Surface states in thin versus thick organic quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Ba An; Hanamura, E.
1995-08-01
Surface states are studied in dependence on thickness or organic quantum wells within the nearest layer approximation. It is shown that there is a material-dependent critical thickness. Structures, that have thickness thinner or thicker than the critical one, exhibit qualitatively different characteristics of surface states. Criteria for existence and sign rules for location of energy levels of surface states are established which are general and contain the results of the previous works as particular cases. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs
Optical manifestation of magnetoexcitons in near-surface quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flores-Desirena, B.; Perez-Rodriguez, F
2003-05-15
The optical response of excitons in quantum wells, close to the sample boundary and under the action of a strong magnetic field perpendicular to their plane, is investigated theoretically. Solving the system of coupled equations for the coherent electron-hole interband amplitude and the electromagnetic field, reflectivity spectra for such nanostructures are calculated. The effect of the interaction of magnetoexcitons with the sample surface on the resonance structure of reflectivity spectra is analyzed. These optical spectra are also affected by the phase change of the electromagnetic wave as it propagates in the cap layer, overlying the quantum well.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J., E-mail: jjaya@rrcat.gov.in; Chari, Rama; Pal, Suparna [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Oak, S. M. [Semiconductor Physics and Devices Lab., Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)
2014-08-18
We report tunneling assisted beating of carriers in a near-surface single GaAsP/AlGaAs quantum well using transient reflectivity measurement. The observed damped oscillating signal has a period of 120 ± 6 fs which corresponds to the energy difference between lh1 and hh2 hole states in the quantum well. Comparing the transient reflectivity signal at different photon energies and with a buried quantum well sample, we show that the beating is caused by the coherent coupling between surface state and the hole states (lh1 and hh2) in the near-surface quantum well. The dependence of decay of coherence of these tunneling carriers on the excitation fluence is also reported. This observation on the coherent tunneling of carrier is important for future quantum device applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J.; Chari, Rama; Pal, Suparna; Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Oak, S. M.
2014-01-01
We report tunneling assisted beating of carriers in a near-surface single GaAsP/AlGaAs quantum well using transient reflectivity measurement. The observed damped oscillating signal has a period of 120 ± 6 fs which corresponds to the energy difference between lh1 and hh2 hole states in the quantum well. Comparing the transient reflectivity signal at different photon energies and with a buried quantum well sample, we show that the beating is caused by the coherent coupling between surface state and the hole states (lh1 and hh2) in the near-surface quantum well. The dependence of decay of coherence of these tunneling carriers on the excitation fluence is also reported. This observation on the coherent tunneling of carrier is important for future quantum device applications.
Exciton dynamics in near-surface InGaN quantum wells coupled to colloidal nanocrystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kopylov, Oleksii; Shirazi, Roza; Yvind, Kresten
2013-01-01
We study non-radiative energy transfer between InGaN quantum wells and colloidal InP nanocrystals separated by sub-10nm distance. A significant non-radiative energy transfer between the two layers is accompanied by reduced surface recombination in InGaN.......We study non-radiative energy transfer between InGaN quantum wells and colloidal InP nanocrystals separated by sub-10nm distance. A significant non-radiative energy transfer between the two layers is accompanied by reduced surface recombination in InGaN....
Fermi surface and quantum well states of V(110) films on W(110)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krupin, Oleg [MS 6-2100, Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rotenberg, Eli [MS 6-2100, Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kevan, S D [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)
2007-09-05
Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we have measured the Fermi surface of V(110) films epitaxially grown on a W(110) substrate. We compare our results for thicker films to existing calculations and measurements for bulk vanadium and find generally very good agreement. For thinner films, we observe and analyse a diverse array of quantum well states that split and distort the Fermi surface segments. We have searched unsuccessfully for a thickness-induced topological transition associated with contact between the zone-centre jungle gym and zone-boundary hole ellipsoid Fermi surface segments. We also find no evidence for ferromagnetic splitting of any bands on this surface.
Fermi surface and quantum well states of V(110) films on W(110)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krupin, Oleg; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S D
2007-01-01
Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we have measured the Fermi surface of V(110) films epitaxially grown on a W(110) substrate. We compare our results for thicker films to existing calculations and measurements for bulk vanadium and find generally very good agreement. For thinner films, we observe and analyse a diverse array of quantum well states that split and distort the Fermi surface segments. We have searched unsuccessfully for a thickness-induced topological transition associated with contact between the zone-centre jungle gym and zone-boundary hole ellipsoid Fermi surface segments. We also find no evidence for ferromagnetic splitting of any bands on this surface
Exciton spectrum of surface-corrugated quantum wells: the adiabatic self-consistent approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atenco A, N.; Perez R, F.; Makarov, N.M.
2005-01-01
A theory for calculating the relaxation frequency ν and the shift δ ω of exciton resonances in quantum wells with finite potential barriers and adiabatic surface disorder is developed. The adiabaticity implies that the correlation length R C for the well width fluctuations is much larger than the exciton radius a 0 (R C >> a 0 ). Our theory is based on the self-consistent Green's function method, and therefore takes into account the inherent action of the exciton scattering on itself. The self-consistent approach is shown to describe quantitatively the sharp exciton resonance. It also gives the qualitatively correct resonance picture for the transition to the classical limit, as well as within the domain of the classical limit itself. We present and analyze results for h h-exciton in a GaAs quantum well with Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As barriers. It is established that the self-consistency and finite height of potential barriers significantly influence on the line-shape of exciton resonances, and make the values of ν and δ ω be quite realistic. In particular, the relaxation frequency ν for the ground-state resonance has a broad, almost symmetric maximum near the resonance frequency ω 0 , while the surface-induced resonance shift δ ω vanishes near ω 0 , and has different signs on the sides of the exciton resonance. (Author) 43 refs., 4 figs
Yang, M C; Lin, C L; Su, W B; Lin, S P; Lu, S M; Lin, H Y; Chang, C S; Hsu, W K; Tsong, Tien T
2009-05-15
We use scanning tunneling spectroscopy to explore the quantum well states in the Pb islands grown on a Cu(111) surface. Our observation demonstrates that the empty quantum well states, whose energy levels lie beyond 1.2 eV above the Fermi level, are significantly affected by the image potential. As the quantum number increases, the energy separation between adjacent states is shrinking rather than widening, contrary to the prediction for a square potential well. By simply introducing a phase factor to reckon the effect of the image potential, the shrinking behavior of the energy separation can be reasonably explained with the phase accumulation model. The model also reveals that there exists a quantum regime above the Pb surface in which the image potential is vanished. Moreover, the quasi-image-potential state in the tunneling gap is quenched because of the existence of the quantum well states.
Exciton spectrum of surface-corrugated quantum wells: the adiabatic self-consistent approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atenco A, N.; Perez R, F. [lnstituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, A.P. J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Makarov, N.M. [lnstituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Priv. 17 Norte No 3417, Col. San Miguel Hueyotlipan, 72050 Puebla (Mexico)
2005-07-01
A theory for calculating the relaxation frequency {nu} and the shift {delta} {omega} of exciton resonances in quantum wells with finite potential barriers and adiabatic surface disorder is developed. The adiabaticity implies that the correlation length R{sub C} for the well width fluctuations is much larger than the exciton radius a{sub 0} (R{sub C} >> a{sub 0}). Our theory is based on the self-consistent Green's function method, and therefore takes into account the inherent action of the exciton scattering on itself. The self-consistent approach is shown to describe quantitatively the sharp exciton resonance. It also gives the qualitatively correct resonance picture for the transition to the classical limit, as well as within the domain of the classical limit itself. We present and analyze results for h h-exciton in a GaAs quantum well with Al{sub 0.3} Ga{sub 0.7}As barriers. It is established that the self-consistency and finite height of potential barriers significantly influence on the line-shape of exciton resonances, and make the values of {nu} and {delta} {omega} be quite realistic. In particular, the relaxation frequency {nu} for the ground-state resonance has a broad, almost symmetric maximum near the resonance frequency {omega}{sub 0}, while the surface-induced resonance shift {delta} {omega} vanishes near {omega}{sub 0}, and has different signs on the sides of the exciton resonance. (Author) 43 refs., 4 figs.
Formation of Surface and Quantum-Well States in Ultra Thin Pt Films on the Au(111 Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor V. Silkin
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The electronic structure of the Pt/Au(111 heterostructures with a number of Pt monolayers n ranging from one to three is studied in the density-functional-theory framework. The calculations demonstrate that the deposition of the Pt atomic thin films on gold substrate results in strong modifications of the electronic structure at the surface. In particular, the Au(111 s-p-type Shockley surface state becomes completely unoccupied at deposition of any number of Pt monolayers. The Pt adlayer generates numerous quantum-well states in various energy gaps of Au(111 with strong spatial confinement at the surface. As a result, strong enhancement in the local density of state at the surface Pt atomic layer in comparison with clean Pt surface is obtained. The excess in the density of states has maximal magnitude in the case of one monolayer Pt adlayer and gradually reduces with increasing number of Pt atomic layers. The spin–orbit coupling produces strong modification of the energy dispersion of the electronic states generated by the Pt adlayer and gives rise to certain quantum states with a characteristic Dirac-cone shape.
Peeters, F M; Varga, K
2002-01-01
The ground-state energy of three-particle systems consisting of electrons and holes as found in semiconducting quantum wells is studied. The degree of confinement is determined by the quantum-well width and we can vary the dimensionality of the system from two to three dimensions. The energy levels of the system can further be altered by the application of an external magnetic field which is directed perpendicular to the well. Refs.5 (author)
InGaAs Quantum Well Grown on High-Index Surfaces for Superluminescent Diode Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Jiang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The morphological and optical properties of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells grown on various substrates are investigated for possible application to superluminescent diodes. The In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100, (210, (311, and (731 substrates. A broad photoluminescence emission peak (~950 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM of 48 nm is obtained from the sample grown on (210 substrate at room temperature, which is over four times wider than the quantum well simultaneously grown on (100 substrate. On the other hand, a very narrow photoluminescence spectrum is observed from the sample grown on (311 with FWHM = 7.8 nm. The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of high-index GaAs substrates for superluminescent diode applications.
Combining surface plasmonic and light extraction enhancement on InGaN quantum-well light-emitters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke
2016-01-01
and internal quantum efficiency enhancement for InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitters. By fabricating dielectric nano-rod pattern on the GaN surface, an optical coating that improves the light extraction is obtained, and furthermore has a low refractive index which blue-shifts the plasmonic resonance of Ag NPs......Surface plasmon coupling with light-emitters and surface nano-patterning have widely been used separately to improve low efficiency InGaN light-emitting diodes. We demonstrate a method where dielectric nano-patterning and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are combined to provide both light extraction...
Zory, Jr, Peter S; Kelley, Paul
1993-01-01
This book provides the information necessary for the reader to achieve a thorough understanding of all aspects of QW lasers - from the basic mechanism of optical gain, through the current technolgoical state of the art, to the future technologies of quantum wires and quantum dots. In view of the growing importance of QW lasers, this book should be read by all those with an active interest in laser science and technology, from the advanced student to the experienced laser scientist.* The first comprehensive book-length treatment of quantum well lasers* Provides a detailed treatment
Surface segregation and the Al problem in GaAs quantum wells
Chung, Yoon Jang; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.
2018-03-01
Low-defect two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) are essential for studies of fragile many-body interactions that only emerge in nearly-ideal systems. As a result, numerous efforts have been made to improve the quality of modulation-doped AlxGa1 -xAs /GaAs quantum wells (QWs), with an emphasis on purifying the source material of the QW itself or achieving better vacuum in the deposition chamber. However, this approach overlooks another crucial component that comprises such QWs, the AlxGa1 -xAs barrier. Here we show that having a clean Al source and hence a clean barrier is instrumental to obtain a high-quality GaAs 2DES in a QW. We observe that the mobility of the 2DES in GaAs QWs declines as the thickness or Al content of the AlxGa1 -xAs barrier beneath the QW is increased, which we attribute to the surface segregation of oxygen atoms that originate from the Al source. This conjecture is supported by the improved mobility in the GaAs QWs as the Al cell is cleaned out by baking.
Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells
Li, Xiaohang; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.
2015-01-01
We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaNmultiple-quantum well(MQW)heterostructuresgrown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fadil, Ahmed; Iida, Daisuke; Chen, Yuntian
2014-01-01
for InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures. By using a thin SiN dielectric layer between Ag and GaN we manage to modify and improve surface plasmon coupling effects, and we attribute this to the improved scattering of the nanoparticles at the quantum-well emission wavelength. The results are interpreted using...... numerical simulations, where absorption and scattering cross-sections are studied for different sized particles on GaN and GaN/SiN substrates....
A surface-gated InSb quantum well single electron transistor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orr, J M S; Buckle, P D; Fearn, M; Storey, C J; Buckle, L; Ashley, T
2007-01-01
Single electron charging effects in a surface-gated InSb/AlInSb QW structure are reported. This material, due to its large g-factor and light effective mass, offers considerable advantages over more commonly used materials, such as GaAs, for quantum information processing devices. However, differences in material and device technology result in significant processing challenges. Simple Coulomb blockade and quantized confinement models are considered to explain the observation of conductance oscillations in these structures. The charging energy (e 2 /C) is found to be comparable with the energy spectrum for single particle states (ΔE)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yufeng Li
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Ag coated microgroove with extreme large aspect-ratio of 500:1 was fabricated on p-GaN capping layer to investigate the coupling behavior between quantum wells and surface plasmon in highly spatial resolution. Significant photoluminescence enhancement was observed when the distance between Ag film and QWs was reduced from 220 nm to about 20 nm. A maximum enhancement ratio of 18-fold was achieved at the groove bottom where the surface plasmonic coupling was considered the strongest. Such enhancement ratio was found highly affected by the excitation power density. It also shows high correlation to the internal quantum efficiency as a function of coupling effect and a maximum Purcell Factor of 1.75 was estimated at maximum coupling effect, which matches number calculated independently from the time-resolved photoluminescence measurement. With such Purcell Factor, the efficiency was greatly enhanced and the droop was significantly suppressed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Alexandru Anghel
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In semiconductor laser modeling, a good mathematical model gives near-reality results. Three methods of modeling solutions from the rate equations are presented and analyzed. A method based on the rate equations modeled in Simulink to describe quantum well lasers was presented. For different signal types like step function, saw tooth and sinus used as input, a good response of the used equations is obtained. Circuit model resulting from one of the rate equations models is presented and simulated in SPICE. Results show a good modeling behavior. Numerical simulation in MathCad gives satisfactory results for the study of the transitory and dynamic operation at small level of the injection current. The obtained numerical results show the specific limits of each model, according to theoretical analysis. Based on these results, software can be built that integrates circuit simulation and other modeling methods for quantum well lasers to have a tool that model and analysis these devices from all points of view.
Investigation on surface-plasmon-enhanced light emission of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells
Yu, Zhenzhong; Li, Qiang; Fan, Qigao; Zhu, Yixin
2018-05-01
We demonstrate surface-plasmon (SP) enhanced light emission from InGaN/GaN near ultraviolet (NUV) multiple quantum wells (MQWs) using Ag thin films and nano-particles (NPs). Two types of Ag NP arrays are fabricated on the NUV-MQWs, one is fabricated on p-GaN layer with three different sizes of about 120, 160 and 240 nm formed by self-assembled process, while the other is embedded close to the MQWs. In addition, the influence of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP) in NUV-MQWs has been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Both PL measurements and theoretical simulation results show that the NUV light would be extracted more effectively under LSP mode than that of SPP mode. The highest enhancement of PL intensity is increased by 324% for the sample with NPs embedded in etched p-GaN near the MQWs as compared with the bare MQWs, also is about 1.24 times higher than the MQW sample covered with Ag NPs on the surface, indicating strong surface scattering and SP coupling between Ag NPs and NUV-MQWs.
Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells
Li, Xiaohang
2015-12-14
We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaNmultiple-quantum well(MQW)heterostructuresgrown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm2. Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQWheterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaNheterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaNheterostructuresgrown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers(VCSELs).
Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Xiaohang; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.
2015-01-01
We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaN multiple-quantum well (MQW) heterostructures grown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm 2 . Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQW heterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaN heterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaN heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gehl, Michael; Zandbergen, Sander; Gibson, Ricky; Nader, Nima; Sears, Jasmine; Keiffer, Patrick; Khitrova, Galina; Béchu, Muriel; Wegener, Martin; Hendrickson, Joshua
2014-01-01
The coupling of radiation emitted on semiconductor inter-band transitions to resonant optical-antenna arrays allows for enhanced light–matter interaction via the Purcell effect. Semiconductor optical gain also potentially allows for loss reduction in metamaterials. Here we extend our previous work on optically pumped individual near-surface InGaAs quantum wells coupled to silver split-ring-resonator arrays to wire and square-antenna arrays. By comparing the transient pump-probe experimental results with the predictions of a simple model, we find that the effective coupling is strongest for the split rings, even though the split rings have the weakest dipole moment. The effect of the latter must thus be overcompensated by a smaller effective mode volume of the split rings. Furthermore, we also present a systematic variation of the pump-pulse energy, which was fixed in our previous experiments. (paper)
PbSe quantum well mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrates
Fill, M.; Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.
2011-05-01
Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers based on PbSe/PbSrSe multi-quantum-well structures on Si-substrates are realized. A modular design allows growing the active region and the bottom Bragg mirror on two different Si-substrates, thus facilitating comparison between different structures. Lasing is observed from 3.3 to 5.1 μm wavelength and up to 52 °C heat sink temperature with 1.55 μm optical pumping. Simulations show that threshold powers are limited by Shockley-Read recombination with lifetimes as short as 0.1 ns. At higher temperatures, an additional threshold power increase occurs probably due to limited carrier diffusion length and carrier leakage, caused by an unfavorable band alignment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilk, Y.M.
1992-01-01
This thesis is concerned with theoretical studies of various manybody correlation effects in two-dimensional electron systems, with application to electrons in quantum well structures (QW) and electrons on the surface of liquid helium. The author investigates the influence of correlation effects on escape rates of electrons from the 2D electron liquid and crystal on the helium surface. Within the framework of a harmonic lattice model the effective potential for the escaping electron as a function of the electron density and the external pressing or pulling electric field is found. This approach takes into account the deformation effects in the electron system. It is shown that under realistic experimental conditions the correlation correction can completely dominate the physics of the escaping electrons. The calculated concentration dependence of the escape rate of surface electrons is in excellent agreement with experiments in both thermal-activated and tunneling regimes. The thesis describes studies of the optical luminescence spectra of two types of magnetoplasma realized in QW: a charged electron plasma and a neutral electron-hole plasma, in the context of a mean field approximation. It is shown that strong enhancements in oscillator strengths are associated with excitons between different Landau levels. The strongest effect is found near the chemical potential and is analogous to the x-ray singularities well known in metals. The theory also predicts the existence of plateaus in the concentration dependence of transition energies in the sufficiently strong magnetic field. These plateaus are associated with the change in the filling factor: at the strongest field, while the filling of the level is varied, the transition energy between Landau levels i e - i h (i e = i h = i) remains constant. With decreasing magnetic fields, the plateau disappears and the transition energy increases with the filling of the Landau level
Quantum-Well Thermophotovoltaic Cells
Freudlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex
2009-01-01
Thermophotovoltaic cells containing multiple quantum wells have been invented as improved means of conversion of thermal to electrical energy. The semiconductor bandgaps of the quantum wells can be tailored to be narrower than those of prior thermophotovoltaic cells, thereby enabling the cells to convert energy from longer-wavelength photons that dominate the infrared-rich spectra of typical thermal sources with which these cells would be used. Moreover, in comparison with a conventional single-junction thermophotovoltaic cell, a cell containing multiple narrow-bandgap quantum wells according to the invention can convert energy from a wider range of wavelengths. Hence, the invention increases the achievable thermal-to-electrical energy-conversion efficiency. These thermophotovoltaic cells are expected to be especially useful for extracting electrical energy from combustion, waste-heat, and nuclear sources having temperatures in the approximate range from 1,000 to 1,500 C.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fadil, Ahmed; Iida, Daisuke; Chen, Yuntian
2016-01-01
We have investigated the borderline between photoluminescence quenching and enhancement of InGaN/GaN quantum-wells due to Ag nanoparticles and their surface plasmon modes. By embedding Ag nanoparticles inside nanohole structures on the p-type layer GaN, luminescence quenching is observed...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bumai, Yu.A.; Gobsch, G.; Goldhahn, R.; Stein, N.; Golombek, A.; Nakov, V.; Cheng, T.S.
1999-01-01
The MBE grown anti-modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs structures with near surface single quantum wells were exposed to a DC hydrogen plasma (∼400 eV) and investigated using PL, PLE and PR spectroscopy at 5 K. Strong acceptor related free to bound transition (FB) dominates for quantum well related PL but excitonic features are still observed in PLE spectra. After hydrogen plasma treatment the PL intensity of FB transition from quantum well was strongly increased for above AlGaAs band gap excitation and was unchanged for below AlGaAs one. These results are consistent with atomic hydrogen passivation of deep defects in AlGaAs barriers. At the same time radiative excitonic recombination was quenched by hydrogenation. PLE and PR spectra indicate on a strong increase of electric field in subsurface region of the structure after hydrogenation. The increase of electric field in anti-modulation doped structure after hydrogen plasma treatment is supposed to be due to passivation by atomic hydrogen of surface states that leads to unpinning of Fermi level from mid gap to carbon acceptor level position in GaAs cap layer. It causes the further band bending and surface electric field increase that strongly suppress excitonic recombination in near surface quantum wells
Kaibiao, Zhang; Hong, Zhang; Xinlu, Cheng
2016-03-01
The graphene/hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) hybrid structure has emerged to extend the performance of graphene-based devices. Here, we investigate the tunable plasmon in one-dimensional h-BN/graphene/h-BN quantum-well structures. The analysis of optical response and field enhancement demonstrates that these systems exhibit a distinct quantum confinement effect for the collective oscillations. The intensity and frequency of the plasmon can be controlled by the barrier width and electrical doping. Moreover, the electron doping and the hole doping lead to very different results due to the asymmetric energy band. This graphene/h-BN hybrid structure may pave the way for future optoelectronic devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474207 and 11374217) and the Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, China (Grant No. 2014PY07).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svensk, O.; Suihkonen, S.; Sintonen, S.
2012-01-01
We report a study of the structural and optical properties of near‐surface InGaN/GaN single quantum wells, grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition, as a function of underneath layer structure and GaN capping thickness. Special attention is paid to characterize properties which...... are important for non‐radiative coupling applications, such as emission intensity at peak wavelength and surface morphology. We observe that utilization of indium containing underneath structures results in high optical quality while increasing surface roughness. Optical performance can be further improved...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazin, Alexandre; Monnier, Paul; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Raj, Rama [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (CNRS UPR20), Route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460 (France); Lenglé, Kevin; Gay, Mathilde; Bramerie, Laurent [Université Européenne de Bretagne (UEB), 5 Boulevard Laënnec, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS-Foton Laboratory (UMR 6082), Enssat, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Braive, Rémy; Raineri, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice.raineri@lpn.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (CNRS UPR20), Route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75207 Paris Cedex 13 (France)
2014-01-06
Ultrafast switching with low energies is demonstrated using InP photonic crystal nanocavities embedding InGaAs surface quantum wells heterogeneously integrated to a silicon on insulator waveguide circuitry. Thanks to the engineered enhancement of surface non radiative recombination of carriers, switching time is obtained to be as fast as 10 ps. These hybrid nanostructures are shown to be capable of achieving systems level performance by demonstrating error free wavelength conversion at 10 Gbit/s with 6 mW switching powers.
Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Thermoelectrics
Davidson, Anthony Lee, III
Today's growing energy demands require new technologies to provide high efficiency clean energy. Thermoelectrics that convert heat to electrical energy directly can provide a method for the automobile industry to recover waste heat to power vehicle electronics, hence improving fuel economy. If large enough efficiencies can be obtained then the internal combustion engine could even be replaced. Exhaust temperature for automotive application range from 400 to 800 K. In this temperature range the current state of the art materials are bulk Si1-xGex alloys. By alternating layers of Si and Si1-xGex alloy device performance may be enhanced through quantum well effects and variations in material thermal properties. In this study, superlattices designed for in-plane operation with varying period and crystallinity are examined to determine the effect on electrical and thermal properties. In-plane electrical resistivity of these materials was found to be below the bulk material at a similar doping at room temperature, confirming the role of quantum wells in electron transport. As period is reduced in the structures boundary scattering limits electron propagation leading to increased resistivity. The Seebeck coefficient measured at room temperature is higher than the bulk material, additionally lending proof to the effects of quantum wells. When examining cross-plane operation the low doping in the Si layers of the device produce high resistivity resulting from boundary scattering. Thermal conductivity was measured from 77 K up to 674 K and shows little variation due to periodicity and temperature, however an order of magnitude reduction over bulk Si1-xGex is shown in all samples. A model is developed that suggests a combination of phonon dispersion effects and strong boundary scattering. Further study of the phonon dispersion effects was achieved through the examination of the heat capacity by combining thermal diffusivity with thermal conductivity. All superlattices show a
Zhou, Xiaorun; Lu, Taiping; Zhu, Yadan; Zhao, Guangzhou; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Zhigang; Yang, Yongzhen; Chen, Yongkang; Xu, Bingshe
2017-12-01
Surface morphology evolution mechanisms of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) during GaN barrier growth with different hydrogen (H 2 ) percentages have been systematically studied. Ga surface-diffusion rate, stress relaxation, and H 2 etching effect are found to be the main affecting factors of the surface evolution. As the percentage of H 2 increases from 0 to 6.25%, Ga surface-diffusion rate and the etch effect are gradually enhanced, which is beneficial to obtaining a smooth surface with low pits density. As the H 2 proportion further increases, stress relaxation and H 2 over- etching effect begin to be the dominant factors, which degrade surface quality. Furthermore, the effects of surface evolution on the interface and optical properties of InGaN/GaN MQWs are also profoundly discussed. The comprehensive study on the surface evolution mechanisms herein provides both technical and theoretical support for the fabrication of high-quality InGaN/GaN heterostructures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Suparna; Porwal, S; Sharma, T K; Oak, S M; Singh, S D; Khan, S; Jayabalan, J; Chari, Rama
2013-01-01
Light-hole tunnelling to the surface states is studied using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and transient reflectivity measurements in the tensile-strained GaAsP/AlGaAs near-surface quantum well (NSQW) samples by reducing the top barrier layer thickness from 275 to 5 nm. The ground state transition (e 1 –lh 1 ) remains excitonic even at room temperature (RT) for a buried quantum well sample with 275 nm thick top barrier. When the top barrier thickness is reduced to 50 nm the same transition is found to be excitonic only at low temperatures but changes to free-carrier recombination at higher temperatures. When the top barrier layer thickness is further reduced to 5 nm, the ground state transition is no longer excitonic in nature, where it shows free-carrier behaviour even at 10 K. We therefore find a clear relationship between the character of the ground state transition and the top barrier layer thickness. Light-hole excitons cannot be formed in NSQW samples when the top barrier layer thickness is kept reasonably low. This is attributed to the quantum mechanical tunnelling of free light holes to the surface states, which is found to be faster than the exciton formation process. A tunnelling time of ∼500 fs for light holes is measured by the transient reflectivity measurements for the NSQW sample with a 5 nm top barrier. On the other hand, heavy-hole-related transitions in NSQW samples are found to be of excitonic nature even at RT because of the relatively large tunnelling time. It supports the dominance of excited state feature over the ground state transition in PL measurements at temperatures higher than 150 K. (paper)
Bumaj, Y A; Goldkhan, R; Shtajn, N; Golombek, A; Nakov, V; Cheng, T S
2002-01-01
The anti-modulation Si-doped GaAs/AlGaAs structures with near-surface single quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy were exposed to hydrogen plasma at 260 deg C and investigated by low-temperature photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation and photoreflectance spectroscopy. After hydrogenation, the quenching of the exciton luminescence for the below AlGaAs band gap excitation due to the increase of electric field in the structure has been observed. The effect is consistent with unpinning of Fermi level from mid gap of nominally undoped (p-type) GaAs cap layer due to passivation of surface states by hydrogen without neutralization of shallow impurities in the epilayers
Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Yafei
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sprengel, S.; Andrejew, A.; Federer, F.; Veerabathran, G. K.; Boehm, G.; Amann, M.-C.
2015-01-01
A concept for electrically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for emission wavelength beyond 2 μm is presented. This concept integrates type-II quantum wells into InP-based VCSELs with a buried tunnel junction as current aperture. The W-shaped quantum wells are based on the type-II band alignment between GaInAs and GaAsSb. The structure includes an epitaxial GaInAs/InP and an amorphous AlF 3 /ZnS distributed Bragg reflector as bottom and top (outcoupling) mirror, respectively. Continuous-wave operation up to 10 °C at a wavelength of 2.49 μm and a peak output power of 400 μW at −18 °C has been achieved. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB for mesa diameters up to 14 μm is presented. The long emission wavelength and current tunability over a wavelength range of more than 5 nm combined with its single-mode operation makes this device ideally suited for spectroscopy applications
He, Ju; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jingwen; Wu, Feng; Dai, Jiangnan; Long, Hanling; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Zhang, Jun; Du, Shida; Ye, Lei; Chen, Changqing
2018-05-01
In this paper, we report a 2.6-fold deep ultraviolet emission enhancement of integrated photoluminescence (PL) intensity in AlGaN-based multi-quantum wells (MQWs) by introducing the coupling of local surface plasmons from Al nanoparticles (NPs) on a SiO2 dielectric interlayer with excitons and photons in MQWs at room temperature. In comparison to bare AlGaN MQWs, a significant 2.3-fold enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency, from 16% to 37%, as well as a 13% enhancement of photon extraction efficiency have been observed in the MQWs decorated with Al NPs on SiO2 dielectric interlayer. Polarization-dependent PL measurement showed that both the transverse electric and transverse magnetic mode were stronger than the original intensity in bare AlGaN MQWs, indicating a strong LSPs coupling process and vigorous scattering ability of the Al/SiO2 composite structure. These results were confirmed by the activation energy of non-radiative recombination from temperature-dependent PL measurement and the theoretical three dimensional finite difference time domain calculations.
Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prodanović, Nikola, E-mail: elnpr@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Milanović, Vitomir [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2013-11-01
We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, P.S.; Kandiah, K.; Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis; Shaari, S.
2011-01-01
Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LW-VCSELs) have profound advantages compared to traditional edge-emitting lasers offering improved properties with respect to mode selectivity, fibre coupling, threshold currents and integration into 2D arrays or with other electronic devices. Its commercialization is gaining momentum as the local and access network in optical communication system expand. Numerical modeling of LW-VCSEL utilizing wafer-fused InP-based multi-quantum wells (MQW) and GaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) is presented in this paper. Emphasis is on the device and mesa/pillar diameter design parameter comparison and its effect on the device characteristics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, June Key; Cho, Hoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Park, Si Hyun; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian; Dawson, Martin
2006-01-01
We report the processing of InGaN/GaN epifilms on GaN-silicon substrates. High-quality InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on GaN-silicon substrates, and their membranes were successfully fabricated using a selective wet etching of silicon followed by a dry etching of the AlGaN buffer layer. With atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we investigated the physical and the optical properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs membranes. On the InGaN/GaN MQW membranes, dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBRs) were successfully deposited, which give, new possibilities for use in GaN microcavity and surface-emitting laser fabrication.
Silicon quantum dots: surface matters
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina
2014-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014
Wave-packet dynamics in quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsov, A. V.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.
1995-01-01
It has been recently recognized that in bulk semiconductors the displacement current caused by ultrafast optical generation of ''polarized pairs'' in the applied de field is an important mechanism of charge transport in addition to the usual transport current. In quantum-well systems, this polari......It has been recently recognized that in bulk semiconductors the displacement current caused by ultrafast optical generation of ''polarized pairs'' in the applied de field is an important mechanism of charge transport in addition to the usual transport current. In quantum-well systems...... that the carriers in a quantum well can behave as an ensemble of classical particles and produce a transport like photocurrent....
Conductance in double quantum well systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasbun, J E
2003-01-01
The object of this paper is to review the electronic conductance in double quantum well systems. These are quantum well structures in which electrons are confined in the z direction by large band gap material barrier layers, yet form a free two-dimensional Fermi gas within the sandwiched low band gap material layers in the x-y plane. Aspects related to the conductance in addition to the research progress made since the inception of such systems are included. While the review focuses on the tunnelling conductance properties of double quantum well devices, the longitudinal conductance is also discussed. Double quantum well systems are a more recent generation of structures whose precursors are the well known double-barrier resonant tunnelling systems. Thus, they have electronic signatures such as negative differential resistance, in addition to resonant tunnelling, whose behaviours depend on the wavefunction coupling between the quantum wells. As such, the barrier which separates the quantum wells can be tailored in order to provide better control of the device's electronic properties over their single well ancestors. (topical review)
Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A single crystal SiGe has enormous potentials for high performance chips and solar cells. This project seeks to fabricate a rudimentary but 1st cut quantum-well...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, C.H.; Wu, J.D.; Huang, Y.S.; Hsu, H.P.; Tiong, K.K.; Su, Y.K.
2010-01-01
Photoluminescence (PL) and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) are used to characterize a series of highly strained In x Ga 1-x As/GaAs quantum well (QW) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy with different indium compositions (0.395 ≤ x ≤ 0.44) in the temperature range of 20 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K. The PL features show redshift in peak positions and broadened lineshape with increasing indium composition. The S-shaped temperature dependent PL spectra have been attributed to carrier localization effect resulting from the presence of indium clusters at QW interfaces. A lineshape fit of features in the differential surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra has been used to determine the transition energies accurately. At temperature below 100 K, the light-hole (LH) related feature shows a significant phase difference as compared to that of heavy-hole (HH) related features. The phase change of the LH feature can be explained by the existence of type-II configuration for the LH valence band and the process of separation of carriers within the QWs together with possible capture by the interface defect traps. A detailed analysis of the observed phenomena enables the identification of spectral features and to evaluate the band lineup of the QWs. The results demonstrate the usefulness of PL and SPS for the contactless and nondestructive characterization of highly strained InGaAs/GaAs QW structures.
Quantum wells and the generalized uncertainty principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blado, Gardo; Owens, Constance; Meyers, Vincent
2014-01-01
The finite and infinite square wells are potentials typically discussed in undergraduate quantum mechanics courses. In this paper, we discuss these potentials in the light of the recent studies of the modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) as a consequence of attempts to formulate a quantum theory of gravity. The fundamental concepts of the minimal length scale and the GUP are discussed and the modified energy eigenvalues and transmission coefficient are derived. (paper)
Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Bianconi
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.
Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Physics and Applications
Schneider, Harald
2007-01-01
Addressed to both students as a learning text and scientists/engineers as a reference, this book discusses the physics and applications of quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). It is assumed that the reader has a basic background in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, and semiconductor devices. To make this book as widely accessible as possible, the treatment and presentation of the materials is simple and straightforward. The topics for the book were chosen by the following criteria: they must be well-established and understood; and they should have been, or potentially will be, used in practical applications. The monograph discusses most aspects relevant for the field but omits, at the same time, detailed discussions of specialized topics such as the valence-band quantum wells.
Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, L.C.
1985-07-01
A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs
Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
West, L.C.
1985-07-01
A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.
Mixed biexcitons in single quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1999-01-01
Biexcitonic complexes in a ZnSe single quantum well are investigated by spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM). The formation of heavy-heavy-hole XXh and of mixed heavy-light-hole XXm biexcitons showing binding energies of Delta(h) = 4.8 meV and Delta(m)= 2.8 meV is identified by polarization...
Quantum wells for optical information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D.A.B.
1989-01-01
Quantum wells, alternate thin layers of two different semiconductor materials, show an exceptional electric field dependence of the optical absorption, called the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE), for electric fields perpendicular to the layers. This enables electrically controlled optical modulators and optically controlled self-electro-optic-effect devices that can operate at high speed and low energy density. Recent developments in these QCSE devices are summarized, including new device materials and novel device structures. The variety of sophisticated devices now demonstrated is promising for applications to information processing
Piezoelectric effect in strained quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dang, L.S.; Andre, R.; Cibert, J.
1995-01-01
This paper describes some physical aspects of the piezoelectric effect which takes place in strained semiconductor heterostructures grown along a polar axis. First we show how piezoelectric fields can be accurately measured by optical spectroscopy. Then we discuss about the origin of the non-linear piezoelectric effect reported recently for CdTe, and maybe for InAs as well. Finally we compare excitonic effects in piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric quantum wells. (orig.)
Characterization of interfaces in semimagnetic quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, G.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Zehnder, U.; Ossau, W.; Litz, T.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.
1995-01-01
The interfaces between nonmagnetic CdTe quantum wells and semimagnetic barriers of Cd 1-x Mn x Te were investigated for several well widths by low temperature photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. Specially designed Cd 1-x Mn x /CdTe/Cd 1-y Mg y Te structures enable us to distinguish the quality of semimagnetic normal and inverted interfaces. The normal interface shows to better structural quality than the inverted interface. (author)
Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter
Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)
1998-01-01
An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.
Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well.
Mironov, O A; d'Ambrumenil, N; Dobbie, A; Leadley, D R; Suslov, A V; Green, E
2016-04-29
Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe/(001)Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required.
Parallel magnetotransport in multiple quantum well structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheregii, E.M.; Ploch, D.; Marchewka, M.; Tomaka, G.; Kolek, A.; Stadler, A.; Mleczko, K.; Strupinski, W.; Jasik, A.; Jakiela, R.
2004-01-01
The results of investigations of parallel magnetotransport in AlGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/InAlAs/InP multiple quantum wells structures (MQW's) are presented in this paper. The MQW's were obtained by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy with different shapes of QW, numbers of QW and levels of doping. The magnetotransport measurements were performed in wide region of temperatures (0.5-300 K) and at high magnetic fields up to 30 T (B is perpendicular and current is parallel to the plane of the QW). Three types of observed effects are analyzed: quantum Hall effect and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations at low temperatures (0.5-6 K) as well as magnetophonon resonance at higher temperatures (77-300 K)
Chalcopyrite semiconductors for quantum well solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Afshar, Maziar; Sadewasser, Sascha; Albert, Juergen; Lehmann, Sebastian; Abou-Ras, Daniel; Lux-Steiner, Martha C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Marron, David Fuertes [Instituto de Energia Solar - ETSIT, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rockett, Angus A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, 1304 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Raesaenen, Esa [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)
2011-11-15
The possibilities of using highly absorbing chalcopyrite semiconductors of the type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} in a quantum well solar cell structure are explored. Thin alternating layers of 50 nm CuInSe{sub 2} and CuGaSe{sub 2} were grown epitaxially on a GaAs(100) substrate. The optical properties of a resulting structure of three layers indicate charge carrier confinement in the low band gap CuInSe{sub 2} layer. By compositional analysis interdiffusion of In and Ga at the interfaces was found. The compositional profile was converted into a conduction-band diagram, for which the quantization of energy levels was numerically confirmed using the effective-mass approximation. The results provide a promising basis for the future development of chalcopyrite-type quantum well structures and their application, i.e. in quantum well solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2004-03-01
Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)^{2} were
Physics of strained quantum well lasers
Loehr, John P
1998-01-01
When this publisher offered me the opportunity to \\\\Tite a book, some six years ago, I did not hesitate to say yes. I had just spent the last four years of graduate school struggling to understand the physics of strained quantum well lasers, and it seemed to me the whole experience was much more difficult that it should have been. For although many of the results I needed were easy to locate, the underlying physical premises and intervening steps were not. If only I had a book providing the derivations, I could have absorbed them and gone on my way. Such a book lies before you. It provides a unified and self-contained descrip tion of the essential physics of strained quantum well lasers, starting from first principles whenever feasible. The presentation I have chosen requires only the standard introductory background in quantum mechanics, solid state physics, and electromagnetics expected of entering graduate students in physics or elec trical engineering. A single undergraduate course in each of these su...
Characterization of interfaces in semimagnetic quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmitt, G.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Zehnder, U.; Ossau, W.; Litz, T.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalishes Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg am Hubland, Wuerzburg (Germany)
1995-12-31
The interfaces between nonmagnetic CdTe quantum wells and semimagnetic barriers of Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te were investigated for several well widths by low temperature photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. Specially designed Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}/CdTe/Cd{sub 1-y} Mg{sub y}Te structures enable us to distinguish the quality of semimagnetic normal and inverted interfaces. The normal interface shows to better structural quality than the inverted interface. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mejia-Garcia, C.; Caballero-Rosas, A.; Lopez-Lopez, M.; Winter, A.; Pascher, H.; Lopez-Lopez, J.L.
2010-01-01
Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As/GaAs Quantum Well structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a 500 nm thick GaAs buffer layer subjected to the following surface processes: a) in-situ Cl 2 etching at 70 o C and 200 o C, b) air-exposure for 30 min. The characteristics of these samples were compared to those of a continuously grown sample with no processing (control sample). We obtained the quantum wells energy transitions using photoreflectance spectroscopy as a function of the temperature (8-300 K), in the range of 1.2 to 2.1 eV. The sample etched at 200 o C shows a larger intensity of the quantum well peaks in comparison to the others samples. We studied the temperature dependence of the excitonic energies in the quantum wells (QWs) as well as in GaAs using three different models; the first one proposed by Varshni [4], the second one by Vina et al. [5], and the third one by Paessler and Oelgart [6]. The Paessler model presents the best fitting to the experimental data.
The Physics of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
Choi, K K
1999-01-01
In the past, infrared imaging has been used exclusively for military applications. In fact, it can also be useful in a wide range of scientific and commercial applications. However, its wide spread use was impeded by the scarcity of the imaging systems and its high cost. Recently, there is an emerging infrared technology based on quantum well intersubband transition in III-V compound semiconductors. With the new technology, these impedances can be eliminated and a new era of infrared imaging is in sight. This book is designed to give a systematic description on the underlying physics of the ne
Electron Raman scattering in quantum well wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Xiangfu; Liu Cuihong
2007-01-01
Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a semiconductor quantum well wire (QWW) of cylindrical geometry for T=0K and neglecting phonon-assisted transitions. The differential cross-section (DCS) involved in this process is calculated as a function of a scattering frequency and the cylindrical radius. Electron states are confined within a QWW. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed. The selection rules are studied. Singularities in the spectra are interpreted for various cylindrical radii. ERS discussed here can provide direct information about the electron band structure of the system
Fiore, A.; Rossetti, M.; Alloing, B.; Paranthoën, C.; Chen, J.X.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.
2004-01-01
We present a comparative study of carrier diffusion in semiconductor heterostructures with different dimensionality [InGaAs quantum wells (QWs), InAs quantum dots (QDs), and disordered InGaNAs QWs (DQWs)]. In order to evaluate the diffusion length in the active region of device structures, we
Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hao, Ya-Fei, E-mail: haoyafei@zjnu.cn [Physics Department, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 321004 (China)
2015-01-07
In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices.
Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao, Ya-Fei
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices
Electronic Conduction through Atomic Chains, Quantum Well and Quantum Wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, A. C.
2011-01-01
Charge transport is dynamically and strongly linked with atomic structure, in nanostructures. We report our ab-initio calculations on electronic transport through atomic chains and the model calculations on electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates in presence of random impurity potential in a quantum well and in a quantum wire. We computed synthesis and ballistic transport through; (a) C and Si based atomic chains attached to metallic electrodes, (b) armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C and 4H atoms attaching to metallic electrodes, and (c) carbon atomic chain attached to graphene electrodes. Computed results show that synthesis of various atomic chains are practically possible and their transmission coefficients are nonzero for a wide energy range. The ab-initio calculations on electronic transport have been performed with the use of Landauer-type scattering formalism formulated in terms of Grben's functions in combination with ground-state DFT. The electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates have been calculated as function of excitation energy both at zero and finite temperatures for disordered 2D and 1D systems. Our model calculations suggest that electron scattering rates in a disordered system are mainly governed by effective dimensionality of a system, carrier concentration and dynamical screening effects.
Asymmetric quantum well broadband thyristor laser
Liu, Zhen; Wang, Jiaqi; Yu, Hongyan; Zhou, Xuliang; Chen, Weixi; Li, Zhaosong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Ying; Pan, Jiaoqing
2017-11-01
A broadband thyristor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs asymmetric quantum well (AQW) is fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The 3-μm-wide Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser shows an S-shape I-V characteristic and exhibits a flat-topped broadband optical spectrum coverage of ~27 nm (Δ-10 dB) at a center wavelength of ~1090 nm with a total output power of 137 mW under pulsed operation. The AQW structure was carefully designed to establish multiple energy states within, in order to broaden the gain spectrum. An obvious blue shift emission, which is not generally acquired in QW laser diodes, is observed in the broadening process of the optical spectrum as the injection current increases. This blue shift spectrum broadening is considered to result from the prominent band-filling effect enhanced by the multiple energy states of the AQW structure, as well as the optical feedback effect contributed by the thyristor laser structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61604144, 61504137). Zhen Liu and Jiaqi Wang contributed equally to this work.
Magnetophonon resonance in double quantum wells
Ploch, D.; Sheregii, E. M.; Marchewka, M.; Wozny, M.; Tomaka, G.
2009-05-01
The experimental results obtained for the magnetotransport in pulsed magnetic fields in the InGaAs/InAlAs double quantum well (DQW) structures of two different shapes of wells and different values of the electron density are reported. The magnetophonon resonance (MPR) was observed for both types of structures within the temperature range 77-125 K. Four kinds of LO phonons are taken into account to interpret the MPR oscillations in the DQW and a method of the Landau level calculation in the DQW is elaborated for this aim. The peculiarity of the MPR in the DQW is the large number of the Landau levels caused by SAS splitting of the electron states (splitting on the symmetric and anti-symmetric states) and the large number of the phonon assistance electron transitions between Landau levels. The significant role of the carrier statistics is shown too. The behavior of the electron states in the DQWs at comparably high temperatures has been studied using the MPR. It is shown that the Huang and Manasreh [Manasreh [Phys. Rev. B 54, 2044 (1996)] model involving screening of exchange interaction is confirmed.
Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Lirong; Yu Yi; Tian Peng; Huang Dexiu
2009-01-01
The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design
Biexciton binding energy in ZnSe quantum wells and quantum wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Hans-Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2002-01-01
The biexciton binding energy E-XX is investigated in ZnSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells and quantum wires as a function of the lateral confinement by transient four-wave mixing. In the quantum wells one observes for decreasing well width a significant increase in the relative binding energy, saturating...... for well widths less than 8 nm. In the quantum wires an increase of 30% is found in the smallest quantum wire structures compared to the corresponding quantum well value. A simple analytical model taking into account the quantum confinement in these low-dimensional systems is used to explain...
Size-dependent electronic eigenstates of multilayer organic quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Ba An; Hanamura, E.
1995-09-01
A detailed theoretical treatment is given eigenfunctions and eigenenergies of a multilayer organic quantum well sandwiched between two different dielectric media. The abrupt change of dielectric constants at the interfaces distorts the wave function and results in possible surface states in addition to propagating states. The proper boundary conditions are accounted for by the method of image charges. Analytic criteria for existence of surface states are established using the nearest layers approximation, which depend not only on the intralayer parameters but also on the number of layers. The size dependence together with the dependence on signs and relative magnitudes of the structure parameters fully determine the energy spectrum of propagating states as well as the number and the location of surface states. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs
PbSe Quantum Well VECSEL on Si
Fill, M.; Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.
2011-12-01
Vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers in the wavelength region from 3-5 μm are presented. They are based on PbSe quantum wells grown on Si substrates. As host material Pb1-xEuxSe and Pb1-xSrxSe are used. With Pb1-xSrxSe as host material maximum operation temperatures of 325 K are achieved, while with Pb1-xEuxSe an operation temperature of 245 K could not be overcome. This may be explained by a band alignment transition from type I to type II with increasing temperature.
Thermal activation of carriers from semiconductor quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnston, M.B.; Herz, L.M.; Dao, L.V.; Gal, M.; Tan, H.H.; Jagadish, C.
1999-01-01
Full text: We have conducted a systematic investigation of the thermal excitation of carriers in confined states of quantum wells. Carriers may be injected into a sample containing a quantum well electrically or optically, once there they rapidly thermalise and are captured by the confined state of the quantum well. Typically electrons and holes recombine radiatively from their respective quantum well states. As a quantum well sample is heated from low temperatures (∼10K), phonon interactions increase which leads to carriers being excited from the well region into the higher energy, barrier region of the sample. Since carrier recombination from barrier regions is via non-radiative processes, there is strong temperature dependence of photoluminescence from the quantum well region. We measured quantum well photoluminescence as a function of excitation intensity and wavelength over the temperature range from 8K to 300K. In high quality InGaAs quantum wells we found unexpected intensity dependence of the spectrally integrated temperature dependent photoluminescence. We believe that this is evidence for by the existence of saturable states at the interfaces of the quantum wells
Design and Analysis of a Multicolor Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Alves, Fabio D. P
2005-01-01
.... These characteristics have been found in quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP). Driven by these applications, a QWIP photodetector capable of detecting simultaneously infrared emissions within near infrared (NIR...
Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-05-03
This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.
Quantum-well exciton polariton emission from multi-quantum-well wire structures
Kohl, M.; Heitmann, D.; Grambow, P.; Ploog, K.
The radiative decay of quantum-well exciton (QWE) polaritons in microstructured Al0.3Ga0.7As - GaAs multi-quantum wells (MQW) has been studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Periodic wire structures with lateral periodicities a = 250-500 nm and lateral widths t = 100-200 nm have been fabricated by plasma etching. The thickness of the QWs was 13 nm. In the QW wire samples the free-exciton photoluminescence was strongly reduced and the QWE polariton emission was observed as a maximum peaked at a 3 meV higher energy than the free QWE transition. In samples which had only a microstructured cladding layer, the free-exciton photoluminescence was dominant in the spectrum and the QWE polariton emission was observed as a shoulder on the high-energy side of the free QWE transition. In addition, two transitions at the low energy side of the free QWE photoluminescence were present in the microstructured samples, which were related to etching induced states.
Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.
2014-01-01
The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented
Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)
2014-05-15
The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.
Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells
Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team
2013-03-01
The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes
Circuit quantum acoustodynamics with surface acoustic waves.
Manenti, Riccardo; Kockum, Anton F; Patterson, Andrew; Behrle, Tanja; Rahamim, Joseph; Tancredi, Giovanna; Nori, Franco; Leek, Peter J
2017-10-17
The experimental investigation of quantum devices incorporating mechanical resonators has opened up new frontiers in the study of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic level. It has recently been shown that surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be piezoelectrically coupled to superconducting qubits, and confined in high-quality Fabry-Perot cavities in the quantum regime. Here we present measurements of a device in which a superconducting qubit is coupled to a SAW cavity, realising a surface acoustic version of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We use measurements of the AC Stark shift between the two systems to determine the coupling strength, which is in agreement with a theoretical model. This quantum acoustodynamics architecture may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices in which quantum information is stored in trapped on-chip acoustic wavepackets, and manipulated in ways that are impossible with purely electromagnetic signals, due to the 10 5 times slower mechanical waves.In this work, Manenti et al. present measurements of a device in which a tuneable transmon qubit is piezoelectrically coupled to a surface acoustic wave cavity, realising circuit quantum acoustodynamic architecture. This may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices.
Multichannel scattering of charge carriers on quantum well heterostructures
Galiev, V I; Polupanov, A F; Goldis, E M; Tansli, T L
2002-01-01
An efficient numerical analytical method has been developed for finding continuum spectrum states in quantum well systems with arbitrary potential profiles that are described by coupled Schroedinger equations. Scattering states and S matrix have been built for the case of multichannel scattering in one-dimensional systems with quantum wells and their symmetry properties are obtained and analyzed. The method is applied for studying hole scattering by strained GaInAs-InGaAsP quantum wells. Coefficients of the hole transmission and reflection as well as delay time are calculated as functions of the energy of the incident hole for various values of parameters of structures and values of the momentum
Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nastasiuk, V.A., E-mail: nasa@i.ua
2015-09-25
The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones. - Highlights: • The financial Schrödinger equation is derived using the principle of minimum Fisher information. • Statistical models for price variation are mapped by the quantum models of coupled particle. • The model of quantum particle in parabolic potential well corresponds to Efficient market.
Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nastasiuk, V.A.
2015-01-01
The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones. - Highlights: • The financial Schrödinger equation is derived using the principle of minimum Fisher information. • Statistical models for price variation are mapped by the quantum models of coupled particle. • The model of quantum particle in parabolic potential well corresponds to Efficient market
Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems
Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih
2009-01-01
In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…
Tunnelling and relaxation in semiconductor double quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.
1997-01-01
Double quantum wells are among the simplest semiconductor heterostructures exhibiting tunnel coupling. The existence of a quantum confinement effect for the energy levels of a narrow single quantum well has been largely studied. In double quantum wells, in addition to these confinement effects which characterize the levels of the isolated wells, one faces the problem of describing the eigenstates of systems interacting weakly through a potential barrier. In addition, the actual structures differ from the ideal systems studied in the quantum mechanics textbooks in many aspects. The presence of defects leads, for instance, to an irreversible time evolution for a population of photocreated carriers. This irreversible transfer is now clearly established experimentally. The resonant behaviour of the transfer has also been evidenced, from the study of biased structures. If the existence of an interwell transfer is now clearly established from the experimental point of view, its theoretical description, however, is not fully satisfactory. This review focuses on the theoretical description of the energy levels and of the interwell assisted transfer in double quantum wells. We shall firstly outline the problem of tunnel coupling in semiconductor heterostructures and then discuss the single particle and exciton eigenstates in double quantum wells. In the remaining part of the review we shall present and critically review a few theoretical models used to describe the assisted interwell transfer in these structures. (author)
Piezo-Phototronic Effect in a Quantum Well Structure.
Huang, Xin; Du, Chunhua; Zhou, Yongli; Jiang, Chunyan; Pu, Xiong; Liu, Wei; Hu, Weiguo; Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin
2016-05-24
With enhancements in the performance of optoelectronic devices, the field of piezo-phototronics has attracted much attention, and several theoretical works have been reported based on semiclassical models. At present, the feature size of optoelectronic devices are rapidly shrinking toward several tens of nanometers, which results in the quantum confinement effect. Starting from the basic piezoelectricity equation, Schrödinger equation, Poisson equation, and Fermi's golden rule, a self-consistent theoretical model is proposed to study the piezo-phototronic effect in the framework of perturbation theory in quantum mechanics. The validity and universality of this model are well-proven with photoluminescence measurements in a single GaN/InGaN quantum well and multiple GaN/InGaN quantum wells. This study provides important insight into the working principle of nanoscale piezo-phototronic devices as well as guidance for the future device design.
New method for control over exciton states in quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslov, A Yu; Proshina, O V
2010-01-01
The theoretical study of the exciton states in the quantum well is performed with regard to the distinctions of the dielectric properties of quantum well and barrier materials. The strong exciton-phonon interaction is shown to be possible in materials with high ionicity. This leads to the essential modification of the exciton states. The relationship between the exciton binding energy, along with oscillator strength and the barrier material dielectric properties is found. This suggests the feasibility of the exciton spectrum parameter control by the choice of the barrier material. It is shown that such exciton spectrum engineering also is possible in the quantum wells based on the materials with low ionicity. The reason is the dielectric confinement effect in the quantum wells.
Electron Raman scattering in asymmetrical multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betancourt-Riera, R; Rosas, R; Marin-Enriquez, I; Riera, R; Marin, J L
2005-01-01
Optical properties of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells for the construction of quantum cascade lasers are calculated, and expressions for the electronic states of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells are presented. The gain and differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process are obtained. Also, the emission spectra for several scattering configurations are discussed, and the corresponding selection rules for the processes involved are studied; an interpretation of the singularities found in the spectra is given. The electron Raman scattering studied here can be used to provide direct information about the efficiency of the lasers
Two color photodetector using an asymmetric quantum well structure
Lantz, Kevin R.
2002-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The past twenty years have seen an explosion in the realm of infrared detection technology fueled by improvements in III-V semiconductor technology and by new semiconductor growth methods. One of the fastest growing areas of this research involves the use of bandgap engineering in order to create artificial quantum wells for use in Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs). QWIPs have an advantage over other infrared detectors such ...
Quantum Phase Spase Representation for Double Well Potential
Babyuk, Dmytro
2002-01-01
A behavior of quantum states (superposition of two lowest eigenstates, Gaussian wave packet) in phase space is studied for one and two dimensional double well potential. Two dimensional potential is constructed from double well potential coupled linearly and quadratically to harmonic potential. Quantum trajectories are compared with classical ones. Preferable tunneling path in phase space is found. An influence of energy of initial Gaussian wave packet and trajectory initial condition on tunn...
Remote optically-tunable transimpedance amplifiers for quantum well diodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carraresi, L.; Landi, G.; Rocchi, S.; Vignoli, V
1999-08-01
In a previous paper we discussed the advantages in using linear optical transmission systems based on quantum well diodes in modern high energy physics experiments. In this paper, after a short summary of the quantum well theory, the electronics section of the above optical transmission system is presented. In particular the basic configuration of a transimpedance amplifier and the arrangement of an optical remote control system for the amplifier gain and bandwidth tuning are discussed.
Remote optically-tunable transimpedance amplifiers for quantum well diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carraresi, L.; Landi, G.; Rocchi, S.; Vignoli, V.
1999-01-01
In a previous paper we discussed the advantages in using linear optical transmission systems based on quantum well diodes in modern high energy physics experiments. In this paper, after a short summary of the quantum well theory, the electronics section of the above optical transmission system is presented. In particular the basic configuration of a transimpedance amplifier and the arrangement of an optical remote control system for the amplifier gain and bandwidth tuning are discussed
Quantum Yang-Mills theory on arbitrary surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blau, Matthias; Thompson, George
1991-05-01
Quantum Yang-Mills theory on 2-dimensional surfaces is studied. Using path integral methods general and explicit expressions are derived for the partition function and expectation values of homologically trivial and non-trivial Wilson loops on closed surfaces of any genus, as well as for the kernels on manifolds with handles and boundaries. (author). 15 refs
Hydrogenic donor in a quantum well with an electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, K.; Balasubramanian, S.; Tomak, M.
1985-08-01
Variational calculations of the binding energy of a hydrogenic donor in a quantum well formed by GaAs and Gasub(1-x)A1sub(x)As with a constant electric field are performed for different electric fields and well widths. A critical electric field is defined and its variation with well width is presented. (author)
The quantum Zeno effect in double well tunnelling
Lerner, L.
2018-05-01
Measurement lies at the heart of quantum theory, and introductory textbooks in quantum mechanics cover the measurement problem in topics such as the Schrödinger’s cat thought experiment, the EPR problem, and the quantum Zeno effect (QZE). In this article we present a new treatment of the QZE suitable for undergraduate students, for the case of a particle tunnelling between two wells while being observed in one of the wells. The analysis shows that as the observation rate increases, the tunnelling rate tends towards zero, in accordance with Zeno’s maxim ‘a watched pot never boils’. The method relies on decoherence theory, which replaces aspects of quantum collapse by the Schrödinger evolution of an open system, and its recently simplified treatment for undergraduates. Our presentation uses concepts familiar to undergraduate students, so that calculations involving many-body theory and the formal properties of the density matrix are avoided.
Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang
2017-01-01
One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc......-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...
Zero field spin splitting in asymmetric quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Yafei
2012-01-01
Spin splitting of asymmetric quantum wells is theoretically investigated in the absence of any electric field, including the contribution of interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction as well as linear and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. The effect of interface asymmetry on three types of spin-orbit interaction is discussed. The results show that interface-related Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction can be increased and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction can be decreased by well structure design. For wide quantum wells, the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction dominates under certain conditions, resulting in decreased spin relaxation time.
A surface code quantum computer in silicon
Hill, Charles D.; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J.; House, Matthew G.; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.
2015-01-01
The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel—posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited. PMID:26601310
A surface code quantum computer in silicon.
Hill, Charles D; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J; House, Matthew G; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L
2015-10-01
The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel-posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited.
Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.
Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M
2017-10-11
One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.
Exciton trapping in interface defects/quantum dots in narrow quantum wells: magnetic-field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barticevic, Z.; Pacheco, M.; Duque, C.A.; Oliveira, L.E.
2003-01-01
The effects of applied magnetic fields on excitons trapped in quantum dots/interface defects in narrow GaAs/Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells are studied within the effective-mass approximation. The magnetic fields are applied in the growth direction of the quantum wells, and exciton trapping is modeled through a quantum dot formed by monolayer fluctuations in the z-direction, together with lateral confinement via a truncated or infinite parabolic potential in the exciton in-plane coordinate. Theoretical results are found in overall agreement with available experimental measurements
Quantum well electronic states in a tilted magnetic field.
Trallero-Giner, C; Padilha, J X; Lopez-Richard, V; Marques, G E; Castelano, L K
2017-08-16
We report the energy spectrum and the eigenstates of conduction and uncoupled valence bands of a quantum well under the influence of a tilted magnetic field. In the framework of the envelope approximation, we implement two analytical approaches to obtain the nontrivial solutions of the tilted magnetic field: (a) the Bubnov-Galerkin spectral method and b) the perturbation theory. We discuss the validity of each method for a broad range of magnetic field intensity and orientation as well as quantum well thickness. By estimating the accuracy of the perturbation method, we provide explicit analytical solutions for quantum wells in a tilted magnetic field configuration that can be employed to study several quantitative phenomena.
Quantum wave packet revival in two-dimensional circular quantum wells with position-dependent mass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Alexandre G.M. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, Volta Redonda RJ, CEP 27255-125 (Brazil)], E-mail: agmschmidt@gmail.com; Azeredo, Abel D. [Departamento de Fisica-Universidade Federal de Roraima, Av. Cap. Ene Garcez 2413, Boa Vista RR, CEP 69304-000 (Brazil)], E-mail: aazeredo@gmail.com; Gusso, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas-Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, Ilheus BA, CEP 45662-000 (Brazil)], E-mail: agusso@uesc.br
2008-04-14
We study quantum wave packet revivals on two-dimensional infinite circular quantum wells (CQWs) and circular quantum dots with position-dependent mass (PDM) envisaging a possible experimental realization. We consider CQWs with radially varying mass, addressing particularly the cases where M(r){proportional_to}r{sup w} with w=1,2, or -2. The two PDM Hamiltonians currently allowed by theory were analyzed and we were able to construct a strong theoretical argument favoring one of them.
Quantum wave packet revival in two-dimensional circular quantum wells with position-dependent mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Alexandre G.M.; Azeredo, Abel D.; Gusso, A.
2008-01-01
We study quantum wave packet revivals on two-dimensional infinite circular quantum wells (CQWs) and circular quantum dots with position-dependent mass (PDM) envisaging a possible experimental realization. We consider CQWs with radially varying mass, addressing particularly the cases where M(r)∝r w with w=1,2, or -2. The two PDM Hamiltonians currently allowed by theory were analyzed and we were able to construct a strong theoretical argument favoring one of them
Visualizing the solutions for the circular infinite well in quantum and classical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinett, R.W.
1996-01-01
The classical and quantum mechanical problem of a particle in the infinite circular well has recently surfaced in two quite different manifestations: (i) the observation of open-quote open-quote electron standing waves close-quote close-quote in circular open-quote open-quote corrals close-quote close-quote of atoms adsorbed on surfaces and (ii) as a benchmark example of an integrable system for comparison to the classical and quantum chaotic behavior of the open-quote open-quote stadium billiards close-quote close-quote problem. Motivated by this, we review the quantum and classical probability distributions for both position and momentum for this familiar problem, focusing on the visualization of the quantum wave functions and classical trajectories as well as the semiclassical connections between the two. copyright 1996 American Association of Physics Teachers
Nanostructure van der Waals interaction between a quantum well and a quantum dot atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horing, Norman J Morgenstern
2006-01-01
We examine the van der Waals interaction between mobile plasma electrons in a narrow quantum well nanostructure and a quantum dot atom. This formulation of the van der Waals interaction exhibits it to second order as the correlation energy (self-energy) of the dot-atom electrons mediated by the image potential arising from the dynamic, nonlocal and spatially inhomogeneous polarization of the quantum well plasma electrons. This image potential of the quantum-well plasma is, in turn, determined by the dynamic, nonlocal, inhomogeneous screening function of the quantum well, which involves the space-time matrix inversion of its spatially inhomogeneous, nonlocal and time-dependent dielectric function. The latter matrix inversion is carried out exactly, in closed form, and the van der Waals energy is evaluated in the electrostatic limit to dipole-dipole terms
Quantum-correlated two-photon transitions to excitons in semiconductor quantum wells.
Salazar, L J; Guzmán, D A; Rodríguez, F J; Quiroga, L
2012-02-13
The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers.
Quantum surface tension in ideal gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sisman, A.
2005-01-01
Due to wave character of atoms, an ideal gas confined in a finite domain exhibits Casimir like size effects. These effects become appreciable in a domain with at least one dimension in the order of micron. On this scale, thermodynamic state functions of an ideal gas become shape and size dependent and some new effects appear. In the literature, only some domains of regular shapes have been considered. In this study, the results are generalized to a domain of an arbitrary shape by using Weyl s conjecture for density of states. It is seen that free energy expression of an ideal Maxwellian gas consists of a classical volume dependent term and also a quantum originated surface dependent term, which causes a quantum surface tension. In a rectangular box filled by an ideal gas and separated by a movable wall into two parts, it is shown that a lateral force appears on the movable wall due to quantum surface tension
Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1998-01-01
The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms...
Stark-like electron transfer between quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubovis, S.A.; Voronko, A.N.; Basharov, A.M.
2008-01-01
The Stark-like mechanism of electron transfer between two energy subband localized in remote quantum wells is examined theoretically. Estimations of major parameters of the problem in case of delta-function-wells model are adduced. Schematic model allowing experimental study of Stark-like transfer is proposed
Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures
Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN
2007-07-17
An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.
Photo-Induced Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Wells.
Miah, M Idrish
2009-01-17
We experimentally investigate the dynamics of spins in GaAs quantum wells under applied electric bias by photoluminescence (PL) measurements excited with circularly polarized light. The bias-dependent circular polarization of PL (P(PL)) with and without magnetic field is studied. The P(PL) without magnetic field is found to be decayed with an enhancement of increasing the strength of the negative bias. However, P(PL) in a transverse magnetic field shows oscillations under an electric bias, indicating that the precession of electron spin occurs in quantum wells. The results are discussed based on the electron-hole exchange interaction in the electric field.
Photo-Induced Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miah M
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We experimentally investigate the dynamics of spins in GaAs quantum wells under applied electric bias by photoluminescence (PL measurements excited with circularly polarized light. The bias-dependent circular polarization of PL (P PL with and without magnetic field is studied. TheP PLwithout magnetic field is found to be decayed with an enhancement of increasing the strength of the negative bias. However,P PLin a transverse magnetic field shows oscillations under an electric bias, indicating that the precession of electron spin occurs in quantum wells. The results are discussed based on the electron–hole exchange interaction in the electric field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep; Shchegrov, Andrei V.
2000-01-01
Resonant Rayleigh scattering from quantum well excitons is investigated using ultrafast spectral interferometry. We isolate the coherent Rayleigh scattering from incoherent luminescence in a single speckle. Averaging the resonant Rayleigh intensity over several speckles allows us to identify...... features in support of quantum corrections to the classical description of the underlying scattering process....
Well Conditioned Formulations for Open Surface Scattering
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ottusch, John J; Visher, John L
2008-01-01
.... This report describes an analytical preconditioner method for the EFIE on open surface PEC targets that converts the EFIE to a well conditioned, second-kind integral equation. We present theory and the results from a numerical implementation. We also discuss a 2d extension of the Poincare-Bertrand identity could be used to develop an explicitly second-kind integral equation for open surface scattering problems.
Exact quantum solutions for some asymmetrical two-well potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ley-Koo, E.
1985-01-01
We discuss several points of interest in the study of two-well potentials in quantum mechanics courses. In particular, we construct the solutions of the Schroedinger equation for rectangular-well, harmonic-oscillator and triangular-well potentials with a delta-function potential superimposed in different positions. The energy spectra and eigenfunctions of such systems are presented and analyzed for different intensities and positions of the delta-function potential. (author)
Simulation of a broadband nano-biosensor based on an onion-like quantum dot–quantum well structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Absalan, H; SalmanOgli, A; Rostami, R
2013-01-01
The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is studied between modified quantum-dots and quantum-wells used as a donor and an acceptor. Because of the unique properties of quantum dots, including diverse surface modification flexibility, bio-compatibility, high quantum yields and wide absorption, their use as nano-biosensors and bio-markers used in diagnosis of cancer is suggested. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is simulated in a quantum dot–quantum well system, where the energy can flow from donor to acceptor. If the energy transfer can be either turned on or off by a specific interaction, such as interaction with any dyes, a molecular binding event or a cleavage reaction, a sensor can be designed (under assumption that the healthy cells have a known effect or unyielding effect on output parameters while cancerous cells, due to their pandemic optical properties, can impact the fluorescence resonance energy transfer parameters). The developed nano-biosensor can operate in a wide range of wavelengths (310 – 760 nm). (laser applications in biology and medicine)
Simulation of a broadband nano-biosensor based on an onion-like quantum dot-quantum well structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Absalan, H; SalmanOgli, A; Rostami, R
2013-07-31
The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is studied between modified quantum-dots and quantum-wells used as a donor and an acceptor. Because of the unique properties of quantum dots, including diverse surface modification flexibility, bio-compatibility, high quantum yields and wide absorption, their use as nano-biosensors and bio-markers used in diagnosis of cancer is suggested. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is simulated in a quantum dot-quantum well system, where the energy can flow from donor to acceptor. If the energy transfer can be either turned on or off by a specific interaction, such as interaction with any dyes, a molecular binding event or a cleavage reaction, a sensor can be designed (under assumption that the healthy cells have a known effect or unyielding effect on output parameters while cancerous cells, due to their pandemic optical properties, can impact the fluorescence resonance energy transfer parameters). The developed nano-biosensor can operate in a wide range of wavelengths (310 - 760 nm). (laser applications in biology and medicine)
Electrically Induced Two-Photon Transparency in Semiconductor Quantum Wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayat, Alex; Nevet, Amir; Orenstein, Meir
2009-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally two-photon transparency, achieved by current injection into a semiconductor quantum-well structure which exhibits two-photon emission. The two-photon induced luminescence is progressively reduced by the injected current, reaching the point of two-photon transparency - a necessary condition for semiconductor two-photon gain and lasing. These results agree with our calculations.
Comment on 'Local responsivity in quantum well photodetectors'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryzhii, M.; Khmyrova, I.
2001-01-01
The response of multiple quantum well (QW) infrared photodetectors (QW) to the photoexcitation of one QW selected from many identical QWs was recently modeled [M. Ershov, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 7059 (1999)]. We point out here that the presented analysis based on the use of drift-diffusion model for a system with a few electrons is incorrect. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics
Semiconductor-Metal transition in a quantum well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.
2007-01-01
We demonstrate semiconductor-metal transition through diamagnetic susceptibility of a donor in a GaAs/Al x Ga 1- x As quantum well for both infinite and finite barrier models. We have also considered the non-parabolicity of the conduction band in our calculation. Our results agree with the earlier theoretical result and also with the recent experimental result
Oscillatory magnetoconductance of quantum double-well channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojo, A.G.; Kumar, N.; Balseiro, C.A.
1988-07-01
The recently observed flux-periodic interference effect between parallel quantum double-well channels is theoretically studied in a discrete model that takes into account tunneling between channels. We obtain oscillatory magnetoconductance with small modulations which is attributable to the tunneling. Our treatment includes the effect of evanescent modes. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs
Bose Condensation of Interwell Excitons in Double Quantum Wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larionov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Ni, P. A.
2002-01-01
The luminescence of interwell excitons in double quantum wells GaAs/AlGaAs (n–i–n heterostructures) with large-scale fluctuations of random potential in the heteroboundary planes was studied. The properties of excitons whose photoexcited electron and hole are spatially separated in the neighboring...
Corrugated Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Test Results
Goldberg, A.; Choi, K. K.; Das, N. C.; La, A.; Jhabvala, M.
1999-01-01
The corrugated quantum-well infrared photodetector (C-QWIP) uses total internal reflection to couple normal incident light into the optically active quantum wells. The coupling efficiency has been shown to be relatively independent of the pixel size and wavelength thus making the C-QWIP a candidate for detectors over the entire infrared spectrum. The broadband coupling efficiency of the C-QWIP makes it an ideal candidate for multiwavelength detectors. We fabricated and tested C-QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) with cutoff wavelengths of 11.2 and 16.2 micrometers. Each FPA has 256 x 256 pixels that are bump-bonded to a direct injection readout circuit. Both FPAs provided infrared imagery with good aesthetic attributes. For the 11.2-micrometers FPA, background-limited performance (BLIP) was observed at 60 K with f/3 optics. For the 16.2-micrometers FPA, BLIP was observed at 38 K. Besides the reduction of dark current in C-QWIP structures, the measured internal quantum efficiency (eta) remains to be high. The values for responsivity and quantum efficiency obtained from the FPA results agree well with those measured for single devices.
Design rules for modulation doped AlAs quantum wells
Chung, Yoon Jang; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Kamburov, D.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.
AlxGa1-xAs/AlAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells were grown with various barrier compositions ranging from x =0.26 to x =0.8. We investigate the modulation doping characteristics of the samples by magneto-transport measurements. The carrier concentration in the well peaks near the barrier alloy fraction of x =0.26 in the dark and near x =0.38 after illumination with a red LED. This behavior is consistent with the results in a separate study for AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells in the range of x =0.26 to x =1.0. We show from a charge transfer model that the calculated energy difference between the conduction band offset at the well interface and the donor energy level, ΔEC-ED, coincides for the two types of wells. This implies that, despite the differing positions of the conduction band minimum for the GaAs and AlAs wells, the doping of either well is governed by the electronic properties of the barrier. Based on this knowledge we designed high quality AlAs quantum wells with low (1 x 1011 cm-2) and high (3 x 1011 cm-2) density, and the magneto-transport data show clear signals of the fractional quantum Hall effect (2/3, 3/5, 4/7 for low density and 5/3, 8/5 for high density). Work supported by the NSF (Grants DMR-1305691, ECCS-1508925, and MRSEC DMR-1420541), the DOE Basic Energy Sciences (Grant DE-FG02-00-ER45841), the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (Grant GBMF4420), and the Keck Foundation.
Electrical transport in strained silicon quantum wells on vicinal substrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaya, S.
1999-01-01
This thesis deals with the electrical transport studies of strained Si quantum wells grown on tilted Si substrates. Magnetotransport measurements at very low temperatures are used to investigate the high electron mobility, scattering processes and modified band structure for four different substrate orientations (2, 4, 6 and 10 deg.) and in two different directions of transport. We first discuss the morphology of the tilted system with the aid of, atomic force and optical microscopy. A clear change of surface morphology of tilted layers in comparison with the (001) type surfaces is explained by the degree of tilt in the system. The electron mobility and in-plane effective mass becomes anisotropic, which scale roughly with the tilt angle. The mobility anisotropy is shown to be the result of extra scattering when electrons travel across the steps common to vicinal surfaces. The extra scattering has characteristics similar to interface roughness scattering, as inferred from the trend that the transport (τ t ) and quantum scattering (τ q ) times follow. As the tilt angle grows, it is found that τ t /τ q →1 in the direction perpendicular to the steps. Electrons in tilted channels of multivalley semiconductors can involve a new interband scattering mechanism due to a one dimensional minigap opening in the conduction band. This effect, known from bulk Si MOSFETs, is investigated in strained Si for the first time in this thesis. First, the effect of applied electric fields on electron conduction is considered. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance data indicate a remarkably different electron scattering behaviour in tilted samples with increasing fields in directions parallel and perpendicular to the tilt direction. An FFT analysis of the data produces extra peaks in the electron density spectra. By clear contrast, flat samples grown under similar conditions do not show any unusual features. The difference is attributed to the existence of a minigap
Bound magnetic polaron in a semimagnetic double quantum well
Kalpana, P.; Jayakumar, K.
2017-09-01
The effect of different combinations of the concentration of Mn2+ ion in the Quantum well Cd1-xinMnxin Te and the barrier Cd1-xoutMnxout Te on the Bound Magnetic Polaron (BMP) in a Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) Double Quantum Well (DQW) has been investigated. The Schrodinger equation is solved variationally in the effective mass approximation through which the Spin Polaronic Shift (SPS) due to the formation of BMP has been estimated for various locations of the donor impurity in the DQW. The results show that the effect of the increase of Mn2+ ion composition with different combinations on SPS is predominant for On Centre Well (OCW) impurity when compared to all other impurity locations when there is no application of magnetic field (γ = 0), γ being a dimensionless parameter for the magnetic field, and the same is predominant for On Centre Barrier (OCB) impurity with the application of external magnetic field (γ = 0.15).
Room-temperature near-field reflection spectroscopy of single quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Marcher; Madsen, Steen
1997-01-01
. This technique suppresses efficiently the otherwise dominating far-field background and reduces topographic artifacts. We demonstrate its performance on a thin, strained near-surface CdS/ZnS single quantum well at room temperature. The optical structure of these topographically flat samples is due to Cd...
Interaction of a quantum well with squeezed light: Quantum-statistical properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sete, Eyob A.; Eleuch, H.
2010-01-01
We investigate the quantum statistical properties of the light emitted by a quantum well interacting with squeezed light from a degenerate subthreshold optical parametric oscillator. We obtain analytical solutions for the pertinent quantum Langevin equations in the strong-coupling and low-excitation regimes. Using these solutions we calculate the intensity spectrum, autocorrelation function, and quadrature squeezing for the fluorescent light. We show that the fluorescent light exhibits bunching and quadrature squeezing. We also show that the squeezed light leads to narrowing of the width of the spectrum of the fluorescent light.
Weak antilocalization and spin precession in quantum wells
Knap, W.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Zduniak, A.; Litwin-Staszewska, E.; Bertho, D.; Kobbi, F.; Robert, J. L.; Pikus, G. E.; Pikus, F. G.; Iordanskii, S. V.; Mosser, V.; Zekentes, K.; Lyanda-Geller, Yu. B.
1996-02-01
The results of magnetoconductivity measurements in GaxIn1-xAs quantum wells are presented. The observed magnetoconductivity appears due to the quantum interference, which lead to the weak localization effect. It is established that the details of the weak localization are controlled by the spin splitting of electron spectra. A theory is developed that takes into account both linear and cubic in electron wave-vector terms in spin splitting, which arise due to the lack of inversion center in the crystal, as well as the linear terms that appear when the well itself is asymmetric. It is established that, unlike spin-relaxation rate, contributions of different terms into magnetoconductivity are not additive. It is demonstrated that in the interval of electron densities under investigation [(0.98-1.85)×1012 cm-2 ] all three contributions are comparable and have to be taken into account to achieve a good agreement between the theory and experiment. The results obtained from comparison of the experiment and the theory have allowed us to determine what mechanisms dominate the spin-relaxation in quantum wells and to improve the accuracy of determination of spin-splitting parameters in A3B5 crystals and two-dimensional structures.
Electron Raman scattering in a HgS/CdS spherical quantum dot quantum well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Qinghu; Lai Liping
2013-01-01
Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a spherical HgS/CdS quantum dot quantum well (QDQW). The differential cross section (DCS) is calculated as a function of the scattering frequency and the sizes of QDQW. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed. The selection rules for the processes are studied. Singularities in the spectra are found and interpreted. The ERS studied here can be used to provide direct information about the electron band structure of these systems. (semiconductor physics)
Quantum effects on propagation of bulk and surface waves in a thin quantum plasma film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moradi, Afshin
2015-01-01
The propagation of bulk and surface plasma waves in a thin quantum plasma film is investigated, taking into account the quantum effects. The generalized bulk and surface plasma dispersion relation due to quantum effects is derived, using the quantum hydrodynamic dielectric function and applying appropriate additional boundary conditions. The quantum mechanical and film geometric effects on the bulk and surface modes are discussed. It is found that quantum effects become important for a thin film of small thickness. - Highlights: • New bulk and surface plasma dispersion relations due to quantum effects are derived, in a thin quantum plasma film. • It is found that quantum effects become important for a thin quantum film of small thickness
Quantum emitters coupled to surface plasmons of an nanowire
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dzsotjan, David; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg; Fleischhauer, Michael
2010-01-01
We investigate a system consisting of a single, as well as two emitters strongly coupled to surface plasmon modes of a nanowire using a Green's function approach. Explicit expressions are derived for the spontaneous decay rate into the plasmon modes and for the atom-plasmon coupling as well......-qubit quantum gate. We also discuss a possible realization of interesting many-body Hamiltonians, such as the spin-boson model, using strong emitter-plasmon coupling. Udgivelsesdato: 27 August...
Dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum wells under drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idrish Miah, M.
2009-01-01
The dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum wells under applied electric bias has been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The bias-dependent polarization of PL (P PL ) was measured at different temperatures. The P PL was found to decay with an enhancement of increasing the strength of the negative bias, with an exception occurred for a low value of the negative bias. The P PL was also found to depend on the temperature. The P PL in the presence of a transverse magnetic field was also studied. The results showed that P PL in the magnetic field oscillates under an applied bias, demonstrating that the dephasing of electron spin occurs during the drift transport in semiconductor quantum wells.
Dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum wells under drift
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idrish Miah, M., E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)
2009-09-15
The dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum wells under applied electric bias has been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The bias-dependent polarization of PL (P{sub PL}) was measured at different temperatures. The P{sub PL} was found to decay with an enhancement of increasing the strength of the negative bias, with an exception occurred for a low value of the negative bias. The P{sub PL} was also found to depend on the temperature. The P{sub PL} in the presence of a transverse magnetic field was also studied. The results showed that P{sub PL} in the magnetic field oscillates under an applied bias, demonstrating that the dephasing of electron spin occurs during the drift transport in semiconductor quantum wells.
High mobility and quantum well transistors design and TCAD simulation
Hellings, Geert
2013-01-01
For many decades, the semiconductor industry has miniaturized transistors, delivering increased computing power to consumers at decreased cost. However, mere transistor downsizing does no longer provide the same improvements. One interesting option to further improve transistor characteristics is to use high mobility materials such as germanium and III-V materials. However, transistors have to be redesigned in order to fully benefit from these alternative materials. High Mobility and Quantum Well Transistors: Design and TCAD Simulation investigates planar bulk Germanium pFET technology in chapters 2-4, focusing on both the fabrication of such a technology and on the process and electrical TCAD simulation. Furthermore, this book shows that Quantum Well based transistors can leverage the benefits of these alternative materials, since they confine the charge carriers to the high-mobility material using a heterostructure. The design and fabrication of one particular transistor structure - the SiGe Implant-Free Qu...
Ferroelectric tunnel junctions with multi-quantum well structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Tianjin, E-mail: zhangtj@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Liang, Kun; Qi, Yajun; Wang, Duofa; Wang, Jinzhao; Jiang, Juan [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)
2014-06-02
Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) with multi-quantum well structures are proposed and the tunneling electroresistance (TER) effect is investigated theoretically. Compared with conventional FTJs with monolayer ferroelectric barriers, FTJs with single-well structures provide TER ratio improvements of one order of magnitude, while FTJs with optimized multi-well structures can enhance this improvement by another order of magnitude. It is believed that the increased resonant tunneling strength combined with appropriate asymmetry in these FTJs contributes to the improvement. These studies may help to fabricate FTJs with large TER ratio experimentally and put them into practice.
Excitonic effects in the luminescence of quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deveaud, B.; Kappei, L.; Berney, J.; Morier-Genoud, F.; Portella-Oberli, M.T.; Szczytko, J.; Piermarocchi, C.
2005-01-01
We report on the origin of the excitonic luminescence in quantum wells. This study is carried out by time-resolved photoluminescence experiments performed on a very high-quality InGaAs quantum well sample in which the photoluminescence contributions at the energy of the exciton and at the band edge can be clearly separated and traced over a broad range of times and densities. This allows us to compare the two conflicting theoretical approaches to the question of the origin of the excitonic luminescence in quantum wells: the model of the exciton population and the model of the Coulomb correlated plasma. We measure the exciton formation time and we show the fast exciton formation and its dependence with carrier density. We are also able to give the boundaries of the Mott transition in our system, and to show the absence of observable renormalization of the gap below the onset of this transition. We detail the characteristics of the trion formation and evidence the possible formation of both positive and negative trions in the absence of any resident free carrier populations
Electron-electron interaction in Multiple Quantum Wells
Zybert, M.; Marchewka, M.; Tomaka, G.; Sheregii, E. M.
2012-07-01
The complex investigation of the magneto-transport effects in structures containing multiple quantum well (MQWs) based on the GaAs/AlGaAs-heterostructures has been performed. The MQWs investigated have different electron densities in QWs. The parameters of 2DEG in MQWs were determined from the data of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdH) observed at low temperatures (0.6-4.2 K). The method of calculation of the electron states energies in MQWs has been developed which is based on the splitting of these states due to the exchange interaction (SAS-splitting, see D. Płoch et al., Phys. Rev. B 79 (2009) 195434) including the screening of this interaction. The IQHE and SdH observed in these multilayer structures with the third degree of freedom for electrons are interpreted from this.
Suppressing Nonradiative Recombination in Crown-Shaped Quantum Wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Kwangwook [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ju, Gunwu [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Korea Institute of Science and Technology; Na, Byung Hoon [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Jho, Young-Dahl [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Myoung, NoSoung [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Yim, Sang-Youp [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology; Kim, Hyung-jun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology; Lee, Yong Tak [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
2018-02-06
We examined the structural and optical properties of a crown-shaped quantum well (CSQW) to suppress nonradiative recombination. To reduce carrier loss in defect traps at the well/barrier interface, the CSQW was designed to concentrate carriers in the central region by tailoring the bandgap energy. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements showed that the CSQW had a high activation energy and low potential fluctuation. In addition, the long carrier lifetime of the CSQW at high temperatures can be interpreted as indicating a decrease in carrier loss at defect traps.
Anti-Stokes Luminescence in High Quality Quantum Wells
Vinattieri, A.; Bogani, F.; Miotto, A.; Ceccherini, S.
1997-11-01
We present a detailed investigation of the anti-Stokes (AS) luminescence which originates from exciton recombination when below gap excitation is used, in a set of high quality quantum well structures. We observe strong excitonic resonances in the AS signal as measured from photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra. We demonstrate that neither the electromagnetic coupling between the wells nor the morphological disorder can explain this up-conversion effect. Time-resolved luminescence data after ps excitation and fs correlation spectroscopy results provide clear evidence of the occurrence of a two-step absorption which is assisted by the exciton population resonantly excited by the first photon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaisakul, Papichaya; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Vivien, Laurent; Frigerio, Jacopo; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni
2014-01-01
We report an O-band optical modulator from a Ge/Si 0.15 Ge 0.85 multiple quantum well (MQW). Strong O-band optical modulation in devices commonly operating within E-band wavelength range can be achieved by simply decreasing the quantum well thickness. Both spectral photocurrent and optical transmission studies are performed to evaluate material characteristics and device performance from a surface-illuminated diode and a waveguide modulator, respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of using Ge/Si 0.15 Ge 0.85 MQWs for the realization of future on-chip wavelength-division multiplexing systems with optical modulators operating at different wavelengths over a wide spectral range
Recent Developments in Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors
Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, K. M. S. V.
1995-01-01
Intrinsic infrared (IR) detectors in the long wavelength range (8-20 Am) are based on an optically excited interband transition, which promotes an electron across the band gap (E(sub g)) from the valence band to the conduction band as shown. These photoelectrons can be collected efficiently, thereby producing a photocurrent in the external circuit. Since the incoming photon has to promote an electron from the valence band to the conduction band, the energy of the photon (h(sub upsilon)) must be higher than the E(sub g) of the photosensitive material. Therefore, the spectral response of the detectors can be controlled by controlling the E(sub g) of the photosensitive material. Examples for such materials are Hg(1-x), Cd(x), Te, and Pb(1-x), Sn(x), Te, in which the energy gap can be controlled by varying x. This means detection of very-long-wavelength IR radiation up to 20 microns requires small band gaps down to 62 meV. It is well known that these low band gap materials, characterized by weak bonding and low melting points, are more difficult to grow and process than large-band gap semiconductors such as GaAs. These difficulties motivate the exploration of utilizing the intersub-band transitions in multiquantum well (MQW) structures made of more refractory large-band gap semiconductors. The idea of using MQW structures to detect IR radiation can be explained by using the basic principles of quantum mechanics. The quantum well is equivalent to the well-known particle in a box problem in quantum mechanics, which can be solved by the time independent Schroudiner equation.
Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition
Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro
2015-02-03
Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.
Resonant Tunneling in Photonic Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cox Joel
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Here, we study the resonant photonic states of photonic double quantum well (PDQW heterostructures composed of two different photonic crystals. The heterostructure is denoted as B/A/B/A/B, where photonic crystals A and B act as photonic wells and barriers, respectively. The resulting band structure causes photons to become confined within the wells, where they occupy discrete quantized states. We have obtained an expression for the transmission coefficient of the PDQW heterostructure using the transfer matrix method and have found that resonant states exist within the photonic wells. These resonant states occur in split pairs, due to a coupling between degenerate states shared by each of the photonic wells. It is observed that when the resonance energy lies at a bound photonic state and the two photonic quantum wells are far away from each other, resonant states appear in the transmission spectrum of the PDQW as single peaks. However, when the wells are brought closer together, coupling between bound photonic states causes an energy-splitting effect, and the transmitted states each have two peaks. Essentially, this means that the system can be switched between single and double transparent states. We have also observed that the total number of resonant states can be controlled by varying the width of the photonic wells, and the quality factor of transmitted peaks can be drastically improved by increasing the thickness of the outer photonic barriers. It is anticipated that the resonant states described here can be used to develop new types of photonic-switching devices, optical filters, and other optoelectronic devices.
Theoretical study of excitonic complexes in semiconductors quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dacal, Luis Carlos Ogando
2001-08-01
A physical system where indistinguishable particles interact with each other creates the possibility of studying correlation and exchange effect. The simplest system is that one with only two indistinguishable particles. In condensed matter physics, these complexes are represented by charged excitons, donors and acceptors. In quantum wells, the valence band is not parabolic, therefore, the negatively charged excitons and donors are theoretically described in a simpler way. Despite the fact that the stability of charged excitons (trions) is known since the late 50s, the first experimental observation occurred only at the early 90s in quantum well samples, where their binding energies are one order of magnitude larger due to the one dimensional carriers confinement. After this, these complexes became the subject of an intense research because the intrinsic screening of electrical interactions in semiconductor materials allows that magnetic fields that are usual in laboratories have strong effects on the trion binding energy. Another rich possibility is the study of trions as an intermediate state between the neutral exciton and the Fermi edge singularity when the excess of doping carriers is increased. In this thesis, we present a theoretical study of charged excitons and negatively charged donors in GaAs/Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As quantum wells considering the effects of external electric and magnetic fields. We use a simple, accurate and physically clear method to describe these systems in contrast with the few and complex treatments s available in the literature. Our results show that the QW interface defects have an important role in the trion dynamics. This is in agreement with some experimental works, but it disagrees with other ones. (author)
Ordered Dissipative Structures in Exciton Systems in Semiconductor Quantum Wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey A. Chernyuk
2006-02-01
Full Text Available A phenomenological theory of exciton condensation in conditions of inhomogeneous excitation is proposed. The theory is applied to the study of the development of an exciton luminescence ring and the ring fragmentation at macroscopical distances from the central excitation spot in coupled quantum wells. The transition between the fragmented and the continuous ring is considered. With assumption of a defect in the structure, a possibility of a localized island of the condensed phase in a fixed position is shown. Exciton density distribution is also analyzed in the case of two spatially separated spots of the laser excitation.
Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevičius, J. [Institute of Applied Research and Semiconductor Physics Department, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, Vilnius LT-10222 (Lithuania); Jurkevičius, J., E-mail: jonas.jurkevicius@ff.vu.lt [Institute of Applied Research and Semiconductor Physics Department, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, Vilnius LT-10222 (Lithuania); Shur, M.S. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States); Shatalov, M.; Yang, J.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc. (United States)
2014-11-15
Photoluminescence spectroscopy of AlGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells under quasi-steady-state conditions in the temperature range from 8 to 300 K revealed a strong dependence of droop onset threshold on temperature that was explained by the influence of carrier delocalization. The delocalization at room temperature results predominantly in enhancement of bimolecular radiative recombination, while being favorable for enhancement of nonradiative recombination at low temperatures. Studies of stimulated emission confirmed the strong influence of carrier localization on droop.
Ionization of deep quantum wells: Optical trampoline effect
Perlin, E. Yu.; Levitskiĭ, R. S.
2007-02-01
A new mechanism of transitions of an electronic system from the ground state to states with excitation energies exceeding many times the energy of a light photon initiating the transitions has been considered. This mechanism is based on the so-called optical “trampoline” effect: one of the interacting electrons receives energy from another electron and, simultaneously absorbing a photon ħω, overcomes the energy gap significantly exceeding ħω. Ionization of deep quantum wells by low-frequency light of moderate intensity due to the optical trampoline effect was calculated.
Quantum-well-driven magnetism in thin films
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mirbt, S.; Johansson, B.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1996-01-01
We have performed local spin-density calculations for an fee (100) Ag substrate covered by 1 to 16 monolayers (ML) of Pd. We find that thin films of Pd are magnetic with a moment of the order of 0.3 mu(B) except for films of 1-2 ML and 5-7 ML where magnetism is completely suppressed. We present...... a physically transparent explanation of this behavior in terms of the Stoner picture and magnetic quantum-well states....
Magneto-gyrotropic photogalvanic effects in semiconductor quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bel'kov, V V; Ganichev, S D; Ivchenko, E L; Tarasenko, S A; Weber, W; Giglberger, S; Olteanu, M; Tranitz, H-P; Danilov, S N; Schneider, Petra; Wegscheider, W; Weiss, D; Prettl, W
2005-01-01
We show that free-carrier (Drude) absorption of both polarized and unpolarized terahertz radiation in quantum well (QW) structures causes an electric photocurrent in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. Experimental and theoretical analysis evidences that the observed photocurrents are spin dependent and related to the gyrotropy of the QWs. Microscopic models for the photogalvanic effects in QWs based on asymmetry of photoexcitation and relaxation processes are proposed. In most of the investigated structures the observed magneto-induced photocurrents are caused by spin-dependent relaxation of non-equilibrium carriers
InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot-quantum-well heterostructure formed by submonolayer deposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Zhangcheng; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan
2003-01-01
-dot-quantum-well (QDQW) structure, by using high power PL and selective PL with excitation energies below the band gap of the GaAs barriers and temperature dependent PL. As the temperature is increased from 10 to 300 K, a narrowing of the full width at half-maximum at intermediate temperatures and a sigmoidal behaviour......Discrete emission lines from self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown in the submonolayer (SML) deposition mode have been observed in micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 10 K. For the first time, the SML-grown InGaAs/GaAs QD heterostructure is verified to be a quantum...
Indium antimonide quantum well structures for electronic device applications
Edirisooriya, Madhavie
The electron effective mass is smaller in InSb than in any other III-V semiconductor. Since the electron mobility depends inversely on the effective mass, InSb-based devices are attractive for field effect transistors, magnetic field sensors, ballistic transport devices, and other applications where the performance depends on a high mobility or a long mean free path. In addition, electrons in InSb have a large g-factor and strong spin orbit coupling, which makes them well suited for certain spin transport devices. The first n-channel InSb high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was produced in 2005 with a power-delay product superior to HEMTs with a channel made from any other III-V semiconductor. The high electron mobility in the InSb quantum-well channel increases the switching speed and lowers the required supply voltage. This dissertation focuses on several materials challenges that can further increase the appeal of InSb quantum wells for transistors and other electronic device applications. First, the electron mobility in InSb quantum wells, which is the highest for any semiconductor quantum well, can be further increased by reducing scattering by crystal defects. InSb-based heteroepitaxy is usually performed on semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrates due to the lack of a lattice matched semi-insulating substrate. The 14.6% mismatch between the lattice parameters of GaAs and InSb results in the formation of structural defects such as threading dislocations and microtwins which degrade the electrical and optical properties of InSb-based devices. Chapter 1 reviews the methods and procedures for growing InSb-based heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy. Chapters 2 and 3 introduce techniques for minimizing the crystalline defects in InSb-based structures grown on GaAs substrates. Chapter 2 discusses a method of reducing threading dislocations by incorporating AlyIn1-ySb interlayers in an AlxIn1-xSb buffer layer and the reduction of microtwin defects by growth
Barrier penetration effects on thermopower in semiconductor quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaidya, R. G.; Sankeshwar, N. S.; Mulimani, B. G.
2014-01-01
Finite confinement effects, due to the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the barriers of a square well potential, on the low–temperature acoustic-phonon-limited thermopower (TP) of 2DEG are investigated. The 2DEG is considered to be scattered by acoustic phonons via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric couplings. Incorporating the barrier penetration effects, the dependences of diffusion TP and phonon drag TP on barrier height are studied. An expression for phonon drag TP is obtained. Numerical calculations of temperature dependences of mobility and TP for a 10 nm InN/In x Ga 1−x N quantum well for different values of x show that the magnitude and behavior of TP are altered. A decrease in the barrier height from 500 meV by a factor of 5, enhances the mobility by 34% and reduces the TP by 58% at 20 K. Results are compared with those of infinite barrier approximation
Capacitance-voltage characteristics of quantum well structures
Moon, C R; Choe, B D
1999-01-01
The characteristics of the apparent carrier distribution (ACD) of quantum well (QW) structures are investigated using the self-consistent simulation and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) profiling techniques. The simulation results on the differential carrier distribution show that the change of position expectation value of two-dimensional electrons determines the full width at half maximum of 100 K ACD peaks when conduction band offset is DELTA E sub c = 160 meV and the QW width t sub w is greater than 120 A. The contribution of Debye averaging effects to the ACD peaks becomes important as t sub w and DELTA E sub c values decrease and the temperature is increased. The influence of Debye averaging effects on ACD peaks appears differently according to the location of each well in multiple QWs. These results indicate that the extraction of QW parameters from the C-V profile should be done with caution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Zhengyuan; Shen, Xiyang; Xiong, Huan; Li, Qingfei; Kang, Junyong; Fang, Zhilai [Xiamen University, Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Semiconductors and Efficient Devices, Department of Physics, Xiamen (China); Lin, Feng; Yang, Bilan; Lin, Shilin [San' an Optoelectronics Co., Ltd, Xiamen (China); Shen, Wenzhong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Tong-Yi [Shanghai University, Shanghai University Materials Genome Institute and Shanghai Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai (China)
2016-02-15
Interface modification of high indium content InGaN/GaN quantum wells was carried out by Mg pretreatment of the GaN barrier surface. The indium in the Mg-pretreated InGaN layer was homogeneously distributed, making the interfaces abrupt. The improved interface quality greatly enhanced light emission capacity. The cathodoluminescence intensity of the Mg-pretreated InGaN/GaN quantum wells was correspondingly much stronger than those of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells without Mg pretreatment. (orig.)
Surface effects in quantum spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkinson, J B
2004-01-01
Chains of quantum spins with open ends and isotropic Heisenberg exchange are studied. By diagonalizing the Hamiltonian for chains of finite length N and obtaining all the energy eigenvalues, the magnetic susceptibility χ, the specific heat C v , and the partition function Z can be calculated exactly for these chains. The high-temperature series expansions of these are then evaluated. For χ and C v it is found that the terms in the series consist of three parts. One is the normal high-T series already known in great detail for the N → infinity ring(chain with periodic boundary conditions). The other two consist of a 'surface' term and a correction term of order (1/T) N . The surface term is found as a series up to and including (1/T) 8 for spin S = 1/2 and 1. Simple Pade approximant formulae are given to extend the range of validity below T = 1
Kohl, M.; Heitmann, D.; Grambow, P.; Ploog, K.
1988-06-01
Periodic multiple-quantum-well wires have been prepared by etching five-layer quantum-well structures through a holographically prepared mask. The periodicity was 380 nm, the lateral confinement 180 nm, and the quantum-well width 13, nm. The luminescence from these microstructured systems in the frequency regime of the one-electron-one-heavy-hole transition was strongly polarized with the electric field perpendicular to the periodic structure. This effect was caused by the resonantly enhanced emission of quantum-well-exciton (QWE) polaritons. Excitation of QWE polaritons was also observed in reflection measurements on the microstructured samples.
Leon, R.; Swift, G. M.; Magness, B.; Taylor, W. A.; Tang, Y. S.; Wang, K. L.; Dowd, P.; Zhang, Y. H.
2000-01-01
The photoluminescence emission from InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well and quantum-dot (QD) structures are compared after controlled irradiation with 1.5 MeV proton fluxes. Results presented here show a significant enhancement in radiation tolerance with three-dimensional quantum confinement.
Crystal orientation effects on wurtzite quantum well electromechanical fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten
2010-01-01
in the literature for semiconductors, is inaccurate for ZnO/MgZnO heterostructures where shear-strain components play an important role. An interesting observation is that a growth direction apart from [1̅ 21̅ 0] exists for which the electric field in the quantum well region becomes zero. This is important for, e......A one-dimensional continuum model for calculating strain and electric field in wurtzite semiconductor heterostructures with arbitrary crystal orientation is presented and applied to GaN/AlGaN and ZnO/MgZnO heterostructure combinations. The model is self-consistent involving feedback couplings...... of spontaneous polarization, strain, and electric field. Significant differences between fully coupled and semicoupled models are found for the longitudinal and shear-strain components as a function of the crystal-growth direction. In particular, we find that the semicoupled model, typically used...
Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, M.N.; Soccolich, C.E.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Sauer, N.; Chang, T.Y.; Miller, B.I.
1989-01-01
This paper describes how, using multiple quantum well (MQW) saturable absorbers, the authors passively mode locked a NaCl color center laser to produce 275 fs transform-limited, pedestal-free pulses with as high as 3.7 kW peak power. The pulses are tunable from λ = 1.59 to 1.7 μm by choosing MQW's with different bandgaps. They shortened the output pulses from the laser to 25 fs using the technique of soliton compression in a fiber. The steady-state operation of the laser requires the combination of a fast saturable absorber and gain saturation. In addition to the NaCl laser, they passively mode locked a Tl 0 (1):KCl color center laser and produced -- 22 ps pulses. Although the 275 fs pulses from the NaCl laser are Gaussian, when broadened, the pulses acquire an asymmetric spectrum because of carrier-induced refractive index changes
Transport studies in p-type double quantum well samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyndman, R.J.
2000-01-01
The motivation for the study of double quantum well samples is that the extra spatial degree of freedom can modify the ground state energies of the system, leading to new and interesting many body effects. Electron bi-layers have been widely studied but the work presented here is the first systematic study of transport properties of a p-type, double quantum well system. The samples, grown on the 311 plane, consisted of two 100A GaAs wells separated by a 30A AlAs barrier. The thin barrier in our structures, gives rise to very strong inter-layer Coulombic interactions but in contrast to electron double quantum well samples, tunnelling between the two wells is very weak. This is due to the large effective mass of holes compared with electrons. It is possible to accurately control the total density of a sample and the relative occupancy of each well using front and back gates. A systematic study of the magnetoresistance properties of the p-type bi-layers, was carried out at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields, for samples covering a range of densities. Considerable care was required to obtain reliable results as the samples were extremely susceptible to electrical shock and were prone to drift in density slowly over time. With balanced wells, the very low tunnelling in the p-type bi-layer leads to a complete absence of all odd integers in both resistance and thermopower except for the v=1 state, ( v 1/2 in each layer) where v is the total Landau level filling factor. Unlike other FQHE features the v=1 state strengthens with increased density as inter-layer interactions increase in strength over intra-layer interactions. The state is also destroyed at a critical temperature, which is much lower than the measured activation temperature. This is taken as evidence for a finite temperature phase transition predicted for the bi-layer v=1. From the experimental observations, we construct a phase diagram for the state, which agree closely with theoretical predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christian, George M.; Hammersley, Simon; Davies, Matthew J.; Dawson, Philip; Kappers, Menno J.; Massabuau, Fabien C.P.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Humphreys, Colin J.
2016-01-01
We report on the effects of varying the number of quantum wells (QWs) in an InGaN/GaN multiple QW (MQW) structure containing a 23 nm thick In0.05Ga0.95N prelayer doped with Si. The calculated conduction and valence bands for the structures show an increasing total electric field across the QWs with increasing number of QWs. This is due to the reduced strength of the surface polarisation field, which opposes the built-in field across the QWs, as its range is increased over thicker samples. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements show a red shifted QW emission peak energy, which is attributed to the enhanced quantum confined Stark effect with increasing total field strength across the QWs. Low temperature PL time decay measurements and room temperature internal quantum efficiency (IQE) measurements show decreasing radiative recombination rates and decreasing IQE, respectively, with increasing number of QWs. These are attributed to the increased spatial separation of the electron and hole wavefunctions, consistent with the calculated band profiles. It is also shown that, for samples with fewer QWs, the reduction of the total field across the QWs makes the radiative recombination rate sufficiently fast that it is competitive with the efficiency losses associated with the thermal escape of carriers. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Phys. Status Solidi C published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Propagation of a TE surface mode in a relativistic electron beam–quantum plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel Aziz, M.
2012-01-01
The dispersion properties of a transverse electric (TE) surface waves propagating along the interface between a magneto-quantum plasma–relativistic beam system and vacuum are studied by using the quantum hydrodynamic model. The general dispersion relations are derived and analyzed in some special cases of interest. Moreover, the effects of density gradients for the beam and plasma on the dispersion properties of surface waves are investigated. The kind of dispersion relations depends strongly on the ambient magnetic field B o via the gyro-frequency ω c , the quantum parameters, and the width of the plasma layer as well as the relativistic factor for the electron beam. It is found that the quantum effects play a crucial role to facilitate the propagation of TE surface waves. -- Highlights: ► Propagation of TE surface waves on bounded magneto-quantum plasma by relativistic beam is studied. ► The quantum plasma consists of transitional layer adjacent to uniform layer. ► Influence of quantum effects on the propagation of TE surface waves are taken into account. ► Effects of homogeneity and inhomogeneity for beam on TE surface waves are considered. ► It is found that quantum effects facilitate the propagation of TE surface modes.
Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, Y.; Lee, Y. K.; Gei, Y.; Ren, S; Roth, J. E.; Miller, D. A.; Harris, J. S.
2006-01-01
Silicon is the dominant semiconductor for electronics, but there is now a growing need to integrate such component with optoelectronics for telecommunications and computer interconnections. Silicon-based optical modulators have recently been successfully demonstrated but because the light modulation mechanisms in silicon are relatively weak, long (for example, several millimeters) devices or sophisticated high-quality-factor resonators have been necessary. Thin quantum-well structures made from III-V semiconductors such as GaAs, InP and their alloys exhibit the much stronger Quantum-Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) mechanism, which allows modulator structures with only micrometers of optical path length. Such III-V materials are unfortunately difficult to integrate with silicon electronic devices. Germanium is routinely integrated with silicon in electronics, but previous silicon-germanium structures have also not shown strong modulation effects. Here we report the discovery of the QCSE, at room temperature, in thin germanium quantum-well structures grown on silicon. The QCSE here has strengths comparable to that in III-V materials. Its clarity and strength are particularly surprising because germanium is an indirect gap semiconductor, such semiconductors often display much weak optical effects than direct gap materials (such as the III-V materials typically used for optoelectronics). This discovery is very promising for small, high-speed, low-power optical output devices fully compatible with silicon electronics manufacture. (author)
Nonlinear optical rectification in semiparabolic quantum wells with an applied electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karabulut, ibrahim; Safak, Haluk
2005-01-01
The optical rectification (OR) in a semiparabolic quantum well with an applied electric field has been theoretically investigated. The electronic states in a semiparabolic quantum well with an applied electric field are calculated exactly, within the envelope function and the displaced harmonic oscillator approach. Numerical results are presented for the typical Al x Ga 1- x As/GaAs quantum well. These results show that the applied electric field and the confining potential frequency of the semiparabolic quantum well have a great influence on the OR coefficient. Moreover, the OR coefficient also depends sensitively on the relaxation rate of the semiparabolic quantum well system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Netzel, Carsten; Hoffmann, Veit; Wernicke, Tim; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
2010-07-15
To determine relevant processes affecting the internal quantum efficiency in GaInN quantum well structures, we have studied the temperature and excitation power dependent photoluminescence intensity for quantum wells with different well widths on (0001) c-plane GaN and for quantum wells on nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN. In thick polar quantum wells, the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) causes a stronger intensity decrease with increasing temperature as long as the radiative recombination dominates. At higher temperatures, when the nonradiative recombination becomes more important, thick polar quantum wells feature a lower relative intensity decrease than thinner polar or nonpolar quantum wells. Excitation power dependent photoluminescence points to a transition from a recombination of excitons to a bimolecular recombination of uncorrelated charge carriers for thick polar quantum wells in the same temperature range. This transition might contribute to the limitation of nonradiative recombination by a reduced diffusivity of charge carriers. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Efficiency droop in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schade, Lukas; Schwarz, Ulrich [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Angewandte Festkoerperphysik (IAF), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Institut fuer Mikrosystemtechnik (IMTEK), Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Wernicke, Tim; Rass, Jens; Ploch, Simon [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH), Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH), Berlin (Germany)
2012-07-01
InGaN quantum wells (QWs) exhibit a decline of the internal efficiency at high charge carrier excitation. This has been observed for polar as well as for semipolar and nonpolar oriented QWs. Polar stands for the (0001) growth direction with strong piezoelectric fields. Due to the vanishing fields, the orthogonal growth directions (a or m) are called nonpolar, while all directions between are merged as semipolar orientations. In contrast to the polar and many semipolar QWs, nonpolar InGaN QWs provide a special property: optical polarization of the radiative transitions, which is a result of the anisotropic strain within pseudomorphic grown nonpolar QWs. Using this property, the broadened effective emission can be resolved into two fundamental transitions. They are spectrally separated by a defined energy which corresponds to the energy distance of the valence subbands. We studied nonpolar InGaN/InGaN Multi-QWs grown on low defect density GaN substrates with a setup for confocal microscopy. To reach high excitation densities of charge carriers, we use either a combination of an UV laser and highly focusing objectives or an electric pulse generator. The emission is spectrally analysed and compared to established models.
Comparative study on stained InGaAs quantum wells for high-speed optical-interconnect VCSELs
Li, Hui; Jia, Xiaowei
2018-05-01
The gain-carrier characteristics of InGaAs quantum well for 980 nm high-speed, energy-efficient vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are investigated. We specially studied the potentially InGaAs quantum well designs can be used for the active region of energy-efficient, temperature-stable 980-nm VCSEL, which introduced a quantum well gain peak wavelength-to-cavity resonance wavelength offset to improve the dynamic performance at high operation temperature. Several candidate quantum wells are being compared in theory and measurement. We found that ∼5 nm InGaAs QW with ∼6 nm barrier thickness is suitable for the active region of high-speed optical interconnect 980 nm VCSELs, and no significant improvement in the 20% range of In content of InGaAs QWs. The results are useful for next generation green photonic device design.
Quantum equivalence of a driven triple-well Van der Pol oscillator: A QTM study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, Debdutta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Quantum–classical correspondence is manifested at strong external coupling regime. • Suppression of classical chaos takes place in quantum domain. • Quantum chaos promotes quantum diffusion. • Quantum localisation is realised when interference effects are dominant. - Abstract: A quantum mechanical analogue of the classically chaotic triple-well oscillator under the influence of an external field and parametric excitation has been studied by using the quantum theory of motion. The on the fly calculations show the correspondence between some dynamical aspects of the classical and quantum oscillators along with a strictly quantum mechanical behaviour in case of diffusion and tunneling. Suitable external conditions have been obtained which can either assist or suppress the movement of quantum particles from one well to another. Quantum interference effects play a critical role in determining the nature of the quantum dynamics and in the presence of strong coupling to the external forces, quantum interference effects reduce drastically leading to decoherence of the quantum wave packet. In such situations, quantum dynamical features qualitatively resemble the corresponding classical dynamical behaviour and a correspondence between classical and quantum dynamics is obtained
Hybridization of electron states in a step quantum well in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.
2005-01-01
The quantum states and energy levels of an electrion in a rectangular step quantum well in a magnetic field parallel to the plane of two-dimentional electron gas are investigated. It is shown that the joint effect of the magnetic field and confining potential of the quantum well results in redical change of the electron spectrum. The dependence of the electron energy levels on the quantum well parameters, magnetic field induction and projection of the wave-vector along the magnetic field induction are calculated. Numerical calculations are carried out for a AlAs/GaAlAs/GaAs/AlAs step quantum well
Intermixing effects on emission properties of InGaN/GaN coupled Quantum wells
Susilo, Tri B.; Alsunaidi, M. A.; Shen, Chao; Ooi, Boon S.
2015-01-01
Intermixing processes in quantum wells have been extensively studied in order to modify characteristic of semiconductor devices such as LEDs. Controlling the band gap of material by introducing intermixing process can be used to enable broadband and controllable emission of LEDs. Quantum well intermixing (QWI) in InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) is discussed in this paper. By varying the interdiffusion and separation lengths, the effects of intermixing process on the quantum eigen energies of the wells are studied. The investigation is carried out using a homegrown Quantum-FDTD simulator. © 2015 IEEE.
Intermixing effects on emission properties of InGaN/GaN coupled Quantum wells
Susilo, Tri B.
2015-02-01
Intermixing processes in quantum wells have been extensively studied in order to modify characteristic of semiconductor devices such as LEDs. Controlling the band gap of material by introducing intermixing process can be used to enable broadband and controllable emission of LEDs. Quantum well intermixing (QWI) in InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) is discussed in this paper. By varying the interdiffusion and separation lengths, the effects of intermixing process on the quantum eigen energies of the wells are studied. The investigation is carried out using a homegrown Quantum-FDTD simulator. © 2015 IEEE.
Blue and green electroluminescence from CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot-quantum-wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Y. F.; Cao, X. A.
2014-01-01
CdS/CdSe/ZnS quantum dot quantum well (QDQW) nanocrystals were synthesized using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique, and their optical properties were tuned by bandgap and strain engineering. 3-monolayer (ML) CdSe QWs emitted blue photoluminescence at 467 nm with a spectral full-width-at-half-maximum of ∼30 nm. With a 3 ML ZnS cladding layer, which also acts as a passivating and strain-compensating layer, the QDQWs acquired a ∼35% quantum yield of the QW emission. Blue and green electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from QDQW light-emitting devices with 3–4.5 ML CdSe QWs. It was found that as the peak blueshifted, the overall EL was increasingly dominated by defect state emission due to poor hole injection into the QDQWs. The weak EL was also attributed to strong field-induced charge separation resulting from the unique QDQW geometry, weakening the oscillator strength of optical transitions
Emergence of the persistent spin helix in semiconductor quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koralek, Jake; Weber, Chris; Orenstein, Joe; Bernevig, Andrei; Zhang, Shoucheng; Mack, Shawn; Awschalom, David
2008-01-01
According to Noether's theorem, for every symmetry in nature there is a corresponding conservation law. For example, invariance with respect to spatial translation corresponds to conservation of momentum. In another well-known example, invariance with respect to rotation of the electron's spin, or SU(2) symmetry, leads to conservation of spin polarization. For electrons in a solid, this symmetry is ordinarily broken by spin-orbit (SO) coupling, allowing spin angular momentum to flow to orbital angular momentum. However, it has recently been predicted that SU(2) can be recovered in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), despite the presence of SO coupling. The corresponding conserved quantities include the amplitude and phase of a helical spin density wave termed the 'persistent spin helix' (PSH) .2 SU(2) is restored, in principle, when the strength of two dominant SO interactions, the Rashba (alpha) and linear Dresselhaus (beta 1), are equal. This symmetry is predicted to be robust against all forms of spin-independent scattering, including electron-electron interactions, but is broken by the cubic Dresselhaus term (beta 3) and spin-dependent scattering. When these terms are negligible, the distance over which spin information can propagate is predicted to diverge as alpha approaches beta 1. Here we observe experimentally the emergence of the PSH in GaAs quantum wells (QW's) by independently tuning alpha and beta 1. Using transient spin-grating spectroscopy (TSG), we find a spin-lifetime enhancement of two orders of magnitude near the symmetry point. Excellent quantitative agreement with theory across a wide range of sample parameters allows us to obtain an absolute measure of all relevant SO terms, identifying beta 3 as the main SU(2) violating term in our samples. The tunable suppression of spin-relaxation demonstrated in this work is well-suited for application to spintronics
Emergence of the Persistent Spin Helix in Semiconductor Quantum Wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koralek, Jake
2011-01-01
According to Noether's theorem, for every symmetry in nature there is a corresponding conservation law. For example, invariance with respect to spatial translation corresponds to conservation of momentum. In another well-known example, invariance with respect to rotation of the electron's spin, or SU(2) symmetry, leads to conservation of spin polarization. For electrons in a solid, this symmetry is ordinarily broken by spin-orbit (SO) coupling, allowing spin angular momentum to flow to orbital angular momentum. However, it has recently been predicted that SU(2) can be recovered in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), despite the presence of SO coupling. The corresponding conserved quantities include the amplitude and phase of a helical spin density wave termed the 'persistent spin helix' (PSH). SU(2) is restored, in principle, when the strength of two dominant SO interactions, the Rashba (α) and linear Dresselhaus (β 1 ), are equal. This symmetry is predicted to be robust against all forms of spin-independent scattering, including electron-electron interactions, but is broken by the cubic Dresselhaus term (β 3 ) and spin-dependent scattering. When these terms are negligible, the distance over which spin information can propagate is predicted to diverge as α → β 1 . Here we observe experimentally the emergence of the PSH in GaAs quantum wells (QW's) by independently tuning α and β 1 . Using transient spin-grating spectroscopy (TSG), we find a spin-lifetime enhancement of two orders of magnitude near the symmetry point. Excellent quantitative agreement with theory across a wide range of sample parameters allows us to obtain an absolute measure of all relevant SO terms, identifying β 3 as the main SU(2) violating term in our samples. The tunable suppression of spin-relaxation demonstrated in this work is well-suited for application to spintronics.
Hart, Sean; Ren, Hechen; Kosowsky, Michael; Ben-Shach, Gilad; Leubner, Philipp; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; Halperin, Bertrand; Yacoby, Amir
Conventional s-wave superconductivity arises from singlet pairing of electrons with opposite Fermi momenta, forming Cooper pairs with zero net momentum. Recent studies have focused on coupling s-wave superconductors to systems with an unusual configuration of electronic spin and momentum at the Fermi surface, where the nature of the paired state can be modified and the system may even undergo a topological phase transition. Here we present measurements on Josephson junctions based on HgTe quantum wells coupled to aluminum or niobium superconductors, and subject to a magnetic field in the plane of the quantum well. We observe that the in-plane magnetic field modulates the Fraunhofer interference pattern, and that this modulation depends both on electron density and on the direction of the in-plane field with respect to the junction. However, the orientation of the junction with respect to the underlying crystal lattice does not impact the measurements. These findings suggest that spin-orbit coupling plays a role in the observed behavior, and that measurements of Josephson junctions in the presence of an in-plane field can elucidate the Fermi surface properties of the weak link material. NSF DMR-1206016; STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant No. DMR-1231319; NSF GRFP under Grant DGE1144152, Microsoft Corporation Project Q.
Studies of quantum levels in GaInNAs single quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirakata, Sho; Kondow, Masahiko; Kitatani, Takeshi
2006-01-01
Spectroscopic studies have been carried out on the quantum levels in GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs). Photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation (PLE), photoreflectance (PR), and high-density-excited PL (HDE-PL) were measured on high quality GaInNAs SQWs, Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.01 As 0.99 /GaAs (well thickness: l z =10 nm) and Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.005 As 0.995 /GaAs (l z =3∝10 nm), grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. For Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.01 As 0.99 /GaAs (l z =10 nm), PL at 8 K exhibited a peak at 1.07 eV due to the exciton-related transition between quantum levels of ground states (e1-hh1). Both PR and PLE exhibited three transitions (1.17, 1.20 and 1.32 eV), and the former two transitions were assigned to as either of e1-lh1 and e2-hh2 transitions, while the transition at 1.32 eV was assigned to as the e2-lh2 transition. For HDE-PL, a new PL peak was observed at about 1.2 eV, and it was assigned to the unresolved e1-lh1 and e2-hh2 transitions. Similar optical measurements have been done on the Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.005 As 0.995 /GaAs with various l z (3∝10 nm). Dependence of optical spectra and energies of quantum levels on l z have been studied. It has been found that HDE-PL in combination with PLE is a good tool for the study of the quantum level of GaInNAs SQW. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Theory of the Franz-Keldysh effect in quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trallero Giner, C.
1986-09-01
We use the effective-mass approximation to obtain the imaginary part, ε 2 , of the dielectric constant of a quantum well in an applied electric field for direct transitions at a normal (M O ) threshold. The calculations of ε 2 are used to evaluate the real part, ε 1 , of the dielectric constant through the Kramers-Kronig relations. The changes in ε 1 and ε 2 due to the electric field are expressed in terms of the corresponding electrooptic functions. All magnitudes are obtained, neglecting excitonic effects, for electric fields both perpendicular to and in the plane of the layers. We show that for fields parallel to the layers the electrooptic functions turn out to be a superposition of two-dimensional Franz-Keldysh ones. The electrooptic functions for fields perpendicular to the layers show a qualitatively different behaviour from those observed in bulk semiconductors. Analytic expressions for the Lorentzian broadening of ε 1 and ε 2 are given in terms of complex valued electrooptic functions of complex argument. (author)
Physics of frequency-modulated comb generation in quantum-well diode lasers
Dong, Mark; Cundiff, Steven T.; Winful, Herbert G.
2018-05-01
We investigate the physical origin of frequency-modulated combs generated from single-section semiconductor diode lasers based on quantum wells, isolating the essential physics necessary for comb generation. We find that the two effects necessary for comb generation—spatial hole burning (leading to multimode operation) and four-wave mixing (leading to phase locking)—are indeed present in some quantum-well systems. The physics of comb generation in quantum wells is similar to that in quantum dot and quantum cascade lasers. We discuss the nature of the spectral phase and some important material parameters of these diode lasers.
High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term objective of this program is to develop flexible, lightweight, single-junction solar cells using quantum structured designs that can achieve ultra-high...
Wu, Feng; Sun, Haiding; Ajia, Idris A.; Roqan, Iman S.; Zhang, Daliang; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Li, Xiaohang
2017-01-01
Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at similar to 350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.
Wu, Feng
2017-05-03
Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at similar to 350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.
Wang, Z. H.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yong
2016-03-01
We study the energy-level crossing behavior in a two-dimensional quantum well with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings (SOCs). By mapping the SOC Hamiltonian onto an anisotropic Rabi model, we obtain the approximate ground state and its quantum Fisher information (QFI) via performing a unitary transformation. We find that the energy-level crossing can occur in the quantum well system within the available parameters rather than in cavity and circuit quantum eletrodynamics systems. Furthermore, the influence of two kinds of SOCs on the QFI is investigated and an intuitive explanation from the viewpoint of the stationary perturbation theory is given.
Spin-polarized spin-orbit-split quantum-well states in a metal film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varykhalov, Andrei; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Gudat, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Rader, Oliver [BESSY Berlin (Germany); Shikin, Alexander M. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2008-07-01
Elements with high atomic number Z lead to a large spin-orbit coupling. Such materials can be used to create spin-polarized electronic states without the presence of a ferromagnet or an external magnetic field if the solid exhibits an inversion asymmetry. We create large spin-orbit splittings using a tungsten crystal as substrate and break the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that quantum-well states forming in the gold film are spin-orbit split and spin polarized up to a thickness of at least 10 atomic layers. This is a considerable progress as compared to the current literature which reports spin-orbit split states at metal surfaces which are either pure or covered by at most a monoatomic layer of adsorbates.
Scattering mechanisms in shallow undoped Si/SiGe quantum wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Laroche
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We report the magneto-transport study and scattering mechanism analysis of a series of increasingly shallow Si/SiGe quantum wells with depth ranging from ∼ 100 nm to ∼ 10 nm away from the heterostructure surface. The peak mobility increases with depth, suggesting that charge centers near the oxide/semiconductor interface are the dominant scattering source. The power-law exponent of the electron mobility versus density curve, μ ∝ nα, is extracted as a function of the depth of the Si quantum well. At intermediate densities, the power-law dependence is characterized by α ∼ 2.3. At the highest achievable densities in the quantum wells buried at intermediate depth, an exponent α ∼ 5 is observed. We propose and show by simulations that this increase in the mobility dependence on the density can be explained by a non-equilibrium model where trapped electrons smooth out the potential landscape seen by the two-dimensional electron gas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehl, Christian
2011-01-01
The main motivation for this thesis was the experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted magnetic soft mode and the analysis of its dependence on the hole-concentration and external B-field, as well as its disappearance with increasing sample temperature. For that purpose, CdMnTe/CdMgTe QWs (Mn: 0.6%, 1.0%) positioned close to the sample surface (13-19 nm) were investigated in an in-plane applied external magnetic field (up to 4.5 T in Voigt-geometry) via a two-colour experiment i.e. using two light sources. This allows the spin excitation of Mn-ions by simultaneously tuning the hole-concentration towards the ferromagnetic phase transition by photo-generated carriers. Thus, one tuneable laser is responsible for resonant below-barrier excitation as a probe for Multi-SF Raman scattering. The other laser excites photo-generated carriers from above barrier (2.41 eV) for tuning the hole concentration in the QW. Positioning the QW close to the sample surface causes a surface-induced p-doping of the QW (intrinsic hole concentration in the QW) and enables the active tuning of the hole concentration by photo-generated carriers due to different tunnelling behaviour of electrons and holes from the QW to the surface. The Mn-g-factor was decreased by quasi-continuously increasing the above-barrier illumination, while the below-barrier excitation was kept at a constant low power. This results in a Mn-g-factor reduction starting from its atomic value g=2.01 to lowest evaluated Mn-g-factor in this thesis g=1.77. This is a magnetic softening of 12%. Apart from the general magnetic soft mode behaviour at low temperatures, one of the main experimental results in this thesis is the confirmation of the theoretical prediction that the magnetic soft mode behaviour in the external B-field does not only depend on the carrier concentration but also on the B-field strength itself. An additional aspect is the temperature dependence of the magnetic soft mode. The Mn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehl, Christian
2011-03-28
The main motivation for this thesis was the experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted magnetic soft mode and the analysis of its dependence on the hole-concentration and external B-field, as well as its disappearance with increasing sample temperature. For that purpose, CdMnTe/CdMgTe QWs (Mn: 0.6%, 1.0%) positioned close to the sample surface (13-19 nm) were investigated in an in-plane applied external magnetic field (up to 4.5 T in Voigt-geometry) via a two-colour experiment i.e. using two light sources. This allows the spin excitation of Mn-ions by simultaneously tuning the hole-concentration towards the ferromagnetic phase transition by photo-generated carriers. Thus, one tuneable laser is responsible for resonant below-barrier excitation as a probe for Multi-SF Raman scattering. The other laser excites photo-generated carriers from above barrier (2.41 eV) for tuning the hole concentration in the QW. Positioning the QW close to the sample surface causes a surface-induced p-doping of the QW (intrinsic hole concentration in the QW) and enables the active tuning of the hole concentration by photo-generated carriers due to different tunnelling behaviour of electrons and holes from the QW to the surface. The Mn-g-factor was decreased by quasi-continuously increasing the above-barrier illumination, while the below-barrier excitation was kept at a constant low power. This results in a Mn-g-factor reduction starting from its atomic value g=2.01 to lowest evaluated Mn-g-factor in this thesis g=1.77. This is a magnetic softening of 12%. Apart from the general magnetic soft mode behaviour at low temperatures, one of the main experimental results in this thesis is the confirmation of the theoretical prediction that the magnetic soft mode behaviour in the external B-field does not only depend on the carrier concentration but also on the B-field strength itself. An additional aspect is the temperature dependence of the magnetic soft mode. The Mn
Quantum Hall effect in InAs/AlSb double quantum well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yakunin, M.V.; Podgornykh, S.M.; Sadof'ev, Yu.G.
2009-01-01
Double quantum wells (DQWs) were first implemented in the InAs/AlSb heterosystem, which is characterized by a large Lande g factor |g|=15 of the InAs layers forming the well, much larger than the bulk g factor |g|=0.4 of the GaAs in conventional GaAs/AlGaAs DQWs. The quality of the samples is good enough to permit observation of a clear picture of the quantum Hall effect (QHE). Despite the small tunneling gap, which is due to the large barrier height (1.4 eV), features with odd filling factors ν=3,5,7, ... are present in the QHE, due to collectivized interlayer states of the DQW. When the field is rotated relative to the normal to the layers, the ν=3 state is suppressed, confirming the collectivized nature of that state and denying that it could owe its existence to a strong asymmetry of the DQW. Previously the destruction of the collectivized QHE states by a parallel field had been observed only for the ν=1 state. The observation of a similar effect for ν=3 in an InAs/AlSb DQW may be due to the large bulk g factor of InAs
Effect of interface roughness on Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells
Tan, Chee-Keong; Sun, Wei; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Tansu, Nelson
2017-03-01
Auger recombination in a semiconductor is a three-carrier process, wherein the energy from the recombination of an electron and hole pair promotes a third carrier to a higher energy state. In semiconductor quantum wells with increased carrier densities, the Auger recombination becomes an appreciable fraction of the total recombination rate and degrades luminescence efficiency. Gaining insight into the variables that influence Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells could lead to further advances in optoelectronic and electronic devices. Here we demonstrate the important role that interface roughness has on Auger recombination within quantum wells. Our computational studies find that as the ratio of interface roughness to quantum well thickness is increased, Auger recombination is significantly enhanced. Specifically, when considering a realistic interface roughness for an InGaN quantum well, the enhancement in Auger recombination rate over a quantum well with perfect heterointerfaces can be approximately four orders of magnitude.
Picosecond intersubband hole relaxation in p-type quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Z.; Fauchet, P.M.; Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.
1995-01-01
We report the first direct measurement of the relaxation time of holes in p-type quantum wells using tunable, subpicosecond mid-infrared laser pulses in a pump-probe arrangement. The QW layers consisted of 50 In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As periods. The In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As well was 4 nm wide and the Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As barrier was 8 nm wide. The dopant concentration was 10 19 CM -3 which corresponds to a sheet density of 1.2 x 10 13 CM -2 . The room temperature IR spectrum showed a 50 meV wide absorption peak at 5.25 μm (220 meV). This energy agrees with the calculated n=1 heavy hole to n=1 light hole transition energy of 240 meV (150 meV for strain and 90 meV for confinement). The large absorption width results from hole-hole scattering and the difference in dispersion relations between the two subbands. The equal-wavelength pump-probe transmission measurements were performed using the Stanford free electron laser (FEL). The FEL pulses were tuned between 4 and 6 μ m and their duration was less than 1 ps. The measurements were performed as a function of temperature, pump wavelength and intensity (from 0.3 to 10 GW/cm 2 ). In all our experiments, we find an increase of transmission (decrease of absorption or bleaching) following photopumping, which recovers as a single exponential with a time constant (relaxation time) of the order of 1 picosecond. The maximum change in transmission is linear with pump 2 intensity below 1 GW/cm 2 and saturates to ∼3% with a saturation intensity I sat of 3 GW/cm 2 . As the saturation regime is entered, the relaxation time increases from 0.8 ps to 1.8 ps. This relaxation time depends on the temperature T: it increases from 0.8 ps to 1.3 ps as T decreases from 300 K to 77 K. Finally, when we tune the laser through the absorption band, the magnitude of the signal changes but its temporal behavior does not change, within the accuracy of the measurements
Magneto-transport study of quantum phases in wide GaAs quantum wells
Liu, Yang
In this thesis we study several quantum phases in very high quality two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) confined to GaAs single wide quantum wells (QWs). In these systems typically two electric subbands are occupied. By controlling the electron density as well as the QW symmetry, we can fine tune the cyclotron and subband separation energies, so that Landau levels (LLs) belonging to different subbands cross at the Fermi energy EF. The additional subband degree of freedom enables us to study different quantum phases. Magneto-transport measurements at fixed electron density n and various QW symmetries reveal a remarkable pattern for the appearance and disappearance of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states at LL filling factors nu = 10/3, 11/3, 13/3, 14/3, 16/3, and 17/3. These q/3 states are stable and strong as long as EF lies in a ground-state (N = 0) LL, regardless of whether that level belongs to the symmetric or the anti-symmetric subband. We also observe subtle and distinct evolutions near filling factors nu = 5/2 and 7/2, as we change the density n, or the symmetry of the charge distribution. The even-denominator FQH states are observed at nu = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2 when EF lies in the N= 1 LLs of the symmetric subband (the S1 levels). As we increase n, the nu = 5/2 FQH state suddenly disappears and turns into a compressible state once EF moves to the spin-up, N = 0, anti-symmetric LL (the A0 ↑ level). The sharpness of this disappearance suggests a first-order transition from a FQH to a compressible state. Moreover, thanks to the renormalization of the susbband energy separation in a well with asymmetric change distribution, two LLs can get pinned to each other when they are crossing at E F. We observe a remarkable consequence of such pinning: There is a developing FQH state when the LL filling factor of the symmetric subband nuS equals 5/2 while the antisymmetric subband has filling 1 < nuA <2. Next, we study the evolution of the nu=5/2 and 7/2 FQH
Spin injection in self-assembled quantum dots coupled with a diluted magnetic quantum well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murayama, A.; Asahina, T.; Souma, I.; Koyama, T.; Hyomi, K.; Nishibayashi, K.; Oka, Y.
2007-01-01
Spin injection is studied in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) of CdSe coupled with a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well (DMS-QW) of Zn 1- x - y Cd x Mn y Se, by means of time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence (PL). Excitonic PL from the CdSe QDs shows σ - -circular polarization in magnetic fields, mainly due to negative g-values of individual dots, when the energy difference of excitons between the QDs and DMS-QW is large as 300 meV. However, when such energy difference is comparable with LO-phonon energy in the QD, we observe an additional PL peak with the long lifetime as 3.5 ns and σ + -polarization in magnetic fields. It can be attributed to a type-II transition between the down-spin electron injected from the DMS-QW into the QDs, via LO-phonon-assisted resonant tunneling, and the down-spin heavy hole in the DMS-QW. In addition, the electron spin-injection is also evidenced by σ + -polarized PL with the fast rise-time of 20 ps in the QDs
Recent progress in the theory of random surfaces and simplicial quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1995-01-01
Some of the recent developments in the theory of random surfaces and simplicial quantum gravity is reviewed. For 2d quantum gravity this includes the failure of Regge calculus, our improved understanding of the c>1 regime, some surprises for q-state Potts models with q>4, attempts to use renormalization group techniques, new critical behavior of random surface models with extrinsic curvature and improved algorithms. For simplicial quantum gravity in higher dimensions it includes a discussion of the exponential entropy bound needed for the models to be well defined, the question of ''computational ergodicity'' and the question of how to extract continuum behavior from the lattice simulations. ((orig.))
Strong coupling and polariton lasing in Te based microcavities embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rousset, J.-G., E-mail: j-g.rousset@fuw.edu.pl; Piętka, B.; Król, M.; Mirek, R.; Lekenta, K.; Szczytko, J.; Borysiuk, J.; Suffczyński, J.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Smoleński, T.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Pacuski, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warszawa (Poland)
2015-11-16
We report on properties of an optical microcavity based on (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te layers and embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells. The key point of the structure design is the lattice matching of the whole structure to MgTe, which eliminates the internal strain and allows one to embed an arbitrary number of unstrained quantum wells in the microcavity. We evidence the strong light-matter coupling regime already for the structure containing a single quantum well. Embedding four unstrained quantum wells results in further enhancement of the exciton-photon coupling and the polariton lasing in the strong coupling regime.
Direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Umlauff, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Kalt, H.
1998-01-01
We report on a direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures. A narrow energy distribution of free 1s excitons is created in ZnSe-based quantum wells by emission of one LO phonon after optical excitation of the continuum stales with picosecond laser pulses. The subs......We report on a direct observation of free-exciton thermalization in quantum-well structures. A narrow energy distribution of free 1s excitons is created in ZnSe-based quantum wells by emission of one LO phonon after optical excitation of the continuum stales with picosecond laser pulses...
Holonomic surface codes for fault-tolerant quantum computation
Zhang, Jiang; Devitt, Simon J.; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco
2018-02-01
Surface codes can protect quantum information stored in qubits from local errors as long as the per-operation error rate is below a certain threshold. Here we propose holonomic surface codes by harnessing the quantum holonomy of the system. In our scheme, the holonomic gates are built via auxiliary qubits rather than the auxiliary levels in multilevel systems used in conventional holonomic quantum computation. The key advantage of our approach is that the auxiliary qubits are in their ground state before and after each gate operation, so they are not involved in the operation cycles of surface codes. This provides an advantageous way to implement surface codes for fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Bandgap Engineering of 1300 nm Quantum Dots/Quantum Well Nanostructures Based Devices
Alhashim, Hala H.
2016-05-29
The main objectives of this thesis are to develop viable process and/or device technologies for bandgap tuning of 1300-nm InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot (QD) laser structures, and broad linewidth 1300-nm InGaAsP/InP quantum well (QW) superluminescent diode structures. The high performance bandgap-engineered QD laser structures were achieved by employing quantum-dot intermixing (QDI) based on impurity free vacancy diffusion (IFVD) technique for eventual seamless active-passive integration, and bandgap-tuned lasers. QDI using various dielectric-capping materials, such as HfO2, SrTiO3, TiO2, Al2O3 and ZnO, etc, were experimented in which the resultant emission wavelength can be blueshifted to ∼ 1100 nm ─ 1200 nm range depending on process conditions. The significant results extracted from the PL characterization were used to perform an extensive laser characterization. The InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with QDs transition energies were blueshifted by ~185 nm, and lasing around ~1070 – 1190 nm was achieved. Furthermore, from the spectral analysis, a simultaneous five-state lasing in the InAs/InGaAs intermixed QD laser was experimentally demonstrated for the first time in the very important wavelength range from 1030 to 1125 nm. The QDI methodology enabled the facile formation of a plethora of devices with various emission wavelengths suitable for a wide range of applications in the infrared. In addition, the wavelength range achieved is also applicable for coherent light generation in the green – yellow – orange visible wavelength band via frequency doubling, which is a cost-effective way of producing compact devices for pico-projectors, semiconductor laser based solid state lighting, etc. [1, 2] In QW-based superluminescent diode, the problem statement lies on achieving a flat-top and ultra-wide emission bandwidth. The approach was to design an inhomogeneous active region with a comparable simultaneous emission from different transition states in the QW stacks, in
Non-square quantum well growth for reduced threshold current in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents calculations demonstrating that non-square quantum well growth (well shaping) can result in reduced threshold current for tensilely strained quantum well bipolar diode lasers operating at 1.52ìm m. Calculations of subband structure, optical matrix elements and laser gain are performed for arbitrarily ...
Limiting scattering processes in high-mobility InSb quantum wells grown on GaSb buffer systems
Lehner, Ch. A.; Tschirky, T.; Ihn, T.; Dietsche, W.; Keller, J.; Fält, S.; Wegscheider, W.
2018-05-01
We present molecular beam epitaxial grown single- and double-side δ -doped InAlSb/InSb quantum wells with varying distances down to 50 nm to the surface on GaSb metamorphic buffers. We analyze the surface morphology as well as the impact of the crystalline quality on the electron transport. Comparing growth on GaSb and GaAs substrates indicates that the structural integrity of our InSb quantum wells is solely determined by the growth conditions at the GaSb/InAlSb transition and the InAlSb barrier growth. The two-dimensional electron gas samples show high mobilities of up to 349 000 cm2/Vs at cryogenic temperatures and 58 000 cm2/Vs at room temperature. With the calculated Dingle ratio and a transport lifetime model, ionized impurities predominantly remote from the quantum well are identified as the dominant source of scattering events. The analysis of the well-pronounced Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations reveals a high spin-orbit coupling with an effective g -factor of -38.4 in our samples. Along with the smooth surfaces and long mean free paths demonstrated, our InSb quantum wells are increasingly competitive for nanoscale implementations of Majorana mode devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sęk, Grzegorz; Andrzejewski, Janusz; Ryczko, Krzysztof; Poloczek, Przemysław; Misiewicz, Jan; Semenova, Elizaveta S; Lemaitre, Aristide; Patriarche, Gilles; Ramdane, Aberrahim
2009-01-01
We report on the electronic properties of GaAs-substrate-based structures designed as a tunnel-injection system composed of self-assembled InAs quantum dots and an In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As quantum well separated by a GaAs barrier. We have performed photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements which have allowed the determination of the optical transitions in the QW–QD tunnel structure and its respective references with just quantum dots or a quantum well. The effective mass calculations of the band structure dependence on the tunnelling barrier thickness have shown that in spite of an expected significant tunnelling between both parts of the system, its strong asymmetry and the strain distribution cause that the quantum-mechanical-coupling-induced energy shift of the optical transitions is almost negligible for the lowest energy states and weakly sensitive to the width of the barrier, which finds confirmation in the existing experimental data
Effect of GaN cap thickness on carrier dynamics in InGaN quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kopylov, Oleksii; Shirazi, Roza; Svensk, O.
2012-01-01
We have studied optical properties of single In0.1Ga0.9N quantum wells with GaN barriers in close proximity to the wafer surface (... thickness of 3nm for achieving highest brightness emitters. At low temperature, we observe a behaviour that suggests that some surface states act as trapping centres for carriers rather than as a non-radiative recombination channel. Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence decay curves shows...
The Double-Well Potential in Quantum Mechanics: A Simple, Numerically Exact Formulation
Jelic, V.; Marsiglio, F.
2012-01-01
The double-well potential is arguably one of the most important potentials in quantum mechanics, because the solution contains the notion of a state as a linear superposition of "classical" states, a concept which has become very important in quantum information theory. It is therefore desirable to have solutions to simple double-well potentials…
Collective Behavior of a Spin-Aligned Gas of Interwell Excitons in Double Quantum Wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larionov, A. V.; Bayer, M.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2005-01-01
The kinetics of a spin-aligned gas of interwell excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells (n–i–n heterostructure) is studied. The temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time for excitons, in which a photoexcited electron and hole are spatially separated between two adjacent quantum wells...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yelin, S.F.; Hemmer, P.R.
2002-01-01
A novel class of coherent nonlinear optical phenomena, involving induced transparency in semiconductor quantum wells, is considered in the context of a particular application to sensitive long-wavelength infrared detection. It is shown that the strongest decoherence mechanisms can be suppressed or mitigated, resulting in substantial enhancement of nonlinear optical effects in semiconductor quantum wells
Analytic methods for ﬁeld induced tunneling in quantum wells
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Analytic methods for ﬁeld induced tunneling in quantum wells with arbitrary potential proﬁles ... Electric ﬁeld induced tunneling is studied in three different types of quantum wells by solving time-independent effective mass ... Current Issue : Vol.
Electroreflectance investigations of quantum confined Stark effect in GaN quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drabinska, A; Pakula, K; Baranowski, J M; Wysmolek, A
2010-01-01
In this paper we present room temperature electroreflectance studies of GaN quantum wells (QWs) with different well width. The electroreflectance measurements were performed with external voltage applied to the structure therefore it was possible to tune the electric field inside QW up to its completely screening and furthermore even reversing it. The analysis of QW spectral lines showed the Stark shift dependence on applied voltage and well width reaching about 35 meV for highest voltage and widest well width. It was possible to obtain the condition of zero electric field in QW. Both broadening and amplitude of QW lines are minimal for zero electric field and increases for increasing electric field in QW. The energy transition is maximum for zero electric field and for increasing electric field it decreases due to Stark effect. Neither amplitude and broadening parameter nor energy transition does not depend on the direction of electric field. Only parameter that depends on the direction of electric field in QW is phase of the signal. The analysis of Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKOs) from AlGaN barriers allowed to calculate the real electric field dependence on applied voltage and therefore to obtain the Stark shift dependence on electric field. The Stark shift reached from -12 meV to -35 meV for 450 kV/cm depending on the well width. This conditions were established for highest forward voltages therefore this is the value of electric field and Stark shift caused only by the intrinsic polarization of nitrides.
Effect of hydrogen on properties of diode structures with Pd/GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells
Karpovich, I A; Shobolov, E L; Zvonkov, B N
2002-01-01
The effect of hydrogen on the photoelectric properties and on the photoluminescence of the Pd/GaAs/InGaAs quantum well diode structures was investigated. The effect of the GaAs anodic oxide thickness on the structure parameters was found and its optimal thickness for the hydrogen sensors was determined. The essential importance of the metal bridges in the thin oxide layers for the current voltage characteristic was established. It was shown that quantum wells increase the sensitivity of the structures to hydrogen. The defect formation during the deposition of the Pd electrode on the natural and anodized GaAs surface was investigated using the quantum wells as the local defect probes. The possibility of the hydrogen passivation of the defects in the diode structures by introduction of the atomic hydrogen through the Pd electrode in a molecular hydrogen atmosphere was proved
Quantum square-well with logarithmic central spike
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav; Semorádová, Iveta
2018-01-01
Roč. 33, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 1850009. ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : state-dependence of interactions * effective Hamiltonians * logarithmic nonlinearities * linearized quantum toy model Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2016
Design and Fabrication of Multi Quantum well based GaN/InGaN Blue LED
Meel, K.; Mahala, P.; Singh, S.
2018-03-01
This paper presents the optimization of the multi-quantum well based Light Emitting Diode (LED) structure. We investigate the electrical and optical properties of the device on several factors like well width, barrier width, the number of quantum wells and then optimize the structure. The device is optimized for a well width and barrier width of 3nm and 6nm respectively, consisting of five quantum wells. Simulations were carried out using Silvaco ATLAS TCAD simulation program (Silvaco International, USA). The optimized structure was grown by MOCVD and fabricated. The I-V characteristic was also measured.
Mobility modulation in inverted delta doped coupled double quantum well structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahoo, N. [Department of Electronic Science, Berhampur University, 760007, Odisha (India); Sahu, T., E-mail: tsahu_bu@rediffmail.com [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Science and Technology, Palur Hills, Berhampur 761008, Odisha (India)
2016-10-01
We have studied the modulation of electron mobility μ as a function of the electric field perpendicular to the interface plane F{sub p} in a GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well structure near the resonance of subband states. The functional dependence of μ on F{sub p} exhibits a minimum near the anticrossing of subband states leading to an oscillatory behavior of μ. We show that the oscillatory enhancement of μ becomes more pronounced with increase in the difference between the doping concentrations in the side barriers. The oscillation of μ also increases by varying the widths of the two wells through shifting of the position of the middle barrier. It is interesting to show that the oscillation of μ is always larger when there is doping in barrier towards the substrate side compared to that of the surface side due to the difference in the influence of the interface roughness scattering potential. Further, broadening of the central barrier width increases the peaks of the oscillation of μ mostly due to the changes in the ionized impurity scattering potential. Our results can be utilized for the performance enhancement of quantum well field effect transistor devices.
Low field Monte-Carlo calculations in heterojunctions and quantum wells
Hall, van P.J.; Rooij, de R.; Wolter, J.H.
1990-01-01
We present results of low-field Monte-Carlo calculations and compare them with experimental results. The negative absolute mobility of minority electrons in p-type quantum wells, as found in recent experiments, is described quite well.
Position sensitive photon detectors using epitaxial InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganbold, T.; Antonelli, M.; Cautero, G.; Jark, H.; Eichert, D.M.; Cucini, R.; Menk, R.H.; Biasiol, G.
2014-01-01
This work deals with the investigation of novel position-sensitive devices based on InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells, which could be applied to several applications of either synchrotron or conventional light sources. Such devices may be used as fast and efficient detectors due to the direct, low-energy band gap and high electron mobility at room temperature. Metamorphic In 0.75 Ga 0.25 As/In 0.75 Al 0.25 As quantum wells containing a two-dimensional electron gas were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Two devices with size of 5 × 5 mm 2 were prepared by using optical lithography. In the first, the active layers were segmented into four electrically insulated quadrants. Indium ohmic contacts were realized on the corner of each quadrant (for readout) and on the back surface (for bias). In the second, the quantum well was left unsegmented and covered by 400 nm of Al providing a single bias electrode, while four readout electrodes were fabricated on the back side by depositing and segmenting a Ni/Ge/Au layer. Photo-generated carriers can be collected at the readout electrodes by biasing from either the QW side or the back side of the devices during beam exposure. Individual currents obtained from each electrode allow monitoring of both the position and the intensity of the impinging beam for photon energies ranging from visible to hard X-ray. Such detector prototypes were tested with synchrotron radiation. Moreover, the position of the beam can be estimated with a precision of 800 nm in the segmented QW. A lower precision of 10 μm was recorded in the unsegmented QW due to the charge diffusion through the 500-μm-thick wafer, with however a lower electronic noise due to the better uniformity of the contacts
The over-barrier resonant states and multi-channel scattering by a quantum well
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander F. Polupanov
2008-06-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate an explicit numerical method for accurate calculation ofthe analytic continuation of the scattering matrix, describing the multichannelscattering by a quantum well, to the unphysical region of complexvalues of the energy. Results of calculations show that one or severalpoles of the S-matrix exist, corresponding to the over-barrier resonantstates that are critical for the effect of the absolute reflection at scatteringof the heavy hole by a quantum well in the energy range where only theheavy hole may propagate over barriers in a quantum-well structure.Light- and heavy-hole states are described by the Luttinger Hamiltonianmatrix. The qualitative behaviour of the over-barrier scattering andresonant states is the same at variation of the shape of the quantum-wellpotential, however lifetimes of resonant states depend drastically on theshape and depth of a quantum well.
Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, Reijiro; Yoshii, Hisahiro; Ojima, Shuichi; Paul, S.K.
1989-07-01
Quantum field theory for b-c systems is formulated on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus. We make use of the formalism recently developed by Krichever and Novikov. Hamiltonian is defined properly, and the Ward-Takahashi identities are derived on higher-genus Riemann surfaces. (author)
Zheng, Yuanliao; Chen, Pingping; Ding, Jiayi; Yang, Heming; Nie, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xiaohao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei
2018-06-01
A hybrid structure consisting of periodic gold stripes and an overlaying gold film has been proposed as the optical coupler of a long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector. Absorption spectra and field distributions of the structure at back-side normal incidence are calculated by the finite difference time-domain method. The results indicate that the intersubband absorption can be greatly enhanced based on the waveguide resonance as well as the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode. With the optimized structural parameters of the periodic gold stripes, the maximal intersubband absorption can exceed 80%, which is much higher than the SPP-enhanced intersubband absorption (the one of the standard device. The relationship between the structural parameters and the waveguide resonant wavelength is derived. Other advantages of the efficient optical coupling based on waveguide resonance are also discussed.
Study of hot carrier relaxation in quantum wells by subpicosecond Raman scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dai-sik; Yu, P.Y.
1990-03-01
Relaxation of hot carriers excited by subpicosecond laser pulses has been studied by Raman scattering in GaAs/AlAs multiple quantum wells with well widths varying between 100 and 1000 Angstrom. The hot phonon population observed by Raman scattering is found to decrease with the well width despite the fact that the hot electron temperature remains constant. The results are explained in terms of confinement of both electrons and optical phonons in quantum wells
Influence of surface states of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots in quantum dots sensitized photo-electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Lei [School of Electronic and Electrical, Wuhan Railway Vocational College of Technology, Wuhan 430205 (China); Zhao, Yinghan; Chen, Keqiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: chenw@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)
2016-12-01
Graphical abstract: J–V curves of different ligands capped CuInS{sub 2} QDs sensitized TiO{sub 2} photo-electrodes. - Highlights: • DDT, OLA, MPA, and S{sup 2−} ligand capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes are prepared. • Surface states of quantum dots greatly influence the electrochemical performance of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes. • S{sup 2−} ligand enhances the UV–vis absorption and electron–hole separation property as well as the excellent charge transfer performance of the photo-electrodes. - Abstract: Surface states are significant factor for the enhancement of electrochemical performance in CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes. DDT, OLA, MPA, and S{sup 2−} ligand capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes are prepared by thermolysis, solvethermal and ligand-exchange processes, respectively, and their optical properties and photoelectrochemical properties are investigated. The S{sup 2−} ligand enhances the UV–vis absorption and electron–hole separation property as well as the excellent charge transfer performance of the photo-electrodes, which is attributed to the fact that the atomic S{sup 2−} ligand for the interfacial region of quantum dots may improve the electron transfer rate. These S{sup 2−}-capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes exhibit the excellent photoelectrochemical efficiency and IPCE peak value, which is higher than that of the samples with DDT, OLA and MPA ligands.
Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, Reijiro; Ojima, Shuichi.
1990-08-01
Quantum field theory for closed bosonic string systems is formulated on arbitrary higher-genus Riemann surfaces in global operator formalism. Canonical commutation relations between bosonic string field X μ and their conjugate momenta P ν are derived in the framework of conventional quantum field theory. Problems arising in quantizing bosonic systems are considered in detail. Applying the method exploited in the preceding paper we calculate Ward-Takahashi identities. (author)
Chakrabarti, S; Chatterjee, B; Debbarma, S; Ghatak, K P
2015-09-01
In this paper we study the influence of strong electric field on the two dimensional (2D)effective electron mass (EEM) at the Fermi level in quantum wells of III-V, ternary and quaternary semiconductors within the framework of k x p formalism by formulating a new 2D electron energy spectrum. It appears taking quantum wells of InSb, InAs, Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te and In(1-x)Ga(x)As(1-y)P(y) lattice matched to InP as examples that the EEM increases with decreasing film thickness, increasing electric field and increases with increasing surface electron concentration exhibiting spikey oscillations because of the crossing over of the Fermi level by the quantized level in quantum wells and the quantized oscillation occurs when the Fermi energy touches the sub-band energy. The electric field makes the mass quantum number dependent and the oscillatory mass introduces quantum number dependent mass anisotropy in addition to energy. The EEM increases with decreasing alloy composition where the variations are totally band structure dependent. Under certain limiting conditions all the results for all the cases get simplified into the well-known parabolic energy bands and thus confirming the compatibility test. The content of this paper finds three applications in the fields of nano-science and technology.
Leon, R.; Swift, G.; Magness, B.; Taylor, W.; Tang, Y.; Wang, K.; Dowd, P.; Zhang, Y.
2000-01-01
Successful implementation of technology using self-forming semiconductor Quantum Dots (QDs) has already demonstrated that temperature independent Dirac-delta density of states can be exploited in low current threshold QD lasers and QD infrared photodetectors.
Effect of low and staggered gap quantum wells inserted in GaAs tunnel junctions
Louarn, K.; Claveau, Y.; Marigo-Lombart, L.; Fontaine, C.; Arnoult, A.; Piquemal, F.; Bounouh, A.; Cavassilas, N.; Almuneau, G.
2018-04-01
In this article, we investigate the impact of the insertion of either a type I InGaAs or a type II InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum well on the performances of MBE-grown GaAs tunnel junctions (TJs). The devices are designed and simulated using a quantum transport model based on the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism and a 6-band k.p Hamiltonian. We experimentally observe significant improvements of the peak tunneling current density on both heterostructures with a 460-fold increase for a moderately doped GaAs TJ when the InGaAs QW is inserted at the junction interface, and a 3-fold improvement on a highly doped GaAs TJ integrating a type II InGaAs/GaAsSb QW. Thus, the simple insertion of staggered band lineup heterostructures enables us to reach a tunneling current well above the kA cm‑2 range, equivalent to the best achieved results for Si-doped GaAs TJs, implying very interesting potential for TJ-based components, such as multi-junction solar cells, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and tunnel-field effect transistors.
Anisotropic emission and photon-recycling in strain-balanced quantum well solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabrera, C. I.; Enciso, A.; Contreras-Solorio, D. A.; Rimada, J. C.; Hernandez, L.; Connolly, J. P.
2014-01-01
Strain-balanced quantum well solar cells (SB-QWSCs) extend the photon absorption edge beyond that of bulk GaAs by incorporation of quantum wells in the i-region of a p–i–n device. Anisotropy arises from a splitting of the valence band due to compressive strain in the quantum wells, suppressing a transition which contributes to emission from the edge of the quantum wells. We have studied both the emission light polarized in the plane perpendicular (TM) to the quantum well which couples exclusively to the light hole transition and the emission polarized in the plane of the quantum wells (TE) which couples mainly to the heavy hole transition. It was found that the spontaneous emission rates TM and TE increase when the quantum wells are deeper. The addition of a distributed Bragg reflector can substantially increase the photocurrent while decreasing the radiative recombination current. We have examined the impact of the photon recycling effect on SB-QWSC performance. We have optimized SB-QWSC design to achieve single junction efficiencies above 30%
Anisotropic emission and photon-recycling in strain-balanced quantum well solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabrera, C. I.; Enciso, A.; Contreras-Solorio, D. A. [Academic Unit of Physics, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Czda. Solidaridad y Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rimada, J. C. [Solar Cell Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMRE), University of Havana, Zapata y G, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Hernandez, L., E-mail: luisman@fisica.uh.cu [Faculty of Physics, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria. 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Connolly, J. P. [Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2014-04-28
Strain-balanced quantum well solar cells (SB-QWSCs) extend the photon absorption edge beyond that of bulk GaAs by incorporation of quantum wells in the i-region of a p–i–n device. Anisotropy arises from a splitting of the valence band due to compressive strain in the quantum wells, suppressing a transition which contributes to emission from the edge of the quantum wells. We have studied both the emission light polarized in the plane perpendicular (TM) to the quantum well which couples exclusively to the light hole transition and the emission polarized in the plane of the quantum wells (TE) which couples mainly to the heavy hole transition. It was found that the spontaneous emission rates TM and TE increase when the quantum wells are deeper. The addition of a distributed Bragg reflector can substantially increase the photocurrent while decreasing the radiative recombination current. We have examined the impact of the photon recycling effect on SB-QWSC performance. We have optimized SB-QWSC design to achieve single junction efficiencies above 30%.
Effect of quantum well position on the distortion characteristics of transistor laser
Piramasubramanian, S.; Ganesh Madhan, M.; Radha, V.; Shajithaparveen, S. M. S.; Nivetha, G.
2018-05-01
The effect of quantum well position on the modulation and distortion characteristics of a 1300 nm transistor laser is analyzed in this paper. Standard three level rate equations are numerically solved to study this characteristics. Modulation depth, second order harmonic and third order intermodulation distortion of the transistor laser are evaluated for different quantum well positions for a 900 MHz RF signal modulation. From the DC analysis, it is observed that optical power is maximum, when the quantum well is positioned near base-emitter interface. The threshold current of the device is found to increase with increasing the distance between the quantum well and the base-emitter junction. A maximum modulation depth of 0.81 is predicted, when the quantum well is placed at 10 nm from the base-emitter junction, under RF modulation. The magnitude of harmonic and intermodulation distortion are found to decrease with increasing current and with an increase in quantum well distance from the emitter base junction. A minimum second harmonic distortion magnitude of -25.96 dBc is predicted for quantum well position (230 nm) near to the base-collector interface for 900 MHz modulation frequency at a bias current of 20 Ibth. Similarly, a minimum third order intermodulation distortion of -38.2 dBc is obtained for the same position and similar biasing conditions.
Enhancement of Radiative Efficiency with Staggered InGaN Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tansu, Nelson; Dierolf, Volkmar; Huang, Gensheng; Penn, Samson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Xiaohang; Poplawsky, Jonathan
2011-07-14
The technology on the large overlap InGaN QWs developed in this program is currently implemented in commercial technology in enhancing the internal quantum efficiency in major LED industry in US and Asia. The scientific finding from this work supported by the DOE enabled the implementation of this step-like staggered quantum well in the commercial LEDs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Javanainen, Juha
2010-01-01
We study theoretically an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well trap, both quantum-mechanically and classically, under conditions such that in the classical model an unstable equilibrium dissolves into large-scale oscillations of the atoms between the potential wells. Quantum mechanics alone does not exhibit such nonlinear dynamics, but measurements of the atom numbers in the potential wells may nevertheless cause the condensate to behave essentially classically.
Shallow acceptors in strained Ge/Ge1-xSix heterostructures with quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleshkin, V.Ya.; Andreev, B.A.; Gavrilenko, V.I.; Erofeeva, I.V.; Kozlov, D.V.; Kuznetsov, O.A.
2000-01-01
Dependence of acceptor localized state energies in quantum wells (strained layers of Ge in heterostructures Ge/Ge 1-x Si x ) on the width of quantum well and position in it was studied theoretically. Spectrum of impurity absorption in the far infrared range was calculated. Comparison of the results calculated and observed photoconductivity spectra permits estimating acceptor distribution over quantum well and suggesting conclusion that acceptors can be largely concentrated near heteroboundaries. Absorption spectrum was calculated bearing in mind resonance impurity states, which permits explaining the observed specific features in the photoconductivity spectrum short-wave range by transition to resonance energy levels, bound to upper subzones of dimensional quantization [ru
Emission and elastic strain in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells with embedded InAs quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega-Macotela, L.G.; Polupan, G. [ESIME - Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Shcherbyna, Ye. [National Technical University-' ' KPI' ' , Kiev 03057 (Ukraine)
2012-07-15
Photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been studied in the symmetric GaAs/In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) with embedded InAs quantum dots (QDs), grown at different temperatures from the range 470-535 C. The increase of QD growth temperature is accompanied by decreasing the QD surface density and the enlargement of QD lateral diameters. Simultaneously the variation of the PL intensity and PL peak positions none monotonously have been detected. To understand the reason of the variation of PL intensity and peak positions the PL temperature dependences and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) at low angles (1.75-1.92 ) have been studied. The fitting procedure is applied to analysis the temperature shift of PL peak positions. Fitting has been done on the base of empirical expression for the band gap shrinkage that uses the Einstein temperature parameter. The character non monotonous for the Ga/In inter diffusion versus QD growth temperatures has been revealed. The XRD study has detected the high intensity peaks that corresponds to the diffraction of X-ray beam from the (311) crystal planes in GaAs QWs. The position of XRD peaks in the structures with QD grown at 490-510 C is very close to the angles related to the diffraction from (311) planes in the bulk GaAs. In QD structures with QD grown at 470 and 525-535 C the (311) XRD peaks shift to the higher diffraction angles that testifies on the essential compressive strains in these structures. The reason of the variation non monotonously of elastic strain versus QD densities has been discussed (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Fabrication of InN/InGaN multiple quantum well structures by RF-MBE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurouchi, M.; Muto, D.; Takado, S.; Araki, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Na, H.; Naoi, H. [Center for Promotion of The 21st Century COE Program, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Miyajima, T. [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)
2006-06-15
InN/InGaN multiple quantum well structures have been fabricated on InN templates grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The structures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and satellite peaks up to the 3rd order were observed. From InN/InGaN multiple quantum well structures with different well widths, photoluminescence (PL) emission from the well layers was observed at 77 K, and the PL peak energy slightly blueshifted with decreasing the well width. This dependence can be explained by combined effects of quantum size effect, quantum confined Stark effect, and band filling effect. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Intraband light absorption by holes in InGaAsP/InP quantum wells
Pavlov, N. V.; Zegrya, G. G.
2018-03-01
A microscopic analysis of the mechanism of intraband radiation absorption by holes with their transition to a spin-split band for quantum wells based on InGaAsP/InP solid solutions is performed within the framework of the four-band Kane model. The calculation is made for two polarizations of the incident radiation: along the crystal growth axis and in the plane of the quantum well. It is shown that this process can be the main mechanism of internal radiation losses for quantum well lasers. It is also shown that the dependence of the absorption coefficient on the width of the quantum well has a maximum at a well width from 40 to 60 A.
Binding energy of impurity states in an inverse parabolic quantum well under magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Soekmen, I.
2007-01-01
We have investigated the effects of the magnetic field which is directed perpendicular to the well on the binding energy of the hydrogenic impurities in an inverse parabolic quantum well (IPQW) with different widths as well as different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The calculations were performed within the effective mass approximation, using a variational method. We observe that IPQW structure turns into parabolic quantum well with the inversion effect of the magnetic field and donor impurity binding energy in IPQW strongly depends on the magnetic field, Al concentration at the well center and well dimensions
InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well heterostructures for solar cells grown by MOVPE: case studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhtarova, Anna; Valdueza-Felip, Sirona; Durand, Christophe; Pan, Qing; Monroy, Eva; Eymery, Joel [CEA-CNRS-UJF Group ' ' Nanophysique et semi-conducteurs' ' , CEA/INAC/SP2M, Grenoble (France); Grenet, Louis [CEA-LITEN, Grenoble (France); Peyrade, David [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique (LTM/CNRS), Grenoble (France); Bougerol, Catherine [CEA-CNRS-UJF Group ' ' Nanophysique et semi-conducteurs' ' , Institut Neel-CNRS, Grenoble (France); Chikhaoui, Walf [CEA-LETI, Grenoble (France)
2013-03-15
We investigate the influence of growth temperature, p -doping with bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium (Cp{sub 2}Mg) and number N of multi-quantum wells on the surface morphology, the electrical and optical properties of InGaN-based solar cells grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. Atomic force microscopy measurements show no influence of multiple-quantum well number on the surface morphology, but a smoothing with the increase of the Cp{sub 2}Mg flow. Electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling exhibits an increase of the N{sub a}-N{sub d} concentration when increasing the Cp{sub 2}Mg flow from 250 to 700 sccm. X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy measurements confirm completely strained quantum wells with similar superlattice period for N=5 to 30. Finally, first solar cells have been demonstrated with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 38% at 380 nm wavelength for N=30. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyssenko, V. G.; Østergaard, John Erland; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1999-01-01
Summary form only given. We focus on the ability to control the electronic coupling in coupled quantum wells with external E-fields leading to a strong modification of the coherent light emission, in particular at a bias where a superlattice-like miniband is formed. More specifically, we investig......Summary form only given. We focus on the ability to control the electronic coupling in coupled quantum wells with external E-fields leading to a strong modification of the coherent light emission, in particular at a bias where a superlattice-like miniband is formed. More specifically, we...... investigate a MBE-grown GaAs sample with a sequence of 15 single quantum wells having a successive increase of 1 monolayer in width ranging from 62 A to 102 A and with AlGaAs barriers of 17 Å....
Adatom-induced lateral inhomogeneity of quantum well states in metal multilayers
Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Berndt, Richard; Di Paola, Cono; Uchihashi, Takashi
2010-01-01
The influence of Co adatoms on the quantum well states (QWSs) existing in Cu/Co(100) multilayers is investigated by means of ab initio calculations. The typical oscillations of the density of states at the Fermi level as a function of the number of Cu layers are found to be strongly perturbed by the presence of adatoms on the surface. In a lateral direction, the QWSs exhibit atomic-scale variations, which depend on the number of Cu layers. These results suggest that the phase accumulation model, which is often used for analyzing QWS, is not sufficient to interpret electronic features near adatoms and call for experimental real-space investigations of QWS.
Adatom-induced lateral inhomogeneity of quantum well states in metal multilayers
Schwingenschlögl, Udo
2010-07-13
The influence of Co adatoms on the quantum well states (QWSs) existing in Cu/Co(100) multilayers is investigated by means of ab initio calculations. The typical oscillations of the density of states at the Fermi level as a function of the number of Cu layers are found to be strongly perturbed by the presence of adatoms on the surface. In a lateral direction, the QWSs exhibit atomic-scale variations, which depend on the number of Cu layers. These results suggest that the phase accumulation model, which is often used for analyzing QWS, is not sufficient to interpret electronic features near adatoms and call for experimental real-space investigations of QWS.
Atomic-scale investigation of nuclear quantum effects of surface water: Experiments and theory
Guo, Jing; Li, Xin-Zheng; Peng, Jinbo; Wang, En-Ge; Jiang, Ying
2017-12-01
Quantum behaviors of protons in terms of tunneling and zero-point motion have significant effects on the macroscopic properties, structure, and dynamics of water even at room temperature or higher. In spite of tremendous theoretical and experimental efforts, accurate and quantitative description of the nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) is still challenging. The main difficulty lies in that the NQEs are extremely susceptible to the structural inhomogeneity and local environments, especially when interfacial systems are concerned. In this review article, we will highlight the recent advances of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S), which allows the access to the quantum degree of freedom of protons both in real and energy space. In addition, we will also introduce recent development of ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations at surfaces/interfaces, in which both the electrons and nuclei are treated as quantum particles in contrast to traditional ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). Then we will discuss how the combination of STM/S and PIMD are used to directly visualize the concerted quantum tunneling of protons within the water clusters and quantify the impact of zero-point motion on the strength of a single hydrogen bond (H bond) at a water/solid interface. Those results may open up the new possibility of exploring the exotic quantum states of light nuclei at surfaces, as well as the quantum coupling between the electrons and nuclei.
Majarshin, A. Jalili; Sabri, H.
2018-06-01
It is interesting that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition. This paper studies the quantum phase transition of the U(5) to SO(6) in the interacting boson model (IBM) on the finite number N of bosons. This paper explores the well-known distinctive signatures of transition from spherical vibrational to γ-soft shape phase in the IBM with the variation of a control parameter. Quantum phase transitions occur as a result of properties of ground and excited states levels. We apply an affine \\widehat {SU(1,1)} approach to numerically solve non-linear Bethe Ansatz equation and point out what observables are particularly sensitive to the transition. The main aim of this work is to describe the most prominent observables of QPT by using IBM in shape coexistence configuration. We calculate energies of excited states and signatures of QPT as energy surface, energy ratio, energy differences, quadrupole electric transition rates and expectation values of boson number operators and show their behavior in QPT. These observables are calculated and examined for 98 - 102Mo isotopes.
Stretchable Persistent Spin Helices in GaAs Quantum Wells
Dettwiler, Florian; Fu, Jiyong; Mack, Shawn; Weigele, Pirmin J.; Egues, J. Carlos; Awschalom, David D.; Zumbühl, Dominik M.
2017-07-01
the extracted spin-diffusion lengths and decay times show a significant enhancement near α =β . Since within the continuous-locking regime quantum transport is diffusive (2D) for charge while ballistic (1D) for spin and thus amenable to coherent spin control, stretchable PSHs could provide the platform for the much heralded long-distance communication ˜8 - 25 μ m between solid-state spin qubits, where the spin diffusion length for α ≠β is an order of magnitude smaller.
Stretchable Persistent Spin Helices in GaAs Quantum Wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Dettwiler
2017-07-01
sufficiently weak so that the extracted spin-diffusion lengths and decay times show a significant enhancement near α=β. Since within the continuous-locking regime quantum transport is diffusive (2D for charge while ballistic (1D for spin and thus amenable to coherent spin control, stretchable PSHs could provide the platform for the much heralded long-distance communication ∼8–25 μm between solid-state spin qubits, where the spin diffusion length for α≠β is an order of magnitude smaller.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a SPECTRALLY-TUNABLE INFRARED CAMERA based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. This will build on...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact handheld longwave infrared camera based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. Based on...
International Workshop on "Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells : Physics and Applications"
Su, Yan-Kuin
1998-01-01
The International Workshop on "Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells:: Physics and Applications," was held at National Cheng Kung University, in Tainan, Taiwan, December 15-18, 1997. The objective of the Workshop is to facilitate the presentation and discussion of the recent results in theoretical, experimental, and applied aspects of intersubband transitions in quantum wells and dots. The program followed the tradition initiated at the 1991 conference in Cargese-France, the 1993 conference in Whistler, B. C. Canada, and the 1995 conference in Kibbutz Ginosar, Israel. Intersubband transitions in quantum wells and quantum dots have attracted considerable attention in recent years, mainly due to the promise of various applications in the mid- and far-infrared regions (2-30 J. lm). Over 40 invited and contributed papers were presented in this four-day workshop, with topics covered most aspects of the intersubband transition phenomena including: the basic intersubband transition processes, multiquantum well i...
Broadband tunability of gain-flattened quantum-well semiconductor lasers with an external grating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstein, M.; Mehuys, D.; Yariv, A.; Sarfaty, R.; Ungar, J.E.
1989-01-01
Semiconductor injection lasers are known to be tunable over a range of order kΒ · T. Quantum-well lasers, in particular, are shown to exhibit flattened, broadband gain spectra at a particular pumping condition. The gain requirement for a grating-tuned external cavity configuration is examined and is applied to a semiconductor quantum-well laser with an optimized length of gain region. The coupled-cavity formalism is employed to examine the conditions for continuous tuning. The possible tuning range of double-heterostructure lasers is compared to that of quantum-well lasers. The predicted broadband tunability of quantum-well lasers is confirmed experimentally by grating-tuning of uncoated lasers exceeding 120 nm, with single, longitudinal mode output power exceeding 300 mW
Intense laser field effects on a Woods-Saxon potential quantum well
Restrepo, R. L.; Morales, A. L.; Akimov, V.; Tulupenko, V.; Kasapoglu, E.; Ungan, F.; Duque, C. A.
2015-11-01
This paper presents the results of the theoretical study of the effects of non-resonant intense laser field and electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties in an quantum well (QW) make with Woods-Saxon potential profile. The electric field and intense laser field are applied along the growth direction of the Woods-Saxon quantum well and the magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly. To calculate the energy and the wave functions of the electron in the Woods-Saxon quantum well, the effective mass approximation and the method of envelope wave function are used. The confinement in the Woods-Saxon quantum well is changed drastically by the application of intense laser field or either the effect of electric and magnetic fields. The optical properties are calculated using the compact density matrix.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Huang, Danhong
2001-01-01
...), the authors explained the experimentally observed zero-bias residual tunneling current A. Singh and D. A. Cardimona, Opt. Eng., v38, 1424 (1999) in quantum-well photodetectors biased by an ac voltage...
Hole subbands in quantum wells: exact solution for six-dimensional Luttinger–Kohn Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belykh, V G; Tulupenko, V N
2009-01-01
The exact solution for wavefunctions of six-dimensional Luttinger–Kohn Hamiltonian, describing the valence band of cubic semiconductors in the effective mass approximation, is derived. The problem of space quantization for a rectangular quantum well with finite depth is solved. The wavefunctions of carriers in the quantum well are built up of a complete set of exact wavefunctions for the bulk materials constituting the heterojunction. Obtained formulae for wavefunctions permit one to derive the analytical expression for a determinant, which nulls give the allowed energy values. Comparison of the energy spectra for the Si/Si 0.88 Ge 0.12 quantum well obtained in the framework of the developed technique, and using four-dimensional Luttinger–Kohn Hamiltonian allows us to trace clearly the impact of the spin–orbit interaction on the formation of the energy spectrum for the quantum well
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, W.; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E.; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.
2014-01-01
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10 15 cm −2 (or 1.25 × 10 14 cm −2 per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm 2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES
Modelling and characterization of colliding-pulse mode-locked (CPM) quantum well lasers. [MPS1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bischoff, Svend; Brorson, S.D.; Franck, T.
1996-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study of passive colliding pulse mode-locked quantum well lasers is presented. The theoretical model for the gain dynamics is based on semi-classical density matrixequations. The gain dynamics are characterized exp...
Chang, Shu-Wei; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.; Wang, Hailin
2005-03-01
The electromagnetically induced transparency from spin coherence has been proposed in [001] quantum wells recently. [1] The spin coherence is a potential candidate to demonstrate semiconductor-based slow light at room temperature. However, the spin coherence time is not long enough to demonstrate a significant slowdown factor in [001] quantum wells. Further, the required transition of light-hole excitons lies in the absorption of heavy-hole continuum states. The extra dephasing and absorption from these continuum states are drawbacks for slow light. Here, we propose to use [110] strained quantum wells instead of [001] quantum wells. The long spin relaxation time in [110] quantum wells at room temperature, and thus more robust spin coherence, [2] as well as the strain-induced separation [3, 4] of the light-hole exciton transition from the heavy-hole continuum absorption can help to slow down light in quantum wells. [1] T. Li, H. Wang, N. H. Kwong, and R. Binder, Opt. Express 11, 3298 (2003). [2] Y. Ohno, R. Terauchi, T. Adachi, F. Matsukura, and H. Ohno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4196 (1999). [3] C. Y. P. Chao and S. L. Chuang, Phys. Rev. B 46, 4110 (1992). [4] C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, and J. Y. Chi, Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027 (1986).
Ultrafast and band-selective Auger recombination in InGaN quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Kristopher W.; Monahan, Nicholas R.; Zhu, X.-Y.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Crawford, Mary H.
2016-01-01
In InGaN quantum well based light-emitting diodes, Auger recombination is believed to limit the quantum efficiency at high injection currents. Here, we report the direct observation of carrier loss from Auger recombination on a sub-picosecond timescale in a single InGaN quantum well using time-resolved photoemission. Selective excitations of different valence sub-bands reveal that the Auger rate constant decreases by two orders of magnitude as the effective hole mass decreases, confirming the critical role of momentum conservation.
Modeling of carrier dynamics in quantum-well electroabsorption modulators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Højfeldt, Sune; Mørk, Jesper
2002-01-01
We present a comprehensive drift-diffusion-type electroabsorption modulator (EAM) model. The model allows us to investigate both steady-state properties and to follow the sweep-out of carriers after pulsed optical excitation. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of the influence that vari...... in the field near each well affect the escape of carriers from that well. Finally, we look at the influence that the separate-confinement heterostructure barriers have on the carrier sweep-out....... that various design parameters have on the device properties, in particular how they affect the carrier dynamics and the corresponding field dynamics. A number of different types of results are presented. We calculate absorption spectra and steady-state field screening due to carrier pile-up at the separate......-confinement heterobarriers. We then move on to look at carrier sweep-out upon short-pulse optical excitation. For a structure with one well, we analyze how the well position affects the carrier sweep-out and the absorption recovery. We calculate the field dynamics in a multiquantum-well structure and discuss how the changes...
Novel High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers
2017-08-30
Novel High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6... High Power Type-I Quantum Well Cascade Diode Lasers Report Term: 0-Other Email: leon.shterengas@stonybrook.edu Distribution Statement: 1-Approved
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duc, Huynh Thanh; Foerstner, Jens; Meier, Torsten [Department of Physics and CeOPP, University Paderborn (Germany); Priyadarshi, Shekar; Racu, Ana Maria; Pierz, Klaus; Siegner, Uwe; Bieler, Mark [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2010-07-01
We compute photocurrents generated by femtosecond single-color laser pulses in non-centrosymmetric semiconductor quantum wells by combining a 14 x 14 k.p band structure theory with multi-band semiconductor Bloch equations. The transient photocurrents are investigated experimentally by measuring the associated Terahertz emission. The dependencies of the photocurrent and the Terahertz emission on the excitation conditions are discussed for (110)-oriented GaAs quantum wells. The comparison between theory and experiment shows a good agreement.
Spatial dispersion in atom-surface quantum friction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiche, D.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Busch, K.; Intravaia, F.
2017-01-01
We investigate the influence of spatial dispersion on atom-surface quantum friction. We show that for atom-surface separations shorter than the carrier's mean free path within the material, the frictional force can be several orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by local optics. In addition, when taking into account spatial dispersion effects, we show that the commonly used local thermal equilibrium approximation underestimates by approximately 95% the drag force, obtained by employing the recently reported nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for quantum friction. Unlike the treatment based on local optics, spatial dispersion in conjunction with corrections to local thermal equilibrium change not only the magnitude but also the distance scaling of quantum friction.
Quantum field theory near surfaces of discontinuity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onishi, H.T.
1981-01-01
This work deals with the problem of a quantized scalar field propagating near a surface of discontinuity. The proper time formalism is employed to express the Green's function and stress tensor as proper time integrals of a transformation function. The transformation function is calculated by a WKB approximation which exhibits the essential singularities generated by the high frequency behavior of waves propagating near the surface. Two singularities are present, the usual direct singularity and an additional reflected singularity generated by the high frequency behavior of waves reflected by the discontinuity. The stress tensor is calculated by dimensional continuation. The results are employed to analyze energy generated by the surface
Characterisation of intermixed quantum well material by measurements of spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blay, C.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to present experimental techniques and results of the characterisation of intermixed GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well material, specifically gain spectra and carrier lifetime measurements. Relationships are established between intermixing and internal scattering loss, quantum efficiency, quantum well gain coefficient, peak modal gain, and radiative and non-radiative recombination rates. The process of quantum well intermixing, to engineer the bandgap of quantum well material, is now a well understood and reproducible technique. It can be used in producing extended cavity lasers, multi wavelength lasers and photonic integrated circuits. However, little work has been carried out to quantify the effects of intermixing on material parameters. Until now device optimisation has been carried out by a trial and error technique. One of the most fundamental aspects of laser behaviour concerns the gain characteristics of the amplifying medium. An understanding of these characteristics is necessary if one is to make meaningful estimates of steady state or transient laser output intensity and frequency. Optimisation of these fundamental parameters allows the last bit of performance such as optical power, spectral width and modulation speeds, to be squeezed from intermixed quantum well devices. (author)
Universal Quantum Transducers Based on Surface Acoustic Waves
Schuetz, M.J.A.; Kessler, E.M.; Giedke, G.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Lukin, M.D.; Cirac, J.I.
2015-01-01
We propose a universal, on-chip quantum transducer based on surface acoustic waves in piezoactive materials. Because of the intrinsic piezoelectric (and/or magnetostrictive) properties of the material, our approach provides a universal platform capable of coherently linking a broad array of qubits,
Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators
Hajenius, M.; Khosropanah, P.; Hovenier, J. N.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Barbieri, S.; Dhillon, S.; Filloux, P.; Sirtori, C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Beere, H. E.
2008-01-01
We characterize a heterodyne receiver based on a surface-plasmon waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 2.84 THz as a local oscillator, and an NbN hot electron bolometer as a mixer. We find that the envelope of the far-field pattern of the QCL is diffraction-limited and superimposed onto
Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalia Mordvinova
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.
Electronic properties in a quantum well structure of Weyl semimetal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You, Wen-Long; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Xue-Feng; Oleś, Andrzej M.
2016-01-01
We investigate the confined states and transport of three-dimensional Weyl electrons around a one-dimensional external rectangular electrostatic potential. The confined states with finite transverse wave vector exist at energies higher than the half well depth or lower than the half barrier height. The rectangular potential appears completely transparent to the normal incident electrons but not otherwise. The tunneling transmission coefficient is sensitive to their incident angle and shows resonant peaks when their energy coincides with the confined spectra. In addition, for the electrons in the conduction (valence) band through a potential barrier (well), the transmission spectrum has a gap of width increasing with the incident angle. Interestingly, the electron linear zero-temperature conductance over the potential can approach zero when the Fermi energy is aligned to the top and bottom energies of the potential, when only electron beams normal to the potential interfaces can pass through. The considered structure can be used to collimate the Weyl electron beams.
Nonadiabatic quantum state control of many bosons in few wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tichy, Malte C.; Kock Pedersen, Mads; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
We present a fast scheme for arbitrary unitary control of interacting bosonic atoms in a double well. Assuming fixed interwell tunneling rate and intrawell interaction strength, we control the many-atom state by a discrete sequence of shifts of the single-well energies. For strong interactions......, resonant tunneling transitions implement beam-splitter U(2) rotations among atom number eigenstates, which can be combined and, thus, permit full controllability. By numerically optimizing such sequences of couplings at avoided level crossings, we extend the realm of full controllability to a wide range...... of realistic interaction parameters, while we remain in the simple control space. We demonstrate the efficiency and the high achievable fidelity of our proposal with nonadiabatic population transfer, NOON-state creation, a cnot gate, and a transistorlike, conditional evolution of several atoms....
High mobility In0.75Ga0.25As quantum wells in an InAs phonon lattice
Chen, C.; Holmes, S. N.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.
2018-03-01
InGaAs based devices are great complements to silicon for CMOS, as they provide an increased carrier saturation velocity, lower operating voltage and reduced power dissipation (International technology roadmap for semiconductors (www.itrs2.net)). In this work we show that In0.75Ga0.25As quantum wells with a high mobility, 15 000 to 20 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at ambient temperature, show an InAs-like phonon with an energy of 28.8 meV, frequency of 232 cm-1 that dominates the polar-optical mode scattering from ˜70 K to 300 K. The measured optical phonon frequency is insensitive to the carrier density modulated with a surface gate or LED illumination. We model the electron scattering mechanisms as a function of temperature and identify mechanisms that limit the electron mobility in In0.75Ga0.25As quantum wells. Background impurity scattering starts to dominate for temperatures <100 K. In the high mobility In0.75Ga0.25As quantum well, GaAs-like phonons do not couple to the electron gas unlike the case of In0.53Ga0.47As quantum wells.
Strain induced effects on the transport properties of metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capotondi, F.; Biasiol, G.; Ercolani, D.; Grillo, V.; Carlino, E.; Romanato, F.; Sorba, L.
2005-01-01
The relationship between structural and low-temperature transport properties is explored for In x Al 1 - x As/In x Ga 1 - x As metamorphic quantum wells with x > 0.7 grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Different step-graded buffer layers are used to gradually adapt the in-plane lattice parameter from the GaAs towards the InGaAs value. We show that using buffer layers with a suitable maximum In content the residual compressive strain in the quantum well region can be strongly reduced. Samples with virtually no residual strain in the quantum well region show a low-temperature electron mobility up to 29 m 2 /V s while for samples with higher residual compressive strain the low-temperature mobility is reduced. Furthermore, for samples with buffers inducing a tensile strain in the quantum well region, deep grooves are observed on the surface, and in correspondence we notice a strong deterioration of the low-temperature transport properties
Polarizability and binding energy of a shallow donor in spherical quantum dot-quantum well (QD-QW)
Rahmani, K.; Chrafih, Y.; M’Zred, S.; Janati, S.; Zorkani, I.; Jorio, A.; Mmadi, A.
2018-03-01
The polarizability and the binding energy is estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in inhomogeneous quantum dots (CdS/HgS/CdS). In this work, the Hass variational method within the effective mass approximation in used in the case of an infinitely deep well. The polarizability and the binding energy depend on the inner and the outer radius of the QDQW, also it depends strongly on the donor position. It’s found that the stark effect is more important when the impurity is located at the center of the (QDQW) and becomes less important when the donor moves toward the extremities of the spherical layer. When the electric field increases, the binding energy and the polarizability decreases. Its effects is more pronounced when the impurity is placed on the center of the spherical layer and decrease when the donor move toward extremities of this spherical layer. We have demonstrated the existence of a critical value {≤ft( {{{{R_1}} \\over {{R_2}}}} \\right)cri} which can be used to distinguish the tree dimension confinement from the spherical surface confinement and it’s may be important for the nanofabrication techniques.
Quantum infinite square well with an oscillating wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glasser, M.L.; Mateo, J.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.
2009-01-01
A linear matrix equation is considered for determining the time dependent wave function for a particle in a one-dimensional infinite square well having one moving wall. By a truncation approximation, whose validity is checked in the exactly solvable case of a linearly contracting wall, we examine the cases of a simple harmonically oscillating wall and a non-harmonically oscillating wall for which the defining parameters can be varied. For the latter case, we examine in closer detail the dependence on the frequency changes, and we find three regimes: an adiabatic behabiour for low frequencies, a periodic one for high frequencies, and a chaotic behaviour for an intermediate range of frequencies.
Exact quantum solution for some symmetrical two-well potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ley-Koo, E.
1985-01-01
We construct the solutions of the Schroedinger equation for the rectangular-well, harmonic-oscillator and symmetric-linear potentials with a delta-function potential superimposed in their central positions. The odd-parity states are not affected by the presence of the delta-function potential. The even-parity states are determined by the condition that their wave functions have in the central position a fixed logarithmic derivative, which is proportional to the intensity the delta-function potential. (author)
Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces
Tejero Prieto, Carlos
2009-06-01
We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.
Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tejero Prieto, Carlos
2009-01-01
We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.
Breakdown of the quantum Hall effect in InAs/AlSb quantum wells due to counterflowing edge channels
Wees, B.J. van; Meijer, G.I.; Kuipers, J.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Graaf, W. van de; Borghs, G.
1995-01-01
We investigated magnetotransport in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) present in InAs/AlSb quantum wells. The filling factor Ng underneath a gate electrode was reduced relative to the bulk filling factor Nb. For Ng
Growth of InGaN multiple quantum wells and GaN eplilayer on GaN substrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sung-Nam; Paek, H.S.; Son, J.K.; Sakong, T.; Yoon, E.; Nam, O.H.; Park, Y.
2006-01-01
We investigated that the surface morphology of GaN epilayers was significantly affected by the surface tilt orientation of GaN substrate. Surface morphologies of GaN epilayers on GaN substrates show three types: mirror, wavy, and hillock. These surface morphologies are dependent on the surface orientation of GaN substrates. It is found that the hillock morphology of GaN epilayer was formed on the GaN substrate with surface tilt orientation less than 0.1 o . As the surface tilt angle increased to 0.35 o , the surface morphology varied from hillock to wavy morphology. Above a surface tilt angle of 0.4 o , surface morphology changed to the mirror-like type morphology. Additionally, these three types of GaN surface morphology also affected the optical quality of GaN epilayers as well as InGaN multiple quantum wells on GaN substrates by non-uniform In incorporation on the different surface morphologies of GaN epilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jermakov, V.M.
1997-01-01
In the case of low transparency of barriers, tunneling of electrons through a double barrier system with account their Coulomb interaction in the inter barrier space (quantum well) is considered. The quantum state of the well is supposed to be triply degenerated. It was shown that the dependence of quantum well accupation on the applied bias has a step like character at low temperatures, and there is a threshold value in the region of small applied bias. These properties can be explained by splitting of states in the well due to the electron interaction. The considered system also has bistability properties. This is due to the possibility for electrons to occupy upper levels in the well while lower levels remain empty. Charge fluctuations in the well are also discussed
Quantum information entropies for a squared tangent potential well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Shishan [Information and Engineering College, DaLian University, 116622 (China); Sun, Guo-Hua, E-mail: sunghdb@yahoo.com [Centro Universitario Valle de Chalco, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de México, 56615 (Mexico); Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Edificio 9, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Draayer, J.P., E-mail: draayer@sura.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)
2014-01-10
The particle in a symmetrical squared tangent potential well is studied by examining its Shannon information entropy and standard deviations. The position and momentum information entropy densities ρ{sub s}(x), ρ{sub s}(p) and probability densities ρ(x), ρ(p) are illustrated with different potential range L and potential depth U. We present analytical position information entropies S{sub x} for the lowest two states. We observe that the sum of position and momentum entropies S{sub x} and S{sub p} expressed by Bialynicki-Birula–Mycielski (BBM) inequality is satisfied. Some eigenstates exhibit entropy squeezing in the position. The entropy squeezing in position will be compensated by an increase in momentum entropy. We also note that the S{sub x} increases with the potential range L, while decreases with the potential depth U. The variation of S{sub p} is contrary to that of S{sub x}.
Quantum information entropies for a squared tangent potential well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Shishan; Sun, Guo-Hua; Dong, Shi-Hai; Draayer, J.P.
2014-01-01
The particle in a symmetrical squared tangent potential well is studied by examining its Shannon information entropy and standard deviations. The position and momentum information entropy densities ρ s (x), ρ s (p) and probability densities ρ(x), ρ(p) are illustrated with different potential range L and potential depth U. We present analytical position information entropies S x for the lowest two states. We observe that the sum of position and momentum entropies S x and S p expressed by Bialynicki-Birula–Mycielski (BBM) inequality is satisfied. Some eigenstates exhibit entropy squeezing in the position. The entropy squeezing in position will be compensated by an increase in momentum entropy. We also note that the S x increases with the potential range L, while decreases with the potential depth U. The variation of S p is contrary to that of S x .
Quantum square-well with logarithmic central spike
Znojil, Miloslav; Semorádová, Iveta
2018-01-01
Singular repulsive barrier V (x) = -gln(|x|) inside a square-well is interpreted and studied as a linear analog of the state-dependent interaction ℒeff(x) = -gln[ψ∗(x)ψ(x)] in nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In the linearized case, Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory is shown to provide a closed-form spectrum at sufficiently small g or after an amendment of the unperturbed Hamiltonian. At any spike strength g, the model remains solvable numerically, by the matching of wave functions. Analytically, the singularity is shown regularized via the change of variables x = expy which interchanges the roles of the asymptotic and central boundary conditions.
Efficiency dip observed with InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells
Lai, Kunyu; Lin, G. J.; Wu, Yuhrenn; Tsai, Menglun; He, Jr-Hau
2014-01-01
The dip of external quantum efficiency (EQE) is observed on In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells upon the increase of incident optical power density. With indium composition increased to 25%, the EQE dip becomes much less noticeable. The composition dependence of EQE dip is ascribed to the competition between radiative recombination and photocurrent generation in the active region, which are dictated by quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and composition fluctuation in the MQWs.
A Comparison of the recombination efficiency in green-emitting InGaN quantum dots and quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Il-Kyu; Kwon, Min-Ki; Park, Seong-Ju
2012-01-01
A comparative investigation of the recombination efficiency of green-emitting InGaN quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) is reported in this paper. Optical investigations using temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) results showed that the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN QDs at room temperature was 8.7 times larger than that found for InGaN QWs because they provided dislocation-free recombination sites for the electrical charge carriers. The excitation power-dependent PL and electroluminescence results showed that the effect of the polarization induced electric field on the recombination process of electrical charge carriers in the QDs was negligibly small whereas it was dominant in the QWs. These results indicate that InGaN QDs are more beneficial than QWs in improving the luminescence efficiency of LEDs in the green spectral range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, H.M.; Morais, P.C.; Hwang, D.M.; Bastos, P.; Gmitter, T.J.; Nazar, L.; Worlock, J.M.; Yablonovitch, E.; Hummel, S.G.
1988-09-01
A variety of InGaAs/InP quantum structures have been grown by vapor levitation epitaxy (VLE) and investigated by low temperature photoluminescence (PL). Excellent long-range uniformity of QW peak positions across a two-inch diameter wafer is achieved. Monolayer thickness variations in single QW's are used to establish an essentially unambiguous correlation of QW thickness with energy upshift for ultra-thin quantum wells. PL evidence is presented of the growth, for the first time by any technique, of an InGaAs/InP QW of single monolayer thickness (2.93 (angstrom)). Quantum wires were fabricated entirely by VLE as thin as one monolayer and estimated to be three unit cells wide. (author) [pt
Spinor-electron wave guided modes in coupled quantum wells structures by solving the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linares, Jesus; Nistal, Maria C.
2009-01-01
A quantum analysis based on the Dirac equation of the propagation of spinor-electron waves in coupled quantum wells, or equivalently coupled electron waveguides, is presented. The complete optical wave equations for Spin-Up (SU) and Spin-Down (SD) spinor-electron waves in these electron guides couplers are derived from the Dirac equation. The relativistic amplitudes and dispersion equations of the spinor-electron wave-guided modes in a planar quantum coupler formed by two coupled quantum wells, or equivalently by two coupled slab electron waveguides, are exactly derived. The main outcomes related to the spinor modal structure, such as the breaking of the non-relativistic degenerate spin states, the appearance of phase shifts associated with the spin polarization and so on, are shown.
Study of electro-optic effect in asymmetrically ramped AlInGaAs multiple quantum well structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadiq, Muhammad Usman; Peters, Frank H.; Corbett, Brian [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Callaghan, James; Roycroft, Brendan; Thomas, Kevin; Pelucchi, Emanuele [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)
2016-04-15
We investigate the electro-optic properties of two oppositely ramped asymmetric quantum well structures in the AlInGaAs material system. The grading of the bandgap in the quantum wells has been achieved by changing the ratio of Al to Ga in the quaternary alloy during the epitaxial growth. The surface normal photo-response and the Fabry-Perot fringe shift in straight waveguides are compared for both structures as a function of applied voltage at 1550 nm for TE-polarized light. The measurements show a change in the refractive index due to a red shift of the excitonic resonances due to the quantum-confined Stark effect. The 10 quantum well structure with a ramp up of the bandgap in the growth direction leads to the figure of merit of the voltage for a π phase shift, V{sub π} by length, L, V{sub π} x L, of 6 as compared to 7 V . mm in the structure with a ramp in opposite direction. Further investigations show that the reduction in V{sub π} is due to increased absorption at high reverse bias which induces a non-linear phase change. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrison, C., E-mail: c.morrison.2@warwick.ac.uk; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2016-09-05
The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm{sup 2}/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m{sub 0}. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.
Morrison, C.; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.
2016-09-01
The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm2/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m0. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.
Wide bandgap, strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions on InP substrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lumb, M. P.; Yakes, M. K.; Schmieder, K. J.; Affouda, C. A.; Walters, R. J.; González, M.; Bennett, M. F.; Herrera, M.; Delgado, F. J.; Molina, S. I.
2016-01-01
In this work, the electrical performance of strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions with varying designs is presented. Strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions comprising compressively strained InAlAs wells and tensile-strained InAlAs barriers were grown on InP substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The use of InAlAs enables InP-based tunnel junction devices to be produced using wide bandgap layers, enabling high electrical performance with low absorption. The impact of well and barrier thickness on the electrical performance was investigated, in addition to the impact of Si and Be doping concentration. Finally, the impact of an InGaAs quantum well at the junction interface is presented, enabling a peak tunnel current density of 47.6 A/cm 2 to be realized.
[Optical and electrical properties of NPB/Alq3 organic quantum well].
Huang, Jin-Zhao; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Su-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Wang, Yong
2007-04-01
In the present paper, the organic quantum-well device similar to the type-II quantum well of inorganic semiconductor material was prepared by heat evaporation. NPB (N, N'-di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N, N'-diphenyl]-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) and Alq3 (Tris-(8-quinolinolato) aluminum) act as the potential barrier layer and the potential well layer respectively. Besides, the single layer structure of Alq3 was prepared. In the experiments, the Forster nonradiative resonant energy transfer from the barrier layer to the well layer was identified, and the quantum well luminescence device possesses a favorable current-voltage property. The narrowing of spectrum was observed, and the spectrum shifted to blue region continuously when the applied voltage increased.
Optical properties of the Tietz-Hua quantum well under the applied external fields
Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.
2017-12-01
In this study, the effects of the electric and magnetic fields as well as structure parameter- γ on the total absorption coefficient, including linear and third order nonlinear absorption coefficients for the optical transitions between any two subband in the Tietz-Hua quantum well have been investigated. The optical transitions were investigated by using the density matrix formalism and the perturbation expansion method. The Tietz-Hua quantum well becomes narrower (wider) when the γ - structure parameter increases (decreases) and so the energies of the bound states will be functions of this parameter. Therefore, we can provide the red or blue shift in the peak position of the absorption coefficient by changing the strength of the electric and magnetic fields as well as the structure parameters and these results can be used to adjust and control the optical properties of the Tietz-Hua quantum well.
Wide bandgap, strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions on InP substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lumb, M. P. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Yakes, M. K.; Schmieder, K. J.; Affouda, C. A.; Walters, R. J. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); González, M.; Bennett, M. F. [Sotera Defense Solutions, Annapolis Junction, Maryland 20701 (United States); US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Herrera, M.; Delgado, F. J.; Molina, S. I. [University of Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)
2016-05-21
In this work, the electrical performance of strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions with varying designs is presented. Strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junctions comprising compressively strained InAlAs wells and tensile-strained InAlAs barriers were grown on InP substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The use of InAlAs enables InP-based tunnel junction devices to be produced using wide bandgap layers, enabling high electrical performance with low absorption. The impact of well and barrier thickness on the electrical performance was investigated, in addition to the impact of Si and Be doping concentration. Finally, the impact of an InGaAs quantum well at the junction interface is presented, enabling a peak tunnel current density of 47.6 A/cm{sup 2} to be realized.
Magneto-Gyrotropic Photogalvanic Effects in Semiconductor Quantum Wells
Ganichev, S. D.
gas a charge current, the anomalous Hall effect, can be observed. As both magnetic fields and gyrotropic mechanisms were used authors introduced the notation "magneto-gyrotropic photogalvanic effects" for this class of phenomena. The effect is observed in GaAs and InAs low dimensional structures at free-carrier absorption of terahertz radiation in a wide range of temperatures from liquid helium temperature up to room temperature. The results are well described by the phenomenological description based on the symmetry. Experimental and theoretical analysis evidences unumbiguously that the observed photocurrents are spin-dependent. Microscopic theory of this effect based on asymmetry of photoexcitation and relaxation processes are developed being in a good agreement with experimental data. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.
The Over-Barrier Resonant States and Multi-Channel Scattering in Multiple Quantum Wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Polupanov
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate an explicit numerical method for accurate calculation of the scattering matrix and its poles, and apply this method to describe the multi-channel scattering in the multiple quantum-wells structures. The S-matrix is continued analytically to the unphysical region of complex energy values. Results of calculations show that there exist one or more S-matrix poles, corresponding to the over-barrier resonant states critical for the effect of the absolute reflection of holes in the energy range where only the heavy ones may propagate over barriers in a structure. Light- and heavy-hole states are described by the Luttinger Hamiltonian matrix. In contrast to the single quantum-well case, at some parameters of a multiple quantum-wells structure the number of S-matrix poles may exceed that of the absolute reflection peaks, and at different values of parameters the absolute reflection peak corresponds to different resonant states. The imaginary parts of the S-matrix poles and hence the lifetimes of resonant states as well as the widths of resonant peaks of absolute reflection depend drastically on the quantum-well potential depth. In the case of shallow quantum wells there is in fact a long-living over-barrier resonant hole state.
Controlled release of stored pulses in a double-quantum-well structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreno, F; Anton, M A
2009-01-01
We show that an asymmetric double-quantum-well structure can operate as an optical memory. The double quantum wells are modelled like an atomic ensemble of four-level atoms in the Λ-V-type configuration with vacuum-induced coherence arising from resonant tunnelling through the ultra-thin potential energy barrier between the wells. A weak quantum field connects the ground level with the two upper levels and an auxiliary classical control field connects the intermediate level with the upper levels. The quantum field can be mapped into two channels. One channel results from the adiabatic change of the control field which maps the incoming quantum field into the coherence of the two lower levels like in a Λ-type atomic ensemble. The other channel results from the mapping of the quantum field into a combination of coherences between the two upper levels and the ground level, and it is allowed by the adiabatic change of the upper level splitting via an external voltage. The possibility of releasing multiple pulses from the medium resulting from the existence of a non-evolving component of the two-channel memory is shown. A physical picture has been developed providing an explanation of the performance of the device.
Molecular beam epitaxy of CdSe epilayers and quantum wells on ZnTe substrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Y.M.; Andre, R.; Kasprzak, J.; Dang, Le Si; Bellet-Amalric, E.
2007-01-01
We have grown zinc-blende cadmium selenide (CdSe) epilayers on ZnTe-(0 0 1) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). By controlling the substrate temperature and beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio, of Se to Cd, we determined the most suitable growth condition based on reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) pattern. At a substrate temperature of 280 deg. C and a BEP ratio of 3.6, the RHEED pattern showed a V-like feature, indicating a rough surface with facets. As the substrate temperature was increased to 360 deg. C at the same BEP ratio, a V-like RHEED pattern moved to a clear streaky pattern. Moreover when the BEP ratio was increased to 4.8 at 360 deg. C of substrate temperature, a clear (2 x 1) reconstruction of the CdSe layer was observed. A CdSe/CdMgSe single quantum well structure was also grown on ZnTe-(0 0 1) substrate by MBE. The RHEED pattern showed a clear (2 x 1) surface reconstruction during the growth. By photoluminescence measurement, a good optical property of the structure was obtained
Hot electron and real space transfer in double-quantum-well structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuno, Eiichi; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Akasaki, Isamu; Kano, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Masafumi.
1991-01-01
The hot electron phenomena and real space transfer (RST) effect are studied in GaAs/AlGaAs double-quantum-well (DQW) structures, in which we have two kind of quantum wells with different widths. The drift velocity and the electron temperature at liquid helium temperature are investigated as a function of the external electric field applied parallel to the heterointerface. By increasing the field, the electron temperature rises and reaches a plateau in the intermediate region, followed by further rise in the high-field region. The appearance of the plateau is attributed to the RST effect between the two quantum wells. The threshold field for the appearance of the plateau is determined by the difference energy between the quantized levels in two wells. The energy loss rate as a function of the electron temperature indicates that the RST is assisted by LO phonon scattering. (author)
One-dimensional quantum matter: gold-induced nanowires on semiconductor surfaces
Dudy, L.; Aulbach, J.; Wagner, T.; Schäfer, J.; Claessen, R.
2017-11-01
Interacting electrons confined to only one spatial dimension display a wide range of unusual many-body quantum phenomena, ranging from Peierls instabilities to the breakdown of the canonical Fermi liquid paradigm to even unusual spin phenomena. The underlying physics is not only of tremendous fundamental interest, but may also have bearing on device functionality in future micro- and nanoelectronics with lateral extensions reaching the atomic limit. Metallic adatoms deposited on semiconductor surfaces may form self-assembled atomic nanowires, thus representing highly interesting and well-controlled solid-state realizations of such 1D quantum systems. Here we review experimental and theoretical investigations on a few selected prototypical nanowire surface systems, specifically Ge(0 0 1)-Au and Si(hhk)-Au, and the search for 1D quantum states in them. We summarize the current state of research and identify open questions and issues.
Recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons in InGaAs/InP quantum wells
Tito, M. A.; Pusep, Yu. A.; Gold, A.; Teodoro, M. D.; Marques, G. E.; LaPierre, R. R.
2016-03-01
The electron transport and recombination processes of photoexcited electron-hole pairs were studied in InGaAs/InP single quantum wells. Comprehensive transport data analysis reveals a asymmetric shape of the quantum well potential where the electron mobility was found to be dominated by interface-roughness scattering. The low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence was employed to investigate recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons. Remarkable modification of Auger recombination was observed with variation of the electron mobility. In high mobility quantum wells, the increasing pump power resulted in a new and unexpected phenomenon: a considerably enhanced Auger non-radiative recombination time. We propose that the distribution of the photoexcited electrons over different conduction band valleys might account for this effect. In low mobility quantum wells, disorder-induced relaxation of the momentum conservation rule causes inter-valley transitions to be insignificant; as a consequence, the non-radiative recombination time is reduced with the increase in pump power. Thus, interface-roughness scattering was found responsible for both transport properties and dynamic optical response in InGaAs/InP quantum wells.
THE QUANTUM-WELL STRUCTURES OF SELF ELECTROOPTIC-EFFECT DEVICES AND GALLIUM-ARSENIDE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa TEMİZ
1996-02-01
Full Text Available Multiple quantum-well (MQW electroabsorptive self electro optic-effect devices (SEEDs are being extensively studied for use in optical switching and computing. The self electro-optic-effect devices which has quantum-well structures is a new optoelectronic technology with capability to obtain both optical inputs and outputs for Gallium-Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs/AlGaAs electronic circuits. The optical inputs and outputs are based on quantum-well absorptive properties. These quantum-well structures consist of many thin layers of semiconductors materials of GaAs/AlGaAs which have emerged some important directions recently. The most important advance in the physics of these materials since the early days has been invention of the heterojunction structures which is based at present on GaAs technology. GaAs/AlGaAs structures present some important advantages to relevant band gap and index of refraction which allow to form the quantum-well structures and also to make semiconductor lasers, dedectors and waveguide optical switches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Kemal BAHAR
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, the effects of applied electric field on the isolated square quantum well was investigated by analytic and perturbative method. The energy eigen values and wave functions in quantum well were found by perturbative method. Later, the electric field effects were investigated by analytic method, the results of perturbative and analytic method were compared. As well as both of results fit with each other, it was observed that externally applied electric field changed importantly electronic properties of the system.
Acousto-optic modulation of III-V semiconductor multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, D.L.; Kogan, S.M.; Ruden, P.P.; Mailhiot, C.
1996-01-01
We present an analysis of the effect of surface acoustic waves (SAW close-quote s) on the optical properties of III-V semiconductor multiple quantum wells (MQW close-quote s). Modulation spectra at the fundamental and second harmonic of the SAW frequency are presented. The SAW modulates the optical properties of the MQW primarily by changing optical transition energies. The SAW generates both strains, which modulate the transition energies by deformation potential effects, and electric fields, which modulate the transition energies by the quantum confined Stark effect. We find that modulation of the transition energies by strain effects is usually more important than by electric-field effects. If large static electric fields occur in the MQW, the SAW-generated electric field can mix with the static field to give optical modulation, which is comparable in magnitude to modulation from the deformation potential effect. If there are no large static electric fields, modulation by the SAW-generated fields is negligible. A large static electric field distributes oscillator strength among the various optical transitions so that no single transition is as strong as the primary allowed transitions without a static electric field. To achieve the maximum modulation for fixed SAW parameters, it is best to modulate a strong optical transition. Thus optimum modulation occurs when there are no large static electric fields present and that modulation is primarily from deformation potential effects. We specifically consider Ga x In 1-x As/Ga x Al 1-x As MQW close-quote s grown on (100) and (111) oriented substrates, but our general conclusions apply to other type I MQW close-quote s fabricated from III-V semiconductors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Efficiency studies on semipolar GaInN-GaN quantum well structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scholz, Ferdinand; Meisch, Tobias; Elkhouly, Karim [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University (Germany)
2016-12-15
In order to clarify the reasons for the fairly poor electroluminescence (EL) performance of semipolar LED structures grown on patterned sapphire wafers, we have analyzed both, pure photoluminescence (PL) test structures without doping only containing 5 GaInN quantum wells and full EL test structures, all emitting at a wavelength of about 510 nm. Evaluating the PL intensity over a wide range of temperatures and excitation powers, we conclude that such quantum wells possess a fairly large internal quantum efficiency of about 20%. However, on EL test structures containing nominally the same quantum wells, we obtained an optical output power of only about 150μW at an applied current of 20 mA. This may be due partly to some thermal destruction of the quantum wells by the overgrowth with p-GaN. Even more important seems to be the not yet finally optimized p-doping of these structures. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Resonant scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by dressed quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Danhong; Cardimona, Dave [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Easter, Michelle [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1 Castle Point Terrace, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Maradudin, A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Lin, Shawn-Yu [Department of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Zhang, Xiang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3112 Etcheverry Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2014-06-23
The resonant scattering of surface plasmon-polariton waves (SPP) by embedded semiconductor quantum dots above the dielectric/metal interface is explored in the strong-coupling regime. In contrast to non-resonant scattering by a localized dielectric surface defect, a strong resonant peak in the spectrum of the scattered field is predicted that is accompanied by two side valleys. The peak height depends nonlinearly on the amplitude of SPP waves, reflecting the feedback dynamics from a photon-dressed electron-hole plasma inside the quantum dots. This unique behavior in the scattered field peak strength is correlated with the occurrence of a resonant dip in the absorption spectrum of SPP waves due to the interband photon-dressing effect. Our result on the scattering of SPP waves may be experimentally observable and applied to spatially selective illumination and imaging of individual molecules.
Optical and structural properties of MOVPE-grown GaInSb/GaSb quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagener, Viera, E-mail: viera.wagener@nmmu.ac.z [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Olivier, E.J.; Botha, J.R. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)
2009-12-15
This paper reports on the optical and structural properties of strained type-I Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb quantum wells embedded in GaSb from a metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth perspective. Photoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of the growth temperature on the quality of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb strained layers with varied alloy compositions and thicknesses. Although the various factors contributing to the overall quality of the strained layers are difficult to separate, the quantum well characteristics are significantly altered by the growth temperature. Despite the high growth rates (approx2 nm/s), quantum wells grown at 607 deg. C display photoluminescence emissions with full-width at half-maximum of 3.5-5.0 meV for an indium solid content (x) up to 0.15.
Study of GeSn Alloy for Low Cost Monolithic Mid Infrared Quantum Well Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prakash PAREEK
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on theoretical study of Tin incorporated group IV alloys particularly GeSn and design of quantum well sensor for mid infrared sensing applications. Initially, the physics behind the selection of material for midinfrared sensor is explained. The importance of controlling strain in GeSn alloy is also explained. The physical background and motivation for incorporation of Tin(Sn in Germanium is briefly narrated. Eigen energy states for different Sn concentrations are obtained for strain compensated quantum well in G valley conduction band (GCB, heavy hole (HH band and light hole (LH band by solving coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations simultaneously. Sn concentration dependent absorption spectra for HH- GCB transition reveals that significant absorption observed in mid infrared range (3-5 µm. So, Ge1-x Snx quantum well can be used for mid infrared sensing applications.
Effect of interface disorder on quantum well excitons and microcavity polaritons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savona, Vincenzo
2007-01-01
The theory of the linear optical response of excitons in quantum wells and polaritons in planar semiconductor microcavities is reviewed, in the light of the existing experiments. For quantum well excitons, it is shown that disorder mainly affects the exciton centre-of-mass motion and is modelled by an effective Schroedinger equation in two dimensions. For polaritons, a unified model accounting for quantum well roughness and fluctuations of the microcavity thickness is developed. Numerical results confirm that polaritons are mostly affected by disorder acting on the photon component, thus confirming existing studies on the influence of exciton disorder. The polariton localization length is estimated to be in the few-micrometres range, depending on the amplitude of disorder, in agreement with recent experimental findings
InGaAsP/InP quantum well buried heterostructure waveguides produced by ion implantation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucker, J.E.; Jones, K.L.; Tell, B.; Brown-Goebeler, K.; Joyner, C.H.; Miller, B.I.; Young, M.G.
1992-01-01
Formation of buried InGaAsP/InP quantum well wave-guides by means of phosphorus ion implantation and thermal annealing during regrowth is demonstrated. Absorption spectra of implanted and unimplanted regions are used to estimate the induced index difference, which is of the order of 1% at 1.55μm. Calculated mode intensities are in good agreement with the observed near field intensity patterns. With this etchless implant technique, we achieve a significant reduction in propagation loss for singlemode pin waveguides relative to etched semi-insulating planar buried heterostructure waveguides fabricated from the same quantum well structure. In addition to reduced scattering loss, buried quantum well waveguides produced by ion implantation are more manufacturable because fewer and less-critical processing steps are involved. (author)
Optical and structural properties of MOVPE-grown GaInSb/GaSb quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagener, Viera; Olivier, E.J.; Botha, J.R.
2009-01-01
This paper reports on the optical and structural properties of strained type-I Ga 1-x In x Sb quantum wells embedded in GaSb from a metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth perspective. Photoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of the growth temperature on the quality of Ga 1-x In x Sb strained layers with varied alloy compositions and thicknesses. Although the various factors contributing to the overall quality of the strained layers are difficult to separate, the quantum well characteristics are significantly altered by the growth temperature. Despite the high growth rates (∼2 nm/s), quantum wells grown at 607 deg. C display photoluminescence emissions with full-width at half-maximum of 3.5-5.0 meV for an indium solid content (x) up to 0.15.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuai, Jian [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China); Da, H.X., E-mail: haixia8779@163.com [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117576 (Singapore)
2014-03-15
We use scattering matrix method to theoretically demonstrate that the quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulator coated by ferromagnetic strips is sensitive to the magnitude of ferromagnetic magnetization. The dependence of quantum Goos–Hänchen shift on magnetization and gate bias is investigated by performing station phase approach. It is found that quantum Goos–Hänchen shift is positive and large under the magnetic barrier but may be positive as well as negative values under the gate bias. Furthermore, the position of quantum Goos–Hänchen peak can also be modulated by the combination of gate bias and proximity magnetic effects. Our results indicate that topological insulators are another candidates to support quantum Goos–Hänchen shift. - Highlights: • Quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators is first investigated. • The magnetization affects quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators. • Quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators can be manipulated by the gate voltages.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davies, M. J., E-mail: Matthew.Davies-2@Manchester.ac.uk; Dawson, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Massabuau, F. C.-P.; Oliver, R. A.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)
2014-09-01
In this paper, we report on the effects of including Si-doped (In)GaN prelayers on the low temperature optical properties of a blue-light emitting InGaN/GaN single quantum well. We observed a large blue shift of the photoluminescence peak emission energy and significant increases in the radiative recombination rate for the quantum well structures that incorporated Si-doped prelayers. Simulations of the variation of the conduction and valence band energies show that a strong modification of the band profile occurs for the quantum wells on Si-doped prelayers due to an increase in strength of the surface polarization field. The enhanced surface polarization field opposes the built-in field across the quantum well and thus reduces this built-in electric field. This reduction of the electric field across the quantum well reduces the Quantum Confined Stark Effect and is responsible for the observed blue shift and the change in the recombination dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jinghe; Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui
2014-01-01
Polaron effects on nonlinear optical rectification in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells are studied by the effective mass approximation and the perturbation theory. The numerical results show that nonlinear optical rectification coefficients are strongly dependent on the barrier hight V 0 of the Gaussian potential quantum wells, the range L of the confinement potential and the electric field F. Besides, the numerical results show that no matter how V 0 , L and F change, taking into consideration polaron effects, the optical rectification coefficients χ 0 (2) get greatly enhanced.
Pseudo-square AlGaN/GaN quantum wells for terahertz absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beeler, M.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Monroy, E.; Bougerol, C.
2014-01-01
THz intersubband transitions are reported down to 160 μm within AlGaN/GaN heterostructures following a 4-layer quantum well design. In such a geometry, the compensation of the polarization-induced internal electric field is obtained through creating a gradual increase in polarization field throughout the quantum “trough” generated by three low-Al-content layers. The intersubband transitions show tunable absorption with respect to doping level as well as geometrical variations which can be regulated from 53 to 160 μm. They also exhibit tunnel-friendly designs which can be easily integrated into existing intersubband device architectures.
Electron-electron interaction in p-SiGe/Ge quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roessner, Benjamin; Kaenel, Hans von; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Batlogg, Bertram
2005-01-01
The temperature dependent magnetoresistance of high mobility p-SiGe/Ge quantum wells is studied with hole densities ranging from 1.7 to 5.9 x 10 11 cm -2 . At magnetic fields below the onset of quantum oscillations that reflect the high mobility values (up to 75000 cm 2 /Vs), we observe the clear signatures of electron-electron interaction. We compare our experiment with the theory of electron-electron interaction including the Zeeman band splitting. The observed magnetoresistance is well explained as a superposition of band structure induced positive magnetoresistance and the negative magntoresistance due to the electron-electron interaction effect
Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers
Bonfanti, M.; Grilli, E.; Guzzi, M.; Virgilio, M.; Grosso, G.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G.; von Känel, H.; Neels, A.
2008-07-01
Direct-gap and indirect-gap transitions in strain-compensated Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich SiGe barriers have been studied by optical transmission spectroscopy and photoluminescence experiments. An sp3d5s∗ tight-binding model has been adopted to interpret the experimental results. Photoluminescence spectra and their comparison with theoretical calculations prove the existence of type-I band alignment in compressively strained Ge quantum wells grown on relaxed Ge-rich SiGe buffers. The high quality of the transmission spectra opens up other perspectives for application of these structures in near-infrared optical modulators.
Exciton polaritons and their one-dimensional localization in disordered structure with quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosobukin, V.A.
2003-01-01
The Anderson light localization theory by disordered ultrathin layers (quantum wells), uniform in lateral directions and featuring intrinsic optical resonances, is presented. A model of the layers with delta-function resonance dielectric polarization is suggested for solution of the multiple scattering problem. Allowance made for interlayer disorder, one- and two-phoron characteristics of electromagnetic transfer, i.e. average energy density and the length of the Anderson light localization were calculated in analytical form. It is shown that in disordered structure average electromagnetic field is propagated as polaritons formed due to excessive emission of excitons between the quantum wells [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Hongmei; Xu Huaizhe; Zhang Yafei
2005-01-01
A few of mistakes made in transfer matrix method of Airy functions in previous literatures have been identified and corrected in this work. By using our improved transfer matrix method of Airy functions, quasi-bound level dependence upon carrier effective masses, bias, well width, barrier width and height has been investigated systematically for several biased/unbiased double/triple-barrier quantum well structures. Its validity and accuracy has been proved by comparisons with other currently used techniques. It is shown that our improved transfer matrix method of Airy functions is more promising for evaluating and designing intra-band transition far-infrared detectors and quantum cascade lasers
Subband structure comparison between n- and p- type double delta-doped Ga As quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez V, I.; Gaggero S, L.M.
2004-01-01
We compute the electron level structure (n-type) and the hole subband structure (p-type) of double -doped GaAs (DDD) quantum wells, considering exchange effects. The Thomas-Fermi (TF), and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac (TFD) approximations have been applied in order to describe the bending of the conduction and valence band, respectively. The electron and the hole subband structure study indicates that exchange effects are more important in p-type DDD quantum wells than in n-type DDD Also our results agree with the experimental data available. (Author) 33 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs
Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing
Szedlak, Rolf; Hayden, Jakob; Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Holzbauer, Martin; Harrer, Andreas; Schwarz, Benedikt; Hinkov, Borislav; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Acedo, Pablo; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried
2018-01-01
We review recent advances in chemical sensing applications based on surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Such lasers can be implemented in monolithically integrated on-chip laser/detector devices forming compact gas sensors, which are based on direct absorption spectroscopy according to the Beer-Lambert law. Furthermore, we present experimental results on radio frequency modulation up to 150 MHz of surface emitting ring QCLs. This technique provides detailed insight into the modulation characteristics of such lasers. The gained knowledge facilitates the utilization of ring QCLs in combination with spectroscopic techniques, such as heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy for gas detection and analysis.
Interfacial properties at the organic-metal interface probed using quantum well states
Lin, Meng-Kai; Nakayama, Yasuo; Wang, Chin-Yung; Hsu, Jer-Chia; Pan, Chih-Hao; Machida, Shin-ichi; Pi, Tun-Wen; Ishii, Hisao; Tang, S.-J.
2012-10-01
Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the interfacial properties between the long-chain normal-alkane molecule n-CH3(CH2)42CH3 [tetratetracontane (TTC)] and uniform Ag films using the Ag quantum well states. The entire quantum well state energy band dispersions were observed to shift toward the Fermi level with increasing adsorption coverage of TTC up to 1 monolayer (ML). However, the energy shifts upon deposition of 1 ML of TTC are approximately inversely dependent on the Ag film thickness, indicating a quantum-size effect. In the framework of the pushback and image-force models, we applied the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule with the modified Coulomb image potential for the phase shift at the TTC/Ag interface to extract the dielectric constant for 1 ML of TTC.
Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenig, Markus
2007-12-01
Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg 0.3 Cd 0.7 Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)
Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenig, Markus
2007-12-15
Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg{sub 0.3}Cd{sub 0.7}Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)
Faraday rotation in multiple quantum wells of GaAs/AlGaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudziak, E.; Bozym, J.; Prochnik, D.; Wasilewski, Z.R.
1996-01-01
We report on the results of first measurements on the Faraday rotation of modulated n-doped multiple quantum wells of GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As (x = 0.312). The measurements have been performed in the magnetic fields up to 13 T at the temperature of 2 K, in the spectral region of interband transitions. A rich structure of magneto-excitons has been found in the measured spectra. Faraday rotation (phase) measurements are proposed as an alternative method to the photoluminescence excitation for investigations of magneto-excitons in quantum wells. The dependence of measured Faraday rotation on magnetic field and hypothetical connections with quantum Hall effect are also discussed. (author)
Effective one-band approach for the spin splittings in quantum wells
Alekseev, P. S.; Nestoklon, M. O.
2017-03-01
The spin-orbit interaction of two-dimensional electrons in quantum wells grown from the III-V semiconductors consists of two parts with different symmetry: the Bychkov-Rashba and the Dresselhaus terms. The last term is usually attributed to the bulk spin-orbit Hamiltonian which reflects the Td symmetry of the zincblende lattice. While it is known that the quantum well interfaces may also contribute to the Dresselhaus term, the exact structure and relative importance of the interface and bulk contributions are not well understood. To deal with this problem, we perform tight-binding calculations of the spin splittings of the electron levels in [100] GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. We show that the obtained spin splittings can be adequately described within the one-band electron Hamiltonian containing, together with the bulk contribution, the two interface contributions to the Dresselhaus term. The magnitude of the interface contribution to the spin-orbit interaction for sufficiently narrow quantum wells is of the same order as the bulk contribution.
Huang, Xin; Jiang, Chunyan; Du, Chunhua; Jing, Liang; Liu, Mengmeng; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin
2016-12-27
With a promising prospect of light-emitting diodes as an attractive alternative to conventional light sources, remaining challenges still cannot be addressed owing to their limited efficiency. Among the continued scientific efforts, significant improvement on the emission efficiency has been achieved via either piezo-phototronic effect-based strain modulation or resonant excitation of plasmons in metallic nanostructures. Here, we present the investigation on the coupling process between piezo-phototronic effect and localized surface plasmonic resonance for enhancing the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells coated with Ag nanoparticles. The underlying physical mechanism of experimental results originates from tuning plasmonic resonance controlled by the shift of emission wavelength via piezo-phototronic effect, and it is further confirmed with the support of theoretical calculations. As a result, our research provides an approach to the integration of plasmonics with piezo-phototronic effect and brings widespread applications to high-efficiency artificial lighting, on-chip integrated plasmonic circuits, subwavelength optical communication, and micro-optoelectronic mechanical systems.
Effect of the quantum well thickness on the performance of InGaN photovoltaic cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redaelli, L.; Mukhtarova, A.; Valdueza-Felip, S.; Ajay, A.; Durand, C.; Eymery, J.; Monroy, E. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-CNRS Group «Nanophysique et semiconducteurs», CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Bougerol, C.; Himwas, C. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-CNRS Group «Nanophysique et semiconducteurs», Institut Néel-CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Faure-Vincent, J. [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2014-09-29
We report on the influence of the quantum well thickness on the effective band gap and conversion efficiency of In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}N/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells. The band-to-band transition can be redshifted from 395 to 474 nm by increasing the well thickness from 1.3 to 5.4 nm, as demonstrated by cathodoluminescence measurements. However, the redshift of the absorption edge is much less pronounced in absorption: in thicker wells, transitions to higher energy levels dominate. Besides, partial strain relaxation in thicker wells leads to the formation of defects, hence degrading the overall solar cell performance.
Quantum bus of metal nanoring with surface plasmon polaritons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Zhirong; Guo Guoping; Tu Tao; Li Haiou; Zou Changling; Ren Xifeng; Guo Guangcan; Chen Junxue; Lu Yonghua
2010-01-01
We develop an architecture for distributed quantum computation using quantum bus of plasmonic circuits and spin qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Deterministic quantum gates between two distant spin qubits can be reached by using an adiabatic approach in which quantum dots couple with highly detuned plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring. Plasmonic quantum bus offers a robust and scalable platform for quantum optics experiments and the development of on-chip quantum networks composed of various quantum nodes, such as quantum dots, molecules, and nanoparticles.
Acoustically induced spin transport in (110)GaAs quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couto, Odilon D.D. Jr.
2008-09-29
In this work, we employ surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to transport and manipulate optically generated spin ensembles in (110) GaAs quantum wells (QWs). The strong carrier confinement into the SAW piezoelectric potential allows for the transport of spin-polarized carrier packets along well-defined channels with the propagation velocity of the acoustic wave. In this way, spin transport over distances exceeding 60 m is achieved, corresponding to spin lifetimes longer than 20 ns. The demonstration of such extremely long spin lifetimes is enabled by three main factors: (i) Suppression of the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism for z-oriented spins in (110) IIIV QWs; (ii) Suppression of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus spin relaxation mechanism caused by the type-II SAW piezoelectric potential; (iii) Suppression of spin relaxation induced by the mesoscopic carrier confinement into narrow stripes along the SAW wave front direction. A spin transport anisotropy under external magnetic fields (B{sub ext}) is demonstrated for the first time. Employing the well-defined average carrier momentum impinged by the SAW, we analyze the spin dephasing dynamics during transport along the [001] and [1 anti 10] in-plane directions. For transport along [001], fluctuations of the internal magnetic field (B{sub int}), which arises from the spin-orbit interaction associated with the bulk inversion asymmetry of the crystal, lead to decoherence within 2 ns as the spins precess around B{sub ext}. In contrast, for transport along the [1 anti 10] direction, the z-component of the spin polarization is maintained for times one order of magnitude longer due to the non-zero average value of B{sub int}. The dephasing anisotropy between the two directions is fully understood in terms of the dependence of the spin-orbit coupling on carrier momentum direction, as predicted by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism for the (110) system. (orig.)
Luminescence and ultrafast phenomena in InGaN multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viswanath, Annamraju Kasi; Lee, J.I.; Kim, S.T.; Yang, G.M.; Lee, H.J.; Kim, Dongho
2007-01-01
High quality In 0.13 Ga 0.87 N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on (0001) sapphire substrate were fabricated by MOCVD method. The quantum well thickness is as thin as 10 A, and the barrier thickness is 50 A. We have investigated these ultrathin MQWs by continuous wave (cw) and time-resolved spectroscopy in the picosecond time scales in a wide temperature range from 10 to 290 K. In the luminescence spectrum at 10 K, we observed a broad peak at 3.134 eV which was attributed to the quantum wells emission of InGaN. The full width at half maximum of this peak was 129 meV at 10 K and the broadening at low temperatures which was mostly inhomogeneous was thought to be due to compositional fluctuations and interfacial disorder in the alloy. We also observed an intense and narrow peak at 3.471 eV due to the GaN barrier. The temperature dependence of the luminescence was studied and the peak positions and the intensities of the different peaks were obtained. The activation energy of the InGaN quantum well emission peak was estimated as 69 meV. From the measurements of luminescence intensities and lifetimes at various temperatures, radiative and non-radiative recombination lifetimes were deduced. The results were explained by considering only the localization of the excitons due to potential fluctuations
Improvement of temperature-stability in a quantum well laser with asymmetric barrier layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhukov, Alexey E.; Kryzhanovskaya, Natalia V.; Zubov, Fedor I.
2012-01-01
We fabricated and tested a quantum well laser with asymmetric barrier layers. Such a laser has been proposed earlier to suppress bipolar carrier population in the optical confinement layer and thus to improve temperature-stability of the threshold current. As compared to the conventional reference...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chemla, D.S.
1993-01-01
This article reviews recent investigations of nonlinear optical processes in semiconductors. Section II discusses theory of coherent wave mixing in semiconductors, with emphasis on resonant excitation with only one exciton state. Section III reviews recent experimental investigations of amplitude and phase of coherent wave-mixing resonant with quasi-2d excitons in GaAs quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helgesen, P.
1992-04-01
In this work the author investigate the subband nature of multiple quantum well structures by photoconductance spectroscopy, optical absorption measurements and tunneling experiments. Both interband and intraband transitions have been studied. The work is aimed at making an infrared detector using wide band gap semiconductors. 14 refs
Polarisation of the spontaneous emission from nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schade, Lukas; Schwarz, Ulrich [Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg (IMTEK) (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) (Germany); Ploch, Simon; Wernicke, Tim [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technical University Berlin (Germany); Knauer, Arne; Hoffmann, Veit; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institute (FBH) (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technical University Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institute (FBH) (Germany)
2011-07-01
Spontaneously emitted light stemming from semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells is polarized. This property is a consequence of the broken in-plane symmetry of non c-plane wurtzite quantum wells. We studied the polarized photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/InGaN multi quantum wells grown on low defect density GaN substrates with a setup for confocal microscopy. For excitation of charge carriers we use a 375 nm diode laser. The photoluminescence is collected with an objective of small NA, to avoid polarisation scrambling, and analyzed with a broadband polarizer and a spectrometer. The experimental results are compared to k.p band structure calculations for semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells. These simulations provide the polarisation degree of the confined states of the valence band and their energetic splitting. Next, from the thermal occupation the polarized spectra are calculated. The comparison with experimental results allows the determination of the valence subband splitting. Our experiments show a splitting of the two topmost valence subbands in nonpolar direction which is larger than predicted.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zubov, F. I.; Zhukov, A. E.; Shernyakov, Yu M.
2014-01-01
The effect of asymmetric barriers on the light-current characteristic (LCC) of a quantum well laser was studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the utilization of asymmetric barriers in a waveguide prevents the nonlinearity of LCC and, consequently, allows rising of the maximum...
Thermalization of Hot Free Excitons in ZnSe-Based Quantum Wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann, J.; Umlauff, M.; Kalt, H.
1997-01-01
Thermalization of hot-exciton populations in ZnSe quantum wells occurs on a time scale of 100 ps. Strong exciton-phonon coupling in II-VI semiconductors leads to a direct access to the thermalization dynamics via time-resolved spectroscopy of phonon-assisted luminescence. The experimental spectra...
Can Hall drag be observed in Coulomb coupled quantum wells in a magnetic field?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1997-01-01
We study the transresistivity rho(21) (or equivalently, the drag rate) of two Coulomb-coupled quantum wells in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, using semi-classical transport theory. Elementary arguments seem to preclude any possibility of observation of ''Hall drag'' (i.e., a non...
Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Cooke, David
We studied the THz conductivity of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs)by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. A nonexponential carrier density decay is observed due to the restoration of a built-in piezoelectric field. Terahertz conductivity spectra show a nonmetallic behavior of the carriers....
Collective Behavior of Interwell Excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs Double Quantum Wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larionov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2000-01-01
Photoluminescence spectra of interwell excitons in double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (n-i-n structures) have been investigated (an interwell excition in these systems is an electron-hole pair spatially separated by a narrow AlAs barrier). Under resonance excitation by circular polarized light...
Spin injection from Co2MnGa into an InGaAs quantum well
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hickey, M. C.; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Holmes, S. N.
2008-01-01
We have demonstrated spin injection from a full Heusler alloy Co2MnGa thin film into a (100) InGaAs quantum well in a semiconductor light-emitting diode structure at a temperature of 5 K. The detection is performed in the oblique Hanle geometry, allowing quantification of the effective spin lifet...
Correlation Effects on the Coupled Plasmon Modes of a Double Quantum Well
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hill, N. P. R.; Nicholls, J. T.; Linfield, E. H.
1997-01-01
At temperatures comparable to the Fermi temperature, we have measured a plasmon enhanced Coulomb drag in a GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well electron system. This measurement provides a probe of the many-body corrections to the coupled plasmon modes, and we present a detailed comparison between exp...
Localized excitons in quantum wells show spin relaxation without coherence loss
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zimmermann, R.; Langbein, W.; Runge, E.
2001-01-01
The coherence in the secondary emission from quantum well excitons is studied using the speckle method. Analysing the different polarization channels allows to conclude that (i) no coherence loss occurs in the cross-polarized emission, favouring spin beating instead of spin dephasing, and that (i...
Intensity-dependent nonlinear optical properties in a modulation-doped single quantum well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ungan, F.
2011-01-01
In the present work, the changes in the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index in a modulation-doped quantum well have been investigated theoretically. Within the envelope function approach and the effective mass approximation, the electronic structure of the quantum well is calculated from the self-consistent numerical solution of the coupled Schroedinger-Poisson equations. The analytical expressions of optical properties are obtained by using the compact density-matrix approach. The numerical results GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As are presented for typical modulation-doped quantum well system. The linear, third-order nonlinear and total absorption and refractive index changes depending on the doping concentration are investigated as a function of the incident optical intensity and structure parameters, such as quantum well width and stoichiometric ratio. The results show that the doping concentration, the structure parameters and the incident optical intensity have a great effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. - Highlights: → The doping concentration has a great effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. → The structure parameters have a great effect on the optical properties of these structures. → The total absorption coefficients reduced as the incident optical intensity increases. → The RICs reduced as the incident optical intensity increases.
Excitonic spectrum of the ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobrov, M. A., E-mail: largaseal@gmail.com; Toropov, A. A.; Ivanov, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); El-Shaer, A.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [TU Braunschweig, Institute of Semiconductor Technology (Germany)
2011-06-15
Excitonic spectrum of the wurtzite ZnO/Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O quantum wells with a width on the order of or larger than the Bohr radius of the exciton has been studied; the quantum wells have been grown by the method of molecular beam epitaxy (with plasma-assisted activation of oxygen) on substrates of sapphire (0001). Low-temperature (25 K) spectra of photoluminescence excitation (PLE) have been experimentally measured, making it possible to resolve the peaks of exciton absorption in the quantum well. The spectrum of excitons in the quantum well is theoretically determined as a result of numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation by the variational method. The value of elastic stresses in the structure (used in calculations) has been determined from theoretical simulation of measured spectra of optical reflection. A comparison of experimental data with the results of calculations makes it possible to relate the observed features in the PLE spectra to excitons, including the lower level of dimensional quantization for electrons and two first levels of holes for the A and B valence bands of the wurtzite crystal. The values of the electron and hole masses in ZnO are refined, and the value of the built-in electric field introduced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations is estimated.
Ultrafast interfeometric investigation of resonant secondary emission from quantum well excitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep; Pfeiffer, L. N.
1999-01-01
Coherent Rayleigh scattering and incoherent luminescence comprise the secondary emission from quantum well exciton following ultrafast resonant excitation. We show that coherent Rayleigh scattering forms a time-dependent speckle pattern and isolate in a single speckle the Rayleigh component from...
Monolithic integration of a resonant tunneling diode and a quantum well semiconductor laser
Grave, I.; Kan, S. C.; Griffel, G.; Wu, S. W.; Sa'Ar, A.
1991-01-01
A monolithic integration of a double barrier AlAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diode and a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser is reported. Negative differential resistance and negative differential optical response are observed at room temperature. The device displays bistable electrical and optical characteristics which are voltage controlled. Operation as a two-state optical memory is demonstrated.
Frequency doubling of an InGaAs multiple quantum wells semiconductor disk laser
Lidan, Jiang; Renjiang, Zhu; Maohua, Jiang; Dingke, Zhang; Yuting, Cui; Peng, Zhang; Yanrong, Song
2018-01-01
We demonstrate a good beam quality 483 nm blue coherent radiation from a frequency doubled InGaAs multiple quantum wells semiconductor disk laser. The gain chip is consisted of 6 repeats of strain uncompensated InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and 25 pairs of GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector. A 4 × 4 × 7 mm3 type I phase-matched BBO nonlinear crystal is used in a V-shaped laser cavity for the second harmonic generation, and 210 mW blue output power is obtained when the absorbed pump power is 3.5 W. The M2 factors of the laser beam in x and y directions are about 1.04 and 1.01, respectively. The output power of the blue laser is limited by the relatively small number of the multiple quantum wells, and higher power can be expected by increasing the number of the multiple quantum wells and improving the heat management of the laser.
Intrinsic optical confinement for ultrathin InAsN quantum well superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakri, A.; Robert, C.; Pedesseau, L.; Cornet, C.; Durand, O.; Even, J.; Jancu, J.-M. [Université Europeenne de Bretagne, INSA Rennes,France and CNRS, UMR 6082, Foton, 20 avenues des Buttes de Coësmes, 35708 Rennes (France)
2013-12-04
We study energy-band engineering with InAsN monolayer in GaAs/GaP quantum well structure. A tight-binding calculation indicates that both type I alignment along with direct band-gap behavior can be obtained. We show that the optical transitions are less sensitive to the position of the probe.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.
2003-01-01
We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to ...
Quantum-well states and induced magnetism in Fe/CuN/Fe bcc (001) trilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niklasson, A.M.N.; Mirbt, S.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1996-01-01
profiles of two single Fe/Cu interfaces. The small deviations from this simple superposition are shown to be a consequence of quantum-well states confined within the paramagnetic spacer. This connection is confirmed by direct calculation of the state density. The results are of conceptual interest...
InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang
2000-01-01
We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...
Exciton dynamics in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Litvinenko, K.; Birkedal, Dan; Lyssenko, V. G.
1999-01-01
The changes induced in the optical absorption spectrum of a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum well due to a photoexcited carrier distribution are reexamined. We use a femtosecond pump-probe technique to excite excitons and free electron-hole pairs. We find that for densities up to 10(11) cm(-2...
Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner
1999-01-01
Interaction-induced processes are studied using the third-order nonlinear polarization created in polarization-dependent four-wave-mixing experiments (FWM) on a ZnSe single quantum well. We discuss their influence by a comparison of the experimental FWM with calculations based on extended optical...
Optical properties of ZnO/MgZnO quantum wells with graded thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lv, X Q; Liu, W J; Hu, X L; Chen, M; Zhang, B P; Zhang, J Y
2011-01-01
The optical properties of ZnO/Mg 0.1 Zn 0.9 O single quantum wells with graded well width were studied using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The ratio of emission intensity between the well and barrier layers was found to increase monotonically when the sample temperature was increased from 78 to 210 K, indicating an efficient carrier transfer from the barrier to the well. The emission peak of the Mg 0.1 Zn 0.9 O barrier exhibited a blueshift first and then a redshift with increasing temperature, which was attributed to the repopulation of localized carriers in energy-tail states induced by alloy composition fluctuations. Such an anomalous temperature dependence of PL energy contributed to the carrier transfer. On the other hand, the emission from the well layer exhibited a transition behaviour from localized to free excitons with increasing temperature. A further analysis of the temperature-dependent emission peaks of different well widths revealed that the localization energy of excitons was related to the potential variation induced mainly by well width fluctuations. Moreover, by comparing experimental results with calculation, the separation between the quantum confinement regime and quantum-confined Stark regime was found to occur at a well width of about 3 nm.
Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tribuzy, C.V.B.; Ohser, S.; Priegnitz, M.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Neuhaus, J.; Dekorsy, T.; Biermann, K.; Kuenzel, H.
2008-01-01
By using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy we investigate the intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells. A biexponential behavior is an indication of intervalley scattering, which is, however, much slower than known from bulk material. This may be the reason why quantum cascade lasers at wavelengths as short as 3 μm are actually functioning In addition, when pumping slightly below resonance we observe an induced transient absorption, which can be interpreted in terms of electron heating within the first subband. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Generic mechanisms of decoherence of quantum oscillations in magnetic double-well systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.
2004-01-01
Fundamental conservation laws mandate parameter-free generic mechanisms of decoherence of quantum oscillations in double-well systems. We consider two examples: tunneling of the magnetic moment in nanomagnets and tunneling between macroscopic current states in SQUIDs. In both cases the decoherence occurs via emission of phonons and photons at the oscillation frequency. We also show that in a system of identical qubits the decoherence greatly increases due to the superradiance of electromagnetic and sound waves. Our findings have important implications for building elements of quantum computers based upon nanomagnets and SQUIDs
Generic mechanisms of decoherence of quantum oscillations in magnetic double-well systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chudnovsky, Eugene M. E-mail: chudnov@lehman.cuny.edu
2004-05-01
Fundamental conservation laws mandate parameter-free generic mechanisms of decoherence of quantum oscillations in double-well systems. We consider two examples: tunneling of the magnetic moment in nanomagnets and tunneling between macroscopic current states in SQUIDs. In both cases the decoherence occurs via emission of phonons and photons at the oscillation frequency. We also show that in a system of identical qubits the decoherence greatly increases due to the superradiance of electromagnetic and sound waves. Our findings have important implications for building elements of quantum computers based upon nanomagnets and SQUIDs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slavcheva, G., E-mail: gsk23@bath.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kavokin, A.V., E-mail: A.Kavokin@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya 198504 (Russian Federation)
2014-11-15
Optical pumping of excited exciton states in a semiconductor quantum well embedded in a microcavity is a tool for realisation of ultra-compact terahertz (THz) lasers based on stimulated optical transition between excited (2p) and ground (1s) exciton state. We show that the probability of two-photon absorption by a 2p-exciton is strongly dependent on the polarisation of both pumping photons. Five-fold variation of the threshold power for terahertz lasing by switching from circular to co-linear pumping is predicted. We identify photon polarisation configurations for achieving maximum THz photon generation quantum efficiency.
Super-resolution with a positive epsilon multi-quantum-well super-lens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, A. O.; Giannini, V.; Maier, S. A.; Phillips, C. C.
2013-01-01
We design an anisotropic and dichroic quantum metamaterial that is able to achieve super-resolution without the need for a negative permittivity. When exploring the parameters of the structure, we take into account the limits of semiconductor fabrication technology based on quantum well stacks. By heavily doping the structure with free electrons, we infer an anisotropic effective medium with a prolate ellipsoid dispersion curve which allows for near-diffractionless propagation of light (similar to an epsilon-near-zero hyperbolic lens). This, coupled with low absorption, allows us to resolve images at the sub-wavelength scale at distances 6 times greater than equivalent natural materials
A quantum-classical simulation of a multi-surface multi-mode ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Multi surface multi mode quantum dynamics; parallelized quantum classical approach; TDDVR method. 1. ... cal simulation on molecular system is a great cha- llenge for ..... on a multiple core cluster with shared memory using. OpenMP based ...
Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with graphene layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Zhen; Li, Zishen; Jiang, Yang; Ma, Ziguang; Fang, Yutao; Li, Yangfeng; Wang, Wenxin; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong
2015-01-01
In this work, a novel hybrid graphene/InGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) structure has been fabricated. Compared to the sample conventional structure (CS), the utilization of graphene transferred on top GaN layer significantly enhances the internal quantum efficiency and relatively photoluminescence intensity. Furthermore, the excitons in the MQWs of sample hybrid structure (HS) have a shorter decay lifetime of 3.4 ns than that of 6.7 ns for sample CS. These results are probably attributed to the free carriers in the graphene layer, which can screen the piezoelectric field in the active region and thus present a free quantum-confined Stark effect-like behavior. Our work demonstrates that the graphene on the top GaN layer can effectively increase the recombination rate in sample HS, which may further improve LEDs' performance. (orig.)
Hu, Gangyi; Wijesinghe, Udumbara; Naquin, Clint; Maggio, Ken; Edwards, H. L.; Lee, Mark
2017-10-01
Intrinsic gain (AV) measurements on Si quantum well (QW) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors show that these devices can have |AV| > 1 in quantum transport negative transconductance (NTC) operation at room temperature. QW NMOS devices were fabricated using an industrial 45 nm technology node process incorporating ion implanted potential barriers to define a lateral QW in the conduction channel under the gate. While NTC at room temperature arising from transport through gate-controlled QW bound states has been previously established, it was unknown whether the quantum NTC mechanism could support gain magnitude exceeding unity. Bias conditions were found giving both positive and negative AV with |AV| > 1 at room temperature. This result means that QW NMOS devices could be useful in amplifier and oscillator applications.
High-harmonic generation in a quantum electron gas trapped in a nonparabolic and anisotropic well
Hurst, Jérôme; Lévêque-Simon, Kévin; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine; Manfredi, Giovanni; Haas, Fernando
2016-05-01
An effective self-consistent model is derived and used to study the dynamics of an electron gas confined in a nonparabolic and anisotropic quantum well. This approach is based on the equations of quantum hydrodynamics, which incorporate quantum and nonlinear effects in an approximate fashion. The effective model consists of a set of six coupled differential equations (dynamical system) for the electric dipole and the size of the electron gas. Using this model we show that: (i) high harmonic generation is related to the appearance of chaos in the phase space, as attested to by related Poincaré sections; (ii) higher order harmonics can be excited efficiently and with relatively weak driving fields by making use of chirped electromagnetic waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranowski, M; Kudrawiec, R; Latkowska, M; Syperek, M; Misiewicz, J; Sarmiento, T; Harris, J S
2013-01-01
In this study we apply time resolved photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance to study the carrier collection efficiency of a GaInNAsSb/GaAs quantum well (QW). We show that the enhancement of photoluminescence from GaInNAsSb quantum wells annealed at different temperatures originates not only from (i) the improvement of the optical quality of the GaInNAsSb material (i.e., removal of point defects, which are the source of nonradiative recombination) but it is also affected by (ii) the improvement of carrier collection by the QW region. The total PL efficiency is the product of these two factors, for which the optimal annealing temperatures are found to be ∼700 °C and ∼760 °C, respectively, whereas the optimal annealing temperature for the integrated PL intensity is found to be between the two temperatures and equals ∼720 °C. We connect the variation of the carrier collection efficiency with the modification of the band bending conditions in the investigated structure due to the Fermi level shift in the GaInNAsSb layer after annealing.
Quantum double-well chain: Ground-state phases and applications to hydrogen-bonded materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.; Campbell, D.K.; Gubernatis, J.E.
1994-01-01
Extrapolating the results of hybrid quantum Monte Carlo simulations to the zero temperature and infinite-chain-length limits, we calculate the ground-state phase diagram of a system of quantum particles on a chain of harmonically coupled, symmetric, quartic double-well potentials. We show that the ground state of this quantum chain depends on two parameters, formed from the ratios of the three natural energy scales in the problem. As a function of these two parameters, the quantum ground state can exhibit either broken symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all nonzero (as would be the case for a classical chain), or restored symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all zero (as would be the case for a single quantum particle). In addition to the phase diagram as a function of these two parameters, we calculate the ground-state energy, an order parameter related to the average position of the particle, and the susceptibility associated with this order parameter. Further, we present an approximate analytic estimate of the phase diagram and discuss possible physical applications of our results, emphasizing the behavior of hydrogen halides under pressure
Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Huang
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC, or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.
Scanning capacitance microscopy investigations of InGaAs/InP quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douheret, O.; Maknys, K.; Anand, S.
2004-01-01
In this work, cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is used to investigate InGaAs/InP (latticed matched) quantum wells grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Using n-doped InP as barriers with different doping levels, different InGaAs wells structures (5, 10 and 20 nm) were investigated. The capability of SCM to detect electrons in the quantum wells is demonstrated, showing in addition, a systematic and consistent trend for the different well widths and barrier doping levels. The SCM results are qualitatively consistent with electron distribution obtained for 1D Poisson/Schroedinger simulation. Finally, resolution issues in SCM are discussed in terms of tip averaging effects
Modeling of carrier transport in multi-quantum-well p-i-n modulators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Højfeldt, Sune; Mørk, Jesper
2002-01-01
The dynamical properties of InGaAsP multi-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators are investigated using a comprehensive numerical device model. We calculate the time-dependent sweep-out of photo-generated carriers and the corresponding time-dependent absorption change. The sweep-out is influen......The dynamical properties of InGaAsP multi-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators are investigated using a comprehensive numerical device model. We calculate the time-dependent sweep-out of photo-generated carriers and the corresponding time-dependent absorption change. The sweep......-out is influenced by carriers being recaptured into subsequent wells as they move towards the contacts. This process drastically increases the sweep-out time in our ten-well structure (similar to25 ps) compared to the pure drift-time (similar to1 ps). We also compare the saturation properties of two components...
Enhanced UV luminescence from InAlN quantum well structures using two temperature growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Sadler, Thomas C.; Dinh, Duc V.; Alam, Shahab N.; Li, Haoning; Pampili, Pietro; Parbrook, Peter J.
2014-01-01
InAlN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting between 300 and 350 nm have been prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on planar AlN templates. To obtain strong room temperature luminescence from InAlN QWs a two temperature approach was required. The intensity decayed weakly as the temperature was increased to 300 K, with ratios I PL (300 K)/I PL (T) max up to 70%. This high apparent internal quantum efficiency is attributed to the exceptionally strong carrier localization in this material, which is also manifested by a high Stokes shift (0.52 eV) of the luminescence. Based on these results InAlN is proposed as a robust alternative to AlGaN for ultraviolet emitting devices. - Highlights: • InAlN quantum wells with AlGaN barriers emitting in near UV successfully grown using quasi-2T approach. • 1 nm AlGaN capping of InAlN quantum wells used to avoid In desorption during temperature ramp to barrier growth conditions. • Strong, thermally resilient luminescence obtained as a result of growth optimization. • Promise of InAlN as an alternative active region for UV emitters demonstrated
Self-consistent electronic structure of spin-polarized dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, S. P.; Yi, K. S.; Quinn, J. J.
2000-01-01
The electronic properties of spin-symmetry-broken dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum wells are investigated self-consistently at zero temperature. The spin-split subband structure and carrier concentration of modulation-doped quantum wells are examined in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The effects of exchange and correlations of electrons are included in a local-spin-density-functional approximation. We demonstrate that exchange correlation of electrons decreases the spin-split subband energy but enhances the carrier density in a spin-polarized quantum well. We also observe that as the magnetic field increases, the concentration of spin-down (majority) electrons increases but that of spin-up (minority) electrons decreases. The effect of orbital quantization on the in-plane motion of electrons is also examined and shows a sawtoothlike variation in subband electron concentrations as the magnetic-field intensity increases. The latter variation is attributed to the presence of ionized donors acting as the electron reservoir, which is partially responsible for the formation of the integer quantum Hall plateaus. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Effect of bismuth surfactant on InP-based highly strained InAs/InGaAs triangular quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, Y.; Zhang, Y. G., E-mail: ygzhang@mail.sim.ac.cn; Chen, X. Y.; Xi, S. P.; Du, B.; Ma, Y. J. [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)
2015-11-23
We report the effect of Bi surfactant on the properties of highly strained InAs/InGaAs triangular quantum wells grown on InP substrates. Reduced surface roughness, improved heterostructure interfaces and enhanced photoluminescence intensity at 2.2 μm are observed by moderate Bi-mediated growth. The nonradiative processes are analysed based on temperature-dependent photoluminescence. It is confirmed that Bi incorporation is insignificant in the samples, whereas excessive Bi flux during the growth results in deteriorated performance. The surfactant effect of Bi is promising to improve InP-based highly strained structures while the excess of Bi flux needs to be avoided.
Tailoring the spin polarization in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giorgioni, Anna; Pezzoli, Fabio; Gatti, Eleonora; Grilli, Emanuele; Guzzi, Mario; Bottegoni, Federico; Cecchi, Stefano; Ciccacci, Franco; Isella, Giovanni; Trivedi, Dhara; Song, Yang; Li, Pengki; Dery, Hanan
2013-01-01
We performed spin-resolved photoluminescence measurements on Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with different well thickness and using different exciting power densities. The polarization of the direct emission strongly depends on the relative weight of electrons photoexcited from the light and the heavy hole subbands. The study of the polarization as a function of the exciting power highlights the role of the carrier-carrier interactions in determining spin depolarization
Green's function for electrons in a narrow quantum well in a parallel magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horing, Norman J. Morgenstern; Glasser, M. Lawrence; Dong Bing
2005-01-01
Electron dynamics in a narrow quantum well in a parallel magnetic field of arbitrary strength are examined here. We derive an explicit analytical closed-form solution for the Green's function of Landau-quantized electrons in skipping states of motion between the narrow well walls coupled with in-plane translational motion and hybridized with the zero-field lowest subband energy eigenstate. Such Landau-quantized modes are not uniformly spaced
Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications.
Mintairov, S A; Kalyuzhnyy, N A; Lantratov, V M; Maximov, M V; Nadtochiy, A M; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A E
2015-09-25
Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm(-2) for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm(-2) for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm(-1) and 37 A cm(-2) per layer, respectively.
InN/GaN quantum dot superlattices: Charge-carrier states and surface electronic structure
Kanouni, F.; Brezini, A.; Djenane, M.; Zou, Q.
2018-03-01
We have theoretically investigated the electron energy spectra and surface states energy in the three dimensionally ordered quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) made of InN and GaN semiconductors. The QDSL is assumed in this model to be a matrix of GaN containing cubic dots of InN of the same size and uniformly distributed. For the miniband’s structure calculation, the resolution of the effective mass Schrödinger equation is done by decoupling it in the three directions within the framework of Kronig-Penney model. We found that the electrons minibands in infinite ODSLs are clearly different from those in the conventional quantum-well superlattices. The electrons localization and charge-carrier states are very dependent on the quasicrystallographic directions, the size and the shape of the dots which play a role of the artificial atoms in such QD supracrystal. The energy spectrum of the electron states localized at the surface of InN/GaN QDSL is represented by Kronig-Penney like-model, calculated via direct matching procedure. The calculation results show that the substrate breaks symmetrical shape of QDSL on which some localized electronic surface states can be produced in minigap regions. Furthermore, we have noticed that the surface states degeneracy is achieved in like very thin bands located in the minigaps, identified by different quantum numbers nx, ny, nz. Moreover, the surface energy bands split due to the reduction of the symmetry of the QDSL in z-direction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yablonsky, A. N., E-mail: yablonsk@ipmras.ru; Zhukavin, R. Kh.; Bekin, N. A.; Novikov, A. V.; Yurasov, D. V.; Shaleev, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
For SiGe/Si(001) epitaxial structures with two nonequivalent SiGe quantum wells separated by a thin Si barrier, the spectral and time characteristics of interband photoluminescence corresponding to the radiative recombination of excitons in quantum wells are studied. For a series of structures with two SiGe quantum wells different in width, the characteristic time of tunneling of charge carriers (holes) from the narrow quantum well, distinguished by a higher exciton recombination energy, to the wide quantum well is determined as a function of the Si barrier thickness. It is shown that the time of tunneling of holes between the Si{sub 0.8}5Ge{sub 0.15} layers with thicknesses of 3 and 9 nm steadily decreases from ~500 to <5 ns, as the Si barrier thickness is reduced from 16 to 8 nm. At intermediate Si barrier thicknesses, an increase in the photoluminescence signal from the wide quantum well is observed, with a characteristic time of the same order of magnitude as the luminescence decay time of the narrow quantum well. This supports the observation of the effect of the tunneling of holes from the narrow to the wide quantum well. A strong dependence of the tunneling time of holes on the Ge content in the SiGe layers at the same thickness of the Si barrier between quantum wells is observed, which is attributed to an increase in the effective Si barrier height.
Quantum scattering of neon from a nanotextured surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levi, A C; Huang, C; Allison, W; MacLaren, D A
2009-01-01
Phonon exchange is the usual cause of decoherence in atom-surface scattering. By including quantum effects in the treatment of Debye-Waller scattering, we show that phonon exchange becomes ineffective when the relevant phonon frequencies are high. The result explains the surprising observation of strong elastic scattering of Ne from a Cu(100) surface nanotextured with a c(2 x 2) Li adsorbate structure. We extend a previous model to describe the phonon spectra by an Einstein oscillator component with an admixture of a Debye spectrum. The Einstein oscillator represents the dominant, high frequency vibration of the adsorbate, normal to the surface, while the Debye spectrum represents the substrate contribution. Neon scattering is so slow that exciting the adsorbate mode has a low probability and is impossible if the incident energy is below the threshold. Thus, adsorbate vibrations are averaged out. A theoretical discussion and calculation shows that under such circumstances the vibrations of a light adsorbate do not contribute to the Debye-Waller effect, with the result that Ne scattering at thermal energies is quantum mechanical and largely elastic, explaining the high reflectivity and the diffraction peaks observed experimentally.
Lai, Kun-Yu
Nonpolar (m-plane or a-plane) gallium nitride (GaN) is predicted to be a potential substrate material to improve luminous efficiencies of nitride-based quantum wells (QWs). Numerical calculations indicated that the spontaneous emission rate in a single In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN QW could be improved by ˜2.2 times if the polarization-induced internal field was avoided by epitaxial deposition on nonpolar substrates. A challenge for nonpolar GaN is the limited size (less than 10x10 mm2) of substrates, which was addressed by expansion during the regrowth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE). Subsurface damage in GaN substrates were reduced by annealing with NH3 and N2 at 950°C for 60 minutes. It was additionally found that the variation of m-plane QWs' emission properties was significantly increased when the substrate miscut toward a-axis was increased from 0° to 0.1°. InGaN/GaN QWs were grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane and m-plane GaN substrates. The QWs were studied by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy with different incident electron beam probe currents (0.1 nA ˜ 1000 nA). Lower emission intensities and longer peak wavelengths from c-plane QWs were attributed to the Quantum-confined Stark Effect (QCSE). The emission intensity ratios of m-plane QWs to c-plane QWs decreased from 3.04 at 1 nA to 1.53 at 1000 nA. This was identified as the stronger screening effects of QCSE at higher current densities in c-plane QWs. To further investigate these effects in a fabricated structure, biased photoluminescence measurements were performed on m-plane InGaN/GaN QWs. The purpose was to detect the possible internal fields induced by the dot-like structure in the InGaN layer through the response of these internal fields under externally applied fields. No energy shifts of the QWs were observed, which was attributed to strong surface leakage currents.
Tong, Cunzhu; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Wang, Lijun
2012-09-24
We demonstrate experimentally the submicron size self-assembled (SA) GaAs quantum rings (QRs) by quantum size effect (QSE). An ultrathin In0.1 Ga0.9As layer with different thickness is deposited on the GaAs to modulate the surface nucleus diffusion barrier, and then the SA QRs are grown. It is found that the density of QRs is affected significantly by the thickness of inserted In0.1 Ga0.9As, and the diffusion barrier modulation reflects mainly on the first five monolayer . The physical mechanism behind is discussed. The further analysis shows that about 160 meV decrease in diffusion barrier can be achieved, which allows the SA QRs with density of as low as one QR per 6 μm2. Finally, the QRs with diameters of 438 nm and outer diameters of 736 nm are fabricated using QSE.
Surface-passivation-induced optical changes in Ge quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reboredo, F. A.; Zunger, Alex
2001-01-01
One of the most interesting properties of quantum dots is the possibility to tune the band gap as a function of their size. Here we explore the possibility of changing the lifetime of the lowest-energy excited state by altering the surface passivation. We show that a moderately electronegative passivation potential can induce long-lived excitons without appreciable changes to the band gap. In addition, for such passivation the symmetry of the valence-band maximum is γ 8# sub v# (t 1 derived) instead of the more usual γ 8v (t 2 derived). This reverses the effect of the exchange interaction on the bright-dark exciton splitting
Origins of efficient green light emission in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, Y-L; Liu, C-P; Lin, Y-H; Hsueh, T-H; Lin, R-M; Lyu, D-Y; Peng, Z-X; Lin, T-Y
2006-01-01
Green-light-emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with high luminescent efficiency were grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The microstructure of the sample was studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-resolution x-ray diffraction, while its optical behaviour was analysed in great detail by a variety of photoluminescence methods. Two InGaN-related peaks that were clearly found in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum are assigned to quasi-quantum dots (516 nm) and the InGaN matrix (450 nm), respectively, due to a strong phase separation observed by HRTEM. Except for the strong indium aggregation regions (511 meV of Stokes shift), slight composition fluctuations were also observed in the InGaN matrix, which were speculated from an 'S-shaped' transition and a Stokes shift of 341 meV. Stronger carrier localization and an internal quantum efficiency of the dot-related emission (21.5%), higher than the InGaN-matrix related emission (7.5%), was demonstrated. Additionally, a shorter lifetime and 'two-component' PL decay were found for the low-indium-content regions (matrix). Thus, the carrier transport process within quantum wells is suggested to drift from the low-In-content matrix to the high-In-content dots, resulting in the enhanced luminescence efficiency of the green light emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kannan, E S; Karamad, M; Kim, Gil-Ho; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A
2010-01-01
Magnetotransport measurements were performed in two widely separated double quantum well systems with different starting disorders. In the weak magnetic field regime, a crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance in the longitudinal resistivity was observed in the system with weak disorder when the electron densities in the neighboring wells were significantly unbalanced. The crossover was found to be the result of the exchange-energy-assisted interactions between the electrons occupying the lowest subbands in the neighboring wells. In the case of the system with strong disorder short range scattering dominated the scattering process and no such transition in longitudinal resistivity in the low magnetic field regime was observed. However, at high magnetic fields, sharp peaks were observed in the Hall resistance due to the interaction between the edge states in the quantum Hall regime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhaneshwar Mishra
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Exact closed-form expressions have been derived for the stresses and the electric fields induced in piezoelectric multilayers deposited on a substrate with lattice misfit and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. The derived formulations can model any number of layers using recursive relations that minimize the computation time. A proper rotation matrix has been utilized to generalize the expressions so that they can be used for various growth orientations with each layer having hexagonal crystal symmetry. As an example, the influence of lattice misfit and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch on the state of electroelastic fields in different layers of GaN multi quantum wells has been examined. A comparison with the finite element analysis results showed very close agreement. The analytical expressions developed herein will be useful in designing optoelectronic devices as well as in predicting defect density in multi quantum wells.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Liancheng, E-mail: wanglc@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@hebut.edu.cn [Engineering Product Development Pillar (EPD), Singapore University of Technology & Design (SUTD), 8 Somapah Road, Singapore 487372 (Singapore); Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Mind Star (Beijing) Technology Co., Ltd., Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, No. 45 Hing Fat Building 1001, Beijing 100872 (China); Liu, Zhiqiang, E-mail: wanglc@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@hebut.edu.cn; Tian, Ying Dong; Yi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Wang, Guohong [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Zi-Hui, E-mail: wanglc@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@hebut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices of Tianjin, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China)
2016-04-14
The effects of graphene on the optical properties of active system, e.g., the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, are thoroughly investigated and clarified. Here, we have investigated the mechanisms accounting for the photoluminescence reduction for the graphene covered GaN/InGaN multiple quantum wells hybrid structure. Compared to the bare multiple quantum wells, the photoluminescence intensity of graphene covered multiple quantum wells showed a 39% decrease after excluding the graphene absorption losses. The responsible mechanisms have been identified with the following factors: (1) the graphene two dimensional hole gas intensifies the polarization field in multiple quantum wells, thus steepening the quantum well band profile and causing hole-electron pairs to further separate; (2) a lower affinity of graphene compared to air leading to a weaker capability to confine the excited hot electrons in multiple quantum wells; and (3) exciton transfer through non-radiative energy transfer process. These factors are theoretically analysed based on advanced physical models of semiconductor devices calculations and experimentally verified by varying structural parameters, such as the indium fraction in multiple quantum wells and the thickness of the last GaN quantum barrier spacer layer.
Simulation and optimization of deep violet InGaN double quantum well laser
Alahyarizadeh, Gh.; Ghazai, A. J.; Rahmani, R.; Mahmodi, H.; Hassan, Z.
2012-03-01
The performance characteristics of a deep violet InGaN double quantum well laser diode (LD) such as threshold current ( Ith), external differential quantum efficiency (DQE) and output power have been investigated using the Integrated System Engineering Technical Computer Aided Design (ISE-TCAD) software. As well as its operating parameters such as internal quantum efficiency ( ηi), internal loss ( αi) and transparency threshold current density ( J0) have been studied. Since, we are interested to investigate the mentioned characteristics and parameters independent of well and barrier thickness, therefore to reach a desired output wavelength, the indium mole fraction of wells and barriers has been varied consequently. The indium mole fractions of well and barrier layers have been considered 0.08 and 0.0, respectively. Some important parameters such as Al mole fraction of the electronic blocking layer (EBL) and cavity length which affect performance characteristics were also investigated. The optimum values of the Al mole fraction and cavity length in this study are 0.15 and 400 μm, respectively. The lowest threshold current, the highest DQE and output power which obtained at the emission wavelength of 391.5 nm are 43.199 mA, 44.99% and 10.334 mW, respectively.
Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belfaqih, Idrus Husin; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra; Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto
2015-01-01
Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well
Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belfaqih, Idrus Husin, E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra, E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur, 13220 (Indonesia); Sulaksono, Anto, E-mail: anto.sulaksono@sci.ui.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat, 164242 (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.
(110) oriented GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum wells for optimized T-shaped quantum wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gislason, Hannes; Sørensen, Claus Birger; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1996-01-01
High control of (110) oriented GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum wells is very important for the growth of optimized T-shaped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wires, We investigate theoretically and experimentally 20-200 Angstrom wide (110) oriented GaAs quantum wells grown on (110) oriented substrates and cleaved...... edges. Photoluminescence transition energies are found to be in good agreement with theory for all well widths. The mean well width is controllable to 1 monolayer accuracy and an effective well width fluctuation of 3.7 Angstrom is derived from the photoluminescence linewidths. The growth rate...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergbauer, Werner [OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); FH Deggendorf (Germany); Laubsch, Ansgar; Peter, Matthias; Mayer, Tobias; Bader, Stefan; Oberschmid, Raimund; Hahn, Berthold [OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Benstetter, Guenther [FH Deggendorf (Germany)
2008-07-01
As the efficiency and the luminous flux have been increased enormously in the last few years, today Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are even pushed to applications like general lighting and Home Cinema Projection. Still, InGaN/GaN heterostructure based LEDs suffer from loss-mechanisms like non-radiative defect and Auger recombination, carrier leakage and piezo-field induced carrier separation. To optimize the high current efficiency we evaluated the benefit of Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) compared to Single Quantum Well (SQW) LEDs. Temperature dependent electroluminescence of colour-coded structures with different Indium content in certain Quantum Wells was measured. The experiments demonstrated a strong temperature and current dependence of the MQW operation. The comparison between different LED structures showed effectively the increased LED performance of those structures which operate with a well adjusted MQW active area. Due to the enhanced carrier distribution in the high current range, these LEDs show a higher light output and additionally a reduced wavelength shift.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergbauer, Werner; Laubsch, Ansgar; Peter, Matthias; Mayer, Tobias; Bader, Stefan; Oberschmid, Raimund; Hahn, Berthold; Benstetter, Guenther
2008-01-01
As the efficiency and the luminous flux have been increased enormously in the last few years, today Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are even pushed to applications like general lighting and Home Cinema Projection. Still, InGaN/GaN heterostructure based LEDs suffer from loss-mechanisms like non-radiative defect and Auger recombination, carrier leakage and piezo-field induced carrier separation. To optimize the high current efficiency we evaluated the benefit of Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) compared to Single Quantum Well (SQW) LEDs. Temperature dependent electroluminescence of colour-coded structures with different Indium content in certain Quantum Wells was measured. The experiments demonstrated a strong temperature and current dependence of the MQW operation. The comparison between different LED structures showed effectively the increased LED performance of those structures which operate with a well adjusted MQW active area. Due to the enhanced carrier distribution in the high current range, these LEDs show a higher light output and additionally a reduced wavelength shift
Carrier dynamics in InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs multi quantum well structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinola, J L Casas; Dybic, M; Ostapenko, S; Torchynska, T V; Polupan, G
2007-01-01
Ground and multi excited state photoluminescence, as well as its temperature dependence, in InAs quantum dots embedded in symmetric In x Ga 1-x As/GaAs (x = 0.15) quantum wells (DWELL) have been investigated. The solution of the set of rate equations for exciton dynamics (relaxation into QWs or QDs and thermal escape) solved by us earlier is used for analysis the variety of thermal activation energies of photoluminescence thermal quenching for ground and multi excited states of InAs QDs. The obtained solutions were used at the discussion of the variety of activation energies of PL thermal quenching in InAs QDs. It is revealed three different regimes of thermally activated quenching of the QD PL intensity. These three regimes were attributed to thermal escape of excitons: i) from the high energy excited states of InAs QDs into the WL with follows exciton re-localization; ii) from the In x Ga 1-x As QWs into the GaAs barrier and iii) from the WL into the GaAs barrier with their subsequent nonradiative recombination in GaAs barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Peng; Zhang, Ning; Xue, Bin; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin
2016-01-01
The challenge for improving the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LED) in the green light range is referred to as the ‘green gap’. However the IQE of InGaN-based LEDs often drops when the emission peak wavelength is adjusted through reducing the growth temperature. Although hydrogen (H 2 ) can improve surface morphology, it reduces the indium incorporation significantly. Here, a novel usage of H 2 treatment on the GaN barrier before the InGaN quantum well is demonstrated to enhance indium incorporation efficiency and improve the IQE simultaneously for the first time. The mechanism behind it is systematically investigated and explained in detail. The possible reason for this phenomenon is the strain relieving function by the undulant GaN barrier surface after H 2 treatment. Test measurements show that applying 0.2 min H 2 treatment on the barrier would reduce defects and enhance indium incorporation, which would improve the localization effect and finally lead to a higher IQE. Although further increasing the treatment time to 0.4 min incorporates more indium atoms, the IQE decreases at the expense of more defects and a larger polarization field than the 0.2 min sample. (paper)
Mixed quantum-classical equilibrium in global flux surface hopping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sifain, Andrew E.; Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V.
2015-01-01
Global flux surface hopping (GFSH) generalizes fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH)—one of the most popular approaches to nonadiabatic molecular dynamics—for processes exhibiting superexchange. We show that GFSH satisfies detailed balance and leads to thermodynamic equilibrium with accuracy similar to FSSH. This feature is particularly important when studying electron-vibrational relaxation and phonon-assisted transport. By studying the dynamics in a three-level quantum system coupled to a classical atom in contact with a classical bath, we demonstrate that both FSSH and GFSH achieve the Boltzmann state populations. Thermal equilibrium is attained significantly faster with GFSH, since it accurately represents the superexchange process. GFSH converges closer to the Boltzmann averages than FSSH and exhibits significantly smaller statistical errors
Electron-electron scattering and mobilities in semiconductors and quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyo, S.K.
1986-01-01
The effect of electron-electron scattering on the mobility in semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells is examined. A general exact formula is derived for the mobility, when the electron-electron collision rate is much faster than other scattering rates such as those by ionized impurities and phonons. In this limit, the transport relaxation rate is independent of the carrier's energy and contributions to the inverse mobility from individual scattering mechanism add up. The mobility becomes significantly reduced from its value in the absence of electron-electron scattering. When the collision rates are not necessarily dominated by electron-electron scattering, the mobility is calculated by the Kohler-Sondheimer variational method in the presence of ionized-impurity scattering and acoustic-phonon scattering in a nondegenerate two-dimensional quantum well
Spin-orbit interaction in a dual gated InAs/GaSb quantum well
Beukman, Arjan J. A.; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; Skolasinski, Rafal; Wimmer, Michael; Qu, Fanming; de Vries, David T.; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Yi, Wei; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Sokolich, Marko; Manfra, Michael J.; Nichele, Fabrizio; Marcus, Charles M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.
2017-12-01
The spin-orbit interaction is investigated in a dual gated InAs/GaSb quantum well. Using an electric field, the quantum well can be tuned between a single-carrier regime with exclusively electrons as carriers and a two-carrier regime where electrons and holes coexist. The spin-orbit interaction in both regimes manifests itself as a beating in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In the single-carrier regime the linear Dresselhaus strength is characterized by β =28.5 meV Å and the Rashba coefficient α is tuned from 75 to 53 meV Å by changing the electric field. In the two-carrier regime a quenching of the spin splitting is observed and attributed to a crossing of spin bands.
Quantum wells, wires and dots theoretical and computational physics of semiconductor nanostructures
Harrison, Paul
2016-01-01
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: - Properties of non-parabolic energy bands - Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrodinger equations - Critical thickness of strained materials - Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities - Density matrix transport modelling -Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is pr...
Excitonic recombination dynamics in non-polar GaN/AlGaN quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B. [CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23238 (United States); Leach, J. H. [Kyma Technologies, Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States)
2014-02-21
The optical properties of GaN/Al{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N multiple quantum wells are examined in 8 K–300 K temperature range. Both polarized CW and time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiment are performed so that we can deduce the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. From the calculation of the proportion of the excitonic population having wave vector in the light cone, we can deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature. We find part of the excitonic population to be localized in concert with the report of Corfdir et al. (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 52, 08JC01 (2013)) in case of a-plane quantum wells.
Excitonic recombination dynamics in non-polar GaN/AlGaN quantum wells
Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Leach, J. H.
2014-02-01
The optical properties of GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N multiple quantum wells are examined in 8 K-300 K temperature range. Both polarized CW and time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiment are performed so that we can deduce the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. From the calculation of the proportion of the excitonic population having wave vector in the light cone, we can deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature. We find part of the excitonic population to be localized in concert with the report of Corfdir et al. (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 52, 08JC01 (2013)) in case of a-plane quantum wells.
Excitonic recombination dynamics in non-polar GaN/AlGaN quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Leach, J. H.
2014-01-01
The optical properties of GaN/Al 0.15 Ga 0.85 N multiple quantum wells are examined in 8 K–300 K temperature range. Both polarized CW and time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiment are performed so that we can deduce the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. From the calculation of the proportion of the excitonic population having wave vector in the light cone, we can deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature. We find part of the excitonic population to be localized in concert with the report of Corfdir et al. (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 52, 08JC01 (2013)) in case of a-plane quantum wells
Phase-dependent optical bistability and multistability in a semiconductor quantum well system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhiping; Fan Hongyi
2010-01-01
We theoretically investigate the hybrid absorptive-dispersive optical bistability and multistability in a four-level inverted-Y quantum well system inside a unidirectional ring cavity. We find that the coupling field, the pumping field as well as the cycling field can affect the optical bistability and multistability dramatically, which can be used to manipulate efficiently the threshold intensity and the hysteresis loop. The effects of the relative phase and the electronic cooperation parameter on the OB and OM are also studied. Our study is much more practical than its atomic counterpart due to its flexible design and the wide adjustable parameters. Thus, it may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.
Optical and electrical characteristics of GaAs/InGaAs quantum-well device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, K.C.; Ho, C.H.; Lin, Y.S.; Wu, Y.H.; Hsu, R.T.; Huang, K.W.
2009-01-01
A GaAs/InGaAs quantum-well structure was grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The quantum well was graded from 25% to 15% indium (from the bottom to the top of the channel). Hall measurements were made to characterize the concentration and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and photoreflectance (PR) spectra of the structure of interest were obtained. Various intersuband features were observed in the PR spectra. Furthermore, a 1.5 μm gate-length high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT), fabricated on these layers, had an extrinsic transconductance of 127 mS/mm. The optical and electrical characteristics were determined simultaneously
Effect of Phonon Drag on the Thermopower in a Parabolic Quantum Well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasanov, Kh. A., E-mail: xanlarhasanli@rambler.ru; Huseynov, J. I. [Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Azerbaijan); Dadashova, V. V. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Aliyev, F. F. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)
2016-03-15
The theory of phonon-drag thermopower resulting from a temperature gradient in the plane of a two-dimensional electron gas layer in a parabolic quantum well is developed. The interaction mechanisms between electrons and acoustic phonons are considered, taking into account potential screening of the interaction. It is found that the effect of electron drag by phonons makes a significant contribution to the thermopower of the two-dimensional electron gas. It is shown that the consideration of screening has a significant effect on the drag thermopower. For the temperature dependence of the thermopower in a parabolic GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well in the temperature range of 1–10 K, good agreement between the obtained theoretical results and experiments is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, B H; Cao, J C
2004-01-01
A selected intersubband transition in the asymmetric quantum well is theoretically proposed by using the superposition of two identical time delayed and phase shifted broadband pulses. Three conduction subbands in the semiconductor quantum well structure are optically coupled with the ultrafast infrared pulses. By adjusting the delay between these two pulses, the carriers at ground level can be selectively pumped to one of the upper levels, while the other upper level remains unoccupied. Thus selective transitions in the three level model can be manipulated by optical interference. At the same time, terahertz radiation will be emitted by coherent controlled charge oscillations. The phase and amplitude of THz radiation is found to be sensitive to the optical interference of the coupling pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luna, E.; Hopkinson, M.; Ulloa, J. M.; Guzman, A.; Munoz, E.
2003-01-01
Near-infrared detection is reported for a double-barrier quantum-well infrared photodetector based on a 30-A GaAs 1-y N y (y≅0.01) quantum well. The growth procedure using plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy is described. The as-grown sample exhibits a detection wavelength of 1.64 μm at 25 K. The detection peak strengthens and redshifts to 1.67 μm following rapid thermal annealing at 850 deg. C for 30 s. The detection peak position is consistent with the calculated band structure based on the band-anticrossing model for nitrogen incorporation into GaAs
Magnetospectroscopy of symmetric and anti-symmetric states in double quantum wells
Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Ploch, D.; Tomaka, G.; Furdak, M.; Kolek, A.; Stadler, A.; Mleczko, K.; Zak, D.; Strupinski, W.; Jasik, A.; Jakiela, R.
2008-02-01
The experimental results obtained for magnetotransport in the InGaAs/InAlAs double quantum well (DQW) structures of two different shapes of wells are reported. A beating effect occurring in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations was observed for both types of structures at low temperatures in the parallel transport when the magnetic field was perpendicular to the layers. An approach for the calculation of the Landau level energies for DQW structures was developed and then applied to the analysis and interpretation of the experimental data related to the beating effect. We also argue that in order to account for the observed magnetotransport phenomena (SdH and integer quantum Hall effect), one should introduce two different quasi-Fermi levels characterizing two electron subsystems regarding the symmetry properties of their states, symmetric and anti-symmetric ones, which are not mixed by electron-electron interaction.
Optoelectronical properties of InGaN quantum well light emitting diodes on semipolar GaN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rass, Jens; Stascheit, Marcus; Ploch, Simon; Wernicke, Tim; Vogt, Patrick; Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Solid State Physics, Secretariat EW6-1, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
2011-07-01
The performance of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) is strongly affected by polarization fields along the c-axis of the crystal. Due to the resulting quantum-confined Stark effect the radiative transition rate is reduced and the emission wavelength is blue-shifted when carriers are injected. By growing the structures on semipolar or nonpolar planes the polarization fields can be significantly reduced or even eliminated. In this work, InGaN single quantum well LEDs have been grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on different semipolar surfaces such as the (10 anti 11) and (20 anti 21) plane. The optoelectronic properties such as the light output power, the emission wavelength and its shift with injection current as well as the operating voltage have been studied. By employing capacitance-voltage- and current-voltage measurements, the size of the depletion region, the build-in potential, the saturation current and the doping concentrations have been determined. LEDs with emission wavelengths ranging from the violet to the blue and green region are presented and their performance characteristics are compared to LEDs grown on the polar c-plane surface.
Larmor precession and dwell time of a relativistic particle scattered by a rectangular quantum well
Li, Z J; Liang, J J; Liang, J Q
2003-01-01
The Larmor precession of a relativistic neutral spin particle in a uniform constant magnetic field confined to the region of a one-dimensional rectangular potential well is investigated. The spin precession serves as a clock to measure the time spent by a quantum particle dwelling at a potential well. With the help of a general spin coherent state it is explicitly shown that the spin precession time is equal to the dwell time in the first-order approximation of the infinitesimal field limit. The comparison of the time in a potential well with that in free space shows apparent superluminality.
Gain and index measurements in GaAlAs quantum well lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kesler, M.P.; Harder, C. (IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Lab., 8803 Ruschlikon (CH))
1990-07-01
Measurements of the modal gain and group index in GaAlAs single quantum well (SQW) lasers are presented. The elimination of substrate emission has allowed accurate results to be obtained even in the near bandgap and below spectral regions. Substantial lifetime broadening is observed, and the gain smoothly goes to zero as the bandgap is approached. The group velocity index measurements indicate a dispersion of {minus} 3.44 {mu}m{sup {minus}}.
Temperature dependence of active photonic band gap in bragg-spaced quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Zhiqiang; Wang Tao; Yu Chunchao; Xu Wei
2011-01-01
A novel all-optical polarization switch of active photonic band gap structure based on non-resonant optical Stark effect bragg-spaced quantum wells was investigated and it could be compatible with the optical communication system. The theory is based on InGaAsP/InP Bragg-spaced quantum wells (BSQWs). Mainly through the design of the InGaAsP well layer component and InP barrier thickness to make the quantum-period cycle meet the bragg condition and the bragg frequency is equal to re-hole exciton resonance frequency. When a spectrally narrow control pulse is tuned within the forbidden gap, such BSQWs have been shown to exhibit large optical nonlinearities and ps recovery times, which can form T hz switch. However, the exciton binding energy of InGaAsP will be automatically separate at room temperature, so the effect of all-optical polarization switching of active photonic band gap bragg structure quantum wells can only be studied at low temperature. By a large number of experiments, we tested part of the material parameters of BSQWs in the temperature range 10-300K. On this basis, the InGaAsP and InP refractive index changes with wavelength, InP thermal expansion coefficient are studied and a relationship equation is established. Experimental results show that the bragg reflection spectra with temperature mainly is effected by InP refractive index changes with temperature. Our theoretical study and experiment are an instruction as a reference in the designs and experiments of future practical optical switches.
Temperature dependence of active photonic band gap in bragg-spaced quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu Zhiqiang; Wang Tao; Yu Chunchao; Xu Wei, E-mail: huzhiqianghzq@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)
2011-02-01
A novel all-optical polarization switch of active photonic band gap structure based on non-resonant optical Stark effect bragg-spaced quantum wells was investigated and it could be compatible with the optical communication system. The theory is based on InGaAsP/InP Bragg-spaced quantum wells (BSQWs). Mainly through the design of the InGaAsP well layer component and InP barrier thickness to make the quantum-period cycle meet the bragg condition and the bragg frequency is equal to re-hole exciton resonance frequency. When a spectrally narrow control pulse is tuned within the forbidden gap, such BSQWs have been shown to exhibit large optical nonlinearities and ps recovery times, which can form T hz switch. However, the exciton binding energy of InGaAsP will be automatically separate at room temperature, so the effect of all-optical polarization switching of active photonic band gap bragg structure quantum wells can only be studied at low temperature. By a large number of experiments, we tested part of the material parameters of BSQWs in the temperature range 10-300K. On this basis, the InGaAsP and InP refractive index changes with wavelength, InP thermal expansion coefficient are studied and a relationship equation is established. Experimental results show that the bragg reflection spectra with temperature mainly is effected by InP refractive index changes with temperature. Our theoretical study and experiment are an instruction as a reference in the designs and experiments of future practical optical switches.
Ultrafast spectral interferometry of resonant secondary emmission from semiconductor quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep
1999-01-01
Recent investigations of secondary emission from quantum well excitons follwing resonant excitation have demonstrated an intricate interplay of coherent Rayleigh scattering and incoherent luminescence. We have very recently demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and time resolve the coherent...... field associated with the Rayleigh component using ultrafast spectral interferometry, thus, obtaining substantial and new information of the nature of resonant secondary emission. Our findings demonstrate that Rayleigh scattering from static disorder is inherently a non-ergodic process invalidating...
Periodic dark pulse emission induced by delayed feedback in a quantum well semiconductor laser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Li
2012-12-01
Full Text Available We report the experimental observation of periodic dark pulse emission in a quantum-well semiconductor laser with delayed optical feedback. We found that under appropriate operation conditions the laser can also emit a stable train of dark pulses. The repetition frequency of the dark pulse is determined by the external cavity length. Splitting of the dark pulse was also observed. We speculate that the observed dark pulse is a kind of temporal cavity soliton formed in the laser.
Closed form solution for a double quantum well using Groebner basis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acus, A [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, A Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Dargys, A, E-mail: dargys@pfi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)
2011-07-01
Analytical expressions for the spectrum, eigenfunctions and dipole matrix elements of a square double quantum well (DQW) are presented for a general case when the potential in different regions of the DQW has different heights and the effective masses are different. This was achieved by using a Groebner basis algorithm that allowed us to disentangle the resulting coupled polynomials without explicitly solving the transcendental eigenvalue equation.
Circuit simulation model multi-quantum well laser diodes inducing transport and capture/escape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuber-Okrog, K.
1996-04-01
This work describes the development of world's first circuit simulation model for multi-quantum well (MQW) semiconductor lasers comprising caier transport and capture/escape effects. This model can be seen as the application of a new semiconductor device simulator for quasineutral structures including MQW layers with an extension for simple single mode modeling of optical behavior. It is implemented in a circuit simulation program. The model is applied to Fabry-Perot laser diodes and compared to measured data. (author)
Cascade Type-I Quantum Well GaSb-Based Diode Lasers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leon Shterengas
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Cascade pumping of type-I quantum well gain sections was utilized to increase output power and efficiency of GaSb-based diode lasers operating in a spectral region from 1.9 to 3.3 μm. Carrier recycling between quantum well gain stages was realized using band-to-band tunneling in GaSb/AlSb/InAs heterostructure complemented with optimized electron and hole injector regions. Coated devices with an ~100-μm-wide aperture and a 3-mm-long cavity demonstrated continuous wave (CW output power of 1.96 W near 2 μm, 980 mW near 3 μm, 500 mW near 3.18 μm, and 360 mW near 3.25 μm at 17–20 °C—a nearly or more than twofold increase compared to previous state-of-the-art diode lasers. The utilization of the different quantum wells in the cascade laser heterostructure was demonstrated to yield wide gain lasers, as often desired for tunable laser spectroscopy. Double-step etching was utilized to minimize both the internal optical loss and the lateral current spreading penalties in narrow-ridge lasers. Narrow-ridge cascade diode lasers operate in a CW regime with ~100 mW of output power near and above 3 μm and above 150 mW near 2 μm.
Magnetoconductance in InN/GaN quantum wells in topological insulator phase
Bardyszewski, W.; Rodak, D.; Łepkowski, S. P.
2017-04-01
We present a theoretical study of the magnetic-field effect on the electronic properties of the two-dimensional, hypothetical topological insulator based on the InN/GaN quantum well system. Using the effective two-dimensional Hamiltonian, we have modelled magneto-transport in mesoscopic, symmetric samples of such materials. It turns out that, as in the case of the other two-dimensional topological insulators, the magnetoconductance in such samples is quantized due to the presence of helical edge states for magnetic fields below a certain critical value and for fairly small disorder strength. However, in our case the helical edge transport is much more prone to the disorder than, for example, in the case of topological insulators based on the HgTe/CdTe quantum wells. At low enough level of disorder and for the Fermi energy located in the energy gap of an infinite planar quantum well, we may expect an interesting phenomenon of non-monotonic dependence of the conductance on the magnetic field caused by the complicated interplay of couplings between the heavy hole, light hole and conduction subbands.
Influence of hydrostatic pressure on the built-in electric field in ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teisseyre, Henryk, E-mail: teiss@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Kaminska, Agata; Suchocki, Andrzej; Kozanecki, Adrian [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Birner, Stefan [nextnano GmbH, Südmährenstr. 21, 85586 Poing (Germany); Young, Toby D. [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawińskiego, 5b, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland)
2016-06-07
We used high hydrostatic pressure to perform photoluminescence measurements on polar ZnO/ZnMgO quantum well structures. Our structure oriented along the c-direction (polar direction) was grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire. Due to the intrinsic electric field, which exists in polar wurtzite structure at ambient pressure, we observed a red shift of the emission related to the quantum-confined Stark effect. In the high hydrostatic pressure experiment, we observed a strong decrease of the quantum well pressure coefficients with increased thickness of the quantum wells. Generally, a narrower quantum well gave a higher pressure coefficient, closer to the band-gap pressure coefficient of bulk material 20 meV/GPa for ZnO, while for wider quantum wells it is much lower. We observed a pressure coefficient of 19.4 meV/GPa for a 1.5 nm quantum well, while for an 8 nm quantum well the pressure coefficient was equal to 8.9 meV/GPa only. This is explained by taking into account the pressure-induced increase of the strain in our structure. The strain was calculated taking in to account that in-plane strain is not equal (due to fact that we used a-plane sapphire as a substrate) and the potential distribution in the structure was calculated self-consistently. The pressure induced increase of the built-in electric field is the same for all thicknesses of quantum wells, but becomes more pronounced for thicker quantum wells due to the quantum confined Stark effect lowering the pressure coefficients.
Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed; Chen, Yuntian
2015-01-01
We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantumwell structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density on the enhance......We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantumwell structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thirstrup, Carsten
1995-01-01
The effect of excitons in GaInAs-InP coupled asymmetric quantum wells on the refractive index modulation, is analyzed numerically using a model based on the effective mass approximation. It is shown that two coupled quantum wells brought in resonance by an applied electric field will, due...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steffensen, O. M.; Birkedal, Dan; Hanberg, J.
1995-01-01
The effects of CH4/H2 reactive ion etching (RIE) on the optical properties of an InP/InGaAs multiple-quantum-well structure have been investigated by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). The structure consisted of eight InGaAs quantum wells, lattice matched to InP, with nominal thicknesses of 0...
Quantum dots use both LUMO and surface trap electrons in photoreduction process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darżynkiewicz, Zbigniew M. [Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, Banacha 2c, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Division of Biophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Pędziwiatr, Marta [Institute of Physics PAS, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Grzyb, Joanna, E-mail: jgrzyb@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics PAS, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)
2017-03-15
Here, we explore a mechanism of quantum dots related photoreduction of two redox-active proteins, cytochrome c and ferredoxin, by detailed analysis of fluorescence decay and reconstruction of time-resolved emission spectra (TRES). We used two types of cadmium telluride quantum dots, with diameters of 2.6 nm and 3.9 nm and maximum emissions at 550 nm and at 650 nm, respectively, which are known to be able to reduce proteins with different efficiencies. First, we observed that for a pure quantum dots solution, the fluorescence decay can be well fitted by three components. The average fluorescence lifetimes, as well as separate time constants, depend on the nanocrystal diameter. In the presence of proteins, fluorescence decay is faster and cytochrome c has a greater impact than ferredoxin. The TRES experiment showed that a fraction of the medium τ decay component is dominant in a pure quantum dot solution, with the maximum corresponding to the steady-state spectrum. The addition of ferredoxin does not change this pattern, while the presence of cytochrome c strongly promotes the shortest τ. Additionally, potassium iodide titration experiments were used to verify the origin of individual decay components. We propose that reduction occurs by electron transfer from both conductive band and surface trap states.
Multiple defects in GaInN multiple quantum wells grown on ELO GaN layers and on GaN substrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomiya, S.; Goto, O.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, M.
2006-01-01
A new type of structural defects was observed in GaInN multiple quantum well structures with higher In concentrations that were grown on low-threading-dislocation-density templates. The defects were investigated by using various kinds of transmission electron microscopy techniques, and were found to consist of planar defects and associated dislocations. The planar defects nucleate at the interfaces between the quantum well layers and barrier layers. The dislocations are created at the edge boundary of the planar defects and run almost along the c-axis towards the epi-surface. The planar defects are revealed to be inversion domains which are thought to be caused by the segregation of excess In-In bonds at the interface between the quantum well layer and the barrier layer. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Multiple defects in GaInN multiple quantum wells grown on ELO GaN layers and on GaN substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Goto, O.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, M. [Shiroishi Laser Center, Semiconductor Laser Division, MSNC, Sony Corporation, Miyagi (Japan)
2006-06-15
A new type of structural defects was observed in GaInN multiple quantum well structures with higher In concentrations that were grown on low-threading-dislocation-density templates. The defects were investigated by using various kinds of transmission electron microscopy techniques, and were found to consist of planar defects and associated dislocations. The planar defects nucleate at the interfaces between the quantum well layers and barrier layers. The dislocations are created at the edge boundary of the planar defects and run almost along the c-axis towards the epi-surface. The planar defects are revealed to be inversion domains which are thought to be caused by the segregation of excess In-In bonds at the interface between the quantum well layer and the barrier layer. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Yakunin, M.V.; Galistu, G.; de Visser, A.
2008-01-01
Rich patterns of transformations in the structure of quantum Hall (QH) effect and magnetoresistivity under tilted magnetic fields were obtained in the InxGa1-xAs/GaAs double quantum well at mK temperatures. Local features correspond to the calculated intersections of Landau levels from different
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammersley, S.; Dawson, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kappers, M. J.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)
2015-09-28
InGaN-based light emitting diodes and multiple quantum wells designed to emit in the green spectral region exhibit, in general, lower internal quantum efficiencies than their blue-emitting counter parts, a phenomenon referred to as the “green gap.” One of the main differences between green-emitting and blue-emitting samples is that the quantum well growth temperature is lower for structures designed to emit at longer wavelengths, in order to reduce the effects of In desorption. In this paper, we report on the impact of the quantum well growth temperature on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells designed to emit at 460 nm and 530 nm. It was found that for both sets of samples increasing the temperature at which the InGaN quantum well was grown, while maintaining the same indium composition, led to an increase in the internal quantum efficiency measured at 300 K. These increases in internal quantum efficiency are shown to be due reductions in the non-radiative recombination rate which we attribute to reductions in point defect incorporation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammersley, S.; Dawson, P.; Kappers, M. J.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J.
2015-01-01
InGaN-based light emitting diodes and multiple quantum wells designed to emit in the green spectral region exhibit, in general, lower internal quantum efficiencies than their blue-emitting counter parts, a phenomenon referred to as the “green gap.” One of the main differences between green-emitting and blue-emitting samples is that the quantum well growth temperature is lower for structures designed to emit at longer wavelengths, in order to reduce the effects of In desorption. In this paper, we report on the impact of the quantum well growth temperature on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells designed to emit at 460 nm and 530 nm. It was found that for both sets of samples increasing the temperature at which the InGaN quantum well was grown, while maintaining the same indium composition, led to an increase in the internal quantum efficiency measured at 300 K. These increases in internal quantum efficiency are shown to be due reductions in the non-radiative recombination rate which we attribute to reductions in point defect incorporation
Colliding holes in Riemann surfaces and quantum cluster algebras
Chekhov, Leonid; Mazzocco, Marta
2018-01-01
In this paper, we describe a new type of surgery for non-compact Riemann surfaces that naturally appears when colliding two holes or two sides of the same hole in an orientable Riemann surface with boundary (and possibly orbifold points). As a result of this surgery, bordered cusps appear on the boundary components of the Riemann surface. In Poincaré uniformization, these bordered cusps correspond to ideal triangles in the fundamental domain. We introduce the notion of bordered cusped Teichmüller space and endow it with a Poisson structure, quantization of which is achieved with a canonical quantum ordering. We give a complete combinatorial description of the bordered cusped Teichmüller space by introducing the notion of maximal cusped lamination, a lamination consisting of geodesic arcs between bordered cusps and closed geodesics homotopic to the boundaries such that it triangulates the Riemann surface. We show that each bordered cusp carries a natural decoration, i.e. a choice of a horocycle, so that the lengths of the arcs in the maximal cusped lamination are defined as λ-lengths in Thurston-Penner terminology. We compute the Goldman bracket explicitly in terms of these λ-lengths and show that the groupoid of flip morphisms acts as a generalized cluster algebra mutation. From the physical point of view, our construction provides an explicit coordinatization of moduli spaces of open/closed string worldsheets and their quantization.
The discretized Schroedinger equation and simple models for semiconductor quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boykin, Timothy B; Klimeck, Gerhard
2004-01-01
The discretized Schroedinger equation is one of the most commonly employed methods for solving one-dimensional quantum mechanics problems on the computer, yet many of its characteristics remain poorly understood. The differences with the continuous Schroedinger equation are generally viewed as shortcomings of the discrete model and are typically described in purely mathematical terms. This is unfortunate since the discretized equation is more productively viewed from the perspective of solid-state physics, which naturally links the discrete model to realistic semiconductor quantum wells and nanoelectronic devices. While the relationship between the discrete model and a one-dimensional tight-binding model has been known for some time, the fact that the discrete Schroedinger equation admits analytic solutions for quantum wells has gone unnoted. Here we present a solution to this new analytically solvable problem. We show that the differences between the discrete and continuous models are due to their fundamentally different bandstructures, and present evidence for our belief that the discrete model is the more physically reasonable one
Emergence of localized states in narrow GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire quantum well tubes.
Shi, Teng; Jackson, Howard E; Smith, Leigh M; Jiang, Nian; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Zheng, Changlin; Etheridge, Joanne
2015-03-11
We use low-temperature photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy to explore the optical and electronic properties of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well tube (QWT) heterostructured nanowires (NWs). We find that GaAs QWTs with widths >5 nm have electronic states which are delocalized and continuous along the length of the NW. As the NW QWT width decreases from 5 to 1.5 nm, only a single electron state is bound to the well, and no optical excitations to a confined excited state are present. Simultaneously, narrow emission lines (fwhm points along the length of the NW. We find that these quantum-dot-like states broaden at higher temperatures and quench at temperatures above 80 K. The lifetimes of these localized states are observed to vary from dot to dot from 160 to 400 ps. The presence of delocalized states and then localized states as the QWTs become more confined suggests both opportunities and challenges for possible incorporation into quantum-confined device structures.
InGaNAs/GaAs multi-quantum wells and superlattices solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courel Piedrahita, Maykel; Rimada Herrera, Julio Cesar; Hernandez Garcia, Luis
2011-01-01
A theoretical study of the GaAs/InGaNAs solar cells based on a multi-quantum wells (MQWSC) and superlattices (SLSC) configuration is presented for the first time. The conversion efficiency as a function of wells width and depth is modeled. The photon absorption increases with the well levels incorporation and therefore the photocurrent as well. It is shown that the MQWSC efficiency overcomes the solar cells without wells about 25%. A study of the SLSC viability is also presented. The conditions for resonant tunneling are established by the matrix transfer method for a superlattice with variable quantum wells width. The effective density of states and the absorption coefficients for SL structure are calculated in order to determinate the JV characteristic. The influence of the superlattice or cluster width in the cell efficiency is researched showing a better performance when width and the number of cluster are increased. The SLSC efficiency is compared with the optimum efficiency obtained for the MQWSC showing that it is reached an amazing increment of 27%. (author)
Monolithic integration of InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells on SOI substrates for photonic devices
Li, Zhibo; Wang, Mengqi; Fang, Xin; Li, Yajie; Zhou, Xuliang; Yu, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Jiaoqing
2018-02-01
A direct epitaxy of III-V nanowires with InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells on v-shaped trenches patterned silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates was realized by combining the standard semiconductor fabrication process with the aspect ratio trapping growth technique. Silicon thickness as well as the width and gap of each nanowire were carefully designed to accommodate essential optical properties and appropriate growth conditions. The III-V element ingredient, crystalline quality, and surface topography of the grown nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning electron microscope. Geometrical details and chemical information of multiple quantum wells were revealed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Numerical simulations confirmed that the optical guided mode supported by one single nanowire was able to propagate 50 μm with ˜30% optical loss. This proposed integration scheme opens up an alternative pathway for future photonic integrations of III-V devices on the SOI platform at nanoscale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toropov, A.A.; Sorokin, S.V.; Shubina, T.V.; Nekrutkina, O.V.; Solnyshkov, D.D.; Ivanov, S.V.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.
2003-01-01
We report on the investigations of in-plane optical anisotropy in non-common-atom heterostructures: ZnSe/BeTe perfect quantum wells (QWs) and CdSe/BeTe rough QWs and quantum dots. A noticeable linear polarization of photoluminescence (PL) with respect to the in-plane [1-10] and [110] crystal axes was observed in the ZnSe/BeTe QWs with equivalent ZnTe-type interfaces due to the reduction of QW symmetry, induced by unintentional formation of BeSe chemical bonds at a ''BeTe-ZnSe'' interface. The BeSe bond concentration and, hence, the polarization degree depend on the Te/Be flux ratio during molecular beam epitaxy growth of the samples. Strongly linearly polarized (up to 80%) PL was detected in the CdSe/BeTe structures, evidencing QW-like flat symmetry of the emitting sites of carrier localization. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Quantum well saturable absorber mirror with electrical control of modulation depth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Xiaomin; Rafailov, Edik U.; Livshits, Daniil
2010-01-01
in the range 2.5–0.5%, as measured by nonlinear reflectivity of 450 fs long laser pulses with 1065 nm central wavelength, in the pump fluence range 1.6–26.7 J /cm2. This electrical control of the modulation depth is achieved by controlling the small-signal loss of the SESAM via quantum-confined Stark effect......We demonstrate a quantum well QW semiconductor saturable absorber mirror SESAM comprising low-temperature grown InGaAs/GaAs QWs incorporated into a p-i-n structure. By applying the reverse bias voltage in the range 0–2 V to the p-i-n structure, we were able to change the SESAM modulation depth...
Electrically injected GaAsBi/GaAs single quantum well laser diodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juanjuan Liu
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present electrically injected GaAs/GaAsBi single quantum well laser diodes (LDs emitting at a record long wavelength of 1141 nm at room temperature grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The LDs have excellent device performances with internal quantum efficiency of 86%, internal loss of 10 cm-1 and transparency current density of 196 A/cm2. The LDs can operate under continuous-wave mode up to 273 K. The characteristic temperature are extracted to be 125 K in the temperature range of 77∼150 K, and reduced to 90 K in the range of 150∼273 K. The temperature coefficient of 0.3 nm/K is extracted in the temperature range of 77∼273 K.
Impurity-induced tuning of quantum-well States in spin-dependent resonant tunneling.
Kalitsov, Alan; Coho, A; Kioussis, Nicholas; Vedyayev, Anatoly; Chshiev, M; Granovsky, A
2004-07-23
We report exact model calculations of the spin-dependent tunneling in double magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of impurities in the well. We show that the impurity can tune selectively the spin channels giving rise to a wide variety of interesting and novel transport phenomena. The tunneling magnetoresistance, the spin polarization, and the local current can be dramatically enhanced or suppressed by impurities. The underlying mechanism is the impurity-induced shift of the quantum well states (QWSs), which depends on the impurity potential, impurity position, and the symmetry of the QWS. Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society
Terahertz study of ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGa/GaN multiple quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Cooke, David
2009-01-01
Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. The built-in piezoelectric field is initially screened by photoexcited, polarized carriers, and is gradullay restored as the carriers recombine. We observe a nonexponential decay...... of the carrier density. Time-integrated photoluminescence spectra have shown a complete screening of the built-in piezoelectric field at high excitation fluences. We also observe that the terahertz conductivity spectra differs from simple Drude conductivity, describing the response of free carriers, and are well...
Impurity States and diamagnetic susceptibility of a donor in a triangular quantum well
Kalpana, P.; Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.
2017-05-01
We have calculated the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility(χdia) of the ground (1s) and few low lying excited states (2s and 2p±) in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Triangular Quantum Well (TQW) for the Al composition of x = 0.3. Since the estimation of gives the carrier localization in nanostructured systems and also the calculation of (χdia) involves the , the same has also been estimated as a function of well width. The Schrodinger equation has been solved using variational technique involving Airy functions in the effective mass approximation. The results are presented and discussed.
Excitation states in type-II ZnSe/BeTe quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platonov, A.V.; Kochereshko, V.P.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Zehnder, U.; Ossau, W.; Fisher, F.; Litz, Th.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.
1997-01-01
We present an optical investigation of novel heterostructures based on beryllium chalcogenides with a type-I and type-II band alignment. In the type-II quantum well structures (ZnSe/BeTe) we observed a strong exciton transition involving an electron confined in the conduction band well and a hole localized in the valence band barrier (both in ZnSe layer). This transition is drastically broadened by the temperature increase due to enhanced exciton-acoustic phonon interaction. (author)
Resonant Rayleigh scattering of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malpuech, Guillaume; Kavokin, Alexey; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner
2000-01-01
A theoretical concept of resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells (QWs) is presented. The optical coupling between excitons in different QWs can strongly affect the RRS dynamics, giving rise to characteristic temporal oscillations on a picosecond scale....... Bragg and anti-Bragg arranged QW structures with the same excitonic parameters are predicted to have drastically different RRS spectra. Experimental data on the RRS from multiple QWs show the predicted strong temporal oscillations at small scattering angles, which are well explained by the presented...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biermann, Mark L [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Walters, Matthew [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Diaz-Barriga, James [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Rabinovich, W S [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 5652, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5320 (United States)
2003-10-21
Anisotropic in-plane strain in quantum wells leads to an optical polarization anisotropy that can be exploited for device applications. We have determined that for many anisotropic compressive strain cases, the dependence of the optical anisotropy is linear in the strain anisotropy. This result holds for a variety of well and barrier materials and widths and for various overall strain conditions. Further, the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy varies as the reciprocal of the energy separation of the relevant hole sub-bands. Hence, a general result for the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy is available for cases of compressive anisotropic in-plane strain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biermann, Mark L; Walters, Matthew; Diaz-Barriga, James; Rabinovich, W S
2003-01-01
Anisotropic in-plane strain in quantum wells leads to an optical polarization anisotropy that can be exploited for device applications. We have determined that for many anisotropic compressive strain cases, the dependence of the optical anisotropy is linear in the strain anisotropy. This result holds for a variety of well and barrier materials and widths and for various overall strain conditions. Further, the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy varies as the reciprocal of the energy separation of the relevant hole sub-bands. Hence, a general result for the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy is available for cases of compressive anisotropic in-plane strain
Terahertz emission from CdHgTe/HgTe quantum wells with an inverted band structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasilyev, Yu. B., E-mail: Yu.Vasilyev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Vasilyeva, G. Yu.; Ivánov, Yu. L.; Zakhar’in, A. O.; Andrianov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Vorobiev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A. [Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Grigoriev, M. N. [Ustinov Baltic State Technical University “VOENMEKh” (Russian Federation); Antonov, A. V.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)
2016-07-15
The terahertz electroluminescence from Cd{sub 0.7}Hg{sub 0.3}Te/HgTe quantum wells with an inverted band structure in lateral electric fields is experimentally detected and studied. The emission-spectrum maximum for wells 6.5 and 7 nm wide is near 6 meV which corresponds to interband optical transitions. The emission is explained by state depletion in the valence band and conduction band filling due to Zener tunneling, which is confirmed by power-law current–voltage characteristics.
Spin transport dynamics of excitons in CdTe/Cd1-xMnxTe quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayanuma, Kentaro; Shirado, Eiji; Debnath, Mukul C.; Souma, Izuru; Chen, Zhanghai; Oka, Yasuo
2001-01-01
Transport properties of spin-polarized excitons were studied in the double quantum well system composed of Cd 0.95 Mn 0.05 Te and CdTe wells. Circular polarization degrees of the time resolved exciton photoluminescence in magnetic field showed that the spin-polarized excitons diffused from the magnetic quantum well and injected to the non-magnetic quantum well by conserving their spins. The spin-polarized excitons injected into the nonmagnetic well reaches 18% of the nonmagnetic well excitons. From the circular polarization degree and the lifetime of the magnetic quantum well excitons, the spin relaxation time of the excitons in the Cd 0.95 Mn 0.05 Te well was determined as 275 - 10 ps depending on the magnetic field strength. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics
Doğan, İlker; Gresback, Ryan; Nozaki, Tomohiro; van de Sanden, Mauritius C M
2016-07-08
Temporal evolution of surface chemistry during oxidation of silicon quantum dot (Si-QD) surfaces were probed using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A monolayer of hydrogen and chlorine terminated plasma-synthesized Si-QDs were spin-coated on silver oxide thin films. A clearly enhanced signal of surface modes, including Si-Clx and Si-Hx modes were observed from as-synthesized Si-QDs as a result of the plasmonic enhancement of the Raman signal at Si-QD/silver oxide interface. Upon oxidation, a gradual decrease of Si-Clx and Si-Hx modes, and an emergence of Si-Ox and Si-O-Hx modes have been observed. In addition, first, second and third transverse optical modes of Si-QDs were also observed in the SERS spectra, revealing information on the crystalline morphology of Si-QDs. An absence of any of the abovementioned spectral features, but only the first transverse optical mode of Si-QDs from thick Si-QD films validated that the spectral features observed from Si-QDs on silver oxide thin films are originated from the SERS effect. These results indicate that real-time SERS is a powerful diagnostic tool and a novel approach to probe the dynamic surface/interface chemistry of quantum dots, especially when they involve in oxidative, catalytic, and electrochemical surface/interface reactions.
Interfacial sharpness and intermixing in a Ge-SiGe multiple quantum well structure
Bashir, A.; Gallacher, K.; Millar, R. W.; Paul, D. J.; Ballabio, A.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Kriegner, D.; Ortolani, M.; Barthel, J.; MacLaren, I.
2018-01-01
A Ge-SiGe multiple quantum well structure created by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, with nominal well thickness of 5.4 nm separated by 3.6 nm SiGe spacers, is analysed quantitatively using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both high angle annular dark field imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy show that the interfaces are not completely sharp, suggesting that there is some intermixing of Si and Ge at each interface. Two methods are compared for the quantification of the spectroscopy datasets: a self-consistent approach that calculates binary substitutional trends without requiring experimental or computational k-factors from elsewhere and a standards-based cross sectional calculation. Whilst the cross section approach is shown to be ultimately more reliable, the self-consistent approach provides surprisingly good results. It is found that the Ge quantum wells are actually about 95% Ge and that the spacers, whilst apparently peaking at about 35% Si, contain significant interdiffused Ge at each side. This result is shown to be not just an artefact of electron beam spreading in the sample, but mostly arising from a real chemical interdiffusion resulting from the growth. Similar results are found by use of X-ray diffraction from a similar area of the sample. Putting the results together suggests a real interdiffusion with a standard deviation of about 0.87 nm, or put another way—a true width defined from 10%-90% of the compositional gradient of about 2.9 nm. This suggests an intrinsic limit on how sharp such interfaces can be grown by this method and, whilst 95% Ge quantum wells (QWs) still behave well enough to have good properties, any attempt to grow thinner QWs would require modifications to the growth procedure to reduce this interdiffusion, in order to maintain a composition of ≥95% Ge.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, B. S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2006-01-01
In this work we describe the ultrafast excitation kinetics of biased quantum well, arising from the optically induced dynamical screening of a bias electric field. The initial bia electric field inside the quantum well is screened by the optically excited polarized electron-hole pairs. This leads...... wells are in good agreement with our experimental observations [Turchinovich et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 241307(R) (2003)], as well as in perfect compliance with qualitative considerations. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surkov, Yu.A.; Noskaleva, L.P.; Manvelyan, O.S.
1978-01-01
The dependence of the gamma quantum flux on height over a planet, area over which the gamma radiation is ''collected'', and surface relief is calculated. The effect of the planet atmosphere on detected gamma radiation is considered. If the specific power of gamma-quantum sources is known, the results obtained allow to determine for any height over a planet the gamma-quantum flux due to the planet rock and its atmosphere radiations, as well as the detector spatial resolution
High intensity mid infra-red spectroscopy of intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serapiglia, G.B.
2000-01-01
High intensity (10 8 Wcm -2 ) mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the optical response of intersubband transitions in InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells with three conduction subbands. Steady state optical pumping of 2 x 10 11 cm -2 electrons into the excited vertical bar2> subband and subsequent electron relaxation (via phonon emission) back to the ground vertical bar1> subband creates a non-equilibrium phonon population (phonon occupancy∼1 at T=30K). Phonon re-absorption leads to a non-thermal electron distribution where electron-phonon scattering rates ∼200-500fs -1 are much faster than electron-electron scattering. In this regime, the intersubband absorption is inhomogeneously broadened. For substantially weaker optical pumping (∼1 saturation intensity) however, the electron distribution is able to thermalise and the absorption is homogeneously broadened. The phenomenon of electromagnetically-induced quantum coherence is demonstrated between 3 confined electron subband levels in a quantum well which are almost equally spaced in energy. Applying a strong coupling field, two-photon-resonant with the 1-3 intersubband transition, produces a pronounced narrow transparency feature in the 1-2 absorption line. This result can be understood in terms of all 3 states being simultaneously driven into ''phase-locked'' quantum coherence by a single coupling field. We describe the effect theoretically with a density matrix method and an adapted linear response theory. Efficient (∼1%) second harmonic generation, resonantly enhanced near λ=8.6μm, has been observed in asymmetric double multi-quantum well (ADQW) structures. Both waveguide mode and 45 deg. wedge multi-bounce geometries were used. The phase matching in the waveguide mode was achieved by incorporating a separate multiple QW region which modifies (via Kramers-Kronig relation) the dispersion of light. In the case of the 45 deg. wedge geometry, the phases of second harmonic waves generated at sequential
Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators.
Hajenius, M; Khosropanah, P; Hovenier, J N; Gao, J R; Klapwijk, T M; Barbieri, S; Dhillon, S; Filloux, P; Sirtori, C; Ritchie, D A; Beere, H E
2008-02-15
We characterize a heterodyne receiver based on a surface-plasmon waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 2.84 THz as a local oscillator, and an NbN hot electron bolometer as a mixer. We find that the envelope of the far-field pattern of the QCL is diffraction-limited and superimposed onto interference fringes, which are similar to those found in narrow double-metal waveguide QCLs. Compared to the latter, a more directional beam allows for better coupling of the radiation power to the mixer. We obtain a receiver noise temperature of 1050 K when the mixer is at 2 K, which, to our knowledge, is the highest sensitivity reported at frequencies beyond 2.5 THz.
Charge confinements in CdSe-ZnSe symmetric double quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tit, Nacir; Obaidat, Ihab M
2008-01-01
The bound states in the (CdSe) N w (ZnSe) N b (CdSe) N w -ZnSe(001) symmetric double quantum wells are investigated versus the well width (N w ) and the barrier thickness (N b ). A calculation based on the sp 3 s * tight-binding method which includes the spin-orbit interactions is employed to calculate the bandgap energy, quantum-confinement energy, and band structures. The studied systems possess a vanishing valence-band offset (VBO = 0) in consistency with the well known common-anion rule, and a large conduction-band offset (CBO ≅ 1 eV), which plays an essential role in the confinement of electrons within the CdSe wells. The biaxial strain, on the other hand, plays another role in confining the holes at the interfaces (within the well regions) and thus enhancing the radiative efficiency. The induced-strain energy is estimated to be ∼35 meV. More importantly, the results show that, for a fixed barrier thickness, the double wells are able to confine a pair of bound states when they are very thin. By increasing the wells' width (N w ), further, a new pair of states from the conduction-band continuum falls into the wells every time N w hits a multiple of four monolayers (more specifically, for 4n w ≤4(n+1), the number of bound states is 2(n+1), where n is an integer). On the other hand, the barrier thickness (N b ) is shown to have no effect on the number of bound states, but it solely controls their well-to-well interactions. A critical barrier thickness to switch off these latter interactions is estimated to occur at about N crit b ≅ 9 (L crit b ≅ 25∼AA. Rules governing the variation of the quantum-confinement energy versus both barrier thickness (N b ) and well width (N w ) have been derived. Our theoretical results are also shown to have excellent agreement with the available experimental photoluminescence data
Ivanov, Ts; Borissov, K.; David, J P R; Donchev, V.; Germanova, K.; Hongpinyo, V.; Ooi, Boon S.; Tellaleva, Ts; Vines, P.
2012-01-01
A detailed study of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in quantum well (DWELL) structures grown on GaAs substrates for infrared photodetectors was performed using surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. Three types of samples were investigated: as-grown, and annealed with dielectric coating SiO 2 or SiN. The annealing resulted in intermixing of the material components. The amplitude and phase SPV spectra were measured at room temperature under various experimental conditions. The comparison of the SPV with the photoluminescence (PL) spectra allows one to conclude that the spectral features are due to optical transitions in the DWELL structure. The blueshift observed of these features in the intermixed samples implies that the energy levels responsible for the transitions change correspondingly due to the intermixing process. The interface band-bending in the samples and the mechanisms of the carrier dynamics were determined by a comparative analysis of the SPV amplitude and phase spectra, using our vector model for representation of the SPV signal. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Ivanov, Ts
2012-03-29
A detailed study of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in quantum well (DWELL) structures grown on GaAs substrates for infrared photodetectors was performed using surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. Three types of samples were investigated: as-grown, and annealed with dielectric coating SiO 2 or SiN. The annealing resulted in intermixing of the material components. The amplitude and phase SPV spectra were measured at room temperature under various experimental conditions. The comparison of the SPV with the photoluminescence (PL) spectra allows one to conclude that the spectral features are due to optical transitions in the DWELL structure. The blueshift observed of these features in the intermixed samples implies that the energy levels responsible for the transitions change correspondingly due to the intermixing process. The interface band-bending in the samples and the mechanisms of the carrier dynamics were determined by a comparative analysis of the SPV amplitude and phase spectra, using our vector model for representation of the SPV signal. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Higher-Order Statistical Correlations and Mutual Information Among Particles in a Quantum Well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yépez, V. S.; Sagar, R. P.; Laguna, H. G.
2017-01-01
The influence of wave function symmetry on statistical correlation is studied for the case of three non-interacting spin-free quantum particles in a unidimensional box, in position and in momentum space. Higher-order statistical correlations occurring among the three particles in this quantum system is quantified via higher-order mutual information and compared to the correlation between pairs of variables in this model, and to the correlation in the two-particle system. The results for the higher-order mutual information show that there are states where the symmetric wave functions are more correlated than the antisymmetric ones with same quantum numbers. This holds in position as well as in momentum space. This behavior is opposite to that observed for the correlation between pairs of variables in this model, and the two-particle system, where the antisymmetric wave functions are in general more correlated. These results are also consistent with those observed in a system of three uncoupled oscillators. The use of higher-order mutual information as a correlation measure, is monitored and examined by considering a superposition of states or systems with two Slater determinants. (author)
Higher-Order Statistical Correlations and Mutual Information Among Particles in a Quantum Well
Yépez, V. S.; Sagar, R. P.; Laguna, H. G.
2017-12-01
The influence of wave function symmetry on statistical correlation is studied for the case of three non-interacting spin-free quantum particles in a unidimensional box, in position and in momentum space. Higher-order statistical correlations occurring among the three particles in this quantum system is quantified via higher-order mutual information and compared to the correlation between pairs of variables in this model, and to the correlation in the two-particle system. The results for the higher-order mutual information show that there are states where the symmetric wave functions are more correlated than the antisymmetric ones with same quantum numbers. This holds in position as well as in momentum space. This behavior is opposite to that observed for the correlation between pairs of variables in this model, and the two-particle system, where the antisymmetric wave functions are in general more correlated. These results are also consistent with those observed in a system of three uncoupled oscillators. The use of higher-order mutual information as a correlation measure, is monitored and examined by considering a superposition of states or systems with two Slater determinants.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Chen
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The hole distribution and electroluminescence property improvement by adjusting the relative position between quantum wells and p-doped region in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well structures are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Five designed samples with different barrier layer parameters of multiple-quantum-well structure are grown by MOCVD and then fabricated into devices. The electroluminescence properties of these samples are measured and compared. It is found that the output electroluminescence intensity of samples is enhanced if the position of quantum wells shifts towards p-side, while the output power is reduced if their position is shifted towards the n-side. The theoretical calculation of characteristics of these devices using the simulation program APSYS agrees well with the experimental data, illustrating that the effect of relative position between p-doped region and quantum wells on the improvement of hole distribution and electroluminescence performance is significant, especially for InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well devices operated under high injection condition.
Jumping magneto-electric states of electrons in semiconductor multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfeffer, Pawel; Zawadzki, Wlodek
2011-01-01
Orbital and spin electron states in semiconductor multiple quantum wells in the presence of an external magnetic field transverse to the growth direction are considered. Rectangular wells of GaAs/GaAlAs and InAs/AlSb are taken as examples. It is shown that, in addition to magneto-electric states known from one-well systems, there appear magneto-electric states having a much stronger dependence of energies on a magnetic field and exhibiting an interesting anti-crossing behavior. The origin of these states is investigated and it is shown that the strong field dependence of the energies is related to an unusual 'jumping' behavior of their wavefunctions between quantum wells as the field increases. The ways of investigating the jumping states by means of interband magneto-luminescence transitions or intraband cyclotron-like transitions are considered and it is demonstrated that the jumping states can be observed. The spin g factors of electrons in the jumping states are calculated using the real values of the spin–orbit interaction and bands' nonparabolicity for the semiconductors in question. It is demonstrated that the jumping states offer a wide variety of the spin g factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)
2017-02-12
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained. - Highlights: • High frequency electrostatic wave propagation is investigated in a dense semi-bounded quantum plasma. • The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. • The quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. • The frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave. • The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solaimani, M.; Morteza, Izadifard; Arabshahi, H.; Reza, Sarkardehi Mohammad
2013-01-01
In this work, we have studied the effect of the number of the wells, in a multiple quantum wells structure with constant total effective length, on the optical properties of multiple quantum wells like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index by means of compact density matrix approach. GaAs/Al x Ga (1−x) As multiple quantum wells systems was selected as an example. Besides, the effect of varying number of wells on the subband energies, wave functions, number of bound states, and the Fermi energy have been also investigated. Our calculation revealed that the number of wells in a multiple quantum well is a criterion with which we can control the amount of nonlinearity. This study showed that for the third order refractive index change there is two regimes of variations and the critical well number was six. In our calculations, we have used the same wells and barrier thicknesses to construct the multiple quantum wells system. - Highlights: ► OptiOptical Non-Linear. ► Total Effective Length. ► Multiple Quantum Wells System - genetic algorithm ► Schrödinger equation solution. ► Nanostructure.
Wigner Transport Simulation of Resonant Tunneling Diodes with Auxiliary Quantum Wells
Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Mincheol; Byun, Seok-Joo; Kim, Wangki
2018-03-01
Resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) with auxiliary quantum wells ( e.g., emitter prewell, subwell, and collector postwell) are studied using a Wigner transport equation (WTE) discretized by a thirdorder upwind differential scheme. A flat-band potential profile is used for the WTE simulation. Our calculations revealed functions of the auxiliary wells as follows: The prewell increases the current density ( J) and the peak voltage ( V p ) while decreasing the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR), and the postwell decreases J while increasing the PVCR. The subwell affects J and PVCR, but its main effect is to decrease V p . When multiple auxiliary wells are used, each auxiliary well contributes independently to the transport without producing side effects.
Excitons in undoped AlGaAs/GaAs wide parabolic quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tabata, A; Oliveira, J B B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 17033-360, Bauru (Brazil); Silva, E C F da; Lamas, T E; Duarte, C A; Gusev, G M, E-mail: tabata@fc.unesp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2010-02-01
In this work the electronic structure of undoped AlGaAs/GaAs wide parabolic quantum wells (PQWs) with different well widths (1000 A and 3000 A) were investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Due to the particular potential shape, the sample structure confines photocreated carriers with almost three-dimensional characteristics. Our data show that depending on the well width thickness it is possible to observe very narrow structures in the PL spectra, which were ascribed to emissions associated to the recombination of confined 1s-excitons of the parabolic potential wells. From our measurements, the exciton binding energies (of a few meV) were estimated. Besides the exciton emission, we have also observed PL emissions associated to electrons in the excited subbands of the PQWs.
New models for the numerical treatment of magnetotransport in quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Homer, A.
1999-03-01
In this thesis, numerical simulations of magnetotransport properties of wide parabolic quantum wells (WPQW's) are presented. The existence of edge channel (EC) transport is a key point for describing the magnetotransport properties and is therefore used as the basis for the simulation program. The magnetotransport model is based on a new formulation of backscattering between an edge channel pair. The first part of this work is devoted to the question how the magnetotransport properties change if the two dimensional (2D) confinement, where the standard Quantum Hall effect occurs, changes gradually to a three dimensional (3D) one. This is done with WQW's realized from PbTe. Within this part, the question about the similarities between the transition of the quantum Hall liquid to the Hall insulator (HI) in 2D systems and the magnetic field induced metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) in quasi 3D wide quantum wells is considered. The insulating regime of WPQW's at high magnetic fields is favored either by a low sheet carrier density n 2D or a low carrier mobility μ. Systematic numerical calculations are performed in this context and a sort of phase diagram, in terms of n 2D and the Landau level broadening A E, which is related to μ, is obtained. A phase boundary occurs in this diagram which separates calculated 'samples', showing either insulating like or metallic like temperature dependence in the considered magnetic field range. The main argument of the explanation is that the physical mechanism for the transition is the same in both the quasi-3D WQW's and 2D systems. It occurs if the Fermi energy reaches the low energy tail of the lowest Landau level (LL). In this context, the MIT in quasi-3D WQW's is explained as a transition to the Hall insulator which, due to the weak subband splitting in WQW's, takes place in several individual Landau subband levels at once. In the second part of this work a novel network model for the simulation of the standard quantum Hall
Excitonic effects in gain and index in GaAlAs quantum well lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kesler, M.P.; Harder, C. (IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland))
1990-07-09
Spontaneous emission and gain measurements in GaAlAs single quantum well lasers are presented. The gain is derived from the spontaneous emission detected through an opening in the top metallic contact of the lasers. Excitonic effects are seen in the gain (absorption) spectra for low carrier densities, and the step-like nature of the two-dimensional density of states is evident. From the gain spectra, refractive index changes are derived via a Kramers--Kronig transformation, and this is used to evaluate the linewidth enhancement factor as a function of photon energy.
Theory of resonant donor-impurity magnetopolaron in semiconductor quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osorio, F.A.P.; Maialle, M.Z.; Hipolito, O.
1989-11-01
We report for the first time a theoretical calculation for the resonant donor impurity magnetopolaron in GaAs-GA 1-x Al x As quantum-well structures. The intra donor 1s → 2p, transition frequencies are calculated as a function of the magnetic field, by taking into account the polaron effects and nonparabolicity of the conduction band. We found a pinning behaviour due to interaction with LO phonons as suggested by the experimentalists. Our results for the peak positions of those transitions are in very good agreement with recent experimental data. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig
Spin Dynamics in (111) GaAs/AlGaAs Undoped Asymmetric Quantum Wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Gang; Ye Hui-Qi; Shi Zhen-Wu; Wang Wen-Xin; Liu Bao-Li; Xavier Marie; Andrea Balocchi; Thierry Amand
2012-01-01
The electron spin dynamics is investigated by the time-resolved Kerr rotation technique in a pair of special GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric quantum well samples grown on (111)-oriented substrates, whose structures are the same except for their opposite directions of potential asymmetry. A large difference of spin lifetimes between the two samples is observed at low temperature. This difference is interpreted in terms of a cancellation effect between the Dresselhaus spin-splitting term in the conduction band and another term induced by interface inversion asymmetry. The deviation decreases with the increasing temperature, and almost disappears when T > 100 K because the cubic Dresselhaus term becomes more important
Pressure study on the semiconductor-metal transition in a quantum well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Tamilnadu (India)
2009-06-15
The effect of {gamma}-X band crossing due to the applied hydrostatic pressure on the semiconductor-metal transition in a quasi-two-dimensional system like GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As quantum well has been shown through the drastic change in diamagnetic susceptibility of donors at critical concentration in the effective mass approximation using the variational principle. The nonparabolicity of the conduction band has been taken into account in the calculation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Ultrafast dynamics in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, X M; Davis, J A; McDonald, D; Dao, L V; Hannaford, P; Coleman, V A; Tan, H H; Jagadish, C; Koike, K; Sasa, S; Inoue, M; Yano, M
2007-01-01
We have investigated carrier relaxation and exciton recombination dynamics in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells using femtosecond pump-probe techniques at room temperature. For a probe energy above the band gap, the hot carriers exhibit an effective relaxation by longitudinal optical phonon scattering with a cooling time of 700-850 fs. By detecting the emission near the band-gap, a longer decay time of a few picoseconds was observed which is attributed to acoustic phonon scattering. As the probe energy is decreased further, the decay time continues to increase due to the transitions of exciton recombination or localized carrier recombination
Photoluminescence and magnetophotoluminescence studies in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells
Segura, J.; Garro, N.; Cantarero, A.; Miguel-Sánchez, J.; Guzmán, A.; Hierro, A.
2007-04-01
We investigate the effects of electron and hole localization in the emission of a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well at low temperatures. Photoluminescence measurements varying the excitation density and under magnetic fields up to 14 T have been carried out. The results indicate that electrons are strongly localized in these systems due to small fluctuations in the nitrogen content of the quaternary alloy. The low linear diamagnetic shift of the emission points out the weakness of the Coulomb correlation between electrons and holes and suggests an additional partial localization of the holes.
Optical studies of 2DEGs in Zinc Selenide quantum wells in high magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ossau, Wolfgang J.; Astakhov, G.V.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Waag, A.
2002-01-01
Optical properties of a two-dimensional electron gas in ZnSe/(Zn,Be,Mg)Se quantum well structures have been examined by means of photoluminescence and reflectivity techniques in external magnetic fields up to 50 T. For these structures the Fermi energy of the two-dimensional electron gas is falling in the range between the trion binding energy and the exciton binding energy, which keeps the dominating role of Coulombic interaction between electrons and photoexcited holes. Characteristic peculiarities of optical spectra are discussed.
Optical studies of 2DEGs in ZnSe quantum wells in high magnetic fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ossau, Wolfgang J.; Astakhov, G. V.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Crooker, S. A. (Scott A.); Waag, A.
2002-01-01
Optical properties of a two-dimensional electron gas in ZnSe/(Zn,Be,Mg)Se quantum well structures have been examined by means of photoluminescence and reflectivity techniques in external magnetic fields up to 50 T. For these structures the Fermi energy of the two-dimensional electron gas is falling in the range between the trion binding energy and the exciton binding energy, which keeps the dominating role of Coulombic interaction between electrons and photoexcited holes. Characteristic peculiarities of optical spectra are discussed.
Suppression of bulk conductivity in InAs/GaSb broken gap composite quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charpentier, Christophe; Fält, Stefan; Reichl, Christian; Nichele, Fabrizio; Nath Pal, Atindra; Pietsch, Patrick; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Wegscheider, Werner [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2013-09-09
The two-dimensional topological insulator state in InAs/GaSb quantum wells manifests itself by topologically protected helical edge channel transport relying on an insulating bulk. This work investigates a way of suppressing bulk conductivity by using gallium source materials of different degrees of impurity concentrations. While highest-purity gallium is accompanied by clear conduction through the sample bulk, intentional impurity incorporation leads to a bulk resistance over 1 MΩ, independent of applied magnetic fields. In addition, ultra high electron mobilities for GaAs/AlGaAs structures fabricated in a molecular beam epitaxy system used for the growth of Sb-based samples are reported.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Chen, Aixi, E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2015-02-15
We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi
2015-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device
Hybrid single quantum well InP/Si nanobeam lasers for silicon photonics.
Fegadolli, William S; Kim, Se-Heon; Postigo, Pablo Aitor; Scherer, Axel
2013-11-15
We report on a hybrid InP/Si photonic crystal nanobeam laser emitting at 1578 nm with a low threshold power of ~14.7 μW. Laser gain is provided from a single InAsP quantum well embedded in a 155 nm InP layer bonded on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer. This miniaturized nanolaser, with an extremely small modal volume of 0.375(λ/n)(3), is a promising and efficient light source for silicon photonics.
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures
Harrison, Paul
2011-01-01
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, 3rd Edition is aimed at providing all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, in order that the reader can, starting from essentially nothing, understand how the electronic, optical and transport properties of semiconductor heterostructures are calculated. Completely revised and updated, this text is designed to lead the reader through a series of simple theoretical and computational implementations, and slowly build from solid foundations, to a level where the reader can begin to initiate theoretical investigations or explanations of their
Mode locking of an external cavity asymmetric quantum-well GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'ev, Petr P; Kan, H; Ohta, H; Hiruma, T; Tanaka, K A
2006-01-01
A theoretical model of the optical gain in asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers is developed. It is demonstrated that the emission spectrum of asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers is much broader than that of standard quantum-well lasers. The experimental samples of such lasers and superluminescent diodes with the emission bandwidth exceeding 50 nm are fabricated. Wavelength tunable ultrashort pulses with duration of 1-2 ps at repetition rates of 0.4-1 GHz are obtained by active mode locking of an external cavity laser. (lasers)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Priyadarshi, Shekhar; Leidinger, Markus; Pierz, Klaus; Racu, Ana M.; Siegner, Uwe; Bieler, Mark; Dawson, Philip
2009-01-01
We report the observation and the study of an additional shift current tensor element in (110)-oriented GaAs quantum wells, which arises from an out-of-plane asymmetry of the quantum well structure. The current resulting from this tensor element is optically induced with 150 fs laser pulses and detected by measuring the simultaneously emitted terahertz radiation. This terahertz spectroscopy of shift currents is a powerful technique for symmetry investigations, which shows, for example, that our nominally symmetric (110)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy are in reality asymmetric structures with different right and left interfaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.
2005-01-01
The combined electric field and hydrostatic pressure effects on the binding energy of the donor impurity in double triangle quantum well (DTQW), double graded (DGQW) and double square (DSQW) GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells are calculated by using a variational technique within the effective-mass approximation. The results have been obtained in the presence of an electric field applied along the growth direction as a function of hydrostatic pressure, the impurity position, barrier width and the geometric shape of the double quantum wells
Excited states of hydrogen shallow impurities in GaAs-Ga Al As quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neves Carneiro, Gleise das
1994-01-01
The study of shallow impurities in semiconductor heterostructures, such as quantum and superlattices, has been of continuous interest over the last years. Successful comparisons between experimental results photoluminescence: N.N Ledentsov et al., Appl. Phys. A 54, 261 (1992) and theoretical calculations [L.E. Oliveira and G.D. Mahan, Phys. Rev. B 47, 2406 (1993)] constitute a strong motivation for an in-depth theoretical study. We present a variational calculation of the binding energies of shallow donors in a Ga-As-AlGaAs quantum well. The energies and variational wave functions associated to the ground state (1s-like) as well as some excited states (2s, 2p xy , 2p xy , 3s, 3p xy , and 3p like) are obtained as functions of the position of the impurity (z i ) in the well. The density of impurity states, intra-donor transition strengths and the infrared absorption spectra are calculated for some of these excited states and results compared with previous theoretical [S. Fraizzoli, F. Bassani, and R. Buczko, Phys. rev. B 41, 5096 (1990)] and experimental works [N.C. Jarosik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1283 (1985). (author)
Growth and characterization of GaInP unicompositional disorder-order-disorder quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Jones, E.D.; Follstaedt, D.M.
1994-01-01
Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is used to grow unicompositional quantum-well (QW) structures, in which the QW and barrier layers are composed of ordered and disordered GaInP, respectively. Transmission electron dark-field micrographs reveal abrupt interfaces between highly ordered QWs and disordered barriers, with no evidence of defect formation. Low-temperature photoluminescence from the structures exhibits relatively broad emission peaks, with emission energy increasing with decreasing QW thickness. The dependence of emission energy on well thickness can be described by a finite square well model only when a type-II band alignment is taken for the heterostructure, in which the conduction band edge of the ordered GaInP QW lies about 135--150 meV below that of the disordered barrier material. These results demonstrate a high degree of control over the ordering process in MOVPE, such that quantum size effects can be realized solely through disorder-order phenomena. Further, the data provide strong support for a type-II (spatially indirect) recombination transition between ordered and disordered GaInP
High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells and Methods for Constructing the Same
Welser, Roger E. (Inventor); Sood, Ashok K. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Photon absorption, and thus current generation, is hindered in conventional thin-film solar cell designs, including quantum well structures, by the limited path length of incident light passing vertically through the device. Optical scattering into lateral waveguide structures provides a physical mechanism to increase photocurrent generation through in-plane light trapping. However, the insertion of wells of high refractive index material with lower energy gap into the device structure often results in lower voltage operation, and hence lower photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. The voltage output of an InGaAs quantum well waveguide photovoltaic device can be increased by employing a III-V material structure with an extended wide band gap emitter heterojunction. Analysis of the light IV characteristics reveals that non-radiative recombination components of the underlying dark diode current have been reduced, exposing the limiting radiative recombination component and providing a pathway for realizing solar-electric conversion efficiency of 30% or more in single junction cells.
Bauer, Sven; Sichkovskyi, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter
2018-06-01
InP based lattice matched tunnel injection structures consisting of a InGaAs quantum well, InAlGaAs barrier and InAs quantum dots designed to emit at 1.55 μ m were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The strong influence of quantum well and barrier thicknesses on the samples emission properties at low and room temperatures was investigated. The phenomenon of a decreased photoluminescence linewidth of tunnel injection structures compared to a reference InAs quantum dots sample could be explained by the selection of the emitting dots through the tunneling process. Morphological investigations have not revealed any effect of the injector well on the dot formation and their size distribution. The optimum TI structure design could be defined.
Surface effects on the photoluminescence of Si quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Chiang-Jing; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Chi, Cheng Chung; Perng, Tsong-Pyng
2009-01-01
Si quantum dots (SiQDs) with sizes ranging from 5 to 20 nm were fabricated by vapor condensation. They showed red photoluminescence (PL) in vacuum with the peak located at around 750 nm. After the specimen was exposed to air, the PL intensity became higher, and continued to increase during the PL test with a cycling of vacuum-air-vacuum. In pure oxygen, the PL intensity exhibited an irreversible decrease, while in nitrogen a smaller amount of reversible increase of PL intensity was observed. Furthermore, the PL intensity exhibited a remarkable enhancement if the SiQDs were treated with water. With HF treatment, the PL peak position showed a blue-shift to 680 nm, and was recovered after subsequent exposure to air. Si-O-H complexes were suggested to be responsible for this red luminescence. The irreversible decrease of PL intensity due to oxygen adsorption was speculated to be caused by the modification of chemical bonds on the surface. In the case of nitrogen adsorption, the PL change was attributed to the surface charging during adsorption.
Submonolayer Quantum Dots for High Speed Surface Emitting Lasers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zakharov ND
2007-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWe report on progress in growth and applications of submonolayer (SML quantum dots (QDs in high-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs. SML deposition enables controlled formation of high density QD arrays with good size and shape uniformity. Further increase in excitonic absorption and gain is possible with vertical stacking of SML QDs using ultrathin spacer layers. Vertically correlated, tilted or anticorrelated arrangements of the SML islands are realized and allow QD strain and wavefunction engineering. Respectively, both TE and TM polarizations of the luminescence can be achieved in the edge-emission using the same constituting materials. SML QDs provide ultrahigh modal gain, reduced temperature depletion and gain saturation effects when used in active media in laser diodes. Temperature robustness up to 100 °C for 0.98 μm range vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs is realized in the continuous wave regime. An open eye 20 Gb/s operation with bit error rates better than 10−12has been achieved in a temperature range 25–85 °Cwithout current adjustment. Relaxation oscillations up to ∼30 GHz have been realized indicating feasibility of 40 Gb/s signal transmission.
Lozovoy, Kirill; Kokhanenko, Andrey; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander
2018-02-01
In this paper theoretical modeling of formation and growth of germanium-silicon quantum dots in the method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on different surfaces is carried out. Silicon substrates with crystallographic orientations (100) and (111) are considered. Special attention is paid to the question of growth of quantum dots on the silicon surface covered by tin, since germanium-silicon-tin system is extremely important for contemporary nano- and optoelectronics: for creation of photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and fast-speed transistors. A theoretical approach for modeling growth processes of such semiconductor compounds during the MBE is presented. Both layer-by-layer and island nucleation stages in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode are described. A change in free energy during transition of atoms from the wetting layer to an island, activation barrier of the nucleation, critical thickness of 2D to 3D transition, as well as surface density and size distribution function of quantum dots in these systems are calculated with the help of the established model. All the theoretical speculations are carried out keeping in mind possible device applications of these materials. In particular, it is theoretically shown that using of the Si(100) surface covered by tin as a substrate for Ge deposition may be very promising for increasing size homogeneity of quantum dot array for possible applications in low-noise selective quantum dot infrared photodetectors.
InGaP-based quantum well solar cells: Growth, structural design, and photovoltaic properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashem, Islam E.; Zachary Carlin, C.; Hagar, Brandon G.; Colter, Peter C.; Bedair, S. M., E-mail: bedair@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)
2016-03-07
Raising the efficiency ceiling of multi-junction solar cells (MJSCs) through the use of more optimal band gap configurations of next-generation MJSC is crucial for concentrator and space systems. Towards this goal, we propose two strain balanced multiple quantum well (SBMQW) structures to tune the bandgap of InGaP-based solar cells. These structures are based on In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As{sub 1−z}P{sub z}/In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P (x > y) and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}P/In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P (x > y) well/barrier combinations, lattice matched to GaAs in a p-i-n solar cell device. The bandgap of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As{sub 1−z}P{sub z}/In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P can be tuned from 1.82 to 1.65 eV by adjusting the well composition and thickness, which promotes its use as an efficient subcell for next generation five and six junction photovoltaic devices. The thicknesses of wells and barriers are adjusted using a zero net stress balance model to prevent the formation of defects. Thin layers of InGaAsP wells have been grown thermodynamically stable with compositions within the miscibility gap for the bulk alloy. The growth conditions of the two SBMQWs and the individual layers are reported. The structures are characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, current-voltage characteristics, and spectral response (external quantum efficiency). The effect of the well number on the excitonic absorption of InGaAsP/InGaP SBMQWs is discussed and analyzed.
InGaP-based quantum well solar cells: Growth, structural design, and photovoltaic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashem, Islam E.; Zachary Carlin, C.; Hagar, Brandon G.; Colter, Peter C.; Bedair, S. M.
2016-01-01
Raising the efficiency ceiling of multi-junction solar cells (MJSCs) through the use of more optimal band gap configurations of next-generation MJSC is crucial for concentrator and space systems. Towards this goal, we propose two strain balanced multiple quantum well (SBMQW) structures to tune the bandgap of InGaP-based solar cells. These structures are based on In x Ga 1−x As 1−z P z /In y Ga 1−y P (x > y) and In x Ga 1−x P/In y Ga 1−y P (x > y) well/barrier combinations, lattice matched to GaAs in a p-i-n solar cell device. The bandgap of In x Ga 1−x As 1−z P z /In y Ga 1−y P can be tuned from 1.82 to 1.65 eV by adjusting the well composition and thickness, which promotes its use as an efficient subcell for next generation five and six junction photovoltaic devices. The thicknesses of wells and barriers are adjusted using a zero net stress balance model to prevent the formation of defects. Thin layers of InGaAsP wells have been grown thermodynamically stable with compositions within the miscibility gap for the bulk alloy. The growth conditions of the two SBMQWs and the individual layers are reported. The structures are characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, current-voltage characteristics, and spectral response (external quantum efficiency). The effect of the well number on the excitonic absorption of InGaAsP/InGaP SBMQWs is discussed and analyzed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feswick, A., E-mail: afeswick@yahoo.ca [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, PO Box 110885, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 5050, Saint John NB, CA (United States); Griffitt, R.J., E-mail: joe.griffitt@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Siebein, K., E-mail: kerry.siebein@nist.gov [Major Analytical Instrumentation Center, University of Florida, PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Barber, D.S., E-mail: barberd@vetmed.ufl.edu [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, PO Box 110885, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2013-04-15
Highlights: ► Daphnia underwent a waterborne exposure of PEG, NH{sub 2} and COOH functionalized quantum dot nanoparticles. ► There was preferential retention of COOH nanoparticles. ► TEM demonstrated that NH{sub 2} and COOH nanoparticles were internalized in cells adjacent to the GI tract. ► This cellular internalization was confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy. -- Abstract: Nanomaterials are a diverse group of compounds whose inevitable release into the environment warrants study of the fundamental processes that govern the ingestion, uptake and accumulation in aquatic organisms. Nanomaterials have the ability to transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems, and recent evidence suggests that the surface chemistry of both the nanoparticle and biological membrane can influence uptake kinetics. Therefore, our study investigates the effect of surface functionalization on uptake, internalization and depuration in Daphnia spp. Uncharged (polyethylene glycol; PEG), positively charged (amino-terminated: NH{sub 2}) and negatively charged (carboxyl-modified; COOH) cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide quantum dots were used to monitor ingestion, uptake and depuration of nanometals in Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia over 24 h of exposure. These studies demonstrated that particles with higher negative charge (COOH quantum dots) were taken up to a greater extent by Daphnia (259.17 ± 17.70 RFU/20 Daphnia) than either the NH{sub 2} (150.01 ± 18.91) or PEG quantum dots (95.17 ± 9.78), however this is likely related to the functional groups attached to the nanoparticles as there were no real differences in zeta potential. Whole body fluorescence associates well with fluorescent microscopic images obtained at the 24 h timepoint. Confocal and electron microscopic analysis clearly demonstrated that all three types of quantum dots could cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and be translocated to other cells. Upon cessation of exposure, elimination of
ArF laser-based quantum well intermixing in InGaAs/InGaAsP heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genest, Jonathan; Beal, Romain; Aimez, Vincent; Dubowski, Jan J.
2008-01-01
Radiation from a 193 nm ArF laser was investigated to modify surface properties of InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well (QW) heterostructures and introduce defects required to enhance intermixing during the annealing process. A top 200 nm thick sacrificial layer of InP served as a reservoir for laser generated defects. The irradiation with up to 90 pulses at 65-150 mJ/cm 2 allowed to generate an array of 1.2x1 mm 2 sites of QW intermixed material, with bandgap energy blueshifted up to 107 nm. We discuss the mechanism and advantages of this approach for postgrowth wafer level fabrication of multibandgap QW material
Selfsimilar and fractal analysis of n-type delta-doped quasiregular GaAs quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
García-Cervantes, H.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)
2014-05-15
We study the electronic structure of n-type delta-doped quantum wells in GaAs in which the multiple well system is built according to the Fibonacci sequence. The building blocks A and B correspond to delta-doped wells with impurities densities n{sub 2DA} and n{sub 2DB}, and the same well width. The Thomas-Fermi approximation, the semi-empirical sp{sub 3}s* tight-binding model including spin, the Surface Green Function Matching method and the Transfer Matrix approach were implemented to obtain the confining potential, the electronic structure and the selfsimilarity of the spectrum. The fragmentation of the electronic spectra is observed whenever the building blocks A and B interact and it increases as the difference of impurities density between A and B increases as well. The wave function of the first sate of the fragmented bands presents critical characteristics, this is, it is not a localized state nor a extended one as well as it has selfsimilar features. So, the quasiregular characteristics are preserved irrespective of the complexity of the system and can affect the performance of devices based on these structures.
Selfsimilar and fractal analysis of n-type delta-doped quasiregular GaAs quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Cervantes, H.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.
2014-01-01
We study the electronic structure of n-type delta-doped quantum wells in GaAs in which the multiple well system is built according to the Fibonacci sequence. The building blocks A and B correspond to delta-doped wells with impurities densities n 2DA and n 2DB , and the same well width. The Thomas-Fermi approximation, the semi-empirical sp 3 s* tight-binding model including spin, the Surface Green Function Matching method and the Transfer Matrix approach were implemented to obtain the confining potential, the electronic structure and the selfsimilarity of the spectrum. The fragmentation of the electronic spectra is observed whenever the building blocks A and B interact and it increases as the difference of impurities density between A and B increases as well. The wave function of the first sate of the fragmented bands presents critical characteristics, this is, it is not a localized state nor a extended one as well as it has selfsimilar features. So, the quasiregular characteristics are preserved irrespective of the complexity of the system and can affect the performance of devices based on these structures
Sun, Jason; Choi, Kwong-Kit; DeCuir, Eric; Olver, Kimberley; Fu, Richard
2017-07-01
The infrared absorption of SF6 gas is narrowband and peaks at 10.6 μm. This narrowband absorption posts a stringent requirement on the corresponding sensors as they need to collect enough signal from this limited spectral bandwidth to maintain a high sensitivity. Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors (R-QWIPs) are the next generation of QWIP detectors that use resonances to increase the quantum efficiency for more efficient signal collection. Since the resonant approach is applicable to narrowband as well as broadband, it is particularly suitable for this application. We designed and fabricated R-QWIPs for SF6 gas detection. To achieve the expected performance, the detector geometry must be produced according to precise specifications. In particular, the height of the diffractive elements and the thickness of the active resonator must be uniform, and accurately realized to within 0.05 μm. Additionally, the substrates of the detectors must be completely removed to prevent the escape of unabsorbed light in the detectors. To achieve these specifications, two optimized inductively coupled plasma etching processes were developed. Due to submicron detector feature sizes and overlay tolerance, we used an advanced semiconductor material lithography stepper instead of a contact mask aligner to pattern wafers. Using these etching techniques and tool, we have fabricated focal plane arrays with 30-μm pixel pitch and 320×256 format. The initial test revealed promising results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Aihua; Peng, Mingzeng; Willatzen, Morten
2017-01-01
The mechanism of strain-dependent luminescence is important for the rational design of pressure-sensing devices. The interband momentum-matrix element is the key quantity for understanding luminescent phenomena. We analytically solved an infinite quantum well (IQW) model with strain, in the frame......The mechanism of strain-dependent luminescence is important for the rational design of pressure-sensing devices. The interband momentum-matrix element is the key quantity for understanding luminescent phenomena. We analytically solved an infinite quantum well (IQW) model with strain......, in the framework of the 6 × 6 k·p Hamiltonian for the valence states, to directly assess the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and the strain-induced deformation potential for the interband momentum-matrix element. We numerically addressed problems of both the infinite and IQWs with piezoelectric fields...... to elucidate the effects of the piezoelectric potential and the deformation potential on the strain-dependent luminescence. The experimentally measured photoluminescence variatio½n as a function of pressure can be qualitatively explained by the theoretical results....
Optical gain and gain suppression of quantum-well lasers with valence band mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, D.; Chuang, S.L.
1990-01-01
The effects of valence band mixing on the nonlinear gains of quantum-well lasers are studied theoretically. The authors' analysis is based on the multiband effective-mass theory and the density matrix formalism with intraband relaxation taken into account. The gain and the gain-suppression coefficient of a quantum-well laser are calculated from the complex optical susceptibility obtained by the density matrix formulation with the theoretical dipole moments obtained from the multiband effective-mass theory. The calculated gain spectrum shows that there are remarkable differences (both in peak amplitude and spectral shape) between our model with valence band mixing and the conventional parabolic band model. The shape of the gain spectrum calculated by the authors' model becomes more symmetric due to intraband relaxation together with nonparabolic energy dispersions and is closer to the experimental observations when compared with the conventional method using the parabolic band model and the multiband effective-mass calculation without intraband relaxation. Both give quite asymmetric gain spectra. Optical intensity in the GaAs active region is estimated by solving rate equations for the stationary states with nonlinear gain suppression. The authors calculate the mode gain for the resonant mode including the gain suppression, which results in spectral hole burning of the gain spectrum
Ground-state energy of an exciton-(LO) phonon system in a parabolic quantum well
Gerlach, B.; Wüsthoff, J.; Smondyrev, M. A.
1999-12-01
This paper presents a variational study of the ground-state energy of an exciton-(LO) phonon system, which is spatially confined to a quantum well. The exciton-phonon interaction is of Fröhlich type, the confinement potentials are assumed to be parabolic functions of the coordinates. Making use of functional integral techniques, the phonon part of the problem can be eliminated exactly, leading us to an effective two-particle system, which has the same spectral properties as the original one. Subsequently, Jensen's inequality is applied to obtain an upper bound on the ground-state energy. The main intention of this paper is to analyze the influence of the quantum-well-induced localization of the exciton on its ground-state energy (or its binding energy, respectively). To do so, we neglect any mismatch of the masses or the dielectric constants, but admit an arbitrary strength of the confinement potentials. Our approach allows for a smooth interpolation of the ultimate limits of vanishing and infinite confinement, corresponding to the cases of a free three-dimensional and a free two-dimensional exciton-phonon system. The interpolation formula for the ground-state energy bound corresponds to similar formulas for the free polaron or the free exciton-phonon system. These bounds in turn are known to compare favorably with all previous ones, which we are aware of.
Strain-balanced InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Hosalli, A. M.; Bedair, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bharrat, D.; El-Masry, N. A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)
2014-07-21
InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures suffer from a high amount of compressive strain in the InGaN wells and the accompanied piezoelectric field resulting in both a blue shift in emission and a reduction of emission intensity. We report the growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN “strain-balanced” multiple quantum wells (SBMQWs) grown on thick In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N templates for x > y by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. SBMQWs consist of alternating layers of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N wells and GaN barriers under compressive and tensile stress, respectively, which have been lattice matched to a thick In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N template. Growth of the In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N template is also detailed in order to achieve thick, relaxed In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N grown on GaN without the presence of V-grooves. When compared to conventional In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN MQWs grown on GaN, the SBMQW structures exhibit longer wavelength emission and higher emission intensity for the same InN mole fraction due to a reduction in the well strain and piezoelectric field. By matching the average lattice constant of the MQW active region to the lattice constant of the In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N template, essentially an infinite number of periods can be grown using the SBMQW growth method without relaxation-related effects. SBMQWs can be utilized to achieve longer wavelength emission in light emitting diodes without the use of excess indium and can be advantageous in addressing the “green gap.”.
Energy transfer of excitons between quantum wells separated by a wide barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyo, S. K.
2000-01-01
We present a microscopic theory of the excitonic Stokes and anti-Stokes energy-transfer mechanisms between two widely separated unequal quantum wells with a large energy mismatch (Δ) at low temperatures (T). Several important intrinsic energy-transfer mechanisms have been examined, including dipolar coupling, real and virtual photon-exchange coupling, and over-barrier ionization of the excitons via exciton-exciton Auger processes. The transfer rate is calculated as a function of T and the center-to-center distance d between the wells. The rates depend sensitively on T for plane-wave excitons. For localized excitons, the rates depend on T only through the T dependence of the exciton localization radius. For Stokes energy transfer, the dominant energy transfer occurs through a photon-exchange interaction, which enables the excitons from the higher-energy wells to decay into free electrons and holes in the lower-energy wells. The rate has a slow dependence on d, yielding reasonable agreement with recent data from GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As quantum wells. The dipolar rate is about an order of magnitude smaller for large d (e.g., d=175Aa) with a stronger range dependence proportional to d -4 . However, the latter can be comparable to the radiative rate for small d (e.g., d≤80Aa). For anti-Stokes transfer through exchange-type (e.g., dipolar and photon-exchange) interactions, we show that thermal activation proportional to exp(-Δ/k B T) is essential for the transfer, contradicting a recent nonactivated result based on the Fo''rster-Dexter's spectral-overlap theory. Phonon-assisted transfer yields a negligibly small rate. On the other hand, energy transfer through over-barrier ionization of excitons via Auger processes yields a significantly larger nonactivated rate which is independent of d. The result is compared with recent data
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rabinovich, W. S; Mahon, R; Burris, H. R; Gilbreath, G. C; Goetz, P. G; Moore, C. I; Stell, M. F; Vilcheck, M. J; Witkowsky, J. L; Swingen, L
2005-01-01
A 1550-nm eye-safe, free-space optical communications link is demonstrated at rates up to 5 Mbits/s over a distance of 2 km in the Chesapeake Bay, using quantum-well-based modulating retroreflectors...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Soref, Richard A; Sun, Gregory; Khurgin, Jacob B
2005-01-01
We investigate nonlinear optical properties of coup led GaN/AlGaN quantum wells and show that one can engineer the response time and nonlinear phase shift within wide limits and thus achieve optimized...
Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.; Lazarev, M. V.; Sapega, V. F.; Gammon, D.; Bracker, A. S.
2007-01-01
We report electric field induced increase of spin orientation of negatively charged excitons (trions) localized in n -type GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well. Under resonant excitation of free neutral heavy-hole excitons, the polarization of trions increases dramatically with electrical injection of electrons. The polarization enhancement correlates strongly with trion/exciton luminescence intensity ratio. This effect results from a very efficient trapping of free neutral excitons by the quantum well interfacial fluctuations (“natural” quantum dots) containing resident electrons.
Enhancement of coherent acoustic phonons in InGaN multiple quantum wells
Hafiz, Shopan D.; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit
2015-03-01
Enhancement of coherent zone folded longitudinal acoustic phonon (ZFLAP) oscillations at terahertz frequencies was demonstrated in InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by using wavelength degenerate time resolved differential transmission spectroscopy. Screening of the piezoelectric field in InGaN MQWs by photogenerated carriers upon femtosecond pulse excitation gave rise to terahertz ZFLAPs, which were monitored at the Brillouin zone center in the transmission geometry. MQWs composed of 10 pairs InxGa1-xN wells and In0.03Ga0.97N barriers provided coherent phonon frequencies of 0.69-0.80 THz depending on the period of MQWs. Dependences of ZFLAP amplitude on excitation density and wavelength were also investigated. Possibility of achieving phonon cavity, incorporating a MQW placed between two AlN/GaN phonon mirrors designed to exhibit large acoustic gaps at the zone center, was also explored.
Quantum-well exciton dipolar interaction: Polarization-dependence and Z-LT splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Ba An.
1996-12-01
We calculate the exciton dipolar interaction in a semiconductor quantum well. The explicit polarization-dependence, i.e, the dependence on both the exciton dipole moment μ-vector and its inplane wavevector k-vector is derived. The obtained results for the three modes (L, T and Z modes) of the long-range part of the dipolar interaction satisfy the polarization sum rule for any parameters. In the long wavelength limit there is a Z-LT splitting which decreases as the well width increases reflecting a crossover from strict 2D to quasi-2D. A rough crossover from quasi-2D to 3D is also described. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs
(In)GaSb/AlGaSb quantum wells grown on Si substrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Ueta, Akio; Ohtani, Naoki
2007-01-01
We have successfully grown GaSb and InGaSb quantum wells (QW) on a Si(001) substrate, and evaluated their optical properties using photoluminescence (PL). The PL emissions from the QWs at room temperature were observed at around 1.55 μm, which is suitable for fiber optic communications systems. The measured ground state energy of each QW matched well with the theoretical value calculated by solving the Schroedinger equation for a finite potential QW. The temperature dependence of the PL intensity showed large activation energy (∼ 77.6 meV) from QW. The results indicated that the fabricated QW structure had a high crystalline quality, and the GaSb QW on Si for optical devices operating at temperatures higher than room temperature will be expected