WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface processes team

  1. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping, earth-surface process investigations, and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2006 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Mojave Desert, the Colorado Plateau region of northern Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. This compilation gives the bibliographical citations for 123 new publications, most of which are available online using the hyperlinks provided.

  2. Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, II; Graymer, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00–215 and USGS Open-File Report 01–198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  3. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2000 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2000 as well as additional 1999 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 00-215). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  4. Publications of the Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles; Stone, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping, earth-surface process investigations, and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2005 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Mojave Desert, the Colorado Plateau region of northern Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2005 as well as additional 2002, 2003, and 2004 publications that were not included in the previous lists (USGS Open-File Reports 03-363, 2004- 1267, 2005-1362). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod/, or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey's web

  5. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles; Graymer, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey’s web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http

  6. Study on team evaluation. Team process model for team evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou Kunihide; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Ayako

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have been done to evaluate or improve team performance in nuclear and aviation industries. Crew resource management is the typical example. In addition, team evaluation recently gathers interests in other teams of lawyers, medical staff, accountants, psychiatrics, executive, etc. However, the most evaluation methods focus on the results of team behavior that can be observed through training or actual business situations. What is expected team is not only resolving problems but also training younger members being destined to lead the next generation. Therefore, the authors set the final goal of this study establishing a series of methods to evaluate and improve teams inclusively such as decision making, motivation, staffing, etc. As the first step, this study develops team process model describing viewpoints for the evaluation. The team process is defined as some kinds of power that activate or inactivate competency of individuals that is the components of team's competency. To find the team process, the authors discussed the merits of team behavior with the experienced training instructors and shift supervisors of nuclear/thermal power plants. The discussion finds four team merits and many components to realize those team merits. Classifying those components into eight groups of team processes such as 'Orientation', 'Decision Making', 'Power and Responsibility', 'Workload Management', 'Professional Trust', 'Motivation', 'Training' and 'staffing', the authors propose Team Process Model with two to four sub processes in each team process. In the future, the authors will develop methods to evaluate some of the team processes for nuclear/thermal power plant operation teams. (author)

  7. Testing the Effects of Team Processes on Team Member Schema Similarity and Team Performance: Examination of the Team Member Schema Similarity Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rentsch, Joan

    1998-01-01

    .... Team membership influences and team interaction processes were examined as antecedents to team member teamwork schema similarity, which was conceptualized as team member teamwork schema agreement and accuracy...

  8. [Work processes in Family Health Strategy team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Daniela Soccoloski; Medeiros, Cássia Regina Gotler

    2009-01-01

    The Family Health Strategy requires a redefinition of the health care model, characterized by interdisciplinary team work. This study is aimed at knowiong the work processes in a Family Health Team. The research was qualitative, and 10 team members were interviewed. Results demonstrated that the nurse performs a variety of functions that could be shared with other people; this overloads him/her and makes inherent job task execution difficult. Task planning and performing are usually done in teams, but some professionals get more involved in these activities. It was concluded that there is a need for the team to reflect upon work process as well as reassess task assignment, so that each individual is able to perform the work and contribute for an integrated work.

  9. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and activities of an aerospace technology transfer group are outlined and programs in various stages of progress are described including the orbital tube flaring device, infrared proximity sensor for robot positioning, laser stripping magnet wire, infrared imaging as welding process tracking system, carbide coating of cutting tools, nondestructive fracture toughness testing of titanium welds, portable solar system for agricultural applications, and an anerobic methane gas generator.

  10. The Impact of Environmental Complexity and Team Training on Team Processes and Performance in Multi-Team Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobb, Marshall

    1999-01-01

    This study examined how manipulating the level of environmental complexity and the type of team training given to subject volunteers impacted important team process behaviors and performance outcomes...

  11. [Group process: reflections of a nursing team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Adriana Serdotte Freitas; Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this qualitative, exploratory-descriptive study was to analyze the group process of a nursing team at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), under the light of Pichon-Rivière's Operative Group Theory. Data collection took place in 2008, using a semi-structured questionnaire and focal group. The group work concept is one of the four categories that resulted from the study, and is the object of approach in the present article. It was found that the knowledge about the group process must be shared, disseminated and discussed since the undergraduate studies and developed across the professional career. As the team learns and is able to identify the main indicators of the group process, it becomes possible to improve operatively, considering not only the outcomes but mainly the course covered until achieving the goal, aiming at group learning.

  12. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira-Asenjo, Nuria; Pietraszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sczesny, Sabine; Gumi, Tània; Guimerà, Robert; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering). So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4-5 members). Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women) supervised 258 team members (39% women). Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineerin...

  13. An experimental paradigm for team decision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The study of distributed information processing and decision making is presently hampered by two factors: (1) The inherent complexity of the mathematical formulation of decentralized problems has prevented the development of models that could be used to predict performance in a distributed environment; and (2) The lack of comprehensive scientific empirical data on human team decision making has hindered the development of significant descriptive models. As a part of a comprehensive effort to find a new framework for multihuman decision making problems, a novel experimental research paradigm was developed involving human terms in decision making tasks. Attempts to construct parts of an integrated model with ideas from queueing networks, team theory, distributed estimation and decentralized resource management are described.

  14. [Investigation of team processes that enhance team performance in business organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Toru; Aoshima, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have suggested team processes that enhance team performance. However, past team process models were based on crew team, whose all team members perform an indivisible temporary task. These models may be inapplicable business teams, whose individual members perform middle- and long-term tasks assigned to individual members. This study modified the teamwork model of Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) and aimed to demonstrate a whole team process that enhances the performance of business teams. We surveyed five companies (member N = 1,400, team N = 161) and investigated team-level-processes. Results showed that there were two sides of team processes: "communication" and "collaboration to achieve a goal." Team processes in which communication enhanced collaboration improved team performance with regard to all aspects of the quantitative objective index (e.g., current income and number of sales), supervisor rating, and self-rating measurements. On the basis of these results, we discuss the entire process by which teamwork enhances team performance in business organizations.

  15. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58) or low (n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  16. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hagemann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes, the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58 or low (n = 58 collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes

  17. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high ( n = 58) or low ( n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  18. When teams shift among processes: insights from simulation and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Deanna M; McComb, Sara A

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces process shifts to study the temporal interplay among transition and action processes espoused in the recurring phase model proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zacarro (2001). Process shifts are those points in time when teams complete a focal process and change to another process. By using team communication patterns to measure process shifts, this research explores (a) when teams shift among different transition processes and initiate action processes and (b) the potential of different interventions, such as communication directives, to manipulate process shift timing and order and, ultimately, team performance. Virtual experiments are employed to compare data from observed laboratory teams not receiving interventions, simulated teams receiving interventions, and optimal simulated teams generated using genetic algorithm procedures. Our results offer insights about the potential for different interventions to affect team performance. Moreover, certain interventions may promote discussions about key issues (e.g., tactical strategies) and facilitate shifting among transition processes in a manner that emulates optimal simulated teams' communication patterns. Thus, we contribute to theory regarding team processes in 2 important ways. First, we present process shifts as a way to explore the timing of when teams shift from transition to action processes. Second, we use virtual experimentation to identify those interventions with the greatest potential to affect performance by changing when teams shift among processes. Additionally, we employ computational methods including neural networks, simulation, and optimization, thereby demonstrating their applicability in conducting team research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members.

  20. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Methods: Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Discussion and Conclusion: Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members. PMID:29276591

  1. Team training process for nuclear plant technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macris, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of team training is the cooperative and coordinated actions of individual to attain a common goal. Such training requires the development of more sophisticated educational techniques than those previously established for training individuals alone. Extensive research has been conducted to devise methods and techniques to bring about effective team training. This paper discusses current team training methods and present an instructional strategy for the application of effective team training techniques

  2. PERSPECTIVES ON MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM PROCESSES AMONG HEALTHCARE EXECUTIVES: PROCESSES THAT FACILITATE TEAM EFFECTIVENESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Amy; Erwin, Cathleen

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are used in healthcare organizations to address both clinical and managerial functions. Despite their prevalence, little is known about how team processes work to facilitate effectiveness among MDT leadership teams. This study explores perceptions of MDT participation experienced by organizational leaders in healthcare organizations in the United States. A survey of American College of Healthcare Executives members was conducted to assess involvement and perceptions of MDTs among health care management professionals. Descriptive statistics, independent T-Tests and Chi-square analyses were used to examine participation in MDTs, perception of MDT processes, and the association of participation and perceived processes with employee and organizational characteristics. The survey yielded a sample comprised of 492 healthcare executive or executive-track employees. An overwhelming majority indicated participation in MDTs. The study identified team processes that could use improvement including communication, cooperation, and conflict resolution. The study provides evidence that can help guide the development of training programs that focus on providing managerial leaders with strategies aimed at improving communication, coordination, and conflict resolution that will improve the effectiveness of MDT functioning in healthcare organizations.

  3. Sensors for process control Focus Team report

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the Semiconductor Technology Workshop, held in November 1992, the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) convened 179 semiconductor technology experts to assess the 15-year outlook for the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The output of the Workshop, a document entitled 'Semiconductor Technology: Workshop Working Group Reports,' contained an overall roadmap for the technology characteristics envisioned in integrated circuits (IC's) for the period 1992-2007. In addition, the document contained individual roadmaps for numerous key areas in IC manufacturing, such as film deposition, thermal processing, manufacturing systems, exposure technology, etc. The SIA Report did not contain a separate roadmap for contamination free manufacturing (CFM). A key component of CFM for the next 15 years is the use of sensors for (1) defect reduction, (2) improved product quality, (3) improved yield, (4) improved tool utilization through contamination reduction, and (5) real time process control in semiconductor fabrication. The objective of this Focus Team is to generate a Sensors for Process Control Roadmap. Implicit in this objective is the identification of gaps in current sensor technology so that research and development activity in the sensor industry can be stimulated to develop sensor systems capable of meeting the projected roadmap needs. Sensor performance features of interest include detection limit, specificity, sensitivity, ease of installation and maintenance, range, response time, accuracy, precision, ease and frequency of calibration, degree of automation, and adaptability to in-line process control applications.

  4. Impact of Process Protocol Design on Virtual Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christofer Sean

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the influence of action process dimensions on team decision performance, and attitudes toward team work environment and procedures given different degrees of collaborative technology affordance. Process models were used to provide context for understanding team behavior in the experimental task, and clarify understanding…

  5. The dynamics of team cognition: A process-oriented theory of knowledge emergence in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, James A; Braun, Michael T; Kuljanin, Goran; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chao, Georgia T

    2016-10-01

    Team cognition has been identified as a critical component of team performance and decision-making. However, theory and research in this domain continues to remain largely static; articulation and examination of the dynamic processes through which collectively held knowledge emerges from the individual- to the team-level is lacking. To address this gap, we advance and systematically evaluate a process-oriented theory of team knowledge emergence. First, we summarize the core concepts and dynamic mechanisms that underlie team knowledge-building and represent our theory of team knowledge emergence (Step 1). We then translate this narrative theory into a formal computational model that provides an explicit specification of how these core concepts and mechanisms interact to produce emergent team knowledge (Step 2). The computational model is next instantiated into an agent-based simulation to explore how the key generative process mechanisms described in our theory contribute to improved knowledge emergence in teams (Step 3). Results from the simulations demonstrate that agent teams generate collectively shared knowledge more effectively when members are capable of processing information more efficiently and when teams follow communication strategies that promote equal rates of information sharing across members. Lastly, we conduct an empirical experiment with real teams participating in a collective knowledge-building task to verify that promoting these processes in human teams also leads to improved team knowledge emergence (Step 4). Discussion focuses on implications of the theory for examining team cognition processes and dynamics as well as directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Expectation changes and team characteristics in a participatory design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Conne Mara; De Jong, Annelise; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A human factors specialist researched the expectations of a culturally and professionally diverse team throughout a year long participatory design process of a large processing facility. For a deeper understanding of high-level team expectations and characteristics, the specialist collected data and information through in-situ ethnography and traditional case study methods, personal interviews, and a questionnaire that included a likert scale rating for expectation levels. Results found that expectation levels rated extremely satisfied for individual team members and the overall team itself before and during the participatory process. In contrast, expectations for upper management from the team were satisfied before the participatory process, but changed to uncertain, to unsatisfied, to extremely unsatisfied during the process. Additionally, the participatory design team exhibited high-level team characteristics to include honesty, competence, commitment, communication, creativity, and clear expectations.

  8. The Relationship between Creative Personality Composition, Innovative Team Climate, and Team Innovativeness: An Input-Process-Output Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Martinsen, Oyvind; Einarsen, Stale

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between creative personality composition, innovative team climate, and team innovation based on an input-process-output model. We measured personality with the Creative Person Profile, team climate with the Team Climate Inventory, and team innovation through team-member and supervisor reports of team…

  9. Hegemonic Power Process in Team-based Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Brouns, B.B.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to portray how implicit “hegemonic power processes” channel the way in which self-managing teams deal with organisational dilemmas. Hegemonic power processes in team-based work are, to a great extent concealed, processes of meaning and identity formation. These processes

  10. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Asenjo, Núria; Pietraszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sczesny, Sabine; Gumí, Tània; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering). So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4-5 members). Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women) supervised 258 team members (39% women). Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders' self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration). While we did not find any gender differences in leaders' self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders.

  11. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Rovira-Asenjo

    Full Text Available Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering. So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4-5 members. Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women supervised 258 team members (39% women. Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders' self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration. While we did not find any gender differences in leaders' self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders.

  12. Interdisciplinary hospice team processes and multidimensional pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan Day, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Hospice teams may address multidimensional pain through the synergistic interaction of team members from various professional disciplines during regularly scheduled team meetings. However, the occurrence of that critical exchange has not been adequately described or documented. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore two processes in team pain palliation: communication and collaboration. Data were gathered through individual interviews and a 1-year observation of team members from two hospices (physicians, nurses, aides, chaplains, social workers). Utilizing constant comparison, 14 final thematic categories were discovered. Use of biopsychosocial/spiritual terms by all team members meant that the team had the common language needed to communicate about multidimensional pain. Interviews and observation revealed a gap in translating multidisciplinary communication in team meetings into collaborative acts for pain treatment. In addition, structural influences inhibited creativity in pain palliation. There was no mutual understanding of the purpose for team meetings, no recognition of the need to reflect on team process, or common definition of leadership. Social work roles in hospice should include leadership that moves teams toward interdisciplinary care for multidimensional pain.

  13. Expectation changes and team characteristics in a participatory design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.; Jong, A. de; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    A human factors specialist researched the expectations of a culturally and professionally diverse team throughout a year long participatory design process of a large processing facility. For a deeper understanding of high-level team expectations and characteristics, the specialist collected data and

  14. Efficiency and Stability in a Process of Teams Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Boncinelli, Leonardo; Pin, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a team formation process that generalizes matching models and network formation models, allowing for overlapping teams of heterogeneous size. We apply different notions of stability: myopic team-wise stability, which extends to our setup the concept of pair-wise stability, coalitional stability, where agents are perfectly rational and able to coordinate, and stochastic stability, where agents are myopic and errors occur with vanishing probability. We find that, in many cases, coali...

  15. APPLICATION OF FUZZY ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO BUILDING RESEARCH TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol DĄBROWSKI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building teams has a fundamental impact for execution of research and development projects. The teams appointed for the needs of given projects are based on individuals from both inside and outside of the organization. Knowledge is not only a product available on the market but also an intangible resource affecting their internal and external processes. Thus it is vitally important for businesses and scientific research facilities to effectively manage knowledge within project teams. The article presents a proposal to use Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System methods in working groups building for R&D projects on the basis of employees skills.

  16. Application of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to Building Research Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Karol; Skrzypek, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    Building teams has a fundamental impact for execution of research and development projects. The teams appointed for the needs of given projects are based on individuals from both inside and outside of the organization. Knowledge is not only a product available on the market but also an intangible resource affecting their internal and external processes. Thus it is vitally important for businesses and scientific research facilities to effectively manage knowledge within project teams. The article presents a proposal to use Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System) methods in working groups building for R&D projects on the basis of employees skills.

  17. TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  18. Leader-team complementarity: Exploring the interactive effects of leader personality traits and team power distance values on team processes and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Judge, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Integrating the leader trait perspective with dominance complementarity theory, we propose team power distance as an important boundary condition for the indirect impact of leader extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on team performance through a team's potency beliefs and through relational identification with the leader. Using time-lagged, 3-source data from 71 teams, we found that leader extraversion had a positive indirect impact on team in-role and extrarole performance through relational identification, but only for high power distance teams; leader conscientiousness had a positive influence on team in-role performance through team potency, but only for high power distance teams; and leader agreeableness had a positive effect on team in-role and extrarole performance via relational identification and on team in-role performance via team potency, but only for low power distance teams. The findings address prior inconsistencies regarding the relationships between leader traits and team effectiveness, identify an important boundary condition and key team processes that bridge the links, and provide a deeper understanding of the role of leader traits in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Motivated information processing in organizational teams: Progress, puzzles, and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research into group and team functioning looks at groups that perform cognitive tasks, such as decision making, problem solving, and innovation. The Motivated Information Processing in Groups Model (MIP-G; De Dreu, Nijstad, & Van Knippenberg, 2008) conjectures that information processing

  20. Unraveling the Black Box of New Venture Team Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnåli, Ekaterina S.; Knockaert, Mirjam; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues that new venture team (NVT) processes are relatively ill-understood in the entrepreneurship literature, and describes various theoretical and empirical research avenues that may be pursued in order to improve our understanding of these processes. It then focuses on the widely ...

  1. Building a team through a strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Debra; Priganc, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Strategic planning is a process often left to senior hospital leadership, with limited input from unit-level, bedside patient care providers. This frequent approach to strategic planning misses the opportunity to engage a wide range of employees, build a shared sense of commitment, produce a collaborative team environment, and to generate greater acceptance of the plan. The Patient Care Services division at the University of Chicago Medicine used a strategic planning process that incorporated 360-degree input from both within the Patient Care Services division and outside of the division. The result is a strategic vision and plan that, shaped by broad-based input from both internal and external constituencies, is strengthened by the team that emerged from the process. Through the process of identifying a common understanding of the group's future direction, a shared purpose was created that transcended traditional professional boundaries and shaped a cohesive team focused on effective and efficient patient care. Now, with a focused strategic plan and a team centered on a shared purpose, the team is beginning to effectively deliver on the plan.

  2. Process Variables Critical for Team Effectiveness: A Delphi Study of Wraparound Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Janetta L.; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.

    2001-01-01

    Wraparound team members (n=20) identified as teaming experts rated 109 items that support team effectiveness across six categories: team goals, member roles and membership, communication, cohesion, logistics, and outcomes. Items in the team outcomes, goals, and cohesion categories were ranked most critical to team effectiveness. (Contains…

  3. Exploring the process of a skin care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingel, P

    1996-01-01

    In early 1994, the nursing department in a 153 bed acute care facility with a twenty bed short-term physical rehabilitation unit noticed that patients were developing nosocomial skin care problems at their facility. It was found that patients who returned to the facility within 31 days were at risk. A one-day, prevalence survey was conducted which revealed the presence of a high percentage of pressure ulcers among the patients surveyed. A group of nurses decided to institute a multidisciplinary team in an attempt to solve the skin care problems, which resulted in the formation of a Skin Care Team. The Skin Care Team sought to improve the appropriateness, effectiveness, and efficiency of delivering skin care to patients, as well as to improve the continuity of care among healthcare providers in the provision of skin care services. The following article was written by a member of the Skin Care Team. The concept of teamwork is defined and explored, and a description of the developmental process of a team, specifically a skin care team, is also provided.

  4. Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

  5. Gender Composition of Tactical Decision Making Teams; Impact on Team Process and Outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Linda

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of teams differing in gender composition on a university-developed synthetic task, the Team Interactive Decision Exercise for Teams Incorporating Distributed Expertise (TIDE2...

  6. The Application of Six Sigma Methodologies to University Processes: The Use of Student Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Mildred Golden; Alexander, Christine; Taneja, Sonia; Tirumalasetty, Sowmya; Chadalavada, Deepthi

    2012-01-01

    The first student Six Sigma team (activated under a QEP Process Sub-team) evaluated the course and curriculum approval process. The goal was to streamline the process and thereby shorten process cycle time and reduce confusion about how the process works. Members of this team developed flowcharts on how the process is supposed to work (by…

  7. Attacking process characterization of elite water polo female teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Canossa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the attacking tasks and tactical organization of elite Women’s Water Polo. The sample consisted of 442 attack sequences of 8 games played by the top teams in a European Championship. Seventeen variables were analyzed according to the position and player’s participation, tactical organization and playing styles, as well as the efficacy of actions performed. The results from this study indicate that positional attack was the predominant performance factor in the attacking process. To this occurrence, the mixed floating defense was identified as the most frequent opposition. The counter-attack proved to be the most efficient strategy. The attacking process frequently started by ball recovering, in anticipation, and by the defense of the goal-keeper in the 2m zone. In central path, a first long-range pass to the right wing predominated. Teams preferred spontaneous shot on goal supported by assisted displacements, and extra player man offence situations. In general, the attacking sequences, do not take longer than 35s to be developed. Teams efficiency emerged related to the tactical means adopted, namely the spontaneous shot at goal on the front line and numerical superiority of players in attacking game situations.

  8. Attacking process characterization of elite water polo female teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canossa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the attacking tasks and tactical organization of elite Women’s Water Polo. The sample consisted of 442 attack sequences of 8 games played by the top teams in a European Championship. Seventeen variables were analyzed according to the position and player’s participation, tactical organization and playing styles, as well as the efficacy of actions performed. The results from this study indicate that positional attack was the predominant performance factor in the attacking process. To this occurrence, the mixed floating defense was identified as the most frequent opposition. The counter-attack proved to be the most efficient strategy. The attacking process frequently started by ball recovering, in anticipation, and by the defense of the goal-keeper in the 2m zone. In central path, a first long-range pass to the right wing predominated. Teams preferred spontaneous shot on goal supported by assisted displacements, and extra player man offence situations. In general, the attacking sequences, do not take longer than 35s to be developed. Teams efficiency emerged related to the tactical means adopted, namely the spontaneous shot at goal on the front line and numerical superiority of players in attacking game situations.

  9. Ivins examines Destiny with the processing team in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, Marsha Ivins, a mission specialist on the STS-98 crew, inspects the U.S. Laboratory with members of the laboratory's processing team. The laboratory module, considered the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), has been named 'Destiny' in honor of its prominent role in the world's largest science and technology effort. It is planned for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on the sixth ISS construction flight currently targeted for March 2000. From left to right are Ivins, Danny Whittington (face not visible), Melissa Orozco, Jerry Hopkins, and Suzanne Fase.

  10. The Tiger Team Process in the Rebaselining of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the integrated, teaming approach and planning process utilized by the Tiger Team in the development of the IPMP. This paper will also serve to document the benefits derived from this implementation process

  11. Task-Team-Process: The Development of Shared Representations in a Engineeing Design Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badke-Schaub, Petra; Lauche, Kristina; Neumann, Andre

    2009-01-01

    In this article, an analysis of the development of team mental models in two engineering meetings is described. The authors present a two-stage model of the development of sharedness in teams, which formed the basis for a communication analysis of both meetings. The transcripts of the meetings were...

  12. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally... this chapter, the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

  13. Implant surfaces and interface processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemo, B; Gold, J

    1999-06-01

    The past decades and current R&D of biomaterials and medical implants show some general trends. One major trend is an increased degree of functionalization of the material surface, better to meet the demands of the biological host system. While the biomaterials of the past and those in current use are essentially bulk materials (metals, ceramics, polymers) or special compounds (bioglasses), possibly with some additional coating (e.g., hydroxyapatite), the current R&D on surface modifications points toward much more complex and multifunctional surfaces for the future. Such surface modifications can be divided into three classes, one aiming toward an optimized three-dimensional physical microarchitecture of the surface (pore size distributions, "roughness", etc.), the second one focusing on the (bio) chemical properties of surface coatings and impregnations (ion release, multi-layer coatings, coatings with biomolecules, controlled drug release, etc.), and the third one dealing with the viscoelastic properties (or more generally the micromechanical properties) of material surfaces. These properties are expected to affect the interfacial processes cooperatively, i.e., there are likely synergistic effects between and among them: The surface is "recognized" by the biological system through the combined chemical and topographic pattern of the surface, and the viscoelastic properties. In this presentation, the development indicated above is discussed briefly, and current R&D in this area is illustrated with a number of examples from our own research. The latter include micro- and nanofabrication of surface patterns and topographies by the use of laser machining, photolithographic techniques, and electron beam and colloidal lithographies to produce controlled structures on implant surfaces in the size range 10 nm to 100 microns. Examples of biochemical modifications include mono- or lipid membranes and protein coatings on different surfaces. A new method to evaluate, e

  14. Social Influence Interpretation of Interpersonal Processes and Team Performance Over Time Using Bayesian Model Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Alan R.; van de Schoot, Rens; Delmar, Frédéric; Crano, William D.

    The team behavior literature is ambiguous about the relations between members’ interpersonal processes—task debate and task conflict—and team performance. From a social influence perspective, we show why members’ interpersonal processes determine team performance over time in small groups. Together,

  15. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  16. Nanoscale processes on insulating surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gnecco, Enrico; Szymoński, Marek

    2009-01-01

    ... the group of Prof. Ernst Meyer in Basel, where he investigated friction processes on alkali halide surfaces in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The main result was the observation of a logarithmic velocity dependence of atomic friction, which was interpreted within a combination of the classical Tomlinson and Eyring models. After his Ph.D. he joined the ...

  17. Distinguishing between taskwork and teamwork planning in teams: relations with coordination and interpersonal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M

    2014-05-01

    Planning in teams represents a critical process that lays the groundwork for effective team functioning. The current investigation examined whether emergent team planning can be meaningfully characterized in terms of a distinction between planning that focuses on taskwork and planning that focuses on teamwork. In Study 1, items written to reflect commonly identified indicators of team planning were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2, slightly modified items were provided to a separate sample, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. In Study 3, the relationships between the different forms of planning and other team processes (i.e., coordination, interpersonal processes) were examined in order to determine whether there are unique relationships for task-focused and team-focused planning. Results from the first 2 studies provided support for a 2-factor structure of team planning, whereas Study 3 found independent relationships for taskwork and teamwork planning with subsequent team processes. Both forms of planning also exhibited indirect relationships with team performance via the mediating role of subsequent team processes. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. What is happening under the surface? Power, conflict and the performance of medical teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janss, Rozemarijn; Rispens, Sonja; Segers, Mien; Jehn, Karen A

    2012-09-01

    The effect of teamwork on team performance is broadly recognised in the medical field. This recognition is manifested in educational programmes in which attention to interpersonal behaviours during teamwork is growing. Conflict and power differences influence interpersonal behaviours and are marked topics in studies of group functioning in the social and organisational psychology literature. Insights from the domain of social sciences put the ongoing improvement of teamwork into broader perspective. This paper shows how knowledge from the domain of social and organisational psychology contributes to the understanding of teamwork in the medical environment. More specifically, this paper suggests that unfolding the underlying issues of power and conflict within medical teams can be of extra help in the development of educational interventions aimed at improving team performance. We review the key social psychology and organisational behaviour literature concerning power and conflict, and relate the insights derived from this to the team process of ad hoc medical action teams. We present a theoretical framework in which insights into power and conflict are used to explain and predict team dynamics in ad hoc medical action teams. Power and conflict strongly influence interpersonal behaviour. Characteristics of medical action teams give rise to all kinds of issues of disagreement and are accompanied by complex issues of intra-team power distribution. We argue that how team members coordinate, cooperate and communicate is steered by members' personal motivations, which, in turn, strongly depend on their perceptions of power and conflict. Given the importance of the performance of these teams, we suggest future directions for the development of training interventions building on knowledge and theories derived from social and organisational psychology. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  19. Improved ant Colony Optimization for Virtual Teams Building in Collaborative Process Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual teams have been adopted by organizations to gain competitive advantages in this global economy. Virtual teams are a ubiquitous part of getting work done in almost every organization. For the purpose of building virtual teams in collaborative process planning, the method based on improved ant colony algorithm (IMACO was proposed. The concept of virtual team was illustrated and the necessity of building virtual teams in collaborative process planning was analyzed. The sub tasks with certain timing relationship were described and the model of building virtual teams in collaborative process planning was established, which was solved by improved ant colony algorithm. In this paper applications of the IMACO and ACO are compared and demonstrate that the use of the IMACO algorithm performs better. An example was studied to illustrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  20. Are real teams healthy teams?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buljac, M.; van Woerkom, M.; van Wijngaarden, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of real-team--as opposed to a team in name only--characteristics (i.e., team boundaries, stability of membership, and task interdependence) on team processes (i.e., team learning and emotional support) and team effectiveness in the long-term care sector. We employed a

  1. The Relationship of Individual Difference and Group Process Variables with Self-Managed Team Performance: A Field Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of dispositional individual difference team composition and group process variables in explaining team performance was examined for 1,030 military officers working in 92 teams over a 5-week period...

  2. Applying Action Process to Improve Team Learning Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Cordes, Christopher Sean

    2013-01-01

    Prior to advances in communication technology, organizational teams typically operated in face-to-face (FTF) configurations (Lojeski, et al., 2006). Changes in business requirements and advances in technology over the last 25 years have contributed to a shift in work structures. (Guzzo & Dickson, 1996). Along with this, advances in technology such as high speed internet connection, virtual communication, and collaboration tools have supported the move to the virtual work environment. This has...

  3. Implementation of a self-directed work team in a TLD Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnwine, A.A.; Bogard, R.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Somers, D.E.; Souleyrette, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to maintain productivity with a decreasing work force, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has adopted the concept of Self-Directed Work Teams in various disciplines. The plant's Health Physics Department was able to eliminate a layer of front-line supervisors by establishing four self-directed work teams. Each team was able to choose their method of implementation. The TLD Processing Center Team chose to use project managment tools to ensure a smooth transition from the traditional work group to a self-directed approach. This process focused on establishing responsibilities, determining training requirements, determining a leadership style for the group, and performing a potential problem analysis for the transition. The transition also reviewed interface issues that could occur with upper management, matrix management, technical oversight, and organizational peers. The team's experience is also evaluated in comparison to other Self-Directed Work Teams

  4. When teams can't decide. Are stalemates on your leadership team making you a dictator by default? Stop blaming your people--start fixing the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Bob

    2008-11-01

    Leadership teams that can't reach consensus wait for the CEO to make the final call--and often are disappointed by the outcome. Frisch calls this phenomenon the dictator-by-default syndrome. Many companies turn to team-building and communication exercises to try to fix the situation. But that won't work, the author argues, because the trouble is not with the people, it's with the decision-making process. Attempting to arrive at a collective preference on the basis of individual opinions is inherently problematic. Once leadership teams realize that voting-system mathematics are the culprit, they can stop wasting time on irrelevant psychological exercises and instead adopt practical measures designed to break the impasse. They must begin by acknowledging the problem and understanding what causes it. When more than two options are on the table, the scene is set for the CEO to become a dictator by default. Even yes-or-no choices present difficulties, because they always include a third, implied alternative: "Neither of the above." When the CEO and the team understand why they have trouble making decisions, they can adopt the following tactics to minimize dysfunction: Clearly articulate the desired outcome, generate a range of options for achieving it, test "fences" (which can be moved) and "walls" (which cannot), surface preferences early, state each option's pros and cons, and devise new options that preserve the best features of existing ones, Teams using such tactics need to adhere to two ground rules. First, they must deliberate confidentially, because a secure climate for conversation allows members to float trial balloons and cut deals. And second, members must be given enough time to study their options and assess the counterarguments. Only then can they achieve genuine alignment.

  5. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of...

  6. The influence of Myers-Briggs type indicator profiles on team development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.; Higgs, M.; Tolkacheva, N.V.; de Witte, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is one of the most common personality assessments and a frequently used instrument for team development. However, in relation to team development processes, there is little research and literature on the role of personality in general and the usefulness of MBTI

  7. Coaching Teamwork in the Classroom Using an Innovative Team-Coaching Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Gayle M; Lingham, Tony

    2018-04-19

    The importance of health professionals working in teams was first acknowledged by the Institute of Medicine more than 15 years ago. Since then, teaching students to function in teams continues to present challenges in nursing education. This article presents an innovative process, using faculty as coaches in the classroom, to enhance student learning through experiential teamwork.

  8. Sense of Classroom Community and Team Development Process in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem Aydin, Irem; Gumus, Salih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between Turkish online learners' sense of classroom community, perceptions of success in team development process and their preferences of studying in teams. A survey instrument included the Sense of Classroom Community Scale, Tuckman's Teamwork Questionnaire and some other…

  9. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... working routines, affecting behaviour and increasing environmental consciousness. The project found that the firms' employees had a comprehensive understanding of environmental problems and solutions, including health and safety aspects. Furthermore, the employees in the environmental teams were able...

  10. The Joint Influence of Intra- and Inter-Team Learning Processes on Team Performance : A Constructive or Destructive Combination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Rike; Endedijk, Maaike D.; van Veelen, Ruth; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2018-01-01

    In order for teams to build a shared conception of their task, team learning is crucial. Benefits of intra-team learning have been demonstrated in numerous studies. However, teams do not operate in a vacuum, and interact with their environment to execute their tasks. Our knowledge of the added value

  11. Structure and processes of interdisciplinary geriatric consultation teams in acute care hospitals: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschodt, Mieke; Claes, Veerle; Van Grootven, Bastiaan; Van den Heede, Koen; Flamaing, Johan; Boland, Benoit; Milisen, Koen

    2016-03-01

    Interdisciplinary geriatric consultation teams are implemented in the acute hospital setting in several high-income countries to provide comprehensive geriatric assessment for the increasing numbers of older patients with a geriatric profile hospitalized on non-geriatric units. Given the inconclusive evidence on this care model's effectiveness to improve patient outcomes, health care policy and practice oriented recommendations to redesign the structure and process of care provided by interdisciplinary geriatric consultation teams are needed. A scoping review was conducted to explore the structure and processes of interdisciplinary geriatric consultation teams in an international context. As nurses are considered key members of these teams, their roles and responsibilities were specifically explored. The revised scoping methodology framework of Arksey and O'Malley was applied. An electronic database search in Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE and a hand search were performed for the identification of descriptive and experimental studies published in English, French or Dutch until April 2014. Thematic reporting with descriptive statistics was performed and study findings were validated through interdisciplinary expert meetings. Forty-six papers reporting on 25 distinct interdisciplinary geriatric consultation teams in eight countries across three continents were included. Eight of the 12 teams (67%) reporting on their composition, stated that nurses and physicians were the main core members with head counts varying from 1 to 4 members per profession. In 80% of these teams nurses were required to have completed training in geriatrics. Advanced practice nurses were integrated in eleven out of fourteen interdisciplinary geriatric consultation teams from the USA. Only 32% of teams used formal screening to identify patients most likely to benefit from their intervention, using heterogeneous screening methods, and scarcely providing information on the responsibilities of

  12. Facilitating Configural Processing Within the Audit Team: An Additional Benefit of the SAS 99 Fraud Brainstorming Session

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Rebecca G

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the ability of the audit team to configurally process information, that is, to piece together information cues held by individual team members and recognize the underlying pattern in the information. It also examines how the hierarchical structure of the audit team impacts the teamâ s ability to process information and affects the quality of decisions made by the team. The study also considers the ability of a specific audit procedure, the fraud brainstorming session req...

  13. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.

  14. Team confidence, motivated information processing, and dynamic group decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Beersma, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    According to the Motivated Information Processing in Groups (MIP-G) model, groups should perform ambiguous (non-ambiguous) tasks better when they have high (low) epistemic motivation and concomitant tendencies to engage in systematic (heuristic) information processing and exchange. The authors

  15. Process model to implement organisational team sport interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the implementation process starts where top management initiates sporting activities and makes the employees aware of sporting events. The employees need to be informed through induction, presentations, electronic mail, sports competitions among different departments and videos.

  16. You are a Stranger! Examining the Process of Swift Trust Formation in Global Virtual Teams Using Team Model and Cross-Cultural Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    2013). When global virtual teams share knowledge: Media richness , cultural difference and language commonality. Journal of World Business, 48(3...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0008 You are a Stranger! Examining The Process of Swift Trust Formation in Global Virtual Teams Using Team Model and Cross...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing   data

  17. The Team Climate Inventory as a Measure of Primary Care Teams' Processes: Validation of the French Version

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Dragieva, Nataliya; Del Grande, Claudio; Dawson, Jeremy; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Barnsley, Jan; Hogg, William E.; Tousignant, Pierre; West, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the short 19-item Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and explore the contributions of individual and organizational characteristics to perceived team effectiveness.

  18. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  19. Study of connectivity in student teams by observation of their learning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Patricio H.; Correa, Rafael D.

    2016-05-01

    A registration procedure based data tracking classroom activities students formed into teams, which are immersed in basic learning processes, particularly physical sciences is presented. For the analysis of the data various mathematical tools to deliver results in numerical indicators linking their learning, performance, quality of relational nexus to transformation their emotions. The range of variables under observation and further study, which is influenced by the evolution of the emotions of the different teams of students, it also covers the traditional approach to information delivery from outside (teaching in lecture) or from inside each team (abilities of pupils) to instructional materials that enhance learning inquiry and persuasion.

  20. Processes of patient-centred care in Family Health Teams: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith Belle; Ryan, Bridget L.; Thorpe, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient-centred care, access to care, and continuity of and coordination of care are core processes in primary health care delivery. Our objective was to evaluate how these processes are enacted by 1 primary care model, Family Health Teams, in Ontario. Methods: Our study used grounded theory methodology to examine these 4 processes of care from the perspective of health care providers. Twenty Family Health Team practice sites in Ontario were selected to represent maximum variation (e.g., location, year of Family Health Team approval). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant. A constant comparative approach was used to analyze the data. Results: Our final sample population involved 110 participants from 20 Family Health Teams. Participants described how their Family Health Team strived to provide patient-centred care, to ensure access, and to pursue continuity and coordination in their delivery of care. Patient-centred care was provided through a variety of means forging the links among the other processes of care. Participants from all teams articulated a commitment to timely access, spontaneously expressing the importance of access to mental health services. Continuity of care was linked to both access and patient-centred care. Coordination of care by the team was perceived to reduce unnecessary walk-in clinic and emergency department visits, and facilitated a smoother transition from hospital to home. Interpretation: These 4 processes of patient care were inextricably linked. Patient-centred care was the focal point, and these processes in turn served to enhance the delivery of patient-centred care. PMID:27398373

  1. Technology as Teammate: Examining the Role of External Cognition in Support of Team Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use. This includes distinctions between teamwork and taskwork and the notion of general and specific competencies from the organizational sciences along with the concepts of offloading and scaffolding from the cognitive sciences. This paper contributes to the team cognition literature along multiple lines. First, it aids theory development by synthesizing a broad set of perspectives on the varied forms of cognition emerging in complex collaborative contexts. Second, it supports research by providing diagnostic guidelines to study how artifacts are related to team cognition. Finally, it supports information systems designers by more precisely describing how to conceptualize team-supporting technology and artifacts. As such, it provides a means to more richly understand process and performance as it occurs within sociotechnical systems. Our overarching objective is to show how team cognition can both be more clearly conceptualized and more precisely measured by integrating theory from cognitive engineering and the cognitive and organizational sciences.

  2. Divide and rule: A qualitative analysis of the debriefing process in elite team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, A-C; Ferrand, C; Stanton, N A

    2015-11-01

    This article aimed to gain an understanding of the process of debriefing during major competitions in elite team sports. Debrief interviews were conducted with 9 head coaches. The interview data were used to identify how head coaches divided up the tasks given to staff and team members prior to, and during the post-match debriefing. Results showed that debriefing consisted of two steps: preparation and presentation. Preparation referred to four successive tasks. Presentation to the team of players consisted of eight tasks relating to transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Coaches were shown to divide the labor within the staff and team. The data tend to support the view that in elite team sports, coaches are both transformational and transactional leaders, adapting their style of leadership to the situation, athletes and time available. This study provides insights into the task-work and team-work underlying team functioning and division of labor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Support of the collaborative inquiry learning process: influence of support on task and team regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saab, N.; van Joolingen, W.; van Hout-Wolters, B.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of the learning process is an important condition for efficient and effective learning. In collaborative learning, students have to regulate their collaborative activities (team regulation) next to the regulation of their own learning process focused on the task at hand (task regulation).

  4. Erosion and lateral surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Erosion can cause serious agricultural and environmental hazards. It can generate severe damage to the landscape, lead to significant loss of agricultural land and consequently to reduction in agricultural productivity, induce surface water pollution due to the transport of sediments and suspende...

  5. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO 2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  6. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Puneet V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Hannah, Brian S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Afanador, Ralph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Stewart, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Howell, Matthew P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Saunders, Jeffrey W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Degraff, Brian D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  7. Improving Video Game Development: Facilitating Heterogeneous Team Collaboration through Flexible Software Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Juergen; Schweda, Angelika; Winkler, Dietmar; Biffl, Stefan

    Based on our observations of Austrian video game software development (VGSD) practices we identified a lack of systematic processes/method support and inefficient collaboration between various involved disciplines, i.e. engineers and artists. VGSD includes heterogeneous disciplines, e.g. creative arts, game/content design, and software. Nevertheless, improving team collaboration and process support is an ongoing challenge to enable a comprehensive view on game development projects. Lessons learned from software engineering practices can help game developers to increase game development processes within a heterogeneous environment. Based on a state of the practice survey in the Austrian games industry, this paper presents (a) first results with focus on process/method support and (b) suggests a candidate flexible process approach based on Scrum to improve VGSD and team collaboration. Results showed (a) a trend to highly flexible software processes involving various disciplines and (b) identified the suggested flexible process approach as feasible and useful for project application.

  8. Description of two-process surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabon, W; Pawlus, P

    2014-01-01

    After two machining processes, a large number of surface topography measurements were made using Talyscan 150 stylus measuring equipment. The measured samples were divided into two groups. The first group contained two-process surfaces of random nature, while the second group used random-deterministic textures of random plateau parts and portions of deterministic valleys. For comparison, one-process surfaces were also analysed. Correlation and regression analysis was used to study the dependencies among surface texture parameters in 2D and 3D systems. As the result of this study, sets of parameters describing multi-process surface topography were obtained for two-process surfaces of random and of random-deterministic types. (papers)

  9. Investigating Shared Norms in Multicultural Teams: Exploring How Team Member Scripts and Cognitive Adjustment Strategies Impact the Norm Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurrin, Daniel Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how shared norms are developed in the early phase of multicultural team (MCT) formation. The development of shared norms is recognized as critical to MCTs' contributions to organizations, and they are a result of the cognitive adjustment of the team members in recognition of their differences (Brandl…

  10. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  11. Multidisciplinary team of intensive therapy: humanization and fragmentation of the work process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Viviane Canhizares; Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Siqueira, Fernanda Paula Cerântola; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of humanized care in intensive care units considering the experience of the multidisciplinary team. descriptive and exploratory qualitative research. For this purpose, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 professionals of the heath-care team, and, after transcription, we organized the qualitative data according to content analysis. from two main categories, we were able to understand that humanized care is characterized in the actions of health-care: effective communication, team work, empathy, singularity, and integrality; and mischaracterized in the management processes, specifically in the fragmentation of the work process and health-care, in the precarious work conditions, and in differing conceptual aspects of the political proposal of humanization. care activities in intensive therapy are guided by the humanization of care and corroborate the hospital management as a challenge to be overcome to boost advances in the operationalization of this Brazilian policy.

  12. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  13. Optimising the Efficacy of Hybrid Academic Teams: Lessons from a Systematic Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Warren; Wallin, Margie; Boyd, Bill; Woolcott, Geoff; Markopoulos, Christos; Boyd, Wendy; Foster, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Undertaking a systematic review can have many benefits, beyond any theoretical or conceptual discoveries pertaining to the underlying research question. This paper explores the value of utilising a hybrid academic team when undertaking the systematic review process, and shares a range of practical strategies. The paper also comments on how such a…

  14. The Impact of Team-Based Learning’s Readiness Assurance Process on Virtually Isolated Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the readiness assurance process of team-based learning (TBL) in virtually isolated settings. Many Internet sites offer courses for adults to use on their own without access to mentors or other learners. However, educational theory suggests that people learn better with others than by themselves. The focus of this investigation was whether the inclusion of the readiness assurance process would increase participants’ levels of learning ...

  15. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cynthia B.; Molaro, Jamie; Hand, Kevin P.

    2017-10-01

    The surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa’s leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry.Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted “chaos-type” terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features.In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa’s surface area.Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age (~50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the

  16. Processes in healthcare teams that include nurse practitioners: what do patients and families perceive to be effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Jabbour, Mira; Fortin, Chantal

    2016-03-01

    To explore patient and family perceptions of team effectiveness of teams those include nurse practitioners in acute and primary care. Nurse practitioners provide safe and effective care. Patients are satisfied with the care provided by nurse practitioners. Research examining patient and family perceptions of team effectiveness following the implementation of nurse practitioners in teams is lacking. A descriptive qualitative design was used. We used purposeful sampling to identify participants in four clinical specialties. We collected data from March 2014-January 2015 using semi-structured interviews and demographic questionnaires. Content analysis was used. Descriptive statistics were generated. Participants (n = 49) believed that the teams were more effective after the implementation of a nurse practitioner and this was important to them. They described processes that teams with nurse practitioners used to effectively provide care. These processes included improved communication, involvement in decision-making, cohesion, care coordination, problem-solving, and a focus on the needs of patients and families. Participants highlighted the importance of interpersonal team dynamics. A human approach, trust, being open to discussion, listening to patient and family concerns and respect were particularly valued by participants. Different processes emerged as priorities when data were examined by speciality. However, communication, trust and taking the time to provide care were the most important processes. The study provides new insights into the views of patients and families and micro-level processes in teams with nurse practitioners. The relative importance of each process varied according to the patient's health condition. Patients and providers identified similar team processes. Future research is needed to identify how team processes influence care outcomes. The findings can support patients, clinicians and decision-makers to determine the processes to focus on to

  17. On knowledge transfer management as a learning process for ad hoc teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D.

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge management represents an emerging domain becoming more and more important. Concepts like knowledge codification and personalisation, knowledge life-cycle, social and technological dimensions, knowledge transfer and learning management are integral parts. Focus goes here in the process of knowledge transfer for the case of ad hoc teams. The social dimension of knowledge transfer plays an important role. No single individual actors involved in the process, but a collective one, representing the organisation. It is critically important for knowledge to be managed from the life-cycle point of view. A complex communication network needs to be in place to supports the process of knowledge transfer. Two particular concepts, the bridge tie and transactive memory, would eventually enhance the communication. The paper focuses on an informational communication platform supporting the collaborative work on knowledge transfer. The platform facilitates the creation of a topic language to be used in knowledge modelling, storage and reuse, by the ad hoc teams.

  18. Palliative Care Processes Embedded in the ICU Workflow May Reserve Palliative Care Teams for Refractory Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Eluned; Umbarger, Lillian; Ceria-Ulep, Clementina; Nakatsuka, Craig

    2018-01-01

    Palliative Care Teams have been shown to be instrumental in the early identification of multiple aspects of advanced care planning. Despite an increased number of services to meet the rising consultation demand, it is conceivable that the numbers of palliative care consultations generated from an ICU alone could become overwhelming for an existing palliative care team. Improve end-of-life care in the ICU by incorporating basic palliative care processes into the daily routine ICU workflow, thereby reserving the palliative care team for refractory situations. A structured, palliative care, quality-improvement program was implemented and evaluated in the ICU at Kaiser Permanente Medical Center in Hawaii. This included selecting trigger criteria, a care model, forming guidelines, and developing evaluation criteria. These included the early identification of the multiple features of advanced care planning, numbers of proactive ICU and palliative care family meetings, and changes in code status and treatment upon completion of either meeting. Early identification of Goals-of-Care, advance directives, and code status by the ICU staff led to a proactive ICU family meeting with resultant increases in changes in code status and treatment. The numbers of palliative care consultations also rose, but not significantly. Palliative care processes could be incorporated into a daily ICU workflow allowing for integration of aspects of advanced care planning to be identified in a systematic and proactive manner. This reserved the palliative care team for situations when palliative care efforts performed by the ICU staff were ineffective.

  19. Reflections on the process of selecting and preparing teams: the case of the brazilian youth masculine volleyball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Shigunov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out with the aim to analyze the methodological strategy adopted by the coach of the Brazilian youth man volleyball team during training sessions in the preparation period. As a data gathering method, 45 videos were taken during sessions, 28 in Belo Horizonte and 17 in Poços de Caldas. A semi-structured interview was also held with the coach and the coaching staff . The results of the research indicated that the coach’s pedagogical practice was strongly influenced by technical, developmental and systemic methodological conceptions. This practice was developed through a combination of different methodologies, such as analytic, synthetic, structuralist, dynamic and progressive. The relationship between the coaching staff and the athletes was harmonious and respectful. It was shown that, besides to anthropometric, conditioning, technical-coordinating, tactical-cognitive and psychological factors, the twelve athletes who represented Brazil in the World Youth Championshipwere also chosen for other qualities. Among the qualities to be mentioned are the capacity for leadership, group cohesion, courage and determination . The research pointed out that the preparation process of the Brazilian team was carried out with great competence, through a correct division of training time and a careful selection of the athletes, following international standard criteria such as height, strength and individual technical skills. RESUMO Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o propósito de analisar a estratégia metodológica adotada pelo técnico da seleção brasileira masculina de voleibol infanto-juvenil nos treinamentos no período preparatório da equipe. Como instrumento de coleta de dados, foram realizadas filmagens em vídeo de 45 sessões de treinamentos, sendo 28 em Belo horizonte e 17 em Poços de Caldas. Também foi realizada uma entrevista semi-estruturada com o treinador da seleção brasileira e a sua comissão técnica. Os

  20. Surface Energy and Setting Process of Contacting Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Musokhranov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a challenge in terms of ensuring an accuracy of the relative position of the conjugated surfaces that is to determine a coefficient of friction. To solve it, there is a proposal to use the surface energy, as a tool that influences the contacting parts nature. Presently, energy of the surface layers at best is only stated, but not used in practice.Analysis of the conditions of interaction between two contacting surfaces, such as seizing and setting cannot be explained only from the position of the roughness parameters. It is found that these phenomena are explained by the appearing gripe (setting bridges, which result from the energy of interaction between two or more adjacent surfaces. The emerging phenomenon such as micro welding, i.e. occurring bonds, is caused by the overflow of energy, according to the theory of physics, from the surface with a high level of energy to the surface with the smaller one to balance the system as a whole.The paper shows that through the use of process, controlling the depth of the surface layer and creating a certain structure, the energy level of the material as a whole can be specified. And this will allow us to provide the necessary performance and mechanical properties. It means to create as many gripe bridges as possible to ensure continuous positioning i.e. a fixed connection of the contacting surfaces.It was determined that to increase a value of the friction coefficient, the physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer of the parts material must be taken into account, namely, in the part body accumulate the energy to be consumed for forming the surface.The paper gives recommendations for including the parts of the surface energy in the qualitative indicators of characteristics. This will make a technologist, when routing a process, to choose such operations and modes to provide the designer-specified parameters not only of the accuracy and surface finish, but also of the

  1. Radon transport processes below the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkening, M.

    1980-01-01

    Processes by which 222 Rn is transported from the soil to the earth's surface are reviewed. The mechanisms effective in transporting 222 Rn to the surface are related to the size and configuration of the spaces occupied by the soil gas which may vary from molecular interstices to large underground caverns. The near-surface transport processes are divided into two categories: (1) a microscopic process that includes molecular diffusion and viscous flow in fine capillaries and (2) macroscopic flow in fissures and channels. Underground air rich in 222 Rn can also reach the surface through cracks, fissures, and underground channels. This type of transport is shown for (1) a horizontal tunnel penetrating a fractured hillside, (2) a large underground cave, and (3) volcanic activity. Pressure differentials having various natural origins and thermal gradients are responsible for the transport in these examples. 222 Rn transport by ordinary molecular diffusion appears to be the dominant process

  2. Surface transport processes in charged porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-07-15

    Surface transport processes are very important in chemistry, colloidal sciences, engineering, biology, and geophysics. Natural or externally produced charges on surfaces create electrical double layers (EDLs) at the solid-liquid interface. The existence of the EDLs produces several complex processes including bulk and surface transport of ions. In this work, a model is presented to simulate bulk and transport processes in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Description of the EDL between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is accomplished using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model. The surface transport terms enter into the average equations due to the use of boundary conditions for diffuse interfaces. Two extra surface transports terms appear in the closed average equations. One is a surface diffusion term equivalent to the transport process in non-charged porous media. The second surface transport term is a migration term unique to charged porous media. The effective bulk and transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. OPTIMIZING MAINTENANCE PROCESSES ON CUSTOMER SITE IN A DECENTRALIZED ORGANIZATION BASED ON MULTI-SITE TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moutinho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This lecture focuses on the complexity to manage and optimize maintenance processes, operations and service tasks to equipments and systems installed at customer sites. Different locations, access and working environment may compromise any standardization of setup's and operations. Multi-site teams based on geographic strategic locations, adds complexity to trainning, communication, supervising and monitoring processes. Logistics and information systems assume relevant rolls to consolidate global performance. Beside efficiency, effectiveness productivity and flexibility, field teams need skills on autonomy responsibility and proactivity. This lecture also explores the needed adaptation of most part of available literature, normally based on production sites, as also of Lean- Kaizen principles to the fact that services can not be stocked, quality is normally more difficult to measure and customer is normally present when and where service is produced.

  4. Integrated mold/surface-micromachining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Hetherington, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    We detail a new monolithically integrated silicon mold/surface-micromachining process which makes possible the fabrication of stiff, high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures integrated with finely detailed, compliant structures. An important example, which we use here as our process demonstration vehicle, is that of an accelerometer with a large proof mass and compliant suspension. The proof mass is formed by etching a mold into the silicon substrate, lining the mold with oxide, filling it with mechanical polysilicon, and then planarizing back to the level of the substrate. The resulting molded structure is recessed into the substrate, forming a planar surface ideal for subsequent processing. We then add surface-micromachined springs and sense contacts. The principal advantage of this new monolithically integrated mold/surface-micromachining process is that it decouples the design of the different sections of the device: In the case of a sensitive accelerometer, it allows us to optimize independently the proof mass, which needs to be as large, stiff, and heavy as possible, and the suspension, which needs to be as delicate and compliant as possible. The fact that the high-aspect-ratio section of the device is embedded in the substrate enables the monolithic integration of high-aspect-ratio parts with surface-micromachined mechanical parts, and, in the future, also electronics. We anticipate that such an integrated mold/surface micromachining/electronics process will offer versatile high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures that can be batch-fabricated and monolithically integrated into complex microelectromechanical systems.

  5. From ideals to resignation - interprofessional teams perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Jenny; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Ringnér, Anders; Lindgren, Britt-Marie

    2016-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric inpatient care has been described by both ward staff and patients as being demanding and disorganized, lacking opportunities for quality interactions in everyday life through joint activities. Qualitative research on interprofessional teams' perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care is lacking. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Staff have ideals about care and collaboration, but the obstacles they face in everyday life, such as a poor environment, power asymmetry, lacking structure and the demands of managing chaos, mean that they appear to resign and shift focus from the patients' best interests to self-survival. Different professions in general describe the same obstacles in everyday life on the wards but there are also profession-specific perspectives on distancing and feelings of abandonment. To our knowledge, these findings have not been reported in the international evidence. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Given these findings we suggest interventions such as Protected Engagement Time as well as reflective dialogues within interprofessional teams. This would help staff to resume their caring role in everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care and put their ideals into practice. Introduction Patients and ward staff describe psychiatric inpatient care as demanding, characterized by unpredictable events, yet research on interprofessional teams perspectives of everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care lacks. Aim This study aims to explore everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care, as reported by staff in interprofessional teams. Method A grounded theory design was used and 36 participants were interviewed. Results The analysis resulted in a process-oriented core category From ideals to resignation. Related to this core category were three further categories: Knowing where to go, Walking a path of obstacles and Shifting focus from the patient's best

  6. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  7. The facilitation of a team-building process: implications for mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this article was to explore and describe team members' experience of obstacles in their functioning as an effective team and their views of elements contributing to an effective and productive team. An effective and productive team could be a mentally healthy and emotional intelligent team. A qualitative ...

  8. Investigating the effect of nurse-team communication on nurse turnover: relationships among communication processes, identification, and intent to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apker, Julie; Propp, Kathleen M; Ford, Wendy S Zabava

    2009-03-01

    Enhanced team communication may strengthen nurses' attachment to their organizations and teams and improve nurse retention. This study examines the relationships among nurse-team communication, identification (organizational and team), and intent to leave. Hospital nurses (N = 201) completed surveys measuring 3 nurse-team communication processes: promoting team synergy, ensuring quality decisions, and individualizing communication. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that promoting team synergy was a significant predictor of intent to leave, whereas ensuring quality decisions and individualizing communication did not account for significant additional variance in intent to leave. Separate analyses showed that the relationship between promoting team synergy and intent to leave was partially mediated by team identification or by organizational identification. Further analyses were conducted on the 7 communication practices for promoting team synergy. Mentoring emerged as the only significant predictor of intent to leave; however, its relationship to intent to leave was fully mediated by organizational identification or partially mediated by team identification. Pragmatic suggestions are offered to improve nurse identification and reduce turnover.

  9. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP-IT (Forward Processing for Instrument Teams)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    horizontal grid. The majority of data products are time-averaged, but four instantaneous products are also available. Hourly data intervals are used for two-dimensional products, while 3-hourly intervals are used for three-dimensional products. These may be on the model's native 72-layer vertical grid or at 42 pressure surfaces extending to 0.1 hPa. This document describes the gridded output files produced by the GMAO near real-time operational GEOS-5 FP-IT processing in support of the EOS instrument teams. Additional details about variables listed in this file specification can be found in a separate document, the GEOS-5 File Specification Variable Definition Glossary.

  10. The team climate inventory as a measure of primary care teams' processes: validation of the French version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Dragieva, Nataliya; Del Grande, Claudio; Dawson, Jeremy; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Barnsley, Jan; Hogg, William E; Tousignant, Pierre; West, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the short 19-item Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and explore the contributions of individual and organizational characteristics to perceived team effectiveness. The TCI was completed by 471 of the 618 (76.2%) healthcare professionals and administrative staff working in a random sample of 37 primary care practices in the province of Quebec. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the original four-factor model. Cronbach's alphas were excellent (from 0.88 to 0.93). Latent class analysis revealed three-class response structure. Respondents in practices with professional governance had a higher probability of belonging to the "High TCI" class than did practices with community governance (36.7% vs. 19.1%). Administrative staff tended to fall into the "Suboptimal TCI" class more frequently than did physicians (36.5% vs. 19.0%). Results confirm the validity of our French version of the short TCI. The association between professional governance and better team climate merits further exploration. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. Surface quality in rapid prototype MMD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Vargas Henríquez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises a Manufacturing Materials and Processes MSc thesis written for the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Department. The paper shows the interaction of process, gap (deposition distance and extursion terminal velocity modelled process parameters for CEIF's (Centro de Equipos Interfacultades rapid prototype molten material deposit (MMD Titan SH-1 machine by analysing prototupes improved surface quality and resistence to tension and characterising material. The project applies experimental design criteria for orientating the selection of experimental process parameters. Acrylonitrile-buttadin-styrene (ABS had alredy been mechanically and physicochemically characterised (i.e the material used in the MMD process.

  12. Implementing the shoreline cleanup assessment team process in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Ramsey, K.E.; Lindstedt, D.; Westphal, K.A.; Seal, R.; McBride, R.A.; Byrnes, M.R.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    Louisiana State University (LSU) and Woodward-Clyde Consultants are working with state and federal agencies and industry through the LSU Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Research and Response Program to establish a shoreline cleanup assessment team program (SCAT) in the Gulf of Mexico. Each SCAT team consists of a coastal geomorphologist and ecologist (and archaeologist when appropriate), as well as representatives from the responsible federal, state, and private agencies. This cooperative effort is aimed at identifying oil spill impact and interagency coastal resource concerns and recommendations, and developing a cleanup strategy based on interagency cooperation and concurrence within a systematic and standardized framework. The SCAT program provides interagency coordination, SCAT preparedness, spill drill participation, interagency training, geographic information systems services, monitoring, and routine aerial videotape surveys. It also offers technical support to the decision-making process within spill response operations

  13. An Input-Process-Output Approach to Interorganizational Teams: The Influence of Work Group Diversity, Trust and Shared Leadership on Communication Network and Team Outputs.

    OpenAIRE

    Donati, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The market’s challenges bring firms to collaborate with other organizations in order to create Joint Ventures, Alliances and Consortia that are defined as “Interorganizational Networks” (IONs) (Provan, Fish and Sydow; 2007). Some of these IONs are managed through a shared partecipant governance (Provan and Kenis, 2008): a team composed by entrepreneurs and/or directors of each firm of an ION. The research is focused on these kind of management teams and it is based on an input-process-output ...

  14. THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS USING STYLISTIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumer requirements for the way what everyday use products look like, forces manufacturers to put more emphasis on product design. Constructors, apart from the functional aspects of the parts created, are forced to pay attention to the aesthetic aspects. Software for designing A-class surfaces is very helpful in this case. Extensive quality analysis modules facilitate the work and allow getting models with specific visual features. The authors present a design process of the product using stylistic surfaces based on the front panel of the moped casing. In addition, methods of analysis of the design surface and product technology are presented.

  15. The Learning Process of Supervisees Who Engage in the Reflecting Team Model within Group Supervision: A Grounded Theory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, counselor educators have begun to incorporate the use of the reflecting team process with the training of counselors. Specifically, the reflecting team has been used in didactic courses (Cox, 2003; Landis & Young, 1994; Harrawood, Wilde & Parmanand, 2011) and in supervision (Cox, 1997; Prest, Darden, & Keller, 1990;…

  16. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering teams' value-creation for enterprises is slower than possible due to inefficiencies in communication, learning, common knowledge collaboration and leadership conduct. This dissertation outlines the surrounding people, process and technology dimensions for higher performing engineering teams. It describes a true experiment…

  17. Automated solar cell assembly teamed process research. Semiannual subcontract report, December 6, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This is the second Semiannual Technical Progress Report for the program titled `Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research` funded under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract No. ZAG-3-11219-01. This report describes the work done on Phase II of the program in the period from December 6, 1993 to June 30, 1994. Spire`s objective in this program is to develop high throughput (5 MW/yr) automated processes for interconnecting thin (200 {mu}m) silicon solar cells. High yield will be achieved with these fragile cells through the development of low mechanical stress and low thermal stress processes. For example, a machine vision system is being developed for cell alignment without mechanically contacting the cell edges, while a new soldering process is being developed to solder metal interconnect ribbons simultaneously to a cells` front and back contacts, eliminating one of the two heating steps normally used for soldering each cell.

  18. Team composition, leadership and information-processing behavior : a simulation game study of the locus-of-control personality trait

    OpenAIRE

    Boone,Christophe; Olffen,Woody,van; Witteloostuijn,Arjan,van

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we relate the individual locus-of-control personality trait of team members to the team’s information gathering and processing behavior. We adopt a team information-processing approach arguing that a team’s information-processing capacity is a function of its composition with respect to the members’ locus of control and the leadership structure of the group. We develop models that go beyond analyzing simple main effects of differences in team locus-of-control composition. We hy...

  19. Process quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary cancer team meetings: a structured observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Pola; Didi, Sarah; Kriston, Levente; Härter, Martin; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Scholl, Isabelle

    2017-11-17

    The quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) depends on the quality of information presented and the quality of team processes. Few studies have examined these factors using a standardized approach. The aim of this study was to objectively document the processes involved in decision-making in MDTMs, document the outcomes in terms of whether a treatment recommendation was given (none vs. singular vs. multiple), and to identify factors related to type of treatment recommendation. An adaptation of the observer rating scale Multidisciplinary Tumor Board Metric for the Observation of Decision-Making (MDT-MODe) was used to assess the quality of the presented information and team processes in MDTMs. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and mixed logistic regression analysis. N = 249 cases were observed in N = 29 MDTMs. While cancer-specific medical information was judged to be of high quality, psychosocial information and information regarding patient views were considered to be of low quality. In 25% of the cases no, in 64% one, and in 10% more than one treatment recommendations were given (1% missing data). Giving no treatment recommendation was associated with duration of case discussion, duration of the MDTM session, quality of case history, quality of radiological information, and specialization of the MDTM. Higher levels of medical and treatment uncertainty during discussions were found to be associated with a higher probability for more than one treatment recommendation. The quality of different aspects of information was observed to differ greatly. In general, we did not find MDTMs to be in line with the principles of patient-centered care. Recommendation outcome varied substantially between different specializations of MDTMs. The quality of certain information was associated with the recommendation outcome. Uncertainty during discussions was related to more than one recommendation being considered. Time constraints

  20. A test of processing efficiency theory in a team sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N C; Bellamy, M; Collins, D J; Newell, D

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we tested some key postulates of Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory in a team sport. The participants were 12 elite male volleyball players who were followed throughout the course of a competitive season. Self-report measures of pre-match and in-game cognitive anxiety and mental effort were collected in groups of players high and low in dispositional anxiety. Player performance was determined from the statistical analysis of match-play. Sets were classified according to the point spread separating the two teams into one of three levels of criticality. Game momentum was also analysed to determine its influence on in-game state anxiety. Significant differences in in-game cognitive anxiety were apparent between high and low trait anxiety groups. An interaction between anxiety grouping and momentum condition was also evident in cognitive anxiety. Differences in set criticality were reflected in significant elevations in mental effort, an effect more pronounced in dispositionally high anxious performers. Consistent with the predictions of processing efficiency theory, mental effort ratings were higher in high trait-anxious players in settings where their performance was equivalent to that of low trait-anxious performers. The usefulness of processing efficiency theory as an explanatory framework in sport anxiety research is discussed in the light of these findings.

  1. Surface-Assisted Dynamic Search Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeoh; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2018-03-01

    Many chemical and biological systems exhibit intermittent search phenomena when participating particles alternate between dynamic regimes with different dimensionalities. Here we investigate theoretically a dynamic search process of finding a small target on a two-dimensional surface starting from a bulk solution, which is an example of such an intermittent search process. Both continuum and discrete-state stochastic descriptions are developed. It is found that depending on the scanning length λ, which describes the area visited by the reacting molecule during one search cycle, the system can exhibit three different search regimes: (i) For small λ values, the reactant finds the target mostly via three-dimensional bulk diffusion; (ii) for large λ values, the reactant molecule associates to the target mostly via surface diffusion; and (iii) for intermediate λ values, the reactant reaches the target via a combination of three-dimensional and two-dimensional search cycles. Our analysis also shows that the mean search times have different scalings as a function of the size of the surface segment depending on the nature of the dynamic search regime. Search dynamics are also sensitive to the position of the target for large scanning lengths. In addition, it is argued that the continuum description underestimates mean search times and does not always correctly describe the most optimal conditions for the surface-assisted dynamic processes. The importance of our findings for real natural systems is discussed.

  2. A Framework for the Development of Scalable Heterogeneous Robot Teams with Dynamically Distributed Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adrian

    As the applications of mobile robotics evolve it has become increasingly less practical for researchers to design custom hardware and control systems for each problem. This research presents a new approach to control system design that looks beyond end-of-lifecycle performance and considers control system structure, flexibility, and extensibility. Toward these ends the Control ad libitum philosophy is proposed, stating that to make significant progress in the real-world application of mobile robot teams the control system must be structured such that teams can be formed in real-time from diverse components. The Control ad libitum philosophy was applied to the design of the HAA (Host, Avatar, Agent) architecture: a modular hierarchical framework built with provably correct distributed algorithms. A control system for exploration and mapping, search and deploy, and foraging was developed to evaluate the architecture in three sets of hardware-in-the-loop experiments. First, the basic functionality of the HAA architecture was studied, specifically the ability to: a) dynamically form the control system, b) dynamically form the robot team, c) dynamically form the processing network, and d) handle heterogeneous teams. Secondly, the real-time performance of the distributed algorithms was tested, and proved effective for the moderate sized systems tested. Furthermore, the distributed Just-in-time Cooperative Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (JC-SLAM) algorithm demonstrated accuracy equal to or better than traditional approaches in resource starved scenarios, while reducing exploration time significantly. The JC-SLAM strategies are also suitable for integration into many existing particle filter SLAM approaches, complementing their unique optimizations. Thirdly, the control system was subjected to concurrent software and hardware failures in a series of increasingly complex experiments. Even with unrealistically high rates of failure the control system was able to

  3. A qualitative analysis of teacher design teams: In-depth insights into their process and links with their outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, F.; Poortman, C. L.; van Joolingen, W.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073458872

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Teacher Design Teams (TDTs) are professional learning communities in which teachers collaborate to (re)design innovative educational materials. TDTs can contribute to teachers’ professional growth. Furthermore, engaging teachers in the design process could create ownership, increasing the

  4. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries

  5. Model training tasks as a tool for the construction of training process for athletes in team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Kostyukevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the design of the training process of athletes in team sports during an annual training cycle on the basis of model training tasks. The model training tasks are developed along with micro-and mesocycles, periods, and annual cycle for preparation of elite female volleyball players. The ratio of the training means and various types of training loads in the periods of macrocycle were determined. Introduction of model training tasks into the training process in team sports allows to efficiently plan and optimize the preparation of athletes, as well as to implement the principle of individualization in the development of a coherent team.

  6. ENVISAT Land Surface Processes. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    vandenHurk, B. J. J. M.; Su, Z.; Verhoef, W.; Menenti, M.; Li, Z.-L.; Wan, Z.; Moene, A. F.; Roerink, G.; Jia, I.

    2002-01-01

    This is a progress report of the 2nd phase of the project ENVISAT- Land Surface Processes, which has a 3-year scope. In this project, preparative research is carried out aiming at the retrieval of land surface characteristics from the ENVISAT sensors MERIS and AATSR, for assimilation into a system for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Where in the 1st phase a number of first shot experiments were carried out (aiming at gaining experience with the retrievals and data assimilation procedures), the current 2nd phase has put more emphasis on the assessment and improvement of the quality of the retrieved products. The forthcoming phase will be devoted mainly to the data assimilation experiments and the assessment of the added value of the future ENVISAT products for NWP forecast skill. Referring to the retrieval of albedo, leaf area index and atmospheric corrections, preliminary radiative transfer calculations have been carried out that should enable the retrieval of these parameters once AATSR and MERIS data become available. However, much of this work is still to be carried out. An essential part of work in this area is the design and implementation of software that enables an efficient use of MODTRAN(sub 4) radiative transfer code, and during the current project phase familiarization with these new components has been achieved. Significant progress has been made with the retrieval of component temperatures from directional ATSR-images, and the calculation of surface turbulent heat fluxes from these data. The impact of vegetation cover on the retrieved component temperatures appears manageable, and preliminary comparison of foliage temperature to air temperatures were encouraging. The calculation of surface fluxes using the SEBI concept,which includes a detailed model of the surface roughness ratio, appeared to give results that were in reasonable agreement with local measurements with scintillometer devices. The specification of the atmospheric boundary conditions

  7. How transformational leadership works during team interactions: A behavioral process analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Meinecke, A.L.; Rowold, J.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Transformational leadership is generally considered helpful for team functioning. However, the social dynamics underlying the benefits of transformational leadership remain elusive to date. To understand how and why transformational leadership can foster team functioning, this study focuses on

  8. A Model for Collaborative Team Processing in Brief Systemic Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Robert M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents a model for organizing presession and midsession therapy team conferences. Examines the risks in working in teams and proposes ways to counteract these risks, based on experiences at the Family Therapy Center at the Worcester Youth Guidance Center. (JAC)

  9. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  10. The Role of Interpersonal Relations in Healthcare Team Communication and Patient Safety: A Proposed Model of Interpersonal Process in Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte Tsz-Sum; Doran, Diane Marie

    2017-06-01

    Patient safety is compromised by medical errors and adverse events related to miscommunications among healthcare providers. Communication among healthcare providers is affected by human factors, such as interpersonal relations. Yet, discussions of interpersonal relations and communication are lacking in healthcare team literature. This paper proposes a theoretical framework that explains how interpersonal relations among healthcare team members affect communication and team performance, such as patient safety. We synthesized studies from health and social science disciplines to construct a theoretical framework that explicates the links among these constructs. From our synthesis, we identified two relevant theories: framework on interpersonal processes based on social relation model and the theory of relational coordination. The former involves three steps: perception, evaluation, and feedback; and the latter captures relational communicative behavior. We propose that manifestations of provider relations are embedded in the third step of the framework on interpersonal processes: feedback. Thus, varying team-member relationships lead to varying collaborative behavior, which affects patient-safety outcomes via a change in team communication. The proposed framework offers new perspectives for understanding how workplace relations affect healthcare team performance. The framework can be used by nurses, administrators, and educators to improve patient safety, team communication, or to resolve conflicts.

  11. The surface of Mars: Morphology and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson, Oded

    The goal of this work is a quantitative description of the morphology of the surface of Mars, in order to constrain the nature of processes acting during the ancient past through today. Emphasis is placed on linking geometric properties to physical mechanisms. Surface smoothness on Mars is distinctive in the vast northern hemisphere plains. Amazonis Planitia is remarkable in its smoothness, exhibiting an rms variation in topography of building tectonics and volcanics. The shallower long-wavelength portion of the lowlands' topographic power spectrum relative to the highlands' can be accounted for by a simple model of sedimentation such as might be expected at an ocean's floor, but the addition of another process such as cratering is necessary to explain the spectral slope in short wavelengths. Large drainage systems on Mars have geomorphic characteristics that are inconsistent with prolonged erosion by surface runoff. We find the topography has not evolved to an expected equilibrium terrain form, even in areas where runoff incision has been previously interpreted. We demonstrate that features known as slope streaks form exclusively in regions of low thermal inertia, steep slopes, and incredibly, only where daily peak temperatures exceed 275 K during the martian year. The results suggest that at least small amounts of water may be currently present and undergo phase transitions. We detect subtle changes of the polar surface height during the course of seasonal cycles. Using altimetric crossover residuals, we show that while zonally averaged data captures the global behavior of CO 2 exchange, there is a strong dependence of the pattern on longitude. Decomposition of the signal into harmonics in time shows the amplitudes are correlated with the polar cap deposits. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  12. Student evaluation team focus groups increase students' satisfaction with the overall course evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Katharina; Mandel, Jess; Winegarden, Babbi

    2017-02-01

    Most medical schools use online systems to gather student feedback on the quality of their educational programmes and services. Online data may be limiting, however, as the course directors cannot question the students about written comments, nor can students engage in mutual problem-solving dialogue with course directors. We describe the implementation of a student evaluation team (SET) process to permit course directors and students to gather shortly after courses end to engage in feedback and problem solving regarding the course and course elements. Approximately 16 students were randomly selected to participate in each SET meeting, along with the course director, academic deans and other faculty members involved in the design and delivery of the course. An objective expert facilitates the SET meetings. SETs are scheduled for each of the core courses and threads that occur within the first 2 years of medical school, resulting in approximately 29 SETs annually. SET-specific satisfaction surveys submitted by students (n = 76) and course directors (n = 16) in 2015 were used to evaluate the SET process itself. Survey data were collected from 885 students (2010-2015), which measured student satisfaction with the overall evaluation process before and after the implementation of SETs. Students and course directors valued the SET process itself as a positive experience. Students felt that SETs allowed their voices to be heard, and that the SET increased the probability of suggested changes being implemented. Students' satisfaction with the overall evaluation process significantly improved after implementation of the SET process. Our data suggest that the SET process is a valuable way to supplement online evaluation systems and to increase students' and faculty members' satisfaction with the evaluation process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  13. Radiation protection in hemodynamics work process: the look of the multidisciplinary team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Laurete Medeiros; Klauberg, Daniela; Huhn, Andrea; Melo, Juliana Almeida Coelho de

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted in a hemodynamics service of a public hospital in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. Qualitative research with the participation of 13 professionals from a multidisciplinary team: doctors, technicians, technologists in radiology and nurses. The research material was extracted from the observations, semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. The responses were grouped into three categories relating to: training of hemodynamic professionals and the perception of radiological protection in the work process; occupational exposure and safety of the professionals of Hemodynamics; and continuing education in hemodynamic service. Professionals are daily exposed to ionizing radiation, and for being long procedures, lead to high levels of exposure in workers. In hemodynamic services the risk of biological effects are cumulative, because radiodiagnostic procedures include issuing the higher doses of ionizing radiation in which the personnel exposure is critical. The workforce in the service researched mostly consists of technical professionals who reported little knowledge of radiation protection and ionizing radiation and that this issue was not addressed during their training. However, despite mention little knowledge about radiological protection, participants demonstrated understand the biological effects, especially with regard to pathologies caused by frequent exposure without protection to ionizing radiation. These professionals said they have no knowledge of the proper use of radiological protection equipment and the dosimeter, and that the institution does not provide all individual protective equipment required for the procedures performed in the hemodynamic service. Permanent education in hemodynamic service is very important part in the work process, though, cited by participants as little effectiveness in the institution, even when the professionals show interest in the area. Knowledge of the team providing hemodynamic service calls

  14. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    contribution of individual team member behaviors to the development of team trust and cohesion , as moderated by the emergence of team rapport. Team...member behaviors to the development of team trust and cohesion , as moderated by the emergence of team rapport. Team rapport may provide an early...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Understanding social processes that lead to wise decision making and peak performance is critical for predicting

  15. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.

    1995-01-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at λ = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  16. Impact of clinical leadership development on the clinical leader, nursing team and care-giving process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Willemse, An; Verschueren, Marc; Milisen, Koen

    2008-09-01

    This study explored the dynamics related to a leadership development programme and their impact on the clinical leader, the nursing team and the care-giving process. While there is a growing conviction about the need to invest in transformational leadership in nursing, further insight into the true complexity of leadership development and, more specifically, how leadership can make a difference in nursing and patient outcomes is essential. A single instrumental case study was conducted in a unit of a large academic hospital where a Clinical Leadership development Project (CLP) was implemented successfully. We used mixed methods with multiple sources of data to capture the complexity of leadership development. Data were collected through individual interviews, focus groups and observation of participants. A purposive sample of 17 participants representing a wide variety of team members has permitted data saturation. The data were categorized and conceptualized and finally organized into a framework describing leadership development on the unit and its impact on the leader, the nursing team and the care-giving process. Leadership development is an ongoing, interactive process between the clinical leader and the co-workers. The head nurse became more effective in areas of self-awareness, communication skills, performance and vision. The nursing team benefited because more effective leadership promoted effective communication, greater responsibility, empowerment and job clarity. Improved clinical leadership seemed also to influence patient-centred communication, continuity of care and interdisciplinary collaboration. The results of the study give more insight into the processes underlying the leader's progress towards attaining a transformational leadership style and its impact on the team members. The impact of leadership on the care-giving process, however, remains difficult to describe. The interactive nature of leadership development makes CLP a challenge for the

  17. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    or pre-arranged at random. Therefore we investigate the importance of team formation in the entrepreneurial classroom and ask: (i) What are the underlying factors that influence outcomes of teamwork in student groups? (ii) How does team formation influence student perception of learning?, and (iii) Do...... different team formation strategies produce different teamwork and learning outcomes? Approach: We employed a multiple case study design comprising of 38 student teams to uncover potential links between team formation and student perception of learning. This research draws on data from three different....... A rigorous coding and inductive analysis process was undertaken. Pattern and relationship coding were used to reveal underlying factors, which helped to unveil important similarities and differences between student in different teams’ project progress and perception of learning. Results: When students...

  18. Impact of Urban Surfaces on Precipitation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the "risk of human-induced climate change". Such reports are used by decision-makers around the world to assess how our climate is changing. Its reports are widely respected and cited and have been highly influential in forming national and international responses to climate change. The Fourth Assessment report includes a section on the effects of surface processes on climate. This sub-chapter provides an overview of recent developments related to the impact of cities on rainfall. It highlights the possible mechanisms that buildings, urban heat islands, urban aerosols or pollution, and other human factors in cities that can affect rainfall.

  19. The Army Family Team Building Program: Facilitating a Transformative Learning Process--An Intrinsic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand how the Army Family Team Building program influences self-reliance and self-sufficiency in Army spouses as they integrate into the Army community. The purpose of the Army Family Team Building program is to empower Army spouses with knowledge and skills, which foster well-being and improve quality of life. The…

  20. Uncovering deformation processes from surface displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this talk is to provide an overview about the most recent outcomes in Earth Sciences, describe the role of satellite remote sensing, together with GPS, ground measurement and further data, for geophysical parameter retrieval in well known case studies where the combined approach dealing with the use of two or more techniques/datasets have demonstrated their effectiveness. The Earth Sciences have today a wide availability of instruments and sensors able to provide scientists with an unprecedented capability to study the physical processes driving earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and other dynamic Earth systems. Indeed measurements from satellites allow systematic observation of the Earth surface covering large areas, over a long time period and characterized by growing sample intervals. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique has demonstrated its effectiveness to investigate processes responsible for crustal faulting stemming from the detection of surface deformation patterns. Indeed using satellite data along ascending and descending orbits, as well as different incident angles, it is possible in principle to retrieve the full 3D character of the ground motion. To such aim the use of GPS stations providing 3D displacement components is a reliable complementary instrument. Finally, offset tracking techniques and Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI) may provide a contribution to the analysis of horizontal and NS deformation vectors. The estimation of geophysical parameters using InSAR has been widely discussed in seismology and volcanology, and also applied to deformation associated with groundwater and other subsurface fluids. These applications often involve the solution of an inverse problem, which means the retrieval of optimal source parameters at depth for volcanoes and earthquakes, from the knowledge of surface deformation from InSAR. In recent years, InSAR measurements combined with traditional seismological and

  1. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  2. A Dynamic Perspective on Diverse Teams: Moving from the Dual-Process Model to a Dynamic Coordination-based Model of Diverse Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth, K; Harvey, S; Peterson, R S

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature on diverse teams suggests that diversity is both helpful to teams in making more information available and encouraging creativity and damaging to teams in reducing cohesion and information sharing. Thus the extant literature suggests that diversity within teams is a double-edged sword that leads to both positive and negative effects simultaneously. This literature has not, however, fully embraced the increasing calls in the broader groups literature to take account of ...

  3. Assessing the facilitators and barriers of interdisciplinary team working in primary care using normalisation process theory: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Pauline; Lee, Siew Hwa; O'Sullivan, Madeleine; Cullen, Walter; Kennedy, Catriona; MacFarlane, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary team working is of paramount importance in the reform of primary care in order to provide cost-effective and comprehensive care. However, international research shows that it is not routine practice in many healthcare jurisdictions. It is imperative to understand levers and barriers to the implementation process. This review examines interdisciplinary team working in practice, in primary care, from the perspective of service providers and analyses 1 barriers and facilitators to implementation of interdisciplinary teams in primary care and 2 the main research gaps. An integrative review following the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. Following a search of 10 international databases, 8,827 titles were screened for relevance and 49 met the criteria. Quality of evidence was appraised using predetermined criteria. Data were analysed following the principles of framework analysis using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), which has four constructs: sense making, enrolment, enactment, and appraisal. The literature is dominated by a focus on interdisciplinary working between physicians and nurses. There is a dearth of evidence about all NPT constructs apart from enactment. Physicians play a key role in encouraging the enrolment of others in primary care team working and in enabling effective divisions of labour in the team. The experience of interdisciplinary working emerged as a lever for its implementation, particularly where communication and respect were strong between professionals. A key lever for interdisciplinary team working in primary care is to get professionals working together and to learn from each other in practice. However, the evidence base is limited as it does not reflect the experiences of all primary care professionals and it is primarily about the enactment of team working. We need to know much more about the experiences of the full network of primary care professionals regarding all aspects of implementation work. International

  4. Linguistic Diversity in Cooperative Work Processes of Task-Oriented Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Manchen Spörri, Sylvia; Hohenstein, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Sowohl durch die zunehmende Internationalisierung als auch durch Migrationsbewegungen in die Schweiz arbeiten Teams in Unternehmen auf allen hierarchischen Stufen vermehrt in sprachdiversen Konstellationen. Oftmals werden Deutsch oder Englisch als lingua franca zur Verständigung verwendet. In dem vorliegenden Projekt wird untersucht, welche kommunikativen Probleme sich durch die Sprachdiversität von Teams ergeben und welche Bewältigungsstrategien diese entwickeln, um die kommunikative Eff...

  5. Mapping Visual Negotiations in Innovation Driven Teams: A Peek into the Design Process Culture of Graduate Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Mendoza, Constanza Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Today, the boundaries of disciplines are in a state of flux. The borders are blurred and innovations occur due to the joining of different disciplinary tribes and interaction of teams with diverse epistemological backgrounds. It is not news that this increased diversity in using the design process can bring friction and clashes due to disparate…

  6. Climate Process Team "Representing calving and iceberg dynamics in global climate models"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.; Adcroft, A.; Amundson, J. M.; Bassis, J. N.; Hallberg, R.; Pollard, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Stern, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Iceberg calving accounts for approximately 50% of the ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. By changing a glacier's geometry, calving can also significantly perturb the glacier's stress-regime far upstream of the grounding line. This process can enhance discharge of ice across the grounding line. Once calved, icebergs drift into the open ocean where they melt, injecting freshwater to the ocean and affecting the large-scale ocean circulation. The spatial redistribution of the freshwater flux have strong impact on sea-ice formation and its spatial variability. A Climate Process Team "Representing calving and iceberg dynamics in global climate models" was established in the fall 2014. The major objectives of the CPT are: (1) develop parameterizations of calving processes that are suitable for continental-scale ice-sheet models that simulate the evolution of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets; (2) compile the data sets of the glaciological and oceanographic observations that are necessary to test, validate and constrain the developed parameterizations and models; (3) develop a physically based iceberg component for inclusion in the large-scale ocean circulation model. Several calving parameterizations based suitable for various glaciological settings have been developed and implemented in a continental-scale ice sheet model. Simulations of the present-day Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets show that the ice-sheet geometric configurations (thickness and extent) are sensitive to the calving process. In order to guide the development as well as to test calving parameterizations, available observations (of various kinds) have been compiled and organized into a database. Monthly estimates of iceberg distribution around the coast of Greenland have been produced with a goal of constructing iceberg size distribution and probability functions for iceberg occurrence in particular regions. A physically based iceberg model component was used in a GFDL

  7. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vione, D.

    2012-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter pollutants to be assessed and modelled. For instance, it is possible to predict pollutant half-life times by knowing absorption spectrum, direct photolysis quantum yield and reaction rate constants with °OH, CO3

  8. Structural Definition and Mass Estimation of Lunar Surface Habitats for the Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 (LAT-2) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, K, Chauncey; Smith, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 study defined and assessed architecture options for a Lunar Outpost at the Moon's South Pole. The Habitation Focus Element Team was responsible for developing concepts for all of the Habitats and pressurized logistics modules particular to each of the architectures, and defined the shapes, volumes and internal layouts considering human factors, surface operations and safety requirements, as well as Lander mass and volume constraints. The Structures Subsystem Team developed structural concepts, sizing estimates and mass estimates for the primary Habitat structure. In these studies, the primary structure was decomposed into a more detailed list of components to be sized to gain greater insight into concept mass contributors. Structural mass estimates were developed that captured the effect of major design parameters such as internal pressure load. Analytical and empirical equations were developed for each structural component identified. Over 20 different hard-shell, hybrid expandable and inflatable soft-shell Habitat and pressurized logistics module concepts were sized and compared to assess structural performance and efficiency during the study. Habitats were developed in three categories; Mini Habs that are removed from the Lander and placed on the Lunar surface, Monolithic habitats that remain on the Lander, and Habitats that are part of the Mobile Lander system. Each category of Habitat resulted in structural concepts with advantages and disadvantages. The same modular shell components could be used for the Mini Hab concept, maximizing commonality and minimizing development costs. Larger Habitats had higher volumetric mass efficiency and floor area than smaller Habitats (whose mass was dominated by fixed items such as domes and frames). Hybrid and pure expandable Habitat structures were very mass-efficient, but the structures technology is less mature, and the ability to efficiently package and deploy internal subsystems

  9. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  10. Process control of laser surface alloying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Meijer, J.; Olde Benneker, Jeroen

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the many advantages of laser surface treatment, such as high production rates and low induced thermal distortion, and its great potential for modifying the surface properties of a wide range of new and existing materials, industrial applications are still limited. This is not only

  11. Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This guide presents a process for three key activities for the building owner in preparing to retrofit existing commercial buildings: selecting project teams, benchmarking the existing building, and financing the retrofit work. Although there are other essential steps in the retrofit process, the three activities presented in this guide are the critical elements where the building owner has the greatest influence on the outcome of the project.

  12. Competitiveness and the Process of Co-adaptation in Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  13. Competitiveness and the process of co-adaptation in team sport performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Passos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals towards different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  14. elative age effect in the selection process of handball players of the regional selection teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of age on adolescent handball players of the regional selection teams. To do this, data of sex and date of birth of 84 youth players from different regional selection teams in the 2015-2016 season were analyzed, performing comparisons and differences being studied by χ2 and Z tests and the Bonferroni method. The analysis of results by quarter and half of birth revealed no statistically significant differences in gender and category. It seems to confirm that there is not relative age effect in the analyzed Teams. Whereupon, seems to confirm that in handball base, all young people participate, regardless of the degree of maturity submit.

  15. Process of treating surfaces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Murao, A.; Kuwahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    Both higher corrosion resistance and paint adherence are given to films formed on the surfaces of metals by treating the surfaces with aqueous solutions of one or more materials selected from the group consisting of water soluble vinyl monomer or water soluble high polymer and then irradiating with ionizing radioactive rays on the nearly dried surface film. When a water soluble inorganic compound is mixed with the above mentioned aqueous solution, the film properties are greatly improved. The inorganic ionic material should contain a cation from the group consisting of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cr, Al, Fe, and Ni. Electron beams may be used. (U.S.)

  16. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  17. Speeding Up Team Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  18. Dialogue in team formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F; Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Dignum, F; Chaib-Draa, B; Weigand, H

    1999-01-01

    The process of cooperative problem solving can be divided into four stages. First, finding potential team members, then forming a team followed by constructing a plan for that team. Finally, the plan is executed by the team. Traditionally, very simple protocols like the Contract Net protocol are

  19. The Care Process Self-Evaluation Tool: a valid and reliable instrument for measuring care process organization of health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Deborah; Deneckere, Svin; Sermeus, Walter; Van Gerven, Eva; Panella, Massimiliano; Bruyneel, Luk; Mutsvari, Timothy; Bejarano, Rafaela Camacho; Kul, Seval; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2013-08-19

    Patient safety can be increased by improving the organization of care. A tool that evaluates the actual organization of care, as perceived by multidisciplinary teams, is the Care Process Self-Evaluation Tool (CPSET). CPSET was developed in 2007 and includes 29 items in five subscales: (a) patient-focused organization, (b) coordination of the care process, (c) collaboration with primary care, (d) communication with patients and family, and (e) follow-up of the care process. The goal of the present study was to further evaluate the psychometric properties of the CPSET at the team and hospital levels and to compile a cutoff score table. The psychometric properties of the CPSET were assessed in a multicenter study in Belgium and the Netherlands. In total, 3139 team members from 114 hospitals participated. Psychometric properties were evaluated by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Cronbach's alpha, interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kruskall-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney test. For the cutoff score table, percentiles were used. Demographic variables were also evaluated. CFA showed a good model fit: a normed fit index of 0.93, a comparative fit index of 0.94, an adjusted goodness-of-fit index of 0.87, and a root mean square error of approximation of 0.06. Cronbach's alpha values were between 0.869 and 0.950. The team-level ICCs varied between 0.127 and 0.232 and were higher than those at the hospital level (0.071-0.151). Male team members scored significantly higher than females on 2 of the 5 subscales and on the overall CPSET. There were also significant differences among age groups. Medical doctors scored significantly higher on 4 of the 5 subscales and on the overall CPSET. Coordinators of care processes scored significantly lower on 2 of the 5 subscales and on the overall CPSET. Cutoff scores for all subscales and the overall CPSET were calculated. The CPSET is a valid and reliable instrument for health care teams to measure the extent care processes

  20. Shared communication processes within healthcare teams for rare diseases and their influence on healthcare professionals' innovative behavior and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budych Karolina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rare disease is a pattern of symptoms that afflicts less than five in 10,000 patients. However, as about 6,000 different rare disease patterns exist, they still have significant epidemiological relevance. We focus on rare diseases that affect multiple organs and thus demand that multidisciplinary healthcare professionals (HCPs work together. In this context, standardized healthcare processes and concepts are mainly lacking, and a deficit of knowledge induces uncertainty and ambiguity. As such, individualized solutions for each patient are needed. This necessitates an intensive level of innovative individual behavior and thus, adequate idea generation. The final implementation of new healthcare concepts requires the integration of the expertise of all healthcare team members, including that of the patients. Therefore, knowledge sharing between HCPs and shared decision making between HCPs and patients are important. The objective of this study is to assess the contribution of shared communication and decision-making processes in patient-centered healthcare teams to the generation of innovative concepts and consequently to improvements in patient satisfaction. Methods A theoretical framework covering interaction processes and explorative outcomes, and using patient satisfaction as a measure for operational performance, was developed based on healthcare management, innovation, and social science literature. This theoretical framework forms the basis for a three-phase, mixed-method study. Exploratory phase I will first involve collecting qualitative data to detect central interaction barriers within healthcare teams. The results are related back to theory, and testable hypotheses will be derived. Phase II then comprises the testing of hypotheses through a quantitative survey of patients and their HCPs in six different rare disease patterns. For each of the six diseases, the sample should comprise an average of 30 patients with

  1. Effects of time pressure and communication environment on team processes and outcomes in dyadic planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, R.; Lijkwan, J.T.E.; Rasker, P.C.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment compared dyadic performance in a radio communication and a more sophisticated communication environment to face-to-face (FtF) meetings. Thirty-six dyads, working under low or high time-pressure conditions, needed to combine information and to produce a written plan. Teams working in

  2. Extending Organizational Contingency Theory to Team Performance - An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    significantly that organizational sensemaking also collapses (e.g., Weick 1993a). At the micro-organizational level, teams acculturated to Hierarchy... Berry et al. (2003), describe a model of organizational change that involves rousing commitment, crafting a shared image of outcome, engendering...transformation within organizations persists as an important topic within organizational studies. Whelan- Berry et al. (2003) argue that organizational change

  3. Student Pedagogical Teams: Students as Course Consultants Engaged in Process of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Lorna; Ventura, Susan; Schuldt, Hilary; Donlan, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Faculty engage in "pedagogical solitude," in which they plan, teach, and assess their work alone. To optimize teaching environments and learning outcomes, students can serve as "student pedagogical teams" (SPT) and provide feedback on instructor performance, course structure, and content. Using self-determination theory, this…

  4. Understanding the Consequences of Newcomer Integration Processes: The Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2  = 197; N Study 3  = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4  = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.

  5. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A J; Van Mierlo, Heleen

    2018-01-01

    Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team's life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams' composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams' motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members' stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams' collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.

  6. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  7. Report of the technical review team on the Catalytic Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The TRT was impressed with the quality and volume of laboratory and pilot scale development work that had been conducted over the past year. Many of the doubts and questions raised by the TRP on technical details had been examined, either by theoretical calculations or in the pilot facility. Moreover, a more open and forthcoming attitude was evident among the MMT staff who either presented briefings or responded to the Team`s questions. Of special note to DOE, the TRP recognized a year ago that the pilot facility at Fall River was not designed for radioactive pilot tests. However, from the dialogue surrounding the TRP review, it was evident that not much thought had been given to the hazards, concerns, and special requirements incumbent with radioactive operations -- everything from doing pours of hot radioactive metal from a vessel to remote-handling equipment and operations. This year the TRT noticed a significant improvement in this respect.

  8. Reducing Biases in Cross-Cultural Top Management Team Decision-Making Processes

    OpenAIRE

    David Strutton; William Carter

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural top-management-teams (cc-TMTs) are typically comprised of rational individuals. Yet cc-TMTs featuring uniformly wise and experienced executives often make irrational decisions (i.e., choices incompatible with reason or logic). Even most executives acknowledge this is true. Behavioral economics suggests a primary reason why is that iterative combinations of cultural and cognitive biases invariably arise and interact in cc-TMT settings. As they arise, these biases often undermine...

  9. Self-organization processes in field-invasion team sports : implications for leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In nature, the interactions between agents in a complex system (fish schools; colonies of ants) are governed by information that is locally created. Each agent self-organizes (adjusts) its behaviour, not through a central command centre, but based on variables that emerge from the interactions with other system agents in the neighbourhood. Self-organization has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the tendencies for individual performers to interact with each other in field-invasion sports teams, displaying functional co-adaptive behaviours, without the need for central control. The relevance of self-organization as a mechanism that explains pattern-forming dynamics within attacker-defender interactions in field-invasion sports has been sustained in the literature. Nonetheless, other levels of interpersonal coordination, such as intra-team interactions, still raise important questions, particularly with reference to the role of leadership or match strategies that have been prescribed in advance by a coach. The existence of key properties of complex systems, such as system degeneracy, nonlinearity or contextual dependency, suggests that self-organization is a functional mechanism to explain the emergence of interpersonal coordination tendencies within intra-team interactions. In this opinion article we propose how leadership may act as a key constraint on the emergent, self-organizational tendencies of performers in field-invasion sports.

  10. Trust in Diverse Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    Multicultural membership and diversity in teams are important to maintain effectiveness in organizations in a global business environment. Multicultural teams offer great potential in international collaboration just as top management teams are becoming increasingly diversified. However...... with change in particular ways: Each team is analyzed in relation to its global (HQ) mandate, local (national) stakeholders and organizational context. It is found that communication energy, resources and team mandate underscore the sense of trust in high performing teams. Diversity is understood...... as nationalities, gender, functional expertise and international experience. The study contributes insights to diverse teams through a processual study of micro-processes in global organizational contexts crossing multicultural boundaries....

  11. IAEA Expert Team Completes Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process, 31 January 2012, Tokyo, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a review of Japan's two-stage process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. The team began its work on 23 January and delivered a Preliminary Summary Report to Japanese officials today and plans to finish the final report by the end of February. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's 152 Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. At the request of the Government of Japan, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a 10-person team to review the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency's (NISA) approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. The IAEA safety review mission consisted of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts. To help its review, the team held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES) Organization, and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. 'We concluded that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. In its Preliminary Summary Report delivered today, the team highlighted a number of good practices and identified some improvements that would enhance the overall effectiveness of the Comprehensive Safety Assessment process. Good practices identified by the mission team include: Based on NISA instructions and commitments of the

  12. Surface Electromyography Signal Processing and Classification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rubana H.; Reaz, Mamun B. I.; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Bin Mohd; Bakar, Ashrif A. A.; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Chang, Tae. G.

    2013-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG) is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above. PMID:24048337

  13. Developing an Interdisciplinary, Team-Based Quality Improvement Leadership Training Program for Clinicians: The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sandhya K; Carballo, Victoria; Cummings, Brian M; Millham, Frederick; Jacobson, Joseph O

    Although there has been tremendous progress in quality improvement (QI) education for students and trainees in recent years, much less has been published regarding the training of active clinicians in QI. The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program (CPIP) is a 6-day experiential program. Interdisciplinary teams complete a QI project framed by didactic sessions, interactive exercises, case-based problem sessions, and a final presentation. A total of 239 teams composed of 516 individuals have graduated CPIP. On completion, participant satisfaction scores average 4.52 (scale 1-5) and self-reported understanding of QI concepts improved. At 6 months after graduation, 66% of survey respondents reported sustained QI activity. Three opportunities to improve the program have been identified: (1) increasing faculty participation through online and tiered course offerings, (2) integrating the faculty-focused program with the trainee curriculum, and (3) developing a postgraduate curriculum to address the challenges of sustained improvement.

  14. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-04-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader's verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time.

  15. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-01-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader’s verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time. PMID:28490856

  16. A Novel Heat Treatment Process for Surface Hardening of Steel: Metal Melt Surface Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-sheng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiaowei; Li, Jiehua; Li, Jun; Xia, Mingxu; Li, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    A novel heat treatment process for surface hardening of steel has been demonstrated and named as "metal melt surface hardening (MMSH)." A surface layer with a thickness of about 400 μm and a hardness of about 700 HV has been achieved by ejecting AISI 304 stainless steel melt at a temperature of about 1783 K (1510 °C) onto the 40Cr steel surface. This proposed MMSH provides a very promising application for surface hardening of steel.

  17. Computer simulation of surface and film processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, W. A.; Halicioglu, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    All the investigations which were performed employed in one way or another a computer simulation technique based on atomistic level considerations. In general, three types of simulation methods were used for modeling systems with discrete particles that interact via well defined potential functions: molecular dynamics (a general method for solving the classical equations of motion of a model system); Monte Carlo (the use of Markov chain ensemble averaging technique to model equilibrium properties of a system); and molecular statics (provides properties of a system at T = 0 K). The effects of three-body forces on the vibrational frequencies of triatomic cluster were investigated. The multilayer relaxation phenomena for low index planes of an fcc crystal was analyzed also as a function of the three-body interactions. Various surface properties for Si and SiC system were calculated. Results obtained from static simulation calculations for slip formation were presented. The more elaborate molecular dynamics calculations on the propagation of cracks in two-dimensional systems were outlined.

  18. Auger processes in ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampieri, Guillermo.

    1985-01-01

    Bombardment of solid targets with low-energy noble gas ions can produce Auger electron emission from the target atoms and/or from the projectiles. In the case of Auger emission from the projectile, Auger emission was observed during the bombardment of Na, Mg, Al and Si with Ne + ions. This emission was studied as a function of the energy, incidence angle and charge state of the projectile. From the analysis, it is concluded that the emission originates in the decay in vacuum of excited and reflected Ne atoms, moving outside the surface. Auger emission was not observed during the bombardment of K, V and Ni with Ar + ions; Zr and Cs with Kr + , and Xe + ions, respectively; and Li and Be with He + ions. In the case of Auger emission from the target, studies of certain aspects of the Na, Mg and Al Auger electron emission spectra were made. The results allow to identify two components in the Auger feature, coresponding to two kinds of Auger transition. The total spectra results from the superposition of both kinds of emission. Auger spectra from K obtained during Ar + and K + bombardment of K-implanted Be, Mg, Al and Cu were also analyzed. Similar to the Na, Mg and Al Auger spectra, the K Auger feature is composed of an atomic like peak superimposed on a bandlike structure. Both components correspond to Auger transitions in K atoms with a 3p vacancy, occuring in vacuum and inside the solid, respectively. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. J. Van Hooft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.

  20. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Van Mierlo, Heleen

    2018-01-01

    Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination. PMID:29674991

  1. Automated solar cell assembly team process research. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1993--31 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M J; Hogan, S J; Darkazalli, G; Breen, W F; Murach, J M; Sutherland, S F; Patterson, J S [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work done under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, Phase 3A, which addresses problems that are generic to the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Spire`s objective during Phase 3A was to use its light soldering technology and experience to design and fabricate solar cell tabbing and interconnecting equipment to develop new, high-yield, high-throughput, fully automated processes for tabbing and interconnecting thin cells. Areas that were addressed include processing rates, process control, yield, throughput, material utilization efficiency, and increased use of automation. Spire teamed with Solec International, a PV module manufacturer, and the University of Massachusetts at Lowell`s Center for Productivity Enhancement (CPE), automation specialists, who are lower-tier subcontractors. A number of other PV manufacturers, including Siemens Solar, Mobil Solar, Solar Web, and Texas instruments, agreed to evaluate the processes developed under this program.

  2. Redesigning geriatric healthcare: how cross-functional teams and process improvement provide a competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, B C; Kaye, J; Bowcutt, M; Campbell, J

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of adding a geriatric subacute unit to the traditional health care mix offered by a nonprofit hospital. Historically, geriatric health care offerings have been limited to either acute care units or long-term care facilities. The study's findings demonstrate that the addition of a subacute unit that is operated by an interdisciplinary team is a competitively rational move for two reasons. First, it provides a continuum of care that integrates services and departments, thereby reducing costs. Second, it provides a supportive environment for patients and their families. As a consequence patients have a higher probability of returning home than patients who are assigned to more traditional modes of care.

  3. Report of the technical review team on the Catalytic Extraction Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The TRT was impressed with the quality and volume of laboratory and pilot scale development work that had been conducted over the past year. Many of the doubts and questions raised by the TRP on technical details had been examined, either by theoretical calculations or in the pilot facility. Moreover, a more open and forthcoming attitude was evident among the MMT staff who either presented briefings or responded to the Team's questions. Of special note to DOE, the TRP recognized a year ago that the pilot facility at Fall River was not designed for radioactive pilot tests. However, from the dialogue surrounding the TRP review, it was evident that not much thought had been given to the hazards, concerns, and special requirements incumbent with radioactive operations -- everything from doing pours of hot radioactive metal from a vessel to remote-handling equipment and operations. This year the TRT noticed a significant improvement in this respect

  4. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  5. How to enable employee creativity in a team context : A cross-level mediating process of transformational leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Yuntao; Lin, L.; Li, Peter Ping

    Employee creativity is critical to organizations' growth and is largely dependent on team dynamics. However, teams generally fail to encourage members to share their diverse knowledge, especially those that may cause disagreement among team members, as conflict often occurs in a team context.

  6. The Effect of Communication Strategy and Planning Intervention on the Processes and Performance of Course Material Development Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmo Putri, Dewi A.

    2012-01-01

    In most open and distance learning institutions, the development of learning materials, whether in print or electronic form, is created by teams consisting of people with different skills. Team communication has a critical influence on the development of team shared mental models (SMMs) as well as team performance. A review of the literature…

  7. TEAM EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: LINKING TEAM SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENT TO TEAM EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Urch Druskat, Vanessa; Wolff, Steven B.; Messer, Tracey Eira; Stubbs Koman, Elizabeth; Batista-Foguet, Joan-Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Work teams are labelled “emotional incubators” because of the ubiquitous emotion generated as team members work together. Although this emotion affects team processes and effectiveness, little theory or research has provided practical information about how teams can manage emotion so that it supports, rather than hinders, team effectiveness. To solve this problem, we draw on social psychological theory suggesting that emotion in teams primarily comes from whether team members’ social and emot...

  8. Learning teams and networks: using information technology as a means of managing work process development in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Vesa; Paavilainen, Eija

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the introduction of team learning and shared knowledge creation using computer-based learning environments and teams as networks in the development of healthcare organizations. Using computer technology, care units can be considered learning teams and the hospital a network of those learning teams. Team learning requires that the healthcare workers' intellectual capital and personal competence be viewed as an important resource in developing the quality of action of the entire healthcare organization.

  9. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  10. SU-C-BRD-02: A Team Focused Clinical Implementation and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis of HDR Skin Brachytherapy Using Valencia and Leipzig Surface Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayler, E; Harrison, A; Eldredge-Hindy, H; Dinome, J; Munro, S; Anne, R; Comber, E; Lockamy, V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: and Leipzig applicators (VLAs) are single-channel brachytherapy surface applicators used to treat skin lesions up to 2cm diameter. Source dwell times can be calculated and entered manually after clinical set-up or ultrasound. This procedure differs dramatically from CT-based planning; the novelty and unfamiliarity could lead to severe errors. To build layers of safety and ensure quality, a multidisciplinary team created a protocol and applied Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to the clinical procedure for HDR VLA skin treatments. Methods: team including physicists, physicians, nurses, therapists, residents, and administration developed a clinical procedure for VLA treatment. The procedure was evaluated using FMEA. Failure modes were identified and scored by severity, occurrence, and detection. The clinical procedure was revised to address high-scoring process nodes. Results: Several key components were added to the clinical procedure to minimize risk probability numbers (RPN): -Treatments are reviewed at weekly QA rounds, where physicians discuss diagnosis, prescription, applicator selection, and set-up. Peer review reduces the likelihood of an inappropriate treatment regime. -A template for HDR skin treatments was established in the clinical EMR system to standardize treatment instructions. This reduces the chances of miscommunication between the physician and planning physicist, and increases the detectability of an error during the physics second check. -A screen check was implemented during the second check to increase detectability of an error. -To reduce error probability, the treatment plan worksheet was designed to display plan parameters in a format visually similar to the treatment console display. This facilitates data entry and verification. -VLAs are color-coded and labeled to match the EMR prescriptions, which simplifies in-room selection and verification. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary planning and FMEA increased delectability and

  11. SURFACE CAST IRON STRENGTHENING USING COMBINED LASER AND ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devojno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  12. Team Sport in the Workplace? A RE-AIM Process Evaluation of ‘Changing the Game’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The workplace is a priority setting to promote health. Team sports can be an effective way to promote both physical and social health. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a workplace team sports intervention programme‘Changing the Game’ (CTG. This study was conducted in a FTSE 100 services organisation. This process evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collected from the participants in the intervention group prior to, during and at the end of the intervention using interviews (n = 12, a focus group (n = 5, and questionnaires (n = 17. Organisational documentation was collected, and a research diary was recorded by the lead author. The evidence collected was triangulated to examine the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the programme. Data was assessed through template analysis, and questionnaire data were analysed using multiple regression and a series of univariate ANOVAs. Results: CTG improved VO2 Max, interpersonal communication, and physical activity behaviour (efficacy over 12-weeks. This may be attributed to the supportive approach adopted within the design and delivery of the programme (implementation. Individual and organisational factors challenged the adoption and maintenance of the intervention. The recruitment and communication strategy limited the number of employees the programme could reach. Conclusion: The process evaluation suggests addressing the culture within workplaces may better support the reach, adoption and maintenance of workplace team sport programmes. Future research should consider investigating and applying these findings across a range of industries and sectors.

  13. Investigation of Relationships in the Children's Team in the Process of Sports Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Voloshina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.

  14. Small team, big reach : Leduc's AMR process translates cutting-edge engineering skills into worldwide contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullage, R.

    2009-01-01

    AMR Process specializes in oil and gas process engineering. The small company which is headquartered in Leduc, Alberta provides oil and gas packages, proprietary licensed designs and process engineering services in Brazil, China, Iraq and more than a dozen other countries. AMR's expertise includes troubleshooting, de-bottlenecking and process train upgrading. They help clients avoid complicated, costly changes to a project by targeting potential problems at a project's inception. The president and founder of AMR credits the company's success in part to the Nisku-Leduc Economic Development Authority (EDA) which brought AMR together with I. Matheson and Company Ltd., a steel manufacturer in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. Pressure vessels are one of Matheson's primary products. This article described how AMR Process Inc. has worked with Matheson to secure contracts to build equipment used in oil processing, for markets around the world. 1 fig

  15. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The bombardment of surfaces with moderate energy ions can lead to the development of various micron-sized surface structures. These structures include ridges, ledges, flat planes, pits and cones. The causal phenomena in the production of these features are sputtering, ion reflection, redeposition of sputtered material, and surface diffusion of both impurity and target-atom species. The authors concentrate on the formation of ion bombardment-induced surface topography wherein surface diffusion is a dominant process. The most thoroughly understood aspect of this topography development is the generation of cone-like structures during sputtering. The formation of cones during sputtering has been attributed to three effects. These are: (1) the presence of asperities, defects, or micro-inclusions in the surface layers, (2) the presence of impurities on the surfaces, and (3) particular crystal orientations. (Auth.)

  16. An integrated approach to friction surfacing process optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Voutchkov, I.I.; Jaworski, B.; Vitanov, V.I.; Bedford, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the procedures for data collection, management and optimisation of the friction surfacing process. Experimental set-up and characteristics of measuring equipment are found to match the requirements for accurate and unbiased data signals. The main friction surfacing parameters are identified and the first stage of the optimisation process is achieved by visually assessing the coatings and introducing the substrate speed vs. force map. The optimum values from this first sta...

  17. To adopt is to adapt: the process of implementing the ICF with an acute stroke multidisciplinary team in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempest, Stephanie; Harries, Priscilla; Kilbride, Cherry; De Souza, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The success of the International Classifcation of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) depends on its uptake in clinical practice. This project aimed to explore ways the ICF could be used with an acute stroke multidisciplinary team and identify key learning from the implementation process. Method: Using an action research approach, iterative cycles of observe, plan, act and evaluate were used within three phases: exploratory; innovatory and refective. Thematic analysis was undertaken, using a model of immersion and crystallisation, on data collected via interview and focus groups, e-mail communications, minutes from relevant meetings, feld notes and a refective diary. Results: Two overall themes were determined from the data analysis which enabled implementation. There is a need to: (1) adopt the ICF in ways that meet local service needs; and (2) adapt the ICF language and format. Conclusions: The empirical fndings demonstrate how to make the ICF classifcation a clinical reality. First, we need to adopt the ICF as a vehicle to implement local service priorities e.g. to structure a multidisciplinary team report, thus enabling ownership of the implementation process. Second, we need to adapt the ICF terminology and format to make it acceptable for use by clinicians. PMID:22372376

  18. Team effectiveness and team development in CSCL

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members’ abilities and characteristics, and role assignment within a team. Building on a critical analysis of the degree to which research on CSCW translates t...

  19. Decision Support for Software Process Management Teams: An Intelligent Software Agent Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Church, Lori

    2000-01-01

    ... to market, eliminate redundancy, and ease job stress. This thesis proposes a conceptual model for software process management decision support in the form of an intelligent software agent network...

  20. Culture and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Shapiro, Debra L; Lu, Shuye; McGurrin, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    We first review research on culture effects in teams, illustrating that mean levels of team cultural values have main (i.e. direct) effects, indirect effects (i.e. mediated by intervening variables), and moderating influences on team processes and outcomes. Variance in team cultural values or on country of origin (i.e. nationality diversity) also has main effects on team functioning, and we highlight contextual variables that strengthen or weaken these main effects. We next review research examining the effect of variance in team cultural values on global virtual teams, specifically. Finally, we review research on how cultural values shape employees' receptivity to empowering leadership behavior in teams. We conclude by discussing critical areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Transforming Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Investigating virtual team collaboration in industry using grounded theory this paper presents the in-dept analysis of empirical work conducted in a global organization of 100.000 employees where a global virtual team with participants from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, and North America were...... studied. The research question investigated is how collaboration is negotiated within virtual teams? This paper presents findings concerning how collaboration is negotiated within a virtual team and elaborate the difficulties due to invisible articulation work and managing multiple communities...... in transforming the virtual team into a community. It is argued that translucence in communication structures within the virtual team and between team and management is essential for engaging in a positive transformation process of trustworthiness supporting the team becoming a community, managing the immanent...

  2. Training adaptive teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Cooke, Nancy J; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2010-04-01

    We report an experiment in which three training approaches are compared with the goal of training adaptive teams. Cross-training is an established method in which team members are trained with the goal of building shared knowledge. Perturbation training is a new method in which team interactions are constrained to provide new coordination experiences during task acquisition. These two approaches, and a more traditional procedural approach, are compared. Assigned to three training conditions were 26 teams. Teams flew nine simulated uninhabited air vehicle missions; three were critical tests of the team's ability to adapt to novel situations. Team performance, response time to novel events, and shared knowledge were measured. Perturbation-trained teams significantly outperformed teams in the other conditions in two out of three critical test missions. Cross-training resulted in significant increases in shared teamwork knowledge and highest mean performance in one critical test. Procedural training led to the least adaptive teams. Perturbation training allows teams to match coordination variability during training to demands for coordination variability during posttraining performance. Although cross-training has adaptive benefits, it is suggested that process-oriented approaches, such as perturbation training, can lead to more adaptive teams. Perturbation training is amenable to simulation-based training, where perturbations provide interaction experiences that teams can transfer to novel, real-world situations.

  3. Training a team with simulated team members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstal, A.M.; Hoeft, R.M.; Schaik, M. van

    2002-01-01

    The process of training teams increasingly occurs in synthetic environments. However, it is often still modeled after live team training, including the disadvantages of live training, for example, the fact that all teammates must be available. This paper explores overcoming the disadvantages of

  4. Team Effectiveness and Team Development in CSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…

  5. Using the analytic hierarchy process to support teams in defining new product objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J.M.; Verkerke, G.J.; van Rossum, W.; Rakhorst, G.; Hummel, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Defining new product objectives is a critical problem solving activity to new product success. The analytic hierarchy process appears to be an adequate technique for multi-criteria decision analysis to support the definition of new product objectives. To illustrate this support, we applied this

  6. Quality Self Assessment: A Process of Course Team Development or Contrived Collegiality and Impression Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic research in an FE College (College X) between 2000 and 2005 was designed to uncover the extent to which quality self-assessment processes had effectively utilised productive motivational inputs (i.e. lecturer self-interest, intrinsic motivation, altruism and tacit knowledge) in line with New Labour's agenda of improved skills in…

  7. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

  8. Process improvement to enhance existing stroke team activity toward more timely thrombolytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Jin; Lee, Kyung Yul; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae-Jin; Jung, Yo Han; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2014-10-01

    Process improvement (PI) is an approach for enhancing the existing quality improvement process by making changes while keeping the existing process. We have shown that implementation of a stroke code program using a computerized physician order entry system is effective in reducing the in-hospital time delay to thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. We investigated whether implementation of this PI could further reduce the time delays by continuous improvement of the existing process. After determining a key indicator [time interval from emergency department (ED) arrival to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis] and conducting data analysis, the target time from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was set at 40 min. The key indicator was monitored continuously at a weekly stroke conference. The possible reasons for the delay were determined in cases for which IV thrombolysis was not administered within the target time and, where possible, the problems were corrected. The time intervals from ED arrival to the various evaluation steps and treatment before and after implementation of the PI were compared. The median time interval from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was significantly reduced after implementation of the PI (from 63.5 to 45 min, p=0.001). The variation in the time interval was also reduced. A reduction in the evaluation time intervals was achieved after the PI [from 23 to 17 min for computed tomography scanning (p=0.003) and from 35 to 29 min for complete blood counts (p=0.006)]. PI is effective for continuous improvement of the existing process by reducing the time delays between ED arrival and IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients.

  9. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  10. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes

  11. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localized, creative reasoning, including analogizing and mental simulation. Our analysis of the DTRS11 dataset examined not just the short-term, localized effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing....... Our key findings were threefold. First - and contrary to expectations – we observed that increased epistemic certainty (rather than increased epistemic uncertainty) in relation to cognitive referents triggered immediate, creative reasoning and information elaboration. Second, epistemic uncertainty was...

  12. Management Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Belbin, R Meredith Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Meredith Belbin's work on teams has become part of everyday language in organizations all over the world. All kinds of teams and team behaviours are covered. At the end of the book is a self-perception inventory so that readers can match their own personalities to particular team roles. Management Teams is required reading for managers concerned with achieving results by getting the best from their key personnel.

  13. Representing Global Reactive Potential Energy Surfaces Using Gaussian Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Brian; Marshall, Paul; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2017-04-06

    Representation of multidimensional global potential energy surfaces suitable for spectral and dynamical calculations from high-level ab initio calculations remains a challenge. Here, we present a detailed study on constructing potential energy surfaces using a machine learning method, namely, Gaussian process regression. Tests for the 3 A″ state of SH 2 , which facilitates the SH + H ↔ S( 3 P) + H 2 abstraction reaction and the SH + H' ↔ SH' + H exchange reaction, suggest that the Gaussian process is capable of providing a reasonable potential energy surface with a small number (∼1 × 10 2 ) of ab initio points, but it needs substantially more points (∼1 × 10 3 ) to converge reaction probabilities. The implications of these observations for construction of potential energy surfaces are discussed.

  14. Surface topography of parallel grinding process for nonaxisymmetric aspheric lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ningning; Wang Zhenzhong; Pan Ri; Wang Chunjin; Guo Yinbiao

    2012-01-01

    Workpiece surface profile, texture and roughness can be predicted by modeling the topography of wheel surface and modeling kinematics of grinding process, which compose an important part of precision grinding process theory. Parallel grinding technology is an important method for nonaxisymmetric aspheric lens machining, but there is few report on relevant simulation. In this paper, a simulation method based on parallel grinding for precision machining of aspheric lens is proposed. The method combines modeling the random surface of wheel and modeling the single grain track based on arc wheel contact points. Then, a mathematical algorithm for surface topography is proposed and applied in conditions of different machining parameters. The consistence between the results of simulation and test proves that the algorithm is correct and efficient. (authors)

  15. Soft Factors, Smooth Transport? The role of safety climate and team processes in reducing adverse events during intrahospital transport in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzke, Markus; Schiffinger, Michael; Zellhofer, Dominik; Steyrer, Johannes

    2017-11-15

    Intrahospital patient transports (IHTs) in intensive care involve an appreciable risk of adverse events (AEs). Research on determinants of AE occurrence during IHT has hitherto focused on patient, transport, and intensive care unit (ICU) characteristics. By contrast, the role of "soft" factors, although arguably relevant for IHTs and a topic of interest in general health care settings, has not yet been explored. The study aims at examining the effect of safety climate and team processes on the occurrence of AE during IHT and whether team processes mediate the effect of safety climate. Data stem from a noninterventional, observational multicenter study in 33 ICUs (from 12 European countries), with 858 transports overall recorded during 28 days. AEs include medication errors, dislodgments, equipment failures, and delays. Safety climate scales were taken from the "Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations" (short version), team processes scales from the "Leiden Operating Theatre and Intensive Care Safety" questionnaire. Patient condition was assessed with NEMS (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score). All other variables could be directly observed. Hypothesis testing and assessment of effects rely on bivariate correlations and binomial logistic multilevel models (with ICU as random effect). Both safety climate and team processes are comparatively important determinants of AE occurrence, also when controlling for transport-, staff-, and ICU-related variables. Team processes partially mediate the effect of safety climate. Patient condition and transport duration are consistently related with AE occurrence, too. Unlike most patient, transport, and ICU characteristics, safety climate and team processes are basically amenable to managerial interventions. Coupled with their considerable effect on AE occurrence, this makes pertinent endeavors a potentially promising approach for improving patient safety during IHT. Although literature suggests that safety

  16. Dawn Orbit Determination Team: Trajectory Modeling and Reconstruction Processes at Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Ardito, Alessandro; Han, Dongsuk; Haw, Robert; Kennedy, Brian; Mastrodemos, Nick; Nandi, Sumita; Park, Ryan; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft spent over a year in orbit around Vesta from July 2011 through August 2012. In order to maintain the designated science reference orbits and enable the transfers between those orbits, precise and timely orbit determination was required. Challenges included low-thrust ion propulsion modeling, estimation of relatively unknown Vesta gravity and rotation models, track-ing data limitations, incorporation of real-time telemetry into dynamics model updates, and rapid maneuver design cycles during transfers. This paper discusses the dynamics models, filter configuration, and data processing implemented to deliver a rapid orbit determination capability to the Dawn project.

  17. Measurement of surface crack length using image processing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahm, Seung Hoon; Kim, Si Cheon; Kim, Yong Il; Ryu, Dae Hyun

    2001-01-01

    The development of a new experimental method is required to easily observe the growth behavior of fatigue cracks. To satisfy the requirement, an image processing technique was introduced to fatigue testing. The length of surface fatigue crack could be successfully measured by the image processing system. At first, the image data of cracks were stored into the computer while the cyclic loading was interrupted. After testing, crack length was determined using image processing software which was developed by ourselves. Block matching method was applied to the detection of surface fatigue cracks. By comparing the data measured by image processing system with the data measured by manual measurement with a microscope, the effectiveness of the image processing system was established. If the proposed method is used to monitor and observe the crack growth behavior automatically, the time and efforts for fatigue test could be dramatically reduced

  18. Plasma Processing with Fluorine Chemistry for Modification of Surfaces Wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Satulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plasma in conjunction with fluorinated compounds is widely encountered in material processing. We discuss several plasma techniques for surface fluorination: deposition of fluorocarbon thin films either by magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene targets, or by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using tetrafluoroethane as a precursor, and modification of carbon nanowalls by plasma treatment in a sulphur hexafluoride environment. We showed that conformal fluorinated thin films can be obtained and, according to the initial surface properties, superhydrophobic surfaces can be achieved.

  19. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohan, Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani; Ancok, Djamaludin

    2010-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  20. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  1. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucault, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  2. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  3. Perspectives on the Final Design Review process from the US ITER DRGA team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewer, T. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Devan, W.; Graves, V.; Marcus, C.; Andrew, P.; Johnson, D. W.

    2014-10-01

    Among the ITER procurements awarded to the US ITER Domestic Agency, and subsequently to the ORNL Fusion & Materials for Nuclear Systems Division, is the design and fabrication of the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) system. The DRGA system reached the Final Design Review (FDR) in July 2014, and is the first US-credited diagnostic system to achieve this milestone. The design effort has focused on the vacuum and mechanical interface of the DRGA gas sampling tube with the ITER vacuum vessel and cyrostat. In addition to technical issues needed to negotiate the mechanical interface, a significant number of procedural issues at US ITER and the ITER IO were encountered to navigate the DRGA project to this milestone. The process has been beneficial to both the DRGA project, and in-turn to US ITER, by illuminating the procedures in practice. This presentation will highlight some of the issues encountered and relay perspectives for designing hardware for ITER. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  4. Team members' emotional displays as indicators of team functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; van Kleef, G.A.; Sanchez-Burks, J.

    2016-01-01

    Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members’ emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members’ emotional displays as a source of information to predict the

  5. Expertise of Team Leaders in Analysing Team Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Maria; Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans; Harteis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Team leaders are expected to adequately analyse team conflicts. Both content and analytical depth of cognitive processes determine team leaders' performance and are assumed to differ with level of expertise. A study is reported in which team leaders at four different levels of expertise (novices, semi-experts, experts, mediators) were compared in…

  6. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  7. Increasing Student-Learning Team Effectiveness with Team Charters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Phillip; Pavett, Cynthia; Hunsaker, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Because teams are a ubiquitous part of most organizations today, it is common for business educators to use team assignments to help students experientially learn about course concepts and team process. Unfortunately, students frequently experience a number of problems during team assignments. The authors describe the results of their research and…

  8. Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research. Final subcontract report, 6 January 1993--31 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Hogan, S. J.; Breen, W. F.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Patterson, J. S.; Darkazalli, G. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (US)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for a program entitled ''Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research,'' funded by the US Department of Energy. This program was part of Phase 3A of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, which addressed the generic needs of the photovoltaic (PV) industry for improved quality, accelerated production scale-up, and substantially reduced manufacturing cost. Crystalline silicon solar cells (Czochralski monocrystalline, cast polycrystalline, and ribbon polycrystalline) are used in the great majority of PV modules produced in the US, accounting for 95% of all shipments in 1994. Spire's goal in this program was to reduce the cost of these modules by developing high throughput (5 MW per year) automated processes for interconnecting solar cells made from standard and thin silicon wafers. Spire achieved this goal by developing a completely new automated processing system, designated the SPI-ASSEMBLER{trademark} 5000, which is now offered as a commercial product to the PV industry. A discussion of the project and of the Assembler is provided.

  9. Development of a strategic process using checklists to facilitate team preparation and improve communication during neonatal resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katheria, Anup; Rich, Wade; Finer, Neil

    2013-11-01

    To improve our neonatal resuscitations we review video recordings of actual high-risk deliveries as an ongoing quality review process. In order to help identify and review errors that occurred during resuscitation we educated our resuscitation teams using crew resource management and in March 2009 developed a checklist to be used for potentially high-risk resuscitations. To describe our experience using checklists as an essential component of the actual resuscitation of potentially high-risk infants. The checklist includes pre- and debrief components, along with duty-specific sub-lists (MD, RT, RN). The debrief is conducted upon completion of the resuscitation and addresses what was done well, what was not done well, and how it could have been improved. We reviewed all available checklists from March 2009 to November 2011 (n=260). We then performed a second review to determine if experience has changed the leaders perception of how resuscitation was being performed from November 2011 to May 2012 (n=185). We reviewed 445 completed checklists with quality assurance video review. During the initial cohort the most commonly described problems were: communication (n=58), equipment preparation and use (n=56), inappropriate decisions (n=87), leadership (n=56), and procedures (n=25). The number of debriefs where communication was identified as a problem decreased from 23% in the first time period to 4% (pcommunication, and allowed for rapid identification of issues that need to be addressed by institutional leaders. There needs to be further evaluation of the utility and benefit of checklists for neonatal resuscitation. Based on our past and present experience we encourage the use of checklists for neonatal resuscitation teams. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film......The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  12. Regionalization and parameterization of hydrological processes at the land surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Kabat, P.; Elbers, J.A.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Ogink-Hendriks, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrological processes on the land surface play a critical role in physically based hydrological and atmospheric modelling. A series of experiments have been initiated to test and develop parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity on the full range of spatial and temporal scales considered relevant.

  13. Sunspot Groups as Tracers of Sub-Surface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Data on sunspot groups have been quite useful for obtaining clues to several processes on global and local scales within the sun which lead to emergence of toroidal magnetic flux above the sun's surface. I present here a report on such studies carried out at Indian Institute of Astrophysics during the last ...

  14. Sunspot Groups as Tracers of Sub Surface Processes .

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Data on sunspot groups have been quite useful for obtaining clues to several processes on global and local scales within the sun which lead to emergence of toroidal magnetic flux above the sun's surface. I present here a report on such studies carried out at Indian Institute of. Astrophysics during the last decade or ...

  15. Predictors of Team Work Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Harris, James H.; Hurst, Barbara J.; von Baggo, Karola; Bayley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to work in teams is an attribute highly valued by employers of information technology (IT) graduates. For IT students to effectively engage in team work tasks, the process of working in teams should be satisfying for the students. This work explored whether university students who were involved in compulsory team work were satisfied…

  16. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...

  17. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Questions we care about (Objectives): When students have to work on challenging tasks, as it is often the case in entrepreneurship classrooms that leverage experiential learning, team success becomes central to the students learning. Yet, the formation of teams is often left up to the students...... or pre-arranged at random. Therefore we investigate the importance of team formation in the entrepreneurial classroom and ask: (i) What are the underlying factors that influence outcomes of teamwork in student groups? (ii) How does team formation influence student perception of learning?, and (iii) Do...... functioning entrepreneurial student teams as most teams lack personal chemistry which makes them anchor their work too much in a pre-defined project. In contrast, we find that students that can form their own teams aim for less diverse teams than what is achieved by random assignment. However, the homophily...

  18. Comparing student clinical self-efficacy and team process outcomes for a DEU, blended, and traditional clinical setting: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Christina; Clark, Michele; Feng, Du

    2018-03-01

    Clinical education is vital to both the development of clinical self-efficacy and the integration of future nurses into health care teams. The dedicated education unit clinical teaching model is an innovative clinical partnership, which promotes skill development, professional growth, clinical self-efficacy, and integration as a team member. Blended clinical teaching models are combining features of the dedicated education unit and traditional clinical model. The aims of this study are to explore how each of three clinical teaching models (dedicated education unit, blended, traditional) affects clinical self-efficacy and attitude toward team process, and to compare the dedicated education unit model and blended model to traditional clinical. A nonequivalent control-group quasi-experimental design was utilized. The convenience sample of 272 entry-level baccalaureate nursing students included 84 students participating in a dedicated education unit model treatment group, 66 students participating in a blended model treatment group, and 122 students participating in a traditional model control group. Perceived clinical self-efficacy was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the General Self-Efficacy scale. Attitude toward team process was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Attitude Questionnaire. All three clinical teaching models resulted in significant increases in both clinical self-efficacy (p=0.04) and attitude toward team process (p=0.003). Students participating in the dedicated education unit model (p=0.016) and students participating in the blended model (pself-efficacy compared to students participating in the traditional model. These findings support the use of dedicated education unit and blended clinical partnerships as effective alternatives to the traditional model to promote both clinical self-efficacy and team process among entry-level baccalaureate nursing students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  19. A user-centred deployment process for ICT in health care teams--experiences from the OLD@HOME project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Maria; Scandurra, Isabella; Koch, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    To present a user-centred method for introducing ICT in health care organisations, taking factors that influence acceptance into account. User centred methods are used in combination with previous research regarding factors that affect user acceptance, in order to facilitate users' acceptance of new ICT tools. A method is presented that supports the introduction of ICT in team work. The method consists of three major steps; (1) the start-up seminar, (2) end user education and (3) continuous follow-up during the deployment phase. Important results of the start-up seminar are documentation of the users' expectations, and an agreement of ground rules that supports both the social norm factor and the users' perceived behavioural control. Education and follow-up also improve perceived behavioural control, and by involving super users perceived usefulness and ease of use can be improved through subjective norm. Key factors in the deployment process are; user participation, end user experience and education, and continuous follow-up of the process.

  20. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  1. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  2. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide using vinyltriethoxysilane by dry process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Shengjie [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Lijuan, E-mail: lilj@isl.ac.cn [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); Xu, Defang; Zhu, Donghai; Liu, Zhiqi; Nie, Feng [Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China); Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • A modification mechanism for magnesium hydroxide using silane by dry process was proposed. • Si−O−Mg bonds were formed directly by the reaction between Si-OC{sub 2}H{sub 5} and hydroxyl groups of magnesium hydroxide. • Dispersibility and compatibility of modified magnesium hydroxide improved in organic phase. - Abstract: In order to improve the compatibility between magnesium hydroxide (MH) and polymer matrix, the surface of MH was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process and the interfacial interaction between MH and VTES was also studied. Zeta potential measurements implied that the MH particles had better dispersion and less aggregation after modification. Sedimentation tests showed that the surface of MH was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MH particles significantly improved in the organic phase. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that a thin layer had formed on the surface of the modified MH, but did not alter the material’s crystalline phase. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the VTES molecules bound strongly to the surface of MH after modification. Chemical bonds (Si−O−Mg) formed by the reaction between Si-OC{sub 2}H{sub 5} and hydroxyl group of MH, also there have physical adsorption effect in the interface simultaneously. A modification mechanism of VTES on the MH surface by dry process was proposed, which different from the modification mechanism by wet process.

  3. DETECTING GLASS SURFACE CORROSION WITH IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet AKDENİZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass is a kind of amorphous materials that exhibits a transition from rigid to viscous state and finally liquid state when heated. For daily usage, it is desirable to have different forms and differenttransparencies for different purposes. Most widely used one is the one with high transparency and flat surface.One of the detrimental effects that glass is undergone during the storage or usage periods is corrosion. In this work, a way for detecting corrosion on the glass surface by image processing methodis presented.

  4. Electronic dissipation processes during chemical reactions on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Every day in our life is larded with a huge number of chemical reactions on surfaces. Some reactions occur immediately, for others an activation energy has to be supplied. Thus it happens that though a reaction should thermodynamically run off, it is kinetically hindered. Meaning the partners react only to the thermodynamically more stable product state within a mentionable time if the activation energy of the reaction is supplied. With the help of catalysts the activation energy of a reaction can be lowered. Such catalytic processes on surfaces are widely used in industry. A

  5. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna

    to inform the public about the processes and benefits of the prototype products, and partly to give feedback to the project partners on the environmental and safety aspects of the different material, processing, use and waste stages. By that being a link between the industrial project partners developing...... products, and the process and material developers providing new coatings with specific properties. The combination of RA and LCA/LCC within the early stages of product development provide a more holistic approach, It is commonly believed to be also economical beneficial as changes are easier to implement...... developers, production industries, consumers and authorities. Part of the consideration is the public perception of the new product and the processes to manufacture it, which is an important aspect for products being developed using nanoscale surface processing. Such considerations are integrated...

  6. Team Development of Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyoung

    2004-01-01

    Advanced technologies, globalization, the competitiveness of business, flexible working practices, and other rapid changes in the nature of work have all led to the booming of "virtual teams." This paper will provide an overview of virtual teams, including a description of their emergence, a definition and typology of the term "virtual team," an…

  7. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate cathodic superhydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhi, E-mail: c2002z@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710129 (China); Li Feng [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710129 (China); Hao Limei [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Chen Anqi; Kong Youchao [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710129 (China)

    2011-12-01

    In this work, a rapid one-step process is developed to fabricate superhydrophobic cathodic surface by electrodepositing copper plate in an electrolyte solution containing manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O), myristic acid (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 12}COOH) and ethanol. The superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shortest electrolysis time for fabricating a superhydrophobic surface is about 1 min, the measured maximum contact angle is 163 Degree-Sign and rolling angle is less than 3 Degree-Sign . Furthermore, this method can be easily extended to other conductive materials. The approach is time-saving and cheap, and it is supposed to have a promising future in industrial fields.

  8. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodali, Padma [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness.

  9. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodali, P.

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness

  10. Application of Anodization Process for Cast Aluminium Surface Properties Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk-Fligier A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An huge interest is observed in last years in metal matrix composite, mostly light metal based, which have found their applications in many industry branches, among others in the aircraft industry, automotive-, and armaments ones, as well as in electrical engineering and electronics, where one of the most important issue is related to the corrosion resistance, especially on the surface layer of the used aluminium alloys. This elaboration presents the influence of ceramic phase on the corrosion resistance, quality of the surface layer its thickness and structure of an anodic layer formed on aluminium alloys. As test materials it was applied the aluminium alloys Al-Si-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg, for which heat treatment processes and corrosion tests were carried out. It was presented herein grindability test results and metallographic examination, as well. Hardness of the treated alloys with those ones subjected to corrosion process were compared.

  11. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  12. Wright Valley Sediments as Potential Analogs for Martian Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P. A. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) may provide a unique terrestrial analog for current Martian surface processes. The Wright Valley located in the ADV contains streams, lakes and ponds that host highly saline, sedimentary environments. This project highlights comparisons of formation and salt accumulation processes at the Don Juan Pond (DJP) and Don Quixote Pond (DQP). These are located in the north and south forks of the Wright Valley, which are unique areas where unusual terrestrial processes can be studied. DQP is located in the western part of the north fork about 100 m above mean seawater level. The DQP Valley walls are up to 2500 m high and the brine is seasonally frozen. DJP from the south fork is located ~9 km west of Lake Vanda. The basin floor is 117 m above mean seawater level with activity to the north and south rising above 1000 m. The DJP brine does not freeze and may be a model environment for Ca and Cl weathering and distribution on Mars. Our findings indicate that DJP and DQP have formed in similar climatic and geological environments, but likely experienced different formation conditions. Samples were collected from surface, soil pits and depth profiles during the 1979/1980, the 1990/1991 and the 2005/2006 field seasons. Elemental abundances and mineralogy were evaluated for several sets of sediments. The DJP basin shows low surface abundances of halite and relatively high abundances of sulfates throughout with gypsum or anhydrite dominating at different locations. The DQP area has high surface abundances of halite with gypsum present as the major sulfate. Two models have been proposed to explain these differences: DQP may have formed through a combination of shallow and some deep groundwater influx, while deep groundwater upwelling likely played the dominant role of salt formation at DJP. Our study seeks to understand the formation of DQP and DJP as unique terrestrial processes and as models for Ca, Cl, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  13. Development and pilot testing of an interprofessional patient-centered team training programme in medical rehabilitation clinics in Germany: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sonja; Körner, Mirjam; Müller, Christian; Lippenberger, Corinna; Rundel, Manfred; Zimmermann, Linda

    2017-07-14

    Interprofessional teamwork is considered to be a key component of patient-centred treatment in healthcare, and especially in the rehabilitation sector. To date, however, no interventions exist for improving teamwork in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. A team training programme was therefore designed that is individualised in content but standardised regarding methods and process. It is clinic specific, task related, solution focused and context oriented. The aim of the study was to implement and evaluate this training for interprofessional teams in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. The measure consists of a training of a varying number of sessions with rehabilitation teams that consists of four distinct phases. Those are undergone chronologically, each with clinic-specific contents. It was implemented between 2013 and 2014 in five rehabilitation clinics in Germany and evaluated by the participants via questionnaire (n = 52). Staff in three clinics evaluated the programme as helpful, in particular rating moderation, discussions and communication during the training positively. Staff in the remaining two clinics rated it as not very or not helpful and mentioned long-term structural problems or a lack of need for team training as a reason for this. The team training is applicable and accepted by staff. It should, however, be tested in a greater sample and compared with a control group. Processes should be studied in more detail in order to determine what differentiates successful from non-successful interventions and the different requirements each of these might have.

  14. Free surface BCP self-assembly process characterization with CDSEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Shimon; Weinberg, Yakov; Adan, Ofer; Klinov, Michael; Argoud, Maxime; Claveau, Guillaume; Tiron, Raluca

    2016-03-01

    A simple and common practice to evaluate Block copolymers (BCP) self-assembly performances, is on a free surface wafer. With no guiding pattern the BCP designed to form line space pattern for example, spontaneously rearranges to form a random fingerprint type of a pattern. The nature of the rearrangement is dictated by the physical properties of the BCP moieties, wafer surface treatment and the self-assembly process parameters. Traditional CDSEM metrology algorithms are designed to measure pattern with predefined structure, like linespace or oval via holes. Measurement of pattern with expected geometry can reduce measurement uncertainty. Fingerprint type of structure explored in this dissertation, poses a challenge for CD-SEM measurement uncertainty and offers an opportunity to explore 2D metrology capabilities. To measure this fingerprints we developed a new metrology approach that combines image segmentation and edge detection to measure 2D pattern with arbitrary rearrangement. The segmentation approach enabled to quantify the quality of the BCP material and process, detecting 2D attributes such as: CD and CDU at one axis, and number of intersections, length and number of PS fragments, etched PMMA spaces and donut shapes numbers on the second axis. In this paper we propose a 2D metrology to measure arbitrary BCP pattern on a free surface wafer. We demonstrate experimental results demonstrating precision data, and characterization of PS-b-PMMA BCP, intrinsic period L0 = 38nm (Arkema), processed at different bake time and temperatures.

  15. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Surface Composition as a Playground for Radiative Transfer Modeling and Laboratory Measurements: an international ISSI team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.; Ciarniello, M.; Beck, P.; Filacchione, G.; Moroz, L.; Pilorget, C.; Pommerol, A.; Quirico, E.; Raponi, A.; Schröder, S.; Kappel, D.; Vinogradoff, V.; Istiqomah, I.; Rousseau, B.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing observations at visible-infrared (VIS-IR) wavelengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko performed by VIRTIS (Coradini et al., 2007) aboard the Rosetta mission have revealed a surface ubiquitously covered by low-albedo material (Capaccioni et al., 2015; Ciarniello et al., 2015), characterized by the presence of refractory and semi-volatile organics and dark opaque phases (Capaccioni et al., 2015; Quirico et al., 2016). However, a quantitative determination of the physical properties (grain size, porosity) and chemical composition of the surface regolith, from spectrophotometric analysis, is still missing. This subject will be investigated within an international team hosted by ISSI (International Space Science Institute), taking advantage of available and dedicated laboratory reflectance measurements on cometary analogue samples and radiative transfer models (Hapke, 2012; Shkuratov et al., 1999; Monte Carlo ray-tracing), applied to Rosetta spectrophotometric observations of the nucleus. The convergence between models and measurements will allow us to provide a thorough characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface. At the same time, the comparison of theoretical predictions with results from laboratory reflectance spectroscopy on powders of analog materials give us the possibility to constrain the capability of the models to characterize their composition (endmember abundances and mixing modalities) and physical properties. We report about the state of the art of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy and spectral modeling applied to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko VIS-IR spectrum as well as preliminary results of the team activity and planned future work. Acknowledgements: the team thanks ISSI-Switzerland for the logistic and financial support.

  16. Surface encapsulation process for managing low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.L.; Telles, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current processes for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) stabilization involve mixing contaminants with a fixative such as cement, asphalt, polyethylene, or vinyl monomers, and subsequently curing the mixtures in containers. These methods give rise to processing difficulties and yield products lacking performance to assure long-term LLRW immobilization. Mixing of LLRW into fixatives is impeded by viscous media and the curing reaction is inhibited by LLRW constituents. Product performance is affected by corrosion of the containers which ultimately expose the cured mixtures to environmental stresses. This process, termed the ''Surface Encapsulation Process,'' circumvents these problems. A thermosetting fixative is employed that mixes readily with LLRW and is highly insensitive to inhibition in curing. The agglomerated mixtures are further stabilized by encapsulation with seamless jackets of corrosion resistant plastic, such as polyethylene. In laboratory-scale investigations, feasibility of the technique was demonstrated for managing a broad spectrum of LLRW simulants including ion-exchange resins, beads, and glasses, and sodium salts. Products tested to date meet all relevant NRC and DOT regulations governing waste fixation. The high waste loadings of the products, use of commodity resins, and processing simplicity indicated our process would provide high performance LLRW stabilization at costs that are competitive to those for processes employing state-of-the-art fixatives. An economic analysis based on managing LLRW generated by commercial power plants (≅1,000 MeW) substantiates the competitive process costs advantages

  17. Team members' emotional displays as indicators of team functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Astrid C; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members' emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members' emotional displays as a source of information to predict the team's trajectory. We argue and show that displays of sadness elicit more pessimistic inferences regarding team dynamics (e.g., trust, satisfaction, team effectiveness, conflict) compared to displays of happiness. Moreover, we find that this effect is strengthened when the future interaction between the team members is more ambiguous (i.e., under ethnic dissimilarity; Study 1) and when emotional displays can be clearly linked to the team members' collective experience (Study 2). These studies shed light on when and how people use others' emotional expressions to form impressions of teams.

  18. Expanding the Advising Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Robert E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The process and results of team building by Emporia State University's centralized advising center are examined from the perspectives of president, enrollment management, centralized advising, and faculty. The effort demonstrates that administrative, state, and team commitment can produce positive results in freshman retention, higher graduation…

  19. Exposing earth surface process model simulations to a large audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Borkowski, L.; Russell, E. L.; Peddicord, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) represents a diverse group of >1300 scientists who develop and apply numerical models to better understand the Earth's surface. CSDMS has a mandate to make the public more aware of model capabilities and therefore started sharing state-of-the-art surface process modeling results with large audiences. One platform to reach audiences outside the science community is through museum displays on 'Science on a Sphere' (SOS). Developed by NOAA, SOS is a giant globe, linked with computers and multiple projectors and can display data and animations on a sphere. CSDMS has developed and contributed model simulation datasets for the SOS system since 2014, including hydrological processes, coastal processes, and human interactions with the environment. Model simulations of a hydrological and sediment transport model (WBM-SED) illustrate global river discharge patterns. WAVEWATCH III simulations have been specifically processed to show the impacts of hurricanes on ocean waves, with focus on hurricane Katrina and super storm Sandy. A large world dataset of dams built over the last two centuries gives an impression of the profound influence of humans on water management. Given the exposure of SOS, CSDMS aims to contribute at least 2 model datasets a year, and will soon provide displays of global river sediment fluxes and changes of the sea ice free season along the Arctic coast. Over 100 facilities worldwide show these numerical model displays to an estimated 33 million people every year. Datasets storyboards, and teacher follow-up materials associated with the simulations, are developed to address common core science K-12 standards. CSDMS dataset documentation aims to make people aware of the fact that they look at numerical model results, that underlying models have inherent assumptions and simplifications, and that limitations are known. CSDMS contributions aim to familiarize large audiences with the use of numerical

  20. IEEE Computer Society/Software Engineering Institute Watts S. Humphrey Software Process Achievement Award 2016: Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems Design for Six Sigma Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    assessment and critical chain for execution RPAL Raytheon process assets library SADID System Architecture, Design, and Integration Directorate SED... Integrated Defense Systems Design for Six Sigma Team Neal Mackertich Peter Kraus Kurt Mittelstaedt Brian Foley Dan Bardsley Kelli Grimes...Mike Nolan April 2017 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2017-TR-001 Software Solutions Division [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved

  1. Detection of cracks on concrete surfaces by hyperspectral image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruno O.; Valença, Jonatas; Júlio, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    All large infrastructures worldwide must have a suitable monitoring and maintenance plan, aiming to evaluate their behaviour and predict timely interventions. In the particular case of concrete infrastructures, the detection and characterization of crack patterns is a major indicator of their structural response. In this scope, methods based on image processing have been applied and presented. Usually, methods focus on image binarization followed by applications of mathematical morphology to identify cracks on concrete surface. In most cases, publications are focused on restricted areas of concrete surfaces and in a single crack. On-site, the methods and algorithms have to deal with several factors that interfere with the results, namely dirt and biological colonization. Thus, the automation of a procedure for on-site characterization of crack patterns is of great interest. This advance may result in an effective tool to support maintenance strategies and interventions planning. This paper presents a research based on the analysis and processing of hyper-spectral images for detection and classification of cracks on concrete structures. The objective of the study is to evaluate the applicability of several wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum for classification of cracks in concrete surfaces. An image survey considering highly discretized wavelengths between 425 nm and 950 nm was performed on concrete specimens, with bandwidths of 25 nm. The concrete specimens were produced with a crack pattern induced by applying a load with displacement control. The tests were conducted to simulate usual on-site drawbacks. In this context, the surface of the specimen was subjected to biological colonization (leaves and moss). To evaluate the results and enhance crack patterns a clustering method, namely k-means algorithm, is being applied. The research conducted allows to define the suitability of using clustering k-means algorithm combined with hyper-spectral images highly

  2. Team-based global organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina; Mockaitis, Audra

    2015-01-01

    of challenges and opportunities of future global organizing as being team-based, we presented new advancements in the study of global teams, leadership, process and outcomes divided into four themes. Two specifically address processes in global teams: 1) the benefits of openness towards linguistic and value...

  3. Evidence of Space Weathering Processes Across the Surface of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Blewett, David T.; Gaffey, Michael; Mittlefehldt, David W.; CristinaDeSanctis, Maria; Reddy, Vishnu; Coradini, Angioletta; Nathues, Andreas; Denevi, Brett W.; Li, Jian-Yang; hide

    2011-01-01

    As NASA s Dawn spacecraft explores the surface of Vesta, it has become abundantly clear that Vesta is like no other planetary body visited to date. Dawn is collecting global data at increasingly higher spatial resolution during its one-year orbital mission. The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked to the HED meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy. A principal puzzle has been why Vesta exhibits relatively unweathered diagnostic optical features compared to other large asteroids. Is this due to the composition of this proto-planet or the space environment at Vesta? Alteration or weathering of materials in space normally develops as the products of several processes accumulate on the surface or in an evolving particulate regolith, transforming the bedrock into fragmental material with properties that may be measurably different from the original. Data from Dawn reveal that the regolith of Vesta is exceptionally diverse. Regional surface units are observed that have not been erased by weathering with time. Several morphologically-fresh craters have excavated bright, mafic-rich materials and exhibit bright ray systems. Some of the larger craters have surrounding subdued regions (often asymmetric) that are lower in albedo and relatively red-sloped in the visible while exhibiting weaker mafic signatures. Several other prominent craters have rim exposures containing very dark material and/or display a system of prominent dark rays. Most, but not all, dark areas associated with craters exhibit significantly lower spectral contrast, suggesting that either a Vesta lithology with an opaque component has been exposed locally or that the surface has been contaminated by a relatively dark impactor. Similarly, most, but not all, bright areas associated with craters exhibit enhanced mafic signatures compared to surroundings. On a regional scale, the large south polar structure and surrounding terrain exhibit

  4. Novel CNC Grinding Process Control for Nanometric Surface Roughness for Aspheric Space Optical Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yeol Han

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Optics fabrication process for precision space optical parts includes bound abrasive grinding, loose abrasive lapping and polishing. The traditional bound abrasive grinding with bronze bond cupped diamond wheel leaves the machine marks of about 20 μm rms in height and the subsurface damage of about 1 μm rms in height to be removed by subsequent loose abrasive lapping. We explored an efficient quantitative control of precision CNC grinding. The machining parameters such as grain size, work-piece rotation speed and feed rate were altered while grinding the work-piece surfaces of 20-100 mm in diameter. The input grinding variables and the resulting surface quality data were used to build grinding prediction models using empirical and multi-variable regression analysis. The effectiveness of such grinding prediction models was then examined by running a series of precision CNC grinding operation with a set of controlled input variables and predicted output surface quality indicators. The experiment achieved the predictability down to ±20 nm in height and the surface roughness down to 36 nm in height. This study contributed to improvement of the process efficiency reaching directly the polishing and figuring process without the need for the loose abrasive lapping stage.

  5. Team cohesiveness, team size and team performance in team-based learning teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Haidet, Paul; Borges, Nicole J; Carchedi, Lisa R; Roman, Brenda J B; Townsend, Mark H; Butler, Agata P; Swanson, David B; Anderson, Michael P; Levine, Ruth E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among variables associated with teams in team-based learning (TBL) settings and team outcomes. We administered the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Test first to individuals and then to teams of Year three students at four medical schools that used TBL in their psychiatry core clerkships. Team cohesion was analysed using the Team Performance Scale (TPS). Bivariate correlation and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the relationships among team-level variables (mean individual TPS scores for each team, mean individual NBME scores of teams, team size, rotation and gender make-up) and team NBME test scores. A hierarchical linear model was used to test the effects of individual TPS and individual NBME test scores within each team, as well as the effects of the team-level variables of team size, team rotation and gender on team NBME test scores. Individual NBME test and TPS scores were nested within teams and treated as subsampling units. Individual NBME test scores and individual TPS scores were positively and statistically significantly (p team NBME test scores, when team rotation, team size and gender make-up were controlled for. Higher team NBME test scores were associated with teams rotating later in the year and larger teams (p teams at four medical schools suggest that larger teams on later rotations score higher on a team NBME test. Individual NBME test scores and team cohesion were positively and significantly associated with team NBME test scores. These results suggest the need for additional studies focusing on team outcomes, team cohesion, team size, rotation and other factors as they relate to the effective and efficient performance of TBL teams in health science education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Using infrared thermography for understanding and quantifying soil surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    At present, our understanding of the soil hydrologic response is restricted by measurement limitations. In the literature, there have been repeatedly calls for interdisciplinary approaches to expand our knowledge in this field and eventually overcome the limitations that are inherent to conventional measuring techniques used, for example, for tracing water at the basin, hillslope and even field or plot scales. Infrared thermography is a versatile, accurate and fast technique of monitoring surface temperature and has been used in a variety of fields, such as military surveillance, medical diagnosis, industrial processes optimisation, building inspections and agriculture. However, many applications are still to be fully explored. In surface hydrology, it has been successfully employed as a high spatial and temporal resolution non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tool to e.g. access groundwater discharges into waterbodies or quantify thermal heterogeneities of streams. It is believed that thermal infrared imagery can grasp the spatial and temporal variability of many processes at the soil surface. Thermography interprets the heat signals and can provide an attractive view for identifying both areas where water is flowing or has infiltrated more, or accumulated temporarily in depressions or macropores. Therefore, we hope to demonstrate the potential for thermal infrared imagery to indirectly make a quantitative estimation of several hydrologic processes. Applications include: e.g. mapping infiltration, microrelief and macropores; estimating flow velocities; defining sampling strategies; identifying water sources, accumulation of waters or even connectivity. Protocols for the assessment of several hydrologic processes with the help of IR thermography will be briefly explained, presenting some examples from laboratory soil flumes and field.

  7. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites

  8. Decontamination Efficiency of Fish Bacterial Flora from Processing Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous parameters that can influence bacterial decontamination during washing of machinery and equipment in a food processing establishment. Incomplete decontamination of bacteria will increase the risk of biofilm formation and consequently increase the risk of pathogen contamination or prevalence of other undesirable microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria in the processing line. The efficiency of a typical washing protocol has been determined by testing three critical parameters and their effects on bacterial decontamination. Two surface materials (plastic and stainless steel, water temperatures (7 and 25 °C and detergent concentrations (2 and 4 % were used for this purpose in combination with two types of detergents. Biofilm was prepared on the surfaces with undefined bacterial flora obtained from minced cod fillets. The bacterial flora of the biofilm was characterised by cultivation and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. All different combinations of washing protocols tested were able to remove more than 99.9 % of the bacteria in the biofilm and reduce the cell number from 7 to 0 or 2 log units of bacteria/cm2. The results show that it is possible to use less diluted detergents than recommended with comparable success, and it is easier to clean surface material made of stainless steel compared to polyethylene plastic.

  9. Dynamics of gas-surface interactions atomic-level understanding of scattering processes at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Díez Muniño, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a representative survey of the state of the art of research on gas-surface interactions. It provides an overview of the current understanding of gas surface dynamics and, in particular, of the reactive and non-reactive processes of atoms and small molecules at surfaces. Leading scientists in the field, both from the theoretical and the experimental sides, write in this book about their most recent advances. Surface science grew as an interdisciplinary research area over the last decades, mostly because of new experimental technologies (ultra-high vacuum, for instance), as well as because of a novel paradigm, the ‘surface science’ approach. The book describes the second transformation which is now taking place pushed by the availability of powerful quantum-mechanical theoretical methods implemented numerically. In the book, experiment and theory progress hand in hand with an unprecedented degree of accuracy and control. The book presents how modern surface science targets the atomic-level u...

  10. A pilot study on the effects of a team building process on the perception of work environment in an integrative hospital for neurological rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büssing Arndt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological rehabilitation is one of the most care-intensive challenges in the health care system requiring specialist therapeutic and nursing knowledge. In this descriptive pilot study, we investigated the effects of a team building process on perceived work environment, self-ascribed professional competence, life satisfaction, and client satisfaction in an anthroposophic specialized hospital for neurological rehabilitation. The team-building process consisted of didactic instruction and training in problem-solving, teambuilding and constructive conflict resolution. Methods Seventy seven staff members and 44 patients' relatives were asked to complete a survey that included the Work Environment Scale (WES-10, a Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS, the Conviction of Therapeutic Competency (CTC scale and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8. To evaluate the outcome of the team building process, we analyzed changes over time in the WES-10 subscales. Additionally the interrelationship between the WES-10 subscales with other subscales and with sociodemographic parameters like age, gender was calculated by means of a bivariate correlation analysis. Results The team building process had a significant positive effect on perceived work environment in only one area. There was a significant improvement in the ward staffs' perception of their ability to constructively resolve conflicts 3 years after inception of the team building process than there was before inception. However, even in a unit that utilized holistic treatment and nursing in the care of severely disable patients, such care necessitating a very heavy workload, the measurements on the Self Realization, Life Satisfaction and Conviction of Therapeutic Competency scales remained high and unchanged over the three year time period of the study. Conclusions Strategic interventions might be an option to improve interpersonal relationships and finally quality of patient care.

  11. A pilot study on the effects of a team building process on the perception of work environment in an integrative hospital for neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Thomas; Bertram, Mathias; Büssing, Arndt

    2010-03-09

    Neurological rehabilitation is one of the most care-intensive challenges in the health care system requiring specialist therapeutic and nursing knowledge. In this descriptive pilot study, we investigated the effects of a team building process on perceived work environment, self-ascribed professional competence, life satisfaction, and client satisfaction in an anthroposophic specialized hospital for neurological rehabilitation. The team-building process consisted of didactic instruction and training in problem-solving, teambuilding and constructive conflict resolution. Seventy seven staff members and 44 patients' relatives were asked to complete a survey that included the Work Environment Scale (WES-10), a Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS), the Conviction of Therapeutic Competency (CTC) scale and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8). To evaluate the outcome of the team building process, we analyzed changes over time in the WES-10 subscales. Additionally the interrelationship between the WES-10 subscales with other subscales and with sociodemographic parameters like age, gender was calculated by means of a bivariate correlation analysis. The team building process had a significant positive effect on perceived work environment in only one area. There was a significant improvement in the ward staffs' perception of their ability to constructively resolve conflicts 3 years after inception of the team building process than there was before inception. However, even in a unit that utilized holistic treatment and nursing in the care of severely disable patients, such care necessitating a very heavy workload, the measurements on the Self Realization, Life Satisfaction and Conviction of Therapeutic Competency scales remained high and unchanged over the three year time period of the study. Strategic interventions might be an option to improve interpersonal relationships and finally quality of patient care.

  12. Team-based global organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina; Mockaitis, Audra

    2015-01-01

    diversity in enhancing team creativity and performance, and 2) the sharing of knowledge in team-based organizations, while the other two themes address global team leadership: 3) the unprecedented significance of social capital for the success of global team leader roles; and 4) the link between shared...... of challenges and opportunities of future global organizing as being team-based, we presented new advancements in the study of global teams, leadership, process and outcomes divided into four themes. Two specifically address processes in global teams: 1) the benefits of openness towards linguistic and value...... leadership, satisfaction and performance in global virtual teams. We bring together ideas from the lively discussion between the audience and the panel members where we identify questions at three levels for bringing research on team-based organizing in global organizations forward: the within...

  13. When Teams Go Crazy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Software development consists to a large extend of human-based processes with continuously increasing demands regarding interdisciplinary team work. Understanding the dynamics of software teams can be seen as highly important to successful project execution. Hence, for future project managers......, knowledge about non-technical processes in teams is significant. In this paper, we present a course unit that provides an environment in which students can learn and experience the impact of group dynamics on project performance and quality. The course unit uses the Tuckman model as theoretical framework...... of those factors. Moreover, students experienced what problems occur when teams work under stress and how to form a performing team despite exceptional situations....

  14. The Effect of Team Size on Management Team Performance: The Mediating Role of Relationship Conflict and Team Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Espedalen, Lars Erik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a better understanding of the processes and emergent states that can explain the relationship between team size (number of members) and team performance in management teams. Although many researchers have looked at the relationship between team size and team performance in for instance student teams, experimental groups, and production teams, there are very few studies that so far have looked at mediating variables in this relationship. Within re...

  15. Multi-scale surface-groundwater interactions: Processes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.; Harvey, J. W.; Worman, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Tank, J. L.; Stonedahl, S. H.

    2009-05-01

    Site-based investigations of stream-subsurface interactions normally focus on a limited range of spatial scales - typically either very shallow subsurface flows in the hyporheic zone, or much larger scale surface- groundwater interactions - but subsurface flows are linked across this entire continuum. Broad, multi-scale surface-groundwater interactions produce complex patterns in porewater flows, and interfacial fluxes do not average in a simple fashion because of the competitive effects of flows induced at different scales. For example, reach-scale stream-groundwater interactions produce sequences of gaining and losing reaches that can either suppress or enhance local-scale hyporheic exchange. Many individual topographic features also produce long power-law tails in surface residence time distributions, and the duration of these tails is greatly extended by interactions over a wide range of spatial scales. Simultaneous sediment transport and landscape evolution further complicates the analysis of porewater flow dynamics in rivers. Finally, inhomogeneity in important biogeochemical processes, particularly microbial processes that are stimulated near the sediment- water interface, leads to a great degree of non-linearity in chemical transformation rates in stream channels. This high degree of complexity in fluvial systems requires that careful approaches be used to extend local observations of hyporheic exchange and associated nutrient, carbon, and contaminant transformations to larger spatial scales. It is important to recognize that conventional advection-dispersion models are not expected to apply, and instead anomalous transport models must be used. Unfortunately, no generally applicable model is available for stream-groundwater interactions at the present time. Alternative approaches for modeling conservative and reactive transport will be discussed, and a strategy articulated for coping with the complexity of coupled surface-subsurface dynamics in fluvial

  16. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Team. Journal Home > About the Journal > Editorial Team. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editors. admin · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  17. Aditya Team

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. Aditya Team. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 55 Issue 5-6 November-December 2000 pp 727-732 Contributed Papers. Tokamak Plasmas : Mirnov coil data analysis for tokamak ADITYA · D Raju R Jha P K Kaw S K Mattoo Y C Saxena Aditya Team.

  18. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  19. Developing Team Cognition: A Role for Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rosemarie; Shah, Sachita; Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Grand, James A

    2017-04-01

    Simulation has had a major impact in the advancement of healthcare team training and assessment. To date, most simulation-based training and assessments focus on the teamwork behaviors that impact team performance, often ignoring critical cognitive, motivational, and affective team processes. Evidence from team science research demonstrates a strong relationship between team cognition and team performance and suggests a role for simulation in the development of this team-level construct. In this article, we synthesize research from the broader team science literature to provide foundational knowledge regarding team cognition and highlight best practices for using simulation to target team cognition.

  20. Interdependencies of Arctic land surface processes: A uniquely sensitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    The circumpolar arctic drainage basin is composed of several distinct ecoregions including steppe grassland and cropland, boreal forest and tundra. Land surface hydrology throughout this diverse region shares several unique features such as dramatic seasonal runoff differences controlled by snowmelt and ice break-up; the storage of significant portions of annual precipitation as snow and in lakes and wetlands; and the effects of ephemeral and permanently frozen soils. These arctic land processes are delicately balanced with the climate and are therefore important indicators of change. The litany of recently-detected changes in the Arctic includes changes in snow precipitation, trends and seasonal shifts in river discharge, increases and decreases in the extent of surface water, and warming soil temperatures. Although not unique to the arctic, increasing anthropogenic pressures represent an additional element of change in the form of resource extraction, fire threat and reservoir construction. The interdependence of the physical, biological and social systems mean that changes in primary indicators have large implications for land cover, animal populations and the regional carbon balance, all of which have the potential to feed back and induce further change. In fact, the complex relationships between the hydrological processes that make the Artic unique also render observed historical change difficult to interpret and predict, leading to conflicting explanations. For example, a decrease in snow accumulation may provide less insulation to the underlying soil resulting in greater frost development and increased spring runoff. Similarly, melting permafrost and ground ice may lead to ground subsidence and increased surface saturation and methane production, while more complete thaw may enhance drainage and result in drier soil conditions. The threshold nature of phase change around the freezing point makes the system especially sensitive to change. In addition, spatial

  1. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Hydrology team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R.

    1982-01-01

    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  3. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Catherine E.; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes. PMID:27630605

  4. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Catherine E; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  5. Effects of team emotional authenticity on virtual team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Connelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students, suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others’ emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM analysis (n = 81 student teams suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  6. Experimental investigation of surface roughness in electrical discharge turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Vikas; Puri, Y. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the present study the effects of machining parameters on the average surface roughness (Ra) in electrical discharge turning (EDT) is investigated. EDT is a new machining process in which a rotary spindle is added to a conventional die-sinking EDM machine in order to produce cylindrical components. In this method a new process parameter (spindle rotation) along with pulse on time and current is introduced to study its effect on Ra. This has been done by means of full factorial design (21 × 32) of experiments. A mathematical model has been developed for Ra by regression analysis and factor effects were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Signal-to-noise ratio analysis is used to find the optimal condition.

  7. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion; Surfaces: traitement, revetements, decontamination, pollution, etc. Maitrise de la surface pour prevenir la corrosion des composants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M. [Departement Corrosion Chimie, AREVA Centre Technique, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2012-07-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  8. Dual Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Steel Surface Cleaning and Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, P.; Shi, J.; Liang, J.; Tian, W. B.; Zhang, Y. M.; Sun, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    To remove the rust on rebars and passivate the fresh surfaces, electrodes reversing electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) was proposed and conducted in a 10 wt.% Na2CO3 aqueous solution. The morphology and the composition of the surface were investigated by SEM and XPS. Experimental results show that the rust on the surface was removed effectively by cathode EPP, and a passive film containing Cr2O3 was achieved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, by a simple operation of reversing the bias. The corrosion resistance was evaluated in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using an electrochemical workstation. In comparison, the corrosion resistance was improved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, which is evidenced by a positive shift of the open-circuit potential, an increase in the electrochemical impedance representing the inner layer by 76.8% and the decrease in the corrosion current density by 49.6%. This is an effective and environment-friendly technique to clean and passivate rebars and similar steel materials.

  9. Surface Wave Simulation and Processing with MatSeis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMPSON,BEVERLY D.; CHAEL,ERIC P.; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.; WALTER,WILLIAM R.; PASYANOS,MICHAEL E.

    2000-08-07

    In order to exploit the information on surface wave propagation that is stored in large seismic event datasets, Sandia and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories have developed a MatSeis interface for performing phase-matched filtering of Rayleigh arrivals. MatSeis is a Matlab-based seismic processing toolkit which provides graphical tools for analyzing seismic data from a network of stations. Tools are available for spectral and polarization measurements, as well as beam forming and f-k analysis with array data, to name just a few. Additionally, one has full access to the Matlab environment and any functions available there. Previously the authors reported the development of new MatSeis tools for calculating regional discrimination measurements. The first of these performs Lg coda analysis as developed by Mayeda and coworkers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A second tool measures regional phase amplitude ratios for an event and compares the results to ratios from known earthquakes and explosions. Release 1.5 of MatSeis includes the new interface for the analysis of surface wave arrivals. This effort involves the use of regionalized dispersion models from a repository of surface wave data and the construction of phase-matched filters to improve surface wave identification, detection, and magnitude calculation. The tool works as follows. First, a ray is traced from source to receiver through a user-defined grid containing different group velocity versus period values to determine the composite group velocity curve for the path. This curve is shown along with the upper and lower group velocity bounds for reference. Next, the curve is used to create a phase-matched filter, apply the filter, and show the resultant waveform. The application of the filter allows obscured Rayleigh arrivals to be more easily identified. Finally, after screening information outside the range of the phase-matched filter, an inverse version of the filter is applied to obtain a

  10. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  11. Parabolic flights as Earth analogue for surface processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2017-04-01

    The interpretation of landforms and environmental archives on Mars with regards to habitability and preservation of traces of life requires a quantitative understanding of the processes that shaped them. Commonly, qualitative similarities in sedimentary rocks between Earth and Mars are used as an analogue to reconstruct the environments in which they formed on Mars. However, flow hydraulics and sedimentation differ between Earth and Mars, requiring a recalibration of models describing runoff, erosion, transport and deposition. Simulation of these processes on Earth is limited because gravity cannot be changed and the trade-off between adjusting e.g. fluid or particle density generates other mismatches, such as fluid viscosity. Computational Fluid Dynamics offer an alternative, but would also require a certain degree of calibration or testing. Parabolic flights offer a possibility to amend the shortcomings of these approaches. Parabolas with reduced gravity last up to 30 seconds, which allows the simulation of sedimentation processes and the measurement of flow hydraulics. This study summarizes the experience gathered during four campaigns of parabolic flights, aimed at identifying potential and limitations of their use as an Earth analogue for surface processes on Mars.

  12. Embedding continuous quality improvement processes in multidisciplinary teams in cancer care: exploring the boundaries between quality and implementation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tracy E; Janssen, Anna; Harnett, Paul; Museth, Kylie E; Provan, Pamela J; Hills, Danny J; Shaw, Tim

    2017-07-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to identify key enabling factors for engaging multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) in cancer care across the spectrum of translational research and quality improvement (QI) projects. Methods The study was conducted in two large Sydney metropolitan hospitals. Qualitative methods, including structured observations of MDT meetings and semi-structured interviews with MDT leaders and champions, were used to identify how teams interact with and generate research and implementation initiatives. Enabling factors for and barriers to the engagement of MDTs in translational research and QI were identified. Results Four key enabling factors emerged from the analysis of data generated from observing 43 MDT meetings and 18 semi-structured interviews: (1) access to high-quality data around individual and team performance; (2) research-active team leaders; (3) having experts, such as implementation scientists, embedded into teams; and (4) having dedicated research or QI-focused meetings. Barriers included a lack of time, administrative support, research expertise and access to real-time data. Conclusions The identification of enabling factors for and barriers to translational research and QI provides evidence for how multidisciplinary cancer care teams may best be engaged in research and QI that aims to improve service and care outcomes. What is known about the topic? MDTs are key to the delivery of cancer care in Australia, but there is scant research into how teams can best be engaged in translating research from basic science through to implementation science and QI. What does this paper add? This paper provides new evidence from an immersive study of cancer care MDTs in two large metropolitan hospitals in Sydney (NSW, Australia), regarding the key enabling factors for and barriers to successful engagement in translational research and QI in cancer care. What are the implications for practitioners? Cancer care professionals in MDTs are

  13. Standardized postoperative handover process improves outcomes in the intensive care unit: a model for operational sustainability and improved team performance*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Hemant S; Saville, Benjamin R; Slayton, Jennifer M; Donahue, Brian S; Daves, Suanne; Christian, Karla G; Bichell, David P; Harris, Zena L

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether structured handover tool from operating room to pediatric cardiac intensive care unit following cardiac surgery is associated with a reduction in the loss of information transfer and an improvement in the quality of communication exchange. In addition, whether this tool is associated with a decrease in postoperative complications and an improvement in patient outcomes in the first 24 hrs of pediatric cardiac intensive care unit stay. Prospective observational clinical study. Pediatric cardiac intensive care unit of an academic medical center. Pediatric cardiac surgery patients over a 3-yr period. Evaluation of communication and patients studied for two time periods: verbal handover (July 2007-June 2009) and structured handover (July 2009-June 2010). None. Two anonymous surveys administered to the entire clinical team of the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit evaluated loss of information transfer for each of the two handover processes. Quality of structured handover tool was evaluated by Likert scale responses in the second survey. Patient complications including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mediastinal reexploration, placement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, development of severe metabolic acidosis, and number of early extubations in the first 24-hr pediatric cardiac intensive care unit stay were compared for the two time periods. Survey results showed the general opinion that the structured handover tool was of excellent quality to enhance communication (Likert scale: 4.4 ± 0.7). In addition, the tool was associated with a significant reduction (p < .001) in loss of information for every category of patient clinical care including patient, preoperative, anesthesia, operative, and postoperative details and laboratory values. Patient data revealed significant decrease (p < .05) for three of the four major complications studied and a significant increase (p < .04) in the number of early extubations following introduction of our

  14. MarsSI: Martian surface data processing information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; Thollot, P.; Loizeau, D.; Bultel, B.; Fernando, J.; Allemand, P.; Dubuffet, F.; Poulet, F.; Ody, A.; Clenet, H.; Leyrat, C.; Harrisson, S.

    2018-01-01

    MarsSI (Acronym for Mars System of Information, https://emars.univ-lyon1.fr/MarsSI/, is a web Geographic Information System application which helps managing and processing martian orbital data. The MarsSI facility is part of the web portal called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal) developed by the Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) to provide users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the martian surface. The portal proposes 1) the management and processing of data thanks to MarsSI and 2) the visualization and merging of high level (imagery, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu). The portal PSUP as well as the facility MarsVisu is detailed in a companion paper (Poulet et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe the facility MarsSI. From this application, users are able to easily and rapidly select observations, process raw data via automatic pipelines, and get back final products which can be visualized under Geographic Information Systems. Moreover, MarsSI also contains an automatic stereo-restitution pipeline in order to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTM) on demand from HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) or CTX (Context Camera) pair-images. This application is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) (ERC project eMars, No. 280168) and has been developed in the scope of Mars, but the design is applicable to any other planetary body of the solar system.

  15. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Team. Prof. José Paula. Prof. José Paula Mail University of Lisbon, Portugal, Portugal. Associate Professor at the Department of Animal Biology, Researcher at MARE, Faculty of Sciences of University of lisbon.

  16. Modelling command and control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Essens, P.J.M.D.; Post, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a computational approach to modelling and simulating C2-team behaviour. Within this approach team models may be used to develop, test, and compare different C2-architectures, that is different structures and processes, without the need for real teams. The advantage of this

  17. Enabling Team Learning in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boak, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of learning processes within 35 healthcare therapy teams that took action to improve their services. The published research on team learning is introduced, and the paper suggests it is an activity that has similarities with action research and with those forms of action learning where teams address collective…

  18. Optimization of vibratory welding process parameters using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, S. Deepak; Patel, D.; Prasad, S. B. [National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand (India)

    2017-05-15

    The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of vibratory welding technique on mechanical properties of 6 mm thick butt welded mild steel plates. A new concept of vibratory welding technique has been designed and developed which is capable to transfer vibrations, having resonance frequency of 300 Hz, into the molten weld pool before it solidifies during the Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. The important process parameters of vibratory welding technique namely welding current, welding speed and frequency of the vibrations induced in molten weld pool were optimized using Taguchi’s analysis and Response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters on tensile strength and hardness were evaluated using optimization techniques. Applying RSM, the effect of vibratory welding parameters on tensile strength and hardness were obtained through two separate regression equations. Results showed that, the most influencing factor for the desired tensile strength and hardness is frequency at its resonance value, i.e. 300 Hz. The micro-hardness and microstructures of the vibratory welded joints were studied in detail and compared with those of conventional SMAW joints. Comparatively, uniform and fine grain structure has been found in vibratory welded joints.

  19. Improving Care Teams' Functioning: Recommendations from Team Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Kevin; Mauksch, Larry; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Team science has been applied to many sectors including health care. Yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the application of team science to developing and sustaining primary care teams. Application of team science to primary care requires adaptation of core team elements to different types of primary care teams. Six elements of teams are particularly relevant to primary care: practice conditions that support or hinder effective teamwork; team cognition, including shared understanding of team goals, roles, and how members will work together as a team; leadership and coaching, including mutual feedback among members that promotes teamwork and moves the team closer to achieving its goals; cooperation supported by an emotionally safe climate that supports expression and resolution of conflict and builds team trust and cohesion; coordination, including adoption of processes that optimize efficient performance of interdependent activities among team members; and communication, particularly regular, recursive team cycles involving planning, action, and debriefing. These six core elements are adapted to three prototypical primary care teams: teamlets, health coaching, and complex care coordination. Implementation of effective team-based models in primary care requires adaptation of core team science elements coupled with relevant, practical training and organizational support, including adequate time to train, plan, and debrief. Training should be based on assessment of needs and tasks and the use of simulations and feedback, and it should extend to live action. Teamlets represent a potential launch point for team development and diffusion of teamwork principles within primary care practices. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Radiotracers to Study Surface Water Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This publication represents a sound knowledge base for the conduct of radiotracer studies in the environment, with papers on radiotracer methodology, radiation protection and regulation, data analysis and modelling. Environmental case histories from five Member States - Australia, Brazil, France, the Republic of Korea and Sweden - provide information on conducting studies involving he use of radioactive tracers. These case histories are not meant as guidelines for preparing a field study but can rather serve as examples of the type, caution and extent of work involved in environmental studies using radiotracers. This publication can provide guidance for conducting potential future training events in the use of radioactive traces in the environment and can serve as a key reference to all concerned directly with surface water processes

  1. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacek, V.

    2014-12-01

    The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

  2. A Business Process Analysis of the Surface Navys Depot Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    a. USS Boxer (LHD-4) ..........................................................46 b. USS Harper’s Ferry (LSD-49...regularly provides. They have graciously provided that data for analysis of the process. Members of the contracting team for the USS Boxer (BXR) and USS...Stream and their process performance. a. USS Boxer (LHD-4) BXR is a large Amphibious Landing Helicopter Dock and her availability was large in

  3. Use of evidence in the process of practice change in a clinical team: a study-forming part of the Autocontrol Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V; Kushniruk, A; Gauthier, S; Richard, Y; Deland, E; Veilleux, M; Grant, A

    1998-01-01

    The Autocontrol Project is concerned with the accessing, processing and communication of high quality information so that a clinical team can make and implement decisions for practice change, and then evaluate if improvement has been achieved. High quality information is used as evidence for change. In this study, we have evaluated how evidence is used by a clinical team to explain an identified problem of inappropriate use of blood gas tests. In an experimental study of the Surgical Intensive Care Unit, video recordings of team meetings of nurses and doctors were undertaken, structured according to a problem-based format. Evidence of current practice patterns derived from the hospital information system, as well as the results of a questionnaire to the unit's staff about knowledge and use of blood gas measurements, were supplied to the participants beforehand. At the second meeting, the output of the first meetings and a summarised analysis of pertinent literature were made available. This second meeting was required to finalise the list of causes of inappropriate blood gas use and propose pragmatic strategies for practice change. The video data of the meetings were coded to analyse the use of evidence, the categories of causes, issues and solutions proposed, and the quality of team interaction. The results indicate that in order to achieve consensus, the team used different types of evidence, including objective evidence of practice patterns, personal experience about direct and indirect organisational influences, and literature-based research evidence of best practice. Furthermore, group dynamics were favoured by the problem-based meeting structure, and a high level of cognitive critiquing between team members was observed. This research suggests that a combination of approaches involving identification of both operational factors (e.g. appropriate access to different types of evidence and meeting structure) and cognitive and behavioural approaches (e

  4. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  5. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  6. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team.

  7. Team Building

    OpenAIRE

    Galan, Adriana; Scintee, Silvia-Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    Because there are no pure formal or informal organisations in real world, one may conclude that an organisation is a mix of formal and informal groups. Thus, its performance depends on the management ability to recognise the existence of these groups, to transform them from groups into working teams, to motivate and stimulate them to achieve organisation’s goals. We must differentiate the concept of group versus the concept of team. A simple definition of the group can be: two or more persons...

  8. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2013-01-01

    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  9. TEAM ORGANISERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena

    2004-01-01

    organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...

  10. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vione, D.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter pollutants to be assessed and modelled. For instance, it is possible to predict pollutant half-life times by knowing absorption spectrum, direct photolysis quantum yield and reaction rate constants with °OH, CO3

  11. The TOPOMOD-ITN project: unravel the origin of Earth's topography from modelling deep-surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.

    2012-04-01

    EC-Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN) projects aim to improve the career perspectives of young generations of researchers. Institutions from both academic and industry sectors form a collaborative network to recruit research fellows and provide them with opportunities to undertake research in the context of a joint research training program. In this frame, TOPOMOD - one of the training activities of EPOS, the new-born European Research Infrastructure for Geosciences - is a funded ITN project designed to investigate and model how surface processes interact with crustal tectonics and mantle convection to originate and develop topography of the continents over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The multi-disciplinary approach combines geophysics, geochemistry, tectonics and structural geology with advanced geodynamic numerical/analog modelling. TOPOMOD involves 8 European research teams internationally recognized for their excellence in complementary fields of Earth Sciences (Roma TRE, Utrecht, GFZ, ETH, Cambridge, Durham, Rennes, Barcelona), to which are associated 5 research institutions (CNR-Italy, Univ. Parma, Univ. Lausanne, Univ. Montpellier, Univ. Mainz) , 3 high-technology enterprises (Malvern Instruments, TNO, G.O. Logical Consulting) and 1 large multinational oil and gas company (ENI). This unique network places emphasis in experience-based training increasing the impact and international visibility of European research in modeling. Long-term collaboration and synergy are established among the overmentioned research teams through 15 cross-disciplinary research projects that combine case studies in well-chosen target areas from the Mediterranean, the Middle and Far East, west Africa, and South America, with new developments in structural geology, geomorphology, seismology, geochemistry, InSAR, laboratory and numerical modelling of geological processes from the deep mantle to the surface. These multidisciplinary projects altogether aim to

  12. Team learning and effectiveness in virtual project teams: the role of beliefs about interpersonal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aída; Sánchez-Manzanares, Miriam; Gil, Francisco; Rico, Ramón

    2010-05-01

    There has been increasing interest in team learning processes in recent years. Researchers have investigated the impact of team learning on team effectiveness and analyzed the enabling conditions for the process, but team learning in virtual teams has been largely ignored. This study examined the relationship between team learning and effectiveness in virtual teams, as well as the role of team beliefs about interpersonal context. Data from 48 teams performing a virtual consulting project over 4 weeks indicate a mediating effect of team learning on the relationship between beliefs about the interpersonal context (psychological safety, task interdependence) and team effectiveness (satisfaction, viability). These findings suggest the importance of team learning for developing effective virtual teams.

  13. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S.; Mohamed, Heba A.; Kandile, Nadia G.; Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. · The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. · The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass -1 ) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion protection for carbon steel and compete the

  14. Team designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    more attention to the underlying models, information management and shared goals. Simple machine understanding and obvious goals are not suitable to explain present states or how to reach a better state` (1). `Design is a universal method in the Age of Information` (2). Education of interdisciplinary...... in relation to a design-engineering education at Aalborg University. It will exemplify how the model has been used in workshops on team designing, challenged design learning and affected design competence. In specific it will investigate the influence of visual models of the perception of design, design...... thinking and communication in design. Trying to answer the question: How can visual system models facilitate learning in design thinking and team designing?...

  15. The team halo effect: why teams are not blamed for their failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naquin, Charles E; Tynan, Renee O

    2003-04-01

    In this study, the existence of the team halo effect, the phenomenon that teams tend not to be blamed for their failures, is documented. With 2 studies using both real teams and controlled scenarios, the authors found evidence that the nature of the causal attribution processes used to diagnose failure scenarios leads to individuals being more likely to be identified as the cause of team failure than the team as a collective. Team schema development, as indexed by team experience, influences this effect, with individuals who have more team experience being less likely to show the team halo effect

  16. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  17. Virtual team collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Ngwenyama, Ojelanki

    2009-01-01

    as the foundation for building shared meaning at three levels. Also we investigate communication breakdowns that can be attributed to differences in lifeworld structures, organizational structures, and work process structures within a virtual team. We find that all communication breakdowns are manifested...... and experienced by the participants at the work process level; however, resolving breakdowns may require critical reflection at other levels. Where previous research argues that face-to-face interaction is an important variable for virtual team performance, our empirical observations reveal that communication......Managing international teams with geographically distributed participants is a complex task. The risk of communication breakdowns increases due to cultural and organizational differences grounded in the geographical distribution of the participants. Such breakdowns indicate general...

  18. Team responsibility structure and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Hootegem, G. van; Huys, R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose is to analyse the impact of team responsibility (the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members) on team performance. It bases an analysis on 36 case studies in The Netherlands which are known to have implemented team-based work. The case studies were executed

  19. Team Work Engagement: Considering Team Dynamics for Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia L. Costa; Ana Passos; Arnold B. Bakker

    2012-01-01

    Although teams are an important structure of organizations, most studies on work engagement focus almost exclusively the individual-level. The main goals of this paper are to argue that the construct of work engagement can be conceptualized at the team level and to discuss theoretically some of its possible emergence processes. A conceptual model that explains under which conditions team work engagement is more likely to emerge is developed. This model is developed based on the literature on ...

  20. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City (Egypt); Mohamed, Heba A., E-mail: hebaamohamed@gmail.com [National Research Center, Dokki (Egypt); Kandile, Nadia G. [University College for Girls, Ain Shams University (Egypt); Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City (Egypt)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {center_dot} Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass{sup -1} irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. {center_dot} The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. {center_dot} The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass{sup -1}) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass{sup -1} irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion

  1. Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftosmis, Michael J [San Mateo, CA; Melton, John E [Hollister, CA; Berger, Marsha J [New York, NY

    2002-09-03

    Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.

  2. Microstructural and hardness gradients in Cu processed by high pressure surface rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Q. Y.; Zhu, X.-M.; Mei, Q. S.

    2017-01-01

    The surface of an annealed Cu plate was processed by a high pressure surface rolling (HPSR) process. It is found that the deformed surface layer in the Cu plate after HPSR can be as thick as 2 mm and is characterized by a gradient microstructure, with grain sizes varying from the nanoscale...

  3. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  4. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  5. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  6. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  7. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall...

  8. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  9. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  10. Leading virtual teams: hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Julia E; Kozlowski, Steve W J

    2014-05-01

    Using a field sample of 101 virtual teams, this research empirically evaluates the impact of traditional hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership on team performance. Building on Bell and Kozlowski's (2002) work, we expected structural supports and shared team leadership to be more, and hierarchical leadership to be less, strongly related to team performance when teams were more virtual in nature. As predicted, results from moderation analyses indicated that the extent to which teams were more virtual attenuated relations between hierarchical leadership and team performance but strengthened relations for structural supports and team performance. However, shared team leadership was significantly related to team performance regardless of the degree of virtuality. Results are discussed in terms of needed research extensions for understanding leadership processes in virtual teams and practical implications for leading virtual teams. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    holes need different processing techniques. Conventional finishing methods used so far become almost impossible or cumbersome. In this paper, a nano material especially multi wall carbon nano tube is used in the machining process like ...

  12. Lunar rock surfaces as detectors of solar processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.B.; Hunter College, New York, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lunar rock surfaces exposed at or just below the lunar surface are considered as detectors of the solar wind, solar flares and solar-derived magnetic fields through their interactions with galactic cosmic rays. The degradation of the solar detector capabilities of lunar surface rocks by meteoroid impact erosion, accreta deposition, loose dust, and sputtering, amorphous layer formation and accelerated diffusion due to solar particles and illumination is discussed, and it is noted that the complex interactions of factors affecting the outer micron of exposed surface material has so far prevented the development of a satisfactory model for a particle detector on the submicron scale. Methods for the determination of surface exposure ages based on the accumulation of light solar wind noble gases, Fe and Mg, impact craters, solar flare tracks, and cosmogenic Kr isotopes are examined, and the systematic variations in the ages determined by the various clocks are discussed. It is concluded that a means of obtaining satisfactory quantitative rate or flux data has not yet been established

  13. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate......-process determination of the process endpoint. This makes it possible to reliably determine the right time for changing the polishing media to finer abrasive when applying a given set of parameters is no longer effective to create a smoother surface, thus improving the efficiency of the process. The findings enabling...

  14. The Motivated Project Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Financial incentives that match level of achievement • Regular, constructive feedback. Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham H. Maslow ) Team members can be...can increase job satisfaction : • Challenging assignments • Increased responsibility • The possibility of achievement, advancement, personal...and working conditions do not always foster motivation; however, not providing them can create job dissatisfaction. Process Theories of Motivation

  15. Process chain for fabrication of anisotropic optical functional surfaces on polymer components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Zhang, Yang; Regi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce a process chain for fabrication of anisotropic optical functional surfaces on polymer products. Thesurface features under investigation are composed of micro serrated ridges. The scope was to maximize the visible contrast betweenhorizontally orthogonal textured surfaces...

  16. Challenges and potential improvements in the admission process of patients with spinal cord injury in a specialized rehabilitation clinic - an interview based qualitative study of an interdisciplinary team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Fabian; Boes, Stefan; Rubinelli, Sara; Schmitt, Klaus; Scheel-Sailer, Anke

    2017-06-26

    The admission process of patients to a hospital is the starting point for inpatient services. In order to optimize the quality of the health services provision, one needs a good understanding of the patient admission workflow in a clinic. The aim of this study was to identify challenges and potential improvements in the admission process of spinal cord injury patients at a specialized rehabilitation clinic from the perspective of an interdisciplinary team of health professionals. Semi-structured interviews with eight health professionals (medical doctors, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses) at the Swiss Paraplegic Centre (acute and rehabilitation clinic) were conducted based on a maximum variety purposive sampling strategy. The interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. The interviewees described the challenges and potential improvements in this admission process, focusing on five themes. First, the characteristics of the patient with his/her health condition and personality and his/her family influence different areas in the admission process. Improvements in the exchange of information between the hospital and the patient could speed up and simplify the admission process. In addition, challenges and potential improvements were found concerning the rehabilitation planning, the organization of the admission process and the interdisciplinary work. This study identified five themes of challenges and potential improvements in the admission process of spinal cord injury patients at a specialized rehabilitation clinic. When planning adaptations of process steps in one of the areas, awareness of effects in other fields is necessary. Improved pre-admission information would be a first important step to optimize the admission process. A common IT-system providing an interdisciplinary overview and possibilities for interdisciplinary exchange would support the management of the admission process. Managers of other hospitals can supplement

  17. Medical emergency team: transitioning from an external response team to an internal response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Elizabeth A; Prestwich, Suzanne; Swearingen, Tami

    2014-01-01

    To outline the process and thoroughly discuss the methods used to transition from an external rapid response team to an internal rapid response team. The medical complexities of the patient population at Kennedy Krieger Institute, coupled with a retrospective data review of past "code calls," revealed a rapid response team was essential. The anticipated loss of the current external rapid response team indicated that an alternative solution would need to be designed. Over a 2-year period, an internal medical response team was developed and implemented to address the potential medical emergency needs of our acute care rehabilitation patients. The outcome from all "code calls" since the implementation of the internal rapid response team has been markedly positive. Comprehensive planning involving many team members, detailed communication with external resources, and extensive education resulted in a seamless transition from an external rapid response team to an internal response team. Freestanding rehabilitation centers do not have the in-house rapid response team resources that an acute care hospital utilizes to address potential medical emergencies. The development and implementation of an internal rapid response team can meet these needs. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  18. The surface treatment lab team. From left to right : J Carosone, M Malabaila, JP Malivert (front row), M Thiebert and A Lasserre (back row)

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The surface treatment lab covers common metals with rarer ones through a process called electroplating. When electroplating is done, the piece of equipment made out of a common metal (like steel) is submerged in a solution which has the desired rare metal (like gold) dissolved in it. An electric current is then run through the solution to the common metal. The tiny rare metal particles follow the current and stick to the common metal when they reach it. It is then that the plating occcurs. All in all, a relatively simple process, but it can be potentially hazardous.

  19. Effect of finishing process on the surface quality of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka -Tatar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparatory procedures for the material have a significant influence on the surface stereometry of the material. This study investigated the effect of the electropolishing process on the surface quality of metallic prosthetic constructions based on Co-Cr-Mo alloys. It has been found that the process of electropolishing prevents to excessive development of the surface of a material and consequently improves surface quality.

  20. Science Application Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the science application team activities. Science Application team are: (1) Represent the diversity of NASA onboard computing of the future. (2) Drive architecture and system software requirements. (3) Demonstrate the benefit of highly capable computing onboard. (4) Study the birth of the first galaxies. (5) Study formation of stars. (6) Discusses the next generation space telescope hardware/software requirement: image processing and on-board optical calibration. Also discusses gamma ray large area space telescope; orbital thermal imaging spectrometer; solar terrestrial probe program; autonomous Mars rover;fault tolerance and errors.

  1. An international peer review of the programme for evaluating sites for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Lithuania. Report of the IAEA International Review Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Lithuania's national Radioactive Waste Management Agency (RATA) is mandated by national legislation to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste arising mainly from the operation and decommissioning of the Ignalina nuclear power plant. A key step in the process of obtaining a disposal solution is to identify potential sites for detailed consideration. The RATA has completed this first step and is now directing a programme for detailed investigation of these sites. In this context, the RATA requested that the IAEA, on the basis of its statutory mandate to establish safety standards and provide for their application, conduct a peer review of the safety of the proposed disposal concept. The objective of the peer review, carried out in December 2005, was to provide an independent assessment of the safety related aspects of the sites under consideration on the basis of international safety standards and applicable national standards. The review also considered the feasibility of the proposed reference design and its suitability for the local conditions. The peer review provides an independent opinion as to whether the RATA's siting and site characterization programme is consistent with international standards and agrees with good practice in other national disposal programmes. Peer reviews are increasingly being acknowledged as an important component in building broader stakeholder confidence in the safety of facilities. For this reason, an increase in their number and frequency is anticipated. The coming into force of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management has also focused attention on the demonstration of the safety of waste management facilities. This report presents the consensus view of the international group of experts convened by the IAEA to carry out the review. The findings and recommendations of the Review Team were grouped under six topics considered to be of fundamental importance

  2. Automated solar cell assembly teamed process research. Semiannual subcontract report, 7 January 1993--30 June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M.J.; Hogan, S.J.; Darkazalli, G.; Breen, W.F.; Murach, J.M.; Sutherland, S.F. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report describes work done under Phase 3A of the PVMaT project to address problems that are generic to the photovoltaics (PV) industry. Crystalline silicon solar cells were used in the majority of all terrestrial power modules shipped in 1992. Spire`s analysis in Phase 1 of the PVMaT project indicated that the use of thin ({le}200-{mu}m) silicon cells can substantially reduce module manufacturing costs, provided that processing yields remain as high as they are now for processing standard thickness cells. Because present solar cell tabbing and interconnecting processes have unacceptably high yield losses with such thin cells, the objective of this Phase 3A subcontract is to use Spire`s light soldering technology and experience in designing and fabricating solar cell tabbing and interconnecting equipment to develop high yield throughput, fully automated processes for tabbing and interconnecting thin cells.

  3. Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, M.; Johansen, C.

    2001-01-01

    of bacteria on the surface must be quantified to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on adhesion and biofilm formation. We used a combination of fluorescence microscopy (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and in situ hybridization, for mixed-culture studies), ultrasonic removal of bacteria...

  4. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano surface finish has become an important parameter in the semiconductor, optical, electrical and mechanical industries. The materials used in these industries are classified as difficult to machine materials such as ceramics, glasses and silicon wafers. Machining of these materials up to nano accuracy is a great ...

  5. Shared-Knowledge and Team Performance: A Cognitive Engineering Approach to Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooke, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    ... on team cognition and its relation to team performance. Team cognition can be viewed as the collective cognition of the individual team members as processed by team behaviors such as communication and coordination...

  6. Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

  7. Analysis and research on curved surface's prototyping error based on FDM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. D.; Zhang, Y. C.; Yang, T. B.; Wang, W. S.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis and research methods on curved surface's prototyping error with FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) process are introduced in this paper, then the experiment result of curved surface's prototyping error is analyzed, and the integrity of point cloud information and the fitting method of curved surface prototyping are discussed as well as the influence on curved surface's prototyping error with different software. Finally, the qualitative and quantitative conclusions on curved surface's prototyping error are acquired in this paper.

  8. Advanced practice nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ritchie, Judith A; Lamothe, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an extensive review of the organizational and health care literature of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Teams have a long history in health care. Managers play an important role in mobilizing resources, guiding expectations of APN roles in teams and within organizations, and facilitating team process. Researchers have identified a number of advantages to the addition of APN roles in health care teams. The process within health care teams are dynamic and responsive to their surrounding environment. It appears that teams and perceptions of team effectiveness need to be understood in the broader context in which the teams are situated. Key team process are identified for team members to perceive their team as effective. The concepts of teamwork, perceptions of team effectiveness, and the introduction of APN roles in teams have been studied disparately. An exploration of the links between these concepts may further our understanding the health care team's perceptions of team effectiveness when APN roles are introduced. Such knowledge could contribute to the effective deployment of APN roles in health care teams and improve the delivery of health care services to patients and families.

  9. Science and Team Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Cole

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a new idea about the future development of science and teams, and predicts its possible applications in science, education, workforce development and research. The inter-relatedness of science and teamwork developments suggests a growing importance of team facilitators’ quality, as well as the criticality of detailed studies of teamwork processes and team consortiums to address the increasing complexity of exponential knowledge growth and work interdependency. In the future, it will become much easier to produce a highly specialised workforce, such as brain surgeons or genome engineers, than to identify, educate and develop individuals capable of the delicate and complex work of multi-team facilitation. Such individuals will become the new scientists of the millennium, having extraordinary knowledge in variety of scientific fields, unusual mix of abilities, possessing highly developed interpersonal and teamwork skills, and visionary ideas in illuminating bold strategies for new scientific discoveries. The new scientists of the millennium, through team consortium facilitation, will be able to build bridges between the multitude of diverse and extremely specialised knowledge and interdependent functions to improve systems for the further benefit of mankind.

  10. Does enrollment in multidisciplinary team-based primary care practice improve adherence to guideline-recommended processes of care? Quebec's Family Medicine Groups, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Fiset-Laniel, Julie; Provost, Sylvie; Tousignant, Pierre; Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Ouimet, Marie-Jo; Latimer, Eric; Strumpf, Erin

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether multidisciplinary team-based primary care practice improves adherence to process of care guidelines, in the absence of financial incentives related to pay-for-performance. We conducted a natural experiment including 135,119 patients, enrolled with a general practitioner (GP) in a multidisciplinary team Family Medicine Group (FMG) or non-FMG practice, using longitudinal data from Quebec's universal insurer over the relevant time period (2000-2010). All study subjects had diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or heart failure and were followed over a 7-year period, 2 years prior to enrollment and 5 years after. We constructed indicators on adherence to disease-specific guidelines and composite indicators across conditions. We evaluated the effect of FMGs using propensity score methods and Difference-in-Differences (DD) models. Rates of adherence to chronic disease guidelines increased for both FMG and non-FMG patients after enrollment, but not differentially so. Adherence to prescription-related guidelines improved less for FMG patients (DD [95% CI]=-2.83% [-4.08%, -1.58%]). We found no evidence of an FMG effect on adherence to consultation-related guidelines, (DD [95% CI]=-0.24% [-2.24%; 1.75%]). We found no evidence that FMGs increased adherence to the guidelines we evaluated. Future research is needed to assess why this reform did not improve performance on these quality-of-care indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prospects of DLC coating as environment friendly surface treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Kim, S G

    2011-06-01

    After first commercialization in 90's, the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been significantly expanded to tool, automobile parts, machineries and moulds to enhance wear and friction properties. Although DLC has many advantages like high hardness, low friction electrical insulating and chemical stability and has the possible market, its application in the field is still very limited due to the gaps of understanding between end-user and developer of its advantage of costing. Recently, one of the most popular issues in the surface modification is providing the long lasting super-hydrophilic or -hydrophobic properties on the material surface for the outdoor usage. A lot of material loss is caused due to water corrosion which has to do with the flow and contacts of water like fuel cell separator and air conditioner parts. The consequence of development of functional surface based on the hydrophilic or hydrophobic design for the important parts would be really helpful for materials to be cleaner and more energy effective. Here, we first reviewed the DLC technology and then examined the kind of surface modification as well as its merits and disadvantage. We also looked at how we can improve super-hydrophilic and super hydrophobic for the DLC coating layer as well as current status of technology and arts of DLC. In the end, we would like to suggest it as one of the environmental friendly industrial technology. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser surface processing with controlled nitrogen-argon concentration levels for regulated surface life time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2018-03-01

    Laser surface modification can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of a material, such as hardness, toughness, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance. Surface nitriding is a widely used thermochemical method of surface modification, in which nitrogen is introduced into a metal or other material at an elevated temperature within a furnace. It is used on parts where there is a need for increased wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. Laser nitriding is a novel method of nitriding where the surface is heated locally by a laser, either in an atmosphere of nitrogen or with a jet of nitrogen delivered to the laser heated site. It combines the benefits of laser modification with those of nitriding. Recent work on high toughness tool steel samples has shown promising results due to the increased nitrogen gas impingement onto the laser heated region. Increased surface activity and nitrogen adsorption was achieved which resulted in a deeper and harder surface compared to conventional hardening methods. In this work, the effects of the laser power, pulse repetition frequency, and overlap percentage on laser surface treatment of 316 L SST steel samples with an argon-nitrogen jet will be presented. Resulting microstructure, phase type, microhardness, and wear resistance are presented.

  13. Team performance: Pitfalls and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.R.; Eckert, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Team building is often used as a focal point and process for improving performance. In many cases these efforts are successful in achieving the desired goals and the team building is confirmed as an effective approach. The authors have been involved in a number of successful, and some unsuccessful, efforts. This paper is concerned primarily with those cases where a team approach did not achieve the desired improvement. These experiences offer an opportunity to better understand the conditions under which team building works and to identify how a complete assessment of the prevailing conditions can provide corrections to improve the probability of success

  14. Thin film surface processing by ultrashort laser pulses (USLP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorticati, D.; Skolski, J. Z. P.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.; Workum, M.; Theelen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, we studied the feasibility of surface texturing of thin molybdenum layers on a borosilicate glass substrate with Ultra-Short Laser Pulses (USLP). Large areas of regular diffraction gratings were produced consisting of Laserinduced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A short pulsed laser source (230 fs-10 ps) was applied using a focused Gaussian beam profile (15-30 μm). Laser parameters such as fluence, overlap (OL) and Overscans (OS), repetition frequency (100-200 kHz), wavelength (1030 nm, 515 nm and 343 nm) and polarization were varied to study the effect on periodicity, height and especially regularity of LIPSS obtained in layers of different thicknesses (150-400 nm). The aim was to produce these structures without cracking the metal layer and with as little ablation as possible. It was found that USLP are suitable to reach high power densities at the surface of the thin layers, avoiding mechanical stresses, cracking and delamination. A possible photovoltaic (PV) application could be found in texturing of thin film cells to enhance light trapping mechanisms.

  15. Illusions of team working in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael A; Lyubovnikova, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity and value of teams in healthcare are well acknowledged. However, in practice, healthcare teams vary dramatically in their structures and effectiveness in ways that can damage team processes and patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to highlight these characteristics and to extrapolate several important aspects of teamwork that have a powerful impact on team effectiveness across healthcare contexts. The paper draws upon the literature from health services management and organisational behaviour to provide an overview of the current science of healthcare teams. Underpinned by the input-process-output framework of team effectiveness, team composition, team task, and organisational support are viewed as critical inputs that influence key team processes including team objectives, leadership and reflexivity, which in turn impact staff and patient outcomes. Team training interventions and care pathways can facilitate more effective interdisciplinary teamwork. The paper argues that the prevalence of the term "team" in healthcare makes the synthesis and advancement of the scientific understanding of healthcare teams a challenge. Future research therefore needs to better define the fundamental characteristics of teams in studies in order to ensure that findings based on real teams, rather than pseudo-like groups, are accumulated.

  16. Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucciardi Enza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that delivery of diabetes self-management support by diabetes educators in primary care may improve patient care processes and patient clinical outcomes; however, the evaluation of such a model in primary care is nonexistent in Canada. This article describes the design for the evaluation of the implementation of Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs in primary care settings in Canada. Methods/design This study will use a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial stepped wedge design to evaluate the Mobile Diabetes Education Teams' intervention in improving patient clinical and care process outcomes. A total of 1,200 patient charts at participating primary care sites will be reviewed for data extraction. Eligible patients will be those aged ≥18, who have type 2 diabetes and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c of ≥8%. Clusters (that is, primary care sites will be randomized to the intervention and control group using a block randomization procedure within practice size as the blocking factor. A stepped wedge design will be used to sequentially roll out the intervention so that all clusters eventually receive the intervention. The time at which each cluster begins the intervention is randomized to one of the four roll out periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 months. Clusters that are randomized into the intervention later will act as the control for those receiving the intervention earlier. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended HbA1c target of ≤7% between intervention and control groups. Qualitative work (in-depth interviews with primary care physicians, MDET educators and patients; and MDET educators’ field notes and debriefing sessions will be undertaken to assess the implementation process and effectiveness of the MDET intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553266

  17. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    . To look at how knowledge about virtual work is established in a multinational context, we interviewed members of a team that connects Finland and India. Results reveal five objects shared between the team members with varying knowledge about them. By making these differences in knowledge visible through......How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from...... contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective...

  18. Survey compare team based learning and lecture teaching method, on learning-teaching process nursing student\\'s, in Surgical and Internal Diseases course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vaezi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of teaching methods on learning process of students will help teachers to improve the quality of teaching by selecting an appropriate method. This study aimed to compare the team- based learning and lecture teaching method on learning-teaching process of nursing students in surgical and internal diseases courses. Method: This quasi-experimental study was carried on the nursing students in the School of Nursing and Midwifery in Yazd and Meybod cities. Studied sample was all of the students in the sixth term in the Faculty of Nursing in Yazd (48 persons and the Faculty of Nursing in Meybod (28 persons. The rate of students' learning through lecture was measured using MCQ tests and teaching based on team-based learning (TBL method was run using MCQ tests (IRAT, GRAT, Appeals and Task group. Therefore, in order to examine the students' satisfaction about the TBL method, a 5-point Likert scale (translated questionnaire (1=completely disagree, 2= disagree, 3=not effective, 4=agree, and 5=completely agree consisted of 22 items was utilized. The reliability and validity of this translated questionnaire was measured. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 17.0 using descriptive and analytical statistic. Result: The results showed that the mean scores in team-based learning were meaningful in individual assessment (17±84 and assessment group (17.2±1.17. The mean of overall scores in TBL method (17.84±0.98% was higher compared with the lecture teaching method (16±2.31. Most of the students believed that TBL method has improved their interpersonal and group interaction skills (100%. Among them, 97.7% of students mentioned that this method (TBL helped them to understand the course content better. The lowest levels of the satisfaction have related to the continuous learning during lifelong (51.2%. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the TBL method led to improving the communication skills, understanding

  19. Facile preparation of self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 surface by electrochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Hiraga, Takuya; Zhu, Chunyu; Tsuji, Etsushi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2017-11-01

    Herein we report simple electrochemical processes to fabricate a self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 coating on Type 304 stainless steel. The CeO2 surface anodically deposited on flat stainless steel surface is hydrophilic, although high temperature-sintered and sputter-deposited CeO2 surface was reported to be hydrophobic. The anodically deposited hydrophilic CeO2 surface is transformed to hydrophobic during air exposure. Specific accumulation of contaminant hydrocarbon on the CeO2 surface is responsible for the transformation to hydrophobic state. The deposition of CeO2 on hierarchically rough stainless steel surface produces superhydrophobic CeO2 surface, which also shows self-healing ability; the surface changes to superhydrophilic after oxygen plasma treatment but superhydrophobic state is recovered repeatedly by air exposure. This work provides a facile method for preparing a self-healing superhydrophobic surface using practical electrochemical processes.

  20. Improvement in Surface Characterisitcs of Polymers for Subsequent Electroless Plating Using Liquid Assisted Laser Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    Metallization of polymers is a widely used process in the electronic industry that involves their surface modification as a pre-treatment step. Laser-based surface modification is one of the commonly used techniques for polymers due to its speed and precision. The process involves laser heating...... of the polymer surface to generate a rough or porous surface. Laser processing in liquid generates superior surface characteristics that result in better metal deposition. In this study, a comparison of the surface characteristics obtained by laser processing in water vis-à-vis air along with the deposition...... characteristics are presented. In addition, a numerical model based on the finite volume method is developed to predict the temperature profile during the process. Based on the model results, it is hypothesized that physical phenomena such as vapor bubble generation and plasma formation may occur in the presence...

  1. Interactions in New Product Development: how the nature of the NPD process influences interaction between teams and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felekoglu, Burcu; Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James

    2013-01-01

    the formality of the NPD process influences the nature of interactions across different organisational boundaries and specifically identifies interaction mechanisms used across hierarchical boundaries. Cross-sectional interviews were conducted in nine firms. Findings highlight that in firms with a formalised......Effective interaction across organisational boundaries is a critical success factor in new product development (NPD). However, few studies have investigated how different mechanisms enable effective interaction across organisational and particularly hierarchical boundaries. This study explores how...

  2. Surface gas-exchange processes of snow algae

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, William E.; Gorton, Holly L.; Vogelmann, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The red-colored chlorophyte Chlamydomonas nivalis is commonly found in summer snowfields. We used a modified Li-Cor gas-exchange system to investigate surface gas-exchange characteristics of snow colonized by this alga, finding rates of CO2 uptake up to 0.3 μmol m−2⋅s−1 in dense algal blooms. Experiments varying the irradiance resulted in light curves that resembled those of the leaves of higher plants. Red light was more effective than white and much more effective than green or blue, becaus...

  3. Stochastic Modeling and Deterministic Limit of Catalytic Surface Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Reichert, Christian; Eiswirth, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Three levels of modeling, microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic are discussed for the CO oxidation on low-index platinum single crystal surfaces. The introduced models on the microscopic and mesoscopic level are stochastic while the model on the macroscopic level is deterministic. It can......, such that in contrast to the microscopic model the spatial resolution is reduced. The derivation of deterministic limit equations is in correspondence with the successful description of experiments under low-pressure conditions by deterministic reaction-diffusion equations while for intermediate pressures phenomena...

  4. Statistical and signal processing concepts in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors

  5. Overcoming asymmetric goals in teams: the interactive roles of team learning orientation and team identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Venkataramani, Vijaya

    2015-05-01

    Although members of teams share a common, ultimate objective, they often have asymmetric or conflicting individual goals that shape the way they contribute to, and pursue, the shared goal of the team. Compounding this problem, they are frequently unaware of the nature of these goal asymmetries or even the fact that such differences exist. Drawing on, and integrating, social interdependence and representational gaps theories, we identify 2 emergent states that combine interactively to enable teams to overcome asymmetric goals: team identification and team learning orientation. Using data from long-term, real-life teams that engaged in a computer simulation designed to create both asymmetric goals and representational gaps about those goals, we found that teams were most effective when they had a high learning orientation coupled with high team identification and that this effect was mediated by teams' ability to form more accurate team goal mental models and engage in effective planning processes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Measuring teamwork performance: Validity testing of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) with clinical resuscitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Connell, Cliff; Sims, Lyndall; Porter, Joanne E; Symmons, Mark; Nestel, Debra; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2016-04-01

    To test the resuscitation non-technical Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) for feasibility, validity and reliability, in two Australian Emergency Departments (ED). Non-technical (teamwork) skills have been identified as inadequate and as such have a significant impact on patient safety. Valid and reliable teamwork assessment tools are an important element of performance assessment and debriefing processes. A quasi experimental design based on observational ratings of resuscitation non-technical skills in two metropolitan ED. Senior nursing staff rated 106 adult resuscitation team events over a ten month period where three or more resuscitation team members attended. Resuscitation events, team performance and validity and reliability data was collected for the TEAM. Most rated events were for full cardiac resuscitation (43%) with 3-15 team members present for an average of 45 min. The TEAM was found to be feasible and quickly completed with minimal or no training. Discriminant validity was good as was internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha of 0.94. Uni-dimensional and concurrent validity also reached acceptable standards, 0.94 and >0.63 (p=teamwork' construct was identified. Non-technical skills overall were good but leadership was rated notably lower than task and teamwork performance indicating a need for leadership training. The TEAM is a feasible, valid and reliable non-technical assessment measure in simulated and real clinical settings. Emergency teams need to develop leadership skills through training and reflective debriefing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  8. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions...

  9. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department of...

  10. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  11. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning June 24, 1996, one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  12. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  13. Team work on international projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayfield, F.

    1983-01-01

    A successful team will result in Project efficiency and so lead to a better achievement of the Project objectives. Such a team will be self-motivating and have a high level of morale. An effective team will also create a better context for transfer of know-how and so better prepare its members for greater roles on future Project teams. The nature of Project work forces the process of team building to recognize several facts of life. A Project team can have a life as short as one year and as long as ten years. A team usually consists of people on temporary transfer from different departments yet retaining a link of some sort to their departments of origin. It may consist of members of one company only or of several as in a joint-venture and may include Client personnel. On International Projects, the members of a team may have different nationalities and be working in a language foreign to many of them. Many of the Project people may be expatriates to the Project area on a bachelor or on a married status well away from their head or usual office. Team building is a complex organizational and human process, with no mathematical formula for the ideal solution. It starts with the selection of the right Project Manager who should be a leader, a technocrat manager and an integrator all at the same time. The Project Manager must have the authority to create the organizational and human climate that will motivate to a maximum each member of the team. Each member must understand clearly his role and realize that this contribution to the Project will influence his career development. Loyalty to the Project Manager must be possible and the Departmental Manager has to recognize this necessity. This presentation will indicate the basic steps of a team building process on a typical major international Project

  14. Coronal Structures as Tracers of Sub-Surface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    The corona - a tenuous portion of the solar upper atmosphere - was observed as early as 1063 ... is still open. Considering the possible processes that can affect the appearance of coronal structures, one can divide them into two categories: ones that take place above the ... The hemispheric helicity rule in the solar corona.

  15. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cations of carbon nanotubes, with the aim of drawing attention to useful available information and to enhancing ... of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analysed by .... dimensions, the force loading mechanism, the probe-sample-position control system allow. Figure 3.

  16. Radiation protection in hemodynamics work process: the look of the multidisciplinary team; Protecao radiologica no processo de trabalho em hemodinamica: o olhar da equipe multidisciplinar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Laurete Medeiros; Klauberg, Daniela; Huhn, Andrea; Melo, Juliana Almeida Coelho de, E-mail: laurete@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: danielaklauberg@hotmail.com, E-mail: andrea.huhn@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: julianac@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The study was conducted in a hemodynamics service of a public hospital in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. Qualitative research with the participation of 13 professionals from a multidisciplinary team: doctors, technicians, technologists in radiology and nurses. The research material was extracted from the observations, semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. The responses were grouped into three categories relating to: training of hemodynamic professionals and the perception of radiological protection in the work process; occupational exposure and safety of the professionals of Hemodynamics; and continuing education in hemodynamic service. Professionals are daily exposed to ionizing radiation, and for being long procedures, lead to high levels of exposure in workers. In hemodynamic services the risk of biological effects are cumulative, because radiodiagnostic procedures include issuing the higher doses of ionizing radiation in which the personnel exposure is critical. The workforce in the service researched mostly consists of technical professionals who reported little knowledge of radiation protection and ionizing radiation and that this issue was not addressed during their training. However, despite mention little knowledge about radiological protection, participants demonstrated understand the biological effects, especially with regard to pathologies caused by frequent exposure without protection to ionizing radiation. These professionals said they have no knowledge of the proper use of radiological protection equipment and the dosimeter, and that the institution does not provide all individual protective equipment required for the procedures performed in the hemodynamic service. Permanent education in hemodynamic service is very important part in the work process, though, cited by participants as little effectiveness in the institution, even when the professionals show interest in the area. Knowledge of the team providing hemodynamic service calls

  17. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  18. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  19. Tribological investigations of the applicability of surface functionalization for dry extrusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Marco; Prünte, Stephan; Ross, Ingo; Temmler, André; Schneider, Jochen M.; Hirt, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Cold extrusion processes are characterized by large relative contact stresses combined with a severe surface enlargement of the workpiece. Under these process conditions a high risk for galling of workpiece material to the tool steel occurs especially in processing of aluminum and aluminum alloys. In order to reduce adhesive wear lubricants for separation of workpiece and tool surfaces are used. As a consequence additional process steps (e.g. preparation and cleaning of workpieces) are necessary. Thus, the realization of a dry forming process is aspired from an environmental and economic perspective. In this paper a surface functionalization with self-assembled-monolayers (SAM) of the tool steels AISI D2 (DIN 1.2379) and AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) is evaluated by a process-oriented tribological test. The tribological experiment is able to resemble and scale the process conditions of cold extrusion related to relative contact stress and surface enlargement for the forming of pure aluminum (Al99.5). The effect of reduced relative contact stress, surface enlargement and relative velocity on adhesive wear and tool lifetime is evaluated. Similar process conditions are achievable by different die designs with decreased extrusion ratios and adjusted die angles. The effect of surface functionalization critically depends on the substrate material. The different microstructure and the resulting differences in surface chemistry of the two tested tool steels appear to affect the performance of the tool surface functionalization with SAM.

  20. Recycling and surface erosion processes in contemporary tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, G.M.

    1979-03-01

    A number of global models have recently had considerable success in describing recycling. These are briefly reviewed. It is shown that large gas concentrations can build up in the walls and that these concentrations are seriously affected by erosion and deposition processes and by deliberate gettering with titanium. Finally, the measurement of the concentration of hydrogen in probes is discussed as a means of measuring plasma edge characteristics

  1. Influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainev Dmitriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process and the formation of the quality of the surface machined. This effect has been confirmed by the study results of the combined cutting method with advanced plastic deformation (APD. The work estimates the impact of the change in the surface layer properties on the forces and temperature of cutting, stability of the chip formation and quality parameters of the surface machined.

  2. Effect of different machining processes on the tool surface integrity and fatigue life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chuan Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang (China); Zhang, Xianglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Ultra-precision grinding, wire-cut electro discharge machining and lapping are often used to machine the tools in fine blanking industry. And the surface integrity from these machining processes causes great concerns in the research field. To study the effect of processing surface integrity on the fine blanking tool life, the surface integrity of different tool materials under different processing conditions and its influence on fatigue life were thoroughly analyzed in the present study. The result shows that the surface integrity of different materials was quite different on the same processing condition. For the same tool material, the surface integrity on varying processing conditions was quite different too and deeply influenced the fatigue life.

  3. Microscopic investigation of RF surfaces of 3 GHz niobium accelerator cavities following RF processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Barnes, P.; Flynn, T.; Kirchgessner, J.; Knobloch, J.; Moffat, D.; Muller, H.; Padamsee, H.; Sears, J.

    1993-01-01

    RF processing of Superconducting accelerating cavities is achieved through a change in the electron field emission (FE) characteristics of the RF surface. The authors have examined the RF surfaces of several single-cell 3 GHz cavities, following RF processing, in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The RF processing sessions included both High Peak Power (P ≤ 50 kW) pulsed processing, and low power (≤ 20 W) continuous wave processing. The experimental apparatus also included a thermometer array on the cavity outer wall, allowing temperature maps to characterize the emission before and after RF processing gains. Multiple sites have been located in cavities which showed improvements in cavity behavior due to RF processing. Several SEM-located sites can be correlated with changes in thermometer signals, indicating a direct relationship between the surface site and emission reduction due to RF processing. Information gained from the SEM investigations and thermometry are used to enhance the theoretical model of RF processing

  4. Impact of an ABCDE team triage process combined with public guidance on the division of work in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantonen, Jarmo; Lloyd, Robert; Mattila, Juho; Kauppila, Timo; Menezes, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    To study the effects of applying an emergency department (ED) triage system, combined with extensive publicity in local media about the "right" use of emergency services, on the division of work between ED nurses and general practitioners (GPs). An observational and quasi-experimental study based on before-after comparisons. Implementation of the ABCDE triage system in a Finnish combined ED where secondary care is adjacent, and in a traditional primary care ED where secondary care is located elsewhere. GPs and nurses from two different primary care EDs. Numbers of monthly visits to different professional groups before and after intervention in the studied primary care EDs and numbers of monthly visits to doctors in the local secondary care ED. The beginning of the triage process increased temporarily the number of independent consultations and patient record entries by ED nurses in both types of studied primary care EDs and reduced the number of patient visits to a doctor compared with previous years but had no effect on doctor visits in the adjacent secondary care ED. No further decrease in the number of nurse or GP visits was observed by inhibiting the entrance of non-urgent patients. The ABCDE triage system combined with public guidance may reduce non-urgent patient visits to doctors in different kinds of primary care EDs without increasing visits in the secondary care ED. However, the additional work to implement the ABCDE system is mainly directed to nurses, which may pose a challenge for staffing.

  5. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  6. Delivering Coordinated Cancer Care by Building Transactive Memory in a Team of Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Elizabeth; Silva, Abigail; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Czerlanis, Cheryl; Bernard, Margie; Chauhan, Cynthia; Schalk, Denise; Stewart, Greg

    2016-11-01

    Cancer care delivery is highly complex. Treatment involves coordination within oncology health-care teams and across other teams of referring primary and specialty providers (a team of teams). Each team interfaces with patients and caregivers to offer component parts of comprehensive care. Because patients frequently obtain specialty care from divergent health-care systems resulting in cross-system health-care use, oncology teams need mechanisms to coordinate and collaborate within and across health-care systems to optimize clinical outcomes for all cancer patients. Transactive memory is one potential strategy that can help improve comprehensive patient care delivery. Transactive memory is a process by which two or more team professionals develop a shared system for encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Each professional is responsible for retaining only part of the total information. Applying this concept to a team of teams results in system benefits wherein all teams share an understanding of specialized knowledge held by each component team. The patient's role as the unifying member of the team of teams is central to successful treatment delivery. This clinical case presents a patient who is receiving oral treatment for advanced prostate cancer within two health systems. The case emphasizes the potential for error when multiple teams function without a point team (the team coordinating efforts of all other primary and specialty teams) and when the specialty knowledge of providers and patients is not well integrated into all phases of the care delivery process.

  7. Air/surface exchange processes of mercury and their linkage to atmospheric pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, Enno; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric mercury cycle is strongly linked to the terrestrial, aquatic and biologic cycle of mercury via air/surface exchange processes. In order to quantify mercury fluxes from and to the atmosphere to predict local and regional source contributions the methods for flux measurements as well as the physicochemical factors controlling air/surface exchange processes must be assessed. We will describe methods for the determination of mercury and mercury species in ambient air which are basic for investigation of air/surface exchange processes. Further on we will describe approaches for studying the physicochemical factors controlling this processes by using a new laboratory flux measurement system. (author)

  8. The 2018 Revision of the ISBER Best Practices: Summary of Changes and the Editorial Team's Development Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lori D; Astrin, Jonas J; DeSouza, Yvonne; Giri, Judith; Patel, Ashokkumar A; Rawley-Payne, Melissa; Rush, Amanda; Sieffert, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    An increased need for specimens of reliable and consistent quality for research purposes requires the development of standardized policies and practices for the collection, handling, storage, retrieval, and distribution of specimens and specimen-related data. Providers of specimen resources should strive to incorporate new technologies and state-of-the-science approaches and thus ensure the availability of fit-for-purpose research specimens. Strategies to achieve quality outcomes and performance improvements often include adherence to established standards and implementation of best practices. Although standards represent a rigid set of guidelines that define exactly how a task should be completed, best practices are recommended actions and principles that demonstrate an awareness of standards, solve problems, can be replicated, and work in a given context. Adoption of best practice elements will vary based on the goals and circumstances of a given initiative, and in some instances, may not be possible to implement or may represent an aspirational achievement. In an effort to harmonize the scientific, technical, legal, and ethical issues relevant to repositories of biological and environmental specimens, the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) has released the updated ISBER Best Practices: Recommendations for Repositories (ISBER Best Practices). The document provides a comprehensive tool to guide repository professionals in both managerial and technical aspects such as practical details on repository governance, development, and operation; regulatory compliance; and ethical, legal, and social issues relevant to repositories. This summary describes the process for revising the document and summarizes the new topics, updates, and areas of expansion included in the fourth edition of ISBER Best Practices.

  9. Improvement of Surface Properties of CP-Titanium by Thermo-Chemical Treatment (TCT) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Gyeong; Hur, Bo-Young; Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Yong-Tai; Yaskiv, O.

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-chemical treatment (TCT) process was applied to achieve surface hardening of CP titanium. The following three different surface modification conditions were tested so that the best surface hardening process could be selected:(a) PVD, (b) TCT+PVD, and (c) TCT+Aging+PVD. These specimens were tested and analyzed in terms of surface roughness, wear, friction coefficient, and the gradient of hardening from the surface of the matrix. The three test conditions were all beneficial to improve the surface hardness of CP titanium. Moreover, the TCT treated specimens, that is, (b) and (c), showed significantly improved surface hardness and low friction coefficients through the thickness up to 100um. This is due to the functionally gradient hardened surface improvement by the diffused interstitial elements. The hardened surface also showed improvement in bonding between the PVD and TCT surface, and this leads to improvement in wear resistance. However, TCT after aging treatment did not show much improvement in surface properties compared to TCT only. For the best surface hardening on CP titanium, TCT+PVD has advantages in surface durability and economics.

  10. The Adaptability of Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, data from a longitudinal case study in an organization attempting to adapt its internal work processes to changes in its external context are presented, analyzed and discussed. Specifically, functionally structured work teams in one department of a Danish production facility were...... on the proper alignment between the structuring of the work processes and characteristics of the external context (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967) – it provides a unique opportunity to explore the adaptation process in practice. The paper contributes to the development of contingency theory by lending support...

  11. Optical monitoring of surface processes relevant to thin film growth by chemical vapour deposition Oxidation; Surface degradation

    CERN Document Server

    Simcock, M N

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports on the investigation of the use of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) as an in-situ monitor for the preparation and oxidation of GaAs(100) c(4x4) surfaces using a CVD 2000 MOCVD reactor. These surfaces were oxidised using air. It was found that it was possible to follow surface degradation using RA transients at 2.6eV and 4eV. From this data it was possible to speculate on the nature of the surface oxidation process. A study was performed into the rate of surface degradation under different concentrations of air, it was found that the relation between the air concentration and the surface degradation was complicated but that the behaviour of the first third of the degradation approximated a first order behaviour. An estimation of the activation energy of the process was then made, and an assessment of the potential use of the glove-box for STM studies which is an integral part of the MOCVD equipment was also made. Following this, a description is given of the construction of an inte...

  12. Initiating and utilizing shared leadership in teams: The role of leader humility, team proactive personality, and team performance capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chia-Yen Chad; Owens, Bradley P; Tesluk, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership. Finally, we predict that shared leadership will be most strongly related to team performance when team members have high levels of task-related competence. Using a sample composed of 62 Taiwanese professional work teams, we find support for our proposed hypothesized model. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for team leadership, humility, team composition, and shared leadership are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Do great teams think alike? An examination of team mental models and their impact on team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J; AbdelFattah, Kareem R

    2017-05-01

    Team mental models represent the shared understanding of team members within their relevant environment. Thus, team mental models should have a substantial impact on a team's ability to engage in purposeful and coordinated action. We sought to examine the impact of shared team mental models on team performance and to investigate if team mental models increase over time as teams continue to work together. New surgery interns were assigned randomly to 1 of 10 teams. Each team participated in one unique simulation every day for 5 days, each followed by video-based debriefing with a facilitator. Participants also completed independently a concept similarity tool validated previously in nonmedical team literature to assess team mental models. All performances were video recorded and evaluated with a scenario-specific team performance tool by a single, blinded junior surgeon under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Changes in performance and team mental models over time were assessed with paired samples t tests. Regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which team mental models predicted team performance. Thirty interns (age 27; 77% men) participated in the training program. Percentage of items achieved (x¯ ± SD) on the performance evaluation was 39 ± 20, 51 ± 14, 22 ± 17, 63 ± 14, and 77 ± 25 for Days 1-5, respectively. Team mental models were 30 ± 5, 28 ± 6, 27 ± 8, 26 ± 7, and 25 ± 6 for Days 1-5 respectively, such that larger values corresponded to greater differences in team mental models. Paired sample t tests indicated that both average performance and team mental models similarity improved from the first to last day (P team mental models predicted team performance on Days 2-5 (all P team mental models among the teams leads to better team performance. Additionally, the increase in team mental models over time suggests that engaging in team-based simulation may catalyze the process by which surgery

  14. The theory of development of surface morphology by sputter erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    When a surface is bombarded by an energetic ion flux a rich variety of surface structures are observed to develop at the atomic, microscopic and macroscopic scales. Such structures include elevated, with respect to the surrounding surface, features such as mesas or plateaux, ridges, cones and pyramids and depressed features such as etch pits and cavities. These elementary features may be isolated or in profusion and frequently repetitive patterns of coordinated pyramidal structures, etch pits, surface ledges or facets and ripple or wave-like structures occur. The majority of the features arise rather directly from the erosion action of the sputtering process, particularly from differential erosion processes at different surface localities. The authors outline a general approach to sputter erosion induced surface morphology development based on the concept of the surface as an advancing wave. (Auth.)

  15. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxing; Mao, Jianghua; Chen, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the theoretical and practical implementations of these observations.

  16. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the theoretical and practical implementations of these observations.

  17. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenxing; Mao, Jianghua; Chen, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the th...

  18. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxing; Mao, Jianghua; Chen, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the theoretical and practical implementations of these observations. PMID:28713316

  19. Study of the processes of adsorption of amine-containing surface-active substance on the surface of Aluminum powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Dyuryagina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium characteristics of adsorption on a surface of a pigment depending on concentration factors and temperature of the dispersive environment are defined. Kinetic laws of superficial activity of binary, threefold homogeneous and heterogeneous modeling systems are studied. The estimation of mechanisms of process of adsorption is carried out.

  20. Work team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBE Editorial

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC

  1. The workings of a multicultural research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Pagan-Coss, Harald; Mayorga, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Transcultural nurse researchers are exposed to the challenges of developing and maintaining a multiethnic team. With the example of a multicultural research study of family caregivers conducted in the Miami-Dade area, the authors guide the readers through steps of developing a culturally competent and effective team. Pointing out challenges and successes, the authors illustrate team processes and successful strategies relative to recruitment of qualified members, training and team maintenance, and evaluation of team effectiveness. With relevant concepts from the literature applied to practical examples, the authors demonstrate how cultural team competence grows in a supportive work environment.

  2. The Workings of a Multicultural Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Pagan-Coss, Harald; Mayorga, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Transcultural nurse researchers are exposed to the challenges of developing and maintaining a multiethnic team. With the example of a multicultural research study of family caregivers conducted in the Miami-Dade area, the authors guide the readers through steps of developing a culturally competent and effective team. Design Pointing out challenges and successes, the authors illustrate team processes and successful strategies relative to recruitment of qualified members, training and team maintenance, and evaluation of team effectiveness. Method With relevant concepts from the literature applied to practical examples, the authors demonstrate how cultural team competence grows in a supportive work environment. PMID:18390824

  3. Roles and Responsibilities in Feature Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Jutta

    Agile development requires self-organizing teams. The set-up of a (feature) team has to enable self-organization. Special care has to be taken if the project is not only distributed, but also large and more than one feature team is involved. Every feature team needs in such a setting a product owner who ensures the continuous focus on business delivery. The product owners collaborate by working together in a virtual team. Each feature team is supported by a coach who ensures not only the agile process of the individual feature team but also across all feature teams. An architect (or if necessary a team of architects) takes care that the system is technically sound. Contrariwise to small co-located projects, large global projects require a project manager who deals with—among other things—internal and especially external politics.

  4. Earth Surface Processes and Environmental Changes in Lake-catchment Systems(Earth Surface Processes, Natural Disasters and Historical Environmental Changes)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji, KASHIWAYA; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University

    2012-01-01

    Lake-catchment systems including continuous records of various climatic regimes are discussed for combining earth surface processes with temporal environmental changes. Three types of external forces (climatic, tectonic and anthropogenic), which are printed in lacustrine sediments and drainage landforms, are significant for understanding processes and changes. Present observations on small lake-catchment systems in Japan and past information on large lake-catchment systems in east Eurasia sho...

  5. Community mental health team members' perceptions of team formulation in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Blee, Tinemakomboreroashe A. P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Team formulation is expected to support multidisciplinary team members to work effectively with their clients, meet their clients’ needs and broaden their psychological knowledge. There remains a lack of research evidence regarding the perceptions of team formulation among Community Mental Health Team (CMHT) members. This study addressed the following research questions; (1) what are considered helpful or unhelpful aspects of team formulation? (2) what are the processes or mecha...

  6. Fabricating Super-hydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces by a Simple Filler-Dissolved Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Tsan; Chou, Jung-Hua

    2010-12-01

    The self-cleaning effect of super-hydrophobic surfaces has attracted the attention of researchers. Typical ways of manufacturing super-hydrophobic surfaces include the use of either dedicated equipment or a complex chemical process. In this study, a simple innovative filler-dissolved method is developed using mainly powder salt and rinsing to form hydrophobic surfaces. This method can produce large super-hydrophobic surfaces with porous and micro rib surface structures. It can also be applied to curved surfaces, including flexible membranes. The contact angle of the manufactured artificial hydrophobic surface is about 160°. Furthermore, water droplets roll off the surface readily at a sliding angle of less than 5°, resembling the nonwetting lotus like effect.

  7. Pattern recognition of concrete surface cracks and defects using integrated image processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Hortinela, Carlos C.; Garcia, Ramon G.; Baylon, Sunnycille; Ignacio, Alexander Joshua; Rivera, Marco Antonio; Sebastian, Jaimie

    2017-06-01

    Pattern recognition of concrete surface crack defects is very important in determining stability of structure like building, roads or bridges. Surface crack is one of the subjects in inspection, diagnosis, and maintenance as well as life prediction for the safety of the structures. Traditionally determining defects and cracks on concrete surfaces are done manually by inspection. Moreover, any internal defects on the concrete would require destructive testing for detection. The researchers created an automated surface crack detection for concrete using image processing techniques including Hough transform, LoG weighted, Dilation, Grayscale, Canny Edge Detection and Haar Wavelet Transform. An automatic surface crack detection robot is designed to capture the concrete surface by sectoring method. Surface crack classification was done with the use of Haar trained cascade object detector that uses both positive samples and negative samples which proved that it is possible to effectively identify the surface crack defects.

  8. A Review of Computerized Team Performance Measures to Identify Military-Relevant, Low-to-Medium Fidelity Tests of Small Group Effectiveness during Shared Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Last but not least, we thank Lori St. Onge, Arthur Estrada, Timothy Cho, Catherine Davis, and Dennis Bergstrazer for their detailed and attentive ... Attention / Coordination / Resource Management] A team of three research psychologists (the report authors) reviewed the resulting literature obtained...al. (2005) o. Hierarchical Task Analysis (Teams) ( HTA [T]) (1) Annett, Cunningham, and Mathias-Jones (2000) p. Duo Wondrous Original Method

  9. An interdisciplinary team communication framework and its application to healthcare 'e-teams' systems design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKenzie Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies that examine the processes that interdisciplinary teams engage in and how we can design health information systems (HIS to support those team processes. This was an exploratory study with two purposes: (1 To develop a framework for interdisciplinary team communication based on structures, processes and outcomes that were identified as having occurred during weekly team meetings. (2 To use the framework to guide 'e-teams' HIS design to support interdisciplinary team meeting communication. Methods An ethnographic approach was used to collect data on two interdisciplinary teams. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data according to structures, processes and outcomes. Results We present details for team meta-concepts of structures, processes and outcomes and the concepts and sub concepts within each meta-concept. We also provide an exploratory framework for interdisciplinary team communication and describe how the framework can guide HIS design to support 'e-teams'. Conclusion The structures, processes and outcomes that describe interdisciplinary teams are complex and often occur in a non-linear fashion. Electronic data support, process facilitation and team video conferencing are three HIS tools that can enhance team function.

  10. Emotional Intelligence and Learning in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the potential role of emotional intelligence (EI) abilities within learning in teams. The research focuses on examining how EI abilities are enacted within team contexts and how these are associated with critical reflection and team processes associated with learning. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  11. Team learning: building shared mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, van den P.; Gijselaers, W.; Segers, M.; Woltjer, G.B.; Kirschner, P.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning

  12. Dynamics of Team Reflexivity after Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelica, Catherine; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of work has been generated on feedback in teams and has shown that giving performance feedback to teams is not sufficient to improve performance. To achieve the potential of feedback, it is stated that teams need to proactively process this feedback and thus collectively evaluate their performance and strategies, look for…

  13. Imagery Integration Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  14. Your cancer care team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000929.htm Your cancer care team To use the sharing features on this page, ... help your body heal. Working with Your Care Team Each member of your care team plays an ...

  15. Illusions of team working in health care

    OpenAIRE

    West, Michael A.; Lyubovnikova, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The ubiquity and value of teams in healthcare are well acknowledged. However, in practice, healthcare teams vary dramatically in their structures and effectiveness in ways that can damage team processes and patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to highlight these characteristics and to extrapolate several important aspects of teamwork that have a powerful impact on team effectiveness across healthcare contexts. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws upon the literature fro...

  16. Non destructive evaluation of residual stresses in welding and hard-surfacing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Cruz, C.; Aragon, B.; Merino, F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper transversal and longitudinal stress profiles in welding and hard-surfacing by welding processes are presented. The stresses were measured by RMS of Barkhausen signal. In this work it is shown that in each case the level of stresses is strongly dependent on the number of weld beads of surfacing layers deposited. The subsequent deposition of new weld beads or surfacing layers produces a stress-relieving effect

  17. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  18. Characterization of surface processes on mineral surfaces in aqueous solutions. Annual report for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1993-11-01

    Performance assessments by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are being done investigating the environmental risk related to long-term disposal of hazardous wastes resulting from the use of radioactive materials that must subsequently be isolated from the environment. The YMP site, located in southwestern Nevada, is intended for the storage of high-level wastes generated by nuclear energy-related activities, including spent fuel and waste from reprocessed fuel rods. The work covered by this contract is necessary for producing a defensible model and dataset, and may be critical for evaluation of repository compliance. This work, performed by the Environmental Engineering and Science research group at Stanford University, will quantify the adsorption of uranyl on various minerals. The project's principle objective is to provide sorption coefficients for uranyl and other ions of interest to predict radionuclide movements form the repository to accessible environments. This adsorption data is essential for the unambiguous interpretation of field experiments and observations. In this report, details of the activity and progress made with respect to the study of uranyl adsorption on mineral surfaces is presented and discussed

  19. Experimental determination of void fraction in surface aeration using image processing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadpur, Amir; Akhavan-Behabadi, Mohammad Ali; Ebrahimzaedh, Masoud; Hanafizadeh, Pedram; Raisee, Mehrdad [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a new method for determination of void fraction in surface aeration process is presented and discussed. The proposed method is based on the image processing technique. The experimental setup has been designed to create various surface aeration conditions in the water. Void fraction has been calculated for the wide range of water height, impeller immersion depth and rotational speed. Experiments have been performed in an open cubic tank with side length of 60 cm, equipped with one Rushton disk turbine. Moreover, the void fraction has been measured with level gauge method. The results showed that the image processing technique provides more accurate results than the level gauge measurements for void fraction calculation in surface aeration especially in low void fraction aeration. In addition, the experimental data revealed that increase in impeller immersion depth and rotational speed increase void fraction and oxygen transfer rate in surface aeration process.

  20. Scaling up ecohydrological processes: role of surface water flow in water-limited landscapes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popp, A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available microscale processes like ecohydrological feedback mechanisms and spatial exchange like surface water flow, the authors derive transition probabilities from a fine-scale simulation model. They applied two versions of the landscape model, one that includes...

  1. Effects of process parameters on surface roughness in abrasive waterjet cutting of aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithirai Pon Selvan, M.; Mohana Sundara Raju, N.; Sachidananda, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    Abrasive waterjet cutting is a novel machining process capable of processing wide range of hard-to-cut materials. Surface roughness of machined parts is one of the major machining characteristics that play an important role in determining the quality of engineering components. This paper shows the influence of process parameters on surface roughness ( R a) which is an important cutting performance measure in abrasive waterjet cutting of aluminium. Taguchi's design of experiments was carried out in order to collect surface roughness values. Experiments were conducted in varying water pressure, nozzle traverse speed, abrasive mass flow rate and standoff distance for cutting aluminium using abrasive waterjet cutting process. The effects of these parameters on surface roughness have been studied based on the experimental results.

  2. Theoretical and experimental approach to the texturization process of bioreactive surfaces by high-power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, J. C.; Riveiro, A.; Comesana, R.; Pou, J.

    2011-11-01

    The properties of orthopaedic/dental implants can be tuned through the laser surface modifications that take place during a laser ablation process. Processing assisted by a laser is adequate to produce macro- and micro-structures on metallic alloys and polymer surfaces in order to improve their biological response. The evaluation of the minimum energy density that causes an optimum ablation process on different kinds of surfaces was theoretically established by numerical simulation of the thermal process and some experiments have been systematically carried out to produce a periodic pattern in the surface. The selection of the laser power has been predicted from numerical analysis solving of the heat conduction differential equation using commercial software, ANSYS (11.0). This analysis has allowed us to predict the extent and the depth of the holes. The theoretical results agree with the experimental measurements that were carried out by profilometry.

  3. The effect of mold surface topography on plastic parat in-process shrinkage in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mold surface roughness on in-process in-flow linear part shrinkage in injection molding has been carried out. The investigation is based on an experimental two-cavity tool, where the cavities have different surface topographies, but are otherwise identical...

  4. A facile two-step dipping process based on two silica systems for a superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Shen, Jun

    2011-10-14

    A silica microsphere suspension and a silica sol are employed in a two-step dipping process for the preparation of a superhydrophobic surface. It's not only a facile way to achieve the lotus effect, but can also create a multi-functional surface with different wetabilities, adhesive forces and transparencies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. Coupled Deep Earth and surface processes and their impact on geohazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloetingh, S.; Tibaldi, A.; Burov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Better understanding of coupled Deep Earth and surface processes is the key for resolving the evolution of the continental lithosphere and its surface topography. The thermo-mechanical structure of the lithosphere exerts a prime control on the interaction of mantle instabilities and tectonic forces

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic wood surfaces via a solution-immersion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyu; Wang, Shuliang; Shi, Junyou; Wang, Chengyu

    2011-11-01

    Superhydrophobic wood surfaces were fabricated from potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) through a convenient solution-immersion method. The reaction involves a hydrogen bond assembly and a polycondensation process. The silanol was formed by reacting PMS aqueous solution with CO2, which was assembled on the wood surface via hydrogen bonds with the wood surface -OH groups. The polymethylsilsesquioxane coating was obtained through the polycondensation reaction of the hydroxyl between wood and silanol. The morphology of products were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the surface chemical composition was determined using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry (TGA) and contact angle measurement. Analytical results revealed that rough protuberances uniformly covered the wood surface, thus transforming the wood surface from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The water contact angle of the superhydrophobic wood surface was about 153° and a sliding angle was 4.6°.

  7. Development of a MODIS-Derived Surface Albedo Data Set: An Improved Model Input for Processing the NSRDB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclaurin, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gilroy, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A significant source of bias in the transposition of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array (POA) irradiance arises from inaccurate estimations of surface albedo. The current physics-based model used to produce the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) relies on model estimations of surface albedo from a reanalysis climatalogy produced at relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to that of the NSRDB. As an input to spectral decomposition and transposition models, more accurate surface albedo data from remotely sensed imagery at finer spatial resolutions would improve accuracy in the final product. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an improved white-sky (bi-hemispherical reflectance) broadband (0.3-5.0 ..mu..m) surface albedo data set for processing the NSRDB from two existing data sets: a gap-filled albedo product and a daily snow cover product. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided high-quality measurements of surface albedo at 30 arc-second spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution since 2001. The high spatial and temporal resolutions and the temporal coverage of the MODIS sensor will allow for improved modeling of POA irradiance in the NSRDB. However, cloud and snow cover interfere with MODIS observations of ground surface albedo, and thus they require post-processing. The MODIS production team applied a gap-filling methodology to interpolate observations obscured by clouds or ephemeral snow. This approach filled pixels with ephemeral snow cover because the 8-day temporal resolution is too coarse to accurately capture the variability of snow cover and its impact on albedo estimates. However, for this project, accurate representation of daily snow cover change is important in producing the NSRDB. Therefore, NREL also used the Integrated Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System data set, which provides daily snow cover observations of the

  8. Multi-Cultural Teams as Sources for Creativity and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouncken, Ricarda; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    potential of creativity, but are confronted with difficulties arising from different working- and communication styles which have to be proactively managed from the beginning. While progressing, teams learn to cope with this diversity related to some more surface-level cultural dimensions and members even...... align. Yet, diversity of power distance induces conflicts that deeply impact the innovation process. Based on these findings, we develop a set of propositions, which lead into a conceptual model on the effects of multi-cultural team work on creativity and innovation. Finally, we discuss further......Multi-cultural teams are seen as a wellspring of creativity and innovativeness. Yet, we still miss an in-depth study of their potential and challenges during the innovation process in firms. This is a serious omission as many international firms are in need of improving their global innovation...

  9. Modeling and simulation of the deformation process of PTFE flexiblestamps for nanoimprint lithography on curved surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Smistrup, K.; Hannibal, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In the presented work, simulations of the deformation process of flexible stamps used for nanoimprint lithographron curved surfaces are presented. The material used for the flexible stamps was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) whose material behavior was found to be viscoelastic-viscoplastic. This b......In the presented work, simulations of the deformation process of flexible stamps used for nanoimprint lithographron curved surfaces are presented. The material used for the flexible stamps was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) whose material behavior was found to be viscoelastic...

  10. Linear and nonlinear characterization of surfaces from a laser beam melt ablation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bube, Kevin [Institut fuer Chemie und Biologie des Meeres, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Neto, Camilo Rodrigues [Institut fuer Chemie und Biologie des Meeres, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); University of Sao Paulo, Av. Arlindo Bettio 1000, EACH, 03828-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Donner, Reik [Department of Physics, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Schwarz, Udo [Department of Physics, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Feudel, Ulrike [Institut fuer Chemie und Biologie des Meeres, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2006-04-07

    We apply linear and nonlinear methods to study the properties of surfaces generated by a laser beam melt ablation process. As a result we present a characterization and ordering of the surfaces depending on the adjusted process parameters. Our findings give some insight into the performance of two widely applied multifractal analysis methods-the detrended fluctuation analysis and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method-on short real world data.

  11. Leader affective presence and innovation in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Hector P; Totterdell, Peter; Niven, Karen; Barros, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Affective presence is a novel personality construct that describes the tendency of individuals to make their interaction partners feel similarly positive or negative. We adopt this construct, together with the input-process-output model of teamwork, to understand how team leaders influence team interaction and innovation performance. In 2 multisource studies, based on 350 individuals working in 87 teams of 2 public organizations and 734 individuals working in 69 teams of a private organization, we tested and supported hypotheses that team leader positive affective presence was positively related to team information sharing, whereas team leader negative affective presence was negatively related to the same team process. In turn, team information sharing was positively related to team innovation, mediating the effects of leader affective presence on this team output. The results indicate the value of adopting an interpersonal individual differences approach to understanding how affect-related characteristics of leaders influence interaction processes and complex performance in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The role of original surface roughness in laser-induced periodic surface structure formation process on poly-carbonate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csete, M.; Hild, S.; Plettl, A.; Ziemann, P.; Bor, Zs.; Marti, O.

    2004-01-01

    Poly-carbonate films containing different types of original surface roughness were illuminated by a polarized ArF excimer laser beam having a fluence of 4 mJ/cm 2 . Atomic force microscopy was applied to study the laser-induced periodic surface structure formation process at 0 deg. , 30 deg. and 45 deg. angles of incidence. The effect of initial surface structures on the intensity distribution was investigated in cases of: (a) grains on oriented and amorphous thick films; (b) holes on thin spin-coated films; and (c) nanoparticles arranged along micrometer long sides of hexagons below the spin-coated films. The presence of the scattering objects caused symmetry breaking, if the samples were illuminated by oblique incident 's' polarized beam. The Fourier analysis of the AFM pictures has shown the competition of structures having different periods. The characteristic of the permanent surface patterns proved that the interference of the incoming beam and the beams scattered on previously existing structures is the LIPSS generating feedback process. Ring-shaped structures having 228 nm diameter were produced

  13. Advice for running a successful research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David; Anderson, Judith

    2015-11-01

    To explore what is meant by a 'research team' and offer practical suggestions for supporting an effective and productive, collaborative research team. Collaborative research has become one of the main objectives of most higher education institutions and running effective research teams is central to achieving this aim. However, there is limited guidance in the literature about how to run or steer a research team. Search engines/databases used: CINAHL, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Primo search, Google search and Health Collection to access research articles and publications to support this topic. Literature search was extended to the end of 2014. Publications were reviewed for relevance to the topic via standard literature search. Research teams vary in size and composition, however they all require effective collaboration if they are to establish successful and flexible working relationships and produce useful and trustworthy research outputs. This article offers guidance for establishing and managing successful collaborative research relationships, building trust and a positive research team culture, clarifying team member roles, setting the teams' research agenda and managing the teams' functions so that team members feel able to contribute fully to the research goals and build a culture of support and apply 'emotional intelligence' throughout the process of building and running a successful research team. Collaboration is a central component of establishing successful research teams and enabling productive research outputs. This article offers guidance for research teams to help them to function more effectively and allow all members to contribute fully to each team's goals. Research teams that have established trust and a positive team culture will result in more efficient working relationships and potentially greater productivity. The advice offered reinforces the value of having research teams with diverse members from different disciplines

  14. Effect of electropulsing on surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during ultrasonic surface rolling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Guoyi, E-mail: tanggy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-26

    The present work integrates 3D digital optical microscopy (OM), nano-indentation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to systematically investigate the effect of electropulsing on the surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during the ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP). Compared with the original USRP, the introduction of electropulsing with optimal parameters can effectively facilitate surface crack healing and improve surface hardness and wear resistance dramatically, and the residual compressive stress is further enhanced. Meanwhile, more martensite phase and fewer deformation twins can be found in the strengthened layer. Rapid improvement of the surface mechanical properties should be attributed to the ultra-refined grains, accelerated martensitic phase transformation and suppressed deformation twining induced by the coupling effect of USRP and electropulsing. The high strain rate given by USRP, increased stacking fault energy and accelerated dislocation mobility caused by electropulsing are likely the primary intrinsic reasons for the observed phenomena.

  15. Team Learning in Teacher Teams: Team Entitativity as a Bridge between Teams-in-Theory and Teams-in-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate team learning in the context of teacher teams in higher vocational education. As teacher teams often do not meet all criteria included in theoretical team definitions, the construct "team entitativity" was introduced. Defined as the degree to which a group of individuals possesses the quality of being a…

  16. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    trying to improve on what they've done before. Second, success in any endeavor stems from people who know how to interpret a composition to sound beautiful when played in a different style. For Knowledge Sharing to work, it must be adapted, reinterpreted, shaped and played with at the centers. In this regard, we've been blessed with another crazy, passionate, inspired artist named Claire Smith. Claire has turned Ames Research Center in California into APPL-west. She is so good and committed to what she does that I just refer people to her whenever they have questions about implementing project management development at the field level. Finally, any great effort requires talented people working behind the scenes, the people who formulate a business approach and know how to manage the money so that the music gets heard. I have known many brilliant and creative people with a ton of ideas that never take off due to an inability to work the business. Again, the Knowledge Sharing team has been fortunate to have competent and passionate people, specifically Tony Maturo and his procurement team at Goddard Space Flight Center, to make sure the process is in place to support the effort. This kind of support is every bit as crucial as the activity itself, and the efforts and creativity that go into successful procurement and contracting is a vital ingredient of this successful team.

  17. Processing method and processing device for liquid waste containing surface active agent and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Baba, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1998-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes containing surface active agents and radioactive materials are sent to a deaerating vessel. Ozone is blown into the deaerating vessel. The washing liquid wastes dissolved with ozone are introduced to a UV ray irradiation vessel. UV rays are irradiated to the washing liquid wastes, and hydroxy radicals generated by photodecomposition of dissolved ozone oxidatively decompose surface active agents contained in the washing liquid wastes. The washing liquid wastes discharged from the UV ray irradiation vessel are sent to an activated carbon mixing vessel and mixed with powdery activated carbon. The surface active agents not decomposed in the UV ray irradiation vessel are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Then, the activated carbon and washing liquid wastes are separated by an activated carbon separating/drying device. Radioactive materials (iron oxide and the like) contained in the washing liquid wastes are mostly granular, and they are separated and removed from the washing liquid wastes in the activated carbon separating/drying device. (I.N.)

  18. A modified prebind engagement process reduces biomechanical loading on front row players during scrummaging: a cross-sectional study of 11 elite teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Dario; Preatoni, Ezio; Stokes, Keith A; England, Michael E; Trewartha, Grant

    2015-04-01

    Biomechanical studies of the rugby union scrum have typically been conducted using instrumented scrum machines, but a large-scale biomechanical analysis of live contested scrummaging is lacking. We investigated whether the biomechanical loading experienced by professional front row players during the engagement phase of live contested rugby scrums could be reduced using a modified engagement procedure. Eleven professional teams (22 forward packs) performed repeated scrum trials for each of the three engagement techniques, outdoors, on natural turf. The engagement processes were the 2011/2012 (referee calls crouch-touch-pause-engage), 2012/2013 (referee calls crouch-touch-set) and 2013/2014 (props prebind with the opposition prior to the 'Set' command; PreBind) variants. Forces were estimated by pressure sensors on the shoulders of the front row players of one forward pack. Inertial Measurement Units were placed on an upper spine cervical landmark (C7) of the six front row players to record accelerations. Players' motion was captured by multiple video cameras from three viewing perspectives and analysed in transverse and sagittal planes of motion. The PreBind technique reduced biomechanical loading in comparison with the other engagement techniques, with engagement speed, peak forces and peak accelerations of upper spine landmarks reduced by approximately 20%. There were no significant differences between techniques in terms of body kinematics and average force during the sustained push phase. Using a scrum engagement process which involves binding with the opposition prior to the engagement reduces the stresses acting on players and therefore may represent a possible improvement for players' safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites: Anodization and optical appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Canulescu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate metal oxide (TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2) particles into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The surface composites were then anodized in a sulphuric acid electrolyte. The effect of anodizing parameters on the resulting optical...... appearance was studied. Microstructural and morphological characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface appearance was analysed using an integrating sphere-spectrometer setup. Increasing the anodizing voltage changed the surface appearance of the composites from...

  20. Assessment of surface contamination level in an operating uranium ore processing facility of Jaduguda, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.S.; Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Sahoo, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Radiological concern of the occupational workers and the area is given priority over other safety issue in confirmation with the stipulated guideline of national regulatory agency (AERB/FEFCF/SG-2, 2007). The key concern from the radiological hazard evaluation point of view is air activity, external gamma level and surface contamination. Present investigations was carried out to ascertain the surface contamination level of uranium ore processing facility at Jaduguda, Jharkhand. For a low grade uranium ore processing industry surface contamination is a major concern in product precipitation and recovery section. In view of this, the ore processing plant can broadly be classified into three areas i.e. ion exchange area, precipitation and product recovery section and other areas. The monitoring results incorporate the level of surface contamination of the plant during the last five years. The geometric mean activity of surface contamination level was 31.1, 34.5 and 9.8 Bq dm -2 in ion exchange, product precipitation and recovery and other areas with GSD of 2, 2.5 and 1.9. In most of the cases the surface contamination level was well within the recommended limit of 100 Bq dm -2 for M class uranium compound. Occasional cases of surface contamination levels exceeding the recommended limit were addressed and areas were decontaminated. Based on the study, modification in the design feature of the surface of the finished product section was also suggested so that the decontamination procedure can be more effectively implemented

  1. Non-adiabatic effects in elementary reaction processes at metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alducin, M.; Díez Muiño, R.; Juaristi, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    Great success has been achieved in the modeling of gas-surface elementary processes by the use of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. However, in metal surfaces low energy electronic excitations are generated even by thermal and hyperthermal molecules due to the absence of band gaps in the electronic structure. This shows the importance of performing dynamical simulations that incorporate non-adiabatic effects to analyze in which way they affect most common gas-surface reactions. Here we review recent theoretical developments in this problem and their application to the study of the effect of electronic excitations in the adsorption and relaxation of atoms and molecules in metal surfaces, in scattering processes, and also in recombinative processes between impinging atoms and adsorbates at the surface. All these studies serve us to establish what properties of the gas-surface interaction favor the excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs. A general observation is that the nature of these excitations usually requires long lasting interactions at the surface in order to observe deviations from the adiabatic behaviour. We also provide the basis of the local density friction approximation (LDFA) that have been used in all these studies, and show how it has been employed to perform ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction (AIMDEF). As a final remark, we will shortly review on recent applications of the LDFA to successfully simulate desorption processes induced by intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  2. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  3. Analysis of WEDM Process Parameters on Surface Roughness and Kerf using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfana Banu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In obtaining the best quality of engineering parts, the quality of machined surface plays an essential role. The fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece are some of the aspects of the qualities that can be improved. This paper investigates the effect of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM process parameters on surface roughness and kerf on stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The selected process parameters are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical models using Taguchi method were developed for the estimation of surface roughness and kerf. The analysis revealed that off time has major influence on surface roughness and kerf. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness and kerf were found to be 10 V open voltage, 2.84 µs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  4. Specifics of adsorption and chemical processes on the surface of gamma-irradiated vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurkovskaya, V.N.; Dzyubenko, L.S.; Doroshenko, V.N.; Chujko, A.A.; Shakhov, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of γ-irradiation on electrophysical properties and processes of thermal desorption of water from the surface of vanadium oxides V 2 O 3 -VO 2-δ -VO 2+δ -V 2 O 5 was investigated by derivatography and electric conductivity. Content of adsorbed water at the surface and phase composition of the surface was demonstrated to change under the action of low radiation doses. Surface electric conductivity of the irradiated samples VO 2-δ in the process of chemical reactions of adsorbed following irradiation benzoic acid and ethanol was established to be much above than in irradiated-free ones. It is presumed that metal-semiconductor phase transition at the surface of VO 2-δ during chemical reaction is intensified by irradiation [ru

  5. The interplay between self- and social regulation in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Marijn; Endedijk, Maaike Dorine; Sleegers, P.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has suggested that the regulation of learning processes in teams is a key factor in enhancing team and organizational innovativeness. The present study explores the different combinations of (self- and social) regulatory processes that take place during team work and how teams differ in the

  6. The Adaptability of Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, data from a longitudinal case study in an organization attempting to adapt its internal work processes to changes in its external context are presented, analyzed and discussed. Specifically, functionally structured work teams in one department of a Danish production facility were...... on the proper alignment between the structuring of the work processes and characteristics of the external context (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967) – it provides a unique opportunity to explore the adaptation process in practice. The paper contributes to the development of contingency theory by lending support...... to the premise that “fit” between an organization’s external context and its internal structure may enhance performance, but also to the suggestion that the adaptation process may be asymmetric (Moon et al., 2004). Further, the paper contributes to practice by highlighting both the opportunities and risks...

  7. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts...... for subsequent polymer replication by injection moulding was analyzed. New tooling solutions to produce nano structured mould surfaces were investigated. Experiments based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large areas were performed. Three...... approaches were selected: (1) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition for direct patterning of a 4” silicon wafer; (2) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition as mask for 4” silicon wafer etching and subsequent nickel electroplating; (3) using the anodizing process to produce Ø500 nm structures on a 30x80 mm2...

  8. Effect of conditioner load on the polishing pad surface during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheol Min; Qin, Hong Yi; Hong, Seok Jun; Jeon, Sang Hyuk; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Tae Sun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    During the Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the pad conditioning process can affect the pad surface characteristics. Among many CMP process parameters, the improper applied load on the conditioner arm may have adverse effects on the polyurethane pad. In this work, we evaluated the pad surface properties under the various conditioner arm applied during pad conditioning process. The conditioning pads were evaluated for surface topography, surface roughness parameters such as Rt and Rvk and Material removal rate (MRR) and within-wafer non-uniformity after wafer polishing. We observed that, the pad asperities were collapsed in the direction of conditioner rotation and blocks the pad pores applied conditioner load. The Rvk value and MRR were founded to be in relation with 4 > 1 > 7 kgF conditioner load. Hence, this study shows that, 4 kgF applied load by conditioner is most suitable for the pad conditioning during CMP.

  9. Effects of soil surface roughness on interrill erosion processes and sediment particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenfeng; Huang, Chihua

    2017-10-01

    Soil surface roughness significantly impacts runoff and erosion under rainfall. Few previous studies on runoff generation focused on the effects of soil surface roughness on the sediment particle size distribution (PSD), which greatly affects interrill erosion and sedimentation processes. To address this issue, a rainfall-simulation experiment was conducted with treatments that included two different initial soil surface roughnesses and two rainfall intensities. Soil surface roughness was determined by using photogrammetric method. For each simulated event, runoff and sediment samples were collected at different experimental times. The effective (undispersed) PSD of each sediment sample and the ultimate (after dispersion) PSD were used to investigate the detachment and transport mechanisms involved in sediment movement. The results show that soil surface roughness significantly delayed runoff initiation, but had no significant effect on the steady runoff rate. However, a significant difference in the soil loss rate was observed between the smooth and rough soil surfaces. Sediments from smooth soil surfaces were more depleted in clay-size particles, but more enriched in sand-size particles than those from rough soil surfaces, suggesting that erosion was less selective on smooth than on rough soil surfaces. The ratio of different sizes of transported sediment to the soil matrix indicates that most of the clay was eroded in the form of aggregates, silt-size particles were transported mainly as primary particles, and sand-size particles were predominantly aggregates of finer particles. Soil surface roughness has a crucial effect on the sediment size distribution and erosion processes. Significant differences of the enrichment ratios for the effective PSD and the ultimate PSD were observed under the two soil surface roughness treatments. These findings demonstrate that we should consider each particle size separately rather than use only the total sediment discharge in

  10. How to Preempt Team Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Ginka; Barsoux, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    Team conflict can add value or destroy it. Good conflict fosters respectful debate and yields mutually agreed-upon solutions that are often far superior to those first offered. Bad conflict occurs when team members simply can't get past their differences, killing productivity and stifling innovation. Destructive conflict typically stems not from differences of opinion but from a perceived incompatibility between the way certain team members think and act. The conventional approach to working through such conflict is to respond to clashes as they arise. But this approach routinely fails because it allows frustrations to build for too long, making it difficult to reset negative impressions and restore trust. In their research on team dynamics and experience working with executive teams, Toegel and Barsoux have found a proactive approach to be much more effective. In this article, they introduce a methodology that focuses on how people look, act, speak, think, and feel. Team leaders facilitate five conversations--one focused on each category--before the team gets under way, to build a shared understanding of the process, rather than the content, of work and lay the foundation for effective collaboration.

  11. Sports Teams Extend Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…

  12. Consequences of team charter quality: Teamwork mental model similarity and team viability in engineering design student teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway Hughston, Veronica

    relationship. Foci for future research opportunities include using: a) online data collection methods to improve participant adherence to similarity rating instructions; b) story or narratives during pre- and posttest similarity rating data collection to create common levels of contextual perception; and c) support to ensure charters are integrated into the full project life cycle, not just a pre-project one time isolated activity. Twenty five sections, on average, of EDSGN 100 are taught each spring and fall semester. Consistent instructor expectations are set for the technical aspects of the course. However, ideas to foster team effectiveness are often left to the discretion of the individual instructor. Implementing empirically tested team effectiveness instructional activities would bring consistency to EDGSN 100 curriculum. Other instructional activities that would be of benefit to engineering educators include qualitative inquiry---asking intrateam process questions (at the mid-point of the project) and in-class reflection---dedicated time, post project, to discuss what went well/not well within the team.

  13. Surface preparation process of a uranium titanium alloy, in particular for chemical nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri, A.; Lefevre, D.; Massicot, P.

    1987-01-01

    In this process the uranium alloy surface is attacked with a solution of lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid. Dissolved uranium can be recovered from the solution by an ion exchange resin. Treated alloy can be nickel plated by a chemical process [fr

  14. Evolution in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    David P. Myatt; Chris Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Team formation will often involve a coordination problem. If no-one else is contributing to a team, there is little point in an agent exerting any effort. Similarly, once a team is formed, an agent within the team will not leave, as to do so would result in team collapse; non-contributing agents would not join, as they currently receive the benefits of the team`s efforts whilst paying none of the costs. The methods of the stochastic adjustment dynamics literature can help select between these...

  15. The surfacing of past assessment strategies within interdisciplinary teams when encountering an open-ended assignment in an undergraduate sustainability course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, K.; Dzulkifli, D. D. B.; Moynihan, M. A.; Salman, R.; Goodkin, N.

    2017-12-01

    267 undergraduate students in an interdisciplinary environmental sustainability course were divided into 66 groups for the duration of the semester. The formation of the groups proceeded by first assigning all of the science majors to groups in a random order. This was followed by assigning the engineering majors, the liberal arts majors, and finally the business majors in turn. After all of the students had been assigned to a group, every group had at least one engineering student and one science student. 11 groups had a liberal arts student but no business student. 26 groups had a business student but no liberal arts student. 29 groups were composed of students from all four majors. During the semester, the groups created an environmental action plan to address one of Singapore's major sustainability concerns: food. In service of the course's emphasis on interdisciplinary communication, the groups were required to create a video to support their environmental action plan. The evaluation method for the videos built on our prior work with rubrics (Hartman & Goodkin, 2016). While we provided a number of examples of videos communicating environmental action plans, students were not prescribed a particular format for their video. To the consternation of some students, the instructor deliberately left the video assessment open-ended. After the semester ended, a researcher coded all 66 videos for the food sustainability issues they identified, their proposed solutions, and their video approach. Approaches included animations, virtual handwriting/drawing, role-playing, PowerPoint presentations, and picture slideshows. Given the open-ended nature of the video project, we hypothesized that groups would converge on approaches that at least one team member was familiar with. We knew from prior work with the business school, that its students engage in role-play activities fairly frequently. Teams with a business major and without a liberal arts major adopted the role

  16. Biocompatibility enhancement of rare earth magnesium alloy by laser surface processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shilin; Wang, Yuqing; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Yingchun

    2018-01-01

    Although magnesium and magnesium alloys are considered biocompatible and biodegradable, insufficient biocompatibility in body fluid environment is still the major drawback of magnesium alloys for their successful applications as biodegradable orthopaedic implants. In this work, magnesium alloy surface with both enhanced corrosion resistance and better cell adhesion property was directly fabricated by laser surface processing. Laser surface melting was used to improve corrosion resistance of Mg-6Gd-0.6Ca alloy. After laser surface melting, laser surface texturing was utilized on melted surface for better cell adhesion property. The corrosion resistance of laser-treated and as-received samples were evaluated using electrochemical technique. The effect of laser surface treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This work investigated the effect of laser treatment on cell distribution across the surface of magnesium alloy substrates. Osteoblast was cultured on the laser-treated surface and as-received surface. Cell morphology was observed with a scanning electron microscopy, and cell viability was evaluated by optical density measurement.

  17. Surface modification on a glass surface with a combination technique of sol–gel and air brushing processes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Yu

    2011-08-01

    This study fabricated the large area and optically transparent superhydrophobic silica based films on glass surface with optimized hardness. A silane coupling agent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), effectively bonds silica particles onto the glass substrate. Desired surface roughness was obtained by adjusting nano silica particles concentration of the precursors prepared by the sol-gel process. Silica suspension was coated onto the glass substrate by the air brushing methods. This method can deposit a uniform, transparent coating on the glass substrate efficiently. Diluting the precursor by adding ethanol or a mixture of D.I. water and ethanol further improved the transmittance and superhydrophobicity efficiency. The results showed that as the silica particle concentration and the thickness of the coating were increased, the surface roughness was enhanced. Rougher surface displayed a higher superhydrophobicity and lower transmittance. Therefore, the concentration of silica particle, volume of coatings, and the ratio of ethanol and D.I. water are of great importance to deposit a transparent, superhydrophobic coating on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing team learning in nursing teams through beliefs about interpersonal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aída; Sánchez-Manzanares, Miriam; Gil, Francisco; Rico, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    This article is a report of a study that examines the relationship between team-level learning and performance in nursing teams, and the role of beliefs about the interpersonal context in this relationship. Over recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the learning processes of work teams. Researchers have investigated the impact of team learning on team performance, and the enabling conditions for this learning. However, team learning in nursing teams has been largely ignored. A cross-sectional field survey design was used. The sample comprises a total of 468 healthcare professionals working in 89 nursing teams at different public hospitals throughout Spain. Members of nursing teams participated voluntarily by completing a confidential individual questionnaire. Team supervisors evaluated nursing teams' performance. Data were collected over 2007-2008. The results show a mediating effect of team learning on the relationship between beliefs about interpersonal context (psychological safety, perceived task interdependence, and group potency) and team performance. Our findings suggest that beliefs about interpersonal context and team learning are important to effective nursing team performance. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Typology of team roles

    OpenAIRE

    Lexová, Adéla

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with concepts of current team roles, personal dispositions and stages of teamwork development, which in theory are often thought to be related. There have been formed different typologies and categorisations of team roles, personality types and stages of teamwork. In most cases there was also designed an instrument, which is used to detect the current team role, personality type or stage of team development within a team or group analysis. These instruments are then used in ...

  20. Developing Your Dream Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Kenda

    2005-01-01

    Almost anyone has held various roles on a team, be it a family unit, sports team, or a project-oriented team. As an educator, one must make a conscious decision to build and invest in a team. Gathering the best team possible will help one achieve one's goals. This article explores some of the key reasons why it is important to focus on the team…

  1. Effects of Micromachining Processes on Electro-Osmotic Flow Mobility of Glass Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Miki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica glass is frequently used as a device material for micro/nano fluidic devices due to its excellent properties, such as transparency and chemical resistance. Wet etching by hydrofluoric acid and dry etching by neutral loop discharge (NLD plasma etching are currently used to micromachine glass to form micro/nano fluidic channels. Electro-osmotic flow (EOF is one of the most effective methods to drive liquids into the channels. EOF mobility is affected by a property of the micromachined glass surfaces, which includes surface roughness that is determined by the manufacturing processes. In this paper, we investigate the effect of micromaching processes on the glass surface topography and the EOF mobility. We prepared glass surfaces by either wet etching or by NLD plasma etching, investigated the surface topography using atomic force microscopy, and attempted to correlate it with EOF generated in the micro-channels of the machined glass. Experiments revealed that the EOF mobility strongly depends on the surface roughness, and therefore upon the fabrication process used. A particularly strong dependency was observed when the surface roughness was on the order of the electric double layer thickness or below. We believe that the correlation described in this paper can be of great help in the design of micro/nano fluidic devices.

  2. Effect of processing parameters of rotary ultrasonic machining on surface integrity of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfu Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dihydrogen phosphate is an important optical crystal. However, high-precision processing of large potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal workpieces is difficult. In this article, surface roughness and subsurface damage characteristics of a (001 potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal surface produced by traditional and rotary ultrasonic machining are studied. The influence of process parameters, including spindle speed, feed speed, type and size of sintered diamond wheel, ultrasonic power, and selection of cutting fluid on potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal surface integrity, was analyzed. The surface integrity, especially the subsurface damage depth, was affected significantly by the ultrasonic power. Metal-sintered diamond tools with high granularity were most suitable for machining potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal. Cutting fluid played a key role in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal machining. A more precise surface can be obtained in machining with a higher spindle speed, lower feed speed, and using kerosene as cutting fluid. Based on the provided optimized process parameters for machining potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal, a processed surface quality with Ra value of 33 nm and subsurface damage depth value of 6.38 μm was achieved.

  3. The synthesis of flexible zeolite nanofibers by a polymer surface thermal etching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sang Hyun; Cho, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Young Hun; Yun, Jon Do; Yun, Ji Sun

    2017-09-01

    Flexible zeolite nanofibers with high surface area were synthesized by an electrospinning method and a thermal surface partial etching process. The thermal surface partial etching temperature range for maintaining flexibility of zeolite nanofibers was investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the as-spun zeolite nanofibers were thermal etched at a temperature range from 250 °C to 450 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images clearly showed that the polymer surface of the nanofibers was partially etched, and zeolite particles were exposed on the surface of the nanofibers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that a phase change did not occur in the zeolite nanofibers with a thermal etching process. The specific surface area characteristics were analyzed by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and the thermal surface etched zeolite nanofibers at 400 °C had a specific surface area of 816 m2/g similar to the value of zeolite powders.

  4. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected.

  5. A Coupled Groundwater-Surface Water Modeling Framework for Simulating Transition Zone Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugunthan, Pradeep; Russell, Kevin T; Gong, Binglei; Riley, Michael J; Chin, Arthur; McDonald, Blair G; Eastcott, Linda J

    2017-05-01

    There is an identified need for fully representing groundwater-surface water transition zone (i.e., the sediment zone that connects groundwater and surface water) processes in modeling fate and transport of contaminants to assist with management of contaminated sediments. Most existing groundwater and surface water fate and transport models are not dynamically linked and do not consider transition zone processes such as bioturbation and deposition and erosion of sediments. An interface module is developed herein to holistically simulate the fate and transport by coupling two commonly used models, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and SEAWAT, to simulate surface water and groundwater hydrodynamics, while providing an enhanced representation of the processes in the transition zone. Transition zone and surface water contaminant processes were represented through an enhanced version of the EFDC model, AQFATE. AQFATE also includes SEDZLJ, a state-of-the-science surface water sediment transport model. The modeling framework was tested on a published test problem and applied to evaluate field-scale two- and three-dimensional contaminant transport. The model accurately simulated concentrations of salinity from a published test case. For the field-scale applications, the model showed excellent mass balance closure for the transition zone and provided accurate simulations of all transition zone processes represented in the modeling framework. The model predictions for the two-dimensional field case were consistent with site-specific observations of contaminant migration. This modeling framework represents advancement in the simulation of transition zone processes and can help inform risk assessment at sites where contaminant sources from upland areas have the potential to impact sediments and surface water. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  6. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-min Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from cooperative entity layer, ability layer and relative layer we research team formation and cooperative mechanism, and discuss how to optimize relative action sets during the evolution. The dynamic evolution model of robot team and cooperative relationships between robot teams proposed and described in this paper can not only generalize the robot team as a whole, but also depict the dynamic evolving process quantitatively. Users can also make the prediction of the cooperative relationship and the action of the robot team encountering new demands based on this model.

  7. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-qin Li

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from cooperative entity layer, ability layer and relative layer we research team formation and cooperative mechanism, and discuss how to optimize relative action sets during the evolution. The dynamic evolution model of robot team and cooperative relationships between robot teams proposed and described in this paper can not only generalize the robot team as a whole, but also depict the dynamic evolving process quantitatively. Users can also make the prediction of the cooperative relationship and the action of the robot team encountering new demands based on this model.

  8. Distribution and Characteristics of Boulder Halos at High Latitudes on Mars: Ground Ice and Surface Processes Drive Surface Reworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J. S.; Fassett, C. I.; Rader, L. X.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Russell, A. T.; Dyar, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    Boulder halos are circular arrangements of clasts present at Martian middle to high latitudes. Boulder halos are thought to result from impacts into a boulder-poor surficial unit that is rich in ground ice and/or sediments and that is underlain by a competent substrate. In this model, boulders are excavated by impacts and remain at the surface as the crater degrades. To determine the distribution of boulder halos and to evaluate mechanisms for their formation, we searched for boulder halos over 4,188 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images located between 50-80° north and 50-80° south latitude. We evaluate geological and climatological parameters at halo sites. Boulder halos are about three times more common in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere (19% versus 6% of images) and have size-frequency distributions suggesting recent Amazonian formation (tens to hundreds of millions of years). In the north, boulder halo sites are characterized by abundant shallow subsurface ice and high thermal inertia. Spatial patterns of halo distribution indicate that excavation of boulders from beneath nonboulder-bearing substrates is necessary for the formation of boulder halos, but that alone is not sufficient. Rather, surface processes either promote boulder halo preservation in the north or destroy boulder halos in the south. Notably, boulder halos predate the most recent period of near-surface ice emplacement on Mars and persist at the surface atop mobile regolith. The lifetime of observed boulders at the Martian surface is greater than the lifetime of the craters that excavated them. Finally, larger minimum boulder halo sizes in the north indicate thicker icy soil layers on average throughout climate variations driven by spin/orbit changes during the last tens to hundreds of millions of years.

  9. Is team confidence the key to success? The reciprocal relation between collective efficacy, team outcome confidence, and perceptions of team performance during soccer games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Decroos, Steven; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Vande Broek, Gert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanroy, Jari; Boen, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript extends previous research on the reciprocal relation between team confidence and perceived team performance in two ways. First, we distinguished between two types of team confidence; process-oriented collective efficacy and outcome-oriented team outcome confidence. Second, we assessed both types not only before and after the game, but for the first time also during half-time, thereby providing deeper insight into their dynamic relation with perceived team performance. Two field studies were conducted, each with 10 male soccer teams (N = 134 in Study 1; N = 125 in Study 2). Our findings provide partial support for the reciprocal relation between players' team confidence (both collective efficacy and team outcome confidence) and players' perceptions of the team's performance. Although both types of players' team confidence before the game were not significantly related to perceived team performance in the first half, players' team confidence during half-time was positively related to perceived team performance in the second half. Additionally, our findings consistently demonstrated a relation between perceived team performance and players' subsequent team confidence. Considering that team confidence is a dynamical process, which can be affected by coaches and players, our findings open new avenues to optimise team performance.

  10. Method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeffrey W [Livermore, CA

    2009-09-22

    Reactive atom plasma processing can be used to shape, polish, planarize and clean the surfaces of difficult materials with minimal subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use a plasma torch, such as a conventional ICP torch. The workpiece and plasma torch are moved with respect to each other, whether by translating and/or rotating the workpiece, the plasma, or both. The plasma discharge from the torch can be used to shape, planarize, polish, and/or clean the surface of the workpiece, as well as to thin the workpiece. The processing may cause minimal or no damage to the workpiece underneath the surface, and may involve removing material from the surface of the workpiece.

  11. Modelling Periglacial Processes on Low-Relief High-Elevation Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, D.L.

    Are low-relief high-elevation surfaces generally a result of uplift of flat surfaces formed close to sea-level or can they be formed "in situ" by climate dependent surface processes such as those associated with glaciation? This question is important to resolve in order to understand the geological...... as a function of mean annual air temperature and sediment thickness. This allows us to incorporate periglacial processes into a long-term landscape evolution model where surface elevation, sediment thickness, and climate evolve over time. With this model we are able to explore the slow feedbacks between...... periglacial erosion, sediment transport, and the evolving topography. We show that smooth peaks, convex hillslopes, and a few meters thick regolith cover at high elevation are emergent properties of the landscape evolution model. By varying climate and other model parameters, we discuss how the landscape...

  12. Using Transactivity to Understand Emergence of Team Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoethout, Hildert; Wesselink, Renate; Runhaar, Piety; Mulder, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Team learning is a recurrent topic in research on effective teamwork. However, research about the fact that team learning processes emerge from conversations and the different forms this emergence can take is limited. The aim of this study is to determine whether the extent to which team members act on each other's reasoning (transactivity) can be used to understand how team learning processes emerge. Research on teacher teams was used as the case study: Video recordings of three different teacher teams were used as primary data, and the data were analyzed using qualitative interaction analysis. The analysis shows that the content of team learning processes changes when team members act more closely on each other's reasoning. In particular, team learning processes related to the storage and retrieval of information took place only in sequences in which team members acted closely on each other's reasoning.

  13. The study of sub-surface damage distributions during grinding process on different abrasion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Yu, Zong-Ru; Shu, Shyu-Cheng; Chang, Keng-Shou; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2017-10-01

    The grinding process is the primary technology for curvature generation (CG) on glass optics. The higher material removal rate (MRR) leads to deeper sub-surface damage (SSD) on lens surface. The SSD must be removed by following lapping and polishing processes to ensure the lens quality. However, these are not an easy and an efficient process to remove the SSD from ground surface directly for aspheric surfaces with tens or hundreds microns departure from bestfit- sphere (BFS). An efficient fabrication procedure for large aspheric departure on glass materials must be considered. We propose 3-step fabrication procedures for aspheric surface with larger departure. 1st step is to generate a specific aspheric surface with depth less than 10 μm of SSD residual. 2nd step is to remove SSD and keep the aspheric form by using Zeeko polisher with higher MRR pad. Final step is to figure and finish the aspheric surface by using QED MRF machine. In this study, we focus on the 1st step to investigate the residual depth of SSD after grinding process on different abrasion materials. The materials of tested part are fused silica, S-NPH2, and S-PHM52. The cross grinding would be configured and depth of SSD/surface roughness would be evaluated in this study. The characteristic of SSD could be observed after etching by confocal microscope. The experimental results show the depth of SSD below 31.1 μm with #400 grinding wheel. And the near 10 μm depth of SSD would be achieved with #1,000 grinding wheel. It means the aspherization polishing on large parts with large departure from best fit sphere would be replaced. The fabrication of large aspheric part would be efficient.

  14. Surface Processing and Modification of Polymers by Water Cluster Ion Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuto, H.; Takeuchi, M.; Ichihashi, G.; Sommani, P.; Takaoka, G. H.

    2011-01-01

    A water cluster ion beam was irradiated on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface to examine the possibility of applying the water cluster ion beam technique to the surface processing and modification of polymers. The sputtering yields of PMMA substrates irradiated with water cluster ion beams increased with acceleration voltage and dose of the water cluster ion beam. The threshold acceleration voltage of sputtering was approximately 3 kV. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the PMMA surface irradiated with the water cluster ion beam suggested the degradation of the PMMA side chains. The XPS spectrum of the surface of the sputtered particle catcher at 45° backward direction showed approximately the same shape as the XPS spectrum of the PMMA surface irradiated with the water cluster ion beam.

  15. Effect of Build Angle on Surface Properties of Nickel Superalloys Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Ernesto E.; Eshraghi, Mohsen

    2017-12-01

    Aerospace, automotive, and medical industries use selective laser melting (SLM) to produce complex parts through solidifying successive layers of powder. This additive manufacturing technique has many advantages, but one of the biggest challenges facing this process is the resulting surface quality of the as-built parts. The purpose of this research was to study the surface properties of Inconel 718 alloys fabricated by SLM. The effect of build angle on the surface properties of as-built parts was investigated. Two sets of sample geometries including cube and rectangular artifacts were considered in the study. It was found that, for angles between 15° and 75°, theoretical calculations based on the "stair-step" effect were consistent with the experimental results. Downskin surfaces showed higher average roughness values compared to the upskin surfaces. No significant difference was found between the average roughness values measured from cube and rectangular test artifacts.

  16. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  17. Effect of Build Angle on Surface Properties of Nickel Superalloys Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Ernesto E.; Eshraghi, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aerospace, automotive, and medical industries use selective laser melting (SLM) to produce complex parts through solidifying successive layers of powder. This additive manufacturing technique has many advantages, but one of the biggest challenges facing this process is the resulting surface quality of the as-built parts. The purpose of this research was to study the surface properties of Inconel 718 alloys fabricated by SLM. The effect of build angle on the surface properties of as-built parts was investigated. Two sets of sample geometries including cube and rectangular artifacts were considered in the study. It was found that, for angles between 15° and 75°, theoretical calculations based on the "stair-step" effect were consistent with the experimental results. Downskin surfaces showed higher average roughness values compared to the upskin surfaces. No significant difference was found between the average roughness values measured from cube and rectangular test artifacts.

  18. Healthcare management strategies: interdisciplinary team factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Pamela; Marzano, David

    2012-12-01

    Interdisciplinary team factors are significant contributors to clinical performance and associated patient outcomes. Quality of care and patient safety initiatives identify human factors associated with team performance as a prime improvement area for clinical patient care. The majority of references to interdisciplinary teams in obstetrics and gynecology in the literature recommends the use of multidisciplinary approaches when managing complex medical cases. The reviewed literature suggests that interdisciplinary team development is important for achieving optimally efficient and effective performance; however, few reports provide specific recommendations for how to optimally achieve these objectives in the process of providing interdisciplinary care to patients. The absence of these recommendations presents a significant challenge for those tasked with improving team performance in the workplace. The prescribed team development programs cited in the review are principally built around communication strategies and simulation-based training mechanisms. Few reports provide descriptions of optimal team-based competencies in the various contexts of obstetric and gynecology teams. However, team-based evaluation strategies and empirical data documenting the transfer of team training to applied clinical care are increasing in number and quality. Our findings suggest that research toward determining team factors that promote optimal performance in applied clinical practice requires definition of specific competencies for the variable teams serving obstetrics and gynecology.

  19. MANAGING MULTICULTURAL PROJECT TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar SCARLAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA projects versus information technology (IT projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and differences between the above mentioned types of projects. Distinct focus of the research is on the multiculturalism of the project teams: how the cultural background of the team members influences the team performance and team management. Besides the results of the study are the managerial implications: how the team managers could soften the cultural clash, and avoid inter-cultural misunderstandings and even conflicts – in order to get a better performance. Some practical examples are provided as well.

  20. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ~ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2-2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation.

  1. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ∼ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2–2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation

  2. Modeling and optimization of surface roughness in single point incremental forming process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kurra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single point incremental forming (SPIF is a novel and potential process for sheet metal prototyping and low volume production applications. This article is focuses on the development of predictive models for surface roughness estimation in SPIF process. Surface roughness in SPIF has been modeled using three different techniques namely, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Support Vector Regression (SVR and Genetic Programming (GP. In the development of these predictive models, tool diameter, step depth, wall angle, feed rate and lubricant type have been considered as model variables. Arithmetic mean surface roughness (Ra and maximum peak to valley height (Rz are used as response variables to assess the surface roughness of incrementally formed parts. The data required to generate, compare and evaluate the proposed models have been obtained from SPIF experiments performed on Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine using Box–Behnken design. The developed models are having satisfactory goodness of fit in predicting the surface roughness. Further, the GP model has been used for optimization of Ra and Rz using genetic algorithm. The optimum process parameters for minimum surface roughness in SPIF have been obtained and validated with the experiments and found highly satisfactory results within 10% error.

  3. Measuring the Impact of the Micronegotiation Technique on Team Member Satisfaction and Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jeffery David

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is not an uncommon element of team interactions and processes; however, if unchecked it can cause issues in the ability of the team to achieve maximum performance. Research on task conflict and relationship conflict by de Wit, Greer, and Jehn (2012) found that while in many cases task conflict and relationship conflict within teams can…

  4. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.; Han, Intaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements.

  5. Selection Criteria and Methods for Testing Different Surface Materials for Contact Frying Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya

    these coatings are not mechanically stable, they do not tolerate high enough temperatures (above 260⁰ C) to give the right product quality, and the surfaces wear easily calling for regular service of the equipment. The present project concerns an investigation of the possibilities of replacing the widely used......Inner surfaces of industrial process equipment for food are often coated to give the surfaces particular properties with respect to adhesion and cleanability. Existing coating materials (PTFE (Teflon®) or silicone based polymers) suffer from drawbacks when used in contact frying, because...

  6. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R; Han, InTaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-22

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements.

  7. Gliding arc surface modification of carrot nanofibre coating - perspective for composite processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Berglund, L; Aitomäki, Y

    2016-01-01

    Surfaces of carrot nanofibre coatings were modified by a gliding arc in atmospheric pressure air. The treatment strengthened wetting of deionized water and glycerol, increased an oxygen content, C-O and C=O, and moderately roughened the surfaces. In the perspective of composite materials......, these changes to the nanofibres can potentially improve their processability when they are to be impregnated with a polymeric matrix. However, longer exposure to the gliding arc reduced oxidation and roughness of the surface, and thus there exists an optimum condition to achieve good wetting to solvents....

  8. Planarization of the diamond film surface by using the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Planarization of the free-standing diamond film surface as smooth as possible could be obtained by using the hydrogen plasma etching with the diffusion of the carbon species into the metal alloy (Fe, Cr, Ni). For this process, we placed the free-standing diamond film between the metal alloy and the Mo substrate like a metal-diamond-molybdenum (MDM) sandwich. We set the sandwich-type MDM in a microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. The sandwich-type MDM was heated over ca. 1000 .deg. C by using the hydrogen plasma. We call this process as the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process. After etching the free-standing diamond film surface, we investigated surface roughness, morphologies, and the incorporated impurities on the etched diamond film surface. Finally, we suggest that the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process is an adequate etching technique for the fabrication of the diamond film surface applicable to electronic devices

  9. Team training/simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin A S; Fisher, Janet; Arafeh, Julia; Druzin, Maurice

    2010-03-01

    Obstetrical emergencies require the rapid formation of a team with clear communication, strong leadership, and appropriate decision-making to ensure a positive patient outcome. Obstetric teams can improve their emergency response capability and efficiency through team and simulation training. Postpartum hemorrhage is an ideal model for team and simulation training, as postpartum hemorrhage requires a multidisciplinary team with the capability to produce a protocol-driven, rapid response. This article provides an overview of team and simulation training and focuses on applications within obstetrics, particularly preparation for postpartum hemorrhage.

  10. Microstructure and optical appearance of anodized friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Bordo, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate Ti, Y and Ce oxide powders into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The FSP processed surface composite was subsequently anodized with an aim to develop optical effects in the anodized layer owing to the presence of incorporated...... oxide particles which will influence the scattering of light. This paper presents the investigations on relation between microstructure of the FSP zone and optical appearance of the anodized layer due to incorporation of metal oxide particles and modification of the oxide particles due to the anodizing...

  11. Turning process monitoring of internal combustion engine piston’s cylindrical surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twardowski Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the monitoring method of turning process of combustion engine piston’s cylindrical surface is proposed. During this process, the PCD diamond tool cuts the piston’s cylindrical surface with the 3 grooves. The first groove is made in the cast iron insert. In case, when the machining allowances are selected inappropriately, the tool cuts the cast iron insert and consequently generates the reject. The proposed monitoring system based on vibration signals analysis enables the detection of these critical situations and react, in order to maintain the production quality.

  12. Analysis of the Forming Process of Conical-Like Helical Surfaces with Roller Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacalak W.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a methodology of an analysis and modeling of technological systems and the grinding process of conical-like helical surfaces with the use of modern CAD/CAE systems and calculations in the Matlab system. The methodology developed allows one to carry out simulation tests for the accuracy of the grinding process of helical surfaces taking into consideration the deviations of the location and shape of the system’s elements, axial and radial striking the spindle of the workpiece machined and the grinding wheel as well as the tool’s geometrical features.

  13. Uniformity analysis of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) processed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaozong; Brown, Norman M. D.; Meenan, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, operating in air at atmospheric pressure, has been used to induce changes in the surface properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. The effects that the key DBD operating parameters: discharge power, processing speed, processing duration, and electrode configurations, have on producing wettability changes in the PET surface region have been investigated. The approach taken involves the application of an Taguchi experimental design and robust analysis methodology. The various data sets obtained from these analyses have been used to studies the effect of the operating parameters on the surface uniformity and efficiency of the said treatment. In general, the results obtained indicate that DBD plasma processing is an effective method for the controlled surface modification of PET. Relatively short exposures to the atmospheric pressure discharge produces significant wettability changes at the polymer film surface, as indicted by pronounced reductions in the water contact angle measured. It was observed that the wettability of the resultant surface shows no significant differences in respect to orientation parallel (L-direction) or perpendicular (T-direction) to the electrode long axis. However, there was significant differences between the data obtained from these two orientations. Analysis of the role of each of the operating parameters concerned shows that they have a selective effectiveness with respect to resultant surface modification in terms of uniformity of modification and wettability. The number of treatment cycles and the electrode configuration used were found to have the most significant effects on the homogeneity of the resultant PET surface changes in L- and T-orientation, respectively. On the other hand, the applied power showed no significant role in this regard. The number of treatment cycles was found to be the dominant factor (at significance level of 0.05) in respect of water contact angle

  14. CROSS SECTIONAL EXAMINATION OF TEAM PERFORMANCE AND IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON TEAM BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin Munir; Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ehsan Malik; Faiqa Ejaz; Aqsa Alam; Aqsa Abbas

    2012-01-01

    In organizations proper process is made that helps the employees to bring an effective change for best team performance. Team building and change management are important factors in organizational environment. Both of these factors focus to have an outcome that affects self development, positive communication, leadership skills, and ability to work together as a team for solving problems. The main objective of our research is to know that how team building and organizational change can make b...

  15. Leading the Team You Inherit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Most leaders don't have the luxury of building their teams from scratch. Instead they're put in charge of an existing group, and they need guidance on the best way to take over and improve performance. Watkins, an expert on transitions, suggests a three-step approach: Assess. Act quickly to size up the personnel you've inherited, systematically gathering data from one-on-one chats, team meetings, and other sources. Reflect, too, on the business challenges you face, the kinds of people you want in various roles, and the degree to which they need to collaborate. Reshape. Adjust the makeup of the team by moving people to new positions, shifting their responsibilities, or replacing them. Make sure that everyone is aligned on goals and how to achieve them--you may need to change the team's stated direction. Consider also making changes in the way the team operates (reducing the frequency of meetings, for example, or creating new subteams). Then establish ground rules and processes to sustain desired behaviors, and revisit those periodically. Accelerate team development. Set your people up for some early wins. Initial successes will boost everyone's confidence and reinforce the value of your new operating model, thus paving the way for ongoing growth.

  16. Melt expulsion during ultrasonic vibration-assisted laser surface processing of austenitic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S Habib; Harimkar, Sandip P

    2015-05-01

    Simultaneous application of ultrasonic vibrations during conventional materials processing (casting, welding) and material removal processes (machining) has recently been gaining widespread attention due to improvement in metallurgical quality and efficient material removal, respectively. In this paper, ultrasonic vibration-assisted laser surface melting of austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316) is reported. While the application of ultrasonic vibrations during laser processing delays the laser interaction with material due to enhancement of surface convection, it resulted in expulsion of melt from the irradiated region (forming craters) and transition from columnar to equiaxed dendritic grain structure in the resolidified melt films. Systematic investigations on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations (with vibrations frequency of 20 kHz and power output in the range of 20-40%) on the development of microstructure during laser surface melting (with laser power of 900 W and irradiation time in the range of 0.30-0.45 s) are reported. The results indicate that the proposed ultrasonic vibration-assisted laser processing can be designed for efficient material removal (laser machining) and improved equiaxed microstructure (laser surface modifications) during materials processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of electrical characteristics of no-insulation coil wound with surface-processed HTS tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Haeryong; Lee, Woo Seung; Kim, Jinsub; Baek, Geonwoo; Jeon, Sangsu; Yoon, Yong Soo; Ko, Tae Kuk

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the electrical characteristics of no-insulation coil wound with surface-processed HTS tape. The bypassing current path through turn-to-turn contacts within a coil is formed in the no-insulation coil, and this bypassing current path determines two characteristics: 1) self-protection and 2) charge-discharge delay. The amplitude of bypassing current is determined by contact resistance between the turn-to-turn contacts of the no-insulation coil. The surface roughness of the HTS tape is one of the parameters to change the contact resistance. The HTS tapes were processed to roughen by bead blast and abrasive paper, and the no-insulation coil is fabricated using processed HTS tape. We have studied the charge-discharge delay and self-protecting characteristic of each no-insulation coil by 1) sudden discharge tests and 2) overcurrent tests. The FEM simulations of contact resistance of no-insulation coil were carried out. The contact surface resistance of a case processed by abrasive paper has almost three times larger than that of reference no-insulation coil, and a case processed by bead blast presents almost same contact surface resistance with reference no-insulation coil.

  18. Characterization of boron carbide particulate reinforced in situ copper surface composites synthesized using friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiskumar, R., E-mail: sathiscit2011@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugan, N., E-mail: murugan@cit.edu.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Dinaharan, I., E-mail: dinaweld2009@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, V V College of Engineering, Tisaiyanvilai, 627 657 Tamil Nadu (India); Vijay, S.J., E-mail: vijayjoseph@karunya.edu [Centre for Research in Metallurgy (CRM), School of Mechanical Sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641 114 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-10-15

    Friction stir processing has evolved as a novel solid state technique to fabricate surface composites. The objective of this work is to apply the friction stir processing technique to fabricate boron carbide particulate reinforced copper surface composites and investigate the effect of B{sub 4}C particles and its volume fraction on microstructure and sliding wear behavior of the same. A groove was prepared on 6 mm thick copper plates and packed with B{sub 4}C particles. The dimensions of the groove was varied to result in five different volume fractions of B{sub 4}C particles (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 vol.%). A single pass friction stir processing was done using a tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 40 mm/min and an axial force of 10 kN. Metallurgical characterization of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites was carried out using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The sliding wear behavior was evaluated using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Results indicated that the B{sub 4}C particles significantly influenced the area, dispersion, grain size, microhardness and sliding wear behavior of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites. When the volume fraction of B{sub 4}C was increased, the wear mode changed from microcutting to abrasive wear and wear debris was found to be finer. Highlights: • Fabrication of Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composite by friction stir processing • Analyzing the effect of B{sub 4}C particles on the properties of Cu/B4C surface composite • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles reduced the area of surface composite. • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles enhanced the microhardness and wear rate. • B{sub 4}C particles altered the wear mode from microcutting to abrasive.

  19. O trabalho de equipe no programa de saúde da família: reflexões a partir de conceitos do processo grupal e de grupos operativos El trabajo del equipo en el programa de salud de la familia: reflexión a partir de conceptos del proceso grupal y de grupos operativos Team work in a family health care program: the team process concept and operational teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinira Magali Fortuna

    2005-04-01

    theoretical revision of team work in a family Health Care Program. We define team work in the health care field as a relationship network among people, power, knowledge, affection, and wishes, when there is a possibility of identifying group processes. We deal with concepts of Operational Group from the Argentinean School, which might help health professionals to get training in team work. We have visible (spoken and invisible (unspoken tasks within teams, which are modified and need to be combined and known. Communication, learning, the feeling of belonging, the atmosphere, the actions' pertinence for the team's purpose and power relations may help the team to get to know and analyze each other and to build a team. External supervision may help the team to turn itself into an operational team, working towards a life care project.

  20. International virtual teams engineering global success

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, P

    2015-01-01

    As a complete guide to international virtual team communication with practical problem-solving strategies, this book is a must read for managers and engineers in all stages of their professional development This book provides essential information for creating and maintaining successful international virtual teams for those who manage, participate in, or train others in international virtual teaming. Based on new studies in engineering communication, this book presents processes and principles that can help managers and engineers establish global virtual teams that work, assess the virtual team climate, and maintain the effectiveness of virtual teams across cultural boundaries. It provides knowledge and tools necessary to understand the variable contexts of global virtual teams, so that organizations are able to respond to inevitable changes in technology and the global marketplace.