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Sample records for surface profilometry measurements

  1. Development of dynamic 3-D surface profilometry using stroboscopic interferometric measurement and vertical scanning techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, K-C [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, L-C [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, C-D [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Calvin C [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Kuo, C-F [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Chou, J-T [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China)

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this technical advance is to provide a single optical interferometric framework and methodology to be capable of delivering both nano-scale static and dynamic surface profilometry. Microscopic interferometry is a powerful technique for static and dynamic characterization of micro (opto) electromechanical systems (M (O) EMS). In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry and the white light vertical scanning principle, was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry and characterization of MEMS devices. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterization of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field second-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 68.60 kHz can be fully characterized and 3-5 nm of vertical measurement resolution as well as tens of micrometers of vertical measurement range can be easily achieved.

  2. Measurement uncertainty associated with chromatic confocal profilometry for 3D surface texture characterization of natural human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F; Bartlett, D; Austin, R S

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the measurement performance of a chromatic confocal profilometer for quantification of surface texture of natural human enamel in vitro. Contributions to the measurement uncertainty from all potential sources of measurement error using a chromatic confocal profilometer and surface metrology software were quantified using a series of surface metrology calibration artifacts and pre-worn enamel samples. The 3D surface texture analysis protocol was optimized across 0.04mm 2 of natural and unpolished enamel undergoing dietary acid erosion (pH 3.2, titratable acidity 41.3mmolOH/L). Flatness deviations due to the x, y stage mechanical movement were the major contribution to the measurement uncertainty; with maximum Sz flatness errors of 0.49μm. Whereas measurement noise; non-linearity's in x, y, z and enamel sample dimensional instability contributed minimal errors. The measurement errors were propagated into an uncertainty budget following a Type B uncertainty evaluation in order to calculate the Standard Combined Uncertainty (u c ), which was ±0.28μm. Statistically significant increases in the median (IQR) roughness (Sa) of the polished samples occurred after 15 (+0.17 (0.13)μm), 30 (+0.12 (0.09)μm) and 45 (+0.18 (0.15)μm) min of erosion (Pchromatic confocal profilometry was from flatness deviations however by optimizing measurement protocols the profilometer successfully characterized surface texture changes in enamel from erosive wear in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma model and its analysis for phase measuring profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Yongchang; Lau, Daniel L; Hao, Qi; Hassebrook, Laurence G

    2010-03-01

    Phase measuring profilometry is a method of structured light illumination whose three-dimensional reconstructions are susceptible to error from nonunitary gamma in the associated optical devices. While the effects of this distortion diminish with an increasing number of employed phase-shifted patterns, gamma distortion may be unavoidable in real-time systems where the number of projected patterns is limited by the presence of target motion. A mathematical model is developed for predicting the effects of nonunitary gamma on phase measuring profilometry, while also introducing an accurate gamma calibration method and two strategies for minimizing gamma's effect on phase determination. These phase correction strategies include phase corrections with and without gamma calibration. With the reduction in noise, for three-step phase measuring profilometry, analysis of the root mean squared error of the corrected phase will show a 60x reduction in phase error when the proposed gamma calibration is performed versus 33x reduction without calibration.

  4. NANOMETER PRECISION IN LARGE SURFACE PROFILOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAKACS, P.Z.

    1999-01-01

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is in use at many synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories throughout the world and by a number of manufacturers who specialize in fabricating grazing incidence mirrors for SR and x-ray telescope applications. Recent improvements in the design and operation of the LTP system have reduced the statistical error in slope profile measurement to the 1 standard deviation level of 0.3 microradian for 0.5 meter long mirrors. This corresponds to a height error on the order of 10-20 nanometers. This level of performance allows one to measure with confidence the absolute shape of large cylindrical aspheres and spheres that have kilometer radii of curvature in the axial direction. The LTP is versatile enough to make measurements of a mirror in the face up, sideways, and face down configurations. We will illustrate the versatility of the current version of the instrument, the LTP II, and present results from two new versions of the instrument: the in situ LTP (ISLTP) and the Vertical Scan LTP (VSLTP). Both of them are based on the penta prism LTP (ppLTP) principle that utilizes a stationary optical head and moving penta prism. The ISLTP is designed to measure the distortion of high heat load mirrors during actual operation in SR beam lines. The VSLTP is designed to measure the complete 3-dimensional shape of x-ray telescope cylinder mirrors and mandrels in a vertical configuration. Scans are done both in the axial direction and in the azimuthal direction

  5. Method for 3D profilometry measurement based on contouring moire fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiwei; Lin, Juhua

    2007-12-01

    3D shape measurement is one of the most active branches of optical research recently. A method of 3D profilometry measurement by the combination of Moire projection method and phase-shifting technology based on SCM (Single Chip Microcomputer) control is presented in the paper. Automatic measurement of 3D surface profiles can be carried out by applying this method with high speed and high precision.

  6. Development of a low-cost, 11 µm spectral domain optical coherence tomography surface profilometry prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliali, Nyasha J.; Baricholo, Peter; Neethling, Pieter H.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2017-06-01

    A spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) surface profilometry prototype has been developed for the purpose of surface metrology of optical elements. The prototype consists of a light source, spectral interferometer, sample fixture and software currently running on Microsoft® Windows platforms. In this system, a broadband light emitting diode beam is focused into a Michelson interferometer with a plane mirror as its sample fixture. At the interferometer output, spectral interferograms of broadband sources were measured using a Czerny-Turner mount monochromator with a 2048-element complementary metal oxide semiconductor linear array as the detector. The software performs importation and interpolation of interferometer spectra to pre-condition the data for image computation. One dimensional axial OCT images were computed by Fourier transformation of the measured spectra. A first reflection surface profilometry (FRSP) algorithm was then formulated to perform imaging of step-function-surfaced samples. The algorithm re-constructs two dimensional colour-scaled slice images by concatenation of 21 and 13 axial scans to form a 10 mm and 3.0 mm slice respectively. Measured spectral interferograms, computed interference fringe signals and depth reflectivity profiles were comparable to simulations and correlated to displacements of a single reflector linearly translated about the arm null-mismatch point. Surface profile images of a double-step-function-surfaced sample, embedded with inclination and crack detail were plotted with an axial resolution of 11 μm. The surface shape, defects and misalignment relative to the incident beam were detected to the order of a micron, confirming high resolution of the developed system as compared to electro-mechanical surface profilometry techniques.

  7. High-speed Fourier transform profilometry for reconstructing objects having arbitrary surface colours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Nguyen, Xuan Loc; Zhang, Fu-Hao; Lin, Tzeng-Yow

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) using a colour fringe selection technique for accurate phase map reconstruction is newly proposed to overcome the limitation of FTP in measuring objects having arbitrary surface colours. The sinusoidal colour fringe pattern is encoded to form a unique colour pattern for projecting onto the object's surface, and its reflected deformed fringe image is taken using a triple-colour CCD camera and rapidly processed by the developed FTP method employing a novel band-pass filter. A new 3D vision system is capable of measuring objects with a high speed of up to 60 frames s −1 . To reconstruct the 3D profile of an object having arbitrary surface colours, an innovative strategy is developed to identify the colour channel of the detected fringe pattern with the best modulation transfer function (MTF) for retrieving accurate phase maps. The experimental results demonstrate that the system has the capability to acquire 3D maps at a high speed while the measurement accuracy of the developed method is substantially better than that of the traditional FTP method. By measuring the standard step heights in a repeatability test, it is confirmed that a maximum measured error can be controlled to less than 2.8% of the overall measuring depth range

  8. 3D silicon breast surface mapping via structured light profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Shahimin, M. M.; Alcain, J. B.; Lai, S. L.; Paitong, P.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Digital fringe projection technique is one of the promising optical methods for 3D surface imaging as it demonstrates non contact and non invasive characteristics. The potential of this technique matches the requirement for human body evaluation, as it is vital for disease diagnosis and for treatment option selection. Thus, the digital fringe projection has addressed this requirement with its wide clinical related application and studies. However, the application of this technique for 3D surface mapping of the breast is very minimal. Hence, in this work, the application of digital fringe projection for 3D breast surface mapping is reported. Phase shift fringe projection technique was utilized to perform the 3D breast surface mapping. Maiden results have confirmed the feasibility of using the digital fringe projection method for 3D surface mapping of the breast and it can be extended for breast cancer detection.

  9. Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) using an innovative band-pass filter for accurate 3-D surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Ho, Hsuan-Wei; Nguyen, Xuan-Loc

    2010-02-01

    This article presents a novel band-pass filter for Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) for accurate 3-D surface reconstruction. FTP can be employed to obtain 3-D surface profiles by one-shot images to achieve high-speed measurement. However, its measurement accuracy has been significantly influenced by the spectrum filtering process required to extract the phase information representing various surface heights. Using the commonly applied 2-D Hanning filter, the measurement errors could be up to 5-10% of the overall measuring height and it is unacceptable to various industrial application. To resolve this issue, the article proposes an elliptical band-pass filter for extracting the spectral region possessing essential phase information for reconstructing accurate 3-D surface profiles. The elliptical band-pass filter was developed and optimized to reconstruct 3-D surface models with improved measurement accuracy. Some experimental results verify that the accuracy can be effectively enhanced by using the elliptical filter. The accuracy improvement of 44.1% and 30.4% can be achieved in 3-D and sphericity measurement, respectively, when the elliptical filter replaces the traditional filter as the band-pass filtering method. Employing the developed method, the maximum measured error can be kept within 3.3% of the overall measuring range.

  10. Analysis of a new phase and height algorithm in phase measurement profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xintian; Zuo, Fen; Cheng, Ju

    2018-04-01

    Traditional phase measurement profilometry adopts divergent illumination to obtain the height distribution of a measured object accurately. However, the mapping relation between reference plane coordinates and phase distribution must be calculated before measurement. Data are then stored in a computer in the form of a data sheet for standby applications. This study improved the distribution of projected fringes and deducted the phase-height mapping algorithm when the two pupils of the projection and imaging systems are of unequal heights and when the projection and imaging axes are on different planes. With the algorithm, calculating the mapping relation between reference plane coordinates and phase distribution prior to measurement is unnecessary. Thus, the measurement process is simplified, and the construction of an experimental system is made easy. Computer simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the method.

  11. [Application of Fourier transform profilometry in 3D-surface reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bi'er; Lu, Kuan; Wang, Yingting; Li, Zhen'an; Bai, Jing

    2011-08-01

    With the improvement of system frame and reconstruction methods in fluorescent molecules tomography (FMT), the FMT technology has been widely used as an important experimental tool in biomedical research. It is necessary to get the 3D-surface profile of the experimental object as the boundary constraints of FMT reconstruction algorithms. We proposed a new 3D-surface reconstruction method based on Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) method under the blue-purple light condition. The slice images were reconstructed using proper image processing methods, frequency spectrum analysis and filtering. The results of experiment showed that the method properly reconstructed the 3D-surface of objects and has the mm-level accuracy. Compared to other methods, this one is simple and fast. Besides its well-reconstructed, the proposed method could help monitor the behavior of the object during the experiment to ensure the correspondence of the imaging process. Furthermore, the method chooses blue-purple light section as its light source to avoid the interference towards fluorescence imaging.

  12. Online phase measuring profilometry for rectilinear moving object by image correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Cao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Ya-Pin

    2015-11-01

    In phase measuring profilometry (PMP), the object must be static for point-to-point reconstruction with the captured deformed patterns. While the object is rectilinearly moving online, the size and pixel position differences of the object in different captured deformed patterns do not meet the point-to-point requirement. We propose an online PMP based on image correction to measure the three-dimensional shape of the rectilinear moving object. In the proposed method, the deformed patterns captured by a charge-coupled diode camera are reprojected from the oblique view to an aerial view first and then translated based on the feature points of the object. This method makes the object appear stationary in the deformed patterns. Experimental results show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. FPGA-based real-time phase measuring profilometry algorithm design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guomin; Tang, Hongwei; Zhong, Kai; Li, Zhongwei; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-11-01

    Phase measuring profilometry (PMP) has been widely used in many fields, like Computer Aided Verification (CAV), Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) et al. High frame-rate (HFR) real-time vision-based feedback control will be a common demands in near future. However, the instruction time delay in the computer caused by numerous repetitive operations greatly limit the efficiency of data processing. FPGA has the advantages of pipeline architecture and parallel execution, and it fit for handling PMP algorithm. In this paper, we design a fully pipelined hardware architecture for PMP. The functions of hardware architecture includes rectification, phase calculation, phase shifting, and stereo matching. The experiment verified the performance of this method, and the factors that may influence the computation accuracy was analyzed.

  14. Real-time tricolor phase measuring profilometry based on CCD sensitivity calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Cao, Yiping; He, Dawu; Chen, Cheng

    2017-02-01

    A real-time tricolor phase measuring profilometry (RTPMP) based on charge coupled device (CCD) sensitivity calibration is proposed. Only one colour fringe pattern whose red (R), green (G) and blue (B) components are, respectively, coded as three sinusoidal phase-shifting gratings with an equivalent shifting phase of 2π/3 is needed and sent to an appointed flash memory on a specialized digital light projector (SDLP). A specialized time-division multiplexing timing sequence actively controls the SDLP to project the fringe patterns in R, G and B channels sequentially onto the measured object in one over seventy-two of a second and meanwhile actively controls a high frame rate monochrome CCD camera to capture the corresponding deformed patterns synchronously with the SDLP. So the sufficient information for reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) shape in one over twenty-four of a second is obtained. Due to the different spectral sensitivity of the CCD camera to RGB lights, the captured deformed patterns from R, G and B channels cannot share the same peak and valley, which will lead to lower accuracy or even failing to reconstruct the 3D shape. So a deformed pattern amending method based on CCD sensitivity calibration is developed to guarantee the accurate 3D reconstruction. The experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed RTPMP method. The proposed RTPMP method can obtain the 3D shape at over the video frame rate of 24 frames per second, avoid the colour crosstalk completely and be effective for measuring real-time changing object.

  15. Circular fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Chunwei; Zhou, Changquan; Jiang, Kejian; Fang, Meiqi

    2016-11-01

    In this Letter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) measurement method, called the circular fringe projection profilometry (CFPP), is proposed. Similar to the conventional fringe projection profilometry, CFPP also requires fringe pattern projection and capture, phase demodulation, and phase unwrapping. However, it works with a totally different mechanism. CFPP recovers the height of a point by calculating its distance to the optical center of a projector along the optical axis. This distance is calculated with the aid of the divergence angle of a projected light ray and the distance between the measured point and the optical axis. The distance between the measured point and the optical axis is detected by a camera with telecentric lenses, while the divergence angle can be calculated from the phase of a captured circular fringe pattern. The validity of CFPP is confirmed by a set of experiments.

  16. Three-dimensional sensing methodology combining stereo vision and phase-measuring profilometry based on dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunki; Kim, Min Young; Moon, Jeon Il

    2017-12-01

    Phase measuring profilometry and moiré methodology have been widely applied to the three-dimensional shape measurement of target objects, because of their high measuring speed and accuracy. However, these methods suffer from inherent limitations called a correspondence problem, or 2π-ambiguity problem. Although a kind of sensing method to combine well-known stereo vision and phase measuring profilometry (PMP) technique simultaneously has been developed to overcome this problem, it still requires definite improvement for sensing speed and measurement accuracy. We propose a dynamic programming-based stereo PMP method to acquire more reliable depth information and in a relatively small time period. The proposed method efficiently fuses information from two stereo sensors in terms of phase and intensity simultaneously based on a newly defined cost function of dynamic programming. In addition, the important parameters are analyzed at the view point of the 2π-ambiguity problem and measurement accuracy. To analyze the influence of important hardware and software parameters related to the measurement performance and to verify its efficiency, accuracy, and sensing speed, a series of experimental tests were performed with various objects and sensor configurations.

  17. In vivo measurement of lower back deformations with Fourier-transform profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafi, Abdelmalek; Gharbi, Tijani; Cornu, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    Through the variation of their cross sections, the in vivo response of lower back muscles to low loading in an upright seated posture is explored by the Fourier-transform profilometry technique. The maximization of its sensitivity allows us to reach an adequate resolution for the evaluation of low-back displacements. Refinements of the fringe pattern analysis permit the minimization of errors. The experiments show an asymmetric distribution of the displacement during head rotation movements. Significant contribution of the lower back to grasping exertions is also observed. These results are thought to be useful for early defect detection in the lower back

  18. Micro Fourier Transform Profilometry (μFTP): 3D shape measurement at 10,000 frames per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Tao, Tianyang; Feng, Shijie; Huang, Lei; Asundi, Anand; Chen, Qian

    2018-03-01

    Fringe projection profilometry is a well-established technique for optical 3D shape measurement. However, in many applications, it is desirable to make 3D measurements at very high speed, especially with fast moving or shape changing objects. In this work, we demonstrate a new 3D dynamic imaging technique, Micro Fourier Transform Profilometry (μFTP), which can realize an acquisition rate up to 10,000 3D frame per second (fps). The high measurement speed is achieved by the number of patterns reduction as well as high-speed fringe projection hardware. In order to capture 3D information in such a short period of time, we focus on the improvement of the phase recovery, phase unwrapping, and error compensation algorithms, allowing to reconstruct an accurate, unambiguous, and distortion-free 3D point cloud with every two projected patterns. We also develop a high-frame-rate fringe projection hardware by pairing a high-speed camera and a DLP projector, enabling binary pattern switching and precisely synchronized image capture at a frame rate up to 20,000 fps. Based on this system, we demonstrate high-quality textured 3D imaging of 4 transient scenes: vibrating cantilevers, rotating fan blades, flying bullet, and bursting balloon, which were previously difficult or even unable to be captured with conventional approaches.

  19. Erosive Effect of Different Soft Drinks on Enamel Surface in vitro: Application of Stylus Profilometry

    OpenAIRE

    Barac, Radomir; Gasic, Jovanka; Trutic, Natasa; Sunaric, Slavica; Popovic, Jelena; Djekic, Petar; Radenkovic, Goran; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the erosive potential of various soft drinks by measuring initial pH and titratable acidity (TA) and to evaluate enamel surface roughness using different exposure times. Materials and Methods The initial pH of the soft drinks (group 1: Coca-Cola; group 2: orange juice; group 3: Cedevita; group 4: Guarana, and group 5: strawberry yoghurt) was measured using a pH meter, and TA was measured by titration with NaOH. Enamel samples (n = 96), cut from unerupted human third molars...

  20. Erosive Effect of Different Soft Drinks on Enamel Surface in vitro: Application of Stylus Profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Radomir; Gasic, Jovanka; Trutic, Natasa; Sunaric, Slavica; Popovic, Jelena; Djekic, Petar; Radenkovic, Goran; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    To assess the erosive potential of various soft drinks by measuring initial pH and titratable acidity (TA) and to evaluate enamel surface roughness using different exposure times. The initial pH of the soft drinks (group 1: Coca-Cola; group 2: orange juice; group 3: Cedevita; group 4: Guarana, and group 5: strawberry yoghurt) was measured using a pH meter, and TA was measured by titration with NaOH. Enamel samples (n = 96), cut from unerupted human third molars, were randomly assigned to 6 groups: experimental (groups 1-5) and control (filtered saliva). The samples were exposed to 50 ml of soft drinks for 15, 30 and 60 min, 3 times daily, during 10 days. Between immersions, the samples were kept in filtered saliva. Enamel surface roughness was measured by diamond stylus profilometer using the following roughness parameters: Ra, Rq, Rz, and Ry. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests. The pH values of the soft drinks ranged from 2.52 (Guarana) to 4.21 (strawberry yoghurt). Orange juice had the highest TA, requiring 5.70 ml of NaOH to reach pH 7.0, whereas Coca-Cola required only 1.87 ml. Roughness parameters indicated that Coca-Cola had the strongest erosion potential during the 15 min of exposure, while Coca-Cola and orange juice were similar during 30- and 60-min exposures. There were no significant differences related to all exposure times between Guarana and Cedevita. Strawberry yoghurt did not erode the enamel surface regardless of the exposure time. All of the tested soft drinks except yoghurt were erosive. Erosion of the enamel surfaces exposed to Coca-Cola, orange juice, Cedevita, and Guarana was directly proportional to the exposure time. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. In-situ optical profilometry of CANDU fuel channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, G.N.; Cornblum, E.O.; Grabish, M.G. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Nuclear Technology Services, Pickering, ON (Canada); Mader, D.L.; Kuurstra, J.C.; McNabb, S.C. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the application of optical profilometry techniques, to measure directly the depth and root-radius of open inside-surface flaws, within a flooded reactor pressure tube. The use of optical profilometry in one form or another is not new. Systems typically make use of scanned laser beams to perform tasks such as weld bead profiling and contour mapping of various solid objects. The specific application of such techniques within the harsh, confined environmental conditions described herein is thought to be somewhat unique and has provided some technical challenges. A brief outline of the fuel channel geometry will be given together with the basics of the profilometry technique employed. This will be followed by a detailed description of the in-channel tooling, key features of the data collection and analysis software and operational experience. (UK).

  2. Improved Fourier-transform profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianfu; Chen Wenjing; Su Xianyu

    2007-01-01

    An improved optical geometry of the projected-fringe profilometry technique, in which the exit pupil of the projecting lens and the entrance pupil of the imaging lens are neither at the same height above the reference plane nor coplanar, is discussed and used in Fourier-transform profilometry. Furthermore, an improved fringe-pattern description and phase-height mapping formula based on the improved geometrical generalization is deduced. Employing the new optical geometry, it is easier for us to obtain the full-field fringe by moving either the projector or the imaging device. Therefore the new method offers a flexible way to obtain reliable height distribution of a measured object

  3. Femtosecond laser pulses for fast 3-D surface profilometry of microelectronic step-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Woo-Deok; Kim, Seungman; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Keunwoo; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Seungchul; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2013-07-01

    Fast, precise 3-D measurement of discontinuous step-structures fabricated on microelectronic products is essential for quality assurance of semiconductor chips, flat panel displays, and photovoltaic cells. Optical surface profilers of low-coherence interferometry have long been used for the purpose, but the vertical scanning range and speed are limited by the micro-actuators available today. Besides, the lateral field-of-view extendable for a single measurement is restricted by the low spatial coherence of broadband light sources. Here, we cope with the limitations of the conventional low-coherence interferometer by exploiting unique characteristics of femtosecond laser pulses, i.e., low temporal but high spatial coherence. By scanning the pulse repetition rate with direct reference to the Rb atomic clock, step heights of ~69.6 μm are determined with a repeatability of 10.3 nm. The spatial coherence of femtosecond pulses provides a large field-of-view with superior visibility, allowing for a high volume measurement rate of ~24,000 mm3/s.

  4. Nanoindentation and surface roughness profilometry of poly methyl methacrylate denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Ahmed, Naseer

    2014-01-01

    Polymers have a wide range of applications in dentistry. Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most popular for making orthodontic retainers, dentures as well as synthetic teeth. Prior to clinical applications, the appliances are polished in the dental laboratory to achieve smooth, polished and comfortable surfaces. The objective of this study was to analyze the surface roughness profiles of PMMA dentures polished using two different approaches. In addition, the effects of ultrasonication and sandblasting were also evaluated on the fitting surface of PMMA dentures. This was an in vitro study using non-contact mode surface roughness profilometer and nano-indenter. Samples were polished using two different techniques (Standard and modified). Both cold cure and heat cure PMMA denture surfaces were evaluated for roughness, nanohardness and elastic modulus. The absolute hardness was recorded 297.72±19.04 MPa and 229.93±18.53 MPa for heat cured PMMA and cold cured PMMA. Manufactured acrylic teeth were harder (319.20±12.58 MPa) with an elastic modulus of (4.34±1.86 GPa). Modified polishing techniques (group 3) produced smoother surface. It was concluded that elastic moduli of acrylic tooth and heat cure PMMA is not very different. Surface treatments such as ultrasonication or sandblasting do not affect the roughness profiles of denture fitting surfaces.

  5. Dynamic moire patterns for profilometry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passos da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); De Oliveira, M E; Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    In the present work is proposed that dynamic moire-like fringe patterns produced by photorefraction, with low spatial frequencies, could be used for profile determination of small objects. The Fourier transform profilometry technique is applied in the projected moire fringe pattern onto an object surface. Basically, the Fourier transform of the projected fringes is obtained. After that, a phase map is generated. Then, the optical profile of object is obtained using phase unwrapping. So, the entire process can be indicated to measure, with good accuracy degree, profile of small objects in sub-micrometer scale in optical mechanical systems.

  6. Roughness and pH changes of enamel surface induced by soft drinks in vitro-applications of stylus profilometry, focus variation 3D scanning microscopy and micro pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mie; Kitasako, Yuichi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate enamel surface roughness (Ra) and pH before and after erosion by soft drinks. Enamel was exposed to a soft drink (cola, orange juice or green tea) for 1, 5 or 60 min; Ra was measured using contact-stylus surface profilometry (SSP) and non-contact focus variation 3D microscope (FVM). Surface pH was measured using a micro pH sensor. Data were analyzed at significance level of alpha=0.05. There was a significant correlation in Ra between SSP and FVM. FVM images showed no changes in the surface morphology after various periods of exposure to green tea. Unlike cola and orange juice, exposure to green tea did not significantly affect Ra or pH. A significant correlation was observed between surface pH and Ra change after exposure to the drinks. Optical surface analysis and micro pH sensor may be useful tools for non-damaging, quantitative assessment of soft drinks erosion on enamel.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic depth profilometry of nitrogen implanted in materials for modification of their surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, A.H.; Paynter, R.; Stansfield, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    The modification of the surface properties of materials has a wide range of industrial applications. For example, the authors change the electrical characteristics of semiconductors, improve surface hardness, decrease friction, increase resistance to corrosion, improve adhesion, etc. Nitriding is one of the most common processes used in industry for surface treatment. Nitrogen ion implantation is one technique often used to achieve this goal. Ion implantation offers the power to control the deposition profile, and can be achieved by either conventional ion beam implantation or plasma assisted ion implantation. They have used the technique of plasma assisted ion implantation to implant nitrogen in several materials, including titanium, silicon and stainless steel. The plasma source is a surface ECR source developed at INRS-Energie et Materiaux. The depth profile of the implanted ions has been measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They have also conducted simulations using the TRIM-95 code to predict the depth profile of the implanted ions. Comparisons of the measured results with those from simulations are used to deduce information regarding the plasma composition and the collisional effects in the plasma. A fast responding, current and voltage measuring circuit with fiber optic links is being developed, which allows more accurate quantitative measurements. Further experiments to study the characteristics of the plasma, and their effects on the characteristics of the implanted surfaces are in progress, and the results are presented at this meeting

  8. In-situ optical profilometry of CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, G.N.; Cornblum, E.O.; Grabish, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of flaw geometry is crucial in the stress analysis of flaws found in the thin-walled Zirconium alloy pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. While ultrasonic inspection can provide much of the required data, the measurement of the sharpness, or root-radius, at the bottom of a flaw has not so far been possible in-situ. This paper will describe the application of optical profilometry techniques, to measure directly the depth and root-radius of open inside-surface flaws, within a flooded reactor pressure tube. The tool uses a rad-tolerant television camera, custom optics and light stripe generators to collect digitized image data from three different views of a flaw. Software has been developed to manage the collection of the image data and provide a full range of display and automated analysis options. The tool has recently been used successfully to measure fretting flaws in the 100--250 micron deep range

  9. Real-Time Laser Ultrasound Tomography for Profilometry of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubin, V. P.; Bychkov, A. S.; Karabutov, A. A.; Simonova, V. A.; Kudinov, I. A.; Cherepetskaya, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the possibility of applying laser ultrasound tomography for profilometry of solids. The proposed approach provides high spatial resolution and efficiency, as well as profilometry of contaminated objects or objects submerged in liquids. The algorithms for the construction of tomograms and recognition of the profiles of studied objects using the parallel programming technology NDIVIA CUDA are proposed. A prototype of the real-time laser ultrasound profilometer was used to obtain the profiles of solid surfaces of revolution. The proposed method allows the real-time determination of the surface position for cylindrical objects with an approximation accuracy of up to 16 μm.

  10. Profilometrie povrchů kompozitních materiálů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Miroslav; Kopřiva, Miroslav; Kubínek, R.; Vůjtek, M.; Pírek, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2005), s. 262-265 ISSN 0447-6441 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : polyglass * surface profilometry * composite materials Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  11. Digital holographic profilometry of the inner surface of a pipe using a current-induced wavelength change of a laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Masayuki; Adachi, Toru

    2011-07-20

    Phase-shifting digital holography is applied to the measurement of the surface profile of the inner surface of a pipe for the detection of a hole in its wall. For surface contouring of the inner wall, a two-wavelength method involving an injection-current-induced wavelength change of a laser diode is used. To illuminate and obtain information on the inner surface, a cone-shaped mirror is set inside the pipe and moved along in a longitudinal direction. The distribution of a calculated optical path length in an experimental alignment is used to compensate for the distortion due to the misalignment of the mirror in the pipe. Using the proposed method, two pieces of metal sheet pasted on the inner wall of the pipe and a hole in the wall are detected. This shows that the three-dimensional profile of a metal plate on the inner wall of a pipe can be measured using simple image processing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Phase-stepping optical profilometry of atom mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaren, D A; Goldrein, H T; Holst, B; Allison, W

    2003-01-01

    Electrically deformed single crystal mirrors will be a vital part of a first generation of scanning helium microscope (SHeM). Optimized mirrors will be used to focus thermal energy helium atoms into a surface-sensitive, low-energy probe, with a resolution that depends upon the precise mirror shape. Here, we present surface profilometry measurements of a prototype atom mirror. A temporal phase-stepping Mach-Zender fibre interferometer is used to profile the mirror surface with an accuracy of a few tens of nanometres. Results are compared with the theory of small deflections of an elastic thin plate. Our experiments suggest that relatively simple apparatus can induce the mirror profiles required to demagnify a conventional helium source into a microprobe suitable for a SHeM. Use of elliptical boundary conditions in the clamping mechanism afford biaxial bending in the crystal whilst a simple double-electrode design is demonstrated to be capable of asymmetric control of the mirror deformation

  13. High-Bandwidth Dynamic Full-Field Profilometry for Nano-Scale Characterization of MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L-C; Huang, Y-T; Chang, P-B

    2006-01-01

    The article describes an innovative optical interferometric methodology to delivery dynamic surface profilometry with a measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher and a vertical resolution up to 1 nm. Previous work using stroboscopic microscopic interferometry for dynamic characterization of micro (opto)electromechanical systems (M(O)EMS) has been limited in measurement bandwidth mainly within a couple of MHz. For high resonant mode analysis, the stroboscopic light pulse is insufficiently short to capture the moving fringes from dynamic motion of the detected structure. In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry with an innovative light superposition strategy was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry with a high measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field seventh-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 3.7MHz can be fully characterized and nano-scale vertical measurement resolution as well as tens micrometers of vertical measurement range can be performed

  14. High-Bandwidth Dynamic Full-Field Profilometry for Nano-Scale Characterization of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L-C [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y-T [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, P-B [Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China)

    2006-10-15

    The article describes an innovative optical interferometric methodology to delivery dynamic surface profilometry with a measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher and a vertical resolution up to 1 nm. Previous work using stroboscopic microscopic interferometry for dynamic characterization of micro (opto)electromechanical systems (M(O)EMS) has been limited in measurement bandwidth mainly within a couple of MHz. For high resonant mode analysis, the stroboscopic light pulse is insufficiently short to capture the moving fringes from dynamic motion of the detected structure. In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry with an innovative light superposition strategy was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry with a high measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field seventh-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 3.7MHz can be fully characterized and nano-scale vertical measurement resolution as well as tens micrometers of vertical measurement range can be performed.

  15. Comparison of Alterations in the Surface Topographies of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM Nickel-titanium Files after Root Canal Preparation: A Three-dimensional Optical Profilometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the surface topographies of intact HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM nickel-titanium files and to compare alterations in the surface topographies of these files after root canal preparation of severely curved canals of molar teeth. Eight HyFlex CM (25/.08) and 8 HyFlex EDM (25/.08) files were included in the present study. In total, 64 severely curved canals of molar teeth, with curvature angles ranging between 50° and 70°, were prepared with HyFlex CM and EDM (n = 32 in each group). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the files' surface deformation were performed by using three-dimensional optical profilometry before and after root canal preparation. The data were analyzed with the Student t test at the 5% significant level by using SPSS 21.0 software. In the HyFlex EDM group, the qualitative evaluation revealed the presence of cracks and microcavities after use of the file for root canal preparation, whereas only minor surface deformation was observed in the HyFlex CM group. The average roughness, root mean square roughness, and peak to valley height values of the HyFlex EDM group were significantly higher than those of the HyFlex CM group before and after root canal preparation (P EDM group was not statistically significant (P > .5). Within the limitations of the present study, the HyFlex CM files showed significantly higher surface alterations compared with the HyFlex EDM files after the preparation of severely curved root canals. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fringe projection profilometry with portable consumer devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danji; Pan, Zhipeng; Wu, Yuxiang; Yue, Huimin

    2018-01-01

    A fringe projection profilometry (FPP) using portable consumer devices is attractive because it can realize optical three dimensional (3D) measurement for ordinary consumers in their daily lives. We demonstrate a FPP using a camera in a smart mobile phone and a digital consumer mini projector. In our experiment of testing the smart phone (iphone7) camera performance, the rare-facing camera in the iphone7 causes the FPP to have a fringe contrast ratio of 0.546, nonlinear carrier phase aberration value of 0.6 rad, and nonlinear phase error of 0.08 rad and RMS random phase error of 0.033 rad. In contrast, the FPP using the industrial camera has a fringe contrast ratio of 0.715, nonlinear carrier phase aberration value of 0.5 rad, nonlinear phase error of 0.05 rad and RMS random phase error of 0.011 rad. Good performance is achieved by using the FPP composed of an iphone7 and a mini projector. 3D information of a facemask with a size for an adult is also measured by using the FPP that uses portable consumer devices. After the system calibration, the 3D absolute information of the facemask is obtained. The measured results are in good agreement with the ones that are carried out in a traditional way. Our results show that it is possible to use portable consumer devices to construct a good FPP, which is useful for ordinary people to get 3D information in their daily lives.

  17. Technical Performance Capability of Fourier Transform Profilometry for Quantitative Waste Volume Determination under Hanford Waste Tank Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, D.L.; Jang, P.R.; Long, Z.; Norton, O.P.; Okhuysen, W.P.; Su, Y.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Site is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given waste tank and the chemical makeup of the residue. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University is currently developing a quantitative in-tank inspection system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP). FTP is a non-contact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks. We report the results of a technical feasibility study to document the accuracy and precision of quantitative volume determination using the Fourier transform profilometry technique under simulated Hanford waste tank conditions. (authors)

  18. Measurement of complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  19. Technical performance characterization of fourier transform profilometry for quantitative waste volume determination under Hanford waste tank conditions - 16281

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, David L.; Jang, Ping-Rey; Long, Zhiling; Norton, Olin P.; Gresham, Lawrence L.; Su, Yi; Lindner, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Site in western Washington state is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given waste tank and the chemical makeup of the residue. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University is currently developing an quantitative in-tank inspection system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry, FTP. FTP is a non-contact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks. We report the results of a technical feasibility study to document the accuracy and precision of quantitative volume determination using the Fourier transform profilometry technique under simulated Hanford waste tank conditions. We have initiated a technical feasibility assessment of the Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) technique for determining the volume of residual waste in Hanford radioactive waste tanks; preliminary results to date are presented in this paper. We find that we achieve FTP volume determinations with relatively small errors under conditions corresponding to the most challenging within a Hanford waste tank-viewing non-descript targets at a distance of 16.1 m (53 ft) and an angle of 62 deg.. We have determined that we can minimize measurement uncertainty by maximizing the camera-to-projector distance d, using an optical zoom of at least 5x, and ensuring that FTP images are only recorded after instrumental warm

  20. All-silicon Michelson instrument on chip: Distance and surface profile measurement and prospects for visible light spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malak, M.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T. [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire ESYCOM, ESIEE Paris, Cite Descartes, 2 Boulevard Blaise Pascal, 93162 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); Nouira, H.; Vailleau, G. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75724 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2013-04-08

    A miniature Michelson interferometer is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The fabricated micro-interferometer is incorporated at the tip of a monolithic silicon probe to achieve contactless distance measurements and surface profilometry. For infrared operation, two approaches are studied, based on the use of monochromatic light and wavelength sweep, respectively. A theoretical model is devised to depict the system characteristics taking into account Gaussian beam divergence and light spot size. Furthermore, preliminary results using visible light demonstrate operation of the probe as a visible light spectrometer, despite silicon absorbance, thanks to the micrometer thickness involved in the beam splitter.

  1. All-silicon Michelson instrument on chip: Distance and surface profile measurement and prospects for visible light spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malak, M.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T.; Nouira, H.; Vailleau, G.

    2013-01-01

    A miniature Michelson interferometer is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The fabricated micro-interferometer is incorporated at the tip of a monolithic silicon probe to achieve contactless distance measurements and surface profilometry. For infrared operation, two approaches are studied, based on the use of monochromatic light and wavelength sweep, respectively. A theoretical model is devised to depict the system characteristics taking into account Gaussian beam divergence and light spot size. Furthermore, preliminary results using visible light demonstrate operation of the probe as a visible light spectrometer, despite silicon absorbance, thanks to the micrometer thickness involved in the beam splitter.

  2. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  3. Robust Fringe Projection Profilometry via Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Lun, Daniel P K

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a robust fringe projection profilometry (FPP) algorithm using the sparse dictionary learning and sparse coding techniques is proposed. When reconstructing the 3D model of objects, traditional FPP systems often fail to perform if the captured fringe images have a complex scene, such as having multiple and occluded objects. It introduces great difficulty to the phase unwrapping process of an FPP system that can result in serious distortion in the final reconstructed 3D model. For the proposed algorithm, it encodes the period order information, which is essential to phase unwrapping, into some texture patterns and embeds them to the projected fringe patterns. When the encoded fringe image is captured, a modified morphological component analysis and a sparse classification procedure are performed to decode and identify the embedded period order information. It is then used to assist the phase unwrapping process to deal with the different artifacts in the fringe images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the robustness of an FPP system. It performs equally well no matter the fringe images have a simple or complex scene, or are affected due to the ambient lighting of the working environment.

  4. Calibration method for projector-camera-based telecentric fringe projection profilometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Lin, Huijing; Yao, Linshen

    2017-12-11

    By combining a fringe projection setup with a telecentric lens, a fringe pattern could be projected and imaged within a small area, making it possible to measure the three-dimensional (3D) surfaces of micro-components. This paper focuses on the flexible calibration of the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) system using a telecentric lens. An analytical telecentric projector-camera calibration model is introduced, in which the rig structure parameters remain invariant for all views, and the 3D calibration target can be located on the projector image plane with sub-pixel precision. Based on the presented calibration model, a two-step calibration procedure is proposed. First, the initial parameters, e.g., the projector-camera rig, projector intrinsic matrix, and coordinates of the control points of a 3D calibration target, are estimated using the affine camera factorization calibration method. Second, a bundle adjustment algorithm with various simultaneous views is applied to refine the calibrated parameters, especially the rig structure parameters and coordinates of the control points forth 3D target. Because the control points are determined during the calibration, there is no need for an accurate 3D reference target, whose is costly and extremely difficult to fabricate, particularly for tiny objects used to calibrate the telecentric FPP system. Real experiments were performed to validate the performance of the proposed calibration method. The test results showed that the proposed approach is very accurate and reliable.

  5. Local blur analysis and phase error correction method for fringe projection profilometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Da, Feipeng

    2018-05-20

    We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors. For defocus phenomenon, this method can be directly applied. With the aid of spatially varying point spread functions and local frontal plane assumption, experiments show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the system errors and improve the final reconstruction accuracy in various scenes. For a subsurface scattering scenario, if the translucent object is dominated by multiple scattering, the proposed method can also be applied to correct systematic errors once the bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function of the object material is measured.

  6. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  7. A laser profilometry technique for monitoring fluvial dike breaching in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewals, Benjamin; Rifai, Ismail; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Violeau, Damien; Pirotton, Michel; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal

    2017-04-01

    laser are merged to generate a cloud of points. The DLT-based image processing method uses control points and reference axes, so that no prior knowledge is needed on the position, orientation and intrinsic characteristics of the camera, nor on the laser position. Refraction of the light and laser rays across the water surface needs to be taken into account, because the dike is partially submerged during the experiments. An ad hoc correction is therefore applied using the Snell-Descartes law. For this purpose, planar approximations are used to describe the shape of the water surface. In the presentation, we will discuss the resulting uncertainty and will detail the validation of the developed method based on configurations of known geometry with various complexity. The presented laser profilometry technique allows for a rapid non-intrusive measurement of the dike geometry evolution. It is readily available for laboratory experiments and has proven its performance (Rifai et al. 2017). Further adjustments are needed for its application to cohesive dike material due to the reduced visibility resulting from the higher turbidity of water. References Frank, P.-J., Hager, W.H. (2014). Spatial dike breach: Accuracy of photogrammetric measurement system. Proc. of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, River Flow 2014, 1647-1654. Pickert, G., Weitbrecht, V., Bieberstein A. (2011). Beaching of overtopped river embankments controlled by apparent cohesion. Journal of Hydraulic Research 49:143-156. Rifai, I., Erpicum, S., Archambeau, P., Violeau, D., Pirotton, M., El kadi Abderrezzak, K., Dewals, B. (2016). Monitoring topography of laboratory fluvial dike models subjected to breaching based on a laser profilometry technique. Proc. of the International Symposium on River Sedimentation (ISRS): Stuttgart, 19-22 September 2016. Rifai, I., Erpicum, S., Archambeau, P., Violeau, D., Pirotton, M., El kadi Abderrezzak, K., Dewals, B. (2017). Overtopping induced failure of non

  8. Artefacts for optical surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stuart; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Brownhill, Andrew; MacDonald, Lindsay

    2011-07-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies are supporting the routine production of components with freeform surfaces in a wide variety of materials and surface finishes. Such surfaces may be exploited for both aesthetic and performance criteria for a wide range of industries, for example automotive, aircraft, small consumer goods and medial components. In order to ensure conformance between manufactured part and digital design it is necessary to understand, validate and promote best practice of the available measurement technologies. Similar, but currently less quantifiable, measurement requirements also exist in heritage, museum and fine art recording where objects can be individually hand crafted to extremely fine levels of detail. Optical 3D measurement systems designed for close range applications are typified by one or more illumination sources projecting a spot, line or structured light pattern onto a surface or surfaces of interest. Reflections from the projected light are detected in one or more imaging devices and measurements made concerning the location, intensity and optionally colour of the image. Coordinates of locations on the surface may be computed either directly from an understanding of the illumination and imaging geometry or indirectly through analysis of the spatial frequencies of the projected pattern. Regardless of sensing configuration some independent means is necessary to ensure that measurement capability will meet the requirements of a given level of object recording and is consistent for variations in surface properties and structure. As technologies mature, guidelines for best practice are emerging, most prominent at the current time being the German VDI/VDE 2634 and ISO/DIS 10360-8 guidelines. This considers state of the art capabilities for independent validation of optical non-contact measurement systems suited to the close range measurement of table top sized manufactured or crafted objects.

  9. Optical micro-profilometry for archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagni, Pierluigi; Daffara, Claudia; Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Mastroianni, Maria; Mazzotta, Cinazia; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca

    2005-06-01

    A quantitative morphological analysis of archaeological objects represents an important element for historical evaluations, artistic studies and conservation projects. At present, a variety of contact instruments for high-resolution surface survey is available on the market, but because of their invasivity they are not well received in the field of artwork conservation. On the contrary, optical testing techniques have seen a successful growth in last few years due to their effectiveness and safety. In this work we present a few examples of application of high-resolution 3D techniques for the survey of archaeological objects. Measurements were carried out by means of an optical micro-profilometer composed of a commercial conoprobe mounted on a scanning device that allows a maximum sampled area of 280×280 mm2. Measurements as well as roughness calculations were carried out on selected areas, representative of the differently degraded surface, of an ellenestic bronze statue to document the surface corrosion before restoration intervention started. Two highly-corroded ancient coins and a limestone column were surveyed to enhance the relief of inscriptions and drawings for dating purposes. High-resolution 3D survey, beyond the faithful representation of objects, makes it possible to display the surface in an image format that can be processed by means of image processing software. The application of digital filters as well as rendering techniques easies the readability of the smallest details.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of human dental enamel after bracket debonding: a noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiano G; Nouer, Darcy F; Silva, Nelson P; Garbui, Ivana U; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Nouer, Paulo R A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of changes on enamel surfaces after debonding of brackets followed by finishing procedures, using a high-resolution three-dimensional optical profiler and to investigate the accuracy of the technique. The labial surfaces of 36 extracted upper central incisors were examined. Before bonding, the enamel surfaces were subjected to profilometry, recording four amplitude parameters. Brackets were then bonded using two types of light-cured orthodontic adhesive: composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Finishing was performed by three different methods: pumice on a rubber cup, fine and ultrafine aluminum oxide discs, and microfine diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes. The samples were subsequently re-analyzed by profilometry. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test (p enamel roughness when diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes were used to finish surfaces that had remnants of resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive and when pumice was used to finish surfaces that had traces of composite resin. Enamel loss was minimal. The 3D optical profilometry technique was able to provide accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes on the enamel surface after debonding. Morphological changes in the topography of dental surfaces, especially if related to enamel loss and roughness, are of considerable clinical importance. The quantitative evaluation method used herein enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of orthodontic bonding on teeth.

  11. Carrier and aberrations removal in interferometric fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, P.; Michel, F.; Renotte, Y.; Habraken, S.

    2012-04-01

    A profilometer which takes advantage of polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection method as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement is under development [1, 2]. Because of the Savart plate which refracts two out of axis beams, the device suffers from aberrations (mostly coma and astigmatism). These aberrations affect the quality of the sinusoidal fringe pattern. In fringe projection profilometry, the unwrapped phase distribution map contains the sum of the object's shape-related phase and carrier-fringe-related phase. In order to extract the 3D shape of the object, the carrier phase has to be removed [3, 4]. An easy way to remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations of the optical system is to measure the phases of the test object and to measure the phase of a reference plane with the same set up and to subtract both phase maps. This time consuming technique is suitable for laboratory but not for industry. We propose a method to numerically remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations. A first reference phase of a calibration plane is evaluated knowing the position of the different elements in the set up and the orientation of the fringes. Then a fitting of the phase map by Zernike polynomials is computed [5]. As the triangulation parameters are known during the calibration, the computation of Zernike coefficients has only to be made once. The wavefront error can be adjusted by a scale factor which depends on the position of the test object.

  12. Surface flow measurements from drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Drones are transforming the way we sense and interact with the environment. However, despite their increased capabilities, the use of drones in geophysical sciences usually focuses on image acquisition for generating high-resolution maps. Motivated by the increasing demand for innovative and high performance geophysical observational methodologies, we posit the integration of drone technology and optical sensing toward a quantitative characterization of surface flow phenomena. We demonstrate that a recreational drone can be used to yield accurate surface flow maps of sub-meter water bodies. Specifically, drone's vibrations do not hinder surface flow observations, and velocity measurements are in agreement with traditional techniques. This first instance of quantitative water flow sensing from a flying drone paves the way to novel observations of the environment.

  13. Method of measuring surface density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of measuring surface density or thickness, preferably of coating layers, using radiation emitted by a suitable radionuclide, e.g., 241 Am. The radiation impinges on the measured material, e.g., a copper foil and in dependence on its surface density or thickness part of the flux of impinging radiation is reflected and part penetrates through the material. The radiation which has penetrated through the material excites in a replaceable adjustable backing characteristic radiation of an energy close to that of the impinging radiation (within +-30 keV). Part of the flux of the characteristic radiation spreads back to the detector, penetrates through the material in which in dependence on surface density or thickness of the coating layer it is partly absorbed. The flux of the penetrated characteristic radiation impinging on the face of the detector is a function of surface density or thickness. Only that part of the energy is evaluated of the energy spectrum which corresponds to the energy of characteristic radiation. (B.S.)

  14. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  15. Defect propagation in NiTi rotary instruments: a noncontact optical profilometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, I; Ferreira, F; Scelza, P; Neff, J; Russano, D; Montagnana, M; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2018-04-10

    To evaluate the presence and propagation of defects and their effects on surfaces of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments using noncontact, three-dimensional optical profilometry, and to assess the accuracy of this method of investigation. The flute surface areas of instruments from two commercial instrumentation systems, namely Reciproc R25 (n = 5) and WaveOne Primary (n = 5), were assessed and compared before and after performing two instrumentation cycles in simulated root canals in clear resin blocks. All the analyses were conducted on areas measuring 211 × 211 μm, located 3 mm from the tips of the instruments. A quantitative analysis was conducted before and after the first and second instrumentation cycles, using the Sa (average roughness over the measurement field), Sq (root mean square roughness) and Sz (average height over the measurement field) amplitude parameters. All the data were submitted to statistical analysis at a 5% level of significance. There was a significant increase (P = 0.007) in wear in both groups, especially between baseline and the second instrumentation cycle, with significantly higher wear values being observed on WaveOne instruments (Sz median values = 33.68 and 2.89 μm, respectively, for WO and RP groups). A significant increase in surface roughness (P = 0.016 and P = 0.008, respectively, for Sa and Sq) was observed in both groups from the first to the second instrumentation cycle, mostly in WaveOne specimens. Qualitative analysis revealed a greater number of defects on the flute topography of all the instruments after use. More defects were identified in WaveOne Primary instruments compared to Reciproc R25, irrespective of the evaluation stage. The investigation method provided an accurate, repeatable and reproducible assessment of NiTi instruments at different time-points. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. PROFIL-360 high resolution steam generator tube profilometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, PROFIL 360, has been developed to assess the condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field, saving tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and indicating plugging other high-risk candidates that might otherwise not have been removed from service

  17. Profil-360 high resolution steam generator tube profilometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, PROFIL 360, has been developed to assess the condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field, saving tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and indicating plugging other high-risk candidates that might otherwise not have been removed from service

  18. A wavelet ridge extraction method employing a novel cost function in two-dimensional wavelet transform profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Yanxi

    2018-05-01

    We present a new wavelet ridge extraction method employing a novel cost function in two-dimensional wavelet transform profilometry (2-D WTP). First of all, the maximum value point is extracted from two-dimensional wavelet transform coefficient modulus, and the local extreme value points over 90% of maximum value are also obtained, they both constitute wavelet ridge candidates. Then, the gradient of rotate factor is introduced into the Abid's cost function, and the logarithmic Logistic model is used to adjust and improve the cost function weights so as to obtain more reasonable value estimation. At last, the dynamic programming method is used to accurately find the optimal wavelet ridge, and the wrapped phase can be obtained by extracting the phase at the ridge. Its advantage is that, the fringe pattern with low signal-to-noise ratio can be demodulated accurately, and its noise immunity will be better. Meanwhile, only one fringe pattern is needed to projected to measured object, so dynamic three-dimensional (3-D) measurement in harsh environment can be realized. Computer simulation and experimental results show that, for the fringe pattern with noise pollution, the 3-D surface recovery accuracy by the proposed algorithm is increased. In addition, the demodulation phase accuracy of Morlet, Fan and Cauchy mother wavelets are compared.

  19. Optimal defocus selection based on normed Fourier transform for digital fringe pattern profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagara, Abel; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Sikun

    2017-10-01

    Owing to gamma-effect robustness and high-speed imaging capabilities, projector defocusing of binary-coded fringe patterns is by far the most widely used and effective technique in generating sinusoidal fringe patterns for three-dimensional optical topography measurement with digital fringe projection techniques. However, this technique is not trouble-free. It is borne with uncertainty and challenges mainly because it remains somewhat difficult to quantify and ascertain the level of defocus required for desired fidelity in sinuousness of the projected fringe pattern. Too much or too little defocusing will affect the sinuosity accuracy of fringe patterns and consequently jeopardize the quality of the measurement results. In this paper, by combining intrinsic phase spectral sensitivities and normed Fourier transform, a method to quantify the amount of defocus and subsequently select the optimal degree of sinuosity for generating digital sinusoidal fringe patterns with projector defocusing for fringe pattern optical three-dimensional profilometry is proposed. Numerical simulations plus experiments give evidence of the feasibility and validity of the proposed method in enabling an improved digital binary defocusing technique for optical phase-shift profilometry using the digital fringe projection technique.

  20. Evaluation of fourier transform profilometry performance: quantitative waste volume determination under simulated Hanford waste tank conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ping-Rey; Leone, Teresa; Long, Zhiling; Mott, Melissa A.; Perry Norton, O.; Okhuysen, Walter P.; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given waste tank and the chemical makeup of the residue. The objective of Mississippi State University's Institute for Clean Energy Technology's (ICET) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the Hanford waste tanks that will (1) be remotely operable; (2) provide quantitative information on the amount of wastes remaining; and (3) provide information on the spatial distribution of chemical and radioactive species of interest. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the Hanford Site to develop probe-based inspection systems for deployment in the waste tanks. ICET is currently developing an in-tank inspection system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry, FTP. FTP is a non-contact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks. We have completed a preliminary performance evaluation of FTP in order to document the accuracy, precision, and operator dependence (minimal) of FTP under conditions similar to those that can be expected to pertain within Hanford waste tanks. Based on a Hanford C-200 series tank with camera access through a riser with significant offset relative to the centerline, we devised a testing methodology that encompassed a range of obstacles likely to be encountered 'in tank'. These test objects were inspected by use

  1. Application of laser-based profilometry to tubing in power generating utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, James L.

    1995-05-01

    Over the past several years lasers have been employed in an ever widening number of applications in an incredibly diverse set of markets. In the area of nondestructive testing, however, laser-based systems have only recently made inroads into the commercial markets. About ten years ago QUEST Integrated, Inc., began working with the U.S. Navy to adapt the principal of laser triangulation to solve a serious maintenance related problem. The internal surfaces of marine boiler tubes were experiencing pitting and corrosion which had resulted in catastrophic shipboard failures. At that time, conventional visual methods only allowed operators to inspect the first eighteen inches of the tube using a rigid borescope. If any pits were located, a mechanical stylus mechanism was used to obtain an approximate depth measurement of the pit. The condition of the balance of the tube was then extrapolated based on this extremely limited amount of information. Often the worst pitting was found in the bends of the tube, which could not be inspected by the visual method. Finally, a catastrophic boiler failure on an aircraft carrier resulted in the initiation of a search by the U.S. Navy for a better solution. Quest was contracted to develop an articulated probe which could negotiate the full length of a boiler tube with multiple bends, and generate a complete digital map of the inside surface. A key requirement of this probe would be rapid and quantitative measurement of internal features such as ID pits and corrosion. In 1987 QUEST delivered the first laser- optic tube inspection system to the U.S. Navy for use in marine boiler tubes. The Laser Optic Tube Inspection System (LOTISTM) was immediately put to use and paid for itself many times over in reduced maintenance costs. Over the next six years several generations of LOTIS were developed for the U.S. Navy, each one providing more capabilities, improved inspection speeds, and more user friendly operator interface. Today, LOTIS is

  2. The measurement of surface gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10(-8) m s(-2)), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1-5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post

  3. Nonlinear effect of the structured light profilometry in the phase-shifting method and error correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wan-Zhen; Chen Zhe-Bo; Xia Bin-Feng; Lin Bin; Cao Xiang-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Digital structured light (SL) profilometry is increasingly used in three-dimensional (3D) measurement technology. However, the nonlinearity of the off-the-shelf projectors and cameras seriously reduces the measurement accuracy. In this paper, first, we review the nonlinear effects of the projector–camera system in the phase-shifting structured light depth measurement method. We show that high order harmonic wave components lead to phase error in the phase-shifting method. Then a practical method based on frequency domain filtering is proposed for nonlinear error reduction. By using this method, the nonlinear calibration of the SL system is not required. Moreover, both the nonlinear effects of the projector and the camera can be effectively reduced. The simulations and experiments have verified our nonlinear correction method. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. Surface analysis of Borkron glass for neutron optics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoux, B.; Maaza, M.; Maaza, M.; Samuel, F.; Sella, C.

    1991-01-01

    Grazing Angle Neutron Reflectometry, Optical and Mechanical Roughness Profilometry techniques have been used to study the effects of the polishing operations on the surface of Borkron Schott glass (special borosilicate glass for neutron optics applications) as the polishing tool pressure P and the mean grain size of the polishing powder Φ. The neutron reflectivity investigations have shown that there is formation of a layer at the surface glass substrate. This layer is less dense than the bulk substrate and its thickness is around 60A. The optical and mechanical profilometry measurements have shown that both roughness and waviness decrease with P and Φ. All the experimental results show a good correlation between the neutron refractive index, the thickness and the roughness of the surface layer and the waviness of the glass surface with the two mechanical polishing parameters. The previous techniques have been completed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements

  5. Simplified absolute phase retrieval of dual-frequency fringe patterns in fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia

    2016-04-01

    In fringe projection profilometry, a simplified method is proposed to recover absolute phase maps of two-frequency fringe patterns by using a unique mapping rule. The mapping rule is designed from the rounded phase values to the fringe order of each pixel. Absolute phase can be recovered by the fringe order maps. Unlike the existing techniques, where the lowest frequency of dual- or multiple-frequency fringe patterns must be single, the presented method breaks the limitation and simplifies the procedure of phase unwrapping. Additionally, due to many issues including ambient light, shadow, sharp edges, step height boundaries and surface reflectivity variations, a novel framework of automatically identifying and removing invalid phase values is also proposed. Simulations and experiments have been carried out to validate the performances of the proposed method.

  6. Unlubricated Gross Slip Fretting Wear of Metallic Plasma Sprayed Coatings for Ti6A14V Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hager, Jr., Carl H; Sanders, Jeffrey H; Sharma, Shashi K

    2006-01-01

    .... The combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface profilometry, surface chemistry (EDS), and friction analysis were used to study coating performance and evaluate the interfacial wear mechanisms...

  7. Fringe-projection profilometry based on two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suzhen; Cao, Yiping

    2013-11-01

    In 3D shape measurement, because deformed fringes often contain low-frequency information degraded with random noise and background intensity information, a new fringe-projection profilometry is proposed based on 2D empirical mode decomposition (2D-EMD). The fringe pattern is first decomposed into numbers of intrinsic mode functions by 2D-EMD. Because the method has partial noise reduction, the background components can be removed to obtain the fundamental components needed to perform Hilbert transformation to retrieve the phase information. The 2D-EMD can effectively extract the modulation phase of a single direction fringe and an inclined fringe pattern because it is a full 2D analysis method and considers the relationship between adjacent lines of a fringe patterns. In addition, as the method does not add noise repeatedly, as does ensemble EMD, the data processing time is shortened. Computer simulations and experiments prove the feasibility of this method.

  8. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  9. Aspheric surface measurement using capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Yuan, Daocheng; Li, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    With the application of aspheres in optical fields, high precision and high efficiency aspheric surface metrology becomes a hot research topic. We describe a novel method of non-contact measurement of aspheric surface with capacitive probe. Taking an eccentric spherical surface as the object of study, the averaging effect of capacitive probe measurement and the influence of tilting the capacitive probe on the measurement results are investigated. By comparing measurement results from simultaneous measurement of the capacitive probe and contact probe of roundness instrument, this paper indicates the feasibility of using capacitive probes to test aspheric surface and proposes the compensation method of measurement error caused by averaging effect and the tilting of the capacitive probe.

  10. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  11. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Macaulay, Gavin D.; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K.; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A.

    2015-06-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting.

  12. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  13. Phase unwrapping algorithm based on multi-frequency fringe projection and fringe background for fringe projection profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei; Ma, Yueyang

    2015-01-01

    A phase unwrapping algorithm specially designed for the phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (FPP) is proposed. It combines a revised dual-frequency fringe projectionalgorithm and a proposed fringe background based quality guided phase unwrapping algorithm (FB-QGPUA). Phase demodulated from the high-frequency fringe patterns is partially unwrapped by that demodulated from the low-frequency ones. Then FB-QGPUA is adopted to further unwrap the partially unwrapped phase. Influences of the phase error on the measurement are researched. Strategy to select the fringe pitch is given. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is very robust and efficient. (paper)

  14. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-10-01

    A scintillating crystal's surface reflectance has to be well understood in order to accurately predict and optimize the crystal's light collection through Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we measure the inner surface reflectance properties for BGO. The measurements include BGO crystals with a mechanically polished surface, rough-cut surface, and chemically etched surface, and with various reflectors attached, both air-coupled and with coupling compound. The measurements are performed with a laser aimed at the center of a hemispherical shaped BGO crystal. The hemispherical shape eliminates any non-perpendicular angles for light entering and exiting the crystal. The reflected light is collected with an array of photodiodes. The laser can be set at an arbitrary angle, and the photodiode array is rotated to fully cover 2pi of solid angle. The current produced in the photodiodes is readout with a digital multimeter connected through a multiplexer. The two rows of photodiodes achieve 5-degree by 4-degree resolution, and the current measurement has a dynamic range of 105:1. The acquired data was not described by the commonly assumed linear combination of specular and diffuse (Lambertian) distributions, except for a very few surfaces. Surface roughness proved to be the most important parameter when choosing crystal setup. The reflector choice was of less importance and of almost no consequence for rough-cut surfaces. Pure specular reflection distribution for all incidence angles was measured for polished surfaces with VM2000 film, while the most Lambertian distribution for any surface finish was measured for titanium dioxide paint. The distributions acquired in this paper will be used to create more accurate Monte Carlo models for light reflection distribution within BGO crystals.

  15. Surface Relief of Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1989-02-01

    We will describe in this communication a noncont act method of measuring surface profile, it does not require any surface preparation, and it can be used with a very large range of surfaces from highly reflecting to non reflecting ones and as complex as textile surfaces. This method is reasonably immune to dispersion and diffraction, which usually make very difficult the application of non contact profilometry methods to a wide range of materials and situations, namely on quality control systems in industrial production lines. The method is based on the horizontal shift of the bright spot on a horizontal surface when this is illuminated with an oblique beam and moved vertically. in order to make the profilometry the sample is swept by an oblique light beam and the bright spot position is compared with a reference position. The bright spot must be as small as possible, particularly in very irregular surfaces; so the light beam diameter must be as small as possible and the incidence angle must not be too small. The sensivity of a system based on this method will be given, mostly, by the reception optical system.

  16. Geometric Measure Theory and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bombieri, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi's measure and thin obstacles.

  17. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry......, optical scanning techniques, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These methods, based on acquisition of topography data from point by point scans, give quantitative information of heights with respect to position. Based on a different approach, the so-called integral methods produce parameters...

  18. Rapid matching of stereo vision based on fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Xiao, Yi; Cao, Jian; Guo, Hongwei

    2016-09-01

    As the most important core part of stereo vision, there are still many problems to solve in stereo matching technology. For smooth surfaces on which feature points are not easy to extract, this paper adds a projector into stereo vision measurement system based on fringe projection techniques, according to the corresponding point phases which extracted from the left and right camera images are the same, to realize rapid matching of stereo vision. And the mathematical model of measurement system is established and the three-dimensional (3D) surface of the measured object is reconstructed. This measurement method can not only broaden application fields of optical 3D measurement technology, and enrich knowledge achievements in the field of optical 3D measurement, but also provide potential possibility for the commercialized measurement system in practical projects, which has very important scientific research significance and economic value.

  19. Signal processing in urodynamics: towards high definition urethral pressure profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klünder, Mario; Sawodny, Oliver; Amend, Bastian; Ederer, Michael; Kelp, Alexandra; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Feuer, Ronny

    2016-03-22

    Urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) is used in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) which is a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Low spatial pressure resolution, common occurrence of artifacts, and uncertainties in data location limit the diagnostic value of UPP. To overcome these limitations, high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) combining enhanced UPP hardware and signal processing algorithms has been developed. In this work, we present the different signal processing steps in HD-UPP and show experimental results from female minipigs. We use a special microtip catheter with high angular pressure resolution and an integrated inclination sensor. Signals from the catheter are filtered and time-correlated artifacts removed. A signal reconstruction algorithm processes pressure data into a detailed pressure image on the urethra's inside. Finally, the pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is calculated through deconvolution. A mathematical model of the urethra is contained in a point-spread-function (PSF) which is identified depending on geometric and material properties of the urethra. We additionally investigate the PSF's frequency response to determine the relevant frequency band for pressure information on the urinary sphincter. Experimental pressure data are spatially located and processed into high resolution pressure images. Artifacts are successfully removed from data without blurring other details. The pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is reconstructed and compared to the one on the inside. Finally, the pressure images are mapped onto the urethral geometry calculated from inclination and position data to provide an integrated image of pressure distribution, anatomical shape, and location. With its advanced sensing capabilities, the novel microtip catheter collects an unprecedented amount of urethral pressure data. Through sequential signal processing steps, physicians are provided with

  20. The Weather-Beaten Dorsal Hand Clinical Rating, Shadow Casting Optical Profilometry, and Skin Capacitance Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Delvenne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laypeople commonly perceive some skin xerosis and withering (roughness changes during winter on some parts of the body, particularly on the dorsal hands. The aim of the study was to assess the withered skin surface changes occurring during the four seasons. A total of 47 menopausal women completed the study. A group of 31 volunteers were on hormone replacement therapy (HRT and 16 were out of HRT. Skin xerosis and scaliness were rated clinically. In addition, skin whitening was assessed by computerized shadow casting optical profilometry and by skin capacitance mapping. The volunteers were not using topical creams and over-the-counter products on their hands. Marked changes, recorded over the successive seasons, corresponded to patchy heterogeneous stratum corneum hydration and heterogeneous skin surface roughness changing over seasons; they likely resulted from changes in the environmental temperature and atmosphere moisture. The severity of the changes revealed by clinical inspection was not supported by similar directions of fluctuations in the instrumental assessments. This seemingly contradiction was in fact due to different levels of scale observation. The clinical centimetric scale and the instrumental inframillimetric scale possibly provide distinct aspects of a given biological impact.

  1. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  2. Applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as method to determine thickness and composition of stacks of metal thin films: A comparison with imaging and profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrielink, J.A.M.; Tiggelaar, R.M.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Lefferts, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for fast, accurate and non-destructive determination of the thickness of a variety of single-layer and multi-layer metal thin films deposited on glass and silicon is investigated. Data obtained with XRF is compared with information from profilometry and images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whereas thickness determinations based on profilometry and cross-sectional SEM-imaging have restrictions with respect to thickness of metal stacks or hardness of the metals, XRF has no such limitations. Moreover, XRF can discriminate between sublayers in a multi-layer film, and can also be utilized for compositional analysis and density estimations. Good agreement between thickness data obtained with XRF, profilometry and SEM-images is found, under the justifiable assumption that the density of sputter-deposited and evaporated thin films is ca. 5% below that of bulk metals. Similar XRF-results are found for non-patterned areas (64 mm 2 metal) as well as lithographically patterned areas containing a series of small metal lines (total metal surface ca. 8 mm 2 ). As a consequence, it is concluded that XRF is a versatile technique for analysis, verification, control or evaluation of the thickness, density or (elemental) composition of thin metal film line-patterns, during their fabrication as well as prior or post to applications.

  3. Accurate characterisation of hole size and location by projected fringe profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Dantanarayana, Harshana G.; Yue, Huimin; Huntley, Jonathan M.

    2018-06-01

    The ability to accurately estimate the location and geometry of holes is often required in the field of quality control and automated assembly. Projected fringe profilometry is a potentially attractive technique on account of being non-contacting, of lower cost, and orders of magnitude faster than the traditional coordinate measuring machine. However, we demonstrate in this paper that fringe projection is susceptible to significant (hundreds of µm) measurement artefacts in the neighbourhood of hole edges, which give rise to errors of a similar magnitude in the estimated hole geometry. A mechanism for the phenomenon is identified based on the finite size of the imaging system’s point spread function and the resulting bias produced near to sample discontinuities in geometry and reflectivity. A mathematical model is proposed, from which a post-processing compensation algorithm is developed to suppress such errors around the holes. The algorithm includes a robust and accurate sub-pixel edge detection method based on a Fourier descriptor of the hole contour. The proposed algorithm was found to reduce significantly the measurement artefacts near the hole edges. As a result, the errors in estimated hole radius were reduced by up to one order of magnitude, to a few tens of µm for hole radii in the range 2–15 mm, compared to those from the uncompensated measurements.

  4. Telecentric 3D profilometry based on phase-shifting fringe projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Chunyang; Tian, Jindong

    2014-12-29

    Three dimensional shape measurement in the microscopic range becomes increasingly important with the development of micro manufacturing technology. Microscopic fringe projection techniques offer a fast, robust, and full-field measurement for field sizes from approximately 1 mm2 to several cm2. However, the depth of field is very small due to the imaging of non-telecentric microscope, which is often not sufficient to measure the complete depth of a 3D-object. And the calibration of phase-to-depth conversion is complicated which need a precision translation stage and a reference plane. In this paper, we propose a novel telecentric phase-shifting projected fringe profilometry for small and thick objects. Telecentric imaging extends the depth of field approximately to millimeter order, which is much larger than that of microscopy. To avoid the complicated phase-to-depth conversion in microscopic fringe projection, we develop a new system calibration method of camera and projector based on telecentric imaging model. Based on these, a 3D reconstruction of telecentric imaging is presented with stereovision aided by fringe phase maps. Experiments demonstrated the feasibility and high measurement accuracy of the proposed system for thick object.

  5. Surface resistivity measurement of plasma treated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D.; Pigram, P.J.; Liesegang, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Resistivity of insulators is an important property of materials used within the integrated circuit and packaging industries. The measurement of electrical resistivity of insulator materials in the surface region in this work is interpreted through observations of surface charge decay. A self-field driven and diffusion charge transport theory is used to model the process and resistivity values obtained computationally. Data for the charge decay of surface charged samples are collected by suspending them inside a coaxial cylinder connected to an electrometer. Samples used have been low density polyethylene LDPE sheet, both pristine and surface treated. Some samples have been treated by air plasma at low vacuum pressures for different periods of time; others have been washed in ethyl acetate and then plasma treated before the resistivity measurement. The sets of resistivity measurements form the various treatments are compared below. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has also been used to investigate and account for the observed variations in surface resistivity

  6. Profilometry of discontinuous solids by means of co-phased demodulation of projected fringes with RGB encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, J. M.; Servin, M.; Garnica, G.

    2015-05-01

    Here we describe a 2-projectors and 1-camera setup for profilometry of discontinuous solids by means of co-phased demodulation of projected fringes and red, green, and blue (RGB) multichannel operation. The dual projection configuration for this profilometer is proposed to solve efficiently specular regions and self-occluding shadows due to discontinuities, which are the main drawbacks for a 1-projector 1-camera configuration. This is because the regions where shadows and specular reflections are generated, and the fringe contrast drops to zero, are in general different for each projection direction; thus, the resulting fringe patterns will have complementary phase information. Multichannel RGB operation allows us to work simultaneously with both projectors and to record independently the complementary fringe patterns phase-modulated by the 3D profile of the object under study. In other words, color encoding/decoding reduces the acquisition time respect to one-at-a-time grayscale operation and, in principle, enables the study of dynamic phenomena. The co-phased demodulation method implemented in this work benefits from the complex (analytic) nature of the output signals estimated with most phase demodulation methods (such as the Fourier method, and temporal phaseshifting algorithms). This allowed us to straightforwardly generate a single phase-map well-defined for the entire area of interest. Finally we assessed our proposed profilometry setup by measuring a fractured spherical cap made of (uncoated) expanded polystyrene. The results were satisfactory but in the authors' opinion this must be considered a preliminary report.

  7. Surface Tension Measurements with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Nicolas-Alexandre; Denis, Zakari; Lavaud, Maxime; Grolleau, Adrian; Dufour, Nicolas; Deblais, Antoine; Delabre, Ulysse

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly used in higher education and at university in mechanics, acoustics, and even thermodynamics as they offer a unique way to do simple science experiments. In this article, we show how smartphones can be used in fluid mechanics to measure surface tension of various liquids, which could help students understand the concept…

  8. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  9. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.

    1984-11-01

    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  10. Effective bias removal for fringe projection profilometry using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, William Wai-Lam; Lun, Daniel Pak-Kong

    2012-08-20

    When reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) object height profile using the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) technique, the light intensity reflected from the object surface can yield abruptly changing bias in the captured fringe image, which leads to severe reconstruction error. The traditional approach tries to remove the bias by suppressing the zero spectrum of the fringe image. It is based on the assumption that the aliasing between the frequency spectrum of the bias, which is around the zero frequency, and the frequency spectrum of the fringe is negligible. This, however, is not the case in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel (to our knowledge) technique to eliminate the bias in the fringe image using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT). The new approach successfully identifies the features of bias, fringe, and noise in the DT-CWT domain, which allows the bias to be effectively extracted from a noisy fringe image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional methods and facilitates accurate reconstruction of objects' 3D models.

  11. Surface dose extrapolation measurements with radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Currie, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields. An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate two-dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that the surface percentage dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionization chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. The corresponding parallel plate ionization chamber measurements are 16%, 27% and 37%, respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. (note)

  12. Surface aerosol measurements at Barrow during AGASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhaine, B.A.; Dutton, E.G.; DeLuisi, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surface aerosol measurements were made at the Barrow GMCC Observatory during the AGASP flight series in March 1983. The condensation nucleus, scattering extinction coefficient, size distribution, and total aerosol optical depth measurements all clearly show conditions of background Arctic haze for March 9-11, a series of haze episodes during March 12-16, and a return to background haze for March 17-18. Angstrom exponents calculated from scattering coefficient data were low during March 9-11, relatively higher during March 12-14, and highest during March 15-18. Surface aerosol data and aerosol optical depth data are in good qualitative agreement for the 10-day period studied. Background haze was present when trajectories circled the Arctic basin, and haze episodes occurred when trajectories originated in western Asia and Europe

  13. Plasma measurements with surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H. Jr.; Bradley, A.E.

    1969-01-01

    A surface barrier detector system for measuring the loss rate of protons from a hydrogen plasma and their energy spectrum is described. A full width at half maximum (FWHM) resolution of 1.4 keV for 15-keV hydrogen atoms was obtained using a selected detector having a sensitive area of 3 mm 2 and a depletion depth of 700 microns

  14. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  15. Description of measurement techniques for surface contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The needs of evaluation of the surface contamination are numerous in the processes of production and management of radioactive waste. The market of radiation protection materials proposes a lot of devices answering to the almost all these needs. These device have however their conditions and particular limits for use. To realize correct measurements it is use the device, the technique and the methods adapted to the need, by taking into account the optimization of economical aspect. (N.C.)

  16. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  17. Highly accurate surface maps from profilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Kate M.; Nelson, Jessica D.; Mandina, Mike P.

    2013-04-01

    Many aspheres and free-form optical surfaces are measured using a single line trace profilometer which is limiting because accurate 3D corrections are not possible with the single trace. We show a method to produce an accurate fully 2.5D surface height map when measuring a surface with a profilometer using only 6 traces and without expensive hardware. The 6 traces are taken at varying angular positions of the lens, rotating the part between each trace. The output height map contains low form error only, the first 36 Zernikes. The accuracy of the height map is ±10% of the actual Zernike values and within ±3% of the actual peak to valley number. The calculated Zernike values are affected by errors in the angular positioning, by the centering of the lens, and to a small effect, choices made in the processing algorithm. We have found that the angular positioning of the part should be better than 1?, which is achievable with typical hardware. The centering of the lens is essential to achieving accurate measurements. The part must be centered to within 0.5% of the diameter to achieve accurate results. This value is achievable with care, with an indicator, but the part must be edged to a clean diameter.

  18. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  19. Eliminating the zero spectrum in Fourier transform profilometry using empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sikun; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing; Xiang, Liqun

    2009-05-01

    Empirical mode decomposition is introduced into Fourier transform profilometry to extract the zero spectrum included in the deformed fringe pattern without the need for capturing two fringe patterns with pi phase difference. The fringe pattern is subsequently demodulated using a standard Fourier transform profilometry algorithm. With this method, the deformed fringe pattern is adaptively decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions that vary from high frequency to low frequency by means of an algorithm referred to as a sifting process. Then the zero spectrum is separated from the high-frequency components effectively. Experiments validate the feasibility of this method.

  20. Least-squares calibration method based on a universal phase and height mapping formula in Fourier transform profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yongfu; Cheng, Haobo; Gao, Ya; Zhang, Huijing; Feng, Yunpeng; Pan, Baozhu

    2011-01-01

    In Fourier transform profilometry (FTP), we perform a strict theoretical analysis of the phase–height mapping relationship and give a universal calculation formula in which the constraints on the experimental setup are removed. In that case, the projector and camera can be located arbitrarily to get better information on fringes, which makes the system easy to manipulate and improves the speed of measurement. As the relationship between the phase and height distribution depends on system parameters (such as the relative position of the projector and camera) which are difficult to obtain, we propose a least-squares calibration approach for FTP, which can avoid measuring the system parameters directly. Both the simulation and experimental results prove that the 3D shape of the tested objects can be reconstructed exactly by using the calculation formula and calibration method, and that the system has better universality

  1. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  2. Measurement and removal of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, M.; Tamberg, T.

    1990-01-01

    This is a critical reappraisal of the sampling factor which is important for indirect contamination measurement. The factor gives the radioactivity collected by means of a wipe sample as a fraction of the total loose radioactivity i.e. without firm adhesion. It is used in national and international standard specifications and stated, frequently with excessive conservatism, as 0.1. Secondly, the standard specifications for the testing and appraisal of surface materials in relation to their decontamination capacity and for testing the effect of decontamination agents hitherto bond and Co-60 and Cs-137 are to be expanded to include radioactive iodine, which is important in nuclear medicine. The selection of optimum surface materials will thus be put on an improved basis. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  4. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  5. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  6. Study of Profile Changes during Mechanical Polishing using Relocation Profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, S. Chidambara; Shunmugam, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical polishing is a finishing process practiced conventionally to enhance quality of surface. Surface finish is improved by mechanical cutting action of abrasive particles on work surface. Polishing is complex in nature and research efforts have been focused on understanding the polishing mechanism. Study of changes in profile is a useful method of understanding behavior of the polishing process. Such a study requires tracing same profile at regular process intervals, which is a tedious job. An innovative relocation technique is followed in the present work to study profile changes during mechanical polishing of austenitic stainless steel specimen. Using special locating fixture, micro-indentation mark and cross-correlation technique, the same profile is traced at certain process intervals. Comparison of different parameters of profiles shows the manner in which metal removal takes place in the polishing process. Mass removal during process estimated by the same relocation technique is checked with that obtained using weight measurement. The proposed approach can be extended to other micro/nano finishing processes and favorable process conditions can be identified.

  7. LOFT fuel rod surface temperature measurement testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, A.M.; Tolman, E.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the LOFT fuel rod cladding surface thermocouples has been performed to evaluate how accurately the LOFT thermocouples measure the cladding surface temperature during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence and what effect, if any, the thermocouple would have on core performance. Extensive testing has been done to characterize the thermocouple design. Thermal cycling and corrosion testing of the thermocouple weld design have provided an expected lifetime of 6000 hours when exposed to reactor coolant conditions of 620 K and 15.9 MPa and to sixteen thermal cycles with an initial temperature of 480 K and peak temperatures ranging from 870 to 1200K. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) tests have indicated a DNB penalty (5 to 28% lower) during steady state operation and negligible effects during LOCA blowdown caused by the LOFT fuel rod surface thermocouple arrangement. Experience with the thermocouple design in Power Burst Facility (PBF) and LOFT nonnuclear blowdown testing has been quite satisfactory. Tests discussed here were conducted using both stainless steel and zircaloy-clad electrically heated rod in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) blowdown simulation loop

  8. Technical features of the system used to perform multichannel urethral pressure profilometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, E. J.; Dobbe, I.; Kools, C.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Dijkhuizen, T.; Schneider, P.; Lettinga, K. P.; Kurth, K.

    1997-01-01

    Multichannel Urethral Pressure Profilometry (MCUPP) is a method used to get more information on the pressure distribution within the female urethra. This information may be of value in the diagnostic work up of women with urinary incontinence. Different systems are used for this technique. The pump

  9. Self-correction of projector nonlinearity in phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fuxing; Xing, Shuo; Guo, Hongwei

    2017-09-01

    In phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry, the luminance nonlinearity of the used projector has been recognized as one of the most crucial factors decreasing the measurement accuracy. To solve this problem, this paper presents a self-correcting technique that allows us to suppress the effect of the projector nonlinearity in the absence of any calibration data regarding the projector intensities or regarding the phase errors. In its first step, the standard phase-shifting algorithm is used to recover the phases, as well as the background intensities and the modulations. Using these results enables normalizing the fringe patterns, for ridding them of the effects of the background and modulations. Second, we smooth the calculated phase map by use of a low-pass filter in order to remove the ripple-like phase errors induced by the projector nonlinearity. Third, we determine a polynomial representing the projector nonlinearity by fitting the curve of the normalized fringe intensities against the cosine values of the smoothed phases. Finally, we correct the phase errors using the curve just obtained. Doing these steps in an iterative way eventually results in a phase map and, further, a 3D shape with their artifacts induced by the projector nonlinearity suppressed significantly. Experimental results demonstrate that this technique offers some advantages over others. It does not require a prior calibration of the projector, thus being suitable for dealing with a time-variant nonlinearity; its pointwise operation protects the edges and details of the measurement results from being blurred; and it works well with very few fringe patterns and is efficient in image capturing.

  10. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  11. Comparative Measurement of Microcystins in Diverse Surface ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of microcystins, cyanotoxins associated with cyanobacterial blooms which are increasingly prevalent in inland waters, is complicated by the diversity of congeners which have been observed in the environment. At present, more than 150 microcystin congeners have been identified, and this poses a significant challenge to analytical methods intended to assess human health risks in surface and drinking water systems. The most widely employed analytical method at present is the ADDA-ELISA technique which is potentially sensitive to all microcystins, but it is primarily intended as a semi-quantitative method, and questions have been raised regarding the potential for cross-reactivity and false positives. LC-MS/MS methods targeting specific congeners, such as US EPA Method 544, are intended for use as a secondary confirmation following a positive ELISA response, but these techniques can target only those congeners for which commercial standards are available. Accordingly, they are not suitable for ascertaining the safety of a given water sample, given the potential for omitting unknown microcystin congeners which might be present.An alternative approach involves oxidative transformation of microcystins to a common product, 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid, or MMPB. Measuring MMPB by LC-MS/MS can potentially provide a metric for the sum of all microcystin congeners present in a sample, subject to the efficiency and overall yield of conversion. The

  12. Experimental measurements of negative hydrogen ion production from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.G.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the production of H - from surfaces bombarded with hydrogen are reviewed. Some measurements of H + and H 0 production from surfaces are also discussed with particular emphasis on work which might be relevant to ion source applications

  13. Profilometry of thin films on rough substrates by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ledinský, Martin

    2016-12-06

    Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution. We also discuss the wider applicability of this technique for the characterization of thin layers prepared on Raman/photoluminescence-active substrates, as well as its use for single-layer counting in multilayer 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 and WS2.

  14. Profilometry of thin films on rough substrates by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ledinský , Martin; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Vetushka, Aliaksei; Geissbü hler, Jonas; Tomasi, Andrea; Despeisse, Matthieu; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif  , Christophe; Fejfar, Antoní n

    2016-01-01

    Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution. We also discuss the wider applicability of this technique for the characterization of thin layers prepared on Raman/photoluminescence-active substrates, as well as its use for single-layer counting in multilayer 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 and WS2.

  15. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements.

  16. Phase accuracy evaluation for phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry based on uniform-phase coded image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Qian; Zhou, Changquan; Qiao, Jiacheng; Zhang, Lu

    2018-06-01

    Phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (PSFPP) is a three-dimensional (3D) measurement technique widely adopted in industry measurement. It recovers the 3D profile of measured objects with the aid of the fringe phase. The phase accuracy is among the dominant factors that determine the 3D measurement accuracy. Evaluation of the phase accuracy helps refine adjustable measurement parameters, contributes to evaluating the 3D measurement accuracy, and facilitates improvement of the measurement accuracy. Although PSFPP has been deeply researched, an effective, easy-to-use phase accuracy evaluation method remains to be explored. In this paper, methods based on the uniform-phase coded image (UCI) are presented to accomplish phase accuracy evaluation for PSFPP. These methods work on the principle that the phase value of a UCI can be manually set to be any value, and once the phase value of a UCI pixel is the same as that of a pixel of a corresponding sinusoidal fringe pattern, their phase accuracy values are approximate. The proposed methods provide feasible approaches to evaluating the phase accuracy for PSFPP. Furthermore, they can be used to experimentally research the property of the random and gamma phase errors in PSFPP without the aid of a mathematical model to express random phase error or a large-step phase-shifting algorithm. In this paper, some novel and interesting phenomena are experimentally uncovered with the aid of the proposed methods.

  17. Comment on "Fringe projection profilometry with nonparallel illumination: a least-squares approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Bi, Hongbo

    2006-07-01

    We comment on the recent Letter by Chen and Quan [Opt. Lett.30, 2101 (2005)] in which a least-squares approach was proposed to cope with the nonparallel illumination in fringe projection profilometry. It is noted that the previous mathematical derivations of the fringe pitch and carrier phase functions on the reference plane were incorrect. In addition, we suggest that the variation of carrier phase along the vertical direction should be considered.

  18. Appearances can be deceptive. Innovative laser profilometry enhances your safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobs, N.; Baumgartl, R.

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of the RPV seal faces is one of the most important objects in nuclear services. Laser scanning of the seal faces allows getting 3- dimensional information about surface defects. The evaluation of laser scans helps to decide the necessity for a repair welding in time thereby minimizing the risk of leakages. (author)

  19. Profilometry of thin films on rough substrates by Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledinský, Martin; Paviet-Salomon, B.; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Geissbühler, J.; Tomasi, A.; Despeisse, M.; De Wolf, S.; Ballif, C.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Dec (2016), s. 1-7, č. článku 37859. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA14-15357S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 727523 NextBase Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : solar cells * surfaces * interfaces and thin films * two-dimensional materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. The prediction of BRDFs from surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.; Leonard, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of predicting the BRDF of smooth surfaces from profile measurements of their surface finish. The conversion of optical profile data to the BRDF at the same wavelength is essentially independent of scattering models, while the conversion of mechanical measurements, and wavelength scaling in general, are model dependent. Procedures are illustrated for several surfaces, including two from the recent HeNe BRDF round robin, and results are compared with measured data. Reasonable agreement is found except for surfaces which involve significant scattering from isolated surface defects which are poorly sampled in the profile data

  1. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  2. Inspection of freeform surfaces considering uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrad, Vahid; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2013-01-01

    Inspection of a manufactured freeform surface can be conducted by building its surface model and comparing this manufactured surface model with the ideal design surface model and its tolerance requirement. The manufactured freeform surface model is usually achieved by obtaining measurement points on the manufactured surface, transforming these measurement points from the measurement coordinate system to the design coordinate system through localization, and reconstructing the surface model using the localized measurement points. In this research, a method was developed to estimate the locations and their variances of any selected points on the reconstructed freeform surface considering different sources of uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction processes. In this method, first locations and variances of the localized measurement points are calculated considering uncertainties of the measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the localization processes. Then locations and variances of points on the reconstructed freeform surface are obtained considering uncertainties of the localized measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the freeform surface reconstruction process. Two case studies were developed to demonstrate how these three different uncertainty sources influence the quality of the reconstructed freeform curve and freeform surface in inspection. (paper)

  3. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  4. Surface magnetic field measurement with magnetic shielding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2010), 66-68 ISSN 1335-3632 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic hysteresis * magnetic field measurement * magnetic shielding * extrapolation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2010

  5. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near backgr...

  6. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  7. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  8. Inhibitory capacity of Rhus coriaria L. extract and its major component methyl gallate on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by optical profilometry: Potential applications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacergius, Tomas; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Kirkliauskiene, Agne; Gabe, Vika; Adawi, Azmi; Rayan, Mahmoud; Qutob, Mutaz; Stukas, Rimantas; Utkus, Algirdas; Zeidan, Mouhammad; Rayan, Anwar

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) bacterium is the most well recognized pathogen involved in pathogenesis of dental caries. Its virulence arises from its ability to produce a biofilm and acidogenicity, causing tooth decay. Discovery of natural products capable to inhibit biofilm formation is of high importance for developing health care products. To the best of our knowledge, in all previous scientific reports, a colorimetric assay was applied to test the effect of sumac and methyl gallate (MG) on S. mutans adherence. Quantitative assessment of the developed biofilm should be further performed by applying an optical profilometry assay, and by testing the effect on both surface roughness and thickness parameters of the biofilm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the effect of sumac extract and its constituent MG on biofilm formation using an optical profilometry assay. Testing antibacterial activity of the sumac extract and its fractions revealed that MG is the most bioactive component against S. mutans bacteria. It reduced S. mutans biofilm biomass on the polystyrene surface by 68‑93%, whereas 1 mg/ml MG was able to decrease the biofilm roughness and thickness on the glass surface by 99%. MG also prevented a decrease in pH level by 97%. These bioactivities of MG occurred in a dose‑dependent manner and were significant vs. untreated bacteria. The findings are important for the development of novel pharmaceuticals and formulations of natural products and extracts that possess anti‑biofilm activities with primary applications for oral health, and in a broader context, for the treatment of various bacterial infections.

  9. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  10. A Study on the Profile Change Measurement of Steam Generator Tubes with Tube Expansion Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Song Myung Ho; Choi, Myung Sik

    2011-01-01

    Steam generator tubes for nuclear power plants contain the local shape transitions on their inner or outer surface such as dent, bulge, over-expansion, eccentricity, deflection, and so on by the application of physical force during the tube manufacturing and steam generator assembling and by the sludge (that is, corrosion products) produced during the plant operation. The structural integrity of tubes will be degraded by generating the corrosive crack at that location. The profilometry using the traditional bobbin probes which are currently applied for measuring the profile change of tubes gives us basic information such as axial locations and average magnitudes of deformations. However, the three-dimensional quantitative evaluation on circumferential locations, distributional angle, and size of deformations will have to be conducted to understand the effects of residual stresses increased by local deformations on corrosive cracking of tubes. Steam generator tubes of Korean standard nuclear power plants expanded within their tube-sheets by the explosive expansion method and suffered from corrosive cracks in the early stage of power operation. Thus, local deformations of steam generator tubes at the top of tube-sheet were measured with an advanced rotating probe and a laser profiling system for the two cases where the tubes expanded by the explosive expansion method and hydraulic expansion. Also, the trends of eccentricity, deflection, and over-expansion of tubes were evaluated. The advanced eddy current profilometry was confirmed to provide accurate information of local deformations compared with laser profilometry

  11. Assessing the reproducibility of high definition urethral pressure profilometry and its correlation with an air-charged system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klünder, Mario; Amend, Bastian; Sawodny, Oliver; Stenzl, Arnulf; Ederer, Michael; Kelp, Alexandra; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Feuer, Ronny

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a new urodynamic method for the assessment of stress urinary incontinence called high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) has been introduced. This method combines a novel microtip catheter with advanced signal processing to enable spatial data location and the reconstruction of a pressure image inside the urethra. In order to assess the reproducibility of HD-UPP data, we statistically evaluate HD-UPP datasets and compare them to data from a double balloon air-charged system. Both catheters are used on sedated female minipigs. Data from the microtip catheter are processed through a signal reconstruction algorithm, urodynamic features are extracted, and compared to the air-charged system. Reproducibility of HD-UPP data is assessed by statistically evaluating consecutive, intra-individual datasets. HD-UPP delivers results in agreement with previous comparisons of microtip and air-charged systems. The average deviation of two consecutive, intra-individual pressure images is very low at 7 cm H 2 O. HD-UPP provides physicians with detailed information on the pressure distribution inside the urethra. Through comparison with an air-charged catheter, it is shown that HD-UPP delivers results in agreement with previous studies on the comparison of microtip and air-charged catheters. It provides excellent reproducibility, as the difference between sequentially measured profiles from the same minipig is significantly lower than the one between profiles from different minipigs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  13. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  14. Measurements of radon progeny activity on typical indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Gogolak, C.V.; Klemic, G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies aimed at defining how well radon progeny on surfaces can be measured, information that is needed in order to test physical/mathematical models governing indoor radon progeny behaviour, are described. One experiment compared the decomposition on to different surfaces. Only relatively small differences were found among metal, filter paper, broadcloth, corduroy fabric, vinyl wallpaper, glass, and latex paint, but polyethylene film collected two to four times as much as the others, due most likely to electrostatic charge on the plastic surface. Another experiment compared the gamma and gross alpha count methods of measuring surface activity for metal, filter paper, broadcloth and corduroy surfaces. No difference for the surfaces tested was found from which it is concluded that, even for rougher surfaces, progeny atoms deposit mainly on the outer layers. A final experiment compared in situ and surrogate-surface methods for measuring surface deposition. For most tests, the two methods agreed within 30%, and the average ratio was not significantly different from unity. 210 Po is a complication in the in situ method. An unexpected location effect was found in the experiments conducted in houses with high radon concentrations: the deposition on the ceiling was higher than on the surfaces. (author)

  15. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  16. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  17. Is a sequence of tests during urethral pressure profilometry correlated with symptoms assessment in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Françoise A; Robain, Gilberte; Marti, Brigitte G

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was, applying a strictly defined protocol for urethral profilometry, 1) to test the repeatability of same session rest maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) and 2) to search for correlation between women complaint and the changes in MUCP value (rest and dynamic tests). A population of 140 consecutive women referred for evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction was stratified in 4 groups according with the urinary symptoms: stress, urge, mixed incontinence and continent and in each group in 3 age groups (young, middle age and old). The sequence of tests recorded in supine position was: urethral pressure profile at rest bladder empty, after bladder filling at 250 mL (reference test), stress profile, fatigability (before (rest) and after 10 successive strong coughs), then in standing position. In all groups, there was no significant difference between the two MUCP values at rest bladder filled. In the three incontinent groups, MUCP was higher bladder empty than bladder filled (p rest bladder filled has a good repeatability in individual. However a complex sequence of tests during urethral pressure profilometry remains discussed in middle-age and old age-groups, it allows specifying the stress component of incontinence in young women and the urgency component in all age-groups.

  18. Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W; O’Connor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Control of surface topography has always been of vital importance for manufacturing and many other engineering and scientific disciplines. However, despite over one hundred years of quantitative surface topography measurement, there are still many open questions. At the top of the list of questions is ‘Are we getting the right answer?’ This begs the obvious question ‘How would we know?’ There are many other questions relating to applications, the appropriateness of a technique for a given scenario, or the relationship between a particular analysis and the function of the surface. In this first ‘open questions’ article we have gathered together some experts in surface topography measurement and asked them to address timely, unresolved questions about the subject. We hope that their responses will go some way to answer these questions, address areas where further research is required, and look at the future of the subject. The first section ‘Spatial content characterization for precision surfaces’ addresses the need to characterise the spatial content of precision surfaces. Whilst we have been manufacturing optics for centuries, there still isn’t a consensus on how to specify the surface for manufacture. The most common three methods for spatial characterisation are reviewed and compared, and the need for further work on quantifying measurement uncertainties is highlighted. The article is focussed on optical surfaces, but the ideas are more pervasive. Different communities refer to ‘figure, mid-spatial frequencies, and finish’ and ‘form, waviness, and roughness’, but the mathematics are identical. The second section ‘Light scattering methods’ is focussed on light scattering techniques; an important topic with in-line metrology becoming essential in many manufacturing scenarios. The potential of scattering methods has long been recognized; in the ‘smooth surface limit’ functionally significant relationships can be derived from first

  19. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  20. Measurement of near neighbor separations of surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.I.

    Two techniques are being developed to measure the nearest neighbor distances of atoms at the surfaces of solids. Both measures extended fine structure in the excitation probability of core level electrons which are excited by an incident electron beam. This is an important problem because the structures of most surface systems are as yet unknown, even though the location of surface atoms is the basis for any quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics of surfaces and interfaces. These methods would allow any laboratory to make in situ determinations of surface structure in conjunction with most other laboratory probes of surfaces. Each of these two techniques has different advantages; further, the combination of the two will increase confidence in the results by reducing systematic error in the data analysis

  1. Surface deposition measurements of the TMI-2 gross decontamination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIssac, C.V.; Hetzer, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of the gross decontamination experiment (principally a water spray technique) performed in the TMI-2 reactor building, the Technical Information and Examination Program's Radiation and Environment personnel made surface activity measurements before and after the experiment. In conjunction with surface sampling, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and gamma spectrometry measurements were also performed to distinguish between radiation fields and contamination. The surface sampler used to collect samples from external surfaces within the reactor building is a milling tool having four major components: a 1.27-cm constant-speed drill; a drill support assembly that allows setting sample penetration depth; filter cartridges for intake air purification and sample collection; and an air pump that forces air across the surface being sampled and through the sample filter cartridge

  2. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  3. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  4. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulated BRDF based on measured surface topography of metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiyue; Haist, Tobias; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    The radiative reflective properties of a calibration standard rough surface were simulated by ray tracing and the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results have been used to compute the reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) of metal surfaces and have been compared with experimental measurements. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement.

  6. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer scintillometer. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... of soil heat flux and net irradiance, evaporation rates were calculated as a residual of the ...

  7. Calibration technique for the neutron surface moisture measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.T.; Shreve, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for calibrating the response of a surface neutron moisture measurement probe to material moisture concentration has been devised. Tests to ensure that the probe will function in the expected in-tank operating environment are also outlined

  8. Surface Resistance Measurements of LHC Dipole Beam Screen Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Ruggiero, F; Tan, J; Tsutsui, H

    2000-01-01

    An estimate of the resistive losses in the LHC dipole beam screen is given from cold surface resistance measurements using the shielded pair technique. Several beam screen samples have been evaluated, with different copper coating methods, including a sample with ribbed surface envisaged to reduce electron cloud losses thanks to its low reflectivity. Experimental data, derived by a proper analysis of the measured Q-factors and including error estimates are compared with theoretical predictions of the anomalous skin effect.

  9. On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.

  10. Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Titanium Implant Surfaces: Microgroove-Structures Improve Cellular Adhesion and Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjen, Philip; Hoffmann, Alexia; Henningsen, Anders; Barbeck, Mike; Kopp, Alexander; Kluwe, Lan; Precht, Clarissa; Quatela, Olivia; Gaudin, Robert; Heiland, Max; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Knipfer, Christian; Grubeanu, Daniel; Smeets, Ralf; Jung, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an established electrochemical treatment technique that can be used for surface modifications of metal implants. In this study we to treated titanium implants with PEO, to examine the resulting microstructure and to characterize adhesion and viability of cells on the treated surfaces. Our aim was to identify an optimal surface-modification for titanium implants in order to improve soft-tissue integration. Three surface-variants were generated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by PEO-treatment. The elemental composition and the microstructures of the surfaces were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. In vitro cytocompatibility of the surfaces was assessed by seeding L929 fibroblasts onto them and measuring the adhesion, viability and cytotoxicity of cells by means of live/dead staining, XTT assay and LDH assay. Electron microscopy and profilometry revealed that the PEO-surface variants differed largely in microstructure/topography, porosity and roughness from the untreated control material as well as from one another. Roughness was generally increased after PEO-treatment. In vitro, PEO-treatment led to improved cellular adhesion and viability of cells accompanied by decreased cytotoxicity. PEO-treatment provides a promising strategy to improve the integration of titanium implants with surrounding tissues. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Accuracy of Surface Plate Measurements - General Purpose Software for Flatness Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.; Heuvelman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Flatness departures of surface plates are generally obtained from straightness measurements of lines on the surface. A computer program has been developed for on-line measurement and evaluation, based on the simultaneous coupling of measurements in all grid points. Statistical methods are used to

  12. A noncontact laser system for measuring soil surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; White, I.; Thwaite, E.G.; Bendeli, A.

    1988-01-01

    Soil surface topography profoundly influences runoff hydrodynamics, soil erosion, and surface retention of water. Here we describe an optical noncontact system for measuring soil surface topography. Soil elevation is measured by projecting a laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the interception point. The optical axis of the detection system is oriented at a small angle to the incident beam. A low-power HeNe (Helium-Neon) laser is used as the laser source, a photodiode array is used as the laser image detector and an ordinary 35-mm single lens reflex camera provides the optical system to focus the laser image onto the diode array. A wide spectrum of measurement ranges (R) and resolutions are selectable, from 1 mm to 1 m. These are determined by the laser-camera distance and angle, the focal length of the lens, and the sensing length of the diode array and the number of elements (N) contained in the array. The resolution of the system is approximately R/2N. We show for the system used here that this resolution is approximately 0.2%. In the configuration selected, elevation changes of 0.16 mm could be detected over a surface elevation range of 87 mm. The sampling rate of the system is 1000 Hz, which permits soil surfaces to be measured at speeds of up to 1 m s −1 with measurements taken at 1-mm spacing. Measurements of individual raindrop impacts on the soil and of soil surfaces before and after rain show the versatility of the laser surface profiler, which has applications in studies of erosion processes, surface storage and soil trafficability

  13. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  14. Summations over equilaterally triangulated surfaces and the critical string measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, D.J.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the summation over dynamically triangulated Riemann surfaces which does not rely on properties of the potential in a matrix model. Instead, we formulate a purely algebraic discretization of critical string path integral. This is combined with a technique which assigns to each equilateral triangulation of a two-dimensional surface a Riemann surface defined over a certain finite extension of the field of rational numbers, i.e. an arithmetic surface. Thus we establish a new formulated in which the sum over randomly triangulated surfaces defines an invariant measure on the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces. It is shown that because of this it is far from obvious that this measure for large genera approximates the measure defined by the continuum theory, i.e. Liouville theory or critical string theory. In low genus this subtlety does not exist. In the case of critical string theory we explicitly compute the volume of the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces in terms of the modular height function and show that for low genus it approximates correctly the continuum measure. We also discuss a continuum limit which bears some resemblance with a double scaling limit in matrix models. (orig.)

  15. Measurement for Surface Tension of Aqueous Inorganic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubble columns are effective means of filtration in filtered containment venting systems. Here, the surface tension has a significant influence on bubble size distribution and bubble deformation, which have a strong impact on the behavior of the bubble column. The influence of aqueous inorganic compounds on the surface tension depends on the electrolytic activity, Debye length, entropy of ion hydration, and surface deficiencies or excess. In this work, the surface tensions of same specific aqueous solutions have been measured by different methods including platinum plate method, platinum ring method, and maximum bubble pressure method. The measured surface tensions of both sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate are less than that of water. As solution temperature ranges from 20 to 75°C, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution decreases from 71 to 55 mN/m while that of 1 mol/L solution decreases from 60 to 45 mN/m. Similarly during the same temperature range, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium thiosulfate decreases from 70 to 38 mN/m, and that of 1 mol/L sodium thiosulfate is between 68 and 36 mN/m. The analysis for the influence mechanism of aqueous inorganic on surface tension is provided. In addition, experimental results show that the surface tension of solid aerosol suspension liquid has no obvious difference from that of distilled water.

  16. RZP 202 - a modular system for surface density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, L.; Merinsky, J.

    The sensing element is an ionization chamber of the type that has maximum sensitivity to beta radiation of the used radionuclide ( 147 Pm, 85 Kr, 90 Sr- 90 Y) or to gamma radiation of radionuclide 241 Am. Collimation shields were developed for the said sources. Measurement of the ionization currents is made with an electrometer with a vibration capacitor. Invariable configuration is secured by a measuring arm. The modular units are of the CAMAC system design. The surface density meters measure deviations from the rated surface density. The scale for inputting surface density is linear. The configuration, functional continuity of the individual parts and the possibility of variant designs of surface density meters are described and the technical parameters of RZP 202 and its configuration and design are given

  17. Transient and residual stresses in a pressable glass-ceramic before and after resin-cement coating determined using profilometry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The effect of heat-pressing and subsequent pre-cementation (acid-etching) and resin-cementation operative techniques on the development of transient and residual stresses in different thicknesses of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were characterised using profilometry prior to biaxial flexure strength (BFS) determination.

  18. Advances in the Surface Renewal Flux Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, T. M.; McElrone, A.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of ecosystem-scale energy and mass fluxes between the planetary surface and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding geophysical processes. Surface renewal is a flux measurement technique based on analyzing the turbulent coherent structures that interact with the surface. It is a less expensive technique because it does not require fast-response velocity measurements, but only a fast-response scalar measurement. It is therefore also a useful tool for the study of the global cycling of trace gases. Currently, surface renewal requires calibration against another flux measurement technique, such as eddy covariance, to account for the linear bias of its measurements. We present two advances in the surface renewal theory and methodology that bring the technique closer to becoming a fully independent flux measurement method. The first advance develops the theory of turbulent coherent structure transport associated with the different scales of coherent structures. A novel method was developed for identifying the scalar change rate within structures at different scales. Our results suggest that for canopies less than one meter in height, the second smallest coherent structure scale dominates the energy and mass flux process. Using the method for resolving the scalar exchange rate of the second smallest coherent structure scale, calibration is unnecessary for surface renewal measurements over short canopies. This study forms the foundation for analysis over more complex surfaces. The second advance is a sensor frequency response correction for measuring the sensible heat flux via surface renewal. Inexpensive fine-wire thermocouples are frequently used to record high frequency temperature data in the surface renewal technique. The sensible heat flux is used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. The robust thermocouples commonly used in field experiments

  19. A new method for the assessment of the surface topography of NiTi rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F; Barbosa, I; Scelza, P; Russano, D; Neff, J; Montagnana, M; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2017-09-01

    To describe a new method for the assessment of nanoscale alterations in the surface topography of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments using a high-resolution optical method and to verify the accuracy of the technique. Noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry was used to evaluate defects on a size 25, .08 taper reciprocating instrument (WaveOne ® ), which was subjected to a cyclic fatigue test in a simulated root canal in a clear resin block. For the investigation, an original procedure was established for the analysis of similar areas located 3 mm from the tip of the instrument before and after canal preparation to enable the repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements with precision. All observations and analysis were taken in areas measuring 210 × 210 μm provided by the software of the equipment. The three-dimensional high-resolution image analysis showed clear alterations in the surface topography of the examined cutting blade and flute of the instrument, before and after use, with the presence of surface irregularities such as deformations, debris, grooves, cracks, steps and microcavities. Optical profilometry provided accurate qualitative nanoscale evaluation of similar surfaces before and after the fatigue test. The stability and repeatability of the technique enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of wear on the surface of endodontic instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

  1. Measuring and modeling surface sorption dynamics of organophosphate flame retardants on impervious surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains measured and model predicted OPFRs gas-phase and surface-phase...

  2. Surfaces Relief Profilometry of Solid Objects by Sweeping of a Laser Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Peimbert, Didia P.; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo; Mendoza-Villegas, Paloma G.; Ojeda-González, Daniel; Almazán-Cuellar, Saúl; Corral-Martínez, Luis F.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a laser system for the digitalization and three-dimensional reconstruction of solid objects. The first step consists of applying on the object a linear sweeping of a thin laser line using a laser diode with 635 nm and 5 mW, a motorized stage for linear displacement of 138 mm, and a controller with RS232 interface. The next step consists of capturing and transmitting the image of the deformed line on the object to a computer. For this step was used a monochrome camera CCD, and an image acquisition board. The last step consists of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the solid object. All the corresponding algorithms were implemented using the programming language LabVIEW.

  3. Noise evaluation of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maculotti, Giacomo; Feng, Xiaobing; Galetto, Maurizio; Leach, Richard

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument is evaluated, as the first step towards establishing a route to traceability for this type of instrument. The evaluation is based on the determination of the metrological characteristics for noise as outlined in draft ISO specification standards by using a calibrated optical flat. The static noise and repeatability of the autofocus sensor are evaluated. The influence of environmental disturbances on the measured surface topography and the built-in software to compensate for such influences are also investigated. The instrument was found to have a measurement noise of approximately 2 nm or, when expressed with the measurement bandwidth, 0.4 nm for a single-point measurement.

  4. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  5. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  6. Surface Forces Apparatus measurements of interactions between rough and reactive calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, Joanna; Javadi, Shaghayegh; Bratvold, Jon Einar; Nilsen, Ola; Røyne, Anja

    2018-05-28

    Nm-range forces acting between calcite surfaces in water affect macroscopic properties of carbonate rocks and calcite-based granular materials, and are significantly influenced by calcite surface recrystallization. We suggest that the repulsive mechanical effects related to nm-scale surface recrystallization of calcite in water could be partially responsible for the observed decrease of cohesion in calcitic rocks saturated with water. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA), we simultaneously followed the calcite reactivity and measured the forces in water in two surface configurations: between two rough calcite surfaces (CC), or between rough calcite and a smooth mica surface (CM). We used nm-scale rough, polycrystalline calcite films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). We measured only repulsive forces in CC in CaCO 3 -saturated water, which was related to roughness and possibly to repulsive hydration effects. Adhesive or repulsive forces were measured in CM in CaCO 3 -saturated water depending on calcite roughness, and the adhesion was likely enhanced by electrostatic effects. The pull-off adhesive force in CM became stronger with time and this increase was correlated with a decrease of roughness at contacts, which parameter could be estimated from the measured force-distance curves. That suggested a progressive increase of real contact areas between the surfaces, caused by gradual pressure-driven deformation of calcite surface asperities during repeated loading-unloading cycles. Reactivity of calcite was affected by mass transport across nm to µm-thick gaps between the surfaces. Major roughening was observed only for the smoothest calcite films, where gaps between two opposing surfaces were nm-thick over µm-sized areas, and led to force of crystallization that could overcome confining pressures of the order of MPa. Any substantial roughening of calcite caused a significant increase of the repulsive mechanical force contribution.

  7. Is a sequence of tests during urethral pressure profilometry correlated with symptoms assessment in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Our purpose was, applying a strictly defined protocol for urethral profilometry, 1 to test the repeatability of same session rest maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP and 2 to search for correlation between women complaint and the changes in MUCP value (rest and dynamic tests. Materials and Methods A population of 140 consecutive women referred for evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction was stratified in 4 groups according with the urinary symptoms: stress, urge, mixed incontinence and continent and in each group in 3 age groups (young, middle age and old. The sequence of tests recorded in supine position was: urethral pressure profile at rest bladder empty, after bladder filling at 250 mL (reference test, stress profile, fatigability (before (rest and after 10 successive strong coughs, then in standing position. Results In all groups, there was no significant difference between the two MUCP values at rest bladder filled. In the three incontinent groups, MUCP was higher bladder empty than bladder filled (p < 0.05 except in the young sub-group. Stress incontinence led to significant decrease of MUCP during dynamic tests in the young group. MUCP was not modified after fatigability test in women with urge complaint whatever age. Conclusion When recorded following a strictly defined protocol, MUCP at rest bladder filled has a good repeatability in individual. However a complex sequence of tests during urethral pressure profilometry remains discussed in middle-age and old age-groups, it allows specifying the stress component of incontinence in young women and the urgency component in all age-groups.

  8. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  9. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within......Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  10. Accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional surface reconstruction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Jun; Muneta, Yuki; Tanabe, Makito; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Azemoto, Syougo.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a new three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction system to measure the temporal bones. This system offers the advantage of observation of the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct and the porus acusticus internus in living subjects. However, its accuracy has not been confirmed. To investigate the accuracy of this new system, we measured the length of an in situ ceramic ossicular replacement prosthesis (CORP) of known length of 6.0 mm using 3-D surface reconstruction, conventional plain X-ray and polytomography. The CORP was scanned in the axial, sagittal and oblique directions. The mean measured length obtained with the 3-D surface reconstruction images was 5.94±0.21 on vertical scans, 5.91±0.27 on horizontal scans, and 6.01±0.25 on oblique scans. There were no significant differences among the measured lengths obtained in the three directions. Therefore, this 3-D surface reconstruction measurement system is considered to be reliable. Conversely, the mean measured length obtained by plain X-ray was 7.98±0.20, and by polytomography it was 7.94±0.23. These conventional methods have the inherent disadvantage of magnification of size which consequently requires correction. (author)

  11. Field measurement of albedo for limited extent test surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David J. [Portland State University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, P.O. Box 751-ME, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Resh, Kyle; Segura, Del [Tulane University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 400 Lindy Boggs Center, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A new method is introduced for field measurement of surface albedo. This method consists of the use of a cylindrical shade ring made of opaque fabric with a known (low) albedo placed over a test surface. The albedo measurement is accomplished using two small pyranometers situated so that the downward-facing pyranometer receives radiation only from the test surface and the shade ring. The upward-facing pyranometer simultaneously records the incoming solar radiation. The radiation received by the downward-facing pyramometer is a combination of reflected radiation from shaded and unshaded portions of these two surfaces, requiring detailed accounting of the resulting view factor geometries. The method presented here improves upon past approaches by allowing for smaller sample sizes, minimizing errors associated with reflective properties of the surroundings, and allowing for accurate measurements even under partially cloudy skies. In addition to these methodological improvements we introduce an approach for estimating the uncertainty in the resulting albedo measurements. Results from field measurements are presented to validate the measurement protocol, and to compare its accuracy with the accuracy of a published standard. (author)

  12. Intelligent sampling for the measurement of structured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Jiang, X; Blunt, L A; Scott, P J; Leach, R K

    2012-01-01

    Uniform sampling in metrology has known drawbacks such as coherent spectral aliasing and a lack of efficiency in terms of measuring time and data storage. The requirement for intelligent sampling strategies has been outlined over recent years, particularly where the measurement of structured surfaces is concerned. Most of the present research on intelligent sampling has focused on dimensional metrology using coordinate-measuring machines with little reported on the area of surface metrology. In the research reported here, potential intelligent sampling strategies for surface topography measurement of structured surfaces are investigated by using numerical simulation and experimental verification. The methods include the jittered uniform method, low-discrepancy pattern sampling and several adaptive methods which originate from computer graphics, coordinate metrology and previous research by the authors. By combining the use of advanced reconstruction methods and feature-based characterization techniques, the measurement performance of the sampling methods is studied using case studies. The advantages, stability and feasibility of these techniques for practical measurements are discussed. (paper)

  13. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  14. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  15. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  16. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, Sergio; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Fedorov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E A =1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D 0  = 0.53(×2.1±1) cm 2 s −1 that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  17. Direct measurement of Cu surface self-diffusion on a checked surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, Jacques; Peix, Roger; Perraillon, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    A radiotracer technique ( 64 Cu) was developed to measure surface diffusion on copper surfaces of total impurity concentration not exceeding some 10 -3 monolayers. The apparatus used consists of a slow electron diffraction device, an Auger analysis spectrometer (CMA), an ion gun and an evaporation device assembled in an ultra-vacuum chamber holding a residual pressure below 10 -10 Torr. A sample handler enables the surface studied to be positioned in front of each of these instruments. During the diffusion treatment the chemical composition of the surface is checked intermittently, and afterwards the spread of the deposit is measured outside the ultravacuum chamber. Slices several microns thick are removed and dissolved separately in dishes containing HNO 3 . The activity is then measured with a flow counter [fr

  18. Measurement of surface recombination velocity on heavily doped indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.; Ghalla-Goradia, M.; Faur, M.; Bailey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the published low values of surface recombination velocity (SRV) in n-InP, solidified in recent years when modeling of existing n/p InP solar cells revealed that the front surface SRV had to be higher than 1 x 10 6 cm/sec in order to justify the poor blue response that is characteristic of all n/p InP solar cells. In this paper, SRV on heavily doped (>10 18 cm -3 )n-type and p-type InP is measured as a function of surface treatment. For the limited range of substrates and surface treatments studied, SRV and surface stability depend strongly on the surface treatment. SRVs of ∼10 5 cm/sec in both p-type and n-type InP are obtainable, but in n-type the low SRV surfaces were unstable, and the only stable surfaces on n-type had SRVs of >10 6 cm/sec

  19. Fermi surface measurements in actinide metals and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.; Schirber, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The various techniques of measuring Fermi Surface parameters are briefly discussed in terms f application to actinide systems. Particular emphasis is given the dHvA effect. Some general results found in the dHvA studies of actinide compounds are given. The dHvA effect has been measured in α-U and is presented in detail. None of the observed frequencies corresponds to closed surfaces. Results are compared to the calculations of Freeman, Koelling and Watson-Yang where qualitative agreement is observed

  20. Measuring surface flow velocity with smartphones: potential for citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven V.; Chen, Zichong; Brauchli, Tristan; Huwald, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Stream flow velocity is an important variable for discharge estimation and research on sediment dynamics. Given the influence of the latter on rating curves (stage-discharge relations), and the relative scarcity of direct streamflow measurements, surface velocity measurements can offer important information for, e.g., flood warning, hydropower, and hydrological science and engineering in general. With the growing amount of sensing and computing power in the hands of more outdoorsy individuals, and the advances in image processing techniques, there is now a tremendous potential to obtain hydrologically relevant data from motivated citizens. This is the main focus of the interdisciplinary "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water. In this subproject, we investigate the feasibility of stream flow surface velocity measurements from movie clips taken by (smartphone-) cameras. First results from movie-clip derived velocity information will be shown and compared to reference measurements.

  1. Topography measurements for determining the decay factors in surface replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Rubert, P

    2008-01-01

    The electro-forming technique is used at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the production of standard reference material (SRM) 2461 standard casings to support nationwide ballistics measurement traceability and measurement quality control in the US. In order to ensure that the SRM casings are produced with virtually the same surface topography, it is necessary to test the decay factors of the replication process. Twenty-six replica casings are replicated from the same master casing for the decay factor tests. The NIST topography measurement system is used for measurements and correlations of surface topography. The topography decays are quantified by the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max . Based on the test, it is expected that 256 SRM casings can be replicated from the same master with CCF max values higher than 95%

  2. Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

  3. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  4. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Surface Measurement of Liver Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan H; Reistad, Nina; Brange, Hannes; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Sturesson, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Liver parenchymal injuries such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can lead to increased morbidity and liver failure after liver resection. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical measuring method that is fast, convenient, and established. DRS has previously been used on the liver with an invasive technique consisting of a needle that is inserted into the parenchyma. We developed a DRS system with a hand-held probe that is applied to the liver surface. In this study, we investigated the impact of the liver capsule on DRS measurements and whether liver surface measurements are representative of the whole liver. We also wanted to confirm that we could discriminate between tumor and liver parenchyma by DRS. The instrumentation setup consisted of a light source, a fiber-optic contact probe, and two spectrometers connected to a computer. Patients scheduled for liver resection due to hepatic malignancy were included, and DRS measurements were performed on the excised liver part with and without the liver capsule and alongside a newly cut surface. To estimate the scattering parameters and tissue chromophore volume fractions, including blood, bile, and fat, the measured diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to an analytical model. In total, 960 DRS spectra from the excised liver tissue of 18 patients were analyzed. All factors analyzed regarding tumor versus liver tissue were significantly different. When measuring through the capsule, the blood volume fraction was found to be 8.4 ± 3.5%, the lipid volume fraction was 9.9 ± 4.7%, and the bile volume fraction was 8.2 ± 4.6%. No differences could be found between surface measurements and cross-sectional measurements. In measurements with/without the liver capsule, the differences in volume fraction were 1.63% (0.75-2.77), -0.54% (-2.97 to 0.32), and -0.15% (-1.06 to 1.24) for blood, lipid, and bile, respectively. This study shows that it is possible to manage DRS

  5. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms, there is a n......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions....

  6. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  7. Freeform surface measurement and characterisation using a toolmakers microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Francis Seung-yin; Chauh, Kong-Bieng; Venuvinod, Patri K

    2014-01-01

    Current freeform surface (FFS) characterization systems mainly cover aspects related to computer-aided design/manufacture (CAD/CAM). This paper describes a new approach that extends into computer-aided inspection (CAI).The following novel features are addressed: - ◼ Feature recognition and extraction from surface data; - ◼ Characterisation of properties of the surface's M and N vectors at individual vertex; - ◼ Development of a measuring plan using a toolmakers microscope for the inspection of the FFS; - ◼ Inspection of the actual FFS produced by CNC milling; - ◼ Verification of the measurement results and comparison with the CAD design data; Tests have shown that the deviations between the CAI and CAD data were within the estimated uncertainty limits

  8. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  9. Surface moisture measurement system acceptance testing work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses testing of the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The purpose of this plan is to define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, describe test control requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule associated with acceptance testing

  10. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  11. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  12. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  13. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  14. Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Saletti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  15. Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  16. Field Measurement of Surface Ship Magnetic Signature Using Multiple AUVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    been equipped with a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer and used to perform preliminary magnetic field measurements. Measurements of this type will be...mounted on the AUVs, shown in Fig. 1, was a three-axis fluxgate type [16] magnetometer with a range of ±100,000 nT and a sensitivity of 100μV/nT. The...surface ship. The system will employ a formation of multiple AUVs, each equipped with a magnetometer . The objective is to measure total magnetic

  17. Measurement of annual dose on porcelain using surface TLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of measurement of annual dose using ultrathin (CaSO 4 :Tm) dosage layer on porcelain was studied. The TLD was placed on the part of porcelain without glaze. A comparison of measurement of annual dose for surface TLD, inside TLD and alpha counting on porcelain was made. The results show that this technique is suitable for measuring annual dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  18. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Lev; Unlü, M Selim; Swan, Anna K; Goldberg, Bennett B; Cantor, Charles R

    2006-02-21

    The conformation of DNA molecules tethered to the surface of a microarray may significantly affect the efficiency of hybridization. Although a number of methods have been applied to determine the structure of the DNA layer, they are not very sensitive to variations in the shape of DNA molecules. Here we describe the application of an interferometric technique called spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy to the precise measurement of the average location of a fluorescent label in a DNA layer relative to the surface and thus determine specific information on the conformation of the surface-bound DNA molecules. Using spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy, we have estimated the shape of coiled single-stranded DNA, the average tilt of double-stranded DNA of different lengths, and the amount of hybridization. The data provide important proofs of concept for the capabilities of novel optical surface analytical methods of the molecular disposition of DNA on surfaces. The determination of DNA conformations on surfaces and hybridization behavior provide information required to move DNA interfacial applications forward and thus impact emerging clinical and biotechnological fields.

  20. A new surface resistance measurement method with ultrahigh sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Changnian.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting niobium triaxial cavity has been designed and fabricated to study residual surface resistance of planar superconducting materials. The edge of a 25.4 mm or larger diameter sample in the triaxial cavity is located outside the strong field region. Therefore, the edge effects and possible losses between the thin film and the substrate have been minimized, ensuring that induced RF losses are intrinsic to the test material. The fundamental resonant frequency of the cavity is the same as the working frequency of CEBAF cavities. The cavity has a compact size compared to its TE 011 counterpart, which makes it more sensitive to the sample's loss. For even higher sensitivity, a calorimetry method has been used to measure the RF losses on the superconducting sample. At 2 K, a 2 μK temperature change can be resolved by using carbon resistor sensors. The temperature distribution caused by RF heating is measured by 16 carbon composition resistor sensors. A 0.05 μW heating power can be detected as such a resolution, which translates to a surface resistance of 0.02 nΩ at a surface magnetic field of 52 Oe. This is the most sensitive device for surface resistance measurements to date. In addition, losses due to the indium seal, coupling probes, field emission sites other than the sample, and all of the high field resonator surface, are excluded in the measurement. Surface resistance of both niobium and high-Tc superconducting thin films has been measured. A low R s of 35.2 μΩ was measured for a 25.4 mm diameter YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film at 1.5 GHz and at 2 K. The measurement result is the first result for a large area epitaxially grown thin film sample at such a low RF frequency. The abrupt disappearance of multipacting between two parallel plates has been observed and monitored with the 16 temperature mapping sensors. Field emission or some field dependent anomalous RF losses on the niobium plate have also been observed

  1. Measurements of the near-surface flow over a hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosper, S. B.; Mobbs, S. D.; Gardiner, B. A.

    2002-10-01

    The near-surface flow over a hill with moderate slope and height comparable with the boundary-layer depth is investigated through field measurements of the mean flow (at 2 m), surface pressure, and turbulent momentum flux divergence between 8 and 15 m. The measurements were made along an east-west transect across the hill Tighvein (height 458 m, approximate width 8 km) on the Isle of Arran, south-west Scotland, during two separate periods, each of around three-weeks duration. Radiosonde ascents are used to determine the variation of a Froude number, FL = U/NL, where U is the wind speed at the middle-layer height, hm, N is the mean Brunt-Väisälä frequency below this height and L is a hill length-scale. Measurements show that for moderately stratified flows (for which FL 0.25) a minimum in the hill-induced surface-pressure perturbation occurs across the summit and this is accompanied by a maximum in the near-surface wind speed. In the more strongly stratified case (FL 0.25) the pressure field is more asymmetric and the lee-slope flow is generally stronger than on the windward slope. Such a flow pattern is qualitatively consistent with that predicted by stratified linear boundary-layer and gravity-wave theories. The near-surface momentum budget is analysed by evaluating the dominant terms in a Bernoulli equation suitable for turbulent flow. Measurements during periods of westerly flow are used to evaluate the dominant terms, and the equation is shown to hold to a reasonable approximation on the upwind slope of the hill and also on the downwind slope, away from the summit. Immediately downwind of the summit, however, the Bernoulli equation does not hold. Possible reasons for this, such as non-separated sheltering and flow separation, are discussed.

  2. The evaluation of hierarchical structured superhydrophobic coatings for the alleviation of insect residue to aircraft laminar flow surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Mariana [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Young, Trevor M., E-mail: Trevor.Young@ul.ie [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2014-09-30

    Surface contamination caused by insects on laminar flow wing surfaces causes a disruption of the flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel consumption. Consequently, the use of superhydrophobic coatings to mitigate insect residue adhesion was investigated. A range of hierarchical superhydrophobic coatings with different surface chemistry and topography was examined. Candidate coatings were characterized in terms of their morphology and hydrophobic properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, respectively. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (R{sub a}) values were measured using profilometry. Only superhydrophobic coatings with a specific topography showed complete mitigation against insect residue adhesion. A surface which exhibited a specific microstructure (R{sub a} = 5.26 μm) combined with a low sliding angle (SA = 7.6°) showed the best anti-contamination properties. The dynamics of an insect impact event and its influence on the wetting and adhesion mechanisms of insect residue to a surface were discussed.

  3. Simultaneous measurements of top surface and its underlying film surfaces in multilayer film structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Young-Sik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Davies, Angela

    2017-09-19

    With the growth of 3D packaging technology and the development of flexible, transparent electrodes, the use of multilayer thin-films is steadily increasing throughout high-tech industries including semiconductor, flat panel display, and solar photovoltaic industries. Also, this in turn leads to an increase in industrial demands for inspection of internal analysis. However, there still remain many technical limitations to overcome for measurement of the internal structure of the specimen without damage. In this paper, we propose an innovative optical inspection technique for simultaneous measurements of the surface and film thickness corresponding to each layer of multilayer film structures by computing the phase and reflectance over a wide range of wavelengths. For verification of our proposed method, the sample specimen of multilayer films was fabricated via photolithography process, and the surface profile and film thickness of each layer were measured by two different techniques of a stylus profilometer and an ellipsometer, respectively. Comparison results shows that our proposed technique enables simultaneous measurements of the top surface and its underlying film surfaces with high precision, which could not be measured by conventional non-destructive methods.

  4. Airborne spectral measurements of surface anisotropy during SCAR-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; King, Michael D.; Arnold, G. Thomas; Li, Jason Y.

    1998-12-01

    During the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) deployment, angular distributions of spectral reflectance for vegetated surfaces and smoke layers were measured using the scanning cloud absorption radiometer (CAR) mounted on the University of Washington C-131A research aircraft. The CAR contains 13 narrowband spectral channels between 0.3 and 2.3 μm with a 190° scan aperture (5° before zenith to 5° past nadir) and 1° instantaneous field of view. The bidirectional reflectance is obtained by flying a clockwise circular orbit above the surface, resulting in a ground track ˜3 km in diameter within about 2 min. Although the CAR measurements are contaminated by minor atmospheric effects, results show distinct spectral characteristics for various types of surfaces. Spectral bidirectional reflectances of three simple and well-defined surfaces are presented: cerrado (August 18, 1995) and dense forest (August 25, 1995), both measured in Brazil under nearly clear-sky conditions, and thick smoke layers over dense forest (September 6 and 11, 1995). The bidirectional reflectances of cerrado and dense forest revealed fairly symmetric patterns along the principal plane, with varying maximal strengths and widths spectrally in the backscattering direction. In the shortwave-infrared region the aerosol effect is very small due to low spectral optical depth. Also, these backscattering maxima can be seen on the bidirectional reflectance of smoke layer over dense forest. These detailed measurements of the angular distribution of spectral reflectance can be parameterized by a few independent variables and utilized to retrieve either surface characteristics or aerosol microphysical and optical properties (e.g., size distribution and single-scattering parameters), if proper physical and radiation models are used. The spectral-hemispherical albedo of these surfaces is obtained directly by integrating all angular measurements and is compared with the measured nadir reflectance

  5. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  6. Magnetic flux surface measurements at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Matthias; Andreeva, Tamara; Biedermann, Christoph; Bozhenkov, Sergey; Geiger, Joachim; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Lazerson, Samuel [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Recently the first plasma operation phase of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator has been started at IPP Greifswald. Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator with a complex superconducting magnet system consisting of 50 non-planar and 20 planar field coils and further 10 normal conducting control and 5 trim coils. The magnetic confinement and hence the expected plasma performance are decisively determined by the properties of the magnet system, especially by the existence and quality of the magnetic flux surfaces. Even small error fields may result in significant changes of the flux surface topology. Therefore, measurements of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces have been performed before plasma operation. The first experimental results confirm the existence and quality of the flux surfaces to the full extend from low field up to the nominal field strength of B=2.5T. This includes the dedicated magnetic limiter configuration that is exclusively used for the first plasma operation. Furthermore, the measurements are indicating that the intrinsic error fields are within the tolerable range and can be controlled utilizing the trim coils as expected.

  7. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  8. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  9. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  10. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  11. Quantitative nanoscale surface voltage measurement on organic semiconductor blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenat, Alexandre; Muñiz-Piniella, Andrés; Muñoz-Rojo, Miguel; Murphy, Craig E; Tsoi, Wing C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the validation of a method based on Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) able to measure the different phases and the relative work function of polymer blend heterojunctions at the nanoscale. The method does not necessitate complex ultra-high vacuum setup. The quantitative information that can be extracted from the topography and the Kelvin probe measurements is critically analysed. Surface voltage difference can be observed at the nanoscale on poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends and dependence on the annealing condition and the regio-regularity of P3HT is observed. (paper)

  12. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test procedure is to verify that the mechanical and electrical features of the Surface Moisture Measurement System are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. This procedure will be used in conjunction with a software acceptance test procedure, which addresses testing of software and electrical features not addressed in this document. Hardware testing will be performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  13. Reliability of surface EMG measurements from the suprahyoid muscle complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2017-01-01

    of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...... reliable for ≈50% of participants. Although using sEMG to assess swallowing musculature function is easier to perform clinically and more comfortable to patients than invasive measures, as the measurement of muscle activity using TMS is unreliable, the use of sEMG for this muscle group is not recommended...

  14. Photometric imaging in particle size measurement and surface visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight into photometric particle sizing approaches, which differ from the typical particle size measurement of dispersed particles. These approaches can often be advantageous especially for samples that are moist or cohesive, when dispersion of particles is difficult or sometimes impossible. The main focus of this paper is in the use of photometric stereo imaging. The technique allows the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of objects using multiple light sources in illumination. The use of photometric techniques is demonstrated in at-line measurement of granules and on-line measurement during granulation and dry milling. Also, surface visualization and roughness measurements are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Xenon migration in UO{sub 2} under irradiation studied by SIMS profilometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, B. [Université de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, F-69456 Lyon (France); Moncoffre, N. [Université de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Pipon, Y., E-mail: pipon@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Université de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IUT Lyon 1, 43 bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69 622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Bérerd, N. [Université de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IUT Lyon 1, 43 bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69 622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Garnier, C. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, F-69456 Lyon (France); Raimbault, L. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre de Géosciences, 35 rue Saint Honoré, F-77305 Fontainebleau cedex (France); Sainsot, P. [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, LaMCoS, INSA-Lyon, CNRS UMR5259, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); and others

    2013-09-15

    During Pressurized Water Reactor operation, around 25% of the created Fission Products (FP) are Xenon and Krypton. They have a low solubility in the nuclear fuel and can either (i) agglomerate into bubbles which induce mechanical stress in the fuel pellets or (ii) be released from the pellets, increasing the pressure within the cladding and decreasing the thermal conductivity of the gap between pellets and cladding. After fifty years of studies on the nuclear fuel, all mechanisms of Fission Gas Release (FGR) are still not fully understood. This paper aims at studying the FGR mechanisms by decoupling thermal and irradiation effects and by assessing the Xenon behavior for the first time by profilometry. Samples are first implanted with {sup 136}Xe at 800 keV corresponding to a projected range of 140 nm. They are then either annealed in the temperature range 1400–1600 °C, or irradiated with heavy energy ions (182 MeV Iodine) at Room Temperature (RT), 600 °C or 1000 °C. Depth profiles of implanted Xenon in UO{sub 2} are determined by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). It is shown that Xenon is mobile during irradiation at 1000 °C. In contrast, thermal treatments do not induce any Xenon migration process: these results are correlated to the formation of Xenon bubbles observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  16. Marker encoded fringe projection profilometry for efficient 3D model acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, B; Lun, P K D; Hsung, Tai-Chiu

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a novel marker encoded fringe projection profilometry (FPP) scheme for efficient 3-dimensional (3D) model acquisition. Traditional FPP schemes can introduce large errors to the reconstructed 3D model when the target object has an abruptly changing height profile. For the proposed scheme, markers are encoded in the projected fringe pattern to resolve the ambiguities in the fringe images due to that problem. Using the analytic complex wavelet transform, the marker cue information can be extracted from the fringe image, and is used to restore the order of the fringes. A series of simulations and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed scheme. They show that the proposed method can greatly improve the accuracy over the traditional FPP schemes when reconstructing the 3D model of objects with abruptly changing height profile. Since the scheme works directly in our recently proposed complex wavelet FPP framework, it enjoys the same properties that it can be used in real time applications for color objects.

  17. Inpainting for Fringe Projection Profilometry Based on Geometrically Guided Iterative Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Lun, Daniel P K

    2015-12-01

    Conventional fringe projection profilometry methods often have difficulty in reconstructing the 3D model of objects when the fringe images have the so-called highlight regions due to strong illumination from nearby light sources. Within a highlight region, the fringe pattern is often overwhelmed by the strong reflected light. Thus, the 3D information of the object, which is originally embedded in the fringe pattern, can no longer be retrieved. In this paper, a novel inpainting algorithm is proposed to restore the fringe images in the presence of highlights. The proposed method first detects the highlight regions based on a Gaussian mixture model. Then, a geometric sketch of the missing fringes is made and used as the initial guess of an iterative regularization procedure for regenerating the missing fringes. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately reconstruct the 3D model of objects even when their fringe images have large highlight regions. It significantly outperforms the traditional approaches in both quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  18. Laser and chemical surface modifications of titanium grade 2 for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwaśniak, P. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Pura, J., E-mail: jaroslawpura@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Zwolińska, M.; Wieciński, P. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Skarżyński, H.; Olszewski, L. [Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw (Poland); World Hearing Center, Kajetany (Poland); Marczak, J. [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Warsaw (Poland); Garbacz, H.; Kurzydłowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • DLIL technique and etching were used for functionalization of Ti grade 2 surface. • Modification was performed on semi-finished flat and curved Ti surfaces. • Modification results in periodic multimodal (micro and nano-size) Ti topography. - Abstract: The article presents combined, chemical and physical approach to titanium surface functionalization designed for biomedical applications. The topography modification has been obtained by employing the double laser beam interference technique and chemical etching. In the outcome, clean and smooth Ti surface as well as periodic striated topography with the roughness range from nano- to micrometers were created. The obtained structures were characterized in terms of shape, roughness, chemical composition, mechanical properties and microstructures. In order to achieve all information, numerous of research methods have been used: scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical profilometry and microhardness measurements. Demonstrated methodology can be used as an effective tool for manufacturing controlled surface structures improving the bone–implants interactions.

  19. Surface-specific additive manufacturing test artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrew; Racasan, Radu; Blunt, Liam

    2018-06-01

    Many test artefact designs have been proposed for use with additive manufacturing (AM) systems. These test artefacts have primarily been designed for the evaluation of AM form and dimensional performance. A series of surface-specific measurement test artefacts designed for use in the verification of AM manufacturing processes are proposed here. Surface-specific test artefacts can be made more compact because they do not require the large dimensions needed for accurate dimensional and form measurements. The series of three test artefacts are designed to provide comprehensive information pertaining to the manufactured surface. Measurement possibilities include deviation analysis, surface texture parameter data generation, sub-surface analysis, layer step analysis and build resolution comparison. The test artefacts are designed to provide easy access for measurement using conventional surface measurement techniques, for example, focus variation microscopy, stylus profilometry, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the test artefacts may be simply visually inspected as a comparative tool, giving a fast indication of process variation between builds. The three test artefacts are small enough to be included in every build and include built-in manufacturing traceability information, making them a convenient physical record of the build.

  20. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cuenca, R.H. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program`s SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  1. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program's SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  2. Radiotherapy high energy surface dose measurements: effects of chamber polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effects of chamber polarity have been investigated for the measurement of 6MV and 18MV x-ray surface dose using a parallel plate ionization chamber. Results have shown that a significant difference in measured ionization is recorded between to polarities at 6MV and 18MV at the phantom surface. A polarity ratio ranging from 1 062 to 1 005 is seen for 6MV x-rays at the phantom surface for field sizes 5cm x 5cm to 40cm x 40cm when comparing positive to negative polarity. These ratios range from 1.024 to 1.004 for 18MV x-rays with the same field sizes. When these charge reading are compared to the D max readings of the same polarity it is found that these polarity effects are minimal for the calculation of percentage dose results with variations being less than 1% of maximum. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  3. Surface Current Measurements In Terra Nova Bay By Hf Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocco, D.; Falco, P.; Wadhams, P.; Spezie, G.

    We present the preliminary results of a field experiment carried out within frame- work of the CLIMA project of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA) and in cooperation with the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge. Dur- ing the second period (02/12/1999-23/01/2000) of the XV Italian expedition a coastal radar was used to characterize the current field in the area of Terra Nova Bay (TNB). One of the aims of the CLIMA (Climatic Long-term Interactions for the Mass balance in Antarctica) project is to determine the role of the polynya in the sea ice mass bal- ance, water structure and local climate. The OSCR-II experiment was planned in order to provide surface current measurements in the area of TNB polynya, one of the most important coastal polynya of the Ross Sea. OSCR (Ocean Surface Current Radar) is a shore based, remote sensing system designed to measure sea surface currents in coastal waters. Two radar sites (a master and a slave) provide with radial current mea- surements; data combined from both sites yield the total current vector. Unfortunately the master and slave stations did not work together throughout the whole period of the experiment. A description of the experiment and a discussion of the results, will be proposed.

  4. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4 fluxes for the period June 2009–December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510–516 Tg yr−1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr−1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr−1 occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45% than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2 and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our

  5. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  6. In Situ Fringe Projection Profilometry for Laser Power Bed Fusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers an industrial solution to produce parts with complex geometries and internal structures that conventional manufacturing techniques cannot produce. However, current metal additive process, particularly the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process, suffers from poor surface finish and various material defects which hinder its wide applications. One way to solve this problem is by adding in situ metrology sensor onto the machine chamber. Matured manufacturing processes are tightly monitored and controlled, and instrumentation advances are needed to realize this same advantage for metal additive process. This encourages us to develop an in situ fringe projection system for the LPBF process. The development of such a system and the measurement capability are demonstrated in this dissertation. We show that this system can measure various powder bed signatures including powder layer variations, the average height drop between fused metal and unfused powder, and the height variations on the fused surfaces. The ability to measure textured surface is also evaluated through the instrument transfer function (ITF). We analyze the mathematical model of the proposed fringe projection system, and prove the linearity of the system through simulations. A practical ITF measurement technique using a stepped surface is also demonstrated. The measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions generated through the ITF simulations.

  7. New Technology-Large-Area Three- Dimensional Surface Profiling Using Only Focused Air-Coupled Ultrasound-Given 1999 R&D 100 Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Kautz, Harold E.; Abel, Phillip B.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Surface topography, which significantly affects the performance of many industrial components, is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over small areas or with optical scattering methods over larger areas. To develop air-coupled surface profilometry, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated a Space Act Agreement with Sonix, Inc., through two Glenn programs, the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Program (HITEMP) and COMMTECH. The work resulted in quantitative surface topography profiles obtained using only high-frequency, focused ultrasonic pulses in air. The method is nondestructive, noninvasive, and noncontact, and it does not require light-reflective surfaces. Air surface profiling may be desirable when diamond-tip or laserbased methods are impractical, such as over large areas, when a significant depth range is required, or for curved surfaces. When the configuration is optimized, the method is reasonably rapid and all the quantitative analysis facilities are online, including two- and three-dimensional visualization, extreme value filtering (for faulty data), and leveling.

  8. Diversity of dermal denticle structure in sharks: Skin surface roughness and three-dimensional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankhelyi, Madeleine V; Wainwright, Dylan K; Lauder, George V

    2018-05-29

    Shark skin is covered with numerous placoid scales or dermal denticles. While previous research has used scanning electron microscopy and histology to demonstrate that denticles vary both around the body of a shark and among species, no previous study has quantified three-dimensional (3D) denticle structure and surface roughness to provide a quantitative analysis of skin surface texture. We quantified differences in denticle shape and size on the skin of three individual smooth dogfish sharks (Mustelus canis) using micro-CT scanning, gel-based surface profilometry, and histology. On each smooth dogfish, we imaged between 8 and 20 distinct areas on the body and fins, and obtained further comparative skin surface data from leopard, Atlantic sharpnose, shortfin mako, spiny dogfish, gulper, angel, and white sharks. We generated 3D images of individual denticles and measured denticle volume, surface area, and crown angle from the micro-CT scans. Surface profilometry was used to quantify metrology variables such as roughness, skew, kurtosis, and the height and spacing of surface features. These measurements confirmed that denticles on different body areas of smooth dogfish varied widely in size, shape, and spacing. Denticles near the snout are smooth, paver-like, and large relative to denticles on the body. Body denticles on smooth dogfish generally have between one and three distinct ridges, a diamond-like surface shape, and a dorsoventral gradient in spacing and roughness. Ridges were spaced on average 56 µm apart, and had a mean height of 6.5 µm, comparable to denticles from shortfin mako sharks, and with narrower spacing and lower heights than other species measured. We observed considerable variation in denticle structure among regions on the pectoral, dorsal, and caudal fins, including a leading-to-trailing edge gradient in roughness for each region. Surface roughness in smooth dogfish varied around the body from 3 to 42 microns. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Measurements of flux surfaces in the ATF torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.; Colchin, R.J.; Harris, J.H.; Hillis, D.L.; Jernigan, T.C.; Anderson, F.S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Flux surfaces in the advanced toroidal facility (ATF) torsatron have been measured using electron-beam techniques. The beam was injected toroidally and impinged on a phosphor-coated screen located ∼ 180 degrees from the gun. The gun was mounted on a drive mechanism that enabled the beam to scan the entire cross section of the last closed flux surface in ATF. The screen material was st. steel, coated with ZnO:Zn (P-15 or P-24) phosphor, and the transparency was ∼ 90%. The emitted light was detected with an image-intensified CCD camera that viewed the mesh through a nearby port. The images were displayed directly on a TV monitor and stored on video tape. Frames from the video tape were transferred to a computer, where the image was enhanced and transformed to remove spatial distortions due to the lens and the viewing angle of the camera

  10. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  11. BOREAS RSS-20 POLDER C-130 Measurements of Surface BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Marc; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickerson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-20 data set contains measurements of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) made by the polarization and Directionality of Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument over several surface types (pine, spruce, fen) of the BOREAS southern study area (SSA) during the 1994 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). Single-point BRDF values were acquired either from the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) C-130 aircraft or from a NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) helicopter. A related data set collected from the helicopter platform is available as is POLDER imagery acquired from the C-130. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. Electrical properties of Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR scatterometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, Lauren C.; Zebker, Howard A.; Ostro, Steven J.; West, Richard D.; Gim, Yonggyu; Lorenz, Ralph D.; The Cassini Radar Team

    2007-06-01

    albedo feature Shangri-La is best fit by a Hagfors model with a dielectric constant close to 2.4 and an rms slope near 9.5°. From the modeled backscatter curves, we find the average radar albedo in the same linear (SL) polarization to be near 0.34. We constrain the total-power albedo in order to compare the measurements with available groundbased radar results, which are typically obtained in both senses of circular polarization. We estimate an upper limit of 0.4 on the total-power albedo, a value that is significantly higher than the 0.21 total albedo value measured at 13 cm [Campbell, D., Black, G., Carter, L., Ostro, S., 2003. Science 302, 431-434]. This is consistent with a surface that has more small-scale structure and is thus more reflective at 2-cm than 13-cm. We compare results across overlapping observations and observe that the reduction and analysis are repeatable and consistent. We also confirm the strong correlations between radar and near-infrared images.

  13. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward......, the limits of the range in reaction rate, which can be Studied are estimated. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...... limit for the lateral resolution of the measurement, and that a flow rate of the order of 240 (ml/min)(n) is sufficient to achieve this resolution. The sensitivity is reasonable also with high flow rates, due to the presence of a pocket of stagnant gas under the tip of the capillary. Furthermore...

  14. Shape measurement and vibration analysis of moving speaker cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qican; Liu, Yuankun; Lehtonen, Petri

    2014-06-01

    Surface three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is needed for many fast processes such as structural testing of material, standing waves on loudspeaker cone, etc. Usually measurement is done from limited number of points using electrical sensors or laser distance meters. Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP) enables fast shape measurement of the whole surface. Method is based on angled sinusoidal fringe pattern projection and image capturing. FTP requires only one image of the deformed fringe pattern to restore the 3-D shape of the measured object, which makes real-time or dynamic data processing possible. In our experiment the method was used for loudspeaker cone distortion measurement in dynamic conditions. For sound quality issues it is important that the whole cone moves in same phase and there are no partial waves. Our imaging resolution was 1280x1024 pixels and frame rate was 200 fps. Using our setup we found unwanted spatial waves in our sample cone.

  15. Surface Fitting for Quasi Scattered Data from Coordinate Measuring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing; Liu, Shugui; Wang, Sen; Ma, Xinhui

    2018-01-13

    Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface fitting from data points is wildly used in the fields of computer aided design (CAD), medical imaging, cultural relic representation and object-shape detection. Usually, the measured data acquired from coordinate measuring systems is neither gridded nor completely scattered. The distribution of this kind of data is scattered in physical space, but the data points are stored in a way consistent with the order of measurement, so it is named quasi scattered data in this paper. Therefore they can be organized into rows easily but the number of points in each row is random. In order to overcome the difficulty of surface fitting from this kind of data, a new method based on resampling is proposed. It consists of three major steps: (1) NURBS curve fitting for each row, (2) resampling on the fitted curve and (3) surface fitting from the resampled data. Iterative projection optimization scheme is applied in the first and third step to yield advisable parameterization and reduce the time cost of projection. A resampling approach based on parameters, local peaks and contour curvature is proposed to overcome the problems of nodes redundancy and high time consumption in the fitting of this kind of scattered data. Numerical experiments are conducted with both simulation and practical data, and the results show that the proposed method is fast, effective and robust. What's more, by analyzing the fitting results acquired form data with different degrees of scatterness it can be demonstrated that the error introduced by resampling is negligible and therefore it is feasible.

  16. The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.

  17. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR RAPID NEAR SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Stoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer. Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides is demonstrated in two case studies.

  18. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-04-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  19. "Rapid Revisit" Measurements of Sea Surface Winds Using CYGNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a space-borne GNSS-R (GNSS-Reflectometry) mission that launched December 15, 2016 for ocean surface wind speed measurements. CYGNSS includes 8 small satellites in the same LEO orbit, so that the mission provides wind speed products having unprecedented coverage both in time and space to study multi-temporal behaviors of oceanic winds. The nature of CYGNSS coverage results in some locations on Earth experiencing multiple wind speed measurements within a short period of time (a "clump" of observations in time resulting in a "rapid revisit" series of measurements). Such observations could seemingly provide indications of regions experiencing rapid changes in wind speeds, and therefore be of scientific utility. Temporally "clumped" properties of CYGNSS measurements are investigated using early CYGNSS L1/L2 measurements, and the results show that clump durations and spacing vary with latitude. For example, the duration of a clump can extend as long as a few hours at higher latitudes, with gaps between clumps ranging from 6 to as high as 12 hours depending on latitude. Examples are provided to indicate the potential of changes within a clump to produce a "rapid revisit" product for detecting convective activity. Also, we investigate detector design for identifying convective activities. Results from analyses using recent CYGNSS L2 winds will be provided in the presentation.

  20. Contact angle measurements at the colemanite and realgar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Sabiha; Savas, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    Colemanite is one of the most important boron minerals and covers an important part of Turkey's boron mineral deposits. The friable nature of the colemanite tends to produce a large amount of fines. Flotation appears to be a promising technique to recover colemanite from such fines. During flotation process, selectivity problem arises between colemanite and associated gangue minerals such as realgar. There is a close relationship between floatability of minerals and contact angle. Therefore, surface hydrophobicity of colemanite and realgar minerals were investigated by receding contact angle measurements in the absence and presence of flotation reagents. The water contact angle values at the colemanite surface remained almost unchanged at 32-35° in the solutions of potassium amyl xanthate (KAX), potassium ethyl xanthate (KEX) and petroleum sulphanate (R825) while another petroleum sulphanate (R840), sodium oleate and tallow amine (Armac-T) affected hydrophobicity of colemanite, and the contact angle values increased up to 47°. The contact angle values of 62, 63, 45, 46, 39, and 43° at the realgar surface were obtained in the solutions of KAX, KEX, sodium oleate, R825, R840 and Armac-T, respectively.

  1. Designing Pulse Laser Surface Modification of H13 Steel Using Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design of experiment (DOE) for laser surface modification process of AISI H13 tool steel in achieving the maximum hardness and minimum surface roughness at a range of modified layer depth. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, overlap percentage and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The response surface method with Box-Behnken design approach in Design Expert 7 software was used to design the H13 laser surface modification process. Metallographic study and image analysis were done to measure the modified layer depth. The modified surface roughness was measured using two-dimensional surface profilometer. The correlation of the three laser processing parameters and the modified surface properties was specified by plotting three-dimensional graph. The hardness properties were tested at 981 mN force. From metallographic study, the laser modified surface depth was between 37 μm and 150 μm. The average surface roughness recorded from the 2D profilometry was at a minimum value of 1.8 μm. The maximum hardness achieved was between 728 and 905 HV0.1. These findings are significant to modern development of hard coatings for wear resistant applications.

  2. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Tanabe, T.; Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles

  3. Enamel Surface Roughness after Debonding of Orthodontic Brackets and Various Clean-Up Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate enamel roughness after adhesive removal using different burs and an Er:YAG laser.Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of forty human premolars were sealed by two layers of nail varnish, except for a circular area of 3 mm in diameter on the middle third. The enamel surfaces were initially subjected to profilometry analysis and four parameters of surface irregularity (Ra, Rq, Rt and Rz were recorded. Following bracket bonding and debonding, adhesive remnants were removed by tungsten carbide burs in low- or high- speed handpieces (group 1 and 2, respectively, an ultrafine diamond bur (group 3 or an Er:YAG laser (250 mJ, long pulse, 4 Hz (group 4, and surface roughness parameters were measured again. Then, the buccal surfaces were polished and the third profilometry measurements were performed.Results: The specimens that were cleaned with a low speed tungsten carbide bur showed no significant difference in surface irregularity between the different treatment stages (p>0.05. Surface roughness increased significantly after clean-up with the diamond bur and the Er:YAG laser (p<0.01. In comparison between groups, adhesive removal with tungsten carbide burs at slow- or high-speed handpieces produced the lowest, while enamel clean-up with the Er:YAG laser caused the highest values of roughness measurements (P<0.05.Conclusion: Under the study conditions, application of the ultrafine diamond bur or the Er:YAG laser caused irreversible enamel damage on tooth surface, and thus these methods could not be recommended for removing adhesive remnants after debonding of orthodontic brackets.

  4. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  5. Autonomous target recognition using remotely sensed surface vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, James; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.; Barr, Dallas N.

    1993-09-01

    The remotely measured surface vibration signatures of tactical military ground vehicles are investigated for use in target classification and identification friend or foe (IFF) systems. The use of remote surface vibration sensing by a laser radar reduces the effects of partial occlusion, concealment, and camouflage experienced by automatic target recognition systems using traditional imagery in a tactical battlefield environment. Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) efficiently represents the vibration signatures and nearest neighbor classifiers exploit the LPC feature set using a variety of distortion metrics. Nearest neighbor classifiers achieve an 88 percent classification rate in an eight class problem, representing a classification performance increase of thirty percent from previous efforts. A novel confidence figure of merit is implemented to attain a 100 percent classification rate with less than 60 percent rejection. The high classification rates are achieved on a target set which would pose significant problems to traditional image-based recognition systems. The targets are presented to the sensor in a variety of aspects and engine speeds at a range of 1 kilometer. The classification rates achieved demonstrate the benefits of using remote vibration measurement in a ground IFF system. The signature modeling and classification system can also be used to identify rotary and fixed-wing targets.

  6. Surface contact potential patches and Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. J.; Sushkov, A. O.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Dalvit, D. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present calculations of contact potential surface patch effects that simplify previous treatments. It is shown that, because of the linearity of Laplace's equation, the presence of patch potentials does not affect an electrostatic calibration of a two-plate Casimir measurement apparatus. Using models that include long-range variations in the contact potential across the plate surfaces, a number of experimental observations can be reproduced and explained. For these models, numerical calculations show that if a voltage is applied between the plates which minimizes the force, a residual electrostatic force persists, and that the minimizing potential varies with distance. The residual force can be described by a fit to a simple two-parameter function involving the minimizing potential and its variation with distance. We show the origin of this residual force by use of a simple parallel capacitor model. Finally, the implications of a residual force that varies in a manner different from 1/d on the accuracy of previous Casimir measurements is discussed.

  7. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  8. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, L C; López-Castro, J D; González-Rovira, L; Vázquez-Martínez, J M; Varela-Feria, F M; Marcos, M; Calvino, J J

    2017-06-01

    We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Entrance surface dose measurements in mammography using thermoluminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.; Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E; Azorin, J.; Gonzalez, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Of the various techniques that can be used for personnel dosimetry, thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) has emerged as a superior technique due to its manifold advantages over other methods of dose estimation. Various phosphors have been therefore investigated regarding their suitability for dosimetry. In this paper, a dosimetry system based on thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) from zirconium oxide phosphors embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (ZrO 2 +PTFE) was developed for entrance surface doses (ES) measurements in mammography. Small ZrO 2 pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in thickness were used. The reproducibility of measurements and linearity of ZrO 2 were also studied. The results were compared with those obtained from LiF:Mg,Cu,P usually used for the determination of absorbed dose in mammography. Measurements both per unit air kerma and In vivo were performed using a mammography unit model DMR (General Electric). The results showed that ZrO 2 TLDs can be used for the same X-ray dosimetry applications as LiF:Mg,Cu,P, with each type having the disadvantage of a response dependent on energy, particularly at low energies. These results indicate a considerable potential for use in routine control and In vivo ES measurements in mammography. (Author)

  10. An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.

  11. Characterization of gloss properties of differently treated polymer coating surfaces by surface clarity measurement methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Dieter P; Buder-Stroisznigg, Michael; Wallner, Gernot; Strauß, Bernhard; Jandel, Lothar; Lang, Reinhold W

    2012-07-10

    With one measurement configuration, existing gloss measurement methodologies are generally restricted to specific gloss levels. A newly developed image-analytical gloss parameter called "clarity" provides the possibility to describe the perceptual result of a broad range of different gloss levels with one setup. In order to analyze and finally monitor the perceived gloss of products, a fast and flexible method also for the automated inspection is highly demanded. The clarity parameter is very fast to calculate and therefore usable for fast in-line surface inspection. Coated metal specimens were deformed by varying degree and polished afterwards in order to study the clarity parameter regarding the quantification of varying surface gloss types and levels. In order to analyze the correlation with the human gloss perception a study was carried out in which experts were asked to assess gloss properties of a series of surface samples under standardized conditions. The study confirmed clarity to exhibit considerably better correlation to the human perception than alternative gloss parameters.

  12. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  13. 6 MeV pulsed electron beam induced surface and structural changes in polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathakari, Narendra L.; Bhoraskar, Vasant N. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Dhole, Sanjay D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    Thin films of polyimide (PMDA-ODA, Kapton) having 50 mum thickness were irradiated with 6 MeV pulsed electron beam. The bulk and surface properties of pristine and irradiated samples were characterized by several techniques such as stress-strain measurements, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry. The tensile strength, percentage elongation and strain energy show an enhancement from pristine value of 73-89 MPa, 10-22% and 4.75-14.2 MJ/m{sup 3} respectively at the maximum fluence of 4 x 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. This signifies that polyimide being an excessively aromatic polymer is crosslinked due to high-energy electron irradiation. In surface properties, the contact angle shows a significant decrease from 59 deg. to 32 deg. indicating enhancement in hydrophilicity. This mainly attributes to surface roughening, which is due to the electron beam induced sputtering. The surface roughening is confirmed in AFM and profilometry measurements. The AFM images clearly show that surface roughness increases after electron irradiation. Moreover, the roughness average (R{sub a}) as measured from surface profilograms is found to increase from 0.06 to 0.1. The FTIR and UV-vis spectra do not show noticeable changes as regards to scissioning of bonds and the oxidation. This work leads to a definite conclusion that 6 MeV pulsed electron beam can be used to bring about desired changes in surface as well as bulk properties of polyimide, which is considered to be a high performance space quality polymer.

  14. Measurement of pressure on a surface using bubble acoustic resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldham, Ben; Manasseh, Richard; Liffman, Kurt; Šutalo, Ilija D; Illesinghe, Suhith; Ooi, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The frequency response of gas bubbles as a function of liquid ambient pressure was measured and compared with theory. A bubble size with equivalent spherical radius of 2.29 mm was used over a frequency range of 1000–1500 Hz. The ultimate aim is to develop an acoustic sensor that can measure static pressure and is sensitive to variations as small as a few kPa. The classical bubble resonance frequency is known to vary with ambient pressure. Experiments were conducted with a driven bubble in a pressurizable tank with a signal processing system designed to extract the resonant peak. Since the background response of the containing tank is significant, particularly near tank-modal resonances, it must be carefully removed from the bubble response signal. A dual-hydrophone method was developed to allow rapid and reliable real-time measurements. The expected pressure dependence was found. In order to obtain a reasonable match with theory, the classical theory was modified by the introduction of a 'mirror bubble' to account for the influence of a nearby surface. (technical design note)

  15. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  16. Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.

    2017-04-01

    A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information

  17. Channel Storage change: a new remote sensed surface water measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, S. P.; Durand, M. T.; Yi, Y.; Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.; Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present river channel storage change (CSC) measurements for 17 major world rivers from 2002-2016. We combined interpolated daily 1 km resolution Global River Radar Altimeter Time Series (GRRATS) river surface elevation data with static widths from the global river Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) dataset, to generate preliminary channel storage measurements. CSC is a previously unmeasured component of the terrestrial water balance It is a fundamental Earth science quantity with global bearing on floodplains, ecology, and geochemistry. CSC calculations require only remote sensed data, making them an ideal tool for studying remote regions where hydrological data is not easily accessible. CSC is uniquely suited to determine the role of hydrologic and hydraulic controls in basins with strong seasonal cycles (freeze-up and break-up). The cumulative CSC anomaly can impart spatial details that discharge measurements cannot. With this new measurement, we may be able to determine critical hydrological and hydraulic controls on rapidly changing systems like Arctic rivers. Results for Mississippi River indicate that peak CSC anomaly was the highest in 2011 (12.6 km3) and minimum CSC anomaly was in 2012 (-12.2 km3). Peak CSC has most frequently occurs in May (5 years), but has come as late in the year as July, and as early as January. Results for the Yukon River indicate that peak CSC anomaly was the highest in 2013 (13.9 km3) and minimum CSC anomaly was in 2010 (-14.2 km3). Peak CSC has most frequently come in early to mid-June (4-18), but has occurred in May (19-31) four years in the study period (three of the last 6 years) and once on April 30th.

  18. A versatile optical profilometer based on conoscopic holography sensors for acquisition of specular and diffusive surfaces in artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaburro, Nicola; Marchioro, Giacomo; Daffara, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Surface metrology of artworks requires the design of suitable devices for in-situ non-destructive measurement together with reliable procedures for an effective analysis of such non-engineered variegate objects. To advance the state-of-the-art it has been implemented a versatile optical micro-profilometry taking advantage of the adapt- ability of conoscopic holography sensors, able to operate with irregular shapes and composite materials (diffusive, specular, and polychrome) of artworks. The scanning technique is used to obtain wide field and high spatially resolved areal profilometry. The prototype has a modular scheme based on a set of conoscopic sensors, extending the typical design based on a scanning stage and a single probe with a limited bandwidth, thus allowing the collection of heights data from surface with different scales and materials with variegate optical response. The system was optimized by characterizing the quality of the measurement with the probes triggered in continuous scanning modality. The results obtained on examples of cultural heritage objects (2D paintings, 3D height-relief) and materials (pictorial, metallic) demonstrate the versatility of the implemented device.

  19. Phase Retrieval Techniques In Coordinates Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harizanova, J. I.; Stoykova, E. V.; Sainov, V. C.

    2007-01-01

    A precise pattern projection profilometry for three-dimensional shape measurements with different methods of fringe generation is presented. The application of phase-shifting algorithm along with two-spacing illumination allow for phase retrieval and estimation of relative and absolute coordinates of the tested samples. The following experimental approaches for fringe generation are investigated: interferometric approach based on a classical Michelson interferometer, digital computation with a DMD projection and light modulation by a sinusoidal phase grating. The theoretical background, experimental results as well as comparison of the applied generation methods are analyzed. The obtained outcomes successfully display the applicability of this technique for surface profile measurement. The application of the proposed techniques for remote, non-destructive in-situ inspection of real objects from cultural heritage is discussed

  20. Surface force measurements and simulations of mussel-derived peptide adhesives on wet organic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary A; Rapp, Michael V; Wei, Wei; Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Wu, Chun; Zerze, Gül H; Mittal, Jeetain; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2016-04-19

    Translating sticky biological molecules-such as mussel foot proteins (MFPs)-into synthetic, cost-effective underwater adhesives with adjustable nano- and macroscale characteristics requires an intimate understanding of the glue's molecular interactions. To help facilitate the next generation of aqueous adhesives, we performed a combination of surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurements and replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations on a synthetic, easy to prepare, Dopa-containing peptide (MFP-3s peptide), which adheres to organic surfaces just as effectively as its wild-type protein analog. Experiments and simulations both show significant differences in peptide adsorption on CH3-terminated (hydrophobic) and OH-terminated (hydrophilic) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), where adsorption is strongest on hydrophobic SAMs because of orientationally specific interactions with Dopa. Additional umbrella-sampling simulations yield free-energy profiles that quantitatively agree with SFA measurements and are used to extract the adhesive properties of individual amino acids within the context of MFP-3s peptide adhesion, revealing a delicate balance between van der Waals, hydrophobic, and electrostatic forces.

  1. Surface characterization protocol for precision aspheric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarepaka, RamaGopal V.; Sakthibalan, Siva; Doodala, Somaiah; Panwar, Rakesh S.; Kotaria, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    In Advanced Optical Instrumentation, Aspherics provide an effective performance alternative. The aspheric fabrication and surface metrology, followed by aspheric design are complementary iterative processes for Precision Aspheric development. As in fabrication, a holistic approach of aspheric surface characterization is adopted to evaluate actual surface error and to aim at the deliverance of aspheric optics with desired surface quality. Precision optical surfaces are characterized by profilometry or by interferometry. Aspheric profiles are characterized by contact profilometers, through linear surface scans to analyze their Form, Figure and Finish errors. One must ensure that, the surface characterization procedure does not add to the resident profile errors (generated during the aspheric surface fabrication). This presentation examines the errors introduced post-surface generation and during profilometry of aspheric profiles. This effort is to identify sources of errors and is to optimize the metrology process. The sources of error during profilometry may be due to: profilometer settings, work-piece placement on the profilometer stage, selection of zenith/nadir points of aspheric profiles, metrology protocols, clear aperture - diameter analysis, computational limitations of the profiler and the software issues etc. At OPTICA, a PGI 1200 FTS contact profilometer (Taylor-Hobson make) is used for this study. Precision Optics of various profiles are studied, with due attention to possible sources of errors during characterization, with multi-directional scan approach for uniformity and repeatability of error estimation. This study provides an insight of aspheric surface characterization and helps in optimal aspheric surface production methodology.

  2. In situ measurement on TSV-Cu deformation with hotplate system based on sheet resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunna; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Kaifeng; Yang, Shengyong; Wang, Yan; Ding, Guifu

    2017-12-01

    The in situ measurement of TSVs deformation at different temperature is meaningful for learning more about the thermal deformation schemes of 3D TSVs in the microelectronic devices. An efficient and smart hotplate based on sheet resistance is designed for offering more heat, producing a uniform temperature distribution, relieving thermal stress and heat concentration issues, and reducing room space, which was optimized by the finite element method (FEM). The fabricated hotplate is efficient and smart (2.5 cm  ×  2.0 cm  ×  0.5 cm) enough to be located in the limited space during measuring. The thermal infrared imager was employed as the temperature sensor for monitoring the temperature distribution of TSVs sample. The 3D profilometry was adopted as the observer for TSVs profiles survey. The in situ 2D top surface profiles and 3D displacement profiles of TSVs sample at the different temperature were measured by 3D profilometer. The in situ average relative deformation and effective plastic deformation of the TSV sample were measured. With optical measurement method, 3D profilometry, the TSV sample can be tested repeatedly.

  3. Surface characterization of hemodialysis membranes based on streaming potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C; Jacobasch, H J; Reichelt, G

    1995-01-01

    Hemodialysis membranes made from cellulose (CUPROPHAN, HEMOPHAN) and sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) were characterized using the streaming potential technique to determine the zeta potential at their interfaces against well-defined aqueous solutions of varied pH and potassium chloride concentrations. Streaming potential measurements enable distinction between different membrane materials. In addition to parameters of the electrochemical double layer at membrane interfaces, thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of different solved species were evaluated. For that aim a description of double layer formation as suggested by Börner and Jacobasch (in: Electrokinetic Phenomena, p. 231. Institut für Technologie der Polymere, Dresden (1989)) was applied which is based on the generally accepted model of the electrochemical double layer according to Stern (Z. Elektrochemie 30, 508 (1924)) and Grahame (Chem. Rev. 41, 441 (1947)). The membranes investigated show different surface acidic/basic and polar/nonpolar behavior. Furthermore, alterations of membrane interfaces through adsorption processes of components of biologically relevant solutions were shown to be detectable by streaming potential measurements.

  4. A Method for Dimensional and Surface Optical Measurements Uncertainty Assessment on Micro Structured Surfaces Manufactured by Jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    Surface texture and step height measurements of electrochemically machined cavities have been compared among optical and tactile instruments. A procedure is introduced for correcting possible divergences among the instruments and, ultimately, for evaluating the measurement uncertainty according t...

  5. Leidenfrost drops cooling surfaces: theory and interferometric measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Limbeek, Michiel A. J.; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Sun, Chao; Colinet, Pierre; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    When a liquid drop is placed on a highly superheated surface, it can be levitated by its own vapour. This remarkable phenomenon is referred to as the Leidenfrost effect. The thermally insulating vapour film results in a severe reduction of the heat transfer rate compared to experiments at lower surface temperatures, where the drop is in direct contact with the solid surface. A commonly made assumption is that this solid surface is isothermal, which is at least questionable for materials of lo...

  6. Effect of green tea as a protective measure against dental erosion in coronary dentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denise Rodrigues DE MORAES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of green tea as a protective measure on eroded dentin. Disks of human coronary dentin were selected based on surface hardness and randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 10: DW - distilled water, CHX - 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate, and GT - green tea. The disks were allowed to acquire pellicle for 2 hours and were then subjected to 3 cycles per day of demineralization (C6H8O7 0.05 M, pH 3.75, 60 s, treatment (DW or CHX or GT, 5 min and remineralization (artificial saliva, 60 min over a period of 3 days. Changes in the dentin were determined by loss of surface hardness (%SHL and mechanical profilometry analysis at the end of each day. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test for %SHL and profilometry (p 0.05. A significant difference was observed between DW and GT treatments for wear and roughness measurements (p < 0.05. The green tea extract solution was able to reduce the wear and roughness caused by dentin erosion under the conditions of this study.

  7. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...

  8. Entrance surface dose measurements in pediatric radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, L.A.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of pediatric radiological examinations was carried out in a reference pediatric hospital of the city of Sao Paulo, in order to investigate the doses to children undergoing conventional X-ray examinations. The results showed that the majority of pediatric patients are below 4 years, and that about 80% of the examinations correspond to chest projections. Doses to typical radiological examinations were measured in vivo with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF: Mg, Ti and LiF: Mg, Cu, P) attached to the skin of the children to determine entrance surface dose (ESD). Also homogeneous phantoms were used to obtain ESD to younger children, because the technique uses a so small kVp that the dosimeters would produce an artifact image in the patient radiograph. Four kinds of pediatric examinations were investigated: three conventional examinations (chest, skull and abdomen) and a fluoroscopic procedure (barium swallow). Relevant information about kVp and mAs values used in the examinations was collected, and we discuss how these parameters can affect the ESD. The ESD values measured in this work are compared to reference levels published by the European Commission for pediatric patients. The results obtained (third-quartile of the ESD distribution) for chest AP examinations in three age groups were: 0.056 mGy (2-4 years old); 0.068 mGy (5-9 years old); 0.069 mGy (10-15 years old). All of them are below the European reference level (0.100 mGy). ESD values measured to the older age group in skull and abdomen AP radiographs (mean values 3.44 and 1.20 mGy, respectively) are above the European reference levels (1.5 mGy to skull and 1.0 mGy to abdomen). ESD values measured in the barium swallow examination reached 10 mGy in skin regions corresponding to thyroid and esophagus. It was noticed during this survey that some technicians use, improperly, X-ray fluoroscopy in conventional examinations to help them in positioning the patient. The results presented here are a

  9. FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface a level of pollution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangong

    2010-01-01

    On the pipe surface contamination were detected α level of pollution is a frequently encountered dose-detection work. Because the pipeline surface arc, while the measuring probe for the plane, which for accurate measurement difficult. In this paper, on the FJ-2207-type pipe surface contamination measuring instrument measuring pollution levels in the α method was studied. Introduced the FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface α pollution levels. Studied this measuring instrument on the same sources of surface, plane α level of radioactivity measured differences in the results obtained control of the apparatus when the direct measurement of the surface correction factor, and gives 32-216 specifications commonly used pipe direct measurement of the amendment factor. Convenient method, test results are reliable for the accurate measurement of pipe pollution levels in the surface of α as a reference and learning. (authors)

  10. Effects of drop size and measuring condition on static contact angle measurement on a superhydrophobic surface with goniometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kwangseok; Kim, Minyoung; Kim, Do Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Keun

    2015-01-01

    It is not a simple task to measure a contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface with sessile drop method, because a roll-off angle is very low. Usually contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface is measured by fixing a drop with intentional defects on the surface or a needle. We examined the effects of drop size and measuring condition such as the use of a needle or defects on the static contact angle measurement on superhydrophobic surface. Results showed that the contact angles on a superhydrophobic surface remain almost constant within intrinsic measurement errors unless there is a wetting transition during the measurement. We expect that this study will provide a deeper understanding on the nature of the contact angle and convenient measurement of the contact angle on the superhydrophobic surface.

  11. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  12. Surface temperature measurements on superconducting cavities in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, T.; Junquera, T.; Caruette, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two thermometry systems have been developed: a scanning thermometer system routinely used for the 1.5 GHz monocell cavity studies and a fixed thermometer array used to investigate spatial surface resistance distribution on various SC removable endplates of a cylindrical TE011mode cavity. Thermometers used in these systems are thermally insulated from the surrounding HeII bath by an epoxy housing ('epoxy'thermometers). Accurate calibration of the fixed thermometers was conducted by using different test cells and the experimental results were compared to model calculations performed with a finite element computational code. Measured thermometer efficiency and linearity are in good agreement with numerical results. Some typical temperature maps of different Nb samples obtained with the TE011 array (40 epoxy thermometers) are discussed. On the basis of numerical modelling results, a new type of thermometer with an improved efficiency has been designed. The thermal insulation against Helium II has been drastically improved by placing the sensitive part of the thermometer in a small vacuum jacket ('vacuum' thermometers). Two main goals have been reached with the first prototypes: improved efficiency by a factor of 2.5 - 3, and a bath temperature dependence of the thermal response in good agreement with the expected Kapitza conductance behaviour. Fitting experimental results with numerical modelling data, allow us to estimate the Kapitza conductance. The obtained values are in good agreement with the previous results reported by several authors using a different measurement method. The 'vacuum' thermometers are currently used on the TE011 mode cavity with Nb and NbTiN plates and the first results are presented

  13. Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

  14. UAV BASED BRDF-MEASUREMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL SURFACES WITH PFIFFIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Grenzdörffer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BRDF is a common problem in remote sensing and also in oblique photogrammetry. Common approaches of BRDF-measurement with a field goniometer are costly and rather cumbersome. UAVs may offer an interesting alternative by using a special flight pattern of oblique and converging images. The main part of this paper is the description of a photogrammetric workflow in order to determine the anisotropic reflection properties of a given surface. Due to the relatively low flying heights standard procedures from close range photogrammetry were adopted for outdoor usage. The photogrammetric processing delivered automatic and highly accurate orientation information with the aid of coded targets. The interior orientation of the consumer grade camera is more or less stable. The radiometrically corrected oblique images are converted into ortho photos. The azimuth and elevation angle of every point may then be computed. The calculated anisotropy of a winter wheat plot is shown. A system four diagonally-looking cameras (Four Vision and an additional nadir looking camera is under development. The multi camera system especially designed for a Micro- UAV with a payload of min 1 kg. The system is composed of five industrial digital frame cameras (1.3 Mpix CCD-chips, 15 fp/s with fixed lenses. Also special problems with the construction of a light weight housing of the multi camera solution are covered in the paper.

  15. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, L.C., E-mail: lionelcg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11510 (Spain); López-Castro, J.D.; González-Rovira, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Corrosión, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Vázquez-Martínez, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Varela-Feria, F.M. [Servicio de Microscopía Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Marcos, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); and others

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We describe a method to acquire a high-angle tilt series of SEM images that is symmetrical respect to the zero tilt of the sample stage. The method can be applied in any SEM microscope. • Using the method, high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry can be applied on planar surfaces. • 3D models of three surfaces patterned with grooves are reconstructed with high resolution using multi-view freeware photogrammetry software as described in LC Gontard et al. Ultramicroscopy, 2016. • From the 3D models roughness parameters are measured • 3D SEM high-resolution photogrammetry is compared with two conventional methods used for roughness characetrization: stereophotogrammetry and contact profilometry. • It provides three-dimensional information with high-resolution that is out of reach for any other metrological technique. - Abstract: We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters.

  16. On the measurement of the surface energy budget over a land ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measurement of surface energy balance over a land surface in an open area in Bangalore is reported. Measurements of all variables needed to calculate the surface energy balance on time scales longer than a week are made. Components of radiative fluxes are measured while sensible and latent heat fluxes are ...

  17. Iron cycling at corroding carbon steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Ray, Richard I.; Little, Brenda J.; Emerson, David

    2013-01-01

    Surfaces of carbon steel (CS) exposed to mixed cultures of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in seawater media under aerobic conditions were rougher than surfaces of CS exposed to pure cultures of either type of microorganism. The roughened surface, demonstrated by profilometry, is an indication of loss of metal from the surface. In the presence of CS, aerobically grown FeOB produced tight, twisted helical stalks encrusted with iron oxides. When CS was exposed anaerobically in the presence of FeRB, some surface oxides were removed. However, when the same FeOB and FeRB were grown together in an aerobic medium, FeOB stalks were less encrusted with iron oxides and appeared less tightly coiled. These observations suggest that iron oxides on the stalks were reduced and solubilized by the FeRB. Roughened surfaces of CS and denuded stalks were replicated with three culture combinations of different species of FeOB and FeRB under three experimental conditions. Measurements of electrochemical polarization resistance established different rates of corrosion of CS in aerobic and anaerobic media, but could not differentiate rate differences between sterile controls and inoculated exposures for a given bulk concentration of dissolved oxygen. Similarly, total iron in the electrolyte could not be used to differentiate treatments. The experiments demonstrate the potential for iron cycling (oxidation and reduction) on corroding CS in aerobic seawater media. PMID:24093730

  18. MEASURING PROTOPLANETARY DISK GAS SURFACE DENSITY PROFILES WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McPartland, Conor, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams and Best to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity {sup 13}CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, M {sub gas} = 0.048 M {sub ⊙}, and accretion disk characteristic size R {sub c} = 213 au and gradient γ = 0.39. The same parameters match the C{sup 18}O 2–1 image and indicate an abundance ratio [{sup 12}CO]/[C{sup 18}O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large {sup 13}CO 2–1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3–10 M {sub Jup} at 150 pc, ALMA observations with a resolution of 0.″2–0.″3 and integration times of ∼20 minutes allow reliable estimates of R {sub c} to within about 10 au and γ to within about 0.2. Economic gas imaging surveys are therefore feasible and offer the opportunity to open up a new dimension for studying disk structure and its evolution toward planet formation.

  19. Comparative analysis of the pressure profilometry of vesicocutaneous continent catheterizable conduits between patients with and without rectus abdominis neosphincter (Yachia principle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Atila; Leslie, Bruno; Arcuri, Leonardo Javier; Ortiz, Valdemar; Macedo, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether crossing rectus abdominis muscle strips, as proposed by Yachia, would change urinary catheterizable conduit's pressure profilometry, in static and dynamic conditions. Non-randomized selection of 20 continent patients that underwent Macedo's ileum-based reservoir, 10 including Yachia's technique (Study Group) and 10 without this mechanism of continence (Control Group). Demographics and cystometric data were assessed. Conduit's pressure profilometry was obtained by infusing saline through a multichannel catheter, at rest and during Valsalva maneuver. We assessed the pressure: (a) in the bladder; (b) in conduit's proximal segment; and (c) in conduit's distal segment, which is presumably the abdominal wall and crossed muscle strips site. Mean age at surgery was 6.1 years in the Control Group and 7.7 years in the Study Group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding maximum cystometric bladder capacity and leakage point pressure. At rest, the pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in all segments analyzed. During Valsalva maneuver, pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in bladder and conduit's proximal segment pressure. In this condition, conduit's distal segment pressure in the Study Group (Mean = 72.9 and Peak = 128.7 cmH2 O) was significantly greater (P continence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya

  1. Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2 A Band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Diedenhoven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform surface pressure retrievals from cloud-free Oxygen A band measurements of SCIAMACHY. These retrievals can be well validated because surface pressure is a quantity that is, in general, accurately known from meteorological models. Therefore, surface pressure retrievals and their validation provide important insight into the quality of the instrument calibration. Furthermore, they can provide insight into retrievals which are affected by similar radiation transport processes, for example the retrieval of total columns of H2O, CO, CO2 and CH4. In our retrieval aerosols are neglected. Using synthetic measurements, it is shown that for low to moderate surface albedos this leads to an underestimation of the retrieved surface pressures. For high surface albedos this generally leads to an overestimation of the retrieved surface pressures. The surface pressures retrieved from the SCIAMACHY measurements indeed show this dependence on surface albedo, when compared to the corresponding pressures from a meteorological database. However, an offset of about 20 hPa was found, which can not be caused by neglecting aerosols in the retrieval. The same offset was found when comparing the retrieved surface pressures to those retrieved from co-located GOME Oxygen A band measurements. This implies a calibration error in the SCIAMACHY measurements. By adding an offset of 0.86% of the continuum reflectance at 756 nm to the SCIAMACHY reflectance measurements, this systematic bias vanishes.

  2. Measuring the surface inhomogeneity of metals on accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M H; Hippel, T von; Thompson, S E

    2009-01-01

    Due to the short settling times of metals in DA white dwarf atmospheres, any white dwarfs with photospheric metals must be actively accreting. It is therefore natural to expect that the metals may not be deposited uniformly on the surface of the star. We present calculations showing how the temperature variations associated with white dwarf pulsations lead to an observable diagnostic of the surface metal distribution, and we show what constraints current data sets are able to provide.

  3. Micro/nano engineering on stainless steel substrates to produce superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckford, Samuel; Zou Min, E-mail: mzou@uark.edu

    2011-12-30

    Creating micro-/nano-scale topography on material surfaces to change their wetting properties has been a subject of much interest in recent years. Wenzel in 1936 and Cassie and Baxter in 1944 proposed that by microscopically increasing the surface roughness of a substrate, it is possible to increase its hydrophobicity. This paper reports the fabrication of micro-textured surfaces and nano-textured surfaces, and the combination of both on stainless steel substrates by sandblasting, thermal evaporation of aluminum, and aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of amorphous silicon (a-Si). Meanwhile, fluorinated carbon films were used to change the chemical composition of the surfaces to render the surfaces more hydrophobic. These surface modifications were investigated to create superhydrophobic surfaces on stainless steel substrates. The topography resulting from these surface modifications was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometry. The wetting properties of these surfaces were characterized by water contact angle measurement. The results of this study show that superhydrophobic surfaces can be produced by either micro-scale surface texturing or nano-scale surface texturing, or the combination of both, after fluorinated carbon film deposition.

  4. 3D characterization of thin glass x-ray mirrors via optical profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Citterio, O.; Conconi, P.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Proserpio, L.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we present the "Characterization Universal Profilometer" (CUP), a new metrological instrument developed at the Brera Observatory for the 3D surface figure mapping of X-ray segmented mirrors. The CUP working principle is based on the measure of the the distance between the surface under test from a rigid reference dish. This approach is made possible by the coupled use of two sensors, the CHRocodile® optical device and the SIOS triple beam interferometer, mounted onto a proper system of x-y-z stage of translators. In this paper we describe the working principle of the new instrument. We will also present the results of the commissioning performed for a CUP breadboard developed at the Brera Observatory. The CUP offers the possibility to perform an high accuracy metrology of thin glass segments produced via hot slumping, to be used in future segmented X-ray mirrors like those foreseen aboard IXO or other projects that will make use of active X-ray mirrors.

  5. Structural dependence of the 5d-metal surface energies as deduced from surface core-level shift measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrartensson, N.; Saalfeld, H.B.; Kuhlenbeck, H.; Neumann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Surface core-level shift measurements performed at the BESSY storage ring yield -0.41(2) eV for Os(0001) and 0.00(10) eV for Re(0001). An analysis of the surface shifts in the 5d transition series shows that the surface energy as a function of Z has a maximum at lower Z for the bcc phase than for the fcc-hcp phases, at W and between Re and Os, respectively

  6. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  7. Measuring the surface-heating of medical ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmann, Chr; Vacariu, G; Fialka-Moser, V; Bergmann, H

    2004-01-01

    Due to converting losses the probe's surface itself is heated up, especially when emitting into air. Possible temperature increases in an ensemble of 15 different diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound probes from 7 manufacturers in the frequency range between 0.05-7.5 MHz have been examined. Surface temperatures were detected by means of a calibrated IR-thermographic camera using a scheme of various power and pulse settings, as well as different imaging modalitites as used in clinical routine. Depending on the setup and the output power, the absolute surface temperatures of some of the probes emitting in air can be beyond 43 deg. C within 5-7 min.; a maximum surface temperature of 84 deg. C has been detected. Continuous mode or high pulse repetition frequencies on the therapeutic system side, small focused Doppler modes on the diagnostic system side combined with increased emitted acoustic intensities result in high surface temperatures. Within a worst case scenario a potential risk of negative skin changes (heat damage) or non-optimal therapeutic effects seems to be possible if a therapeutic system is used very often and if its emission continues unintentionally. In general the user should be aware that low emission intensities of e.g. 50 mW cm -2 could already produce hot surfaces

  8. A probability measure for random surfaces of arbitrary genus and bosonic strings in 4 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Paycha, S.; Scarlatti, S.

    1989-01-01

    We define a probability measure describing random surfaces in R D , 3≤D≤13, parametrized by compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus. The measure involves the path space measure for scalar fields with exponential interaction in 2 space time dimensions. We show that it gives a mathematical realization of Polyakov's heuristic measure for bosonic strings. (orig.)

  9. The study of cyclododecane as a temporary coating for marble by NMR profilometry and FTIR reflectance spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, C.; Presciutti, F.; Doherty, B.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.; Miliani, C.

    2011-07-01

    This contribution focuses on an analytical evaluation of the use of cyclododecane (CDD) (C12H24) as a temporary protective coating for non-porous stone materials of cultural heritage interest. A facile solvent spray application technique for the production of an adherent continuous film has been assessed. The criterion for monitoring the sublimation of the cyclododecane film on marble has been established through the use of non-invasive analytical techniques so as to avoid any interaction with the process under study, where results serve to integrate and enhance knowledge into the use of cyclododecane in this discipline. Research is directed towards testing the applicability of portable infrared reflectance spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance profilometry systems to follow the in-situ behavior of temporary consolidants. In particular, the coupling of two spectroscopic techniques such as IR and NMR has been possible, enabling the descriptions of both the formation of the film and its kinetics of sublimation.

  10. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other \\'blue carbon\\' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  11. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other ‘blue carbon’ habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  12. An AFM-based pit-measuring method for indirect measurements of cell-surface membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air drying induced the transformation of cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits. • An AFM-based pit-measuring method was developed to measure cell-surface vesicles. • Our method detected at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles. - Abstract: Circulating membrane vesicles, which are shed from many cell types, have multiple functions and have been correlated with many diseases. Although circulating membrane vesicles have been extensively characterized, the status of cell-surface membrane vesicles prior to their release is less understood due to the lack of effective measurement methods. Recently, as a powerful, micro- or nano-scale imaging tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in measuring circulating membrane vesicles. However, it seems very difficult for AFM to directly image/identify and measure cell-bound membrane vesicles due to the similarity of surface morphology between membrane vesicles and cell surfaces. Therefore, until now no AFM studies on cell-surface membrane vesicles have been reported. In this study, we found that air drying can induce the transformation of most cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits that are more readily detectable by AFM. Based on this, we developed an AFM-based pit-measuring method and, for the first time, used AFM to indirectly measure cell-surface membrane vesicles on cultured endothelial cells. Using this approach, we observed and quantitatively measured at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles, a nanoscale population (<500 nm in diameter peaking at ∼250 nm) and a microscale population (from 500 nm to ∼2 μm peaking at ∼0.8 μm), whereas confocal microscopy only detected the microscale population. The AFM-based pit-measuring method is potentially useful for studying cell-surface membrane vesicles and for investigating the mechanisms of membrane vesicle formation/release

  13. Oxidation of clean silicon surfaces studied by four-point probe surface conductance measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Grey, Francois; Aono, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated how the conductance of Si(100)-(2 x 1) and Si(111)-(7 x 7) surfaces change during exposure to molecular oxygen. A monotonic decrease in conductance is seen as the (100) surfaces oxidizes. In contract to a prior study, we propose that this change is caused by a decrease in sur...

  14. Interaction of the Helium, Hydrogen, Air, Argon, and Nitrogen Bubbles with Graphite Surface in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Ruben; Otyepka, Michal; Pykal, Martin; Lazar, Petr; Micheli, Victor; Gottardi, Gloria; Laidani, Nadhira

    2017-05-24

    The interaction of the confined gas with solid surface immersed in water is a common theme of many important fields such as self-cleaning surface, gas storage, and sensing. For that reason, we investigated the gas-graphite interaction in the water medium. The graphite surface was prepared by mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The surface chemistry and morphology were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy. The surface energy of HOPG was estimated by contact angle measurements using the Owens-Wendt method. The interaction of gases (Ar, He, H 2 , N 2 , and air) with graphite was studied by a captive bubble method, in which the gas bubble was in contact with the exfoliated graphite surface in water media. The experimental data were corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations. The surface energy of HOPG equaled to 52.8 mJ/m 2 and more of 95% of the surface energy was attributed to dispersion interactions. The results on gas-surface interaction indicated that HOPG surface had gasphilic behavior for helium and hydrogen, while gasphobic behavior for argon and nitrogen. The results showed that the variation of the gas contact angle was related to the balance between the gas-surface and gas-gas interaction potentials. For helium and hydrogen the gas-surface interaction was particularly high compared to gas-gas interaction and this promoted the favorable interaction with graphite surface.

  15. Leidenfrost drops cooling surfaces: theory and interferometric measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Limbeek, Michiel A. J.; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Sun, Chao; Colinet, Pierre; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    When a liquid drop is placed on a highly superheated surface, it can be levitated by its own vapour. This remarkable phenomenon is referred to as the Leidenfrost effect. The thermally insulating vapour film results in a severe reduction of the heat transfer rate compared to experiments at lower

  16. Surface and Flow Field Measurements on the FAITH Hill Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of experimental tests, using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, were conducted to characterize both surface and off-surface flow characteristics of an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Two separate models were employed: a 6" high, 18" base diameter machined aluminum model that was used for wind tunnel tests and a smaller scale (2" high, 6" base diameter) sintered nylon version that was used in the water channel facility. Wind tunnel and water channel tests were conducted at mean test section speeds of 165 fps (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000) and 0.1 fps (Reynolds Number of 1000), respectively. The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3 for both tests. Qualitative techniques that were employed to characterize the complex flow included surface oil flow visualization for the wind tunnel tests, and dye injection for the water channel tests. Quantitative techniques that were employed to characterize the flow included Cobra Probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction (magnitude and direction). This initial report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, data acquired and describes some details of the dataset that is being constructed for use by other researchers, especially the CFD community. Subsequent reports will discuss the data and their interpretation in more detail

  17. Current Options for Measuring the Surface Temperature of Dairy Cattle in a Stable Technology: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular measurement of the body surface temperature can help to assess the health status of animals. There are many technological possibilities of contactless temperature measurement of body surface. The important thing is to find the right part of the body whose temperature will point to the first possible symptoms and immediately react to the first signs of the disease. Disagreements about how to measure body surface temperature and accuracy of the method can occur when different measures are used. We review work showing possibilities of contactless surface temperature measurements using 1 thermography, 2 electronic transponders and 3 other possibilities of measuring the body surface temperature of dairy cattle. For example, when we scan the surface temperature with the thermal imager there can operate in individual animals confounding factors such as the nature or degree of muscular coat, which may significantly affect the results.

  18. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav; Dai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xixiang; Bagnarol, Mirko; Martucci, Alessandro; Merano, Michele

    2017-01-01

    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer $\\rm MoS_2$. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Currently experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer $\\rm MoS_2$, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  19. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav

    2017-10-01

    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer $\\ m MoS_2$. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Currently experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer $\\ m MoS_2$, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  20. Measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Quagliotti, Danilo; Maculotti, Giacomo

    Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment.......Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment....

  1. Correlation and uncertainties evaluation in backscattering of entrance surface air kerma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, G.J.; Sousa, C.H.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: gt@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The air kerma measurement is important to verify the applied doses in radiodiagnostic. The literature determines some methods to measure the entrance surface air kerma or entrance surface dose but some of this methods may increase the measurement with the backscattering. Were done setups of measurements to do correlations between them. The expanded uncertainty exceeded 5% for measurements with backscattering, reaching 8.36%, while in situations where the backscattering was avoided, the uncertainty was 3.43%. (author)

  2. Commencement measurements giving fundamental surface tension determinations in tensiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbery, D; Morrin, D; O'Rourke, B; McMillan, N D; O'Neill, M; Riedel, S; Pringuet, P; Smith, S R P

    2011-01-01

    This study provides experimental testing of a ray-tracing model of the tensiotrace that explores the measurement potential of a well-defined optical position in the tensiotrace signal known as the 'commencement'. This point is defined as the first measureable optical coupling in the fiber drophead between source and collector fibers for light injected inside a growing drop. Tensiotrace ray-tracing model is briefly introduced. Empirical relationships of commencement measures from a wide-ranging study are presented. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the successful linking of computer predictions to these experimental relationships.

  3. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  4. Earth System Research Laboratory Long-Term Surface Aerosol Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerosol measurements began at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) baseline observatories in the mid-1970's with the...

  5. Performance verification of focus variation and confocal microscopes measuring tilted ultra-fine surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of two optical instruments, scilicet a laser scanning confocal microscope and a focus-variation microscope, was investigated considering measurements of tilted surfaces. The measured samples were twelve steel artefacts for mould surface finish reference, covering Sa roughness...... parameter in the range (101—103) nm. The 3D surface texture parameters considered were Sa, Sq and Sdq. The small working distance of the confocal microscope objectives influenced the measurement setup, preventing from selecting a high tilting angle. The investigation was carried out comparing measurements...... of flat surfaces (0° tilt) with measurements of 12.5° tilted surfaces. The confocal microscope results showed a high sensitivity to tilting due to the laser beam reflection on the metal surfaces. The focus variation microscope results were more robust with respect to the considered angular variation...

  6. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Simon D. P.; Bingley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  7. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Remote measurement of surface roughness, surface reflectance, and body reflectance with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Liang, Yu

    2015-10-20

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) intensity data are attracting increasing attention because of the great potential for use of such data in a variety of remote sensing applications. To fully investigate the data potential for target classification and identification, we carried out a series of experiments with typical urban building materials and employed our reconstructed built-in-lab LiDAR system. Received intensity data were analyzed on the basis of the derived bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model and the established integration method. With an improved fitting algorithm, parameters involved in the BRDF model can be obtained to depict the surface characteristics. One of these parameters related to surface roughness was converted to a most used roughness parameter, the arithmetical mean deviation of the roughness profile (Ra), which can be used to validate the feasibility of the BRDF model in surface characterizations and performance evaluations.

  9. Surface characterization of modern resin composites: a multitechnique approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silikas, Nick; Kavvadia, Katerina; Eliades, George; Watts, David

    2005-04-01

    To characterize the surface properties of some modern resin composites employing a series of physicochemical methods. Specimens from three microhybrid (Palfique Estellite-PE, Z250 Filtek-ZF, Tetric Ceram-TC) and one nanofilled (Supreme Filtek-SF) conventionally photo-cured resin composites polished with Soflex disks were studied for the following properties: Surface chemical composition and degree of C=C conversion (FTIR), surface energetics (contact angles), surface texture (AFM), surface roughness (AFM, stylus profilometry) and gloss (60 degrees-, 20 degrees-angle specular gloss). Polar and non polar molecular groups were identified in all products including NH and CONH (SF, ZF, TC). SF and ZF demonstrated higher conversion than PE and TC (P 0.05) were found in critical surface tension, total work of adhesion and its polar and dispersion components, the latter being the highest in all products. AFM showed the smoothest surface texture in PE. The ranking of Sa, Sq, Ra and Rz roughness parameters was PEgloss measurements (PE, SF>ZF>TC, PTC, Pgloss differences. A positive correlation was found between Sa and Ra and a negative one between Sa and 20 degree-angle gloss.

  10. Measurement of the interaction between the flow and the free surface of a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Koji [Univ. of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan); Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The interaction between the flow and free surface was evaluated measuring the velocity distribution and surface movement simultaneously. The test section was a rectangular tank having a free surface. A rectangular nozzle was set near the free surface, causing the wavy free surface condition. The flow under the free surface was visualized by a laser light sheet and small tracer particles. With image processing techniques, the movement of the free surface and the movement of the particles were simultaneously measured from the recorded images, resulting in the velocity distributions and surface locations. Then, the interactions between the flow and free surface were evaluated using the form of turbulent energy and surface-related turbulent values. By increasing the turbulent energy near the free surface, the fluctuations of the free surface height and the inclination of the free surface were increased. The higher fluctuation of horizontal velocity was related to the higher surface position and negative inclination. The image processing technique is found to be very useful to evaluate the interaction between free surface and flow.

  11. Measurement of the interaction between the flow and the free surface of a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between the flow and free surface was evaluated measuring the velocity distribution and surface movement simultaneously. The test section was a rectangular tank having a free surface. A rectangular nozzle was set near the free surface, causing the wavy free surface condition. The flow under the free surface was visualized by a laser light sheet and small tracer particles. With image processing techniques, the movement of the free surface and the movement of the particles were simultaneously measured from the recorded images, resulting in the velocity distributions and surface locations. Then, the interactions between the flow and free surface were evaluated using the form of turbulent energy and surface-related turbulent values. By increasing the turbulent energy near the free surface, the fluctuations of the free surface height and the inclination of the free surface were increased. The higher fluctuation of horizontal velocity was related to the higher surface position and negative inclination. The image processing technique is found to be very useful to evaluate the interaction between free surface and flow

  12. Tire-to-Surface Friction-Coefficient Measurements with a C-123B Airplane on Various Runway Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Kolnick, Joseph J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the tire-to-surface friction coefficients available in aircraft braking during the landing run. The tests were made with a C-123B airplane on both wet and dry concrete and bituminous pavements and on snow-covered and ice surfaces at speeds from 12 to 115 knots. Measurements were made of the maximum (incipient skidding) friction coefficient, the full-skidding (locked wheel) friction coefficient, and the wheel slip ratio during braking.

  13. High-speed 3D surface measurement with mechanical projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a method to overcome the light spectral range limitation of using digital-light-processing (DLP) projector for 3D shape measurement by developing a mechanical projector. The mechanical projector enables much broader spectral range of light than that the DLP projector allows. The rapidly spinning disk with binary structures can generate desired sinusoidal patterns at a frequency of 10 kHz or higher with a single DC motor. By precisely synchronizing the camera with the projector, phase-shifted fringe patterns can be accurately captured for high-accuracy 3D shape measurement. We further employed a computational framework that could enable absolute phase and thus absolute 3D shape measurement. We developed such prototype system that experimentally demonstrated the success of the proposed method.

  14. Characterization of the Micro-shell Surface Using Holographic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandras, F.; Hermerel, C.; Choux, A.; Merillot, P.; Pin, G.; Jeannot, L. [CEA Valduc, Dept Rech Mat Nucl, Serv Microcibles, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-05-15

    To characterize the shape, the quality, and the roughness of micro-shells, typically used technologies are scanning electron microscopy, scanning interferometric microscopy, or atomic force microscopy. One of the drawbacks of these techniques is that they are generally slow because of their scanning process. Digital holographic microscopy technology is an innovation that can offer ability adapted to these studies. It captures holograms instead of intensity images, as done by conventional microscopes. The holograms are then digitally interpreted (10 per second) to reconstruct a double image, one for the intensity and another one for the phase. Using a rotation axis, the bump counting for the complete micro-shell surface is possible with a very high speed. Using an image stitching software, mapping can be done in a few minutes. Wavelets such as 'Mexican hat' are used to model the bumps. Each bump can then be characterized on the map by its position, diameter, and height. (authors)

  15. Measuring surface current velocities in the Agulhas region with ASAR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, MJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available is known to perform well. Although radial velocities derived from ASAR are on occasion able to represent the measured flow with incredible accuracy, the overall performance of the ASAR radial velocity product is negatively impacted by a few very large...

  16. Measurement of adhesion properties between topcoat paint and metallized/galvanized steel with surface energy measurement equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) Compare the adhesion properties of NEPCOAT-approved topcoat paint over : metallized or galvanized steel. Use surface-energy measuring technique to characterize the wetting properties of the liqui...

  17. An objective device for measuring surface roughness of skin and scars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Monica C. T.; van Gerven, Maaike S.; van der Wal, Martijn B. A.; Verhaegen, Pauline D. H. M.; Middelkoop, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Scar formation remains a major clinical problem; therefore, various therapies have been developed to improve scar quality. To evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. An appropriate, objective measuring instrument for assessment of surface roughness

  18. An objective device for measuring surface roughness of skin and scars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.C.T.; van Gerven, M.S.; van der Wal, M.B.A.; Verhaegen, P.D.H.M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scar formation remains a major clinical problem; therefore, various therapies have been developed to improve scar quality. To evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. An appropriate, objective measuring instrument for assessment of surface

  19. Direct measurement of surface-state conductance by microscopic four-point probe method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanikawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    For in situ measurements of local electrical conductivity of well defined crystal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum, we have developed microscopic four-point probes with a probe spacing of several micrometres, installed in a scanning-electron - microscope/electron-diffraction chamber. The probe...... is precisely positioned on targeted areas of the sample surface by using piezoactuators. This apparatus enables conductivity measurement with extremely high surface sensitivity, resulting in direct access to surface-state conductivity of the surface superstructures, and clarifying the influence of atomic steps...

  20. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  1. Surface topography measurement by frequency sweeping digital holography.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lédl, Vít; Psota, Pavel; Kaván, František; Matoušek, Ondřej; Mokrý, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 28 (2017), s. 7808-7814 ISSN 1559-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-11965S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Wavelenght Scanning Interferometry * Shape measurement * Profilomerty Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.56.007808

  2. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  3. Measurement system for special surface mapping using miniature displacement sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zowade Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to design a special system for measurements of elements with repetitive geometry or assemblies with repeating components, set in a linear patterns. The main focus was based on developing a computer program for signal analysis from variable number of miniature displacement sensors. It was set that the response for displacement of measuring tip from each sensor was a 0-5 V voltage signal with possibility of using different type of sensors. Requirements were determined based on projected measurement method. A special design of sensor was made for testing the computer program. If the characteristics of the sensor is known, it is possible to compute the type A evaluation of uncertainty. The results are presented in XY chart on computer screen. The program allows the user to choose any number of the sensors and determine the distance between them. Also, the possibility of calibration of sensors’ set was provided. The test were conducted on a prototype handle for sensors, made on a 3D printer.

  4. Studies of non-contact methods for roughness measurements on wood surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, I.A.S.; Porankiewicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of wood surfaces after different kinds of machining processes is a property of great importance for the wood processing industries. Present work is a study, whose objective was to evaluate different non-contact methods, for measurement of the quality of the wood surfaces by correlating them with stylus tracing. A number of Scots Pine samples were prepared by different kinds of wood machining processing. Surface roughness measurements were performed, utilizing two optical noncontact methods. The results indicate that the laser scan method can measure surface roughness on sawn wood with a sufficient degree of accuracy. (author) [de

  5. Laser surface treatment and the resultant hierarchical topography of Ti grade 2 for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczyńska, Donata, E-mail: donatakuczynska@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kwaśniak, Piotr [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Marczak, Jan [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Warsaw (Poland); Bonarski, Jan [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Smolik, Jerzy [Institute for Sustainable Technology–National Research Institute, Radom (Poland); Garbacz, Halina [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Presented surface modification results in multimodal topography. • Laser treatment creates roughness in a range from nano- to micrometers. • Multimodal topography promote protein adsorption. • Hybrid surface treatment results in a texture favorable for osteogenic passes. - Abstract: Modern prosthesis often have a complex structure, where parts of an implant have different functional properties. This gradient of functional properties means that local surface modifications are required. Method presented in this study was develop to functionalize prefabricated elements with original roughness obtained by conventional treatments used to homogenize and clean surface of titanium implants. Demonstrated methodology results in multimodal, periodic grooved topography with roughness in a range from nano- to micrometers. The modified surfaces were characterized in terms of shape, roughness, wettability, surface energy and chemical composition. For this purpose, the following methods were used: scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Protein adsorption studies were conducted to determine the potential biomedical application of proposed method. In order to estimate the intensity and way of the protein adsorption process on different titanium surfaces, XPS studies and AFM measurements were performed. The systematic comparison of surface states and their osseointegration tendency will be useful to evaluate suitability of presented method as an single step treatment for local surface functionalization of currently produced implantable devices.

  6. Measurement of natural and anthropogenic radiation in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, Jacques

    1981-01-01

    The use of alumina gel in municipal water treatment plants is proving very promising for the measurement of radioactivity in watercourses. The amazing fixation power of aluminum hydroxide and the large volume of water treated daily in one plant permits alumina gel to concentrate traces of natural and artificial radioisotopes to a level at which it becomes possible to observe very small amounts of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests, or even to follow over hundreds of kilometers the wastes of nuclear stations, no matter how weak the radioactivity may be [fr

  7. Free energy surfaces from nonequilibrium processes without work measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2006-04-01

    Recent developments in statistical mechanics have allowed the estimation of equilibrium free energies from the statistics of work measurements during processes that drive the system out of equilibrium. Here a different class of processes is considered, wherein the system is prepared and released from a nonequilibrium state, and no external work is involved during its observation. For such "clamp-and-release" processes, a simple strategy for the estimation of equilibrium free energies is offered. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations and analyzed in the context of tethered single-molecule experiments.

  8. Sub-Surface Windscreen for Outdoor Measurement of Infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A windscreen is configured for measuring outdoor infrasonic sound. The windscreen includes a container and a microphone. The container defines a chamber. The microphone is disposed in the chamber and can be operatively supported by the floor. The microphone is configured for detecting infrasonic sound. The container is advantageously formed from material that exhibits an acoustic impedance of between 0 and approximately 3150 times the acoustic impedance of air. A reflector plate may be disposed in the container. The reflector plate operatively can support the microphone and provides a doubling effect of infrasonic pressure at the microphone.

  9. Predictive Measures of Locomotor Performance on an Unstable Walking Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Goel, R.; Wood, S. J.; Cohen, H. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion requires integration of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory information to produce the appropriate motor output to control movement. The degree to which these sensory inputs are weighted and reorganized in discordant sensory environments varies by individual and may be predictive of the ability to adapt to novel environments. The goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to inform the design of training countermeasures designed to enhance the ability of astronauts to adapt to gravitational transitions improving balance and locomotor performance after a Mars landing and enhancing egress capability after a landing on Earth.

  10. Advanced Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques for Near Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadel, Daniel R.

    The development of aerodynamic boundary layers on wind turbine blades is an important consideration in their performance. It can be quite challenging to replicate full scale conditions in laboratory experiments, and advanced diagnostics become valuable in providing data not available from traditional means. A new variant of Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) known as cross-correlation DGV is developed to measure boundary layer profiles on a wind turbine blade airfoil in the large scale Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel. The instrument provides mean velocity vectors with reduced sensitivity to external conditions, a velocity measurement range from 0 ms-1 to over 3000 ms-1, and an absolute uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulations with synthetic signals reveal that the processing routine approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound in optimized conditions. A custom probe-beam technique is implanted to eliminate laser flare for measuring boundary layer profiles on a DU96-W-180 wind turbine airfoil model. Agreement is seen with laser Doppler velocimetry data within the uncertainty estimated for the DGV profile. Lessons learned from the near-wall flow diagnostics development were applied to a novel benchmark model problem incorporating the relevant physical mechanisms of the high amplitude periodic turbulent flow experienced by turbine blades in the field. The model problem is developed for experimentally motivated computational model development. A circular cylinder generates a periodic turbulent wake, in which a NACA 63215b airfoil with a chord Reynolds number Rec = 170,000 is embedded for a reduced frequency k = pi f c/V = 1.53. Measurements are performed with particle image velocimetry on the airfoil suction side and in highly magnified planes within the boundary layer. Outside of the viscous region, the Reynolds stress profile is consistent with the prediction of Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT), confirming that the redistribution of normal stresses is an inviscid effect. The

  11. Method for Pre-Conditioning a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This software allows one to up-sample or down-sample a measured surface map for model validation, not only without introducing any re-sampling errors, but also eliminating the existing measurement noise and measurement errors. Because the re-sampling of a surface map is accomplished based on the analytical expressions of Zernike-polynomials and a power spectral density model, such re-sampling does not introduce any aliasing and interpolation errors as is done by the conventional interpolation and FFT-based (fast-Fourier-transform-based) spatial-filtering method. Also, this new method automatically eliminates the measurement noise and other measurement errors such as artificial discontinuity. The developmental cycle of an optical system, such as a space telescope, includes, but is not limited to, the following two steps: (1) deriving requirements or specs on the optical quality of individual optics before they are fabricated through optical modeling and simulations, and (2) validating the optical model using the measured surface height maps after all optics are fabricated. There are a number of computational issues related to model validation, one of which is the "pre-conditioning" or pre-processing of the measured surface maps before using them in a model validation software tool. This software addresses the following issues: (1) up- or down-sampling a measured surface map to match it with the gridded data format of a model validation tool, and (2) eliminating the surface measurement noise or measurement errors such that the resulted surface height map is continuous or smoothly-varying. So far, the preferred method used for re-sampling a surface map is two-dimensional interpolation. The main problem of this method is that the same pixel can take different values when the method of interpolation is changed among the different methods such as the "nearest," "linear," "cubic," and "spline" fitting in Matlab. The conventional, FFT-based spatial filtering method used to

  12. Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, David J.; Chumbley, L. Scott

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the resulting set of impressions left from a tool tip act in a manner similar to a photographic negative, in that it leaves a reverse, or negative impression on the surface of a plate. If properly inverted and reversed, measurements from the softer material should be identical to the harder indenting object with regard to surface texture and roughness. This assumption is inherent in the area of forensics, where bullets, cartridge cases, and toolmarked surfaces from crime scenes are compared to similar marks made under controlled conditions in the forensic laboratory. This paper will examine the methodology used to compare two surfaces for similarities and dissimilarities, and comment on the applicability of this technique to other studies.

  13. Automatic centroid detection and surface measurement with a digital Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Zhao, Liping; Li, Xiang; Fang, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    With the breakthrough of manufacturing technologies, the measurement of surface profiles is becoming a big issue. A Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) provides a promising technology for non-contact surface measurement with a number of advantages over interferometry. The SHWS splits the incident wavefront into many subsections and transfers the distorted wavefront detection into the centroid measurement. So the accuracy of the centroid measurement determines the accuracy of the SHWS. In this paper, we have presented a new centroid measurement algorithm based on an adaptive thresholding and dynamic windowing method by utilizing image-processing techniques. Based on this centroid detection method, we have developed a digital SHWS system which can automatically detect centroids of focal spots, reconstruct the wavefront and measure the 3D profile of the surface. The system has been tested with various simulated and real surfaces such as flat surfaces, spherical and aspherical surfaces as well as deformable surfaces. The experimental results demonstrate that the system has good accuracy, repeatability and immunity to optical misalignment. The system is also suitable for on-line applications of surface measurement

  14. Towed underwater PIV measurement for free-surface effects on turbulent wake of a surface-piercing body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Myung Seol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a towed underwater particle image velocimetry (PIV system was validated in uniform flow and used to investigate the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake of a simple surface-piercing body. The selected test model was a cylindrical geometry formed by extruding the Wigley hull's waterplane shape in the vertical direction. Due to the constraints of the two-dimensional (2D PIV system used for the present study, the velocity field measurements were done separately for the vertical and horizontal planes. Using the measured data at several different locations, it was possible to identify the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake in terms of the mean velocity components and turbulence quantities. In order to provide an accuracy level of the data, uncertainty assessment was done following the International Towing Tank Conference standard procedure.

  15. Surface Roughness Measurements Utilizing Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    8217 The theory dealt only with the depen- modes, one symmetric and one antisymmetric, dence of the real wave vector on the real part of that propagate...quantity, while the wave vector is complex. It is shown that for both the supported and unsup- From Eqs. (1) and (2) one obtains the real implic- ported...Opt. Soc. sabbatical leave from the University of Toledo. Am.). Optical feild enhancemeft by long-range surface- I" ouT In O’ in OUT way@, plasma waves

  16. Apparent Surface Free Energy of Polymer/Paper Composite Material Treated by Air Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Terpiłowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasma treatment consists in changes of surface properties without changing internal properties. In this paper composite polymer/paper material is used for production of packaging in cosmetic industry. There are problems with bonding this material at the time of packaging production due to its properties. Composite surface was treated by air plasma for 1, 10, 20, and 30 s. The advancing and receding contact angles of water, formamide, and diiodomethane were measured using both treated and untreated samples. Apparent surface free energy was estimated using the hysteresis (CAH and Van Oss, Good, Chaudhury approaches (LWAB. Surface roughness was investigated using optical profilometry and identification of after plasma treatment emerging chemical groups was made by means of the XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. After plasma treatment the values of contact angles decreased which is particularly evident for polar liquids. Apparent surface free energy increased compared to that of untreated samples. Changes of energy value are due to the electron-donor parameter of energy. This parameter increases as a result of adding polar groups at the time of surface plasma activation. Changes of surface properties are combination of increase of polar chemical functional groups, increase on the surface, and surface roughness increase.

  17. Adaptive fringe-pattern projection for image saturation avoidance in 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan

    2014-04-21

    In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

  18. Near-field Light Scattering Techniques for Measuring Nanoparticle-Surface Interaction Energies and Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Perry; Ashcroft, Colby K; O'Dell, Dakota; Adam, Ian S; DiPaolo, Brian; Sabharwal, Manit; Shi, Ce; Hart, Robert; Earhart, Christopher; Erickson, David

    2015-08-15

    Nanoparticles are quickly becoming commonplace in many commercial and industrial products, ranging from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals to medical diagnostics. Predicting the stability of the engineered nanoparticles within these products a priori remains an important and difficult challenge. Here we describe our techniques for measuring the mechanical interactions between nanoparticles and surfaces using near-field light scattering. Particle-surface interfacial forces are measured by optically "pushing" a particle against a reference surface and observing its motion using scattered near-field light. Unlike atomic force microscopy, this technique is not limited by thermal noise, but instead takes advantage of it. The integrated waveguide and microfluidic architecture allow for high-throughput measurements of about 1000 particles per hour. We characterize the reproducibility of and experimental uncertainty in the measurements made using the NanoTweezer surface instrument. We report surface interaction studies on gold nanoparticles with 50 nm diameters, smaller than previously reported in the literature using similar techniques.

  19. Photoelectric work function measurement of a cesiated metal surface and its correlation with the surface-produced H- ion flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Berkner, K.H.; Pyle, R.V.; Stearns, J.W.

    1982-09-01

    For application in plasma heating, fueling, and current drive of magnetic fusion devices, high current negative deuterium ion sources for intense neutral beam injectors are being developed using efficient production of negative hydrogen isotope ions on low work function metal surfaces imbedded in hydrogen plasmas. In order to investigate the correlation between work function and negative hydrogen ion production, photoelectron emission from a cesiated metal surface, which is immersed in a hydrogen plasma with an electron density less than 5 x 10 10 /cc, was measured in the photon energy range of 1.3 to 4.1 eV. The work function determination was based on Fowler's analysis, and at the optimum coverage a work function of less than 1.5 eV was observed for a Cs-Cu surface. Measured values of work functions for different Cs coverages were compared to the negative hydrogen currents produced at the metal surface in the discharge; the surface production of negative hydrogen ion current is monotonically increasing with decreasing work function

  20. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  1. Direct measurement of sub-Debye-length attraction between oppositely charged surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Nir; Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Safran, S A; Klein, Jacob

    2009-09-11

    Using a surface force balance with fast video analysis, we have measured directly the attractive forces between oppositely charged solid surfaces (charge densities sigma(+), sigma(-)) across water over the entire range of interaction, in particular, at surface separations D below the Debye screening length lambda(S). At very low salt concentration we find a long-ranged attraction between the surfaces (onset ca. 100 nm), whose variation at Dsurface charge asymmetry (sigma(+) not equal to |sigma(-)|).

  2. Probing surface charge potentials of clay basal planes and edges by direct force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Chow, Ross; Wallace, Dean; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

    2008-11-18

    The dispersion and gelation of clay suspensions have major impact on a number of industries, such as ceramic and composite materials processing, paper making, cement production, and consumer product formulation. To fundamentally understand controlling mechanisms of clay dispersion and gelation, it is necessary to study anisotropic surface charge properties and colloidal interactions of clay particles. In this study, a colloidal probe technique was employed to study the interaction forces between a silica probe and clay basal plane/edge surfaces. A muscovite mica was used as a representative of 2:1 phyllosilicate clay minerals. The muscovite basal plane was prepared by cleavage, while the edge surface was obtained by a microtome cutting technique. Direct force measurements demonstrated the anisotropic surface charge properties of the basal plane and edge surface. For the basal plane, the long-range forces were monotonically repulsive within pH 6-10 and the measured forces were pH-independent, thereby confirming that clay basal planes have permanent surface charge from isomorphic substitution of lattice elements. The measured interaction forces were fitted well with the classical DLVO theory. The surface potentials of muscovite basal plane derived from the measured force profiles were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. In the case of edge surfaces, the measured forces were monotonically repulsive at pH 10, decreasing with pH, and changed to be attractive at pH 5.6, strongly suggesting that the charge on the clay edge surfaces is pH-dependent. The measured force profiles could not be reasonably fitted with the classical DLVO theory, even with very small surface potential values, unless the surface roughness was considered. The surface element integration (SEI) method was used to calculate the DLVO forces to account for the surface roughness. The surface potentials of the muscovite edges were derived by fitting the measured force profiles with the

  3. Surface dose measurements in and out of field. Implications for breast radiotherapy with megavoltage photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonski, Peta; Kron, Tomas [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); RMIT Univ., Melbourne (Australia); Ramachandran, Prabhakar; Franich, Rick [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the difference in surface dose between flat and flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams in the context of breast radiotherapy. The surface dose was measured for 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, 10 MV, 10 MV FFF and 18 MV photon beams using a thin window ionisation chamber for various field sizes. Profiles were acquired to ascertain the change in surface dose off-axis. Out-of-field measurements were included in a clinically representative half beam block tangential breast field. In the field centres of FFF beams the surface dose was found to be increased for small fields and decreased for large fields compared to flat beams. For FFF beams, surface dose was found to decrease off-axis and resulted in lower surface dose out-of-field compared to flat beams.

  4. Dynamic surface tension measurements of ionic surfactants using maximum bubble pressure tensiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilla U.; Moreno, Norman; Sharma, Vivek

    Dynamic surface tension refers to the time dependent variation in surface tension, and is intimately linked with the rate of mass transfer of a surfactant from liquid sub-phase to the interface. The diffusion- or adsorption-limited kinetics of mass transfer to interfaces is said to impact the so-called foamability and the Gibbs-Marangoni elasticity of surfaces. Dynamic surface tension measurements carried out with conventional methods like pendant drop analysis, Wilhelmy plate, etc. are limited in their temporal resolution (>50 ms). In this study, we describe design and application of maximum bubble pressure tensiometry for the measurement of dynamic surface tension effects at extremely short (1-50 ms) timescales. Using experiments and theory, we discuss the overall adsorption kinetics of charged surfactants, paying special attention to the influence of added salt on dynamic surface tension.

  5. Measuring adhesion on rough surfaces using atomic force microscopy with a liquid probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Escobar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a procedure to perform and interpret pull-off force measurements during the jump-off-contact process between a liquid drop and rough surfaces using a conventional atomic force microscope. In this method, a micrometric liquid mercury drop is attached to an AFM tipless cantilever to measure the force required to pull this drop off a rough surface. We test the method with two surfaces: a square array of nanometer-sized peaks commonly used for the determination of AFM tip sharpness and a multi-scaled rough diamond surface containing sub-micrometer protrusions. Measurements are carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere to avoid water capillary interactions. We obtain information about the average force of adhesion between a single peak or protrusion and the liquid drop. This procedure could provide useful microscopic information to improve our understanding of wetting phenomena on rough surfaces.

  6. Digital Moiré based transient interferometry and its application in optical surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Tan, Yifeng; Wang, Shaopu; Hu, Yao

    2017-10-01

    Digital Moiré based transient interferometry (DMTI) is an effective non-contact testing methods for optical surfaces. In DMTI system, only one frame of real interferogram is experimentally captured for the transient measurement of the surface under test (SUT). When combined with partial compensation interferometry (PCI), DMTI is especially appropriate for the measurement of aspheres with large apertures, large asphericity or different surface parameters. Residual wavefront is allowed in PCI, so the same partial compensator can be applied to the detection of multiple SUTs. Excessive residual wavefront aberration results in spectrum aliasing, and the dynamic range of DMTI is limited. In order to solve this problem, a method based on wavelet transform is proposed to extract phase from the fringe pattern with spectrum aliasing. Results of simulation demonstrate the validity of this method. The dynamic range of Digital Moiré technology is effectively expanded, which makes DMTI prospective in surface figure error measurement for intelligent fabrication of aspheric surfaces.

  7. Optical microscope for three-dimensional surface displacement and shape measurements at the microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuman; Pan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jingwen

    2014-07-15

    We report a novel optical microscope for full-field, noncontact measurements of three-dimensional (3D) surface deformation and topography at the microscale. The microscope system is based on a seamless integration of the diffraction-assisted image correlation (DAIC) method with fluorescent microscopy. We experimentally demonstrate the microscope's capability for 3D measurements with submicrometer spatial resolution and subpixel measurement accuracy.

  8. The electrical double layer on gold probed by electrokinetic and surface force measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Gold surfaces, obtained by vacuum deposition of 15-nm gold films on glass and silica wafers, were studied in aqueous solutions by streaming potential measurements and colloidal-probe AFM force measurements. In the force measurements both a bare and a gold-coated silica particle (6 m in diameter)

  9. Locating karst depressed columns by means of Rn measurement on the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Daimao; Liu Hongfu; Duan Hongjie; Duan Lindi; Sui Haichen

    1999-01-01

    The coal mining and the related surface projects are extremely harassed by the underground karst depressed columns. The author discussed the surface Rn concentration's abnormality caused by the karst depressed columns. It is concluded that different kinds of karst depressed column can cause different Rn concentration's abnormality. The α-cup Rn measuring instrument was used for detecting Rn abnormality on the surface in order to locate the underground karst depressed columns

  10. Development of shearography for surface strain measurement of non planar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Roger Michael

    2001-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the development of optical instrumentation for surface strain measurement of non-planar objects. The speckle interferometry technique of shearography is used to perform quantitative measurements of surface strain on non-planar objects and to compensate these measurements for the errors that are due to the shape and slope of the object. Shearography is an optical technique that is usually used for defect location and for qualitative strain characterisation. In this thesis a multi-component shearography system is described that can measure the six components of displacement gradient. From these measurements the surface strain can be fully characterised. For non-planar objects an error is introduced into the displacement gradient measurement due to the variation of the sensitivity vector across the field of view and the variation in the magnitude of applied shear due to the curvature of the object surface. To correct for these errors requires a knowledge of the slope and shape of the object. Shearography may also be used to measure object slope and shape by a source displacement technique. Therefore slope, shape and surface strain may be measured using the same optical system. The thesis describes a method of multiplexing the shear direction using polarisation switching, a method of measuring the source position using shadow Moire and the shearography source displacement technique for measuring the surface slope and shape of objects. The multi-component shearography system is used to perform measurements of the six components of surface strain, on an industrial component, with a correction applied for errors due to the shape and slope of the object. (author)

  11. Ag coated microneedle based surface enhanced Raman scattering probe for intradermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Clement; Liu, Quan

    2013-06-01

    We propose a silver coated microneedle to detect test molecules, including R6G and glucose, positioned at a depth of more than 700 μm below a skin phantom surface for mimicking intradermal surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements.

  12. Calibration of a distributed hydrology and land surface model using energy flux measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop and test a calibration approach on a spatially distributed groundwater-surface water catchment model (MIKE SHE) coupled to a land surface model component with particular focus on the water and energy fluxes. The model is calibrated against time series of eddy flux measure...

  13. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Maxillary Dental Casts Using Fourier Transform Profilometry: Precision and Reliability of the Measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefný, P.; Šmahel, Zbyněk; Formánek, P.; Peterka, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2004), s. 20-26 ISSN 1055-6656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/99/0891; GA ČR GA304/00/P049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 00002377901 Keywords : landmark identification Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.861, year: 2004

  14. Measurement of sound velocity on metal surfaces by impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yukihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Impulsive stimulated Brillouin Scattering (ISBS) experiment was performed in order to measure acoustic waves on metal surfaces. The ISBS technique offers robust method of obtaining acoustic velocities without physical contact. The generation and detection mechanism were discussed. (author)

  15. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  16. Surface-Borne Time-of-Reception Measurements (STORM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....

  17. Interferometry with flexible point source array for measuring complex freeform surface and its design algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Shen, Hua; Zhu, Rihong; Gao, Jinming; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinsong; Li, Bo

    2018-06-01

    The precision of the measurements of aspheric and freeform surfaces remains the primary factor restrict their manufacture and application. One effective means of measuring such surfaces involves using reference or probe beams with angle modulation, such as tilted-wave-interferometer (TWI). It is necessary to improve the measurement efficiency by obtaining the optimum point source array for different pieces before TWI measurements. For purpose of forming a point source array based on the gradients of different surfaces under test, we established a mathematical model describing the relationship between the point source array and the test surface. However, the optimal point sources are irregularly distributed. In order to achieve a flexible point source array according to the gradient of test surface, a novel interference setup using fiber array is proposed in which every point source can be independently controlled on and off. Simulations and the actual measurement examples of two different surfaces are given in this paper to verify the mathematical model. Finally, we performed an experiment of testing an off-axis ellipsoidal surface that proved the validity of the proposed interference system.

  18. Neutron probe measurement of soil water content close to soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faleiros, M.C.; Ravelo S, A.; Souza, M.D. de

    1993-01-01

    The problem of neutron probe soil water content measurements close to soil surface is analysed from the spatial variability and also from the slow neutron loss to the atmosphere points of view. Results obtained on a dark red latosol of the county of Piracicaba, SP, indicate the possibility of precisely measuring the neutron sphere of influence when different media are used on soil surface. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  19. Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

  20. Measurement uncertainty and gauge capability of surface roughness measurements in the automotive industry: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drégelyi-Kiss, Ágota; Czifra, Árpád

    2014-01-01

    The calculation methods of the capability of measurement processes in the automotive industry differ from each other. There are three main calculation methods: MSA, VDA 5 and the international standard, ISO 22514–7. During this research our aim was to compare the capability calculation methods in a case study. Two types of automotive parts (ten pieces of each) are chosen to examine the behaviour of the manufacturing process and to measure the required characteristics of the measurement process being evaluated. The measurement uncertainty of the measuring process is calculated according to the VDA 5 and ISO 22514–7, and MSA guidelines. In this study the conformance of a measurement process in an automotive manufacturing process is determined, and the similarities and the differences between the methods used are shown. (paper)

  1. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  2. Surface tension effect on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenot, Stéphane; Frétigny, Christian; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard

    2004-04-01

    The effect of reduced size on the elastic properties measured on silver and lead nanowires and on polypyrrole nanotubes with an outer diameter ranging between 30 and 250 nm is presented and discussed. Resonant-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to measure their apparent elastic modulus. The measured modulus of the nanomaterials with smaller diameters is significantly higher than that of the larger ones. The latter is comparable to the macroscopic modulus of the materials. The increase of the apparent elastic modulus for the smaller diameters is attributed to surface tension effects. The surface tension of the probed material may be experimentally determined from these AFM measurements.

  3. Calibration of the geometrical characteristics of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusca, C L; Leach, R K; Helery, F; Gutauskas, T

    2011-01-01

    The use of areal surface topography measuring instruments has increased significantly over the past ten years as industry starts to embrace the use of surface structuring to affect the function of a component. This has led to a range of areal surface topography measuring instruments being developed and becoming available commercially. For such instruments to be used as part of quality control during production, it is essential for them to be calibrated according to international standards. The ISO 25178 suite of specification standards on areal surface topography measurement presents a series of tests that can be used to calibrate the metrological characteristics of an areal surface topography measuring instrument. Calibration artefacts and test procedures have been developed that are compliant with ISO 25178. The material measures include crossed gratings, resolution artefacts and pseudorandom surfaces. Traceability is achieved through the NPL Areal Instrument - a primary stylus-based instrument that uses laser interferometers to measure the displacement of the stylus tip. Good practice guides on areal calibration have also been drafted for stylus instruments, coherence scanning interferometers, scanning confocal microscopes and focus variation instruments.

  4. Measurement of free-surface of liquid metal lithium jet for IFMIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Takuji Kanemura; Seiji Miyamoto; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hiroo Nakamura; Izuru Matsushita; Takeo Muroga

    2006-01-01

    This reports an experimental study on flow characteristics of a lithium target flow of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Surface shapes of the target were tried to measure by pattern projection method that is a three dimensional image measurement method. Irregularity of the surface shape caused by surface wakes was successfully measured by the method. IFMIF liquid lithium target is formed a flat plane jet of 25 mm in depth and 260 mm in width, and flows in a flow velocity range of 10 to 20 m/s. Aim of this study is to develop measurement techniques for monitoring of the target when IFMIF is in operation. The lithium target flow is high speed jet and the temperature high is more than 500 K. Also, light is not transmitted into liquid metal lithium. Therefore, almost of all flow measurement techniques developed for water are not used for lithium flow. In this study, pattern projection method was employed to measure the surface irregularity of the target. In the method, stripe patterns are projected onto the flow surface. The projected patterns are deformed according the surface shape. Three-dimensional surface shape is measured by analyzing the deformed patterns recorded using a CCD camera. The method uses the property that lithium dose not transmit visible lights. The experiments were carried out using a lithium loop at Osaka University. In this facility, lithium plane jet of 10 mm in depth and 70 mm width is obtained in the velocity range of less than 15 m/s using a two contractions nozzle. The pattern projection method was used to measure the amplitude of surface irregularity caused by surface wakes. The surface wakes were generated from small damaged at the nozzle edge caused by erosion, and those were successfully measured by the method. The measurement results showed the amplitude of the surface wakes were approximately equal to a size of damage of a nozzle. The amplitude was decreasing with distance to down stream and with decreasing

  5. In-Situ Measurement of Chirality of Molecules and Molecular Assemblies with Surface Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongfei

    2012-01-01

    Developments in quantitative measurement and analysis in nonlinear surface spectroscopy, namely, second harmonic generation linear dichroism (SHG-LD) and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy linear dichroism (SFG-VS-LD), provide new opportunities for probing the surface chirality of monolayers and thin films. In this book chapter, the up-to-date theoretical background and experimental methodology, as well as examples and future perspectives on the developments with surface nonlinear spectroscopy in surface chirality studies are to be summarized and outlined for general readers.

  6. Radius of curvature measurement of spherical smooth surfaces by multiple-beam interferometry in reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, D. G.; Shaalan, M. S.; Eloker, M. M.; Kim, Daesuk

    2010-06-01

    In this paper a method is presented to accurately measure the radius of curvature of different types of curved surfaces of different radii of curvatures of 38 000,18 000 and 8000 mm using multiple-beam interference fringes in reflection. The images captured by the digital detector were corrected by flat fielding method. The corrected images were analyzed and the form of the surfaces was obtained. A 3D profile for the three types of surfaces was obtained using Zernike polynomial fitting. Some sources of uncertainty in measurement were calculated by means of ray tracing simulations and the uncertainty budget was estimated within λ/40.

  7. Surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti binary alloys measured by electromagnetic levitation and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, S.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.; Novakovic, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti alloys has been measured by using the containerless technique of electromagnetic levitation and theoretically calculated in the framework of the compound formation model. Measurements have been carried out on alloys covering the entire range of composition and over the temperature range 1275-2050 K. For all investigated alloys the surface tension can be described by a linear function of the temperature with negative slope. Due to the presence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state the surface properties of liquid Cu-Ti alloys are satisfactory described by the compound formation model.

  8. Acoustic profilometry of interphases in epoxy due to segregation and diffusion using Brillouin microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U; Bactavatchalou, R; Baller, J; Philipp, M; Sanctuary, R; Zielinski, B; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite du Luxembourg, 162A, Avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1115 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Alnot, P; Possart, W [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (Germany)], E-mail: mail@tauron.de

    2008-02-15

    Reactive network forming polymer systems like epoxies are of huge technological interest because of their adhesive properties based on specific interactions with a large variety of materials. These specific interactions alter the morphology of the epoxy within areas determined by the correlation length of these interactions. The changed morphology leads to interphases with altered (mechanical) properties. Besides these surface-induced interphases, bulk interphases do occur due to segregation, crystallization, diffusion, etc. A new experimental technique to characterize such mechanical interphases is {mu}-Brillouin spectroscopy ({mu}-BS). With {mu}-BS, we studied interphases and their formation in epoxies due to segregation of the constituent components and due to selective diffusion of one component. In the latter case, we will demonstrate the influence of changing the boundary conditions of the diffusion process on the shape of the interphase.

  9. Measurement of lithium target surface velocity in the IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Takuji, E-mail: kanemura.takuji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Hoashi, Eiji [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshihashi, Sachiko; Horiike, Hiroshi [Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen 3-6-1, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Wakai, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The objective is to measure the free-surface velocity field of the IFMIF Li target. • The Li target has an important role to remove 10 MW heat input from a deuteron beam. • The free-surface of the Li target is under the most severe heat load condition. • Measured surface velocities are almost equal to cross-sectional average velocities. • It was confirmed that the IFMIF Li target has adequate heat removal performance. - Abstract: In the framework of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) project of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), we measured surface velocity fields of a lithium (Li) target at the EVEDA Li test loop under specifically-designated IFMIF conditions (target speeds of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, vacuum pressure of 10{sup −3} Pa, and Li temperature of 250 °C). In the current design of the IFMIF, the free surface of the Li target is under a most severe heat load condition with respect to Li boiling. The objective of this study is to measure the actual free-surface velocity under these IFMIF conditions to evaluate the heat removal performance of the Li target. The measured results (using the surface-wave tracking method that our team developed) showed two-dimensional time-averaged velocity distributions around the IFMIF beam footprint being virtually uniform, and close to the cross-sectional average velocity. The uniformity of the velocity distributions was less than 1 m/s. The comparison between the measured and analyzed surface velocity at the beam center showed that the analysis accurately predicts the measurement results within a margin of 3%. Finally, it was confirmed that the Li target delivers adequate heat removal performance in the IFMIF as designed.

  10. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  11. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  12. LDV measurement of boundary layer on rotating blade surface in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Suzuki, Daiki; Kaga, Norimitsu; Kagisaki, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    Wind turbines generate electricity due to extracting energy from the wind. The rotor aerodynamics strongly depends on the flow around blade. The surface flow on the rotating blade affects the sectional performance. The wind turbine surface flow has span-wise component due to span-wise change of airfoil section, chord length, twisted angle of blade and centrifugal force on the flow. These span-wise flow changes the boundary layer on the rotating blade and the sectional performance. Hence, the thorough understanding of blade surface flow is important to improve the rotor performance. For the purpose of clarification of the flow behaviour around the rotor blade, the velocity in the boundary layer on rotating blade surface of an experimental HAWT was measured in a wind tunnel. The velocity measurement on the blade surface was carried out by a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). As the results of the measurement, characteristics of surface flow are clarified. In optimum tip speed operation, the surface flow on leading edge and r/R=0.3 have large span-wise velocity which reaches 20% of sectional inflow velocity. The surface flow inboard have three dimensional flow patterns. On the other hand, the flow outboard is almost two dimensional in cross sectional plane.

  13. Measurement of surface temperature profiles on liquid uranium metal during electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    Surface temperature distributions of liquid uranium in a water-cooled copper crucible during electron beam evaporation were measured. Evaporation surface was imaged by a lens through a band-path filter (650{+-}5 nm) and a double mirror system on a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The video signals of the recorded image were connected to an image processor and converted to two-dimensional spectral radiance profiles. The surface temperatures were obtained from the spectral radiation intensity ratio of the evaporation surface and a freezing point of uranium and/or a reference light source using Planck`s law of radiation. The maximum temperature exceeded 3000 K and had saturation tendency with increasing electron beam input. The measured surface temperatures agreed with those estimated from deposition rates and data of saturated vapor pressure of uranium. (author)

  14. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  15. Actively stabilized optical fiber interferometry technique for online/in-process surface measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaiwei; Martin, Haydn; Jiang Xiangqian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report the recent progress in optical-beam scanning fiber interferometry for potential online nanoscale surface measurement based on the previous research. It attempts to generate a robust and miniature measurement device for future development into a multiprobe array measurement system. In this research, both fiber-optic-interferometry and the wavelength-division-multiplexing techniques have been used, so that the optical probe and the optical interferometer are well spaced and fast surface scanning can be carried out, allowing flexibility for online measurement. In addition, this system provides a self-reference signal to stabilize the optical detection with high common-mode noise suppression by adopting an active phase tracking and stabilization technique. Low-frequency noise was significantly reduced compared with unstabilized result. The measurement of a sample surface shows an attained repeatability of 3.3 nm

  16. Adaptive Sampling based 3D Profile Measuring Method for Free-Form Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xianyin; Zou, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Peng, Fangyu; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Guozhang

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of adaptability and scanning efficiency of the current surface profile detection device, a high precision and high efficiency detection approach is proposed for surface contour of free-form surface parts based on self- adaptability. The contact mechanical probe and the non-contact laser probe are synthetically integrated according to the sampling approach of adaptive front-end path detection. First, the front-end path is measured by the non-contact laser probe, and the detection path is planned by the internal algorithm of the measuring instrument. Then a reasonable measurement sampling is completed according to the planned path by the contact mechanical probe. The detection approach can effectively improve the measurement efficiency of the free-form surface contours and can simultaneously detect the surface contours of unknown free-form surfaces with different curvatures and even different rate of curvature. The detection approach proposed in this paper also has important reference value for free-form surface contour detection.

  17. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert

    2016-07-01

    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  18. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Expected Performance in Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Woods, W. W.; Tyler, G. L.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Strobel, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for investigating key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the upcoming flyby in July 2015. REX flight equipment augments the NH radio transceiver used for spacecraft communications and tracking. The REX hardware implementation requires 1.6 W and 160 g. This presentation will focus on the final design and the predicted performance of two high-priority observations. First, REX will receive signals from a pair of 70-m antennas on Earth - each transmitting 20 kW at 4.2-cm wavelength - during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. The data recorded by REX will reveal the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius. Second, REX will measure the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2-cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the nightside are visible, allowing the surface temperature and its spatial variations to be determined. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of about 10 pixels; one bisects Pluto whereas the second crosses the winter pole. We will illustrate the capabilities of REX by reviewing the method of analysis and the precision achieved in a lunar occultation observed by New Horizons in May 2011. Re-analysis of radio occultation measurements by Voyager 2 at Triton is also under way. More generally, REX objectives include a radio occultation search for Pluto's ionosphere; examination of Charon through both radio occultation and radiometry; a search for a radar echo from Pluto's surface; and improved knowledge of the Pluto system mass and the Pluto-Charon mass ratio from a combination of two-way and one-way Doppler frequency measurements.

  19. Improving the surface metrology accuracy of optical profilers by using multiple measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xudong; Huang, Qiushi; Shen, Zhengxiang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-10-01

    The performance of high-resolution optical systems is affected by small angle scattering at the mid-spatial-frequency irregularities of the optical surface. Characterizing these irregularities is, therefore, important. However, surface measurements obtained with optical profilers are influenced by additive white noise, as indicated by the heavy-tail effect observable on their power spectral density (PSD). A multiple-measurement method is used to reduce the effects of white noise by averaging individual measurements. The intensity of white noise is determined using a model based on the theoretical PSD of fractal surface measurements with additive white noise. The intensity of white noise decreases as the number of times of multiple measurements increases. Using multiple measurements also increases the highest observed spatial frequency; this increase is derived and calculated. Additionally, the accuracy obtained using multiple measurements is carefully studied, with the analysis of both the residual reference error after calibration, and the random errors appearing in the range of measured spatial frequencies. The resulting insights on the effects of white noise in optical profiler measurements and the methods to mitigate them may prove invaluable to improve the quality of surface metrology with optical profilers.

  20. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hirokuni [Ohyo Koken Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hatakeyama, Mutsuo [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, Mitsuo; Yanagihara, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures {beta}-rays and {gamma}-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of {beta}-rays measures {gamma}-rays. The {beta}-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting {gamma}-ray counts measured by the inner detector from {gamma}- and {beta}-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of {sup 60}Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm{sup 2} with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm{sup 2} corresponding to clearance level of {sup 60}Co (0.4 Bq/g) can be evaluated with measurement time of 2 seconds, which is equal to measurement speed of 54 m/h. (author)

  1. Research on the method of improving the accuracy of CMM (coordinate measuring machine) testing aspheric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wang; Xu, Lingdi; Li, Ang

    2017-10-01

    Large aspheric surface which have the deviation with spherical surface are being used widely in various of optical systems. Compared with spherical surface, Large aspheric surfaces have lots of advantages, such as improving image quality, correcting aberration, expanding field of view, increasing the effective distance and make the optical system compact, lightweight. Especially, with the rapid development of space optics, space sensor resolution is required higher and viewing angle is requred larger. Aspheric surface will become one of the essential components in the optical system. After finishing Aspheric coarse Grinding surface profile error is about Tens of microns[1].In order to achieve the final requirement of surface accuracy,the aspheric surface must be quickly modified, high precision testing is the basement of rapid convergence of the surface error . There many methods on aspheric surface detection[2], Geometric ray detection, hartmann detection, ronchi text, knifeedge method, direct profile test, interferometry, while all of them have their disadvantage[6]. In recent years the measure of the aspheric surface become one of the import factors which are restricting the aspheric surface processing development. A two meter caliber industrial CMM coordinate measuring machine is avaiable, but it has many drawbacks such as large detection error and low repeatability precision in the measurement of aspheric surface coarse grinding , which seriously affects the convergence efficiency during the aspherical mirror processing. To solve those problems, this paper presents an effective error control, calibration and removal method by calibration mirror position of the real-time monitoring and other effective means of error control, calibration and removal by probe correction and the measurement mode selection method to measure the point distribution program development. This method verified by real engineer examples, this method increases the original industrial

  2. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten

    2016-01-01

    for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.......g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed......, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle...

  3. The deconvolution of sputter-etching surface concentration measurements to determine impurity depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I.V.; Nobes, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-linear partial differential continuity equations that describe the evolution of the depth profiles and surface concentrations of marker atoms in kinematically equivalent systems undergoing sputtering, ion collection and atomic mixing are solved using the method of characteristics. It is shown how atomic mixing probabilities can be deduced from measurements of ion collection depth profiles with increasing ion fluence, and how this information can be used to predict surface concentration evolution. Even with this information, however, it is shown that it is not possible to deconvolute directly the surface concentration measurements to provide initial depth profiles, except when only ion collection and sputtering from the surface layer alone occur. It is demonstrated further that optimal recovery of initial concentration depth profiles could be ensured if the concentration-measuring analytical probe preferentially sampled depths near and at the maximum depth of bombardment-induced perturbations. (author)

  4. Surface electronic transport measurements: A micro multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    This work is mostly focused on the study of electronic transport properties of two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene and topological insulators. To study these, we have improved a unique micro multi-point probe instrument used to perform transport measurements. Not only the experimental...... quantities are extracted, such as conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility. • A method to insulate electrically epitaxial graphene grown on metals, based on a stepwise intercalation methodology, is developed and transport measurements are performed in order to test the insulation. • We show...... a direct measurement of the surface electronic transport on a bulk topological insulator. The surface state conductivity and mobility are obtained. Apart from transport properties, we also investigate the atomic structure of the Bi2Se3(111) surface via surface x-ray diraction and low-energy electron...

  5. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An ellipsometric measurement of optical properties for InP surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Irene, E.A.; Hattangady, S.; Fountain, G.

    1990-01-01

    Several chemical cleaning procedures for InP surfaces have been studied using ellipsometry. The strong influence of cleaning on the optical properties of InP surfaces suggests that the measurements involved the formation of surface films. In order to determine the complex index of refraction for InP, a novel method which employs ellipsometry measurements of a thin nonabsorbing film on a substrate rather than measurements of a bare surface has been explored. From the knowledge of the refractive index for a series of thicknesses of films on a substrate, the complex refractive index value for the substrate can be determined. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 films on InP have been used for this experiment, and the complex refractive index for InP has been determined to be 3.521 + i0.300 at the wavelength of 632.8 nm

  7. Full-field optical thickness profilometry of semitransparent thin films with transmission densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay; Harris, Tequila

    2010-01-01

    A novel bidirectional thickness profilometer based on transmission densitometry was designed to measure the localized thickness of semitransparent films on a dynamic manufacturing line. The densitometer model shows that, for materials with extinction coefficients between 0.3 and 2.9 D/mm, 100-500 μm measurements can be recorded with less than ±5% error at more than 10,000 locations in real time. As a demonstration application, the thickness profiles of 75 mmx100 mm regions of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) were determined by converting the optical density of the sample to thickness with the Beer-Lambert law. The PEM extinction coefficient was determined to be 1.4 D/mm, with an average thickness error of 4.7%.

  8. Do measures matter? Comparing surface-density-derived and census-tract-derived measures of racial residential segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Lance A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial residential segregation is hypothesized to affect population health by systematically patterning health-relevant exposures and opportunities according to individuals' race or income. Growing interest into the association between residential segregation and health disparities demands more rigorous appraisal of commonly used measures of segregation. Most current studies rely on census tracts as approximations of the local residential environment when calculating segregation indices of either neighborhoods or metropolitan areas. Because census tracts are arbitrary in size and shape, reliance on this geographic scale limits understanding of place-health associations. More flexible, explicitly spatial derivations of traditional segregation indices have been proposed but have not been compared with tract-derived measures in the context of health disparities studies common to social epidemiology, health demography, or medical geography. We compared segregation measured with tract-derived as well as GIS surface-density-derived indices. Measures were compared by region and population size, and segregation measures were linked to birth record to estimate the difference in association between segregation and very preterm birth. Separate analyses focus on metropolitan segregation and on neighborhood segregation. Results Across 231 metropolitan areas, tract-derived and surface-density-derived segregation measures are highly correlated. However overall correlation obscures important differences by region and metropolitan size. In general the discrepancy between measure types is greatest for small metropolitan areas, declining with increasing population size. Discrepancies in measures are greatest in the South, and smallest in Western metropolitan areas. Choice of segregation index changed the magnitude of the measured association between segregation and very preterm birth. For example among black women, the risk ratio for very

  9. Precise measurement of cat patellofemoral joint surface geometry with multistation digital photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsky, J L; Boyd, S K; Lichti, D D; Chapman, M A; Salkauskas, K

    1999-04-01

    Three-dimensional joint models are important tools for investigating mechanisms related to normal and pathological joints. Often these models necessitate accurate three-dimensional joint surface geometric data so that reliable model results can be obtained; however, in models based on small joints, this is often problematic due to limitations of the present techniques. These limitations include insufficient measurement precision the requirement of contact for the measurement process, and lack of entire joint description. This study presents a new non-contact method for precise determination of entire joint surfaces using multistation digital photogrammetry (MDPG) and is demonstrated by determining the cartilage and subchondral bone surfaces of the cat patellofemoral (PF) joint. The digital camera-lens setup was precisely calibrated using 16 photographs arranged to achieve highly convergent geometry to estimate interior and distortion parameters of the camera-lens setup. Subsequently, six photographs of each joint surface were then acquired for surface measurement. The digital images were directly imported to a computer and newly introduced semi-automatic computer algorithms were used to precisely determine the image coordinates. Finally, a rigorous mathematical procedure named the bundle adjustment was used to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the joint surfaces and to estimate the precision of the coordinates. These estimations were validated by comparing the MDPG measurements of a cylinder and plane to an analytical model. The joint surfaces were successfully measured using the MDPG method with mean precision estimates in the least favorable coordinate direction being 10.3 microns for subchondral bone and 17.9 microns for cartilage. The difference in measurement precision for bone and cartilage primarily reflects differences in the translucent properties of the surfaces.

  10. 360-degrees profilometry using strip-light projection coupled to Fourier phase-demodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-01-11

    360 degrees (360°) digitalization of three dimensional (3D) solids using a projected light-strip is a well-established technique in academic and commercial profilometers. These profilometers project a light-strip over the digitizing solid while the solid is rotated a full revolution or 360-degrees. Then, a computer program typically extracts the centroid of this light-strip, and by triangulation one obtains the shape of the solid. Here instead of using intensity-based light-strip centroid estimation, we propose to use Fourier phase-demodulation for 360° solid digitalization. The advantage of Fourier demodulation over strip-centroid estimation is that the accuracy of phase-demodulation linearly-increases with the fringe density, while in strip-light the centroid-estimation errors are independent. Here we proposed first to construct a carrier-frequency fringe-pattern by closely adding the individual light-strip images recorded while the solid is being rotated. Next, this high-density fringe-pattern is phase-demodulated using the standard Fourier technique. To test the feasibility of this Fourier demodulation approach, we have digitized two solids with increasing topographic complexity: a Rubik's cube and a plastic model of a human-skull. According to our results, phase demodulation based on the Fourier technique is less noisy than triangulation based on centroid light-strip estimation. Moreover, Fourier demodulation also provides the amplitude of the analytic signal which is a valuable information for the visualization of surface details.

  11. Curvature-insensitive methodology for thermal-wave depth-profilometry in multi-layered curvilinear solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liwang; Wang Chinhua; Yuan Xiao; Mandelis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A generalized similarity normalization (SN) methodology for characterizing depth profiles of continuously varying thermophysical properties in curvilinear (cylindrical and spherical) solids is presented. Specifically, the principle and the physical mechanism of the elimination of the surface curvature effect from the overall photothermal signal is introduced based on theoretical models of cylindrical, spherical and flat solids with multi-layer structures. The effects of the relative values of radii of curvature of the curvilinear solid, the thickness of the inhomogeneous surface layer and the measurement azimuthal angle on the validity of the technique are discussed in detail. Experimental reconstructions of thermophysical depth profiles of hardened cylindrical steel rods of various diameters are performed based on both curvilinear theory and the equivalent flat surface theory. The reconstructed results are compared and validated.

  12. Determination and compensation of the “reference surface” from redundant sets of surface measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polack, François, E-mail: francois.polack@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Thomasset, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.thomasset@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2013-05-11

    When trying to measure an optical surface at utmost absolute precision, the problem of the missing or unknown “reference surface” is often encountered. It is obvious with Fizeau and Michelson's interferometry, where the height difference between the surface under test (SUT) and a reference surface is measured. It is also true from slope measurements in long trace profilers (LTP), where due to small construction errors, the response to a perfectly flat ideal surface can be considered as an unknown reference to be subtracted from the measurement data. As no “perfect artifact” can exist, these references cannot be directly determined. The addition of the unknown reference can severely bias the reconstructed surface when field stitching is applied. The results of ptychography have proved that when a measurement is a function of a unique object function with a translated but unique response function, the redundancy of a large set of data allows accurate reconstructions of the object and response function despite the presence of measurement noise. In the case of LTP and interferometry, the basic problem is linear and can be solved by linear algebra rather than iteratively. The method has been already applied to SOLEIL and ESRF LTPs and is succesfully used on a regular base. We show here that the method can be also applied to interferometry and improve stitching results.

  13. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  14. Repair Bond Strength of Aged Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wendler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different mechanical surface treatments and chemical bonding protocols on the tensile bond strength (TBS of aged composite. Bar specimens were produced using a nanohybrid resin composite and aged in distilled water for 30 days. Different surface treatments (diamond bur, phosphoric acid, silane, and sandblasting with Al2O3 or CoJet Sand, as well as bonding protocols (Primer/Adhesive were used prior to application of the repair composite. TBS of the specimens was measured and the results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Student–Newman–Keuls test (α = 0.05. Mechanically treated surfaces were characterized under SEM and by profilometry. The effect of water aging on the degree of conversion was measured by means of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. An important increase in the degree of conversion was observed after aging. No significant differences in TBS were observed among the mechanical surface treatments, despite variations in surface roughness profiles. Phosphoric acid etching significantly improved repair bond strength values. The cohesive TBS of the material was only reached using resin bonding agents. Application of an intermediate bonding system plays a key role in achieving reliable repair bond strengths, whereas the kind of mechanical surface treatment appears to play a secondary role.

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A. E.; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane ...

  16. Aggregate surface areas quantified through laser measurements for South African asphalt mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available design. This paper introduces the use of a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning method to directly measure the surface area of aggregates used in road pavements in South Africa. As an application of the laser-based measurements, the asphalt film...

  17. [A method of temperature measurement for hot forging with surface oxide based on infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Qi, Yan-de; Fu, Xian-bin

    2012-05-01

    High temperature large forging is covered with a thick oxide during forging. It leads to a big measurement data error. In this paper, a method of measuring temperature based on infrared spectroscopy is presented. It can effectively eliminate the influence of surface oxide on the measurement of temperature. The method can measure the surface temperature and emissivity of the oxide directly using the infrared spectrum. The infrared spectrum is radiated from surface oxide of forging. Then it can derive the real temperature of hot forging covered with the oxide using the heat exchange equation. In order to greatly restrain interference spectroscopy through included in the received infrared radiation spectrum, three interference filter system was proposed, and a group of optimal gap parameter values using spectral simulation were obtained. The precision of temperature measurement was improved. The experimental results show that the method can accurately measure the surface temperature of high temperature forging covered with oxide. It meets the requirements of measurement accuracy, and the temperature measurement method is feasible according to the experiment result.

  18. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A.E; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane...

  19. Comparative investigation of optical techniques for topography measurement of rough plastic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    2003-01-01

    An experimental assessment of three-dimensional surface topography characterisation methods for use with rough plastic parts has been carried out. Also, calibration methods and measuring procedures including optimal measuring conditions have been developed and applied. The study is based on rough...

  20. Device for measuring the two-dimensional distribution of a radioactive substance on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described by which, using a one-dimensional measuring proportional counter tube depending on position, one can measure the two-dimensionally distributed radioactivity of a surface and can plot this to scale two-dimensionally, after computer processing, or can show it two-dimensionally on a monitor. (orig.) [de

  1. Defining and measuring the mean residence time of lateral surface transient storage zones in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Jackson; R. Haggerty; S.V. Apte; A. Coleman; K.J. Drost

    2012-01-01

    Surface transient storage (STS) has functional significance in stream ecosystems because it increases solute interaction with sediments. After volume, mean residence time is the most important metric of STS, but it is unclear how this can be measured accurately or related to other timescales and field-measureable parameters. We studied mean residence time of lateral...

  2. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  3. Using the lambda function to evaluate probe measurements of charged dielectric surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T. O.; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The use of Pedersen's λ function to evaluate electrostatic probe measurements of charged dielectric surfaces is demonstrated. With a knowledge of the probe λ function, the procedure by which this function is employed is developed, and thereafter applied to a set of experimental measurements avail...

  4. An Evaluation of pectus excavatum by means of body surface measurements on chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotani, Taichi; Ohama, Kazunori; Shimotake, Takashi; Ishikawa, Nobuki; Watanabe, Reiji

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the body surface index replaces the Haller index in order to evaluate the severity of pectus excavatum. Sixty-nine cases with a diagnosis of pectus excavatum between August 2001 and January 2008 were prospectively enrolled in the study. The anterior-posterior chest dimension, lateral chest dimension and depth of the most profound depressed area were measured. The body surface index was expressed as an equation A/(B-C), where A was the transverse diameter, B was the anterior-posterior diameter and C was the depth of the depressed area. This index was compared to the Haller index in each patient. In this study, each value was measured on a chest CT scan. The body surface index significantly correlated with the Haller index, in which the coefficient of correlation was 0.879 (p<0.01). The body surface index corresponding to Haller index 3.25 seems to be 1.67. We could find the body surface index corresponding to each Haller index. We propose that an evaluation of pectus excavatum by means of body surface measurements is clinically useful, and may replace the Haller index. The body surface index may allow us to assess the severity of pectus excavatum without a CT scan, resulting in a reduction of radiation exposure for children with pectus excavatum. It's possible to evaluate the body surface index by using a relational table between this index and the Hailer index. We'll evaluate the body surface index by using values measured on a real body. (author)

  5. Heat Transfer Measurement and Modeling in Rigid High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Cunnington, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer in rigid reusable surface insulations was investigated. Steady-state thermal conductivity measurements in a vacuum were used to determine the combined contribution of radiation and solid conduction components of heat transfer. Thermal conductivity measurements at higher pressures were then used to estimate the effective insulation characteristic length for gas conduction modeling. The thermal conductivity of the insulation can then be estimated at any temperature and pressure in any gaseous media. The methodology was validated by comparing estimated thermal conductivities with published data on a rigid high-temperature silica reusable surface insulation tile. The methodology was also applied to the alumina enhanced thermal barrier tiles. Thermal contact resistance for thermal conductivity measurements on rigid tiles was also investigated. A technique was developed to effectively eliminate thermal contact resistance on the rigid tile s cold-side surface for the thermal conductivity measurements.

  6. Measurement of the sea surface wind speed and direction by an airborne microwave radar altimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrassov, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2001-07-01

    A pilot needs operational information about wind over sea as well as wave height to provide safety of a hydroplane landing on water. Near-surface wind speed and direction can be obtained with an airborne microwave scatterometer, radar designed for measuring the scatter characteristics of a surface. Mostly narrow-beam antennas are applied for such wind measurement. Unfortunately, a microwave narrow-beam antenna has considerable size that hampers its placing on flying apparatus. In this connection, a possibility to apply a conventional airborne radar altimeter as a scatterometer with a nadir-looking wide-beam antenna in conjunction with Doppler filtering for recovering the wind vector over sea is discussed, and measuring algorithms of sea surface wind speed and direction are proposed. The obtained results can be used for creation of an airborne radar system for operational measurement of the sea roughness characteristics and for safe landing of a hydroplane on water. (orig.)

  7. Tile Surface Thermocouple Measurement Challenges from the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Berger, Karen; Anderson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hypersonic entry flight testing motivated by efforts seeking to characterize boundary layer transition on the Space Shuttle Orbiters have identified challenges in our ability to acquire high quality quantitative surface temperature measurements versus time. Five missions near the end of the Space Shuttle Program implemented a tile surface protuberance as a boundary layer trip together with tile surface thermocouples to capture temperature measurements during entry. Similar engineering implementations of these measurements on Discovery and Endeavor demonstrated unexpected measurement voltage response during the high heating portion of the entry trajectory. An assessment has been performed to characterize possible causes of the issues experienced during STS-119, STS-128, STS-131, STS-133 and STS-134 as well as similar issues encountered during other orbiter entries.

  8. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...... measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures...

  9. Noncontact surface tension and viscosity measurements of rhenium in the liquid and undercooled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-Francois; Yoda, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Surface tension and viscosity of liquid rhenium, which have hardly been measured due to the extremely high melting temperature of rhenium, were measured using an electrostatic levitation method combined with the oscillation drop technique. Sample position instability problems caused by the photon pressure of the heating lasers and by sample evaporation were solved by modifying the electrodes design. Good sample stability allowed the measurements of the surface tension and the viscosity over wide temperature ranges including the undercooled states. Over the 2800-3600 K interval, the surface tension of rhenium was measured as σ(T)=2.71x10 3 -0.23(T-T m ), where T m is the melting temperature, 3453 K. At T m , the datum agrees well with the literature values. Similarly, on the same temperature range, the viscosity was determined as η(T)=0.08 exp[1.33x10 5 /(RT)] (mPa s)

  10. Liquid-solid contact measurements using a surface thermocouple temperature probe in atmospheric pool boiling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.W.; Chen, J.C.; Nelson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Objective was to apply the technique of using a microthermocouple flush-mounted at the boiling surface for the measurement of the local-surface-temperature history in film and transition boiling on high temperature surfaces. From this measurement direct liquid-solid contact in film and transition boiling regimes was observed. In pool boiling of saturated, distilled, deionized water on an aluminum-coated copper surface, the time-averaged, local-liquid-contact fraction increased with decreasing surface superheat. Average contact duration increased monotonically with decreasing surface superheat, while frequency of liquid contact reached a maximum of approx. 50 contacts/s at a surface superheat of approx. 100 K and decreased gradually to 30 contacts/s near the critical heat flux. The liquid-solid contact duration distribution was dominated by short contacts 4 ms at low surface superheats, passing through a relatively flat contact duration distribution at about 80 0 K. Results of this paper indicate that liquid-solid contacts may be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer in the transition boiling process

  11. Advanced measurement and analysis of surface textures produced by micro-machining processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni V; Hafiz, Abdullah M K

    2014-01-01

    Surface texture of a part or a product has significant effects on its functionality, physical-mechanical properties and visual appearance. In particular for miniature products, the implication of surface quality becomes critical owing to the presence of geometrical features with micro/nano-scale dimensions. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of surface texture are carried out predominantly by profile parameters, which are often insufficient to address the contribution of constituent spatial components with varied amplitudes and wavelengths. In this context, this article presents a novel approach for advanced measurement and analysis of profile average roughness (R a ) and its spatial distribution at different wavelength intervals. The applicability of the proposed approach was verified for three different surface topographies prepared by grinding, laser micro-polishing and micro-milling processes. From the measurement and analysis results, R a (λ) spatial distribution was found to be an effective measure of revealing the contributions of various spatial components within specific wavelength intervals towards formation of the entire surface profile. In addition, the approach was extended to the measurement and analysis of areal average roughness S a (λ) spatial distribution within different wavelength intervals. Besides, the proposed method was demonstrated to be a useful technique in developing a functional correlation between a manufacturing process and its corresponding surface profile. (paper)

  12. Weighted least-square approach for simultaneous measurement of multiple reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shouhong; Bills, Richard E.; Freischlad, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    Phase shifting interferometry (PSI) is a highly accurate method for measuring the nanometer-scale relative surface height of a semi-reflective test surface. PSI is effectively used in conjunction with Fizeau interferometers for optical testing, hard disk inspection, and semiconductor wafer flatness. However, commonly-used PSI algorithms are unable to produce an accurate phase measurement if more than one reflective surface is present in the Fizeau interferometer test cavity. Examples of test parts that fall into this category include lithography mask blanks and their protective pellicles, and plane parallel optical beam splitters. The plane parallel surfaces of these parts generate multiple interferograms that are superimposed in the recording plane of the Fizeau interferometer. When using wavelength shifting in PSI the phase shifting speed of each interferogram is proportional to the optical path difference (OPD) between the two reflective surfaces. The proposed method is able to differentiate each underlying interferogram from each other in an optimal manner. In this paper, we present a method for simultaneously measuring the multiple test surfaces of all underlying interferograms from these superimposed interferograms through the use of a weighted least-square fitting technique. The theoretical analysis of weighted least-square technique and the measurement results will be described in this paper.

  13. In situ measurement of fixed charge evolution at silicon surfaces during atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Ling; Watt, Morgan R.; Strandwitz, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial fixed charge or interfacial dipoles are present at many semiconductor-dielectric interfaces and have important effects upon device behavior, yet the chemical origins of these electrostatic phenomena are not fully understood. We report the measurement of changes in Si channel conduction in situ during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide using trimethylaluminum and water to probe changes in surface electrostatics. Current-voltage data were acquired continually before, during, and after the self-limiting chemical reactions that result in film growth. Our measurements indicated an increase in conductance on p-type samples with p + ohmic contacts and a decrease in conductance on analogous n-type samples. Further, p + contacted samples with n-type channels exhibited an increase in measured current and n + contacted p-type samples exhibited a decrease in current under applied voltage. Device physics simulations, where a fixed surface charge was parameterized on the channel surface, connect the surface charge to changes in current-voltage behavior. The simulations and analogous analytical relationships for near-surface conductance were used to explain the experimental results. Specifically, the changes in current-voltage behavior can be attributed to the formation of a fixed negative charge or the modification of a surface dipole upon chemisorption of trimethylaluminum. These measurements allow for the observation of fixed charge or dipole formation during ALD and provide further insight into the electrostatic behavior at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces during film nucleation

  14. Surface studies of niobium chemically polished under conditions for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Wang, Shancai; Plucinski, Lukasz; Smith, Kevin E.; Nowell, Matthew M.

    2006-11-01

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially as influenced by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant datasets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (1 0 0), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3-1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is ±30% and that of the surface composition is ±5%.

  15. Surface studies of niobium chemically polished under conditions for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States)]. E-mail: mkelley@jlab.org; Wang Shancai [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Plucinski, Lukasz [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Smith, Kevin E. [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Nowell, Matthew M. [EDAX TSL (United States)

    2006-11-30

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially as influenced by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant datasets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (1 0 0), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3-1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is {+-}30% and that of the surface composition is {+-}5%.

  16. Surface Studies of Niobium Chemically Polished Under Conditions for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavity Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian,H.; Reece, C.; Kelley, M.; Wang, S.; Plucinski, L.; Smith, K.; Nowell, M.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially as influenced by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant datasets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (1 0 0), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3-1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is {+-}30% and that of the surface composition is {+-}5%.

  17. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, H; Tachibana, M; Yanagihara, S

    2003-01-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures beta-rays and gamma-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of beta-rays measures gamma-rays. The beta-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting gamma-ray counts measured by the inner detector from gamma- and beta-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of sup 6 sup 0 Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm sup 2 with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm sup 2 co...

  18. The Quick Measure of a Nurbs Surface Curvature for Accurate Triangular Meshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniat Aleksander

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NURBS surfaces are the most widely used surfaces for three-dimensional models in CAD/ CAE programs. When a model for FEM calculation is prepared with a CAD program it is inevitable to mesh it finally. There are many algorithms for meshing planar regions. Some of them may be used for meshing surfaces but it is necessary to take the curvature of the surface under consideration to avoid poor quality mesh. The mesh must be denser in the curved regions of the surface. In this paper, instead of analysing a surface curvature, the method to assess how close is a mesh triangle to the surface to which its vertices belong, is presented. The distance between a mesh triangle and a parallel tangent plane through a point on a surface is the measure of the triangle quality. Finding the surface point whose projection is located inside the mesh triangle and which is the tangency point to the plane parallel to this triangle is an optimization problem. Mathematical description of the problem and the algorithm to find its solution are also presented in the paper.

  19. Design of a High Viscosity Couette Flow Facility for Patterned Surface Drag Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler; Lang, Amy

    2009-11-01

    Direct drag measurements can be difficult to obtain with low viscosity fluids such as air or water. In this facility, mineral oil is used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of experimental models. A mounted conveyor creates a flow within a plexiglass tank. The experimental model of a flat or patterned surface is suspended above a moving belt. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile is created. PIV measurements are used to determine the exact velocities and the Reynolds numbers for each experiment. The model is suspended by bars that connect to the pillow block housing of each bearing. Drag is measured by a force gauge connected to linear roller bearings that slide along steel rods. The patterned surfaces, initially consisting of 2-D cavities, are embedded in a plexiglass plate so as to keep the total surface area constant for each experiment. First, the drag across a flat plate is measured and compared to theoretical values for laminar Couette flow. The drag for patterned surfaces is then measured and compared to a flat plate.

  20. Atmospheric effect on the ground-based measurements of broadband surface albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Manninen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based pyranometer measurements of the (clear-sky broadband surface albedo are affected by the atmospheric conditions (mainly by aerosol particles, water vapour and ozone. A new semi-empirical method for estimating the magnitude of the effect of atmospheric conditions on surface albedo measurements in clear-sky conditions is presented. Global and reflected radiation and/or aerosol optical depth (AOD at two wavelengths are needed to apply the method. Depending on the aerosol optical depth and the solar zenith angle values, the effect can be as large as 20%. For the cases we tested using data from the Cabauw atmospheric test site in the Netherlands, the atmosphere caused typically up to 5% overestimation of surface albedo with respect to corresponding black-sky surface albedo values.

  1. Electrical measurement of the hydration state of the skin surface in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, H

    2014-09-01

    Healthy skin surface is smooth and soft, because it is covered by the properly hydrated stratum corneum (SC), an extremely thin and soft barrier membrane produced by the underlying normal epidermis. By contrast, the skin surfaces covering pathological lesions exhibit dry and scaly changes and the SC shows poor barrier function. The SC barrier function has been assessed in vivo by instrumentally measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL). However, there was a lack of any appropriate method for evaluating the hydration state of the skin surface in vivo until 1980 when we reported the feasibility of employing high-frequency conductance or capacitance to evaluate it quickly and accurately. With such measurements, we can assess easily the moisturizing efficacy of various topical agents in vivo as well as the distribution pattern of water in the SC by combining it with a serial tape-stripping procedure of the skin surface. © 2014 The Author BJD © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Longitudinal gas-density profilometry for plasma-wakefield acceleration targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, Lucas, E-mail: lschaper01@qub.ac.uk [Universität Hamburg, FB Physik, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Goldberg, Lars; Kleinwächter, Tobias; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-11

    Precise tailoring of plasma-density profiles has been identified as one of the critical points in achieving stable and reproducible conditions in plasma wakefield accelerators. Here, the strict requirements of next generation plasma-wakefield concepts, such as hybrid-accelerators, with densities around 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} pose challenges to target fabrication as well as to their reliable diagnosis. To mitigate these issues we combine target simulation with fabrication and characterization. The resulting density profiles in capillaries with gas jet and multiple in- and outlets are simulated with the fluid code OpenFOAM. Satisfactory simulation results then are followed by fabrication of the desired target shapes with structures down to the 10 µm level. The detection of Raman scattered photons using lenses with large collection solid angle allows to measure the corresponding longitudinal density profiles at different number densities and allows a detection sensitivity down to the low 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} density range at high spatial resolution. This offers the possibility to gain insight into steep density gradients as for example in gas jets and at the plasma-to-vacuum transition.

  3. Longitudinal gas-density profilometry for plasma-wakefield acceleration targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Lucas; Goldberg, Lars; Kleinwächter, Tobias; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Precise tailoring of plasma-density profiles has been identified as one of the critical points in achieving stable and reproducible conditions in plasma wakefield accelerators. Here, the strict requirements of next generation plasma-wakefield concepts, such as hybrid-accelerators, with densities around 1017 cm-3 pose challenges to target fabrication as well as to their reliable diagnosis. To mitigate these issues we combine target simulation with fabrication and characterization. The resulting density profiles in capillaries with gas jet and multiple in- and outlets are simulated with the fluid code OpenFOAM. Satisfactory simulation results then are followed by fabrication of the desired target shapes with structures down to the 10 μm level. The detection of Raman scattered photons using lenses with large collection solid angle allows to measure the corresponding longitudinal density profiles at different number densities and allows a detection sensitivity down to the low 1017 cm-3 density range at high spatial resolution. This offers the possibility to gain insight into steep density gradients as for example in gas jets and at the plasma-to-vacuum transition.

  4. Interpretation of hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain indicate the presence of many near-surface geologic inhomogeneities, with no definite indication of deep structural features. A resistive anomaly near drill hole UE25a-6 is interpreted as a thin, vertical, resistive body that nearly intersects the surface, and may be caused by a silicified, or calcified, fracture zone. A resistive anomaly near hole UE25a-7 is probably caused by a near surface, horizontal, lens-shaped body that may represent a devitrified zone in the Tiva Canyon Member. Many conductive anomalies were detected to the southwest of hole UE25a-4. However, these anomalies are interpreted to be caused by variations in the thickness of the surface alluvium

  5. Ultrasonic surface measurements at the Porta Nigra, Trier, and the Neptungrotte, Park Sanssouci Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Fehr, Moritz; Köhn, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonic measurements along profiles at the surface of an object are well suited to characterize non-destructively weathering of natural stone near the surface. Ultrasonic waveforms of surface measurements in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 300 kHz are often dominated by the Rayleigh wave - a surface wave that is mainly sensitive to the velocity and attenuation of S-waves in the upper 0.3 cm to 3 cm. The frequency dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocity may be used to analyze variations of the material properties with depth. Applications of ultrasonic surface measurements are shown for two buildings: the Roman Porta Nigra in Trier from the 3rd century AD and the Neptungrotte at Park Sanssouci in Potsdam designed by von Knobelsdorff in the 18th century. Both buildings belong to the world cultural heritage and restorations are planned for the near future. It is interesting to compare measurements at these two buildings because they show the applicability of ultrasonic surface measurements to different natural stones. The Porta Nigra is made of local sandstones whereas the facades of the Neptungrotte are made of Carrara and Kauffunger marble. 71 and 46 surface measurements have been carried out, respectively. At both buildings, Rayleigh-wave group velocities show huge variations. At the Porta Nigra they vary between ca. 0.4 km/s and 1.8 km/s and at the Neptungrotte between ca. 0.7 km/s and 3.0 km/s pointing to alterations in the Rayleigh- and S-wave velocities of more than 50 % due to weathering. Note that velocities of elastic waves may increase e.g. because of the formation of black crusts like at the Porta Nigra or they may be strongly reduced due to weathering. The accuracy of the ultrasonic surface measurements, its reproducibility, and the influence of varying water saturation are discussed. Options for the analysis of ultrasonic waveforms are presented ranging from dispersion analysis to full waveform inversions for one-dimensional and two

  6. Analytical real-time measurement of a three-dimensional weld pool surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, WeiJie; Zhang, YuMing; Wang, XueWu

    2013-01-01

    The ability to observe and measure weld pool surfaces in real-time is the core of the foundation for next generation intelligent welding that can partially imitate skilled welders who observe the weld pool to acquire information on the welding process. This study aims at the real-time measurement of the specular three-dimensional (3D) weld pool surface under a strong arc in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). An innovative vision system is utilized in this study to project a dot-matrix laser pattern on the specular weld pool surface. Its reflection from the surface is intercepted at a distance from the arc by a diffuse plane. The intercepted laser dots illuminate this plane producing an image showing the reflection pattern. The deformation of this reflection pattern from the projected pattern (e.g. the dot matrix) is used to derive the 3D shape of the reflection surface, i.e., the weld pool surface. Based on careful analysis, the underlying reconstruction problem is formulated mathematically. An analytic solution is proposed to solve this formulated problem resulting in the weld pool surface being reconstructed on average in 3.04 ms during welding experiments. A vision-based monitoring system is thus established to measure the weld pool surface in GTAW in real-time. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, first numerical simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is then tested on a spherical convex mirror with a priori knowledge of its geometry. The detailed analysis of the measurement error validates the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results from the real-time experiments verify the robustness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm. (paper)

  7. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  8. Using a terrestrial laser scanner to measure spatiotemporal surface moisture dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Y.; Donker, J.; Ruessink, G.

    2017-12-01

    A terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique that utilizes the round trip time of an emitted laser beam to provide the range between the laser scanner and the backscattering object. It is routinely used for topographic mapping, forest measurements or 3D city models since it derives useful object representations by means of a dense three-dimensional (3D) point cloud. Here, we present a novel application using the returned intensity of the emitted beam to detect surface moisture with the RIEGL VZ-400. Because this TLS operates at a wavelength near a water absorption band (1550 nm), reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface moisture over its full range. Five days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Concurrent gravimetric surface moisture samples were collected to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal the reflectance output is a robust parameter to measure surface moisture from the thin upper layer over its full range from 0% to 25%. The obtained calibration curve of the presented TLS, describing the relationship between reflectance and surface moisture, has a root-mean-square error of 2.7% and a correlation coefficient squared of 0.85. This relation holds to about 60 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O(10^6-10^7) data points, which we averaged into surface moisture maps with a 1 x 1 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small moisture disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale trends. Concluding, TLS (RIEGL-VZ 400) is a highly suited technique to accurately and robustly measure spatiotemporal surface moisture variations on a coastal beach with high spatial ( 1 x 1 m) and temporal ( 15-30min.) resolution.

  9. DEPTH MEASUREMENT OF DISRUPTED LAYER ON SILICON WAFER SURFACE USING AUGER SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for depth measurement of a disrupted layer on silicon wafer surface which is based on application of Auger spectroscopy with the precision sputtering of surface silicon layers and registration of the Auger electron yield intensity. In order to measure the disrupted layer with the help of Auger spectroscopy it is necessary to determine dependence of the released Auger electron amount on sputtering time (profile and then the dependence is analyzed. Silicon amount in the disrupted layer is less than in the volume. While going deeper the disruptive layer is decreasing that corresponds to an increase of atom density in a single layer. The essence of the method lies in the fact the disruptive layer is removed by ion beam sputtering and detection of interface region is carried out with the help of registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from the sputtered surface up to the moment when it reaches the value which is equal to the Auger electron yield intensity for single-crystal silicon. While removing surface silicon layers the registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from silicon surface makes it possible to control efficiently a presence of the disrupted layer on the silicon wafer surface. In this case depth control locality is about 1.0 nm due to some peculiarities of Auger spectroscopy method. The Auger electron yield intensity is determined automatically while using Auger spectrometer and while removing the disrupted layer the intensity is gradually increasing. Depth of the disrupted layer is determined by measuring height of the step which has been formed as a result of removal of the disrupted layer from the silicon wafer surface. Auger spectroscopy methods ensures an efficient depth control surface disruptions at the manufacturing stages of silicon wafers and integrated circuits. The depth measurement range of disruptions constitutes 0.001–1.000 um.

  10. Measurements of dry-deposition rates on various earth surfaces by 212Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Dry deposition rates of 212 Pb on a coniferous forest (Japanese cedar) and a broad-leaf forest (Pasania edulis) have been measured. Those on various kinds of grass fields, various states on artificial surface such as water, paper, and standing paper have been also measured. The dry deposition rates depend on the characteristics of depositing particles and the conditions of deposited surfaces. Dry deposition rates on the forest of Japanese cedar are highest because of the complex and adhesive surface of the leaves. Those on various grass fields are roughly depend on the logarithm of the height of their grasses. The total deposition rates of 7 Be do not depend on the densities or heights of the grasses. 7 Be may be not kept on their leaves or surface soil for a long time. The dry deposition rates of on artificial surface, e.g. paper and water surfaces make clear the mechanism on dry deposition, and suggest that more chances of collision and more adhesive of the surface are important for the dry deposition. About 90% of all deposition on the artificial paper grass was attached on the standing paper. On water surface, 60% of the rate of paper grass was attached, but only about 20% were attached on a dry paper plate. The aerosol particles are deposited by collision with the surface, therefore the deposition velocity depends on the chance of collision and the characteristics of the surface. Therefore the dry deposition rates on forests are larger and those of coniferous forest are largest. (author)

  11. Reconciling Electrical Properties of Titan's Surface Derived from Cassini RADAR Scatterometer and Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Wye, L. C.; Janssen, M.; Paganelli, F.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2006-12-01

    We observe Titan, Saturn's largest moon, using active and passive microwave instruments carried on board the Cassini spacecraft. The 2.2-cm wavelength penetrates the thick atmosphere and provides surface measurements at resolutions from 10-200 km over much of the satellite's surface. The emissivity and reflectivity of surface features are generally anticorrelated, and both values are fairly high. Inversion of either set of data alone yields dielectric constants ranging from 1.5 to 3 or 4, consistent with an icy hydrocarbon or water ice composition. However, the dielectric constants retrieved from radiometric data alone are usually less than those inferred from backscatter measurements, a discrepancy consistent with similar analyses dating back to lunar observations in the 1960's. Here we seek to reconcile Titan's reflectivity and emissivity observations using a single physical model of the surface. Our approach is to calculate the energy scattered by Titan's surface and near subsurface, with the remainder absorbed. In equilibrium the absorption equals the emission, so that both the reflectivity and emissivity are described by the model. We use a form of the Kirchhoff model for modeling surface scatter, and a model based on weak localization of light for the volume scatter. With this model we present dielectric constant and surface roughness parameters that match both sets of Cassini RADAR observations over limited regions on Titan's surface, helping to constrain the composition and roughness of the surface. Most regions display electrical properties consistent with solid surfaces, however some of the darker "lake-like" features at higher latitudes can be modeled as either solid or liquid materials. The ambiguity arises from the limited set of observational angles available.

  12. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W.

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

  13. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

  14. Ocean current surface measurement using dynamic elevations obtained by the GEOS-3 radar altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Remote Sensing of the ocean surface from the GEOS-3 satellite using radar altimeter data has confirmed that the altimeter can detect the dynamic ocean topographic elevations relative to an equipotential surface, thus resulting in a reliable direct measurement of the ocean surface. Maps of the ocean dynamic topography calculated over a one month period and with 20 cm contour interval are prepared for the last half of 1975. The Gulf Stream is observed by the rapid slope change shown by the crowding of contours. Cold eddies associated with the current are seen as roughly circular depressions.

  15. Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P

    2016-02-08

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.

  16. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  17. Unsteady surface pressure measurements on a slender delta wing undergoing limit cycle wing rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Andrew S., Jr.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of slender wing limit cycle motion known as wing rock was investigated using two unique experimental systems. Dynamic roll moment measurements and visualization data on the leading edge vortices were obtained using a free to roll apparatus that incorporates an airbearing spindle. In addition, both static and unsteady surface pressure data was measured on the top and bottom surfaces of the model. To obtain the unsteady surface pressure data a new computer controller drive system was developed to accurately reproduce the free to roll time history motions. The data from these experiments include, roll angle time histories, vortex trajectory data on the position of the vortices relative to the model's surface, and surface pressure measurements as a function of roll angle when the model is stationary or undergoing a wing rock motion. The roll time history data was numerically differentiated to determine the dynamic roll moment coefficient. An analysis of these data revealed that the primary mechanism for the limit cycle behavior was a time lag in the position of the vortices normal to the wing surface.

  18. The measurement of surface roughness to determine the suitability of different methods for stone cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Calvo, Carmen; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael; Varas-Muriel, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    The roughness of stone surface was measured, before and after bead blasting-based cleaning methods, to select the most efficient one to be used in masonry and stonework of specific areas of the Cathedral of Segovia (Spain). These types of cleaning methods can, besides the removal of soiling and surface deposits, leave a rougher surface, which would mean higher and more rapid water retention and deposit accumulation due to a specific surface increase, therefore accelerating stone decay. Or, in contrast, the cleaning method can be so aggressive that it can smooth the surface by reducing its roughness, a fact that usually corresponds to excessive material removal—soot and deposits–-but also part of the stone substrate. Roughness results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations and analyses and colour measurements. Finally, it was possible to select the best cleaning method among the six that were analysed, for different areas and different stone materials. Therefore, this study confirms the measurement of surface roughness as a reliable test to determine the suitability of stone cleaning methods; it is a non-destructive technique, portable and friendly to use, which can help us to rapidly assess—together with other techniques—the efficacy and aggressiveness of the stone cleaning method. (paper)

  19. Design and development of a profilometer for the fast and accurate characterization of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pedrero, José A.; Rodríguez-Ibañez, Diego; Alonso, José; Quirgoa, Juan A.

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of techniques devised for the mass production of optical components made with surfaces of arbitrary form (also known as free form surfaces) in the last years, a parallel development of measuring systems adapted for these new kind of surfaces constitutes a real necessity for the industry. Profilometry is one of the preferred methods for the assessment of the quality of a surface, and is widely employed in the optical fabrication industry for the quality control of its products. In this work, we present the design, development and assembly of a new profilometer with five axis of movement, specifically suited to the measurement of medium size (up to 150 mm of diameter) "free-form" optical surfaces with sub-micrometer accuracy and low measuring times. The apparatus is formed by three X, Y, Z linear motorized positioners plus and additional angular and a tilt positioner employed to locate accurately the surface to be measured and the probe which can be a mechanical or an optical one, being optical one a confocal sensor based on chromatic aberration. Both optical and mechanical probes guarantee an accuracy lower than the micrometer in the determination of the surface height, thus ensuring an accuracy in the surface curvatures of the order of 0.01 D or better. An original calibration procedure based on the measurement of a precision sphere has been developed in order to correct the perpendicularity error between the axes of the linear positioners. To reduce the measuring time of the profilometer, a custom electronics, based on an Arduino™ controller, have been designed and produced in order to synchronize the five motorized positioners and the optical and mechanical probes so that a medium size surface (around 10 cm of diameter) with a dynamic range in curvatures of around 10 D, can be measured in less than 300 seconds (using three axes) keeping the resolution in height and curvature in the figures mentioned above.

  20. Surface profile measurement by using the integrated Linnik WLSI and confocal microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Shen, Ming-Hsing; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Yu, Yun-Ting; Wang, Tzu-Fong

    2017-06-01

    The white-light scanning interferometer (WLSI) and confocal microscope (CM) are the two major optical inspection systems for measuring three-dimensional (3D) surface profile (SP) of micro specimens. Nevertheless, in practical applications, WLSI is more suitable for measuring smooth and low-slope surfaces. On the other hand, CM is more suitable for measuring uneven-reflective and low-reflective surfaces. As for aspect of surface profiles to be measured, the characteristics of WLSI and CM are also different. WLSI is generally used in semiconductor industry while CM is more popular in printed circuit board industry. In this paper, a self-assembled multi-function optical system was integrated to perform Linnik white-light scanning interferometer (Linnik WLSI) and CM. A connecting part composed of tubes, lenses and interferometer was used to conjunct finite and infinite optical systems for Linnik WLSI and CM in the self-assembled optical system. By adopting the flexibility of tubes and lenses, switching to perform two different optical measurements can be easily achieved. Furthermore, based on the shape from focus method with energy of Laplacian filter, the CM was developed to enhance the on focal information of each pixel so that the CM can provide all-in-focus image for performing the 3D SP measurement and analysis simultaneously. As for Linnik WLSI, eleven-step phase shifting algorithm was used to analyze vertical scanning signals and determine the 3D SP.

  1. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  2. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  3. Digital photography and transparency-based methods for measuring wound surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhedi, Amul; Saxena, Atul K; Gadani, Ravi; Patel, Ritesh

    2013-04-01

    To compare and determine a credible method of measurement of wound surface area by linear, transparency, and photographic methods for monitoring progress of wound healing accurately and ascertaining whether these methods are significantly different. From April 2005 to December 2006, 40 patients (30 men, 5 women, 5 children) admitted to the surgical ward of Shree Sayaji General Hospital, Baroda, had clean as well as infected wound following trauma, debridement, pressure sore, venous ulcer, and incision and drainage. Wound surface areas were measured by these three methods (linear, transparency, and photographic methods) simultaneously on alternate days. The linear method is statistically and significantly different from transparency and photographic methods (P value transparency and photographic methods (P value >0.05). Photographic and transparency methods provided measurements of wound surface area with equivalent result and there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods.

  4. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  5. Three-Dimensional Shape Measurements of Specular Objects Using Phase-Measuring Deflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghua Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast development in the fields of integrated circuits, photovoltaics, the automobile industry, advanced manufacturing, and astronomy have led to the importance and necessity of quickly and accurately obtaining three-dimensional (3D shape data of specular surfaces for quality control and function evaluation. Owing to the advantages of a large dynamic range, non-contact operation, full-field and fast acquisition, high accuracy, and automatic data processing, phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD, also called fringe reflection profilometry has been widely studied and applied in many fields. Phase information coded in the reflected fringe patterns relates to the local slope and height of the measured specular objects. The 3D shape is obtained by integrating the local gradient data or directly calculating the depth data from the phase information. We present a review of the relevant techniques regarding classical PMD. The improved PMD technique is then used to measure specular objects having discontinuous and/or isolated surfaces. Some influential factors on the measured results are presented. The challenges and future research directions are discussed to further advance PMD techniques. Finally, the application fields of PMD are briefly introduced.

  6. Three-Dimensional Shape Measurements of Specular Objects Using Phase-Measuring Deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Wang, Yuemin; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Chang, Caixia; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-12-07

    The fast development in the fields of integrated circuits, photovoltaics, the automobile industry, advanced manufacturing, and astronomy have led to the importance and necessity of quickly and accurately obtaining three-dimensional (3D) shape data of specular surfaces for quality control and function evaluation. Owing to the advantages of a large dynamic range, non-contact operation, full-field and fast acquisition, high accuracy, and automatic data processing, phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD, also called fringe reflection profilometry) has been widely studied and applied in many fields. Phase information coded in the reflected fringe patterns relates to the local slope and height of the measured specular objects. The 3D shape is obtained by integrating the local gradient data or directly calculating the depth data from the phase information. We present a review of the relevant techniques regarding classical PMD. The improved PMD technique is then used to measure specular objects having discontinuous and/or isolated surfaces. Some influential factors on the measured results are presented. The challenges and future research directions are discussed to further advance PMD techniques. Finally, the application fields of PMD are briefly introduced.

  7. Improvement of surface planarity measurements by temperature correction and structural simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Maximilian; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Mueller, Ralph [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Novel micro pattern gaseous detectors, like Micromegas, for particle physics experiments require precise flat active layers of 2-3 m{sup 2} in size. A construction procedure developed at LMU for 2 m{sup 2} sized Micromegas achieves surface planarities with a RMS below 30 μm. The measurements were performed using a laser distance sensor attached to a coordinate measurement machine. Studies were made to investigate the influence of temperature variations on these measurements. The temperature is monitored by several sensors. We present results containing corrections of the measurements in respect to temperature changes. In addition simulations with the FEM program ANSYS are compared to measured detector panel deformations introduced by forces, in order to study their effect on the surface planarity.

  8. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2017-01-01

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain “dead time” at initial measurement....... These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the “micropipette interfacial area-expansion method” was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion...... for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2 ± 0.8 × 10−6 cm2/s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, “single microdroplet catching method”, to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet...

  9. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  10. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Performance and Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscott, I.; Hinson, D. P.; Bird, M. K.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Olkin, C.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.

    2015-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) spacecraft payload contained the Radio Science Experiment (REX) for determining key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the July 14, 2015, flyby of the Pluto/Charon system. The REX flight equipment augments the NH X-band radio transceiver by providing a high precision, narrow band recording of high power uplink transmissions from Earth stations, as well as a record of broadband radiometric power. This presentation will review the performance and initial results of two high- priority observations. First, REX received two pair of 20-kW signals, one pair per polarization, transmitted from the DSN at 4.2-cm wavelength during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. REX recorded these uplink signals and determined precise measurement of the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius of Pluto. The ingress portion of one polarization was played back from the spacecraft in July and processed to obtain the pressure and temperature structure of Pluto's atmosphere. Second, REX measured the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2- cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the night side are visible. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of one-tenth Pluto's disk and temperature resolution of 0.1 K. Occultation and radiometric temperature results presented here will encompass additional data scheduled for playback in September.

  11. Surface net solar radiation estimated from satellite measurements - Comparisons with tower observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  12. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  13. Non-Contact Surface Roughness Measurement by Implementation of a Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aulbach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface structure, especially the roughness, has a significant influence on numerous parameters, such as friction and wear, and therefore estimates the quality of technical systems. In the last decades, a broad variety of surface roughness measurement methods were developed. A destructive measurement procedure or the lack of feasibility of online monitoring are the crucial drawbacks of most of these methods. This article proposes a new non-contact method for measuring the surface roughness that is straightforward to implement and easy to extend to online monitoring processes. The key element is a liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulator, integrated in an interferometric setup. By varying the imprinted phase of the modulator, a correlation between the imprinted phase and the fringe visibility of an interferogram is measured, and the surface roughness can be derived. This paper presents the theoretical approach of the method and first simulation and experimental results for a set of surface roughnesses. The experimental results are compared with values obtained by an atomic force microscope and a stylus profiler.

  14. Gaussian process based intelligent sampling for measuring nano-structure surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. J.; Ren, M. J.; Yin, Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is the science and engineering that manipulate matters at nano scale, which can be used to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications. As the nanotech product increasingly enters the commercial marketplace, nanometrology becomes a stringent and enabling technology for the manipulation and the quality control of the nanotechnology. However, many measuring instruments, for instance scanning probe microscopy, are limited to relatively small area of hundreds of micrometers with very low efficiency. Therefore some intelligent sampling strategies should be required to improve the scanning efficiency for measuring large area. This paper presents a Gaussian process based intelligent sampling method to address this problem. The method makes use of Gaussian process based Bayesian regression as a mathematical foundation to represent the surface geometry, and the posterior estimation of Gaussian process is computed by combining the prior probability distribution with the maximum likelihood function. Then each sampling point is adaptively selected by determining the position which is the most likely outside of the required tolerance zone among the candidates and then inserted to update the model iteratively. Both simulationson the nominal surface and manufactured surface have been conducted on nano-structure surfaces to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results imply that the proposed method significantly improves the measurement efficiency in measuring large area structured surfaces.

  15. Design of an experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of metastable fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, V.; Hrubý, J.; Hykl, J.; Blaha, J.; Šmíd, B.

    2013-04-01

    A unique experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of aqueous mixtures has been designed, manufactured, and tested in our laboratory. The novelty of the setup is that it allows measurement of surface tension by two different methods: a modified capillary elevation method in a long vertical capillary tube and a method inspired by the approach of Hacker (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note 2510, 1-20, 1951), i.e. in a short horizontal capillary tube. Functionality of all main components of the apparatus, e.g., glass chamber with the capillary tube, temperature control unit consisting of two thermostatic baths with special valves for rapid temperature jumps, helium distribution setup allowing pressure variation above the liquid meniscus inside the capillary tube, has been successfully tested. Preliminary results for the surface tension of the stable and metastable supercooled water measured by the capillary elevation method at atmospheric pressure are provided. The surface tension of water measured at temperatures between +26 °C and -11 °C is in good agreement with the extrapolated IAPWS correlation (IAPWS Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance, September 1994); however it disagrees with data by Hacker.

  16. Micro-PIV/LIF measurements on electrokinetically-driven flow in surface modified microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyanagi, Mitsuhisa; Sasaki, Seiichi; Sato, Yohei; Hishida, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Effects of surface modification patterning on flow characteristics were investigated experimentally by measuring electroosmotic flow velocities, which were obtained by micron-resolution particle image velocimetry using a confocal microscope. The depth-wise velocity was evaluated by using the continuity equation and the velocity data. The microchannel was composed of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) chip and a borosilicate cover-glass plate. Surface modification patterns were fabricated by modifying octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) on the glass surface. OTS can decrease the electroosmotic flow velocity compared to the velocity in the glass microchannel. For the surface charge varying parallel to the electric field, the depth-wise velocity was generated at the boundary area between OTS and the glass surfaces. For the surface charge varying perpendicular to the electric field, the depth-wise velocity did not form because the surface charge did not vary in the stream-wise direction. The surface charge pattern with the oblique stripes yielded a three-dimensional flow in a microchannel. Furthermore, the oblique patterning was applied to a mixing flow field in a T-shaped microchannel, and mixing efficiencies were evaluated from heterogeneity degree of fluorescent dye intensity, which was obtained by laser-induced fluorescence. It was found that the angle of the oblique stripes is an important factor to promote the span-wise and depth-wise momentum transport and contributes to the mixing flow in a microchannel

  17. Measurement of Optic Disc Cup Surface Depth Using Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kook; Ha, Ahnul; Lee, Won June; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-12-01

    To introduce the measurement method of optic disc cup surface depth using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and then evaluate the rates of cup surface depression at 3 different stages of glaucoma. We retrospectively identified 52 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, 56 with mild-or-moderate glaucoma and 50 with severe glaucoma and followed them for at least 48 months. Eyes were imaged using SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) at 12-month intervals. The mean cup surface depth was calculated using the following formula: Cup volume/(disc area×average cup-to-disc ratio)-200 μm. The rates of mean cup surface depression (μm/y) were significantly greater in mild-or-moderate glaucoma (-7.96±1.03) than in preperimetric (-3.11±0.61) and severe glaucoma (-0.70±0.12; all Pcup surface depression (%/y) were significantly greater than those of average of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning (%/y) in preperimetric glaucoma (-1.64±0.12 vs. -1.11±0.07; Pcup surface depth changed slower than did average RNFL thickness (-0.64±0.06 vs. -0.75±0.08%/y; Pcup surface depth changed faster than did the RNFL thickness. These results signify the possibility that SD-OCT-based estimation of cup surface depth might be useful for monitoring of glaucoma development and progression.

  18. Flow visualizations, velocity measurements, and surface convection measurements in simulated 20.8-cm Nova box amplifier cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, J.L.; Molishever, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reported are fluid mechanics experiments performed in models of the 20.8-cm Nova amplifier lamp and disk cavities. Lamp cavity nitrogen flows are shown, by both flow visualization and velocity measurements, to be acceptably uniform and parallel to the flashlamps. In contrast, the nitrogen flows in the disk cavity are shown to be disordered. Even though disk cavity flows are disordered, the simplest of three proposed nitrogen introduction systems for the disk cavity was found to be acceptable based on convection measurements made at the surfaces of simulated laser disks

  19. Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates

  20. Measurements of the anomalous RF surface resistance of niobium using a dielectric resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, D.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Jacques, E.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The surface resistance of high and low residual resistance ratio (RRR) niobium plates at 4.2 K and 1.8 K has been measured as a function of many processing and testing parameters. A dielectric resonator was used instead of a resonant cavity. This resonator offered the ability to make many, sensitive measurements with an efficient use of time and helium. It was found that the surface resistance, R s , of RRR = 190 niobium increased noticeably from the theoretical value if the cooling rate was slower than ∼ 10 K/min. (author)

  1. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  2. Temperature measurement of the land-surface. Measuring methods and their application for the survey of subsoil water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allvar, T

    1979-02-01

    The variation of the water content of a landscape has been investigated. The method of measurement was the use of the radiation of heat from the land surface. The radiation was measured by an airborne infrared scanner and a manual infrared thermometer. The water content and the temperature of the soil were recorded separately. The principle of the measurement is the slow reaction of a soil with a high water content to the temperature changes between day and night. Comparison of different methods points to an association of temperatures and water content. The correlation of the results is very low so that a mapping of water content in the area of Vibydalen becomes uncertain. The experiment displays the requirements of the accuracy in measuring methods.

  3. EXAMINATION ABOUT INFLUENCE FOR PRECISION OF 3D IMAGE MEASUREMENT FROM THE GROUND CONTROL POINT MEASUREMENT AND SURFACE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results

  4. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  5. XPS and surface resistivity measurements of plasma - treated FEP co-polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitrus, R.K.; Brack, N.; Liesegang, J.; Pigram, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Fluorinated polymers such as fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) play an important role in many applications due to their many desirable properties such as chemical resistivity, inertness, electrical stability and low dielectric constant; however, one disadvantage of fluorinated polymers is their extreme surface hydrophobicity. Previous studies show that plasma treatment will modify the surface by increasing the surface free energy and also offer a rapid and convenient method for pre-treating the polymers for many purposes. This paper, through resistivity and XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, attempts to discover basic effects of such plasma treatment. Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) co-polymer film of (0.05) mm thickness (obtained commercially) and with the following structure (CF 2 -CF 2 )-(CF(CF 3 )CF 2 )- was used. A suitable cleaning procedure was used to remove adventitious carbon from the surface. XPS has been used to study FEP film properties. The spectra of XPS were analyzed with the main focus on carbon and fluorine as they compose the elemental component of FEP film. A value of 2.05 was obtained for the F/C ratio, which is slightly higher than the theoretical F/C value estimated from the chemical structure of FEP (F/C 2). The clean film was then air plasma treated (pressure 10 -1 torr and power 30W) for various treatment times to produce a higher energy fluoropolymer surface. XPS studies investigated changes to the polymer surface and determined that oxidation occurs on the FEP surface. The oxidation reactions on the FEP surface form oxygen functional groups such as C-O and C=O groups. The results also show that the percentage of CF 2 and CF 3 in the co-polymer surface decreased with exposure time and the percentage of CF, C-C, C-O and C=O increased. There is a sharp decrease in F/C ratio and increase in O/C ratio. In addition to XPS, the resistivity of FEP-film was measured by a

  6. A new approach to the retrieval of surface properties from earthshine measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurr, R.J.D. E-mail: rspurr@cfa.harvard.edu

    2004-01-01

    Instruments such as the MODIS and MISR radiometers on EOS AM-1, and POLDER on ADEOS have been deployed for the remote sensing retrieval of surface properties. Typically, retrieval algorithms use linear combinations of semi-empirical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) kernels to model surface reflectance. The retrieval proceeds in two steps; first, an atmospheric correction relates surface BRDF to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances, then regression is used to establish the linear coefficients used in the kernel combination. BRDF kernels may also depend on a number of physical or empirical non-linear parameters (e.g. ocean wind speed for a specular BRDF); such parameters are usually assumed known. A major source of error in this retrieval comes from lack of knowledge of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol properties. In this paper, we present a different approach to surface property retrieval. For the radiative transfer simulations, we use the discrete ordinate LIDORT model, which has the capability to generate simultaneous fields of radiances and weighting functions in a multiply scattering multi-layer atmosphere. Surface-atmosphere coupling due to multiple scattering and reflection effects is treated in full; the use of an atmospheric correction is not required. Further, it is shown that sensitivities of TOA reflectances to both linear and non-linear surface BRDF parameters may be established directly by explicit analytic differentiation of the discrete ordinate radiative transfer equations. Surface properties may thus be retrieved directly and conveniently from satellite measurements using standard non-linear fitting methods. In the fitting for BRDF parameters, lower-boundary aerosol properties can either be retrieved as auxiliary parameters, or they can be regarded as forward model parameter errors. We present examples of simulated radiances and surface/aerosol weighting functions for combinations of multi-angle measurements at several

  7. A new approach to the retrieval of surface properties from earthshine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurr, R.J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Instruments such as the MODIS and MISR radiometers on EOS AM-1, and POLDER on ADEOS have been deployed for the remote sensing retrieval of surface properties. Typically, retrieval algorithms use linear combinations of semi-empirical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) kernels to model surface reflectance. The retrieval proceeds in two steps; first, an atmospheric correction relates surface BRDF to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances, then regression is used to establish the linear coefficients used in the kernel combination. BRDF kernels may also depend on a number of physical or empirical non-linear parameters (e.g. ocean wind speed for a specular BRDF); such parameters are usually assumed known. A major source of error in this retrieval comes from lack of knowledge of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol properties. In this paper, we present a different approach to surface property retrieval. For the radiative transfer simulations, we use the discrete ordinate LIDORT model, which has the capability to generate simultaneous fields of radiances and weighting functions in a multiply scattering multi-layer atmosphere. Surface-atmosphere coupling due to multiple scattering and reflection effects is treated in full; the use of an atmospheric correction is not required. Further, it is shown that sensitivities of TOA reflectances to both linear and non-linear surface BRDF parameters may be established directly by explicit analytic differentiation of the discrete ordinate radiative transfer equations. Surface properties may thus be retrieved directly and conveniently from satellite measurements using standard non-linear fitting methods. In the fitting for BRDF parameters, lower-boundary aerosol properties can either be retrieved as auxiliary parameters, or they can be regarded as forward model parameter errors. We present examples of simulated radiances and surface/aerosol weighting functions for combinations of multi-angle measurements at several

  8. Determination of the transfer function for optical surface topography measuring instruments—a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, Matthew R; Török, Peter; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K; Coupland, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of areal surface topography measuring instruments, largely based on optical techniques, are commercially available. However, implementation of optical instrumentation into production is currently difficult due to the lack of understanding of the complex interaction between the light and the component surface. Studying the optical transfer function of the instrument can help address this issue. Here a review is given of techniques for the measurement of optical transfer functions. Starting from the basis of a spatially coherent, monochromatic confocal scanning imaging system, the theory of optical transfer functions in three-dimensional (3D) imaging is presented. Further generalizations are reviewed allowing the extension of the theory to the description of conventional and interferometric 3D imaging systems. Polychromatic transfer functions and surface topography measurements are also discussed. Following presentation of theoretical results, experimental methods to measure the optical transfer function of each class of system are presented, with a focus on suitable methods for the establishment of calibration standards in 3D imaging and surface topography measurements. (topical review)

  9. Statistical characterization of surface features from tungsten-coated divertor inserts in the DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jacob; Unterberg, Ezekial; Chrobak, Christopher; Stahl, Brian; Abrams, Tyler

    2017-10-01

    Continuing analysis of tungsten-coated inserts from the recent DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign utilizes a statistical approach to study carbon migration and deposition on W surfaces and to characterize the pre- versus post-exposure surface morphology. A TZM base was coated with W using both CVD and PVD and allowed for comparison between the two coating methods. The W inserts were positioned in the lower DIII-D divertor in both the upper (shelf) region and lower (floor) region and subjected to multiple plasma shots, primarily in H-mode. Currently, the post-exposure W inserts are being characterized using SEM/EDX to qualify the surface morphology and to quantify the surface chemical composition. In addition, profilometry is being used to measure the surface roughness of the inserts both before and after plasma exposure. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between the pre-exposure surface roughness and the level of carbon deposited on the surface. Furthermore, ongoing in-depth analysis may reveal insights into the formation mechanism of nanoscale bumps found in the carbon-rich regions of the W surfaces that have not yet been explained. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. A fiber-coupled displacement measuring interferometer for determination of the posture of a reflective surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Shuai; Hu, Peng-Cheng; Ding, Xue-Mei; Tan, Jiu-Bin

    2016-01-01

    A fiber-coupled displacement measuring interferometer capable of determining of the posture of a reflective surface of a measuring mirror is proposed. The newly constructed instrument combines fiber-coupled displacement and angular measurement technologies. The proposed interferometer has advantages of both the fiber-coupled and the spatially beam-separated interferometer. A portable dual-position sensitive detector (PSD)-based unit within this proposed interferometer measures the parallelism of the two source beams to guide the fiber-coupling adjustment. The portable dual PSD-based unit measures not only the pitch and yaw of the retro-reflector but also measures the posture of the reflective surface. The experimental results of displacement calibration show that the deviations between the proposed interferometer and a reference one, Agilent 5530, at two different common beam directions are both less than ±35 nm, thus verifying the effectiveness of the beam parallelism measurement. The experimental results of angular calibration show that deviations of pitch and yaw with the auto-collimator (as a reference) are less than ±2 arc sec, thus proving the proposed interferometer’s effectiveness for determination of the posture of a reflective surface.

  11. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Jiang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  12. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Jiang, X. [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  13. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  14. Ultrasound pulse-echo measurements on rough surfaces with linear array transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøj, Sidsel M. N.; Blanco, Esther N.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2012-01-01

    The echo from planar surfaces with rms roughness, Rq, in the range from 0-155 μm was measured with a clinical linear array transducer at different angles of incidence at 6 MHz and 12 MHz. The echo-pulse from the surfaces was isolated with an equal sized window and the power of the echo-pulse was ......The echo from planar surfaces with rms roughness, Rq, in the range from 0-155 μm was measured with a clinical linear array transducer at different angles of incidence at 6 MHz and 12 MHz. The echo-pulse from the surfaces was isolated with an equal sized window and the power of the echo......-pulse was calculated. The power of the echo from the smooth surface (Rq = 0) is highly angle-dependent due to a high degree of specular reflection. Within the angular range considered here, -10° to 10°, the variation spans a range of 18 dB at both 6 MHz and 12 MHz. When roughness increases, the angle......-dependence decreases, as the echo process gradually changes from pure reflection to being predominantly governed by backscattering. The power of the echoes from the two roughest surfaces (Rq = 115 μm and 155 μm) are largely independent of angle at both 6 MHz and 12 MHz with a variation of 2 dB in the angular range...

  15. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics ampersand Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness

  16. Surface dose measurements and comparison of unflattened and flattened photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashokkumar Sigamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the central axis dose in the build-up region and the surface dose of a 6 MV and 10 MV flattened photon beam (FB and flattening filter free (FFF therapeutic photon beam for different square field sizes (FSs for a Varian Truebeam linear accelerator using parallel-plate ionization chamber and Gafchromic film. Knowledge of dosimetric characteristics in the build-up region and surface dose of the FFF is essential for clinical care. The dose measurements were also obtained empirically using two different commonly used dosimeters: a p-type photon semiconductor dosimeter and a cylindrical ionization chamber. Surface dose increased linearly with FS for both FB and FFF photon beams. The surface dose values of FFF were higher than the FB FSs. The measured surface dose clearly increases with increasing FS. The FFF beams have a modestly higher surface dose in the build-up region than the FB. The dependence of source to skin distance (SSD is less significant in FFF beams when compared to the flattened beams at extended SSDs.

  17. "Simultaneous measurement of flame impingement and piston surface temperatures in an optically accessible spark ignition engine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Carl-Philipp; Honza, Rene; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    This paper shows the results of spatially resolved temperature measurements of the piston surface of an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine during flame impingement. High-speed thermographic phosphor thermometry (TPT), using Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce, and planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH-PLIF) were used to investigate the temperature increase and the time and position of flame impingement at the piston surface. Measurements were conducted at two operating cases and showed heating rates of up to 16,000 K/s. The OH-PLIF measurements were used to localize flame impingement and calculate conditioned statistics of the temperature profiles. The TPT coating was characterized and its influence on the temperature measurements evaluated.

  18. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  19. Contact angle and surface tension measurements of a five-ring polyphenyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Contact angle measurements were performed for a five-ring polyphenyl ether isomeric mixture on M-50 steel in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. Two different techniques were used: (1) a tilting plate apparatus, and (2) a sessile drop apparatus. Measurements were made for the temperature range 25 to 190 C. Surface tension was measured by a differential maximum bubble pressure technique over the range 23 to 220 C in room air. The critical surface energy of spreading (gamma /sub c/) was determined for the polyphenyl ether by plotting the cosine of the contact angle (theta) versus the surface tension (gamma /sub LV/). The straight line intercept at cosine theta = 1 is defined as gamma (sub c). Gamma (sub c) was found to be 30.1 dyn/cm for the tilting plate technique and 31.3 dyn/cm for the sessile drop technique. These results indicate that the polyphenyl ether is inherently autophobic (i.e., it will not spread on its own surface film until its surface tension is less than gamma /sub c/). This phenomenon is discussed in light of the wettability and wear problems encountered with this fluid.

  20. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Beato, Stefania; Holm, Per

    2016-02-10

    Compounds wettability is critical for a number of central processes including disintegration, dispersion, solubilisation and dissolution. It is therefore an important optimisation parameter both in drug discovery but also as guidance for formulation selection and optimisation. Wettability for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866 MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle. Only for special cases where compounds have poor compressibility would there be a need for a surface-quality-control step before the contact angle determination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. a Cost-Effective Method for Crack Detection and Measurement on Concrete Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, M. M.; Ali, T. A.; Abdelfatah, A.; Yehia, S.; Elaksher, A.

    2017-11-01

    Crack detection and measurement in the surface of concrete structures is currently carried out manually or through Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) such as imaging or scanning. The recent developments in depth (stereo) cameras have presented an opportunity for cost-effective, reliable crack detection and measurement. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of the new inexpensive depth camera (ZED) for crack detection and measurement. This depth camera with its lightweight and portable nature produces a 3D data file of the imaged surface. The ZED camera was utilized to image a concrete surface and the 3D file was processed to detect and analyse cracks. This article describes the outcome of the experiment carried out with the ZED camera as well as the processing tools used for crack detection and analysis. Crack properties that were also of interest were length, orientation, and width. The use of the ZED camera allowed for distinction between surface and concrete cracks. The ZED high-resolution capability and point cloud capture technology helped in generating a dense 3D data in low-lighting conditions. The results showed the ability of the ZED camera to capture the crack depth changes between surface (render) cracks, and crack that form in the concrete itself.

  2. A COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR CRACK DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT ON CONCRETE SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Sarker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Crack detection and measurement in the surface of concrete structures is currently carried out manually or through Non-Destructive Testing (NDT such as imaging or scanning. The recent developments in depth (stereo cameras have presented an opportunity for cost-effective, reliable crack detection and measurement. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of the new inexpensive depth camera (ZED for crack detection and measurement. This depth camera with its lightweight and portable nature produces a 3D data file of the imaged surface. The ZED camera was utilized to image a concrete surface and the 3D file was processed to detect and analyse cracks. This article describes the outcome of the experiment carried out with the ZED camera as well as the processing tools used for crack detection and analysis. Crack properties that were also of interest were length, orientation, and width. The use of the ZED camera allowed for distinction between surface and concrete cracks. The ZED high-resolution capability and point cloud capture technology helped in generating a dense 3D data in low-lighting conditions. The results showed the ability of the ZED camera to capture the crack depth changes between surface (render cracks, and crack that form in the concrete itself.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J.; Kilzer, A.; Petermann, M.

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  4. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryniewicz, A. M; Ryniewicz, W.; Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A.

    2010-01-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  5. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A. M.; Ryniewicz, A.; Ryniewicz, W.; Gaska, A.

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  6. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, w...

  7. Evaluation of surface contamination based on certifiably traceable, internationally accreditable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    National Accreditation and Measurement Service (NAMAS) adopted by the EUROMET agreement requires that the calibration of monitoring instruments be traceable internationally with the objective that radiation hazard assessment be improved. This objective is achieved for Tritium surface contamination by employing calibration sources and evaluation methods which comply with ISO standards including the measurement of activity removable by Volatilization as well as dust. Consideration should be given to organic binding of tritium in the skin with its implications in the event of litigation. (author)

  8. Ultrasonic Surface Measurements for the investigation of superficial alteration of natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Bilgili, Filiz; Christen, Sandra; Cristiano, Luigia; Krompholz, Rolf; Mosca, Ilaria; Rose, David

    2013-04-01

    Seismic waveform analysis is applicable also to the centimeter and decimeter scale for non-destructive testing of pavement, facades, plaster, sculptures, or load-bearing structures like pillars. Mostly transmission measurements are performed and travel-times of first arriving P-waves are considered that have limited resolution for the upper centimeters of an object. In contrast, surface measurements are well suited to quantify superficial alterations of material properties e.g. due to weathering. A number of surface measurements have been carried out in the laboratory as well as on real structures in order to study systematically the information content of ultrasonic waveforms and their variability under real conditions. As a preposition for ultrasonic waveform analysis, reproducible, broad-band measurements have to be carried out with a definite radiation pattern and an about 1 mm accuracy of the measurement geometry. We used special coupling devices for effective ultrasonic surface measurements in the laboratory as well as at real objects. Samples of concrete with varying composition and samples of natural stone - marble, tuff, and sandstone - were repeatedly weathered and tested by ultrasonic measurements. The resistance of the samples to weathering and the penetration depth of the weathering are analyzed. Furthermore, material specific calibration curves for changes in velocities of elastic waves due to weathering can be obtained by these tests. Tests on real structures have been carried out for marble (Schlossbrücke, Berlin) and sandstone (Porta Nigra, Trier). Altogether, these test measurements show clearly that despite of the internal inhomogeneity of many real objects, their surface roughness and topography especially ultrasonic Rayleigh waves are well suited to study material alterations in the upper centimeters. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves may be inverted for shear-wave velocity as a function of depth.

  9. Evaluation on Dorsey Method in Surface Tension Measurement of Solder Liquids Containing Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingke; Xie, Feiming; Fan, Jinsheng; Liu, Dayong; Huang, Jihua; Chen, Shuhai

    2018-06-01

    With the purpose of developing a feasible approach for measuring the surface tension of solders containing surfactants, the surface tension of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-xP solder alloys, with various drop sizes as well as different phosphorus (P) content, was evaluated using the Dorsey method based on the sessile drop test. The results show that the accuracy of the surface tension calculations depends on both of sessile drop size and the liquid metal composition. With a proper drop size, in the range of 4.5 mm to 5.3 mm in equivalent spherical diameters, the deviation of the surface tension calculation can be limited to 1.43 mN·m-1 and 6.30 mN·m-1 for SnAgCu and SnAgCu-P, respectively. The surface tension of SnAgCu-xP solder alloys decreases quickly to a minimum value when the P content reaches 0.5 wt% and subsequently increases slowly with the P content further increasing. The formation of a P-enriched surface layer and Sn4P3 intermetallic phases is regarded to be responsible for the decreasing and subsequent increasing of surface tension, respectively.

  10. Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Taira, Junichi; Takenaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugai, Kenji; Kosako, Toshiso

    2007-01-01

    The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

  11. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    compression and injection moulded plastic negatives and Ni-negatives have been made from which again Ni-positives were produced. The replication processes showed negligible deviations from the Pt and Pa values compared to the primary standards. An important prerequisite is the cleanliness of the surfaces......Background For the precise and accurate measurement of surface topography a whole range of surface detection systems is available. With their application in research and production problems arise due to the lack of traceable standard artefacts for the instrument calibration in X, Y and Z directions...... and for the calibration of filters. Existing ISO standards on calibration specimens are inadequate and limited in that they only cover contacting instruments and only partially the measuring ranges for these instruments. The whole range of non-contacting instruments are not covered despite their increasing use...

  12. A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y B; Piao, W Y; Xu, J B

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements

  13. A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y. B.; Piao, W. Y.; Xu, J. B.

    2007-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements.

  14. Calculation of reasonable exemption levels for surface contamination by measuring overall gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    The present regulation on surface contamination [Bq/cm 2 ] is determined from a simple radiological model for the most hazardous radionuclides (Pu-239 for alpha emitters and Sr-90 for beta emitters) and its extremely conservative model is applied for all other alpha and beta emitters. In this study, reasonable exemption levels for surface contamination are calculated for each radionuclide by adopting an original radiological dose evaluation method for surface contamination that can be applied in radiation safety, transport safety and waste safety. Furthermore, a new concept of judging the exemption by estimating the overall contamination [Bq] on the objects from the measurement of gamma ray has been designed and a reasonable value was derived. We conclude that the overall exemption levels obtained by gamma ray measurement can be one order smaller than those obtained by the conventional method for some radionuclides, such as Mn-54, Co-60, Nb-94, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Eu-154. (author)

  15. Slip length measurement of confined air flow on three smooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunlu; Bhushan, Bharat; Maali, Abdelhamid

    2013-04-02

    An experimental measurement of the slip length of air flow close to three different solid surfaces is presented. The substrate was driven by a nanopositioner moving toward an oscillating glass sphere glued to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. A large separation distance was used to get more effective data. The slip length value was obtained by analyzing the amplitude and phase data of the cantilever. The measurements show that the slip length does not depend on the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever. Because of the small difference among the slip lengths of the three surfaces, a simplified analysis method was used. The results show that on glass, graphite, and mica surfaces the slip lengths are 98, 234, and 110 nm, respectively.

  16. Some recent results of Russian measurements of surface ozone in Antarctica. A meteorological interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Elokhov, A.S.; Makarov, O.V.; Mokhov, I.I. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics)

    1993-01-01

    Surface ozone measurements were carried out at Molodezhnaya and Mirny stations in spring 1987-autumn 1988. The data show an annual variation with a summer minimum at 15 ppbv value. The striking feature of the surface ozone record is two types of day-to-day variability. One of the types is characterized by large day-to-day variations with about 10 ppbv magnitude. The likely mechanism of such variations is the vertical transport induced by cyclonic activity. The other type occurs in synoptically quiet periods (frequent in summer) when the day-to-day ozone variations are significant but not so large. The most likely mechanism of these variations is the slope katabatic wind which transports ozone from inside the Antarctic continent. The latitudinal distribution of surface ozone for this period, measured aboard an aircraft, showed a slight increase towards Vostok station. (26 refs., 3 figs.).

  17. Certification of contact probe measurement of surface wave of Li jet for IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Takafumi, E-mail: okita@stu.nucl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Hoashi, Eiji; Yoshihashi, Sachiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamaoka, Nobuo; Horiike, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We have conducted experiments of liquid lithium free-surface flow for IFMIF. • In the experiment using electro-contact probe apparatus, a droplet of liquid Li on the middle of measurement probe was observed. • Behavior of a droplet and false detections were observed by using HSV camera. • The error of the statistical result was roughly evaluated about 1%. • From results of numerical simulations, we obtained the detailed information about the behavior of a Li droplet. - Abstract: The international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF) is a neutron source for developing fusion reactor materials. A liquid lithium (Li) jet with free surface is planned as a target to generate intense neutron field. It is important to obtain information on the surface wave characteristic for safety of the facility and efficient neutron generation. Surface wave characteristics experiment using the liquid Li circulation facility is carried out at Osaka University. In our studies, measurement using an electro-contact probe apparatus is conducted and many data about surface wave height were taken. In this experiment, a liquid Li droplet was observed on the probe. To see effect due to droplets on the probe needle, images near the surface of the Li jet including the Li droplet were taken by HSV camera synchronized with probe contact signals, and correlation between the behavior of the Li droplet and signals was evaluated. From the results, when the droplet on the probe contacts of the droplet with the surface, signals obviously different from the regular signal were observed. The influence on the result of frequency was estimated and is approximately <1%. Accuracy of measurement using probe could be increased by carefully deleting false signals.

  18. Development of the automatic measuring system to survey the surface contamination on equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Akira; Matsumura, Hidekatsu; Nawa, Takao; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yamada, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    The inspection of surface contamination carried out when things are taken out of the control areas in nuclear power stations requires considerable labor and time because it is carried out manually. In order to make the inspection of surface contamination more efficiently and to standardize it, the development of an automatic inspection apparatus was carried out. This apparatus inspects the surface contamination due to radio isotopes which do not emit α-ray, and the objects to be measured are the large things with definite forms, such as boards and pipes for scaffolding. The method of measuring β-ray with a gas flow counter was adopted for the apparatus in view of the good detection sensitivity, relatively simple shielding against background, and easy conversion to surface contamination density. The measuring system was composed of the gas flow counters and a rate meter. The outline of the apparatus made for trial is explained. As the result of the performance test, the lowest detection sensitivity was 1.29 x 10 -5 μCi/cm 2 at the moving speed of an object of 1 cm/sec. The detection sensitivity is improved by the flattening of the sensitivity distribution. The evaluation of the error, the reduction of measuring time and the prevention of contamination were also made. (Kako, I.)

  19. Comparison of HF radar measurements with Eulerian and Lagrangian surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrs, Johannes; Sperrevik, Ann Kristin; Christensen, Kai Håkon; Broström, Göran; Breivik, Øyvind

    2015-05-01

    High-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean currents are compared with in situ measurements to conclude if the radar observations include effects of surface waves that are of second order in the wave amplitude. Eulerian current measurements from a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler and Lagrangian measurements from surface drifters are used as references. Directional wave spectra are obtained from a combination of pressure sensor data and a wave model. Our analysis shows that the wave-induced Stokes drift is not included in the HF radar-derived currents, that is, HF radars measure the Eulerian current. A disputed nonlinear correction to the phase velocity of surface gravity waves, which may affect HF radar signals, has a magnitude of about half the Stokes drift at the surface. In our case, this contribution by nonlinear dispersion would be smaller than the accuracy of the HF radar currents, hence no conclusion can be made. Finally, the analysis confirms that the HF radar data represent an exponentially weighted vertical average where the decay scale is proportional to the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

  20. Cryogenic germanium detectors for dark matter search: Surface events rejection by charge measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniatowski, A.; Censier, B.; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.

    2006-01-01

    Test experiments have been performed on a Ge detector of the Edelweiss collaboration, combining time-resolved acquisition of the ionization signals with heat measurements. Pulse-shape analysis of the charge signals demonstrates the capability to reject surface events of poor charge collection with energies larger than 50 keV in ionization