surface relief evolution in 316L steel fatigued at low and high temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Valtr, B.; Weidner, A.; Petrenec, Martin; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 1625-1633 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Fatigue 2010. Praha, 06.06.2010-11.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2371; GA AV ČR 1QS200410502; GA ČR GA106/06/1096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue crack initiation * 316L steel * Persistent slip band (PSB) * Extrusion * Intrusion * Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  12. Laguerre-Gauss beam generation in IR and UV by subwavelength surface-relief gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertchenko, Larissa; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Malureanu, Radu

    2017-01-01

    layerdepositions and dry etch techniques. We exploit the phenomenon of formbirefringence to give rise to the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion.We demonstrate that these plates can generate beams with high quality for theUV and IR range, allowing them to interact with high power laser sources orinside......The angular momentum of light can be described by the states of spin angularmomentum, associated with polarization, and orbital angular momentum, relatedto the helical structure of the wave front. Laguerre-Gaussian beams carryorbital angular momentum and their generation can be done by using...... an opticaldevice known as q-plate. However, due to the usage of liquid crystals, thesecomponents may be restricted to operate in specific wavelengths and low powersources. Here we present the fabrication and characterization of q-plates madewithout liquid crystals, using processes of e-beam lithography, atomic...

  13. Surfaces Relief Profilometry of Solid Objects by Sweeping of a Laser Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Peimbert, Didia P.; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo; Mendoza-Villegas, Paloma G.; Ojeda-González, Daniel; Almazán-Cuellar, Saúl; Corral-Martínez, Luis F.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a laser system for the digitalization and three-dimensional reconstruction of solid objects. The first step consists of applying on the object a linear sweeping of a thin laser line using a laser diode with 635 nm and 5 mW, a motorized stage for linear displacement of 138 mm, and a controller with RS232 interface. The next step consists of capturing and transmitting the image of the deformed line on the object to a computer. For this step was used a monochrome camera CCD, and an image acquisition board. The last step consists of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the solid object. All the corresponding algorithms were implemented using the programming language LabVIEW.

  14. Surface relief evolution in cast superalloy Inconel 738LC fatigued at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juliš, M.; Obrtlík, Karel; Pospíšilová, S.; Podrábský, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 573-577 ISSN 1335-1532. [Metallography 2007. Stará Lesná, 02.05.2007-04.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502; GA ČR GA106/07/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Inconel 738LC * low cycle fatigue * confocal laser scanning microscopy Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  15. Modified surface testing method for large convex aspheric surfaces based on diffraction optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haidong; Wang, Xiaokun; Xue, Donglin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2017-12-01

    Large convex aspheric optical elements have been widely applied in advanced optical systems, which have presented a challenging metrology problem. Conventional testing methods cannot satisfy the demand gradually with the change of definition of "large." A modified method is proposed in this paper, which utilizes a relatively small computer-generated hologram and an illumination lens with certain feasibility to measure the large convex aspherics. Two example systems are designed to demonstrate the applicability, and also, the sensitivity of this configuration is analyzed, which proves the accuracy of the configuration can be better than 6 nm with careful alignment and calibration of the illumination lens in advance. Design examples and analysis show that this configuration is applicable to measure the large convex aspheric surfaces.

  16. Inadequate pain relief and consequences in oncological elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltagirone, Carlo; Spoletini, Ilaria; Gianni, Walter; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2010-09-01

    Elderly patients with cancer are particularly burdened with pain, which has an impact on physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms, and consequently, on the overall quality of life. Here, the existing literature on pain and its consequences in elderly patients with cancer is reviewed, in order to understand the impact of cancer pain and its related symptoms, and the importance of its correct assessment and management, in the geriatric population. From the literature, it emerges that cancer pain has a complex and multidimensional phenomenology in this population, and it is often underestimated and consequently untreated. Furthermore, elderly cancer patients are at higher risk of suffering from pain. Aetiology of cancer pain in elderly patients is still an emergent issue, and immunological findings on the link between pain, cancer and aging may help enlighten the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying pain in elderly cancer patients. Particularly, immune dysfunction may represent a common pathogenic ground of pain and its more common related symptoms (i.e. depression and cognitive decline) in elderly cancer patients. Appropriate pain relief represents a challenge in oncological research, in order to improve patients' and caregivers' quality of life. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Music therapy in relief of pain in oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Franco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the perception of oncology patients with chronic pain as to the effects of music in alleviating pain, to identify if there are changes in the vital signs of these patients before and after the musicotherapy session, and to identify whether the intensity of pain is diminished after the music session as per an analogic scale of pain. Methods: This level II, descriptive-exploratory and cross-sectional study used a quantitative and qualitative approach. The sample consisted of ten oncology patients with chronic pain. Rresults: There was a reduction in vital signs and in intensity of pain in ten patients of the sample; after the music sessions, the patients reported a sensation of relief of pain, relaxation, and a belief in the power of music as a supplementary therapy. Cconclusions: Music showed an influence in reducing vital signs and pain intensity, and the patients perceived a reduction of pain and anxiety, and began to believe in music as a form of therapy.

  18. Pain relief during hysterosalpingography: role of intracervical block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Meenakshi B; Lakra, Pinkey; Jyotsna, Dehlan; Nanda, Smiti; Malhotra, Vani

    2013-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an important tool for evaluation of tubal factors in infertility. It does not require anesthesia but can be a painful procedure. Thus, this study was undertaken to establish the role of intracervical block as pain relief modality for HSG. This prospective, randomized study included hundred women attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, at a tertiary care centre in India. They were divided randomly through a computer generated table into two groups of 50 women each. In the study group, women received intracervical block along with premedication whereas in the control group women received premedication alone. Each patient was asked to rate her pain at six different points of time (T1-T6) during HSG using Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Verbal descriptive score. The difference in pain scores amongst the two groups was analyzed using independent t test. Reduction of pain was observed from placement of tenaculum till end of procedure (T3-T6) with intracervical block (p Intracervical block can be offered to all women undergoing HSG to make the procedure less painful and thus improve the compliance.

  19. Haitian earthquake relief: disaster response aboard the USNS comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Ryan M; Donahue, Timothy F; Stockinger, Zsolt; Knudson, M Margaret; Cubano, Miguel; Sharpe, Richard P; Safford, Shawn D

    2012-12-01

    The Haitian earthquake of January 12, 2010, was a disaster essentially unprecedented in the Western Hemisphere's recorded history. The USNS Comfort departed from Baltimore, Maryland, within 72 hours of the earthquake and arrived in Port-au-Prince harbor on January 19. During the subsequent 40 days, the ship provided one of the largest relief efforts in the US Navy's history. The data analyzed included all patients evaluated and treated by the USNS Comfort between January 19 and February 27, 2010. A medical chart with a unique identifier was created for each patient on admission. A patient database was created from these records and used for this analysis. A total of 872 patients and 185 patient escorts were processed aboard the ship. Ages ranged from younger than 1 day to 89 years: 635 were adults and 237 were children. Of those admitted, 817 of the patients were admitted for longer than 24 hours; the average length of stay was 8.0 days. The need for surgery was substantial: 454 patients went to the operating room (OR) 843 times for 927 cumulative procedures. A total of 58 patients underwent amputations. Haiti was almost completely reliant on foreign medical teams for trauma care. Analysis of the data illustrates the challenges of triage and treatment in a humanitarian mass-casualty response. The remarkable coordination and cooperation among the Haitian Ministry of Health, nongovernmental humanitarian aid organizations, and the US military highlighted the responders' respective capabilities and demonstrated the importance of collaboration in future disaster response efforts.

  20. Residual stress relief in MAG welded joints of dissimilar steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seodek, P.; Brozda, J.; Wang, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the relief of residual stress in welded joints between austenitic and non-alloyed ferritic-pearlitic steels. A series of similar and dissimilar steel joints based on the 18G2A (ferritic-pearlitic) and 1H18N10T (austenitic) steels were produced, some of which were stress relieved by annealing and some by mechanical prestressing. For the as-welded and stress relieved test joints the residual stresses were measured by trepanning. To aid the interpretation of these results, 2D plane stress finite element analysis has been performed to simulate the residual stress relieving methods. Analysis of the results has shown that thermal stress relieving of welded joints between dissimilar steels is not effective and may even increase residual stresses, due to the considerable difference in thermal expansion of the joined steels. It was found that, for the loads imposed, the effectiveness of the mechanical stress relieving of dissimilar steel welded joints was much lower than that of similar steel joints