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Sample records for surface processes team

  1. Study on team evaluation. Team process model for team evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou Kunihide; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Ayako

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have been done to evaluate or improve team performance in nuclear and aviation industries. Crew resource management is the typical example. In addition, team evaluation recently gathers interests in other teams of lawyers, medical staff, accountants, psychiatrics, executive, etc. However, the most evaluation methods focus on the results of team behavior that can be observed through training or actual business situations. What is expected team is not only resolving problems but also training younger members being destined to lead the next generation. Therefore, the authors set the final goal of this study establishing a series of methods to evaluate and improve teams inclusively such as decision making, motivation, staffing, etc. As the first step, this study develops team process model describing viewpoints for the evaluation. The team process is defined as some kinds of power that activate or inactivate competency of individuals that is the components of team's competency. To find the team process, the authors discussed the merits of team behavior with the experienced training instructors and shift supervisors of nuclear/thermal power plants. The discussion finds four team merits and many components to realize those team merits. Classifying those components into eight groups of team processes such as 'Orientation', 'Decision Making', 'Power and Responsibility', 'Workload Management', 'Professional Trust', 'Motivation', 'Training' and 'staffing', the authors propose Team Process Model with two to four sub processes in each team process. In the future, the authors will develop methods to evaluate some of the team processes for nuclear/thermal power plant operation teams. (author)

  2. The Impact of Environmental Complexity and Team Training on Team Processes and Performance in Multi-Team Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobb, Marshall

    1999-01-01

    This study examined how manipulating the level of environmental complexity and the type of team training given to subject volunteers impacted important team process behaviors and performance outcomes...

  3. [Group process: reflections of a nursing team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Adriana Serdotte Freitas; Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this qualitative, exploratory-descriptive study was to analyze the group process of a nursing team at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), under the light of Pichon-Rivière's Operative Group Theory. Data collection took place in 2008, using a semi-structured questionnaire and focal group. The group work concept is one of the four categories that resulted from the study, and is the object of approach in the present article. It was found that the knowledge about the group process must be shared, disseminated and discussed since the undergraduate studies and developed across the professional career. As the team learns and is able to identify the main indicators of the group process, it becomes possible to improve operatively, considering not only the outcomes but mainly the course covered until achieving the goal, aiming at group learning.

  4. [Investigation of team processes that enhance team performance in business organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Toru; Aoshima, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have suggested team processes that enhance team performance. However, past team process models were based on crew team, whose all team members perform an indivisible temporary task. These models may be inapplicable business teams, whose individual members perform middle- and long-term tasks assigned to individual members. This study modified the teamwork model of Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) and aimed to demonstrate a whole team process that enhances the performance of business teams. We surveyed five companies (member N = 1,400, team N = 161) and investigated team-level-processes. Results showed that there were two sides of team processes: "communication" and "collaboration to achieve a goal." Team processes in which communication enhanced collaboration improved team performance with regard to all aspects of the quantitative objective index (e.g., current income and number of sales), supervisor rating, and self-rating measurements. On the basis of these results, we discuss the entire process by which teamwork enhances team performance in business organizations.

  5. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58) or low (n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  6. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high ( n = 58) or low ( n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  7. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hagemann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes, the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58 or low (n = 58 collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes

  8. When teams shift among processes: insights from simulation and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Deanna M; McComb, Sara A

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces process shifts to study the temporal interplay among transition and action processes espoused in the recurring phase model proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zacarro (2001). Process shifts are those points in time when teams complete a focal process and change to another process. By using team communication patterns to measure process shifts, this research explores (a) when teams shift among different transition processes and initiate action processes and (b) the potential of different interventions, such as communication directives, to manipulate process shift timing and order and, ultimately, team performance. Virtual experiments are employed to compare data from observed laboratory teams not receiving interventions, simulated teams receiving interventions, and optimal simulated teams generated using genetic algorithm procedures. Our results offer insights about the potential for different interventions to affect team performance. Moreover, certain interventions may promote discussions about key issues (e.g., tactical strategies) and facilitate shifting among transition processes in a manner that emulates optimal simulated teams' communication patterns. Thus, we contribute to theory regarding team processes in 2 important ways. First, we present process shifts as a way to explore the timing of when teams shift from transition to action processes. Second, we use virtual experimentation to identify those interventions with the greatest potential to affect performance by changing when teams shift among processes. Additionally, we employ computational methods including neural networks, simulation, and optimization, thereby demonstrating their applicability in conducting team research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Methods: Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Discussion and Conclusion: Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members. PMID:29276591

  10. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members.

  11. Team training process for nuclear plant technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macris, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of team training is the cooperative and coordinated actions of individual to attain a common goal. Such training requires the development of more sophisticated educational techniques than those previously established for training individuals alone. Extensive research has been conducted to devise methods and techniques to bring about effective team training. This paper discusses current team training methods and present an instructional strategy for the application of effective team training techniques

  12. PERSPECTIVES ON MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM PROCESSES AMONG HEALTHCARE EXECUTIVES: PROCESSES THAT FACILITATE TEAM EFFECTIVENESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Amy; Erwin, Cathleen

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are used in healthcare organizations to address both clinical and managerial functions. Despite their prevalence, little is known about how team processes work to facilitate effectiveness among MDT leadership teams. This study explores perceptions of MDT participation experienced by organizational leaders in healthcare organizations in the United States. A survey of American College of Healthcare Executives members was conducted to assess involvement and perceptions of MDTs among health care management professionals. Descriptive statistics, independent T-Tests and Chi-square analyses were used to examine participation in MDTs, perception of MDT processes, and the association of participation and perceived processes with employee and organizational characteristics. The survey yielded a sample comprised of 492 healthcare executive or executive-track employees. An overwhelming majority indicated participation in MDTs. The study identified team processes that could use improvement including communication, cooperation, and conflict resolution. The study provides evidence that can help guide the development of training programs that focus on providing managerial leaders with strategies aimed at improving communication, coordination, and conflict resolution that will improve the effectiveness of MDT functioning in healthcare organizations.

  13. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Virtual team learning: The role of collaboration process and technology affordance in team decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Cordes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines two dimensions that impact virtual team decision making. One is the influence of collaboration process structure: the sequences, patterns, and routines participants use to interact and solve problems. The other is technology affordance: the strengths and weaknesses of technologies in terms of the usefulness they offer to teams when performing tasks. Some teams used a structured collaboration process with monitoring, coordination, and backup functions during a decision-making discussion. Other teams had no discussion process instructions. In addition, some teams possessed stronger technology affordance including both chat and an editable document. Other teams used chat technology alone, which offered fewer collaboration possibilities. The collaboration process and technology affordance factors were tested in an experiment in which four-person online teams worked as a personnel hiring committee. Information about four job candidates was distributed to create a hidden profile in which some information was shared across all team members, while other information was visible only to specific members. Two hundred and eight students, comprising fifty-two teams completed the study. Teams using the structured collaboration process made more accurate and higher-quality decisions. In addition, scores were higher when technology affordance included both chat and editable document tools, but this influence was not significant.

  15. Network measures for characterising team adaptation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, S.K.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Schmettow, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to advance the conceptualisation of team adaptation by applying social network analysis (SNA) measures in a field study of a paediatric cardiac surgical team adapting to changes in task complexity and ongoing dynamic complexity. Forty surgical procedures were observed by

  16. The Relationship between Creative Personality Composition, Innovative Team Climate, and Team Innovativeness: An Input-Process-Output Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Martinsen, Oyvind; Einarsen, Stale

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between creative personality composition, innovative team climate, and team innovation based on an input-process-output model. We measured personality with the Creative Person Profile, team climate with the Team Climate Inventory, and team innovation through team-member and supervisor reports of team…

  17. Exploring team working in dentistry using a process model of team effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Willcocks, Stephen George

    2018-01-01

    This article explores team working in the context of dentistry in the UK. It uses an input-process-output model of team effectiveness as a framework to analyse the key issues and determine a possible way forward. The article outlines possible barriers to effective team working revealed by the application of this model. It is argued that collaborative working is important and may be facilitated by shared leadership. It discusses the implications of this and how this may be developed.

  18. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Rovira-Asenjo

    Full Text Available Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering. So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4-5 members. Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women supervised 258 team members (39% women. Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders' self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration. While we did not find any gender differences in leaders' self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders.

  19. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Gumí, Tània; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering). So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4–5 members). Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women) supervised 258 team members (39% women). Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders’ self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration). While we did not find any gender differences in leaders’ self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders. PMID:29059231

  20. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership.

  1. Effective healthcare process redesign through an interdisciplinary team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rita; Huynh, Nathan; Cai, Bo; Vidal, José; Bennett, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare process redesign is a complex and often high risk undertaking. Typically, there is a limited understanding of the baseline process and often inadequate tools by which to assess it. This can be confounded by narrow redesign team expertise that can result in unanticipated and/or unintended redesign consequences. Interdisciplinary research teams of healthcare, biostatistics, engineering and computer science experts provide broad support for a more effective and safer approach to healthcare process redesign. We describe an interdisciplinary research team focused on medication administration process (MAP)redesign and its achievements and challenges.

  2. APPLICATION OF FUZZY ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO BUILDING RESEARCH TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol DĄBROWSKI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building teams has a fundamental impact for execution of research and development projects. The teams appointed for the needs of given projects are based on individuals from both inside and outside of the organization. Knowledge is not only a product available on the market but also an intangible resource affecting their internal and external processes. Thus it is vitally important for businesses and scientific research facilities to effectively manage knowledge within project teams. The article presents a proposal to use Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System methods in working groups building for R&D projects on the basis of employees skills.

  3. Application of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to Building Research Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Karol; Skrzypek, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    Building teams has a fundamental impact for execution of research and development projects. The teams appointed for the needs of given projects are based on individuals from both inside and outside of the organization. Knowledge is not only a product available on the market but also an intangible resource affecting their internal and external processes. Thus it is vitally important for businesses and scientific research facilities to effectively manage knowledge within project teams. The article presents a proposal to use Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System) methods in working groups building for R&D projects on the basis of employees skills.

  4. TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  5. Leader-team complementarity: Exploring the interactive effects of leader personality traits and team power distance values on team processes and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Judge, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Integrating the leader trait perspective with dominance complementarity theory, we propose team power distance as an important boundary condition for the indirect impact of leader extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on team performance through a team's potency beliefs and through relational identification with the leader. Using time-lagged, 3-source data from 71 teams, we found that leader extraversion had a positive indirect impact on team in-role and extrarole performance through relational identification, but only for high power distance teams; leader conscientiousness had a positive influence on team in-role performance through team potency, but only for high power distance teams; and leader agreeableness had a positive effect on team in-role and extrarole performance via relational identification and on team in-role performance via team potency, but only for low power distance teams. The findings address prior inconsistencies regarding the relationships between leader traits and team effectiveness, identify an important boundary condition and key team processes that bridge the links, and provide a deeper understanding of the role of leader traits in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Motivated information processing in organizational teams: Progress, puzzles, and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research into group and team functioning looks at groups that perform cognitive tasks, such as decision making, problem solving, and innovation. The Motivated Information Processing in Groups Model (MIP-G; De Dreu, Nijstad, & Van Knippenberg, 2008) conjectures that information processing

  7. Building a team through a strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Debra; Priganc, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Strategic planning is a process often left to senior hospital leadership, with limited input from unit-level, bedside patient care providers. This frequent approach to strategic planning misses the opportunity to engage a wide range of employees, build a shared sense of commitment, produce a collaborative team environment, and to generate greater acceptance of the plan. The Patient Care Services division at the University of Chicago Medicine used a strategic planning process that incorporated 360-degree input from both within the Patient Care Services division and outside of the division. The result is a strategic vision and plan that, shaped by broad-based input from both internal and external constituencies, is strengthened by the team that emerged from the process. Through the process of identifying a common understanding of the group's future direction, a shared purpose was created that transcended traditional professional boundaries and shaped a cohesive team focused on effective and efficient patient care. Now, with a focused strategic plan and a team centered on a shared purpose, the team is beginning to effectively deliver on the plan.

  8. A pleasure working together? : the effects of dissimilarity in team member conscientiousness on team temporal processes and individual satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, J.M.P.; Peeters, M.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study of 43 student project teams, we tested a multi-level mediation model of the relationship between dissimilarity in conscientiousness, team temporal processes, and team member satisfaction. We distinguished between individual-level dissimilarity in conscientiousness (i.e., the distance

  9. Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

  10. It's what you do and the way that you do it : team task, team size and innovation-relation group processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curral, L.A.; Forrester, R.H.; Dawson, J.F.; West, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a study of the relationships between team inputs (task type and team size) and team processes in 87 cross industry Portuguese teams, some of which had high and some low requirements to innovate. Team processes were measured using the Team Climate Inventory (TCI), which focuses

  11. Gender Composition of Tactical Decision Making Teams; Impact on Team Process and Outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Linda

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of teams differing in gender composition on a university-developed synthetic task, the Team Interactive Decision Exercise for Teams Incorporating Distributed Expertise (TIDE2...

  12. Action plan for the communication process in a nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Valladares Broca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to propose an action plan for the communication process in the nursing team. The theoretical references were: the model of a communication process proposed by Berlo and essential concepts of King´s Theory. It is a qualitative, convergent-care research. The data production technique was the semi-structured interview with 25 nurses of a public hospital. Data used the thematic content analysis technique. The elements of the communication team are: perception, self, space, time, stress, role, authority, power, status, audience, empathy and nonverbal communication. The plan proposes a dynamic, flexible, interactive and relational communication process, in order to contribute to the professional qualification and make new practices of care viable. It was concluded that its elements do not have a fixed and stable position, but throughout the process they are used according to the needs of each party.

  13. Oscillations of centroid position and surface area of soccer teams in small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; Lemmink, Koen; Delleman, Nico; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a collective variable that captures the dynamics of team sports like soccer at match level. The centroid positions and surface areas of two soccer teams potentially describe the coordinated flow of attacking and defending in small-sided soccer games at team level. The aim of the

  14. Unraveling the Black Box of New Venture Team Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnåli, Ekaterina S.; Knockaert, Mirjam; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2017-01-01

    of Entrepreneurial Theorizing, the chapter argues how and when specific theories such as faultline theory, creativity and imagination, and organizational and team justice may be instructive in studying NVT processes at the prefounding phase, and particularly the (self)-selection of individuals into (out of) the NVT...... established input-processes-outcome (IPO) framework. This framework has long been used within the field of organizational behavior as it seeks to understand group performance and other group-level outcomes as the consequence of the inputs and processes that precede them. Building upon the foundations...

  15. The Application of Six Sigma Methodologies to University Processes: The Use of Student Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Mildred Golden; Alexander, Christine; Taneja, Sonia; Tirumalasetty, Sowmya; Chadalavada, Deepthi

    2012-01-01

    The first student Six Sigma team (activated under a QEP Process Sub-team) evaluated the course and curriculum approval process. The goal was to streamline the process and thereby shorten process cycle time and reduce confusion about how the process works. Members of this team developed flowcharts on how the process is supposed to work (by…

  16. Ivins examines Destiny with the processing team in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, Marsha Ivins, a mission specialist on the STS-98 crew, inspects the U.S. Laboratory with members of the laboratory's processing team. The laboratory module, considered the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), has been named 'Destiny' in honor of its prominent role in the world's largest science and technology effort. It is planned for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on the sixth ISS construction flight currently targeted for March 2000. From left to right are Ivins, Danny Whittington (face not visible), Melissa Orozco, Jerry Hopkins, and Suzanne Fase.

  17. Engaged work teams in healthy companies: drivers, processes, and outcomes of team work engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Torrente Barberà, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis analyses work engagement in the context of work teams taking a collective, psychosocial perspective. Throughout this thesis, the following topics will be addressed: 1) the state-of-the-art in the topic of team work engagement, 2) the measurement of team work engagement, 3) the association of team work engagement with other relevant individual-level constructs and how it fits in traditional research models in the field of Positive Occupational Health Psychology, 4) the antecede...

  18. The Tiger Team Process in the Rebaselining of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the integrated, teaming approach and planning process utilized by the Tiger Team in the development of the IPMP. This paper will also serve to document the benefits derived from this implementation process

  19. Task-Team-Process: The Development of Shared Representations in a Engineeing Design Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badke-Schaub, Petra; Lauche, Kristina; Neumann, Andre

    2009-01-01

    In this article, an analysis of the development of team mental models in two engineering meetings is described. The authors present a two-stage model of the development of sharedness in teams, which formed the basis for a communication analysis of both meetings. The transcripts of the meetings were...... categorised referring to underlying cognitive acts and design strategies. The results are largely consistent with the assumptions of the model indicating a lack of sharedness. This was confirmed by changes of frequencies linked to task-, team-, and processrelated cognitive acts within and between the two...

  20. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally... this chapter, the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

  1. How to improve team effectiveness through group processes: An example in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Rocío; Navarro Cid, José

    2015-01-01

    Increasing group and team effectiveness is fundamental for any organisation, especially during periods of economic crisis. In order to build or design a team or to optimise its work, it is necessary to consider tasks, processes and results. Given that teams are a key tool for competitiveness in the automotive sector, this paper focuses on how to improve the performance and the effectiveness of production teams in Spain's automotive industry through three processes: group development, gr...

  2. Collective (Team) Learning Process Models: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Randall

    2010-01-01

    Teams have become a key resource for learning and accomplishing work in organizations. The development of collective learning in specific contexts is not well understood, yet has become critical to organizational success. The purpose of this conceptual review is to inform human resource development (HRD) practice about specific team behaviors and…

  3. Superhydrophobic surfaces by electrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Amigoni, Sonia; Guittard, Frederic

    2013-03-13

    This review is an exhaustive representation of the electrochemical processes reported in the literature to produce superhydrophobic surfaces. Due to the intensive demand in the elaboration of superhydrophobic materials using low-cost, reproducible and fast methods, the use of strategies based on electrochemical processes have exponentially grown these last five years. These strategies are separated in two parts: the oxidation processes, such as oxidation of metals in solution, the anodization of metals or the electrodeposition of conducting polymers, and the reduction processed such as the electrodeposition of metals or the galvanic deposition. One of the main advantages of the electrochemical processes is the relative easiness to produce various surface morphologies and a precise control of the structures at a micro- or a nanoscale. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Social Influence Interpretation of Interpersonal Processes and Team Performance Over Time Using Bayesian Model Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Alan R.; van de Schoot, Rens; Delmar, Frédéric; Crano, William D.

    The team behavior literature is ambiguous about the relations between members’ interpersonal processes—task debate and task conflict—and team performance. From a social influence perspective, we show why members’ interpersonal processes determine team performance over time in small groups. Together,

  5. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  6. HOW TO IMPROVE TEAM EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH GROUP PROCESSES: AN EXAMPLE IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Meneses

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing group and team effectiveness is fundamental for any organisation, especially during periods of economic crisis. In order to build or design a team or to optimise its work, it is necessary to consider tasks, processes and results. Given that teams are a key tool for competitiveness in the automotive sector, this paper focuses on how to improve the performance and the effectiveness of production teams in Spain's automotive industry through three processes: group development, group identification, and team potency. The results show that these processes predict 57% of group performance, and in particular two of the effectiveness criteria used in this sector: absenteeism and order and hygiene in the workplace. We discuss the usefulness of these results for managers and team leaders in order to improve team performance and effectiveness in the automotive sector.

  7. Nanoscale processes on insulating surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gnecco, Enrico; Szymoński, Marek

    2009-01-01

    ... the group of Prof. Ernst Meyer in Basel, where he investigated friction processes on alkali halide surfaces in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The main result was the observation of a logarithmic velocity dependence of atomic friction, which was interpreted within a combination of the classical Tomlinson and Eyring models. After his Ph.D. he joined the ...

  8. What is happening under the surface? Power, conflict and the performance of medical teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janss, Rozemarijn; Rispens, Sonja; Segers, Mien; Jehn, Karen A

    2012-09-01

    The effect of teamwork on team performance is broadly recognised in the medical field. This recognition is manifested in educational programmes in which attention to interpersonal behaviours during teamwork is growing. Conflict and power differences influence interpersonal behaviours and are marked topics in studies of group functioning in the social and organisational psychology literature. Insights from the domain of social sciences put the ongoing improvement of teamwork into broader perspective. This paper shows how knowledge from the domain of social and organisational psychology contributes to the understanding of teamwork in the medical environment. More specifically, this paper suggests that unfolding the underlying issues of power and conflict within medical teams can be of extra help in the development of educational interventions aimed at improving team performance. We review the key social psychology and organisational behaviour literature concerning power and conflict, and relate the insights derived from this to the team process of ad hoc medical action teams. We present a theoretical framework in which insights into power and conflict are used to explain and predict team dynamics in ad hoc medical action teams. Power and conflict strongly influence interpersonal behaviour. Characteristics of medical action teams give rise to all kinds of issues of disagreement and are accompanied by complex issues of intra-team power distribution. We argue that how team members coordinate, cooperate and communicate is steered by members' personal motivations, which, in turn, strongly depend on their perceptions of power and conflict. Given the importance of the performance of these teams, we suggest future directions for the development of training interventions building on knowledge and theories derived from social and organisational psychology. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  9. Distinguishing between taskwork and teamwork planning in teams: relations with coordination and interpersonal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M

    2014-05-01

    Planning in teams represents a critical process that lays the groundwork for effective team functioning. The current investigation examined whether emergent team planning can be meaningfully characterized in terms of a distinction between planning that focuses on taskwork and planning that focuses on teamwork. In Study 1, items written to reflect commonly identified indicators of team planning were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2, slightly modified items were provided to a separate sample, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. In Study 3, the relationships between the different forms of planning and other team processes (i.e., coordination, interpersonal processes) were examined in order to determine whether there are unique relationships for task-focused and team-focused planning. Results from the first 2 studies provided support for a 2-factor structure of team planning, whereas Study 3 found independent relationships for taskwork and teamwork planning with subsequent team processes. Both forms of planning also exhibited indirect relationships with team performance via the mediating role of subsequent team processes. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Are real teams healthy teams?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buljac, M.; van Woerkom, M.; van Wijngaarden, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of real-team--as opposed to a team in name only--characteristics (i.e., team boundaries, stability of membership, and task interdependence) on team processes (i.e., team learning and emotional support) and team effectiveness in the long-term care sector. We employed a

  11. Effective Strategies to Spread Redesigning Care Processes Among Healthcare Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; O'Connor, Patricia; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Briand, Anaïck; Biron, Alain; Baillargeon, Sophie; MacGibbon, Brenda; Ringer, Justin; Cyr, Guylaine

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how spread strategies facilitate the successful implementation of the Transforming Care at the Bedside (TCAB) program and their impact on healthcare workers and patients in a major Canadian healthcare organization. This study used a qualitative and descriptive design with focus groups and individual interviews held in May 2014. Participants included managers and healthcare providers from eight TCAB units in a university health center in Quebec, Canada. The sample was composed of 43 individuals. The data were analyzed using NVivo according to the method proposed by Miles and Huberman. The first two themes that emerged from the analysis are related to context (organizational transition requiring many changes) and spread strategies for the TCAB program (senior management support, release time and facilitation, rotation of team members, learning from previous TCAB teams, and engaging patients). The last theme that emerged from the analysis is the impact on healthcare professionals (providing front-line staff and managers with the training they need to make changes, team leadership, and increasing receptivity to hearing patients' and families' needs and requests). This study describes the perspectives of managers and team members to provide a better understanding of how spread strategies can facilitate the successful implementation of the TCAB program in a Canadian healthcare organization. Spread strategies facilitate the implementation of changes to improve the quality and safety of care provided to patients. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Improved ant Colony Optimization for Virtual Teams Building in Collaborative Process Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual teams have been adopted by organizations to gain competitive advantages in this global economy. Virtual teams are a ubiquitous part of getting work done in almost every organization. For the purpose of building virtual teams in collaborative process planning, the method based on improved ant colony algorithm (IMACO was proposed. The concept of virtual team was illustrated and the necessity of building virtual teams in collaborative process planning was analyzed. The sub tasks with certain timing relationship were described and the model of building virtual teams in collaborative process planning was established, which was solved by improved ant colony algorithm. In this paper applications of the IMACO and ACO are compared and demonstrate that the use of the IMACO algorithm performs better. An example was studied to illustrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  13. The Relationship of Individual Difference and Group Process Variables with Self-Managed Team Performance: A Field Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of dispositional individual difference team composition and group process variables in explaining team performance was examined for 1,030 military officers working in 92 teams over a 5-week period...

  14. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of...

  15. Implementation of a self-directed work team in a TLD Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnwine, A.A.; Bogard, R.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Somers, D.E.; Souleyrette, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to maintain productivity with a decreasing work force, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has adopted the concept of Self-Directed Work Teams in various disciplines. The plant's Health Physics Department was able to eliminate a layer of front-line supervisors by establishing four self-directed work teams. Each team was able to choose their method of implementation. The TLD Processing Center Team chose to use project managment tools to ensure a smooth transition from the traditional work group to a self-directed approach. This process focused on establishing responsibilities, determining training requirements, determining a leadership style for the group, and performing a potential problem analysis for the transition. The transition also reviewed interface issues that could occur with upper management, matrix management, technical oversight, and organizational peers. The team's experience is also evaluated in comparison to other Self-Directed Work Teams

  16. When teams can't decide. Are stalemates on your leadership team making you a dictator by default? Stop blaming your people--start fixing the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Bob

    2008-11-01

    Leadership teams that can't reach consensus wait for the CEO to make the final call--and often are disappointed by the outcome. Frisch calls this phenomenon the dictator-by-default syndrome. Many companies turn to team-building and communication exercises to try to fix the situation. But that won't work, the author argues, because the trouble is not with the people, it's with the decision-making process. Attempting to arrive at a collective preference on the basis of individual opinions is inherently problematic. Once leadership teams realize that voting-system mathematics are the culprit, they can stop wasting time on irrelevant psychological exercises and instead adopt practical measures designed to break the impasse. They must begin by acknowledging the problem and understanding what causes it. When more than two options are on the table, the scene is set for the CEO to become a dictator by default. Even yes-or-no choices present difficulties, because they always include a third, implied alternative: "Neither of the above." When the CEO and the team understand why they have trouble making decisions, they can adopt the following tactics to minimize dysfunction: Clearly articulate the desired outcome, generate a range of options for achieving it, test "fences" (which can be moved) and "walls" (which cannot), surface preferences early, state each option's pros and cons, and devise new options that preserve the best features of existing ones, Teams using such tactics need to adhere to two ground rules. First, they must deliberate confidentially, because a secure climate for conversation allows members to float trial balloons and cut deals. And second, members must be given enough time to study their options and assess the counterarguments. Only then can they achieve genuine alignment.

  17. Object and technologies in the working process of an itinerant team in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslabão, Adriane Domingues; Pinho, Leandro Barbosa de; Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva; Camatta, Marcio Wagner; Santos, Elitiele Ortiz Dos

    2017-01-01

    Objective To analyze the work object and the technologies in the working process of a Mental Health Itinerant Team in the attention to drug users. Methods Qualitative case study, carried out in a municipality in the South of Brazil. The theoretical framework was the Healthcare Labor Process. The data was collected through participant observation and semi-structured interviews with the professionals of an itinerant team in the year of 2015. For data analysis we used the Thematic Content Analysis. Results In the first empirical category - work object - the user is considered as a focus, bringing new challenges in the team's relationship with the network. In the second category - technologies of the work process - potentialities and contradictions of the team work tools are highlighted. Conclusions As an innovation in the mental health context, the itinerant team brings real possibilities to reinvent the care for the drug user as well as new institutional challenges.

  18. Addressing the paradox of the team innovation process: A review and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Amanda L; Petruzzelli, Alexandra; McClurg, Caitlin E

    2018-01-01

    Facilitating team innovation is paramount to promoting progress in the science, technology, engineering, and math fields, as well as advancing national health, safety, prosperity, and welfare. However, innovation teams face a unique set of challenges due to the novelty and uncertainty that is core to the definition of innovation, as well as the paradoxical nature of idea generation and idea implementation processes. These and other challenges must be overcome for innovation teams to realize their full potential for producing change. The purpose of this review is, thus, to provide insight into the unique context that these teams function within and provide an integrative, evidence-based, and practically useful, organizing heuristic that focuses on the most important considerations for facilitating team innovation. Finally, we provide practical guidance for psychologists, organizations, practitioners, scientists, educators, policymakers, and others who employ teams to produce novel, innovative solutions to today's problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Coaching Teamwork in the Classroom Using an Innovative Team-Coaching Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Gayle M; Lingham, Tony

    2018-04-19

    The importance of health professionals working in teams was first acknowledged by the Institute of Medicine more than 15 years ago. Since then, teaching students to function in teams continues to present challenges in nursing education. This article presents an innovative process, using faculty as coaches in the classroom, to enhance student learning through experiential teamwork.

  20. The Joint Influence of Intra- and Inter-Team Learning Processes on Team Performance : A Constructive or Destructive Combination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Rike; Endedijk, Maaike D.; van Veelen, Ruth; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2018-01-01

    In order for teams to build a shared conception of their task, team learning is crucial. Benefits of intra-team learning have been demonstrated in numerous studies. However, teams do not operate in a vacuum, and interact with their environment to execute their tasks. Our knowledge of the added value

  1. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.

  2. Team confidence, motivated information processing, and dynamic group decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Beersma, B.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Motivated Information Processing in Groups (MIP-G) model, groups should perform ambiguous (non-ambiguous) tasks better when they have high (low) epistemic motivation and concomitant tendencies to engage in systematic (heuristic) information processing and exchange. The authors

  3. The Team Climate Inventory as a Measure of Primary Care Teams' Processes: Validation of the French Version

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Dragieva, Nataliya; Del Grande, Claudio; Dawson, Jeremy; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Barnsley, Jan; Hogg, William E.; Tousignant, Pierre; West, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the short 19-item Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and explore the contributions of individual and organizational characteristics to perceived team effectiveness.

  4. Surface migration in sorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, A.; Neretnieks, J.

    1983-03-01

    Diffusion rates of sorbing chemical species in granites and clays are in several experiments within the KBS study, higher than can be explained by pore diffusion only. One possible additional transport mechanism is transport of of sorbed molecules/ions along the intrapore surfaces. As a first step a literature investigation on on solid surfaces has been conducted. A lot of experimental evidence of the mobility of the sorbed molecules has been gathered through the years, particulary for metal surfaces and chemical engineering systems. For clays however, there are only a few articles, and for granites none. Two types of surface migration models have been proposed in the litterature: i) Surface flow as a result of a gradient in spreading pressure. ii) Surface diffusion as a result of a gradient in concentration. The surface flow model has only been applied to gaseous systems. However, it should be equally applicable to liquid systems. The models i) and ii) are conceptually very different. However, the resulting expressions for surface flux are complicated and it will not be an easy task to distinguish between them. There seem to be three ways of discriminating between the transport mechanisms: a) Temperature dependence. b) Concentration dependence. c) Order of magnitude. (Forf)

  5. Study of connectivity in student teams by observation of their learning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Patricio H.; Correa, Rafael D.

    2016-05-01

    A registration procedure based data tracking classroom activities students formed into teams, which are immersed in basic learning processes, particularly physical sciences is presented. For the analysis of the data various mathematical tools to deliver results in numerical indicators linking their learning, performance, quality of relational nexus to transformation their emotions. The range of variables under observation and further study, which is influenced by the evolution of the emotions of the different teams of students, it also covers the traditional approach to information delivery from outside (teaching in lecture) or from inside each team (abilities of pupils) to instructional materials that enhance learning inquiry and persuasion.

  6. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  7. Technology as Teammate: Examining the Role of External Cognition in Support of Team Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use. This includes distinctions between teamwork and taskwork and the notion of general and specific competencies from the organizational sciences along with the concepts of offloading and scaffolding from the cognitive sciences. This paper contributes to the team cognition literature along multiple lines. First, it aids theory development by synthesizing a broad set of perspectives on the varied forms of cognition emerging in complex collaborative contexts. Second, it supports research by providing diagnostic guidelines to study how artifacts are related to team cognition. Finally, it supports information systems designers by more precisely describing how to conceptualize team-supporting technology and artifacts. As such, it provides a means to more richly understand process and performance as it occurs within sociotechnical systems. Our overarching objective is to show how team cognition can both be more clearly conceptualized and more precisely measured by integrating theory from cognitive engineering and the cognitive and organizational sciences.

  8. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Paul H.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 6-hour introductory module on statistical process control (SPC), designed to develop competencies in the following skill areas: (1) identification of the three classes of SPC use; (2) understanding a process and how it works; (3)…

  9. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  10. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO_2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  11. Improving Video Game Development: Facilitating Heterogeneous Team Collaboration through Flexible Software Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Juergen; Schweda, Angelika; Winkler, Dietmar; Biffl, Stefan

    Based on our observations of Austrian video game software development (VGSD) practices we identified a lack of systematic processes/method support and inefficient collaboration between various involved disciplines, i.e. engineers and artists. VGSD includes heterogeneous disciplines, e.g. creative arts, game/content design, and software. Nevertheless, improving team collaboration and process support is an ongoing challenge to enable a comprehensive view on game development projects. Lessons learned from software engineering practices can help game developers to increase game development processes within a heterogeneous environment. Based on a state of the practice survey in the Austrian games industry, this paper presents (a) first results with focus on process/method support and (b) suggests a candidate flexible process approach based on Scrum to improve VGSD and team collaboration. Results showed (a) a trend to highly flexible software processes involving various disciplines and (b) identified the suggested flexible process approach as feasible and useful for project application.

  12. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  13. Description of two-process surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabon, W; Pawlus, P

    2014-01-01

    After two machining processes, a large number of surface topography measurements were made using Talyscan 150 stylus measuring equipment. The measured samples were divided into two groups. The first group contained two-process surfaces of random nature, while the second group used random-deterministic textures of random plateau parts and portions of deterministic valleys. For comparison, one-process surfaces were also analysed. Correlation and regression analysis was used to study the dependencies among surface texture parameters in 2D and 3D systems. As the result of this study, sets of parameters describing multi-process surface topography were obtained for two-process surfaces of random and of random-deterministic types. (papers)

  14. Multidisciplinary team of intensive therapy: humanization and fragmentation of the work process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Viviane Canhizares; Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Siqueira, Fernanda Paula Cerântola; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of humanized care in intensive care units considering the experience of the multidisciplinary team. descriptive and exploratory qualitative research. For this purpose, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 professionals of the heath-care team, and, after transcription, we organized the qualitative data according to content analysis. from two main categories, we were able to understand that humanized care is characterized in the actions of health-care: effective communication, team work, empathy, singularity, and integrality; and mischaracterized in the management processes, specifically in the fragmentation of the work process and health-care, in the precarious work conditions, and in differing conceptual aspects of the political proposal of humanization. care activities in intensive therapy are guided by the humanization of care and corroborate the hospital management as a challenge to be overcome to boost advances in the operationalization of this Brazilian policy.

  15. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  16. Optimising the Efficacy of Hybrid Academic Teams: Lessons from a Systematic Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Warren; Wallin, Margie; Boyd, Bill; Woolcott, Geoff; Markopoulos, Christos; Boyd, Wendy; Foster, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Undertaking a systematic review can have many benefits, beyond any theoretical or conceptual discoveries pertaining to the underlying research question. This paper explores the value of utilising a hybrid academic team when undertaking the systematic review process, and shares a range of practical strategies. The paper also comments on how such a…

  17. Once upon a time : Understanding team processes as relational event networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.T.A.J.; Contractor, N.; DeChurch, L.

    2016-01-01

    For as long as groups and teams have been the subject of scientific inquiry, researchers have been interested in understanding the relationships that form within them, and the pace at which these relationships develop and change. Despite this interest in understanding the process underlying the

  18. Change champions at the grassroots level: practice innovation using team process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J; Rantz, M

    1994-01-01

    A nursing administrative group recognized the critical value of staff participation in the formulation of a restructuring project and guidance throughout the project. Using a team approach, a task force of three staff nurses, two assistant nurse managers, a nurse clinician, a nursing practice specialist, and a representative from nursing administration came together. They were given responsibility for researching and setting the course for restructuring change. A unit-based team including a unit secretary, a nursing attendant, licensed practical nurse (LPN), and six staff nurses was formed from volunteers from the 40-bed medicine unit to develop that unit's plan for restructuring. The unit-based team analyzed patient care needs and staff member roles. They created a new patient care technician role as well as a nurse care coordinator role. The role of the LPN was envisioned as providing technical support. Staffing mix was also determined by the unit-based team. Both the task force and the unit-based team continue to evaluate, troubleshoot, and take every opportunity to sell their vision to solidify it further as the foundation for the future of patient care services at the hospital. The process will soon move forward to a large surgical unit.

  19. Plasma surface interaction processes and possible synergisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, R.; Roberto, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    The process determining the plasma surface interaction in today's high temperature plasma experiments are investigated following several lines. First, in plasma devices, the particle and energy fluxes to the different first wall areas the fluxes from the walls back into the plasma are measured and the boundary plasma parameters are determined. The surface composition and structure of the walls, limiters and divertor plates are analyzed following exposure to many discharges. Secondly, the different surface processes which are expected to contribute to the plasma surface interaction (particularly to hydrogen particle balance and impurity introduction) are studied in simulation experiments using well defined particle beams

  20. Digital map and situation surface: a team-oriented multidisplay workspace for network enabled situation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.

  1. Surface Energy and Setting Process of Contacting Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Musokhranov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a challenge in terms of ensuring an accuracy of the relative position of the conjugated surfaces that is to determine a coefficient of friction. To solve it, there is a proposal to use the surface energy, as a tool that influences the contacting parts nature. Presently, energy of the surface layers at best is only stated, but not used in practice.Analysis of the conditions of interaction between two contacting surfaces, such as seizing and setting cannot be explained only from the position of the roughness parameters. It is found that these phenomena are explained by the appearing gripe (setting bridges, which result from the energy of interaction between two or more adjacent surfaces. The emerging phenomenon such as micro welding, i.e. occurring bonds, is caused by the overflow of energy, according to the theory of physics, from the surface with a high level of energy to the surface with the smaller one to balance the system as a whole.The paper shows that through the use of process, controlling the depth of the surface layer and creating a certain structure, the energy level of the material as a whole can be specified. And this will allow us to provide the necessary performance and mechanical properties. It means to create as many gripe bridges as possible to ensure continuous positioning i.e. a fixed connection of the contacting surfaces.It was determined that to increase a value of the friction coefficient, the physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer of the parts material must be taken into account, namely, in the part body accumulate the energy to be consumed for forming the surface.The paper gives recommendations for including the parts of the surface energy in the qualitative indicators of characteristics. This will make a technologist, when routing a process, to choose such operations and modes to provide the designer-specified parameters not only of the accuracy and surface finish, but also of the

  2. Reflections on the process of selecting and preparing teams: the case of the brazilian youth masculine volleyball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Shigunov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out with the aim to analyze the methodological strategy adopted by the coach of the Brazilian youth man volleyball team during training sessions in the preparation period. As a data gathering method, 45 videos were taken during sessions, 28 in Belo Horizonte and 17 in Poços de Caldas. A semi-structured interview was also held with the coach and the coaching staff . The results of the research indicated that the coach’s pedagogical practice was strongly influenced by technical, developmental and systemic methodological conceptions. This practice was developed through a combination of different methodologies, such as analytic, synthetic, structuralist, dynamic and progressive. The relationship between the coaching staff and the athletes was harmonious and respectful. It was shown that, besides to anthropometric, conditioning, technical-coordinating, tactical-cognitive and psychological factors, the twelve athletes who represented Brazil in the World Youth Championshipwere also chosen for other qualities. Among the qualities to be mentioned are the capacity for leadership, group cohesion, courage and determination . The research pointed out that the preparation process of the Brazilian team was carried out with great competence, through a correct division of training time and a careful selection of the athletes, following international standard criteria such as height, strength and individual technical skills. RESUMO Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o propósito de analisar a estratégia metodológica adotada pelo técnico da seleção brasileira masculina de voleibol infanto-juvenil nos treinamentos no período preparatório da equipe. Como instrumento de coleta de dados, foram realizadas filmagens em vídeo de 45 sessões de treinamentos, sendo 28 em Belo horizonte e 17 em Poços de Caldas. Também foi realizada uma entrevista semi-estruturada com o treinador da seleção brasileira e a sua comissão técnica. Os

  3. On knowledge transfer management as a learning process for ad hoc teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D.

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge management represents an emerging domain becoming more and more important. Concepts like knowledge codification and personalisation, knowledge life-cycle, social and technological dimensions, knowledge transfer and learning management are integral parts. Focus goes here in the process of knowledge transfer for the case of ad hoc teams. The social dimension of knowledge transfer plays an important role. No single individual actors involved in the process, but a collective one, representing the organisation. It is critically important for knowledge to be managed from the life-cycle point of view. A complex communication network needs to be in place to supports the process of knowledge transfer. Two particular concepts, the bridge tie and transactive memory, would eventually enhance the communication. The paper focuses on an informational communication platform supporting the collaborative work on knowledge transfer. The platform facilitates the creation of a topic language to be used in knowledge modelling, storage and reuse, by the ad hoc teams.

  4. Processing and finishing of granite surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Klich, J. (Jiří); Hlaváček, P. (Petr); Ščučka, J. (Jiří); Sitek, L. (Libor); Foldyna, J. (Josef); Georgiovská, L. (Lucie); Souček, K. (Kamil); Staš, L. (Lubomír); Bortolussi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with granite surface processing and finishing by various methods including bush hammering, flaming, polishing, continuous and pulsating water jetting. Both optical and CT X-ray methods are used for analysis of surface and subsurface areas of tested samples. Advantages of pulsating water jetting compared to other techniques are discussed.

  5. Radon transport processes below the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkening, M.

    1980-01-01

    Processes by which 222 Rn is transported from the soil to the earth's surface are reviewed. The mechanisms effective in transporting 222 Rn to the surface are related to the size and configuration of the spaces occupied by the soil gas which may vary from molecular interstices to large underground caverns. The near-surface transport processes are divided into two categories: (1) a microscopic process that includes molecular diffusion and viscous flow in fine capillaries and (2) macroscopic flow in fissures and channels. Underground air rich in 222 Rn can also reach the surface through cracks, fissures, and underground channels. This type of transport is shown for (1) a horizontal tunnel penetrating a fractured hillside, (2) a large underground cave, and (3) volcanic activity. Pressure differentials having various natural origins and thermal gradients are responsible for the transport in these examples. 222 Rn transport by ordinary molecular diffusion appears to be the dominant process

  6. Mechanisms and energetics of surface atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsong, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    The energies involved in various surface atomic processes such as surface diffusion, the binding of small atomic clusters on the surface, the interaction between two adsorbed atoms, the dissociation of an atom from a small cluster or from a surface layer, the binding of kink size atoms or atoms at different adsorption sites to the surface etc., can be derived from an analysis of atomically resolved field ion microscope images and a kinetic energy measurement of low temperature field desorbed ions using the time-of-flight atom-probe field ion microscope. These energies can be used to compare with theories and to understand the transport of atoms on the surface in atomic reconstructions, epitaxial growth of surface layers and crystal growth, adsorption layer superstructure formation, and also why an atomic ordering or atomic reconstruction at the surface is energetically favored. Mechanisms of some of the surface atomic processes are also clarified from these quantitative, atomic resolution studies. In this paper work in this area is bris briefly reviewed

  7. OPTIMIZING MAINTENANCE PROCESSES ON CUSTOMER SITE IN A DECENTRALIZED ORGANIZATION BASED ON MULTI-SITE TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moutinho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This lecture focuses on the complexity to manage and optimize maintenance processes, operations and service tasks to equipments and systems installed at customer sites. Different locations, access and working environment may compromise any standardization of setup's and operations. Multi-site teams based on geographic strategic locations, adds complexity to trainning, communication, supervising and monitoring processes. Logistics and information systems assume relevant rolls to consolidate global performance. Beside efficiency, effectiveness productivity and flexibility, field teams need skills on autonomy responsibility and proactivity. This lecture also explores the needed adaptation of most part of available literature, normally based on production sites, as also of Lean- Kaizen principles to the fact that services can not be stocked, quality is normally more difficult to measure and customer is normally present when and where service is produced.

  8. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  9. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes. More details...

  10. The team climate inventory as a measure of primary care teams' processes: validation of the French version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Dragieva, Nataliya; Del Grande, Claudio; Dawson, Jeremy; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Barnsley, Jan; Hogg, William E; Tousignant, Pierre; West, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the short 19-item Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and explore the contributions of individual and organizational characteristics to perceived team effectiveness. The TCI was completed by 471 of the 618 (76.2%) healthcare professionals and administrative staff working in a random sample of 37 primary care practices in the province of Quebec. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the original four-factor model. Cronbach's alphas were excellent (from 0.88 to 0.93). Latent class analysis revealed three-class response structure. Respondents in practices with professional governance had a higher probability of belonging to the "High TCI" class than did practices with community governance (36.7% vs. 19.1%). Administrative staff tended to fall into the "Suboptimal TCI" class more frequently than did physicians (36.5% vs. 19.0%). Results confirm the validity of our French version of the short TCI. The association between professional governance and better team climate merits further exploration. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. Investigating the effect of nurse-team communication on nurse turnover: relationships among communication processes, identification, and intent to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apker, Julie; Propp, Kathleen M; Ford, Wendy S Zabava

    2009-03-01

    Enhanced team communication may strengthen nurses' attachment to their organizations and teams and improve nurse retention. This study examines the relationships among nurse-team communication, identification (organizational and team), and intent to leave. Hospital nurses (N = 201) completed surveys measuring 3 nurse-team communication processes: promoting team synergy, ensuring quality decisions, and individualizing communication. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that promoting team synergy was a significant predictor of intent to leave, whereas ensuring quality decisions and individualizing communication did not account for significant additional variance in intent to leave. Separate analyses showed that the relationship between promoting team synergy and intent to leave was partially mediated by team identification or by organizational identification. Further analyses were conducted on the 7 communication practices for promoting team synergy. Mentoring emerged as the only significant predictor of intent to leave; however, its relationship to intent to leave was fully mediated by organizational identification or partially mediated by team identification. Pragmatic suggestions are offered to improve nurse identification and reduce turnover.

  12. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP-IT (Forward Processing for Instrument Teams)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    horizontal grid. The majority of data products are time-averaged, but four instantaneous products are also available. Hourly data intervals are used for two-dimensional products, while 3-hourly intervals are used for three-dimensional products. These may be on the model's native 72-layer vertical grid or at 42 pressure surfaces extending to 0.1 hPa. This document describes the gridded output files produced by the GMAO near real-time operational GEOS-5 FP-IT processing in support of the EOS instrument teams. Additional details about variables listed in this file specification can be found in a separate document, the GEOS-5 File Specification Variable Definition Glossary.

  13. Team situation awareness in nuclear power plant process control: A literature review, task analysis and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Kaber, D. B.; Jones, J. M.; Starkey, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    Operator achievement and maintenance of situation awareness (SA) in nuclear power plant (NPP) process control has emerged as an important concept in defining effective relationships between humans and automation in this complex system. A literature review on factors influencing SA revealed several variables to be important to team SA, including the overall task and team goals, individual tasks, team member roles, and the team members themselves. Team SA can also be adversely affected by a range of factors, including stress, mental over- or under-loading, system design (including human-machine interface design), complexity, human error in perception, and automation. Our research focused on the analysis of 'shared' SA and team SA among an assumed three-person, main-control-room team. Shared SA requirements represent the knowledge that is held in common by NPP operators, and team SA represents the collective, unique knowledge of all operators. The paper describes an approach to goal-directed task analysis (GDTA) applied to NPP main control room operations. In general, the GDTA method reveals critical operator decision and information requirements. It identifies operator SA requirements relevant to performing complex systems control. The GDTA can reveal requirements at various levels of cognitive processing, including perception, comprehension and projection, in NPP process control. Based on the literature review and GDTA approach, a number of potential research issues are proposed with an aim toward understanding and facilitating team SA in NPP process control. (authors)

  14. Surface quality in rapid prototype MMD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Vargas Henríquez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises a Manufacturing Materials and Processes MSc thesis written for the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Department. The paper shows the interaction of process, gap (deposition distance and extursion terminal velocity modelled process parameters for CEIF's (Centro de Equipos Interfacultades rapid prototype molten material deposit (MMD Titan SH-1 machine by analysing prototupes improved surface quality and resistence to tension and characterising material. The project applies experimental design criteria for orientating the selection of experimental process parameters. Acrylonitrile-buttadin-styrene (ABS had alredy been mechanically and physicochemically characterised (i.e the material used in the MMD process.

  15. Implementing the shoreline cleanup assessment team process in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Ramsey, K.E.; Lindstedt, D.; Westphal, K.A.; Seal, R.; McBride, R.A.; Byrnes, M.R.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    Louisiana State University (LSU) and Woodward-Clyde Consultants are working with state and federal agencies and industry through the LSU Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Research and Response Program to establish a shoreline cleanup assessment team program (SCAT) in the Gulf of Mexico. Each SCAT team consists of a coastal geomorphologist and ecologist (and archaeologist when appropriate), as well as representatives from the responsible federal, state, and private agencies. This cooperative effort is aimed at identifying oil spill impact and interagency coastal resource concerns and recommendations, and developing a cleanup strategy based on interagency cooperation and concurrence within a systematic and standardized framework. The SCAT program provides interagency coordination, SCAT preparedness, spill drill participation, interagency training, geographic information systems services, monitoring, and routine aerial videotape surveys. It also offers technical support to the decision-making process within spill response operations

  16. Orbiter data reduction complex data processing requirements for the OFT mission evaluation team (level C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This document addresses requirements for post-test data reduction in support of the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) mission evaluation team, specifically those which are planned to be implemented in the ODRC (Orbiter Data Reduction Complex). Only those requirements which have been previously baselined by the Data Systems and Analysis Directorate configuration control board are included. This document serves as the control document between Institutional Data Systems Division and the Integration Division for OFT mission evaluation data processing requirements, and shall be the basis for detailed design of ODRC data processing systems.

  17. THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS USING STYLISTIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumer requirements for the way what everyday use products look like, forces manufacturers to put more emphasis on product design. Constructors, apart from the functional aspects of the parts created, are forced to pay attention to the aesthetic aspects. Software for designing A-class surfaces is very helpful in this case. Extensive quality analysis modules facilitate the work and allow getting models with specific visual features. The authors present a design process of the product using stylistic surfaces based on the front panel of the moped casing. In addition, methods of analysis of the design surface and product technology are presented.

  18. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering teams' value-creation for enterprises is slower than possible due to inefficiencies in communication, learning, common knowledge collaboration and leadership conduct. This dissertation outlines the surrounding people, process and technology dimensions for higher performing engineering teams. It describes a true experiment…

  20. The Learning Process of Supervisees Who Engage in the Reflecting Team Model within Group Supervision: A Grounded Theory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, counselor educators have begun to incorporate the use of the reflecting team process with the training of counselors. Specifically, the reflecting team has been used in didactic courses (Cox, 2003; Landis & Young, 1994; Harrawood, Wilde & Parmanand, 2011) and in supervision (Cox, 1997; Prest, Darden, & Keller, 1990;…

  1. Surface analytical techniques applied to minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the chemical and physical forms of the chemically altered layers on the surfaces of base metal sulphides, particularly in the form of hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and oxides, and the changes that occur in them during minerals processing lies at the core of a complete description of flotation chemistry. This paper reviews the application of a variety of surface-sensitive techniques and methodologies applied to the study of surface layers on single minerals, mixed minerals, synthetic ores and real ores. Evidence from combined XPS/SAM/SEM studies have provided images and analyses of three forms of oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide products on the surfaces of single sulphide minerals, mineral mixtures and complex sulphide ores. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Process for cleaning radioactively contaminated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihram, R.G.; Snyder, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for removing radioactive scale from a ferrous metal surface, including the steps of initially preconditioning the surface by contacting it with an oxidizing solution (such as an aqueous solution of an alkali metal permanganate or hydrogen peroxide), then, after removal or decomposition of the oxidizing solution, the metallic surface is contacted with a cleaning solution which is a mixture of a mineral acid and a complexing agent (such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid), and which preferably contains a corrosion inhibitor. A final step in the process is the treatment of the spent cleaning solution containing radioactive waste materials in solution by adding a reagent selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide or potassium permanganate and an alkali metal hydroxide to thereby form easily recovered metallic compounds containing substantially all of the dissolved metals and radioactivity. (auth)

  3. Process quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary cancer team meetings: a structured observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Pola; Didi, Sarah; Kriston, Levente; Härter, Martin; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Scholl, Isabelle

    2017-11-17

    The quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) depends on the quality of information presented and the quality of team processes. Few studies have examined these factors using a standardized approach. The aim of this study was to objectively document the processes involved in decision-making in MDTMs, document the outcomes in terms of whether a treatment recommendation was given (none vs. singular vs. multiple), and to identify factors related to type of treatment recommendation. An adaptation of the observer rating scale Multidisciplinary Tumor Board Metric for the Observation of Decision-Making (MDT-MODe) was used to assess the quality of the presented information and team processes in MDTMs. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and mixed logistic regression analysis. N = 249 cases were observed in N = 29 MDTMs. While cancer-specific medical information was judged to be of high quality, psychosocial information and information regarding patient views were considered to be of low quality. In 25% of the cases no, in 64% one, and in 10% more than one treatment recommendations were given (1% missing data). Giving no treatment recommendation was associated with duration of case discussion, duration of the MDTM session, quality of case history, quality of radiological information, and specialization of the MDTM. Higher levels of medical and treatment uncertainty during discussions were found to be associated with a higher probability for more than one treatment recommendation. The quality of different aspects of information was observed to differ greatly. In general, we did not find MDTMs to be in line with the principles of patient-centered care. Recommendation outcome varied substantially between different specializations of MDTMs. The quality of certain information was associated with the recommendation outcome. Uncertainty during discussions was related to more than one recommendation being considered. Time constraints

  4. A test of processing efficiency theory in a team sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N C; Bellamy, M; Collins, D J; Newell, D

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we tested some key postulates of Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory in a team sport. The participants were 12 elite male volleyball players who were followed throughout the course of a competitive season. Self-report measures of pre-match and in-game cognitive anxiety and mental effort were collected in groups of players high and low in dispositional anxiety. Player performance was determined from the statistical analysis of match-play. Sets were classified according to the point spread separating the two teams into one of three levels of criticality. Game momentum was also analysed to determine its influence on in-game state anxiety. Significant differences in in-game cognitive anxiety were apparent between high and low trait anxiety groups. An interaction between anxiety grouping and momentum condition was also evident in cognitive anxiety. Differences in set criticality were reflected in significant elevations in mental effort, an effect more pronounced in dispositionally high anxious performers. Consistent with the predictions of processing efficiency theory, mental effort ratings were higher in high trait-anxious players in settings where their performance was equivalent to that of low trait-anxious performers. The usefulness of processing efficiency theory as an explanatory framework in sport anxiety research is discussed in the light of these findings.

  5. Surface-Assisted Dynamic Search Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeoh; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2018-03-01

    Many chemical and biological systems exhibit intermittent search phenomena when participating particles alternate between dynamic regimes with different dimensionalities. Here we investigate theoretically a dynamic search process of finding a small target on a two-dimensional surface starting from a bulk solution, which is an example of such an intermittent search process. Both continuum and discrete-state stochastic descriptions are developed. It is found that depending on the scanning length λ, which describes the area visited by the reacting molecule during one search cycle, the system can exhibit three different search regimes: (i) For small λ values, the reactant finds the target mostly via three-dimensional bulk diffusion; (ii) for large λ values, the reactant molecule associates to the target mostly via surface diffusion; and (iii) for intermediate λ values, the reactant reaches the target via a combination of three-dimensional and two-dimensional search cycles. Our analysis also shows that the mean search times have different scalings as a function of the size of the surface segment depending on the nature of the dynamic search regime. Search dynamics are also sensitive to the position of the target for large scanning lengths. In addition, it is argued that the continuum description underestimates mean search times and does not always correctly describe the most optimal conditions for the surface-assisted dynamic processes. The importance of our findings for real natural systems is discussed.

  6. A qualitative analysis of teacher design teams: In-depth insights into their process and links with their outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, F.; Poortman, C. L.; van Joolingen, W.R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Teacher Design Teams (TDTs) are professional learning communities in which teachers collaborate to (re)design innovative educational materials. TDTs can contribute to teachers’ professional growth. Furthermore, engaging teachers in the design process could create ownership, increasing the

  7. A qualitative analysis of teacher design teams : In-depth insights into their process and links with their outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, Floor; Poortman, Cindy L.; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Teacher Design Teams (TDTs) are professional learning communities in which teachers collaborate to (re)design innovative educational materials. TDTs can contribute to teachers’ professional growth. Furthermore, engaging teachers in the design process could create ownership, increasing the likelihood

  8. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.

    2013-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries.

  9. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries

  10. Electrolytic plasma processing of steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejar, M.A; Araya, R.N; Baeza, B

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-chemical treatments of steels with plasma is normally carried out in low-pressure ionized gaseous atmospheres. Among the treatments used most often are: nitruration, carburization and boronized. A plasma can also generate at atmospheric pressure. One way to produce it is with an electrochemical cell that works at a relatively high inter-electrode voltage and under conditions of heavy gas generation. This type of plasma is known as electrolytic plasma. This work studies the feasibility of using electrolytic plasma for the surface processing of steels. Two processes were selected: boronized and nitruration., for the hardening of two types of steel: one with low carbon (1020) and one with low alloy (4140). In the case of the nitruration, the 1020 steel was first aluminized. The electrolytes were aqueous solutions of borax for the boronizing and urea for the nitruration. The electrolytic plasmas were classified qualitatively, in relation with their luminosity by low, medium and high intensity. The boronizing was carried out with low intensity plasmas for a period of one hour. The nitruration was performed with plasmas of different intensities and for period of a few minutes to half an hour. The test pieces processed by electrolytic plasma were characterized by micro-hardness tests and X-ray diffraction. The maximum surface hardnesses obtained for the 1020 and 4140 steels were the following: 300 and 700 HV for the boronizing, and 1650 and 1200 HV for the nitruration, respectively. The utilization of an electrolytic plasma permits the surface processing of steels, noticeably increasing their hardness. With this type of plasma some thermo-chemical surface treatments can be done very rapidly as well (CW)

  11. ENVISAT Land Surface Processes. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    vandenHurk, B. J. J. M.; Su, Z.; Verhoef, W.; Menenti, M.; Li, Z.-L.; Wan, Z.; Moene, A. F.; Roerink, G.; Jia, I.

    2002-01-01

    This is a progress report of the 2nd phase of the project ENVISAT- Land Surface Processes, which has a 3-year scope. In this project, preparative research is carried out aiming at the retrieval of land surface characteristics from the ENVISAT sensors MERIS and AATSR, for assimilation into a system for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Where in the 1st phase a number of first shot experiments were carried out (aiming at gaining experience with the retrievals and data assimilation procedures), the current 2nd phase has put more emphasis on the assessment and improvement of the quality of the retrieved products. The forthcoming phase will be devoted mainly to the data assimilation experiments and the assessment of the added value of the future ENVISAT products for NWP forecast skill. Referring to the retrieval of albedo, leaf area index and atmospheric corrections, preliminary radiative transfer calculations have been carried out that should enable the retrieval of these parameters once AATSR and MERIS data become available. However, much of this work is still to be carried out. An essential part of work in this area is the design and implementation of software that enables an efficient use of MODTRAN(sub 4) radiative transfer code, and during the current project phase familiarization with these new components has been achieved. Significant progress has been made with the retrieval of component temperatures from directional ATSR-images, and the calculation of surface turbulent heat fluxes from these data. The impact of vegetation cover on the retrieved component temperatures appears manageable, and preliminary comparison of foliage temperature to air temperatures were encouraging. The calculation of surface fluxes using the SEBI concept,which includes a detailed model of the surface roughness ratio, appeared to give results that were in reasonable agreement with local measurements with scintillometer devices. The specification of the atmospheric boundary conditions

  12. How transformational leadership works during team interactions: A behavioral process analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Meinecke, A.L.; Rowold, J.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Transformational leadership is generally considered helpful for team functioning. However, the social dynamics underlying the benefits of transformational leadership remain elusive to date. To understand how and why transformational leadership can foster team functioning, this study focuses on

  13. How transformational leadership works during team interactions: A behavioral process analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Meinecke, A.L.; Rowold, J.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Transformational leadership is generally considered helpful for team functioning. However, the social dynamics underlying the benefits of transformational leadership remain elusive to date. To understand how and why transformational leadership can foster team functioning, this study focuses on leader-follower communication dynamics during team interactions. From the perspective of leadership as social problem solving, we argue that transformational leadership is linked to functional team prob...

  14. The effects of physical threat on team processes during complex task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Vogelaar, A.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Teams have become the norm for operating in dangerous and complex situations. To investigate how physical threat affects team performance, 27 threeperson teams engaged in a complex planning and problem-solving task, either under physical threat or under normal conditions. Threat consisted of the

  15. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  16. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Lex

    Full Text Available Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  17. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  18. Two photon processes in surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, R.P.; Thurgate, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A significant mid-gap effect has been found in Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy measurements of cleaved GaAs, InP and Si wafer which is normally interpreted as arising from transitions between surface states and band edges. This large mid-gap effect common to various materials is puzzling as such a high proportion of mid-gap states seems unlikely. Most theories of surface states predict states that tail from the band edges into the gap or states that have a well defined energy in the gap. None propose a large state exactly at E G /2. We recently investigated the variation in SPS spectra with flux density. We find a non-linear correlation in the magnitude of Band-Bending arising from mid-gap and band-gap photon energies. We suggest that the mid-gap feature is due to a two photon absorption process leading to carrier pair generation mediated by mid-gap states in the continuum of band-gap surface states

  19. The Role of Interpersonal Relations in Healthcare Team Communication and Patient Safety: A Proposed Model of Interpersonal Process in Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte Tsz-Sum; Doran, Diane Marie

    2017-06-01

    Patient safety is compromised by medical errors and adverse events related to miscommunications among healthcare providers. Communication among healthcare providers is affected by human factors, such as interpersonal relations. Yet, discussions of interpersonal relations and communication are lacking in healthcare team literature. This paper proposes a theoretical framework that explains how interpersonal relations among healthcare team members affect communication and team performance, such as patient safety. We synthesized studies from health and social science disciplines to construct a theoretical framework that explicates the links among these constructs. From our synthesis, we identified two relevant theories: framework on interpersonal processes based on social relation model and the theory of relational coordination. The former involves three steps: perception, evaluation, and feedback; and the latter captures relational communicative behavior. We propose that manifestations of provider relations are embedded in the third step of the framework on interpersonal processes: feedback. Thus, varying team-member relationships lead to varying collaborative behavior, which affects patient-safety outcomes via a change in team communication. The proposed framework offers new perspectives for understanding how workplace relations affect healthcare team performance. The framework can be used by nurses, administrators, and educators to improve patient safety, team communication, or to resolve conflicts.

  20. Team Sport in the Workplace? A RE-AIM Process Evaluation of ‘Changing the Game’

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Brinkley; Hilary McDermot; Fehmidah Munir

    2017-01-01

    Background: The workplace is a priority setting to promote health. Team sports can be an effective way to promote both physical and social health. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a workplace team sports intervention programme‘Changing the Game’ (CTG). This study was conducted in a FTSE 100 services organisation. This process evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collected from the par...

  1. Radiation protection in hemodynamics work process: the look of the multidisciplinary team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Laurete Medeiros; Klauberg, Daniela; Huhn, Andrea; Melo, Juliana Almeida Coelho de

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted in a hemodynamics service of a public hospital in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. Qualitative research with the participation of 13 professionals from a multidisciplinary team: doctors, technicians, technologists in radiology and nurses. The research material was extracted from the observations, semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. The responses were grouped into three categories relating to: training of hemodynamic professionals and the perception of radiological protection in the work process; occupational exposure and safety of the professionals of Hemodynamics; and continuing education in hemodynamic service. Professionals are daily exposed to ionizing radiation, and for being long procedures, lead to high levels of exposure in workers. In hemodynamic services the risk of biological effects are cumulative, because radiodiagnostic procedures include issuing the higher doses of ionizing radiation in which the personnel exposure is critical. The workforce in the service researched mostly consists of technical professionals who reported little knowledge of radiation protection and ionizing radiation and that this issue was not addressed during their training. However, despite mention little knowledge about radiological protection, participants demonstrated understand the biological effects, especially with regard to pathologies caused by frequent exposure without protection to ionizing radiation. These professionals said they have no knowledge of the proper use of radiological protection equipment and the dosimeter, and that the institution does not provide all individual protective equipment required for the procedures performed in the hemodynamic service. Permanent education in hemodynamic service is very important part in the work process, though, cited by participants as little effectiveness in the institution, even when the professionals show interest in the area. Knowledge of the team providing hemodynamic service calls

  2. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    or pre-arranged at random. Therefore we investigate the importance of team formation in the entrepreneurial classroom and ask: (i) What are the underlying factors that influence outcomes of teamwork in student groups? (ii) How does team formation influence student perception of learning?, and (iii) Do...... different team formation strategies produce different teamwork and learning outcomes? Approach: We employed a multiple case study design comprising of 38 student teams to uncover potential links between team formation and student perception of learning. This research draws on data from three different....... A rigorous coding and inductive analysis process was undertaken. Pattern and relationship coding were used to reveal underlying factors, which helped to unveil important similarities and differences between student in different teams’ project progress and perception of learning. Results: When students...

  3. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehle, M [SOPRA, 92 - Bois-Colombes (France)

    1995-03-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at {lambda} = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : (a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. (b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. (c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. (d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.).

  4. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.

    1995-01-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at λ = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  5. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  6. The Army Family Team Building Program: Facilitating a Transformative Learning Process--An Intrinsic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand how the Army Family Team Building program influences self-reliance and self-sufficiency in Army spouses as they integrate into the Army community. The purpose of the Army Family Team Building program is to empower Army spouses with knowledge and skills, which foster well-being and improve quality of life. The…

  7. Role Clarification Processes for Better Integration of Nurse Practitioners into Primary Healthcare Teams: A Multiple-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Brault

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Role clarity is a crucial issue for effective interprofessional collaboration. Poorly defined roles can become a source of conflict in clinical teams and reduce the effectiveness of care and services delivered to the population. Our objective in this paper is to outline processes for clarifying professional roles when a new role is introduced into clinical teams, that of the primary healthcare nurse practitioner (PHCNP. To support our empirical analysis we used the Canadian National Interprofessional Competency Framework, which defines the essential components for role clarification among professionals. A qualitative multiple-case study was conducted on six cases in which the PHCNP role was introduced into primary care teams. Data collection included 34 semistructured interviews with key informants involved in the implementation of the PHCNP role. Our results revealed that the best performing primary care teams were those that used a variety of organizational and individual strategies to carry out role clarification processes. From this study, we conclude that role clarification is both an organizational process to be developed and a competency that each member of the primary care team must mobilize to ensure effective interprofessional collaboration.

  8. Role clarification processes for better integration of nurse practitioners into primary healthcare teams: a multiple-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Isabelle; Kilpatrick, Kelley; D'Amour, Danielle; Contandriopoulos, Damien; Chouinard, Véronique; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Perroux, Mélanie; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Role clarity is a crucial issue for effective interprofessional collaboration. Poorly defined roles can become a source of conflict in clinical teams and reduce the effectiveness of care and services delivered to the population. Our objective in this paper is to outline processes for clarifying professional roles when a new role is introduced into clinical teams, that of the primary healthcare nurse practitioner (PHCNP). To support our empirical analysis we used the Canadian National Interprofessional Competency Framework, which defines the essential components for role clarification among professionals. A qualitative multiple-case study was conducted on six cases in which the PHCNP role was introduced into primary care teams. Data collection included 34 semistructured interviews with key informants involved in the implementation of the PHCNP role. Our results revealed that the best performing primary care teams were those that used a variety of organizational and individual strategies to carry out role clarification processes. From this study, we conclude that role clarification is both an organizational process to be developed and a competency that each member of the primary care team must mobilize to ensure effective interprofessional collaboration.

  9. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  10. Assessing the facilitators and barriers of interdisciplinary team working in primary care using normalisation process theory: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Pauline; Lee, Siew Hwa; O'Sullivan, Madeleine; Cullen, Walter; Kennedy, Catriona; MacFarlane, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary team working is of paramount importance in the reform of primary care in order to provide cost-effective and comprehensive care. However, international research shows that it is not routine practice in many healthcare jurisdictions. It is imperative to understand levers and barriers to the implementation process. This review examines interdisciplinary team working in practice, in primary care, from the perspective of service providers and analyses 1 barriers and facilitators to implementation of interdisciplinary teams in primary care and 2 the main research gaps. An integrative review following the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. Following a search of 10 international databases, 8,827 titles were screened for relevance and 49 met the criteria. Quality of evidence was appraised using predetermined criteria. Data were analysed following the principles of framework analysis using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), which has four constructs: sense making, enrolment, enactment, and appraisal. The literature is dominated by a focus on interdisciplinary working between physicians and nurses. There is a dearth of evidence about all NPT constructs apart from enactment. Physicians play a key role in encouraging the enrolment of others in primary care team working and in enabling effective divisions of labour in the team. The experience of interdisciplinary working emerged as a lever for its implementation, particularly where communication and respect were strong between professionals. A key lever for interdisciplinary team working in primary care is to get professionals working together and to learn from each other in practice. However, the evidence base is limited as it does not reflect the experiences of all primary care professionals and it is primarily about the enactment of team working. We need to know much more about the experiences of the full network of primary care professionals regarding all aspects of implementation work. International

  11. Assessing the facilitators and barriers of interdisciplinary team working in primary care using normalisation process theory: An integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Pauline; Lee, Siew Hwa; O’Sullivan, Madeleine; Cullen, Walter; Kennedy, Catriona; MacFarlane, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary team working is of paramount importance in the reform of primary care in order to provide cost-effective and comprehensive care. However, international research shows that it is not routine practice in many healthcare jurisdictions. It is imperative to understand levers and barriers to the implementation process. This review examines interdisciplinary team working in practice, in primary care, from the perspective of service providers and analyses 1 barriers and facilitators to implementation of interdisciplinary teams in primary care and 2 the main research gaps. Methods and findings An integrative review following the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. Following a search of 10 international databases, 8,827 titles were screened for relevance and 49 met the criteria. Quality of evidence was appraised using predetermined criteria. Data were analysed following the principles of framework analysis using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), which has four constructs: sense making, enrolment, enactment, and appraisal. The literature is dominated by a focus on interdisciplinary working between physicians and nurses. There is a dearth of evidence about all NPT constructs apart from enactment. Physicians play a key role in encouraging the enrolment of others in primary care team working and in enabling effective divisions of labour in the team. The experience of interdisciplinary working emerged as a lever for its implementation, particularly where communication and respect were strong between professionals. Conclusion A key lever for interdisciplinary team working in primary care is to get professionals working together and to learn from each other in practice. However, the evidence base is limited as it does not reflect the experiences of all primary care professionals and it is primarily about the enactment of team working. We need to know much more about the experiences of the full network of primary care professionals regarding all aspects

  12. Mapping Visual Negotiations in Innovation Driven Teams: A Peek into the Design Process Culture of Graduate Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Mendoza, Constanza Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Today, the boundaries of disciplines are in a state of flux. The borders are blurred and innovations occur due to the joining of different disciplinary tribes and interaction of teams with diverse epistemological backgrounds. It is not news that this increased diversity in using the design process can bring friction and clashes due to disparate…

  13. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vione, D.

    2012-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter pollutants to be assessed and modelled. For instance, it is possible to predict pollutant half-life times by knowing absorption spectrum, direct photolysis quantum yield and reaction rate constants with °OH, CO3

  14. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  15. Competitiveness and the process of co-adaptation in team sport performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Passos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals towards different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  16. Competitiveness and the Process of Co-adaptation in Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  17. Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This guide presents a process for three key activities for the building owner in preparing to retrofit existing commercial buildings: selecting project teams, benchmarking the existing building, and financing the retrofit work. Although there are other essential steps in the retrofit process, the three activities presented in this guide are the critical elements where the building owner has the greatest influence on the outcome of the project.

  18. Speeding Up Team Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  19. elative age effect in the selection process of handball players of the regional selection teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of age on adolescent handball players of the regional selection teams. To do this, data of sex and date of birth of 84 youth players from different regional selection teams in the 2015-2016 season were analyzed, performing comparisons and differences being studied by χ2 and Z tests and the Bonferroni method. The analysis of results by quarter and half of birth revealed no statistically significant differences in gender and category. It seems to confirm that there is not relative age effect in the analyzed Teams. Whereupon, seems to confirm that in handball base, all young people participate, regardless of the degree of maturity submit.

  20. Process of treating surfaces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Murao, A.; Kuwahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    Both higher corrosion resistance and paint adherence are given to films formed on the surfaces of metals by treating the surfaces with aqueous solutions of one or more materials selected from the group consisting of water soluble vinyl monomer or water soluble high polymer and then irradiating with ionizing radioactive rays on the nearly dried surface film. When a water soluble inorganic compound is mixed with the above mentioned aqueous solution, the film properties are greatly improved. The inorganic ionic material should contain a cation from the group consisting of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cr, Al, Fe, and Ni. Electron beams may be used. (U.S.)

  1. Better team management--better team care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, P; Powney, B

    1994-01-01

    Team building should not be a 'bolt-on' extra, it should be a well planned, integrated part of developing teams and assisting their leaders. When asked to facilitate team building by a group of NHS managers we developed a framework which enabled individual members of staff to become more effective in the way they communicated with each other, their teams and in turn within the organization. Facing the challenge posed by complex organizational changes, staff were able to use 3 training days to increase and develop their awareness of the principles of teamwork, better team management, and how a process of leadership and team building could help yield better patient care.

  2. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment is given of the problem of surface diffusion processes occurring during surface topography development, whenever a surface is simultaneously seeded with impurities and ion bombarded. The development of controllable topography and the importance of surface diffusion parameters, which can be obtained during these studies, are also analyzed. 101 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A J; Van Mierlo, Heleen

    2018-01-01

    Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team's life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams' composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams' motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members' stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams' collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.

  5. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  6. Shared communication processes within healthcare teams for rare diseases and their influence on healthcare professionals' innovative behavior and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budych Karolina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rare disease is a pattern of symptoms that afflicts less than five in 10,000 patients. However, as about 6,000 different rare disease patterns exist, they still have significant epidemiological relevance. We focus on rare diseases that affect multiple organs and thus demand that multidisciplinary healthcare professionals (HCPs work together. In this context, standardized healthcare processes and concepts are mainly lacking, and a deficit of knowledge induces uncertainty and ambiguity. As such, individualized solutions for each patient are needed. This necessitates an intensive level of innovative individual behavior and thus, adequate idea generation. The final implementation of new healthcare concepts requires the integration of the expertise of all healthcare team members, including that of the patients. Therefore, knowledge sharing between HCPs and shared decision making between HCPs and patients are important. The objective of this study is to assess the contribution of shared communication and decision-making processes in patient-centered healthcare teams to the generation of innovative concepts and consequently to improvements in patient satisfaction. Methods A theoretical framework covering interaction processes and explorative outcomes, and using patient satisfaction as a measure for operational performance, was developed based on healthcare management, innovation, and social science literature. This theoretical framework forms the basis for a three-phase, mixed-method study. Exploratory phase I will first involve collecting qualitative data to detect central interaction barriers within healthcare teams. The results are related back to theory, and testable hypotheses will be derived. Phase II then comprises the testing of hypotheses through a quantitative survey of patients and their HCPs in six different rare disease patterns. For each of the six diseases, the sample should comprise an average of 30 patients with

  7. Effects of time pressure and communication environment on team processes and outcomes in dyadic planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R van der; Lijkwan, J.T.E..; Dreu, C.K.W. de

    2009-01-01

    An experiment compared dyadic performance in a radio communication and a more sophisticated communication environment to face-to-face (FtF) meetings. Thirty-six dyads, working under low or high time-pressure conditions, needed to combine information and to produce a written plan. Teams working in

  8. Translation and adaptation of a questionnaire to assess the group processes of rehabilitation team conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, E.E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bouter, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the internal consistency, the domain structure and the influence of social desirability with regard to a questionnaire translated and adapted to assess the quality of rehabilitation team conferences in the Netherlands. Study design: A questionnaire to determine group

  9. Understanding the Consequences of Newcomer Integration Processes: The Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2  = 197; N Study 3  = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4  = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.

  10. Group structure and group process for effective space station astronaut teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J. M.; Kagan, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Space Station crews will encounter new problems, many derived from the social interaction of groups working in space for extended durations. Solutions to these problems must focus on the structure of groups and the interaction of individuals. A model of intervention is proposed to address problems of interpersonal relationships and emotional stress, and improve the morale, cohesiveness, and productivity of astronaut teams.

  11. Variations in structures, processes and outcomes of community mental health teams for older people: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendstern, M; Harrington, V; Brand, C; Tucker, S; Wilberforce, M; Challis, D

    2012-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, specialist community mental health teams (CMHTs) are central to the provision of comprehensive services for older people with mental ill health. Recent guidance documents suggest a core set of attributes that such teams should encompass. This article reports on a systematic literature review undertaken to collate existing evidence regarding the structures and processes of CMHTs for older people and to evaluate evidence linking approaches to effectiveness. Relevant publications were identified via systematic searches, both electronic and manual. Searches were limited to the UK for descriptions of organisation and practice but included international literature where comparisons between different CMHT arrangements were evaluated. Empirical, peer-reviewed studies from 1989 onward were included, extended to non peer-reviewed nationally or regionally representative reports, published after 1998, for the descriptive element. Forty-five studies met inclusion criteria of which seven provided comparative outcome data. All but one were UK based. The most robust evidence related to research conducted in exemplar teams. Limited evidence was found regarding the effectiveness of many of the core attributes recommended in policy directives although their presence was reported in much of the literature. The contrast between presentation and evaluation of attributes is stark. Whilst some gaps can be filled from related fields, further research is required that moves beyond description to evaluation of the impact of team design on service user outcomes in order to inform future policy directives and practice guidance. A framework for an evidence-based model of CMHTs for older people is provided.

  12. Mineralogy of the Martian Surface: Crustal Composition to Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Over the course of this award we have: 1) Completed and published the results of a study of the effects of hyperfine particles on reflectance spectra of olivine and quartz, which included the development of scattering codes. Research has also progressed in the analysis of the effects of fine particle sizes on clay spectra. 2) Completed the analysis of the mineralogy of dark regions, showed the insitu compositions are highly correlated to the SNC meteorites, and determined that the martian mantle was depleted in aluminum prior to 2-3 GA ago; Studies of the mineralogic heterogeneity of surficial materials on Mars have also been conducted. and 3) Performed initial work on the study of the physical and chemical processes likely to form and modify duricrust. This includes assessments of erosion rates, solubility and transport of iron in soil environments, and models of pedogenic crust formation.

  13. Surface processing: existing and potential applications of ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Solid foods represent optimal matrices for ultraviolet processing with effects well beyond nonthermal surface disinfection. UV radiation favors hormetic response in plant tissues and degradation of toxic compound on the product surface. Photoinduced reactions can also provide unexplored possibilities to steer structure and functionality of food biopolymers. The possibility to extensively exploit this technology will depend on availability of robust information about efficacious processing conditions and adequate strategies to completely and homogeneously process food surface.

  14. Report of the technical review team on the Catalytic Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The TRT was impressed with the quality and volume of laboratory and pilot scale development work that had been conducted over the past year. Many of the doubts and questions raised by the TRP on technical details had been examined, either by theoretical calculations or in the pilot facility. Moreover, a more open and forthcoming attitude was evident among the MMT staff who either presented briefings or responded to the Team`s questions. Of special note to DOE, the TRP recognized a year ago that the pilot facility at Fall River was not designed for radioactive pilot tests. However, from the dialogue surrounding the TRP review, it was evident that not much thought had been given to the hazards, concerns, and special requirements incumbent with radioactive operations -- everything from doing pours of hot radioactive metal from a vessel to remote-handling equipment and operations. This year the TRT noticed a significant improvement in this respect.

  15. Reducing Biases in Cross-Cultural Top Management Team Decision-Making Processes

    OpenAIRE

    David Strutton; William Carter

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural top-management-teams (cc-TMTs) are typically comprised of rational individuals. Yet cc-TMTs featuring uniformly wise and experienced executives often make irrational decisions (i.e., choices incompatible with reason or logic). Even most executives acknowledge this is true. Behavioral economics suggests a primary reason why is that iterative combinations of cultural and cognitive biases invariably arise and interact in cc-TMT settings. As they arise, these biases often undermine...

  16. Self-organization processes in field-invasion team sports : implications for leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In nature, the interactions between agents in a complex system (fish schools; colonies of ants) are governed by information that is locally created. Each agent self-organizes (adjusts) its behaviour, not through a central command centre, but based on variables that emerge from the interactions with other system agents in the neighbourhood. Self-organization has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the tendencies for individual performers to interact with each other in field-invasion sports teams, displaying functional co-adaptive behaviours, without the need for central control. The relevance of self-organization as a mechanism that explains pattern-forming dynamics within attacker-defender interactions in field-invasion sports has been sustained in the literature. Nonetheless, other levels of interpersonal coordination, such as intra-team interactions, still raise important questions, particularly with reference to the role of leadership or match strategies that have been prescribed in advance by a coach. The existence of key properties of complex systems, such as system degeneracy, nonlinearity or contextual dependency, suggests that self-organization is a functional mechanism to explain the emergence of interpersonal coordination tendencies within intra-team interactions. In this opinion article we propose how leadership may act as a key constraint on the emergent, self-organizational tendencies of performers in field-invasion sports.

  17. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-01-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader’s verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time. PMID:28490856

  18. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-04-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader's verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time.

  19. IAEA Expert Team Completes Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process, 31 January 2012, Tokyo, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a review of Japan's two-stage process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. The team began its work on 23 January and delivered a Preliminary Summary Report to Japanese officials today and plans to finish the final report by the end of February. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's 152 Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. At the request of the Government of Japan, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a 10-person team to review the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency's (NISA) approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. The IAEA safety review mission consisted of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts. To help its review, the team held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES) Organization, and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. 'We concluded that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. In its Preliminary Summary Report delivered today, the team highlighted a number of good practices and identified some improvements that would enhance the overall effectiveness of the Comprehensive Safety Assessment process. Good practices identified by the mission team include: Based on NISA instructions and commitments of the

  20. Developing an Interdisciplinary, Team-Based Quality Improvement Leadership Training Program for Clinicians: The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sandhya K; Carballo, Victoria; Cummings, Brian M; Millham, Frederick; Jacobson, Joseph O

    Although there has been tremendous progress in quality improvement (QI) education for students and trainees in recent years, much less has been published regarding the training of active clinicians in QI. The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program (CPIP) is a 6-day experiential program. Interdisciplinary teams complete a QI project framed by didactic sessions, interactive exercises, case-based problem sessions, and a final presentation. A total of 239 teams composed of 516 individuals have graduated CPIP. On completion, participant satisfaction scores average 4.52 (scale 1-5) and self-reported understanding of QI concepts improved. At 6 months after graduation, 66% of survey respondents reported sustained QI activity. Three opportunities to improve the program have been identified: (1) increasing faculty participation through online and tiered course offerings, (2) integrating the faculty-focused program with the trainee curriculum, and (3) developing a postgraduate curriculum to address the challenges of sustained improvement.

  1. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  2. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Van Mierlo, Heleen

    2018-01-01

    Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination. PMID:29674991

  3. When Teams Fail to Self-Regulate: Predictors and Outcomes of Team Procrastination Among Debating Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. J. Van Hooft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.

  4. Auger processes in ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampieri, Guillermo.

    1985-01-01

    Bombardment of solid targets with low-energy noble gas ions can produce Auger electron emission from the target atoms and/or from the projectiles. In the case of Auger emission from the projectile, Auger emission was observed during the bombardment of Na, Mg, Al and Si with Ne + ions. This emission was studied as a function of the energy, incidence angle and charge state of the projectile. From the analysis, it is concluded that the emission originates in the decay in vacuum of excited and reflected Ne atoms, moving outside the surface. Auger emission was not observed during the bombardment of K, V and Ni with Ar + ions; Zr and Cs with Kr + , and Xe + ions, respectively; and Li and Be with He + ions. In the case of Auger emission from the target, studies of certain aspects of the Na, Mg and Al Auger electron emission spectra were made. The results allow to identify two components in the Auger feature, coresponding to two kinds of Auger transition. The total spectra results from the superposition of both kinds of emission. Auger spectra from K obtained during Ar + and K + bombardment of K-implanted Be, Mg, Al and Cu were also analyzed. Similar to the Na, Mg and Al Auger spectra, the K Auger feature is composed of an atomic like peak superimposed on a bandlike structure. Both components correspond to Auger transitions in K atoms with a 3p vacancy, occuring in vacuum and inside the solid, respectively. (M.E.L.) [es

  5. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  6. Report of the technical review team on the Catalytic Extraction Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The TRT was impressed with the quality and volume of laboratory and pilot scale development work that had been conducted over the past year. Many of the doubts and questions raised by the TRP on technical details had been examined, either by theoretical calculations or in the pilot facility. Moreover, a more open and forthcoming attitude was evident among the MMT staff who either presented briefings or responded to the Team's questions. Of special note to DOE, the TRP recognized a year ago that the pilot facility at Fall River was not designed for radioactive pilot tests. However, from the dialogue surrounding the TRP review, it was evident that not much thought had been given to the hazards, concerns, and special requirements incumbent with radioactive operations -- everything from doing pours of hot radioactive metal from a vessel to remote-handling equipment and operations. This year the TRT noticed a significant improvement in this respect

  7. Redesigning geriatric healthcare: how cross-functional teams and process improvement provide a competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, B C; Kaye, J; Bowcutt, M; Campbell, J

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of adding a geriatric subacute unit to the traditional health care mix offered by a nonprofit hospital. Historically, geriatric health care offerings have been limited to either acute care units or long-term care facilities. The study's findings demonstrate that the addition of a subacute unit that is operated by an interdisciplinary team is a competitively rational move for two reasons. First, it provides a continuum of care that integrates services and departments, thereby reducing costs. Second, it provides a supportive environment for patients and their families. As a consequence patients have a higher probability of returning home than patients who are assigned to more traditional modes of care.

  8. Size matters: pitch dimensions constrain inter-team distances and surface area difference in small-sided soccer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; van der Plaats, Jorrit; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under con- straints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour

  9. How to enable employee creativity in a team context : A cross-level mediating process of transformational leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Yuntao; Lin, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374328870; Li, Peter Ping

    Employee creativity is critical to organizations' growth and is largely dependent on team dynamics. However, teams generally fail to encourage members to share their diverse knowledge, especially those that may cause disagreement among team members, as conflict often occurs in a team context.

  10. SU-C-BRD-02: A Team Focused Clinical Implementation and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis of HDR Skin Brachytherapy Using Valencia and Leipzig Surface Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayler, E; Harrison, A; Eldredge-Hindy, H; Dinome, J; Munro, S; Anne, R; Comber, E; Lockamy, V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: and Leipzig applicators (VLAs) are single-channel brachytherapy surface applicators used to treat skin lesions up to 2cm diameter. Source dwell times can be calculated and entered manually after clinical set-up or ultrasound. This procedure differs dramatically from CT-based planning; the novelty and unfamiliarity could lead to severe errors. To build layers of safety and ensure quality, a multidisciplinary team created a protocol and applied Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to the clinical procedure for HDR VLA skin treatments. Methods: team including physicists, physicians, nurses, therapists, residents, and administration developed a clinical procedure for VLA treatment. The procedure was evaluated using FMEA. Failure modes were identified and scored by severity, occurrence, and detection. The clinical procedure was revised to address high-scoring process nodes. Results: Several key components were added to the clinical procedure to minimize risk probability numbers (RPN): -Treatments are reviewed at weekly QA rounds, where physicians discuss diagnosis, prescription, applicator selection, and set-up. Peer review reduces the likelihood of an inappropriate treatment regime. -A template for HDR skin treatments was established in the clinical EMR system to standardize treatment instructions. This reduces the chances of miscommunication between the physician and planning physicist, and increases the detectability of an error during the physics second check. -A screen check was implemented during the second check to increase detectability of an error. -To reduce error probability, the treatment plan worksheet was designed to display plan parameters in a format visually similar to the treatment console display. This facilitates data entry and verification. -VLAs are color-coded and labeled to match the EMR prescriptions, which simplifies in-room selection and verification. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary planning and FMEA increased delectability and

  11. Learning teams and networks: using information technology as a means of managing work process development in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Vesa; Paavilainen, Eija

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the introduction of team learning and shared knowledge creation using computer-based learning environments and teams as networks in the development of healthcare organizations. Using computer technology, care units can be considered learning teams and the hospital a network of those learning teams. Team learning requires that the healthcare workers' intellectual capital and personal competence be viewed as an important resource in developing the quality of action of the entire healthcare organization.

  12. Structuring Effective Student Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Ellen L.

    1997-01-01

    Experience with student teams working on policy analysis projects indicates the need for faculty supervision of teams in the process of addressing complex issues. The problem-solving approach adopted in one policy analysis course is described, including assignments and tasks, issues and sponsors, team dynamics, conflict management, and the…

  13. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  14. Modeling Memory Processes and Performance Benchmarks of AWACS Weapons Director Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-31

    levels of processing generally lead to higher levels of performance than shallow levels of processing ( Craik & Lockhart ...making. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Craik , F.I.M., & Lockhart , R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal...representation. The type of processing occurring at encoding has been demonstrated to result in differential levels of memory performance ( Craik

  15. A process model for design team communication within fast-track building projects using project websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The factor time within building projects is on high pressure because of the increasing need for faster delivery of buildings. Within fast track, complex building projects the design process is an important key. Through case analyses offart-hack design processes it became obvious that process and

  16. SURFACE CAST IRON STRENGTHENING USING COMBINED LASER AND ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devojno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  17. Team Sport in the Workplace? A RE-AIM Process Evaluation of ‘Changing the Game’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The workplace is a priority setting to promote health. Team sports can be an effective way to promote both physical and social health. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a workplace team sports intervention programme‘Changing the Game’ (CTG. This study was conducted in a FTSE 100 services organisation. This process evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collected from the participants in the intervention group prior to, during and at the end of the intervention using interviews (n = 12, a focus group (n = 5, and questionnaires (n = 17. Organisational documentation was collected, and a research diary was recorded by the lead author. The evidence collected was triangulated to examine the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the programme. Data was assessed through template analysis, and questionnaire data were analysed using multiple regression and a series of univariate ANOVAs. Results: CTG improved VO2 Max, interpersonal communication, and physical activity behaviour (efficacy over 12-weeks. This may be attributed to the supportive approach adopted within the design and delivery of the programme (implementation. Individual and organisational factors challenged the adoption and maintenance of the intervention. The recruitment and communication strategy limited the number of employees the programme could reach. Conclusion: The process evaluation suggests addressing the culture within workplaces may better support the reach, adoption and maintenance of workplace team sport programmes. Future research should consider investigating and applying these findings across a range of industries and sectors.

  18. Investigation of Relationships in the Children's Team in the Process of Sports Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Voloshina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.

  19. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The bombardment of surfaces with moderate energy ions can lead to the development of various micron-sized surface structures. These structures include ridges, ledges, flat planes, pits and cones. The causal phenomena in the production of these features are sputtering, ion reflection, redeposition of sputtered material, and surface diffusion of both impurity and target-atom species. The authors concentrate on the formation of ion bombardment-induced surface topography wherein surface diffusion is a dominant process. The most thoroughly understood aspect of this topography development is the generation of cone-like structures during sputtering. The formation of cones during sputtering has been attributed to three effects. These are: (1) the presence of asperities, defects, or micro-inclusions in the surface layers, (2) the presence of impurities on the surfaces, and (3) particular crystal orientations. (Auth.)

  20. Small team, big reach : Leduc's AMR process translates cutting-edge engineering skills into worldwide contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullage, R.

    2009-01-01

    AMR Process specializes in oil and gas process engineering. The small company which is headquartered in Leduc, Alberta provides oil and gas packages, proprietary licensed designs and process engineering services in Brazil, China, Iraq and more than a dozen other countries. AMR's expertise includes troubleshooting, de-bottlenecking and process train upgrading. They help clients avoid complicated, costly changes to a project by targeting potential problems at a project's inception. The president and founder of AMR credits the company's success in part to the Nisku-Leduc Economic Development Authority (EDA) which brought AMR together with I. Matheson and Company Ltd., a steel manufacturer in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. Pressure vessels are one of Matheson's primary products. This article described how AMR Process Inc. has worked with Matheson to secure contracts to build equipment used in oil processing, for markets around the world. 1 fig

  1. A pilot study on the effects of a team building process on the perception of work environment in an integrative hospital for neurological rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermann, Thomas; Bertram, Mathias; Büssing, Arndt

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Neurological rehabilitation is one of the most care-intensive challenges in the health care system requiring specialist therapeutic and nursing knowledge. In this descriptive pilot study, we investigated the effects of a team building process on perceived work environment, self-ascribed professional competence, life satisfaction, and client satisfaction in an anthroposophic specialized hospital for neurological rehabilitation. The team-building process consisted of didacti...

  2. Analyzing Team Based Engineering Design Process in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kuk; Lee, Eun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design process has been largely implemented in a collaborative project format. Recently, technological advancement has helped collaborative problem solving processes such as engineering design to have efficient implementation using computers or online technology. In this study, we investigated college students' interaction and…

  3. Apparatus and process for the surface treatment of carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix Leonard; Ozcan, Soydan; Naskar, Amit K.

    2016-05-17

    A method for surface treating a carbon-containing material in which carbon-containing material is reacted with decomposing ozone in a reactor (e.g., a hollow tube reactor), wherein a concentration of ozone is maintained throughout the reactor by appropriate selection of at least processing temperature, gas stream flow rate, reactor dimensions, ozone concentration entering the reactor, and position of one or more ozone inlets (ports) in the reactor, wherein the method produces a surface-oxidized carbon or carbon-containing material, preferably having a surface atomic oxygen content of at least 15%. The resulting surface-oxidized carbon material and solid composites made therefrom are also described.

  4. Transforming Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Investigating virtual team collaboration in industry using grounded theory this paper presents the in-dept analysis of empirical work conducted in a global organization of 100.000 employees where a global virtual team with participants from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, and North America were...... studied. The research question investigated is how collaboration is negotiated within virtual teams? This paper presents findings concerning how collaboration is negotiated within a virtual team and elaborate the difficulties due to invisible articulation work and managing multiple communities...... in transforming the virtual team into a community. It is argued that translucence in communication structures within the virtual team and between team and management is essential for engaging in a positive transformation process of trustworthiness supporting the team becoming a community, managing the immanent...

  5. Culture and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Shapiro, Debra L; Lu, Shuye; McGurrin, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    We first review research on culture effects in teams, illustrating that mean levels of team cultural values have main (i.e. direct) effects, indirect effects (i.e. mediated by intervening variables), and moderating influences on team processes and outcomes. Variance in team cultural values or on country of origin (i.e. nationality diversity) also has main effects on team functioning, and we highlight contextual variables that strengthen or weaken these main effects. We next review research examining the effect of variance in team cultural values on global virtual teams, specifically. Finally, we review research on how cultural values shape employees' receptivity to empowering leadership behavior in teams. We conclude by discussing critical areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. An investigation of laser processing of silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.J.; Stewart, A.F.; Exarhos, G.J.; Stowell, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An initial set of experiments has been conducted to determine the practicality of laser processing of optical substrates. In contrast to earlier work, a high average power CO 2 laser was used to flood load the entire surface of each test sample. Fused silica substrates were laser polished on both surfaces at power densities ranging from 150 to 350 W/cm 2 . During each test sequence sample surface temperatures were recorded using a thermal imaging system. Extensive pre- and post-test characterization revealed that surface roughness and scattering of bare silica surfaces were reduced while internal stress increased. Laser damage thresholds were found to increase only for certain conditions. Changes in the microstructure were observed. These preliminary experiments demonstrate that laser processing can dramatically improve the optical properties of fused silica substrates

  7. Decision Support for Software Process Management Teams: An Intelligent Software Agent Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Church, Lori

    2000-01-01

    ... to market, eliminate redundancy, and ease job stress. This thesis proposes a conceptual model for software process management decision support in the form of an intelligent software agent network...

  8. Team Effectiveness and Team Development in CSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…

  9. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localised, creative reasoning, including analogising and mental simulation. We analysed not just the short-term, localised effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing and information selection, but also its...... long-term impact on downstream creative processes. Our hypothesis was that heightened levels of uncertainty associated with a particular cognitive referent would engender: (1) immediate creative elaboration of that referent aimed at resolving uncertainty and determining information selection; and (2...

  10. Management Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Belbin, R Meredith Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Meredith Belbin's work on teams has become part of everyday language in organizations all over the world. All kinds of teams and team behaviours are covered. At the end of the book is a self-perception inventory so that readers can match their own personalities to particular team roles. Management Teams is required reading for managers concerned with achieving results by getting the best from their key personnel.

  11. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localized, creative reasoning, including analogizing and mental simulation. Our analysis of the DTRS11 dataset examined not just the short-term, localized effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing...... and information selection, but also its long-term impact on downstream creative processes and decisions about what information to take forward. Our hypothesis was that heightened levels of uncertainty associated with a particular cognitive referent (i.e., a post-it note translated from Chinese end-users) would......, as predicted, found to engender subsequent attentive returns to cognitive referents at later points in the design process. Third, although epistemic uncertainty did not predict the information that was eventually selected to take forward in the design space, both immediate creative elaboration and subsequent...

  12. Plasma nitriding - an eco friendly surface hardening process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Surface hardening is a process of heating the metal such that the surface gets only hardened. This process is adopted for many components like gears, cams, and crankshafts, which desire high hardness on the outer surface with a softer core to withstand the shocks. So, to attain such properties processes like carburising, nitriding, flame hardening and induction hardening are employed. Amongst these processes nitriding is the most commonly used process by many industries. In nitriding process the steel material is heated to a temperature of around 550 C and then exposed to atomic nitrogen. This atomic nitrogen reacts with iron and other alloying elements and forms nitrides, which are very hard in nature. By this process both wear resistance and hardness of the product can be increased. The atomic nitrogen required for this process can be obtained using ammonia gas (gas nitriding), cyanide based salt bath (liquid nitriding) and plasma medium (plasma nitriding). However, plasma nitriding has recently received considerable industrial interest owing to its characteristic of faster nitrogen penetration, short treatment time, low process temperature, minimal distortion, low energy use and easier control of layer formation compared with conventional techniques such as gas and liquid nitriding. This process can be used for all ferrous materials including stainless steels. Plasma nitriding is carried out using a gas mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gas at sub atmospheric pressures hence, making it eco-friendly in nature. Plasma nitriding allows modification of the surface layers and hardness profiles by changing the gas mixture and temperature. The wide applicable temperature range enables a multitude of applications, beyond the possibilities of gas or salt bath processes. This has led to numerous applications of this process in industries such as the manufacture of machine parts for plastics and food processing, packaging and tooling as well as pumps and hydraulic, machine

  13. Quality Self Assessment: A Process of Course Team Development or Contrived Collegiality and Impression Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic research in an FE College (College X) between 2000 and 2005 was designed to uncover the extent to which quality self-assessment processes had effectively utilised productive motivational inputs (i.e. lecturer self-interest, intrinsic motivation, altruism and tacit knowledge) in line with New Labour's agenda of improved skills in…

  14. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

  15. Using the analytic hierarchy process to support teams in defining new product objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J.M.; Verkerke, G.J.; van Rossum, W.; Rakhorst, G.; Hummel, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Defining new product objectives is a critical problem solving activity to new product success. The analytic hierarchy process appears to be an adequate technique for multi-criteria decision analysis to support the definition of new product objectives. To illustrate this support, we applied this

  16. Process improvement to enhance existing stroke team activity toward more timely thrombolytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Jin; Lee, Kyung Yul; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae-Jin; Jung, Yo Han; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2014-10-01

    Process improvement (PI) is an approach for enhancing the existing quality improvement process by making changes while keeping the existing process. We have shown that implementation of a stroke code program using a computerized physician order entry system is effective in reducing the in-hospital time delay to thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. We investigated whether implementation of this PI could further reduce the time delays by continuous improvement of the existing process. After determining a key indicator [time interval from emergency department (ED) arrival to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis] and conducting data analysis, the target time from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was set at 40 min. The key indicator was monitored continuously at a weekly stroke conference. The possible reasons for the delay were determined in cases for which IV thrombolysis was not administered within the target time and, where possible, the problems were corrected. The time intervals from ED arrival to the various evaluation steps and treatment before and after implementation of the PI were compared. The median time interval from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was significantly reduced after implementation of the PI (from 63.5 to 45 min, p=0.001). The variation in the time interval was also reduced. A reduction in the evaluation time intervals was achieved after the PI [from 23 to 17 min for computed tomography scanning (p=0.003) and from 35 to 29 min for complete blood counts (p=0.006)]. PI is effective for continuous improvement of the existing process by reducing the time delays between ED arrival and IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients.

  17. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  18. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes

  19. Dynamics of Interagency Cooperation Process at Provincial Reconstruction Team in Operations ISAF and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    products to review what is known already about the interagency cooperation process at PRT level in operations Enduring Freedom and ISAF. The...Patricia Thomson, A Framework for Success: International Intervention in Societies Emerging from Conflict, Leashing the Dogs of War U.S. Institute...in detail in Chapter 4, the authors reported the experiences of PRTs manned by Canada, Germany, Italy, Lithuania , UK and USA. Four sections cover the

  20. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohan, Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani; Ancok, Djamaludin

    2010-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  1. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  2. Surface topography of parallel grinding process for nonaxisymmetric aspheric lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ningning; Wang Zhenzhong; Pan Ri; Wang Chunjin; Guo Yinbiao

    2012-01-01

    Workpiece surface profile, texture and roughness can be predicted by modeling the topography of wheel surface and modeling kinematics of grinding process, which compose an important part of precision grinding process theory. Parallel grinding technology is an important method for nonaxisymmetric aspheric lens machining, but there is few report on relevant simulation. In this paper, a simulation method based on parallel grinding for precision machining of aspheric lens is proposed. The method combines modeling the random surface of wheel and modeling the single grain track based on arc wheel contact points. Then, a mathematical algorithm for surface topography is proposed and applied in conditions of different machining parameters. The consistence between the results of simulation and test proves that the algorithm is correct and efficient. (authors)

  3. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  4. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  5. ANFIS Modeling of the Surface Roughness in Grinding Process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Baseri; G. Alinejad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of surface roughness in grinding process. The Used data have been generated from experimental observations when the wheel has been dressed using a rotary diamond disc dresser. The input parameters of model are dressing speed ratio, dressing depth and dresser cross-feed rate and output parameter is surface roughness. In the experimental procedure the grinding conditions...

  6. Increasing Student-Learning Team Effectiveness with Team Charters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Phillip; Pavett, Cynthia; Hunsaker, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Because teams are a ubiquitous part of most organizations today, it is common for business educators to use team assignments to help students experientially learn about course concepts and team process. Unfortunately, students frequently experience a number of problems during team assignments. The authors describe the results of their research and…

  7. Scaling behaviour of randomly alternating surface growth processes

    CERN Document Server

    Raychaudhuri, S

    2002-01-01

    The scaling properties of the roughness of surfaces grown by two different processes randomly alternating in time are addressed. The duration of each application of the two primary processes is assumed to be independently drawn from given distribution functions. We analytically address processes in which the two primary processes are linear and extend the conclusions to nonlinear processes as well. The growth scaling exponent of the average roughness with the number of applications is found to be determined by the long time tail of the distribution functions. For processes in which both mean application times are finite, the scaling behaviour follows that of the corresponding cyclical process in which the uniform application time of each primary process is given by its mean. If the distribution functions decay with a small enough power law for the mean application times to diverge, the growth exponent is found to depend continuously on this power-law exponent. In contrast, the roughness exponent does not depe...

  8. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  9. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic and triadic configurations; as well...new metrics and ways to formulate team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic ...sensing, communication , information, and decision networks - Darryl Ahner (AFIT: Air Force Inst Tech) Panel Session: Mathematical Models of

  10. Scaling behaviour of randomly alternating surface growth processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, Subhadip; Shapir, Yonathan

    2002-01-01

    The scaling properties of the roughness of surfaces grown by two different processes randomly alternating in time are addressed. The duration of each application of the two primary processes is assumed to be independently drawn from given distribution functions. We analytically address processes in which the two primary processes are linear and extend the conclusions to nonlinear processes as well. The growth scaling exponent of the average roughness with the number of applications is found to be determined by the long time tail of the distribution functions. For processes in which both mean application times are finite, the scaling behaviour follows that of the corresponding cyclical process in which the uniform application time of each primary process is given by its mean. If the distribution functions decay with a small enough power law for the mean application times to diverge, the growth exponent is found to depend continuously on this power-law exponent. In contrast, the roughness exponent does not depend on the timing of the applications. The analytical results are supported by numerical simulations of various pairs of primary processes and with different distribution functions. Self-affine surfaces grown by two randomly alternating processes are common in nature (e.g., due to randomly changing weather conditions) and in man-made devices such as rechargeable batteries

  11. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Games. USA Hockey offers additional information and resources. Softball It's not easy to field full teams of ... an annual tournament sponsored by the National Wheelchair Softball Association , where thirty or so teams show up ...

  12. Predictors of Team Work Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Harris, James H.; Hurst, Barbara J.; von Baggo, Karola; Bayley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to work in teams is an attribute highly valued by employers of information technology (IT) graduates. For IT students to effectively engage in team work tasks, the process of working in teams should be satisfying for the students. This work explored whether university students who were involved in compulsory team work were satisfied…

  13. Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research. Final subcontract report, 6 January 1993--31 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Hogan, S. J.; Breen, W. F.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Patterson, J. S.; Darkazalli, G. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (US)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for a program entitled ''Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research,'' funded by the US Department of Energy. This program was part of Phase 3A of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, which addressed the generic needs of the photovoltaic (PV) industry for improved quality, accelerated production scale-up, and substantially reduced manufacturing cost. Crystalline silicon solar cells (Czochralski monocrystalline, cast polycrystalline, and ribbon polycrystalline) are used in the great majority of PV modules produced in the US, accounting for 95% of all shipments in 1994. Spire's goal in this program was to reduce the cost of these modules by developing high throughput (5 MW per year) automated processes for interconnecting solar cells made from standard and thin silicon wafers. Spire achieved this goal by developing a completely new automated processing system, designated the SPI-ASSEMBLER{trademark} 5000, which is now offered as a commercial product to the PV industry. A discussion of the project and of the Assembler is provided.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  15. Particle dry deposition to water surfaces: Processes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    flux to coastal waters, atmosphere-surface exchange represents a significant component of the total flux and may be particularly critical during the summertime when both the riverine input and ambient nutrient concentrations are often at a minimum. In this chapter, we present an overview...... of the physical and chemical processes which dictate the quantity (and direction) of atmosphere-surface fluxes of trace chemicals to (and above) water surfaces with particular emphasis on the role of particles. Dry deposition (transfer to the surface in the absence of precipitation) of particles is determined...... efforts to simulate and measure fluxes close to the coastline. These arise in part from the complexity of atmospheric flow in this region where energy and chemical fluxes are highly inhomogeneous in space and time and thermally generated atmospheric circulations are commonplace. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  16. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  17. Surface Dynamic Process Simulation with the Use of Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamska-Szatko, M.; Bala, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular automata are known for many applications, especially for physical and biological simulations. Universal cellular automata can be used for modelling complex natural phenomena. The paper presents simulation of surface dynamic process. Simulation uses 2-dimensional cellular automata algorithm. Modelling and visualisation were created by in-house developed software with standard OpenGL graphic library. (authors)

  18. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  19. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    types of team formation: random teacher pre-assigned, student selection, and teacher directed diversity. In each of these modules, ethnographic methods (interviews and observations) were employed. Additionally, we had access to students learning logs, formative and summative assessments, and final exams...... functioning entrepreneurial student teams as most teams lack personal chemistry which makes them anchor their work too much in a pre-defined project. In contrast, we find that students that can form their own teams aim for less diverse teams than what is achieved by random assignment. However, the homophily......Questions we care about (Objectives): When students have to work on challenging tasks, as it is often the case in entrepreneurship classrooms that leverage experiential learning, team success becomes central to the students learning. Yet, the formation of teams is often left up to the students...

  20. Team dynamics within quality improvement teams: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Paula; Lising, Dean; Sinclair, Lynne; Baker, G Ross

    2018-03-31

    This scoping review examines what is known about the processes of quality improvement (QI) teams, particularly related to how teams impact outcomes. The aim is to provide research-informed guidance for QI leaders and to inform future research questions. Databases searched included: MedLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and SCOPUS. Eligible publications were written in English, published between 1999 and 2016. Articles were included in the review if they examined processes of the QI team, were related to healthcare QI and were primary research studies. Studies were excluded if they had insufficient detail regarding QI team processes. Descriptive detail extracted included: authors, geographical region and health sector. The Integrated (Health Care) Team Effectiveness Model was used to synthesize findings of studies along domains of team effectiveness: task design, team process, psychosocial traits and organizational context. Over two stages of searching, 4813 citations were reviewed. Of those, 48 full-text articles are included in the synthesis. This review demonstrates that QI teams are not immune from dysfunction. Further, a dysfunctional QI team is not likely to influence practice. However, a functional QI team alone is unlikely to create change. A positive QI team dynamic may be a necessary but insufficient condition for implementing QI strategies. Areas for further research include: interactions between QI teams and clinical microsystems, understanding the role of interprofessional representation on QI teams and exploring interactions between QI team task, composition and process.

  1. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  2. Integrated system of production information processing for surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Wang, S.; Zeng, Z.; Wei, J.; Ren, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Mining Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Based on the concept of geological statistic, mathematical program, condition simulation, system engineering, and the features and duties of each main department in surface mine production, an integrated system for surface mine production information was studied systematically and developed by using the technology of data warehousing, CAD, object-oriented and system integration, which leads to the systematizing and automating of the information management, data processing, optimization computing and plotting. In this paper, its overall object, system design, structure and functions and some key techniques were described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Electronic dissipation processes during chemical reactions on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Every day in our life is larded with a huge number of chemical reactions on surfaces. Some reactions occur immediately, for others an activation energy has to be supplied. Thus it happens that though a reaction should thermodynamically run off, it is kinetically hindered. Meaning the partners react only to the thermodynamically more stable product state within a mentionable time if the activation energy of the reaction is supplied. With the help of catalysts the activation energy of a reaction can be lowered. Such catalytic processes on surfaces are widely used in industry. A

  4. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Surface Composition as a Playground for Radiative Transfer Modeling and Laboratory Measurements: an international ISSI team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.; Ciarniello, M.; Beck, P.; Filacchione, G.; Moroz, L.; Pilorget, C.; Pommerol, A.; Quirico, E.; Raponi, A.; Schröder, S.; Kappel, D.; Vinogradoff, V.; Istiqomah, I.; Rousseau, B.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing observations at visible-infrared (VIS-IR) wavelengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko performed by VIRTIS (Coradini et al., 2007) aboard the Rosetta mission have revealed a surface ubiquitously covered by low-albedo material (Capaccioni et al., 2015; Ciarniello et al., 2015), characterized by the presence of refractory and semi-volatile organics and dark opaque phases (Capaccioni et al., 2015; Quirico et al., 2016). However, a quantitative determination of the physical properties (grain size, porosity) and chemical composition of the surface regolith, from spectrophotometric analysis, is still missing. This subject will be investigated within an international team hosted by ISSI (International Space Science Institute), taking advantage of available and dedicated laboratory reflectance measurements on cometary analogue samples and radiative transfer models (Hapke, 2012; Shkuratov et al., 1999; Monte Carlo ray-tracing), applied to Rosetta spectrophotometric observations of the nucleus. The convergence between models and measurements will allow us to provide a thorough characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface. At the same time, the comparison of theoretical predictions with results from laboratory reflectance spectroscopy on powders of analog materials give us the possibility to constrain the capability of the models to characterize their composition (endmember abundances and mixing modalities) and physical properties. We report about the state of the art of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy and spectral modeling applied to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko VIS-IR spectrum as well as preliminary results of the team activity and planned future work. Acknowledgements: the team thanks ISSI-Switzerland for the logistic and financial support.

  5. Multidisciplinary Team Meetings appear to be effective in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Management: An audit of process and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman, Mutaz; Lim, Amanda H; Hossain, Monowar; Siow, Glenn W; Andrews, Jane M

    2018-05-14

    Multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) have proven efficacy in cancer management. Whilst widely implemented in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care, their value is yet to be investigated. We reviewed the performance of MDTMs for IBD patients. Retrospective review of MDTMs from March 2013 to July 2016. Each patient's first MDTM was considered. Data collected included: report production and location, disease factors, recommendation(s), implementation and barriers to implementation. The MDTM process was considered successful when at least top-level recommendations were implemented within 6 months. MDTM attendance included IBD gastroenterologist, surgeons, radiologist, nurses, dieticians, psychologists and clinical trial staff. Initial MDTM encounters for 166 patients were reviewed: 86 females; mean age 40 years; 140 (84.3%) with Crohn's disease; mean disease duration 10.8 years (interquartile range 15 years). Electronic reports were filed for all patients; hard copies in 84%. In 151/166 episodes, all (n=127) or top-line (n=24) recommendations were implemented, although there was a delay beyond 6 months in 5. Of 146 patients with a successful MDTM, 85 (58.2%) were in clinical remission at last review (median follow-up 27 months). Amongst patients with unsuccessful MDTMs (n=13), only 2 (15.4%) were in clinical remission at follow-up. Barriers to implementation included patients declining recommendations and loss to follow-up. The majority of MDTM encounters were successful from both a process and clinical outcome perspective. System opportunities to improve the process include ensuring 100% reports are available and addressing implementation delays. Patient factors to address include improved engagement and understanding reasons for declining recommendations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodali, P.

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness

  7. Expanding the Advising Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Robert E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The process and results of team building by Emporia State University's centralized advising center are examined from the perspectives of president, enrollment management, centralized advising, and faculty. The effort demonstrates that administrative, state, and team commitment can produce positive results in freshman retention, higher graduation…

  8. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  9. Application of Anodization Process for Cast Aluminium Surface Properties Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk-Fligier A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An huge interest is observed in last years in metal matrix composite, mostly light metal based, which have found their applications in many industry branches, among others in the aircraft industry, automotive-, and armaments ones, as well as in electrical engineering and electronics, where one of the most important issue is related to the corrosion resistance, especially on the surface layer of the used aluminium alloys. This elaboration presents the influence of ceramic phase on the corrosion resistance, quality of the surface layer its thickness and structure of an anodic layer formed on aluminium alloys. As test materials it was applied the aluminium alloys Al-Si-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg, for which heat treatment processes and corrosion tests were carried out. It was presented herein grindability test results and metallographic examination, as well. Hardness of the treated alloys with those ones subjected to corrosion process were compared.

  10. Comparing student clinical self-efficacy and team process outcomes for a DEU, blended, and traditional clinical setting: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Christina; Clark, Michele; Feng, Du

    2018-03-01

    Clinical education is vital to both the development of clinical self-efficacy and the integration of future nurses into health care teams. The dedicated education unit clinical teaching model is an innovative clinical partnership, which promotes skill development, professional growth, clinical self-efficacy, and integration as a team member. Blended clinical teaching models are combining features of the dedicated education unit and traditional clinical model. The aims of this study are to explore how each of three clinical teaching models (dedicated education unit, blended, traditional) affects clinical self-efficacy and attitude toward team process, and to compare the dedicated education unit model and blended model to traditional clinical. A nonequivalent control-group quasi-experimental design was utilized. The convenience sample of 272 entry-level baccalaureate nursing students included 84 students participating in a dedicated education unit model treatment group, 66 students participating in a blended model treatment group, and 122 students participating in a traditional model control group. Perceived clinical self-efficacy was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the General Self-Efficacy scale. Attitude toward team process was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Attitude Questionnaire. All three clinical teaching models resulted in significant increases in both clinical self-efficacy (p=0.04) and attitude toward team process (p=0.003). Students participating in the dedicated education unit model (p=0.016) and students participating in the blended model (pteam process among entry-level baccalaureate nursing students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of surface absorptivity in laser surface heating process with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H-T; Wu, X-Y

    2006-01-01

    This study applies a hybrid technique of the Laplace transform and finite-difference methods in conjunction with the least-squares method and experimental temperature data inside the test material to predict the unknown surface temperature, heat flux and absorptivity for various surface conditions in the laser surface heating process. In this study, the functional form of the surface temperature is unknown a priori and is assumed to be a function of time before performing the inverse calculation. In addition, the whole time domain is divided into several analysis sub-time intervals and then these unknown estimates on each analysis interval can be predicted. In order to show the accuracy of the present inverse method, comparisons are made among the present estimates, direct results and previous results, showing that the present estimates agree with the direct results for the simulated problem. However, the present estimates of the surface absorptivity deviate slightly from previous estimated results under the assumption of constant thermal properties. The effect of the surface conditions on the surface absorptivity and temperature is not negligible

  12. Probing Interfacial Processes on Graphene Surface by Mass Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2013-03-01

    In this work we studied the mass density of graphene, probed interfacial processes on graphene surface and examined the formation of graphene oxide by mass detection. The graphene layers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method on copper foils and transfer-printed on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The mass density of single layer graphene was measured by investigating the mechanical resonance of the QCM. Moreover, we extended the developed technique to probe the binding dynamics of proteins on the surface of graphene, were able to obtain nonspecific binding constant of BSA protein of graphene surface in aqueous solution. The time trace of resonance signal showed that the BSA molecules rapidly saturated by filling the available binding sites on graphene surface. Furthermore, we monitored oxidation of graphene surface under oxygen plasma by tracing the changes of interfacial mass of the graphene controlled by the shifts in Raman spectra. Three regimes were observed the formation of graphene oxide which increases the interfacial mass, the release of carbon dioxide and the removal of small graphene/graphene oxide flakes. Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) grant no. 110T304, 109T209, Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (IRG) grant no 256458, Turkish Academy of Science (TUBA-Gebip).

  13. Development and pilot testing of an interprofessional patient-centered team training programme in medical rehabilitation clinics in Germany: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sonja; Körner, Mirjam; Müller, Christian; Lippenberger, Corinna; Rundel, Manfred; Zimmermann, Linda

    2017-07-14

    Interprofessional teamwork is considered to be a key component of patient-centred treatment in healthcare, and especially in the rehabilitation sector. To date, however, no interventions exist for improving teamwork in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. A team training programme was therefore designed that is individualised in content but standardised regarding methods and process. It is clinic specific, task related, solution focused and context oriented. The aim of the study was to implement and evaluate this training for interprofessional teams in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. The measure consists of a training of a varying number of sessions with rehabilitation teams that consists of four distinct phases. Those are undergone chronologically, each with clinic-specific contents. It was implemented between 2013 and 2014 in five rehabilitation clinics in Germany and evaluated by the participants via questionnaire (n = 52). Staff in three clinics evaluated the programme as helpful, in particular rating moderation, discussions and communication during the training positively. Staff in the remaining two clinics rated it as not very or not helpful and mentioned long-term structural problems or a lack of need for team training as a reason for this. The team training is applicable and accepted by staff. It should, however, be tested in a greater sample and compared with a control group. Processes should be studied in more detail in order to determine what differentiates successful from non-successful interventions and the different requirements each of these might have.

  14. Detection of cracks on concrete surfaces by hyperspectral image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruno O.; Valença, Jonatas; Júlio, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    All large infrastructures worldwide must have a suitable monitoring and maintenance plan, aiming to evaluate their behaviour and predict timely interventions. In the particular case of concrete infrastructures, the detection and characterization of crack patterns is a major indicator of their structural response. In this scope, methods based on image processing have been applied and presented. Usually, methods focus on image binarization followed by applications of mathematical morphology to identify cracks on concrete surface. In most cases, publications are focused on restricted areas of concrete surfaces and in a single crack. On-site, the methods and algorithms have to deal with several factors that interfere with the results, namely dirt and biological colonization. Thus, the automation of a procedure for on-site characterization of crack patterns is of great interest. This advance may result in an effective tool to support maintenance strategies and interventions planning. This paper presents a research based on the analysis and processing of hyper-spectral images for detection and classification of cracks on concrete structures. The objective of the study is to evaluate the applicability of several wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum for classification of cracks in concrete surfaces. An image survey considering highly discretized wavelengths between 425 nm and 950 nm was performed on concrete specimens, with bandwidths of 25 nm. The concrete specimens were produced with a crack pattern induced by applying a load with displacement control. The tests were conducted to simulate usual on-site drawbacks. In this context, the surface of the specimen was subjected to biological colonization (leaves and moss). To evaluate the results and enhance crack patterns a clustering method, namely k-means algorithm, is being applied. The research conducted allows to define the suitability of using clustering k-means algorithm combined with hyper-spectral images highly

  15. Developing Skills in Counselling and Psychotherapy: A Scoping Review of Interpersonal Process Recall and Reflecting Team Methods in Initial Therapist Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekums, Bonnie; Macaskie, Jane; Kapur, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature associated with Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR) and Reflecting Team (RT) methods in order to find evidence for their use within skills development in therapist trainings. Inclusion criteria were: empirical research, reviews of empirical research, and responses to these; RT…

  16. Novel CNC Grinding Process Control for Nanometric Surface Roughness for Aspheric Space Optical Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yeol Han

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Optics fabrication process for precision space optical parts includes bound abrasive grinding, loose abrasive lapping and polishing. The traditional bound abrasive grinding with bronze bond cupped diamond wheel leaves the machine marks of about 20 μm rms in height and the subsurface damage of about 1 μm rms in height to be removed by subsequent loose abrasive lapping. We explored an efficient quantitative control of precision CNC grinding. The machining parameters such as grain size, work-piece rotation speed and feed rate were altered while grinding the work-piece surfaces of 20-100 mm in diameter. The input grinding variables and the resulting surface quality data were used to build grinding prediction models using empirical and multi-variable regression analysis. The effectiveness of such grinding prediction models was then examined by running a series of precision CNC grinding operation with a set of controlled input variables and predicted output surface quality indicators. The experiment achieved the predictability down to ±20 nm in height and the surface roughness down to 36 nm in height. This study contributed to improvement of the process efficiency reaching directly the polishing and figuring process without the need for the loose abrasive lapping stage.

  17. Dynamics of gas-surface interactions atomic-level understanding of scattering processes at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Díez Muniño, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a representative survey of the state of the art of research on gas-surface interactions. It provides an overview of the current understanding of gas surface dynamics and, in particular, of the reactive and non-reactive processes of atoms and small molecules at surfaces. Leading scientists in the field, both from the theoretical and the experimental sides, write in this book about their most recent advances. Surface science grew as an interdisciplinary research area over the last decades, mostly because of new experimental technologies (ultra-high vacuum, for instance), as well as because of a novel paradigm, the ‘surface science’ approach. The book describes the second transformation which is now taking place pushed by the availability of powerful quantum-mechanical theoretical methods implemented numerically. In the book, experiment and theory progress hand in hand with an unprecedented degree of accuracy and control. The book presents how modern surface science targets the atomic-level u...

  18. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites

  19. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  20. Using infrared thermography for understanding and quantifying soil surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    At present, our understanding of the soil hydrologic response is restricted by measurement limitations. In the literature, there have been repeatedly calls for interdisciplinary approaches to expand our knowledge in this field and eventually overcome the limitations that are inherent to conventional measuring techniques used, for example, for tracing water at the basin, hillslope and even field or plot scales. Infrared thermography is a versatile, accurate and fast technique of monitoring surface temperature and has been used in a variety of fields, such as military surveillance, medical diagnosis, industrial processes optimisation, building inspections and agriculture. However, many applications are still to be fully explored. In surface hydrology, it has been successfully employed as a high spatial and temporal resolution non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tool to e.g. access groundwater discharges into waterbodies or quantify thermal heterogeneities of streams. It is believed that thermal infrared imagery can grasp the spatial and temporal variability of many processes at the soil surface. Thermography interprets the heat signals and can provide an attractive view for identifying both areas where water is flowing or has infiltrated more, or accumulated temporarily in depressions or macropores. Therefore, we hope to demonstrate the potential for thermal infrared imagery to indirectly make a quantitative estimation of several hydrologic processes. Applications include: e.g. mapping infiltration, microrelief and macropores; estimating flow velocities; defining sampling strategies; identifying water sources, accumulation of waters or even connectivity. Protocols for the assessment of several hydrologic processes with the help of IR thermography will be briefly explained, presenting some examples from laboratory soil flumes and field.

  1. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F., E-mail: francois.dulieu@obspm.fr [LERMA, Université de Cergy Pontoise et Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112 du CNRS. 5, mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  2. Decontamination Efficiency of Fish Bacterial Flora from Processing Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous parameters that can influence bacterial decontamination during washing of machinery and equipment in a food processing establishment. Incomplete decontamination of bacteria will increase the risk of biofilm formation and consequently increase the risk of pathogen contamination or prevalence of other undesirable microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria in the processing line. The efficiency of a typical washing protocol has been determined by testing three critical parameters and their effects on bacterial decontamination. Two surface materials (plastic and stainless steel, water temperatures (7 and 25 °C and detergent concentrations (2 and 4 % were used for this purpose in combination with two types of detergents. Biofilm was prepared on the surfaces with undefined bacterial flora obtained from minced cod fillets. The bacterial flora of the biofilm was characterised by cultivation and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. All different combinations of washing protocols tested were able to remove more than 99.9 % of the bacteria in the biofilm and reduce the cell number from 7 to 0 or 2 log units of bacteria/cm2. The results show that it is possible to use less diluted detergents than recommended with comparable success, and it is easier to clean surface material made of stainless steel compared to polyethylene plastic.

  3. Developing team cognition: A role for simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rosemarie; Shah, Sachita; Rosenman, Elizabeth D.; Kozlowski, Steve W. J.; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Grand, James A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY STATEMENT Simulation has had a major impact in the advancement of healthcare team training and assessment. To date, the majority of simulation-based training and assessment focuses on the teamwork behaviors that impact team performance, often ignoring critical cognitive, motivational, and affective team processes. Evidence from team science research demonstrates a strong relationship between team cognition and team performance and suggests a role for simulation in the development of this team-level construct. In this article we synthesize research from the broader team science literature to provide foundational knowledge regarding team cognition and highlight best practices for using simulation to target team cognition. PMID:28704287

  4. A pilot study on the effects of a team building process on the perception of work environment in an integrative hospital for neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Thomas; Bertram, Mathias; Büssing, Arndt

    2010-03-09

    Neurological rehabilitation is one of the most care-intensive challenges in the health care system requiring specialist therapeutic and nursing knowledge. In this descriptive pilot study, we investigated the effects of a team building process on perceived work environment, self-ascribed professional competence, life satisfaction, and client satisfaction in an anthroposophic specialized hospital for neurological rehabilitation. The team-building process consisted of didactic instruction and training in problem-solving, teambuilding and constructive conflict resolution. Seventy seven staff members and 44 patients' relatives were asked to complete a survey that included the Work Environment Scale (WES-10), a Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS), the Conviction of Therapeutic Competency (CTC) scale and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8). To evaluate the outcome of the team building process, we analyzed changes over time in the WES-10 subscales. Additionally the interrelationship between the WES-10 subscales with other subscales and with sociodemographic parameters like age, gender was calculated by means of a bivariate correlation analysis. The team building process had a significant positive effect on perceived work environment in only one area. There was a significant improvement in the ward staffs' perception of their ability to constructively resolve conflicts 3 years after inception of the team building process than there was before inception. However, even in a unit that utilized holistic treatment and nursing in the care of severely disable patients, such care necessitating a very heavy workload, the measurements on the Self Realization, Life Satisfaction and Conviction of Therapeutic Competency scales remained high and unchanged over the three year time period of the study. Strategic interventions might be an option to improve interpersonal relationships and finally quality of patient care.

  5. A pilot study on the effects of a team building process on the perception of work environment in an integrative hospital for neurological rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büssing Arndt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological rehabilitation is one of the most care-intensive challenges in the health care system requiring specialist therapeutic and nursing knowledge. In this descriptive pilot study, we investigated the effects of a team building process on perceived work environment, self-ascribed professional competence, life satisfaction, and client satisfaction in an anthroposophic specialized hospital for neurological rehabilitation. The team-building process consisted of didactic instruction and training in problem-solving, teambuilding and constructive conflict resolution. Methods Seventy seven staff members and 44 patients' relatives were asked to complete a survey that included the Work Environment Scale (WES-10, a Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS, the Conviction of Therapeutic Competency (CTC scale and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8. To evaluate the outcome of the team building process, we analyzed changes over time in the WES-10 subscales. Additionally the interrelationship between the WES-10 subscales with other subscales and with sociodemographic parameters like age, gender was calculated by means of a bivariate correlation analysis. Results The team building process had a significant positive effect on perceived work environment in only one area. There was a significant improvement in the ward staffs' perception of their ability to constructively resolve conflicts 3 years after inception of the team building process than there was before inception. However, even in a unit that utilized holistic treatment and nursing in the care of severely disable patients, such care necessitating a very heavy workload, the measurements on the Self Realization, Life Satisfaction and Conviction of Therapeutic Competency scales remained high and unchanged over the three year time period of the study. Conclusions Strategic interventions might be an option to improve interpersonal relationships and finally quality of patient care.

  6. Hydrology team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R.

    1982-01-01

    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  7. Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands. The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.

  8. Quantification of deexcitation processes for analyzing liquid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgner, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades the mathematical tools for quantitative data evaluation have been developed for several surface spectroscopic techniques like Angular Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Neutral Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (NICISS) and Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy (MIES). Provided that the experimental data are of good quality, quantitative data processing can add a lot to the information that can be gained from surface spectroscopy. We give a selection of references that contain information on these methods. The emphasis of this contribution aims at providing motivation to apply quantitative data evaluation by presenting a few examples. We try to demonstrate, that careful data evaluation may lead to interesting insight into basic concepts as well as to results that are useful for practical applications

  9. Quantification of deexcitation processes for analyzing liquid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgner, H., E-mail: hmorgner@rz.uni-leipzig.de

    2014-12-01

    In the last two decades the mathematical tools for quantitative data evaluation have been developed for several surface spectroscopic techniques like Angular Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Neutral Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (NICISS) and Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy (MIES). Provided that the experimental data are of good quality, quantitative data processing can add a lot to the information that can be gained from surface spectroscopy. We give a selection of references that contain information on these methods. The emphasis of this contribution aims at providing motivation to apply quantitative data evaluation by presenting a few examples. We try to demonstrate, that careful data evaluation may lead to interesting insight into basic concepts as well as to results that are useful for practical applications.

  10. Effects of team emotional authenticity on virtual team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Connelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students, suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others’ emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM analysis (n = 81 student teams suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  11. Surface hardening of two cast irons by friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hidetoshi; Kikuchi, Toshifumi; Nogi, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yasufumi; Kiguchi, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    The Friction Stir Processing (FSP) was applied to the surface hardening of cast irons. Flake graphite cast iron (FC300) and nodular graphite cast iron (FCD700) were used to investigate the validity of this method. The matrices of the FC300 and FC700 cast irons are pearlite. The rotary tool is a 25mm diameter cylindrical tool, and the travelling speed was varied between 50 and 150mm/min in order to control the heat input at the constant rotation speed of 900rpm. As a result, it has been clarified that a Vickers hardness of about 700HV is obtained for both cast irons. It is considered that a very fine martensite structure is formed because the FSP generates the heat very locally, and a very high cooling rate is constantly obtained. When a tool without an umbo (probe) is used, the domain in which graphite is crushed and striated is minimized. This leads to obtaining a much harder sample. The hardness change depends on the size of the martensite, which can be controlled by the process conditions, such as the tool traveling speed and the load. Based on these results, it was clarified that the FSP has many advantages for cast irons, such as a higher hardness and lower distortion. As a result, no post surface heat treatment and no post machining are required to obtain the required hardness, while these processes are generally required when using the traditional methods.

  12. The microfluidic probe: operation and use for localized surface processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Cecile M; Qasaimeh, Mohammad A; Juncker, David

    2009-06-04

    Microfluidic devices allow assays to be performed using minute amounts of sample and have recently been used to control the microenvironment of cells. Microfluidics is commonly associated with closed microchannels which limit their use to samples that can be introduced, and cultured in the case of cells, within a confined volume. On the other hand, micropipetting system have been used to locally perfuse cells and surfaces, notably using push-pull setups where one pipette acts as source and the other one as sink, but the confinement of the flow is difficult in three dimensions. Furthermore, pipettes are fragile and difficult to position and hence are used in static configuration only. The microfluidic probe (MFP) circumvents the constraints imposed by the construction of closed microfluidic channels and instead of enclosing the sample into the microfluidic system, the microfluidic flow can be directly delivered onto the sample, and scanned across the sample, using the MFP. . The injection and aspiration openings are located within a few tens of micrometers of one another so that a microjet injected into the gap is confined by the hydrodynamic forces of the surrounding liquid and entirely aspirated back into the other opening. The microjet can be flushed across the substrate surface and provides a precise tool for localized deposition/delivery of reagents which can be used over large areas by scanning the probe across the surface. In this video we present the microfluidic probe (MFP). We explain in detail how to assemble the MFP, mount it atop an inverted microscope, and align it relative to the substrate surface, and finally show how to use it to process a substrate surface immersed in a buffer.

  13. Interdependencies of Arctic land surface processes: A uniquely sensitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    The circumpolar arctic drainage basin is composed of several distinct ecoregions including steppe grassland and cropland, boreal forest and tundra. Land surface hydrology throughout this diverse region shares several unique features such as dramatic seasonal runoff differences controlled by snowmelt and ice break-up; the storage of significant portions of annual precipitation as snow and in lakes and wetlands; and the effects of ephemeral and permanently frozen soils. These arctic land processes are delicately balanced with the climate and are therefore important indicators of change. The litany of recently-detected changes in the Arctic includes changes in snow precipitation, trends and seasonal shifts in river discharge, increases and decreases in the extent of surface water, and warming soil temperatures. Although not unique to the arctic, increasing anthropogenic pressures represent an additional element of change in the form of resource extraction, fire threat and reservoir construction. The interdependence of the physical, biological and social systems mean that changes in primary indicators have large implications for land cover, animal populations and the regional carbon balance, all of which have the potential to feed back and induce further change. In fact, the complex relationships between the hydrological processes that make the Artic unique also render observed historical change difficult to interpret and predict, leading to conflicting explanations. For example, a decrease in snow accumulation may provide less insulation to the underlying soil resulting in greater frost development and increased spring runoff. Similarly, melting permafrost and ground ice may lead to ground subsidence and increased surface saturation and methane production, while more complete thaw may enhance drainage and result in drier soil conditions. The threshold nature of phase change around the freezing point makes the system especially sensitive to change. In addition, spatial

  14. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion; Surfaces: traitement, revetements, decontamination, pollution, etc. Maitrise de la surface pour prevenir la corrosion des composants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M. [Departement Corrosion Chimie, AREVA Centre Technique, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2012-07-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  15. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Textural Analysis of Fatique Crack Surfaces: Image Pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauschmann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the fatique crack history reconstitution, new methods of quantitative microfractography are beeing developed based on the image processing and textural analysis. SEM magnifications between micro- and macrofractography are used. Two image pre-processing operatins were suggested and proved to prepare the crack surface images for analytical treatment: 1. Normalization is used to transform the image to a stationary form. Compared to the generally used equalization, it conserves the shape of brightness distribution and saves the character of the texture. 2. Binarization is used to transform the grayscale image to a system of thick fibres. An objective criterion for the threshold brightness value was found as that resulting into the maximum number of objects. Both methods were succesfully applied together with the following textural analysis.

  17. Dual Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Steel Surface Cleaning and Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, P.; Shi, J.; Liang, J.; Tian, W. B.; Zhang, Y. M.; Sun, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    To remove the rust on rebars and passivate the fresh surfaces, electrodes reversing electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) was proposed and conducted in a 10 wt.% Na2CO3 aqueous solution. The morphology and the composition of the surface were investigated by SEM and XPS. Experimental results show that the rust on the surface was removed effectively by cathode EPP, and a passive film containing Cr2O3 was achieved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, by a simple operation of reversing the bias. The corrosion resistance was evaluated in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using an electrochemical workstation. In comparison, the corrosion resistance was improved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, which is evidenced by a positive shift of the open-circuit potential, an increase in the electrochemical impedance representing the inner layer by 76.8% and the decrease in the corrosion current density by 49.6%. This is an effective and environment-friendly technique to clean and passivate rebars and similar steel materials.

  18. Land use and surface process domains on alpine hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Shrubs and trees are generally considered to protect hillslopes from erosion. As a consequence, shrub encroachment on mountain pastures after abandoning grazing is not considered a threat to soils. However, the abandonment of mown or grazed grasslands causes a shift in vegetation composition and thus a change in landscape ecology and geomorphology. On many alpine slopes, current changes in land use and vegetation cover are accompanied by climate change, potentially generating a new geomorphic regime. Most of the debate focuses on the effect of land abandonment on water erosion rates. Generally, an established perennial vegetation cover improves the mechanical anchoring of the soil and the regulation of the soil water budget, including runoff generation and erosion. However, changing vegetation composition affects many other above- and below-ground properties like root density, -diversity and -geometry, soil structure, pore volume and acidity. Each combination of these properties can lead to a distinct scenario of dominating surface processes, often not reflected by common erosion risk assessment procedures. The study of soil properties along a chronosequence of green alder (alnusviridis) encroachment on the Unteralptal in central Switzerland reveals that shrub encroachment changes soil and vegetation properties towards an increase of resistance to run-off related erosion processes, but a decrease of slope stability against shallow landslides. The latter are a particular threat because of the currently increasing frequency of slide-triggering high magnitude rainfalls. The potential change of process domain on alpine pastures highlights the need for a careful use of erosion models when assessing future land use and climate scenarios. In mountains, but also other intensively managed agricultural landscapes, risk assessment without the appropriate reflection on the shifting relevance of surface processes carries the risk of missing future threats to environmental

  19. Virtual Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  20. Investigation of ammonia air-surface exchange processes in a ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent assessments of atmospheric deposition in North America note the increasing importance of reduced (NHx = NH3 + NH4+) forms of nitrogen (N) relative to oxidized forms. This shift in in the composition of inorganic nitrogen deposition has both ecological and policy implications. Deposition budgets developed from inferential models applied at the landscape scale, as well as regional and global chemical transport models, indicate that NH3 dry deposition contributes a significant portion of inorganic N deposition in many areas. However, the bidirectional NH3 flux algorithms employed in these models have not been extensively evaluated for North American conditions (e.g, atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, biogeochemistry). Further understanding of the processes controlling NH3 air-surface exchange in natural systems is critically needed. Based on preliminary results from the Southern Appalachian Nitrogen Deposition Study (SANDS), this presentation examines processes of NH3 air-surface exchange in a deciduous montane forest at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. A combination of measurements and modeling are used to investigate net fluxes of NH3 above the forest and sources and sinks of NH3 within the canopy and forest floor. Measurements of biogeochemical NH4+ pools are used to characterize emission potential and NH3 compensation points of canopy foliage (i.e., green vegetation), leaf litter, and soil and their relation to NH3 fluxes

  1. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  2. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon an oxide surface and structures formed with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1995-01-01

    A process and structure wherein a film comprised of a perovskite or a spinel is built epitaxially upon a surface, such as an alkaline earth oxide surface, involves the epitaxial build up of alternating constituent metal oxide planes of the perovskite or spinel. The first layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a small cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel, and the second layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a large cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  3. Enabling Team Learning in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boak, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of learning processes within 35 healthcare therapy teams that took action to improve their services. The published research on team learning is introduced, and the paper suggests it is an activity that has similarities with action research and with those forms of action learning where teams address collective…

  4. MarsSI: Martian surface data processing information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; Thollot, P.; Loizeau, D.; Bultel, B.; Fernando, J.; Allemand, P.; Dubuffet, F.; Poulet, F.; Ody, A.; Clenet, H.; Leyrat, C.; Harrisson, S.

    2018-01-01

    MarsSI (Acronym for Mars System of Information, https://emars.univ-lyon1.fr/MarsSI/, is a web Geographic Information System application which helps managing and processing martian orbital data. The MarsSI facility is part of the web portal called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal) developed by the Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) to provide users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the martian surface. The portal proposes 1) the management and processing of data thanks to MarsSI and 2) the visualization and merging of high level (imagery, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu). The portal PSUP as well as the facility MarsVisu is detailed in a companion paper (Poulet et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe the facility MarsSI. From this application, users are able to easily and rapidly select observations, process raw data via automatic pipelines, and get back final products which can be visualized under Geographic Information Systems. Moreover, MarsSI also contains an automatic stereo-restitution pipeline in order to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTM) on demand from HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) or CTX (Context Camera) pair-images. This application is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) (ERC project eMars, No. 280168) and has been developed in the scope of Mars, but the design is applicable to any other planetary body of the solar system.

  5. Improving Care Teams' Functioning: Recommendations from Team Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Kevin; Mauksch, Larry; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Team science has been applied to many sectors including health care. Yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the application of team science to developing and sustaining primary care teams. Application of team science to primary care requires adaptation of core team elements to different types of primary care teams. Six elements of teams are particularly relevant to primary care: practice conditions that support or hinder effective teamwork; team cognition, including shared understanding of team goals, roles, and how members will work together as a team; leadership and coaching, including mutual feedback among members that promotes teamwork and moves the team closer to achieving its goals; cooperation supported by an emotionally safe climate that supports expression and resolution of conflict and builds team trust and cohesion; coordination, including adoption of processes that optimize efficient performance of interdependent activities among team members; and communication, particularly regular, recursive team cycles involving planning, action, and debriefing. These six core elements are adapted to three prototypical primary care teams: teamlets, health coaching, and complex care coordination. Implementation of effective team-based models in primary care requires adaptation of core team science elements coupled with relevant, practical training and organizational support, including adequate time to train, plan, and debrief. Training should be based on assessment of needs and tasks and the use of simulations and feedback, and it should extend to live action. Teamlets represent a potential launch point for team development and diffusion of teamwork principles within primary care practices. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of vibratory welding process parameters using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, S. Deepak; Patel, D.; Prasad, S. B. [National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand (India)

    2017-05-15

    The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of vibratory welding technique on mechanical properties of 6 mm thick butt welded mild steel plates. A new concept of vibratory welding technique has been designed and developed which is capable to transfer vibrations, having resonance frequency of 300 Hz, into the molten weld pool before it solidifies during the Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. The important process parameters of vibratory welding technique namely welding current, welding speed and frequency of the vibrations induced in molten weld pool were optimized using Taguchi’s analysis and Response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters on tensile strength and hardness were evaluated using optimization techniques. Applying RSM, the effect of vibratory welding parameters on tensile strength and hardness were obtained through two separate regression equations. Results showed that, the most influencing factor for the desired tensile strength and hardness is frequency at its resonance value, i.e. 300 Hz. The micro-hardness and microstructures of the vibratory welded joints were studied in detail and compared with those of conventional SMAW joints. Comparatively, uniform and fine grain structure has been found in vibratory welded joints.

  7. Virtual Project Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    technology in six real-life virtual teams, two in industry and four in education, applying interpretative research and action research methods. Two main lines of investigation are pursued: the first involves an examination of the organisational issues related to groupware adaptation in virtual project teams......, professional disciplines, time differences and technology. This thesis comprises a general introduction, referred to as the summary report, and seven research papers, which deal in detail with the results and findings of the empirical cases. The summary report provides a general introduction to the research......, while the second looks at the social context and practices of virtual project teams. Two of the key findings are 1) that the process of groupware adaptation by virtual project teams can be viewed as a process of expanding and aligning the technological frames of the participants, which includes mutual...

  8. Broad beam ion sources and some surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Scholze, F.; Tarz, M.; Schindler, A.; Wiese, R.; Nestler, M.; Blum, T.

    2005-01-01

    Modern broad-beam multi-aperture ion sources are widely used in material and surface technology applications. Customizing the generated ion beam properties (i. e. the ion current density profile) for specific demands of the application is a main challenge in the improvement of the ion beam technologies. First we introduce ion sources based on different plasma excitation principles shortly. An overview of source plasma and ion beam measurement methods deliver input data for modelling methods. This beam profile modelling using numerical trajectory codes and the validation of the results by Faraday cup measurements as a basis for ion beam profile design are described. Furthermore possibilities for ex situ and in situ beam profile control are demonstrated, like a special method for in situ control of a linear ion source beam profile, a grid modification for circular beam profile design and a cluster principle for broad beam sources. By means of these methods, the beam shape may be adapted to specific technological demands. Examples of broad beam source application in ion beam figuring of optical surfaces, modification of stainless steel, photo voltaic processes and deposition of EUVL-multilayer stacks are finally presented. (Author)

  9. Use of Radiotracers to Study Surface Water Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This publication represents a sound knowledge base for the conduct of radiotracer studies in the environment, with papers on radiotracer methodology, radiation protection and regulation, data analysis and modelling. Environmental case histories from five Member States - Australia, Brazil, France, the Republic of Korea and Sweden - provide information on conducting studies involving he use of radioactive tracers. These case histories are not meant as guidelines for preparing a field study but can rather serve as examples of the type, caution and extent of work involved in environmental studies using radiotracers. This publication can provide guidance for conducting potential future training events in the use of radioactive traces in the environment and can serve as a key reference to all concerned directly with surface water processes

  10. Multi-surface topography targeted plateau honing for the processing of cylinder liner surfaces of automotive engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K. Deepak; Ramamoorthy, B.

    2016-03-01

    Cylinder bores of automotive engines are 'engineered' surfaces that are processed using multi-stage honing process to generate multiple layers of micro geometry for meeting the different functional requirements of the piston assembly system. The final processed surfaces should comply with several surface topographic specifications that are relevant for the good tribological performance of the engine. Selection of the process parameters in three stages of honing to obtain multiple surface topographic characteristics simultaneously within the specification tolerance is an important module of the process planning and is often posed as a challenging task for the process engineers. This paper presents a strategy by combining the robust process design and gray-relational analysis to evolve the operating levels of honing process parameters in rough, finish and plateau honing stages targeting to meet multiple surface topographic specifications on the final running surface of the cylinder bores. Honing experiments were conducted in three stages namely rough, finish and plateau honing on cast iron cylinder liners by varying four honing process parameters such as rotational speed, oscillatory speed, pressure and honing time. Abbott-Firestone curve based functional parameters (Rk, Rpk, Rvk, Mr1 and Mr2) coupled with mean roughness depth (Rz, DIN/ISO) and honing angle were measured and identified as the surface quality performance targets to be achieved. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach is effective to generate cylinder liner surface that would simultaneously meet the explicit surface topographic specifications currently practiced by the industry.

  11. Strategic issue diagnosis : the roles of organizational scanning, information processing structure of top management teams, and managers' cognitive complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bård

    1998-01-01

    Managers in organizations are continuously confronted by an array of ambiguous data and -vaguely felt stimuli which they must somehow order, explicate and imbue with meaning before they decide on how to respond. This study of -162 -members of organizations' top management teams employed a cross-level analysis to investigate how individual-, group- and organizational-level factors relate to how managers diagnose strategic issues. Findings show that managers' cognitive style, the...

  12. FMEA team performance in health care: A qualitative analysis of team member perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Tosha B; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Carayon, Pascale

    2009-06-01

    : Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a commonly used prospective risk assessment approach in health care. Failure mode and effects analyses are time consuming and resource intensive, and team performance is crucial for FMEA success. We evaluate FMEA team members' perceptions of FMEA team performance to provide recommendations to improve the FMEA process in health care organizations. : Structured interviews and survey questionnaires were administered to team members of 2 FMEA teams at a Midwest Hospital to evaluate team member perceptions of FMEA team performance and factors influencing team performance. Interview transcripts underwent content analysis, and descriptive statistics were performed on questionnaire results to identify and quantify FMEA team performance. Theme-based nodes were categorized using the input-process-outcome model for team performance. : Twenty-eight interviews and questionnaires were completed by 24 team members. Four persons participated on both teams. There were significant differences between the 2 teams regarding perceptions of team functioning and overall team effectiveness that are explained by difference in team inputs and process (e.g., leadership/facilitation, team objectives, attendance of process owners). : Evaluation of team members' perceptions of team functioning produced useful insights that can be used to model future team functioning. Guidelines for FMEA team success are provided.

  13. Gestalten of today: early processing of visual contours and surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, I

    1996-12-01

    While much is known about the specialized, parallel processing streams of low-level vision that extract primary visual cues, there is only limited knowledge about the dynamic interactions between them. How are the fragments, caught by local analyzers, assembled together to provide us with a unified percept? How are local discontinuities in texture, motion or depth evaluated with respect to object boundaries and surface properties? These questions are presented within the framework of orientation-specific spatial interactions of early vision. Key observations of psychophysics, anatomy and neurophysiology on interactions of various spatial and temporal ranges are reviewed. Aspects of the functional architecture and possible neural substrates of local orientation-specific interactions are discussed, underlining their role in the integration of information across the visual field, and particularly in contour integration. Examples are provided demonstrating that global context, such as contour closure and figure-ground assignment, affects these local interactions. It is illustrated that figure-ground assignment is realized early in visual processing, and that the pattern of early interactions also brings about an effective and sparse coding of visual shape. Finally, it is concluded that the underlying functional architecture is not only dynamic and context dependent, but the pattern of connectivity depends as much on past experience as on actual stimulation.

  14. Process for integrating surface drainage constraints on mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawatsky, L.F; Ade, F.L.; McDonald, D.M.; Pullman, B.J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Surface drainage for mine closures must be considered during all phases of mine planning and design in order to minimize environmental impacts and reduce costs. This paper discussed methods of integrating mine drainage criteria and associated mine planning constraints into the mine planning process. Drainage constraints included stream diversions; fish compensation channels; collection receptacles for the re-use of process water; separation of closed circuit water from fresh water; and the provision of storage ponds. The geomorphic approach replicated the ability of natural channels to respond to local and regional changes in hydrology as well as channel disturbances from extreme flood events, sedimentation, debris, ice jams, and beaver activity. The approach was designed to enable a sustainable system and provide conveyance capacity for extreme floods without spillage to adjacent watersheds. Channel dimensions, bank and bed materials, sediment loads, bed material supplies and the hydrologic conditions of the analogue stream were considered. Hydrologic analyses were conducted to determine design flood flow. Channel routes, valley slopes, sinuosity, width, and depth were established. It was concluded that by incorporating the geomorphic technique, mine operators and designers can construct self-sustaining drainage systems that require little or no maintenance in the long-term. 7 refs.

  15. Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

  16. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2013-01-01

    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  17. TEAM ORGANISERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena

    2004-01-01

    organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...

  18. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  19. Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, M.; Johansen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buf...... from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces...

  20. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... automatic detection of optimal process endpoint allow intelligent process control, creating fundamental elements in development of robust fully automated RAP process for its widespread industrial application....... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  1. Using OSL dating to quantify rates of Earth surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. J.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    In Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), the dating signal is reset when mineral grains are exposed to light or heat, and gradually rebuilds during subsequent burial by interaction with ionising radiation. Quartz and feldspar provide useful OSL signals demonstrating rapid signal reduction in only seconds of light exposure. Age estimates ranging from under 1 year to around 200,000 years can be determined for a wide range of sedimentary contexts, including dunes, marine deposits, fluvial and glacial environments, and recent developments provide the framework for low temperature thermochronometric applications on timescales comparable with rapid climate fluctuations. In this presentation, we explore the range of applications for determining rates of Earth surface processes using OSL. We examine technical limitations, and provide a framework for overcoming current difficulties experienced in several specific regions and contexts. We will focus on OSL dating applications to glacigenic and fluvial records, along with use of the technique in tectonic and paleoseismic contexts. In many ways, these represent the most challenging environments for OSL; rapid high energy deposition is associated with incomplete signal zeroing, and the characteristics of quartz in many of these environments make it difficult to derive precise age estimates using this mineral. We will introduce innovative methods to overcome these limitations, both existing and those under development.

  2. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaozong; Cui Naiyi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang He

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA micro-beads were processed using a rotary air plasma reactor. ► Surface chemistry and surface texture of PMMA micro-beads were characterised. ► Surface wettability was evaluated using “floating” water contact angle method. ► Surface oxidation and texture changes induced by air plasma attributed to the improvement of surface wettability. - Abstract: This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  3. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vione, D.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter pollutants to be assessed and modelled. For instance, it is possible to predict pollutant half-life times by knowing absorption spectrum, direct photolysis quantum yield and reaction rate constants with °OH, CO3

  4. Multi-Cultural Teams as Sources for Creativity and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouncken, Ricarda; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    . These data, based on semistructured interviews, provide us with rich information about effects of cultural diversity in teams in the innovation process. Data were analysed through a thematic network analysis and two coders inductively forming categories. Results indicate that cross-cultural teams have a high...... potential of creativity, but are confronted with difficulties arising from different working- and communication styles which have to be proactively managed from the beginning. While progressing, teams learn to cope with this diversity related to some more surface-level cultural dimensions and members even...

  5. The TOPOMOD-ITN project: unravel the origin of Earth's topography from modelling deep-surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.

    2012-04-01

    EC-Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN) projects aim to improve the career perspectives of young generations of researchers. Institutions from both academic and industry sectors form a collaborative network to recruit research fellows and provide them with opportunities to undertake research in the context of a joint research training program. In this frame, TOPOMOD - one of the training activities of EPOS, the new-born European Research Infrastructure for Geosciences - is a funded ITN project designed to investigate and model how surface processes interact with crustal tectonics and mantle convection to originate and develop topography of the continents over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The multi-disciplinary approach combines geophysics, geochemistry, tectonics and structural geology with advanced geodynamic numerical/analog modelling. TOPOMOD involves 8 European research teams internationally recognized for their excellence in complementary fields of Earth Sciences (Roma TRE, Utrecht, GFZ, ETH, Cambridge, Durham, Rennes, Barcelona), to which are associated 5 research institutions (CNR-Italy, Univ. Parma, Univ. Lausanne, Univ. Montpellier, Univ. Mainz) , 3 high-technology enterprises (Malvern Instruments, TNO, G.O. Logical Consulting) and 1 large multinational oil and gas company (ENI). This unique network places emphasis in experience-based training increasing the impact and international visibility of European research in modeling. Long-term collaboration and synergy are established among the overmentioned research teams through 15 cross-disciplinary research projects that combine case studies in well-chosen target areas from the Mediterranean, the Middle and Far East, west Africa, and South America, with new developments in structural geology, geomorphology, seismology, geochemistry, InSAR, laboratory and numerical modelling of geological processes from the deep mantle to the surface. These multidisciplinary projects altogether aim to

  6. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR).

  7. The team halo effect: why teams are not blamed for their failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naquin, Charles E; Tynan, Renee O

    2003-04-01

    In this study, the existence of the team halo effect, the phenomenon that teams tend not to be blamed for their failures, is documented. With 2 studies using both real teams and controlled scenarios, the authors found evidence that the nature of the causal attribution processes used to diagnose failure scenarios leads to individuals being more likely to be identified as the cause of team failure than the team as a collective. Team schema development, as indexed by team experience, influences this effect, with individuals who have more team experience being less likely to show the team halo effect

  8. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S.; Mohamed, Heba A.; Kandile, Nadia G.; Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. · The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. · The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass -1 ) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion protection for carbon steel and compete the

  9. Electrochemical and morphological analyses on the titanium surface modified by shot blasting and anodic oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szesz, Eduardo M., E-mail: eszesz@neoortho.com.br [Neoortho Research Institute, Rua Ângelo Domingos Durigan, 607-Cascatinha, CEP 82025-100 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Pereira, Bruno L., E-mail: brnl7@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Kuromoto, Neide K., E-mail: kuromoto@fisica.ufpr.br [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marino, Claudia E.B., E-mail: claudiamarino@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gelson B. de, E-mail: gelsonbs@uepg.br [Physics Department, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84051-510 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Soares, Paulo, E-mail: pa.soares@pucpr.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many surface modification processes have been developed in order to induce the osseointegration on titanium surface and thus to improve the implants' biocompatibility. In this work, Ti surface has been modified by shot blasting followed by anodic oxidation process in order to associate the good surface characteristics of both processes to obtain a rough and porous surface able to promote the titanium surface bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium (grade 2) plates were used on the surface treatments that were as follows: Shot blasting (SB) performed using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles, and anodic oxidation (AO) using NaOH electrolyte. The morphology, structural changes and the open-circuit potentials (OCP) of the surfaces were analyzed. It can be observed that an increase on the roughness of the blasted surface and a rough and porous surface happens after the AO process. The anodic film produced is thin and followed the blasted surface topography. It can be observed that there are small pores with regular shape covering the entire surface. X-ray diffraction results showed the presence of the anatase and rutile phases on the blasted and anodized surface after heat treatment at 600 °C/1 h. Concerning electrochemical measurements, when the different samples were submitted to open-circuit conditions in a physiological electrolyte, the protective effect increases with the oxidation process due to the oxide layer. When the surface was blasted, the OCP was more negative when compared with the Ti surface without surface treatments. - Highlights: ► A combination of shot blasting and anodic oxidation surface treatments is proposed. ► Both processes produced an increase in roughness compared to the polished surface. ► The combination of processes produced a rough and porous surface. ► Open circuit results show that the protective effect increases with oxidation process. ► The combination of processes presents the better results in this

  10. Thin film surface processing by ultrashort laser pulses (USLP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Romer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Workum, M.J.; Theelen, M.J.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the feasibility of surface texturing of thin molybdenum layers on a borosilicate glass substrate with Ultra-Short Laser Pulses (USLP). Large areas of regular diffraction gratings were produced consisting of Laserinduced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A short pulsed

  11. When Teams Go Crazy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Software development consists to a large extend of human-based processes with continuously increasing demands regarding interdisciplinary team work. Understanding the dynamics of software teams can be seen as highly important to successful project execution. Hence, for future project managers......, knowledge about non-technical processes in teams is significant. In this paper, we present a course unit that provides an environment in which students can learn and experience the impact of group dynamics on project performance and quality. The course unit uses the Tuckman model as theoretical framework......, and borrows from controlled experiments to organize and implement its practical parts in which students then experience the effects of, e.g., time pressure, resource bottlenecks, staff turnover, loss of key personnel, and other stress factors. We provide a detailed design of the course unit to allow...

  12. Asteroid team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue

  13. Asteroid team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue.

  14. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C.; Stewart, S.; Mammosser, J.; Howell, M.; Saunders, J.; Degraff, B.; Kim, S.-H.

    2016-04-01

    An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature has been developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5-1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  15. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  16. The surface treatment lab team. From left to right : J Carosone, M Malabaila, JP Malivert (front row), M Thiebert and A Lasserre (back row)

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The surface treatment lab covers common metals with rarer ones through a process called electroplating. When electroplating is done, the piece of equipment made out of a common metal (like steel) is submerged in a solution which has the desired rare metal (like gold) dissolved in it. An electric current is then run through the solution to the common metal. The tiny rare metal particles follow the current and stick to the common metal when they reach it. It is then that the plating occcurs. All in all, a relatively simple process, but it can be potentially hazardous.

  17. Team designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and gi...... thinking and communication in design. Trying to answer the question: How can visual system models facilitate learning in design thinking and team designing?......Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and give...... in relation to a design-engineering education at Aalborg University. It will exemplify how the model has been used in workshops on team designing, challenged design learning and affected design competence. In specific it will investigate the influence of visual models of the perception of design, design...

  18. An international peer review of the programme for evaluating sites for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Lithuania. Report of the IAEA International Review Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Lithuania's national Radioactive Waste Management Agency (RATA) is mandated by national legislation to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste arising mainly from the operation and decommissioning of the Ignalina nuclear power plant. A key step in the process of obtaining a disposal solution is to identify potential sites for detailed consideration. The RATA has completed this first step and is now directing a programme for detailed investigation of these sites. In this context, the RATA requested that the IAEA, on the basis of its statutory mandate to establish safety standards and provide for their application, conduct a peer review of the safety of the proposed disposal concept. The objective of the peer review, carried out in December 2005, was to provide an independent assessment of the safety related aspects of the sites under consideration on the basis of international safety standards and applicable national standards. The review also considered the feasibility of the proposed reference design and its suitability for the local conditions. The peer review provides an independent opinion as to whether the RATA's siting and site characterization programme is consistent with international standards and agrees with good practice in other national disposal programmes. Peer reviews are increasingly being acknowledged as an important component in building broader stakeholder confidence in the safety of facilities. For this reason, an increase in their number and frequency is anticipated. The coming into force of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management has also focused attention on the demonstration of the safety of waste management facilities. This report presents the consensus view of the international group of experts convened by the IAEA to carry out the review. The findings and recommendations of the Review Team were grouped under six topics considered to be of fundamental importance

  19. Coronal Structures as Tracers of Sub-Surface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    dramatic differences in appearance and physical processes, all these structures share a common ... mena that indicate a close relationship between coronal and sub-photo- spheric processes. .... 8) maintaining the same chirality. Large scale ...

  20. Lunar rock surfaces as detectors of solar processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.B.; Hunter College, New York, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lunar rock surfaces exposed at or just below the lunar surface are considered as detectors of the solar wind, solar flares and solar-derived magnetic fields through their interactions with galactic cosmic rays. The degradation of the solar detector capabilities of lunar surface rocks by meteoroid impact erosion, accreta deposition, loose dust, and sputtering, amorphous layer formation and accelerated diffusion due to solar particles and illumination is discussed, and it is noted that the complex interactions of factors affecting the outer micron of exposed surface material has so far prevented the development of a satisfactory model for a particle detector on the submicron scale. Methods for the determination of surface exposure ages based on the accumulation of light solar wind noble gases, Fe and Mg, impact craters, solar flare tracks, and cosmogenic Kr isotopes are examined, and the systematic variations in the ages determined by the various clocks are discussed. It is concluded that a means of obtaining satisfactory quantitative rate or flux data has not yet been established

  1. Surface processing with ionized cluster beams: computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insepov, Z.; Yamada, I.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) models of energetic gas cluster irradiation of a solid surface have been developed to investigate the phenomena of crater formation, sputtering, surface treatment, and the material hardness evaluation by irradiation with cluster ions. Theoretical estimation of crater dimensions formed with Ar gas cluster ion irradiation of different substrates, based on hydrodynamics and MD simulation, are presented. The atomic scale shock waves arising from cluster impact were obtained by calculating the pressure, temperature and mass-velocity of the target atoms. The crater depth is given as a unique 1/3 dependence on the cluster energy and on the cold material Brinell hardness number (BHN). A new 'true material hardness' scale which can be very useful for example for thin film coatings deposited on a soft substrate, is defined. This finding could be used as a new technique for measuring of a material hardness. Evolution of surface morphology under cluster ion irradiation was described by the surface relaxation equation which contains a term of crater formation at cluster impact. The formation of ripples on a surface irradiated with oblique cluster ion beams was predicted. MD and MC models of Decaborane ion (B 10 H 14 ) implantation into Si and the following rapid thermal annealing (RTA) have been developed

  2. Advantages of surface treatment processes by ionic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantois, M.

    1976-01-01

    The use of high intensity glow-discharge permits to realize a superficial thermochemical treatment. Ions formed by discharge are accelerated against the surfaces to be treated; by effect of ion bombardment, surfaces get heated and a chemical reaction is developed depending on the composition of the ionized gas. The technique presents advantages, as the potential of the active gas might be freely chosen, and as many gases might be used, the decomposition of gases by pyrolysis and a homogeneous treatment (concerning nature of phases and thickness) all over the surface being not necessary. It is possible to develop layers of various nature, looking for those which offer the best properties to solve a technological problem (wear, friction, fatigue toughness, etc.). Some examples of nitruration, carbonitruration are considered [fr

  3. Upper Meter Processes: Short Wind Waves, Surface Flow, and Micro-Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to advance the knowledge of small-scale air-sea interaction processes at the ocean surface, focussing on the dynamics of short waves, the surface flow field and the micro-turbulence...

  4. Shewanella putrefaciens Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Food Processing Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, Mette; Johansen, Charlotte; Huber, Ingrid; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buffer adhered readily to stainless steel surfaces. Maximum numbers of adherent bacteria per square centimeter were reached in 8 h at 25°C and reflected the cell density in suspension. Numbers of adhering bacteria from a suspension containing 108 CFU/ml were much lower in a laminar flow system (modified Robbins device) (reaching 102 CFU/cm2) than in a batch system (reaching 107 CFU/cm2), and maximum numbers were reached after 24 h. When nutrients were supplied, S. putrefaciens grew in biofilms with layers of bacteria. The rate of biofilm formation and the thickness of the film were not dependent on the availability of carbohydrate (lactate or glucose) or on iron starvation. The number of S. putrefaciens bacteria on the surface was partly influenced by the presence of other bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) which reduced the numbers of S. putrefaciens bacteria in the biofilm. Numbers of bacteria on the surface must be quantified to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on adhesion and biofilm formation. We used a combination of fluorescence microscopy (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and in situ hybridization, for mixed-culture studies), ultrasonic removal of bacteria from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces. PMID:11319118

  5. Challenges and potential improvements in the admission process of patients with spinal cord injury in a specialized rehabilitation clinic - an interview based qualitative study of an interdisciplinary team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Fabian; Boes, Stefan; Rubinelli, Sara; Schmitt, Klaus; Scheel-Sailer, Anke

    2017-06-26

    The admission process of patients to a hospital is the starting point for inpatient services. In order to optimize the quality of the health services provision, one needs a good understanding of the patient admission workflow in a clinic. The aim of this study was to identify challenges and potential improvements in the admission process of spinal cord injury patients at a specialized rehabilitation clinic from the perspective of an interdisciplinary team of health professionals. Semi-structured interviews with eight health professionals (medical doctors, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses) at the Swiss Paraplegic Centre (acute and rehabilitation clinic) were conducted based on a maximum variety purposive sampling strategy. The interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. The interviewees described the challenges and potential improvements in this admission process, focusing on five themes. First, the characteristics of the patient with his/her health condition and personality and his/her family influence different areas in the admission process. Improvements in the exchange of information between the hospital and the patient could speed up and simplify the admission process. In addition, challenges and potential improvements were found concerning the rehabilitation planning, the organization of the admission process and the interdisciplinary work. This study identified five themes of challenges and potential improvements in the admission process of spinal cord injury patients at a specialized rehabilitation clinic. When planning adaptations of process steps in one of the areas, awareness of effects in other fields is necessary. Improved pre-admission information would be a first important step to optimize the admission process. A common IT-system providing an interdisciplinary overview and possibilities for interdisciplinary exchange would support the management of the admission process. Managers of other hospitals can supplement

  6. Science and Team Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Cole

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a new idea about the future development of science and teams, and predicts its possible applications in science, education, workforce development and research. The inter-relatedness of science and teamwork developments suggests a growing importance of team facilitators’ quality, as well as the criticality of detailed studies of teamwork processes and team consortiums to address the increasing complexity of exponential knowledge growth and work interdependency. In the future, it will become much easier to produce a highly specialised workforce, such as brain surgeons or genome engineers, than to identify, educate and develop individuals capable of the delicate and complex work of multi-team facilitation. Such individuals will become the new scientists of the millennium, having extraordinary knowledge in variety of scientific fields, unusual mix of abilities, possessing highly developed interpersonal and teamwork skills, and visionary ideas in illuminating bold strategies for new scientific discoveries. The new scientists of the millennium, through team consortium facilitation, will be able to build bridges between the multitude of diverse and extremely specialised knowledge and interdependent functions to improve systems for the further benefit of mankind.

  7. Effect of finishing process on the surface quality of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka -Tatar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparatory procedures for the material have a significant influence on the surface stereometry of the material. This study investigated the effect of the electropolishing process on the surface quality of metallic prosthetic constructions based on Co-Cr-Mo alloys. It has been found that the process of electropolishing prevents to excessive development of the surface of a material and consequently improves surface quality.

  8. Bacterial desorption from food container and food processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEldowney, S; Fletcher, M

    1988-03-01

    The desorption ofStaphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and a coryneform from the surfaces of materials used for manufacturing food containers (glass, tin plate, and polypropylene) or postprocess canning factory conveyor belts (stainless steel and nylon) was investigated. The effect of time, pH, temperature, and adsorbed organic layers on desorption was studied.S. aureus did not detach from the substrata at any pH investigated (between pH 5 and 9).A. calcoaceticus and the coryneform in some cases detached, depending upon pH and substratum composition. The degree of bacterial detachment from the substrata was not related to bacterial respiration at experimental pH values. Bacterial desorption was not affected by temperature (4-30°C) nor by an adsorbed layer of peptone and yeast extract on the substrata. The results indicate that bacterial desorption, hence bacterial removal during cleaning or their transfer via liquids flowing over colonized surfaces, is likely to vary with the surface composition and the bacterial species colonizing the surfaces.

  9. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano surface finish has become an important parameter in the semiconductor, optical, electrical and mechanical industries. The materials used in these industries are classified as difficult to machine materials such as ceramics, glasses and silicon wafers. Machining of these materials up to nano accuracy is a great ...

  10. Influence of surface effects on subsecond processes in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, V.S.; Khishchenko, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: We discuss a problem of experimental-data interpretation during subsecond measurements of thermophysical properties of matter at high temperatures and pressures. Peculiarity of these measurements is optical opaqueness of matter under interesting conditions (T∼1 eV, ρ∼10 4 kg m -3 ), so only at assuming of bulk specimen uniformity one can obtain a temperature dependencies of the specific properties of matter. Changing circuit current and changing sample geometry we can avoid a development of hydromagnetic instability and decrease a nonuniform heating due to skin effect. As temperature of wire surface reaches the boiling temperature under normal pressure so part of internal energy is lost because of evaporation and surface radiation at high temperature. So one can register a surface temperature and ascribe it to the whole sample bulk. Computer simulation of wire explosion taking into account surface radiation losses was carried out. Typical phase tracks for matter were obtained in both case as in consideration of radiation losses as without it. Comparison of the results with data concerning to isobaric-expansion experiments and semi-empirical multi-phase equation of state were carried out. It was proposed uniformity criterion for investigation of thermophysical properties of liquid metal by subsecond wire explosion. (author)

  11. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Minasian, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M~1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, though we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties, and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, though the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  12. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, P.V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C.; Stewart, S.; Mammosser, J.; Howell, M.; Saunders, J.; Degraff, B.; Kim, S.-H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An in situ plasma processing for SNS SRF cavities has been developed to remove hydrocarbons from cavity surface. • Reactive oxygen plasma is very effective to remove hydrocarbons from niobium top surface. • Reactive oxygen plasma processing increases the work function of niobium surface in the range of 0.5–1.0 eV. • It was observed that hydrocarbons can migrate at plasma cleaned top surface from near surface regions when waiting in vacuum at room temperature. • Multiple cycles of plasma processing with waiting periods in between was found beneficial to mitigate such hydrocarbons migration at plasma cleaned surface. - Abstract: An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature has been developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5–1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  13. Team performance: Pitfalls and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.R.; Eckert, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Team building is often used as a focal point and process for improving performance. In many cases these efforts are successful in achieving the desired goals and the team building is confirmed as an effective approach. The authors have been involved in a number of successful, and some unsuccessful, efforts. This paper is concerned primarily with those cases where a team approach did not achieve the desired improvement. These experiences offer an opportunity to better understand the conditions under which team building works and to identify how a complete assessment of the prevailing conditions can provide corrections to improve the probability of success

  14. Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

  15. Illusions of team working in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael A; Lyubovnikova, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity and value of teams in healthcare are well acknowledged. However, in practice, healthcare teams vary dramatically in their structures and effectiveness in ways that can damage team processes and patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to highlight these characteristics and to extrapolate several important aspects of teamwork that have a powerful impact on team effectiveness across healthcare contexts. The paper draws upon the literature from health services management and organisational behaviour to provide an overview of the current science of healthcare teams. Underpinned by the input-process-output framework of team effectiveness, team composition, team task, and organisational support are viewed as critical inputs that influence key team processes including team objectives, leadership and reflexivity, which in turn impact staff and patient outcomes. Team training interventions and care pathways can facilitate more effective interdisciplinary teamwork. The paper argues that the prevalence of the term "team" in healthcare makes the synthesis and advancement of the scientific understanding of healthcare teams a challenge. Future research therefore needs to better define the fundamental characteristics of teams in studies in order to ensure that findings based on real teams, rather than pseudo-like groups, are accumulated.

  16. Travelling with football teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultimately on the performance of the teams on the playing field and not so much ... However, travelling with a football team presents the team physician .... physician to determine the nutritional ..... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.

  17. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from...... contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective....... To look at how knowledge about virtual work is established in a multinational context, we interviewed members of a team that connects Finland and India. Results reveal five objects shared between the team members with varying knowledge about them. By making these differences in knowledge visible through...

  18. Diversity Management in Global Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    implemented in the local organization? How are organizational culture, vision and images aligned with the team processes to accomplish the task? Does professional (functional) expertise influence team collaboration and finally how do individual experiences and coping strategies matter? The US and Japan...

  19. Laser surface processing with controlled nitrogen-argon concentration levels for regulated surface life time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2018-03-01

    Laser surface modification can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of a material, such as hardness, toughness, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance. Surface nitriding is a widely used thermochemical method of surface modification, in which nitrogen is introduced into a metal or other material at an elevated temperature within a furnace. It is used on parts where there is a need for increased wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. Laser nitriding is a novel method of nitriding where the surface is heated locally by a laser, either in an atmosphere of nitrogen or with a jet of nitrogen delivered to the laser heated site. It combines the benefits of laser modification with those of nitriding. Recent work on high toughness tool steel samples has shown promising results due to the increased nitrogen gas impingement onto the laser heated region. Increased surface activity and nitrogen adsorption was achieved which resulted in a deeper and harder surface compared to conventional hardening methods. In this work, the effects of the laser power, pulse repetition frequency, and overlap percentage on laser surface treatment of 316 L SST steel samples with an argon-nitrogen jet will be presented. Resulting microstructure, phase type, microhardness, and wear resistance are presented.

  20. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Jin-Seok; Kang, Eun-Goo; Park, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined

  1. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jisoo, E-mail: kimjisu16@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Seok, E-mail: totoro22@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun-Goo, E-mail: egkang@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Wook, E-mail: hwpark@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined.

  2. Effect of Surface Diffusion on Transfer Processes in Heterogeneous Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levdansky, V.V.; Smolík, Jiří; Moravec, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, 9-10 (2008), s. 2471-2481 ISSN 0017-9310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/2214; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2524; GA ČR GA104/07/1093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : adsorption * gas flow * surface diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.894, year: 2008

  3. Prospects of DLC coating as environment friendly surface treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Kim, S G

    2011-06-01

    After first commercialization in 90's, the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been significantly expanded to tool, automobile parts, machineries and moulds to enhance wear and friction properties. Although DLC has many advantages like high hardness, low friction electrical insulating and chemical stability and has the possible market, its application in the field is still very limited due to the gaps of understanding between end-user and developer of its advantage of costing. Recently, one of the most popular issues in the surface modification is providing the long lasting super-hydrophilic or -hydrophobic properties on the material surface for the outdoor usage. A lot of material loss is caused due to water corrosion which has to do with the flow and contacts of water like fuel cell separator and air conditioner parts. The consequence of development of functional surface based on the hydrophilic or hydrophobic design for the important parts would be really helpful for materials to be cleaner and more energy effective. Here, we first reviewed the DLC technology and then examined the kind of surface modification as well as its merits and disadvantage. We also looked at how we can improve super-hydrophilic and super hydrophobic for the DLC coating layer as well as current status of technology and arts of DLC. In the end, we would like to suggest it as one of the environmental friendly industrial technology. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Team responsibility structure and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Hootegem, G. van; Huys, R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose is to analyse the impact of team responsibility (the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members) on team performance. It bases an analysis on 36 case studies in The Netherlands which are known to have implemented team‐based work. The case studies were executed

  5. Nanostructured surface processing by an intense pulsed ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsuzuka, M.; Masuda, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Uchida, H.; Nobuhara, S.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yoshihara, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Metal surface modification by irradiating an intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) with short pulse width has been studied experimentally. An IPIB irradiation to a target leads to rapid heating above its melting point. After the beam is turned off, the heated region is immediately cooled by thermal conduction at a cooling rate of typically 10 10 K/s. This rapid cooling and resolidification results in generation of nanostructured phase in the top of surface. The typical hydrogen IPIB parameters are 200 kV of energy, 500 A/cm 2 of current density and 70 ns of pulsewidth. The IPIB was irradiated on a pure titanium to generate nanocrystalline phase. The IPIB-irradiated surface was examined with X-ray diffraction, SEM, and HR-TEM. The randomly oriented lattice fringes as well as a halo diffraction pattern are observed in the HR-TEM micrograph of IPIB-irradiated titanium. The average grain size is found to be 32 nanometers

  6. Microbe-surface interactions in biofouling and biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2005-09-01

    The presence of microorganisms on material surfaces can have a profound effect on materials performance. Surface-associated microbial growth, i.e. a biofilm, is known to instigate biofouling. The presence of biofilms may promote interfacial physico-chemical reactions that are not favored under abiotic conditions. In the case of metallic materials, undesirable changes in material properties due to a biofilm (or a biofouling layer) are referred to as biocorrosion or microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Biofouling and biocorrosion occur in aquatic and terrestrial habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, pressure and pH. Interfacial chemistry in such systems reflects a wide variety of physiological activities carried out by diverse microbial populations thriving within biofilms. Biocorrosion can be viewed as a consequence of coupled biological and abiotic electron-transfer reactions, i.e. redox reactions of metals, enabled by microbial ecology. Microbially produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which comprise different macromolecules, mediate initial cell adhesion to the material surface and constitute a biofilm matrix. Despite their unquestionable importance in biofilm development, the extent to which EPS contribute to biocorrosion is not well-understood. This review offers a current perspective on material/microbe interactions pertinent to biocorrosion and biofouling, with EPS as a focal point, while emphasizing the role atomic force spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques can play in elucidating such interactions.

  7. The rehabilitation team: staff perceptions of the hospital environment, the interdisciplinary team environment, and interprofessional relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, D C; Falconer, J A; Martino-Saltzmann, D

    1994-02-01

    Although inpatient rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary activity organized around a treatment team, there is a limited understanding of the workings of the interdisciplinary process. To elucidate staff perceptions of key aspects of the rehabilitation treatment process, we surveyed staff (n = 113) from selected inpatient teams. The staff completed social psychological instruments that measure perceptions of the hospital environment (The Ward Atmosphere Scale [WAS]), the team's environment (the Group Environment Scale [GES]), and interprofessional relations (Interprofessional Perception Scale [IPS]). Rehabilitation staff generally endorse the team approach, but express concerns over professional boundaries. Interprofessional difficulties seemed to be independent of team membership or professional training. Compared with published data from other settings, rehabilitation teams resembled task-oriented groups, but showed significant differences across teams in their perceptions of the team and hospital environments. The task-oriented character of rehabilitation teams, team-specific characteristics, and discord in interprofessional relationships may need to be considered in studies of rehabilitation teams effectiveness.

  8. Free energy surfaces from nonequilibrium processes without work measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2006-04-01

    Recent developments in statistical mechanics have allowed the estimation of equilibrium free energies from the statistics of work measurements during processes that drive the system out of equilibrium. Here a different class of processes is considered, wherein the system is prepared and released from a nonequilibrium state, and no external work is involved during its observation. For such "clamp-and-release" processes, a simple strategy for the estimation of equilibrium free energies is offered. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations and analyzed in the context of tethered single-molecule experiments.

  9. Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucciardi Enza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that delivery of diabetes self-management support by diabetes educators in primary care may improve patient care processes and patient clinical outcomes; however, the evaluation of such a model in primary care is nonexistent in Canada. This article describes the design for the evaluation of the implementation of Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs in primary care settings in Canada. Methods/design This study will use a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial stepped wedge design to evaluate the Mobile Diabetes Education Teams' intervention in improving patient clinical and care process outcomes. A total of 1,200 patient charts at participating primary care sites will be reviewed for data extraction. Eligible patients will be those aged ≥18, who have type 2 diabetes and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c of ≥8%. Clusters (that is, primary care sites will be randomized to the intervention and control group using a block randomization procedure within practice size as the blocking factor. A stepped wedge design will be used to sequentially roll out the intervention so that all clusters eventually receive the intervention. The time at which each cluster begins the intervention is randomized to one of the four roll out periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 months. Clusters that are randomized into the intervention later will act as the control for those receiving the intervention earlier. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended HbA1c target of ≤7% between intervention and control groups. Qualitative work (in-depth interviews with primary care physicians, MDET educators and patients; and MDET educators’ field notes and debriefing sessions will be undertaken to assess the implementation process and effectiveness of the MDET intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553266

  10. Survey compare team based learning and lecture teaching method, on learning-teaching process nursing student\\'s, in Surgical and Internal Diseases course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vaezi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of teaching methods on learning process of students will help teachers to improve the quality of teaching by selecting an appropriate method. This study aimed to compare the team- based learning and lecture teaching method on learning-teaching process of nursing students in surgical and internal diseases courses. Method: This quasi-experimental study was carried on the nursing students in the School of Nursing and Midwifery in Yazd and Meybod cities. Studied sample was all of the students in the sixth term in the Faculty of Nursing in Yazd (48 persons and the Faculty of Nursing in Meybod (28 persons. The rate of students' learning through lecture was measured using MCQ tests and teaching based on team-based learning (TBL method was run using MCQ tests (IRAT, GRAT, Appeals and Task group. Therefore, in order to examine the students' satisfaction about the TBL method, a 5-point Likert scale (translated questionnaire (1=completely disagree, 2= disagree, 3=not effective, 4=agree, and 5=completely agree consisted of 22 items was utilized. The reliability and validity of this translated questionnaire was measured. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 17.0 using descriptive and analytical statistic. Result: The results showed that the mean scores in team-based learning were meaningful in individual assessment (17±84 and assessment group (17.2±1.17. The mean of overall scores in TBL method (17.84±0.98% was higher compared with the lecture teaching method (16±2.31. Most of the students believed that TBL method has improved their interpersonal and group interaction skills (100%. Among them, 97.7% of students mentioned that this method (TBL helped them to understand the course content better. The lowest levels of the satisfaction have related to the continuous learning during lifelong (51.2%. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the TBL method led to improving the communication skills, understanding

  11. Facile preparation of self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 surface by electrochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Hiraga, Takuya; Zhu, Chunyu; Tsuji, Etsushi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2017-11-01

    Herein we report simple electrochemical processes to fabricate a self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 coating on Type 304 stainless steel. The CeO2 surface anodically deposited on flat stainless steel surface is hydrophilic, although high temperature-sintered and sputter-deposited CeO2 surface was reported to be hydrophobic. The anodically deposited hydrophilic CeO2 surface is transformed to hydrophobic during air exposure. Specific accumulation of contaminant hydrocarbon on the CeO2 surface is responsible for the transformation to hydrophobic state. The deposition of CeO2 on hierarchically rough stainless steel surface produces superhydrophobic CeO2 surface, which also shows self-healing ability; the surface changes to superhydrophilic after oxygen plasma treatment but superhydrophobic state is recovered repeatedly by air exposure. This work provides a facile method for preparing a self-healing superhydrophobic surface using practical electrochemical processes.

  12. Multidisciplinary team functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovitz, K E; Dougan, P; Riese, R; Brummitt, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper advocates the need to move beyond interdisciplinary team composition as a minimum criterion for multidisciplinary functioning in child abuse treatment. Recent developments within the field reflect the practice of shared professional responsibility for detection, case management and treatment. Adherence to this particular model for intervention requires cooperative service planning and implementation as task related functions. Implicitly, this model also carries the potential to incorporate the supportive functioning essential to effective group process. However, explicit attention to the dynamics and process of small groups has been neglected in prescriptive accounts of multidisciplinary child abuse team organization. The present paper therefore focuses upon the maintenance and enhancement aspects of multidisciplinary group functioning. First, the development and philosophy of service for the Alberta Children's Hospital Child Abuse Program are reviewed. Second, composition of the team, it's mandate for service, and the population it serves are briefly described. Third, the conceptual framework within which the program functions is outlined. Strategies for effective group functioning are presented and the difficulties encountered with this model are highlighted. Finally, recommendations are offered for planning and implementing a multidisciplinary child abuse team and for maintaining its effective group functioning.

  13. Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang , Aiguo; Luo , Chagen; Zhou , Chao

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The applications of digital image processing in pavement crack detection, distresses classificati...

  14. Improvement in Surface Characterisitcs of Polymers for Subsequent Electroless Plating Using Liquid Assisted Laser Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud

    2016-01-01

    Metallization of polymers is a widely used process in the electronic industry that involves their surface modification as a pre-treatment step. Laser-based surface modification is one of the commonly used techniques for polymers due to its speed and precision. The process involves laser heating...... of the polymer surface to generate a rough or porous surface. Laser processing in liquid generates superior surface characteristics that result in better metal deposition. In this study, a comparison of the surface characteristics obtained by laser processing in water vis-à-vis air along with the deposition...... characteristics are presented. In addition, a numerical model based on the finite volume method is developed to predict the temperature profile during the process. Based on the model results, it is hypothesized that physical phenomena such as vapor bubble generation and plasma formation may occur in the presence...

  15. Team work on international projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayfield, F.

    1983-01-01

    A successful team will result in Project efficiency and so lead to a better achievement of the Project objectives. Such a team will be self-motivating and have a high level of morale. An effective team will also create a better context for transfer of know-how and so better prepare its members for greater roles on future Project teams. The nature of Project work forces the process of team building to recognize several facts of life. A Project team can have a life as short as one year and as long as ten years. A team usually consists of people on temporary transfer from different departments yet retaining a link of some sort to their departments of origin. It may consist of members of one company only or of several as in a joint-venture and may include Client personnel. On International Projects, the members of a team may have different nationalities and be working in a language foreign to many of them. Many of the Project people may be expatriates to the Project area on a bachelor or on a married status well away from their head or usual office. Team building is a complex organizational and human process, with no mathematical formula for the ideal solution. It starts with the selection of the right Project Manager who should be a leader, a technocrat manager and an integrator all at the same time. The Project Manager must have the authority to create the organizational and human climate that will motivate to a maximum each member of the team. Each member must understand clearly his role and realize that this contribution to the Project will influence his career development. Loyalty to the Project Manager must be possible and the Departmental Manager has to recognize this necessity. This presentation will indicate the basic steps of a team building process on a typical major international Project

  16. Stochastic Modeling and Deterministic Limit of Catalytic Surface Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Reichert, Christian; Eiswirth, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Three levels of modeling, microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic are discussed for the CO oxidation on low-index platinum single crystal surfaces. The introduced models on the microscopic and mesoscopic level are stochastic while the model on the macroscopic level is deterministic. It can......, such that in contrast to the microscopic model the spatial resolution is reduced. The derivation of deterministic limit equations is in correspondence with the successful description of experiments under low-pressure conditions by deterministic reaction-diffusion equations while for intermediate pressures phenomena...

  17. Statistical and signal-processing concepts in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors

  18. Statistical and signal-processing concepts in surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors.

  19. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  20. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  1. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  2. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuzairi, Tomy; Okada, Mitsuru; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10"1"7 m"−"3. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  3. Radiation protection in hemodynamics work process: the look of the multidisciplinary team; Protecao radiologica no processo de trabalho em hemodinamica: o olhar da equipe multidisciplinar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Laurete Medeiros; Klauberg, Daniela; Huhn, Andrea; Melo, Juliana Almeida Coelho de, E-mail: laurete@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: danielaklauberg@hotmail.com, E-mail: andrea.huhn@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: julianac@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The study was conducted in a hemodynamics service of a public hospital in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. Qualitative research with the participation of 13 professionals from a multidisciplinary team: doctors, technicians, technologists in radiology and nurses. The research material was extracted from the observations, semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. The responses were grouped into three categories relating to: training of hemodynamic professionals and the perception of radiological protection in the work process; occupational exposure and safety of the professionals of Hemodynamics; and continuing education in hemodynamic service. Professionals are daily exposed to ionizing radiation, and for being long procedures, lead to high levels of exposure in workers. In hemodynamic services the risk of biological effects are cumulative, because radiodiagnostic procedures include issuing the higher doses of ionizing radiation in which the personnel exposure is critical. The workforce in the service researched mostly consists of technical professionals who reported little knowledge of radiation protection and ionizing radiation and that this issue was not addressed during their training. However, despite mention little knowledge about radiological protection, participants demonstrated understand the biological effects, especially with regard to pathologies caused by frequent exposure without protection to ionizing radiation. These professionals said they have no knowledge of the proper use of radiological protection equipment and the dosimeter, and that the institution does not provide all individual protective equipment required for the procedures performed in the hemodynamic service. Permanent education in hemodynamic service is very important part in the work process, though, cited by participants as little effectiveness in the institution, even when the professionals show interest in the area. Knowledge of the team providing hemodynamic service calls

  4. Group facilitation: building that winning team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumberger, J M

    1992-12-01

    Team building does not occur by chance; it involves using techniques to make it easier for members to contribute their expertise while working with others to achieve quality results. Evaluation of team effectiveness involves assessing both the processes (team interactions and work processes) and accomplishment of goals (out-comes; see box). Productivity and quality that could not be accomplished by individual efforts may be enhanced by effectively working teams.

  5. Surface light scattering: integrated technology and signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, L.; Dam-Hansen, C.; Rasmussen, E.

    1997-01-01

    systems representing increasing levels of integration are considered. It is demonstrated that efficient signal and data processing can be achieved by evaluation of the statistics of the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the detector signal. (C) 1997 Optical Society of America....

  6. Surface modification of hydroturbine steel using friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, H. S.; Arora, H. S.; Singh, H.; Agrawal, A.

    2013-03-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) has proved to be a viable tool for enhancing the mechanical properties of materials, however, the major focus has been upon improving the bulk properties of light metals and their alloys. Hydroturbines are susceptible to damage owing to slurry and cavitation erosion. In this study, FSP of a commonly employed hydroturbine steel, 13Cr4Ni was undertaken. Microstructural characterization of the processed steel was conducted using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. Mechanical characterization of the steel was undertaken in terms of microhardness and resistance to cavitation erosion (CE). FSP resulted in the refinement of the microstructure with reduction in grain size by a factor of 10. EBSD results confirmed the existence of submicron and ultrafine grained microstructure. The microhardness of the steel was found to enhance by 2.6 times after processing. The processed steel also showed 2.4 times higher resistance against cavitation erosion in comparison to unprocessed steel. The primary erosion mechanism for both the steels was identical in nature, with plastic deformation responsible for the loss of material.

  7. Surface morphology evolution in silicon during ion beam processing; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrossian P; Caturla, M; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Johnson, M

    1999-01-01

    The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) projects that the semiconductor chips used in personal computers and scientific workstations will reach five times the speed and ten times the memory capacity of the current pentium-class processor by the year 2007. However, 1 GHz on-chip clock speeds and 64 Gbits/Chip DRAM technology will not come easy and without a price. Such technologies will require scaling the minimum feature size of CMOS devices (the transistors in the silicon chip) down to below 100nm from the current 180 to 250 nm. This requirement has profound implications for device manufacturing. Existing processing techniques must increasingly be understood quantitatively and modeled with unprecedented precision. Indeed, revolutionary advances in the development of physics-based process simulation tools will be required to achieve the goals for cost efficient manufacturing, and to satisfy the needs of the defense industrial base. These advances will necessitate a fundamental improvement in our basic understanding of microstructure evolution during processing. In order to cut development time and costs, the semiconductor industry makes extensive use of simple models of dopant implantation, and of phenomenological models of defect annealing and diffusion. However, the production of a single device often requires more than 200 processing steps, and the cumulative effects of the various steps are far too complex to be treated with these models. The lack of accurate process modeling simulators is proving to be a serious impediment to the development of next generation devices. New atomic-level models are required to describe the point defect distributions produced by the implantation process, and the defect and dopant diffusion resulting from rapid thermal annealing steps. In this LDRD project, we investigated the migration kinetics of defects and dopants in silicon both experimentally and theoretically to provide a fundamental database for use in the development

  8. Thermal Diffusion Processes in Metal-Tip-Surface Interactions: Contact Formation and Adatom Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Jonsson, Hannes

    1996-01-01

    and the surface can occur by a sequence of atomic hop and exchange processes which become active on a millisecond time scale when the tip is about 3-5 Angstrom from the surface. Adatoms on the surface are stabilized by the presence of the tip and energy barriers for diffusion processes in the region under the tip......We have carried out computer simulations to identify and characterize various thermally activated atomic scale processes that can play an important role in room temperature experiments where a metal tip is brought close to a metal surface. We find that contact formation between the tip...

  9. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  10. Sepsis and Shock Response Team: Impact of a Multidisciplinary Approach to Implementing Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines and Surviving the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grek, Ami; Booth, Sandra; Festic, Emir; Maniaci, Michael; Shirazi, Ehsan; Thompson, Kristine; Starbuck, Angela; Mcree, Chad; Naessens, James M; Moreno Franco, Pablo

    The Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines are designed to decrease mortality through consistent application of a 7-element bundle. This study evaluated the impact of improvement in bundle adherence using a time-series analysis of compliance with the bundle elements before and after interventions intended to improve the process, while also looking at hospital mortality. This article describes interventions used to improve bundle compliance and hospital mortality in patients admitted through the emergency department with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock. Quality improvement methodology was used to develop high-impact interventions that led to dramatically improved adherence to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines bundle. Improved performance was associated with a significant decrease in the in-hospital mortality of severe sepsis patients presenting to the emergency department.

  11. Tribological investigations of the applicability of surface functionalization for dry extrusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Marco; Prünte, Stephan; Ross, Ingo; Temmler, André; Schneider, Jochen M.; Hirt, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Cold extrusion processes are characterized by large relative contact stresses combined with a severe surface enlargement of the workpiece. Under these process conditions a high risk for galling of workpiece material to the tool steel occurs especially in processing of aluminum and aluminum alloys. In order to reduce adhesive wear lubricants for separation of workpiece and tool surfaces are used. As a consequence additional process steps (e.g. preparation and cleaning of workpieces) are necessary. Thus, the realization of a dry forming process is aspired from an environmental and economic perspective. In this paper a surface functionalization with self-assembled-monolayers (SAM) of the tool steels AISI D2 (DIN 1.2379) and AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) is evaluated by a process-oriented tribological test. The tribological experiment is able to resemble and scale the process conditions of cold extrusion related to relative contact stress and surface enlargement for the forming of pure aluminum (Al99.5). The effect of reduced relative contact stress, surface enlargement and relative velocity on adhesive wear and tool lifetime is evaluated. Similar process conditions are achievable by different die designs with decreased extrusion ratios and adjusted die angles. The effect of surface functionalization critically depends on the substrate material. The different microstructure and the resulting differences in surface chemistry of the two tested tool steels appear to affect the performance of the tool surface functionalization with SAM.

  12. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts for subse...

  13. Processing and properties of electrodeposited layered surface coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Hard chromium, produced by conventional dir ect curl ent (DC) electrodeposition, cannot be deposited to thicknesses gl enter than about 5 mu m because of the buildup of processing stresses which cause channel cracks in the coating. Much thicker chromium coatings map be produced by depositing a la...... geometry is almost always analogous to bending, and fracture resistance is provided through deviation of the channel crack by weak interfaces, resulting in 'terrace cracking'....

  14. Recycling and surface erosion processes in contemporary tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, G.M.

    1979-03-01

    A number of global models have recently had considerable success in describing recycling. These are briefly reviewed. It is shown that large gas concentrations can build up in the walls and that these concentrations are seriously affected by erosion and deposition processes and by deliberate gettering with titanium. Finally, the measurement of the concentration of hydrogen in probes is discussed as a means of measuring plasma edge characteristics

  15. Influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainev Dmitriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process and the formation of the quality of the surface machined. This effect has been confirmed by the study results of the combined cutting method with advanced plastic deformation (APD. The work estimates the impact of the change in the surface layer properties on the forces and temperature of cutting, stability of the chip formation and quality parameters of the surface machined.

  16. Effect of different machining processes on the tool surface integrity and fatigue life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chuan Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang (China); Zhang, Xianglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Ultra-precision grinding, wire-cut electro discharge machining and lapping are often used to machine the tools in fine blanking industry. And the surface integrity from these machining processes causes great concerns in the research field. To study the effect of processing surface integrity on the fine blanking tool life, the surface integrity of different tool materials under different processing conditions and its influence on fatigue life were thoroughly analyzed in the present study. The result shows that the surface integrity of different materials was quite different on the same processing condition. For the same tool material, the surface integrity on varying processing conditions was quite different too and deeply influenced the fatigue life.

  17. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Rigid Interspinous Process Fixation: A Learning Curve Analysis of a Surgeon Team's First 74 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Patrick; Welch, Arthur; Tharpe, Jason; Moore, Camille; Ferry, Chris

    2017-05-30

    Studies have shown that a significant learning curve may be associated with adopting minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) with bilateral pedicle screw fixation (BPSF). Accordingly, several hybrid TLIF techniques have been proposed as surrogates to the accepted BPSF technique, asserting that less/fewer fixation(s) or less disruptive fixation may decrease the learning curve while still maintaining the minimally disruptive benefits. TLIF with interspinous process fixation (ISPF) is one such surrogate procedure. However, despite perceived ease of adaptability given the favorable proximity of the spinous processes, no evidence exists demonstrating whether or not the technique may possess its own inherent learning curve. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intraoperative learning curve for one- and two-level TLIF + ISPF may exist for a single lead surgeon. Seventy-four consecutive patients who received one- or two-Level TLIF with rigid ISPF by a single lead surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. It was the first TLIF + ISPF case series for the lead surgeon. Intraoperative blood loss (EBL), hospitalization length-of-stay (LOS), fluoroscopy time, and postoperative complications were collected. EBL, LOS, and fluoroscopy time were modeled as a function of case number using multiple linear regression methods. A change point was included in each model to allow the trajectory of the outcomes to change during the duration of the case series. These change points were determined using profile likelihood methods. Models were fit using the maximum likelihood estimates for the change points. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and the number of treated levels were included as covariates. EBL, LOS, and fluoroscopy time did not significantly differ by age, sex, or BMI (p ≥ 0.12). Only EBL differed significantly by the number of levels (p = 0.026). The case number was not a significant predictor of EBL, LOS, or fluoroscopy time (p ≥ 0

  18. Microscopic investigation of RF surfaces of 3 GHz niobium accelerator cavities following RF processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Barnes, P.; Flynn, T.; Kirchgessner, J.; Knobloch, J.; Moffat, D.; Muller, H.; Padamsee, H.; Sears, J.

    1993-01-01

    RF processing of Superconducting accelerating cavities is achieved through a change in the electron field emission (FE) characteristics of the RF surface. The authors have examined the RF surfaces of several single-cell 3 GHz cavities, following RF processing, in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The RF processing sessions included both High Peak Power (P ≤ 50 kW) pulsed processing, and low power (≤ 20 W) continuous wave processing. The experimental apparatus also included a thermometer array on the cavity outer wall, allowing temperature maps to characterize the emission before and after RF processing gains. Multiple sites have been located in cavities which showed improvements in cavity behavior due to RF processing. Several SEM-located sites can be correlated with changes in thermometer signals, indicating a direct relationship between the surface site and emission reduction due to RF processing. Information gained from the SEM investigations and thermometry are used to enhance the theoretical model of RF processing

  19. Initiating and utilizing shared leadership in teams: The role of leader humility, team proactive personality, and team performance capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chia-Yen Chad; Owens, Bradley P; Tesluk, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership. Finally, we predict that shared leadership will be most strongly related to team performance when team members have high levels of task-related competence. Using a sample composed of 62 Taiwanese professional work teams, we find support for our proposed hypothesized model. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for team leadership, humility, team composition, and shared leadership are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Impact of an ABCDE team triage process combined with public guidance on the division of work in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantonen, Jarmo; Lloyd, Robert; Mattila, Juho; Kauppila, Timo; Menezes, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    To study the effects of applying an emergency department (ED) triage system, combined with extensive publicity in local media about the "right" use of emergency services, on the division of work between ED nurses and general practitioners (GPs). An observational and quasi-experimental study based on before-after comparisons. Implementation of the ABCDE triage system in a Finnish combined ED where secondary care is adjacent, and in a traditional primary care ED where secondary care is located elsewhere. GPs and nurses from two different primary care EDs. Numbers of monthly visits to different professional groups before and after intervention in the studied primary care EDs and numbers of monthly visits to doctors in the local secondary care ED. The beginning of the triage process increased temporarily the number of independent consultations and patient record entries by ED nurses in both types of studied primary care EDs and reduced the number of patient visits to a doctor compared with previous years but had no effect on doctor visits in the adjacent secondary care ED. No further decrease in the number of nurse or GP visits was observed by inhibiting the entrance of non-urgent patients. The ABCDE triage system combined with public guidance may reduce non-urgent patient visits to doctors in different kinds of primary care EDs without increasing visits in the secondary care ED. However, the additional work to implement the ABCDE system is mainly directed to nurses, which may pose a challenge for staffing.

  1. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  2. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna

    in the PlasmaNice project, as environmental and social aspects are addressed using methods like life cycle check (LCC), life cycle assessment (LCA), and industrial risk assessment (RA) within the boundary of an economical production for different market segments. The results are intended to be used partly...... products, and the process and material developers providing new coatings with specific properties. The combination of RA and LCA/LCC within the early stages of product development provide a more holistic approach, It is commonly believed to be also economical beneficial as changes are easier to implement...

  3. Air/surface exchange processes of mercury and their linkage to atmospheric pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, Enno; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric mercury cycle is strongly linked to the terrestrial, aquatic and biologic cycle of mercury via air/surface exchange processes. In order to quantify mercury fluxes from and to the atmosphere to predict local and regional source contributions the methods for flux measurements as well as the physicochemical factors controlling air/surface exchange processes must be assessed. We will describe methods for the determination of mercury and mercury species in ambient air which are basic for investigation of air/surface exchange processes. Further on we will describe approaches for studying the physicochemical factors controlling this processes by using a new laboratory flux measurement system. (author)

  4. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxing; Mao, Jianghua; Chen, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the theoretical and practical implementations of these observations.

  5. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the theoretical and practical implementations of these observations.

  6. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenxing; Mao, Jianghua; Chen, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the th...

  7. Improvement of Surface Properties of CP-Titanium by Thermo-Chemical Treatment (TCT) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Gyeong; Hur, Bo-Young; Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Yong-Tai; Yaskiv, O.

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-chemical treatment (TCT) process was applied to achieve surface hardening of CP titanium. The following three different surface modification conditions were tested so that the best surface hardening process could be selected:(a) PVD, (b) TCT+PVD, and (c) TCT+Aging+PVD. These specimens were tested and analyzed in terms of surface roughness, wear, friction coefficient, and the gradient of hardening from the surface of the matrix. The three test conditions were all beneficial to improve the surface hardness of CP titanium. Moreover, the TCT treated specimens, that is, (b) and (c), showed significantly improved surface hardness and low friction coefficients through the thickness up to 100um. This is due to the functionally gradient hardened surface improvement by the diffused interstitial elements. The hardened surface also showed improvement in bonding between the PVD and TCT surface, and this leads to improvement in wear resistance. However, TCT after aging treatment did not show much improvement in surface properties compared to TCT only. For the best surface hardening on CP titanium, TCT+PVD has advantages in surface durability and economics.

  8. Work team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBE Editorial

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC

  9. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  11. Study of the processes of adsorption of amine-containing surface-active substance on the surface of Aluminum powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Dyuryagina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium characteristics of adsorption on a surface of a pigment depending on concentration factors and temperature of the dispersive environment are defined. Kinetic laws of superficial activity of binary, threefold homogeneous and heterogeneous modeling systems are studied. The estimation of mechanisms of process of adsorption is carried out.

  12. The Workings of a Multicultural Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Pagan-Coss, Harald; Mayorga, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Transcultural nurse researchers are exposed to the challenges of developing and maintaining a multiethnic team. With the example of a multicultural research study of family caregivers conducted in the Miami-Dade area, the authors guide the readers through steps of developing a culturally competent and effective team. Design Pointing out challenges and successes, the authors illustrate team processes and successful strategies relative to recruitment of qualified members, training and team maintenance, and evaluation of team effectiveness. Method With relevant concepts from the literature applied to practical examples, the authors demonstrate how cultural team competence grows in a supportive work environment. PMID:18390824

  13. The process development of laser surface modification of commercially pure titanium (Grade 2) with rhenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobiela, K.; Smolina, I.; Dziedzic, R.; Szymczyk, P.; Kurzynowski, T.; Chlebus, E.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the process development of laser surface modification of commercially pure titanium with rhenium. The criterion of the successful/optimal process is the repetitive geometry of the surface, characterized by predictable and repetitive chemical composition over its entire surface as well as special mechanical properties (hardness and wear resistance). The analysis of surface geometry concluded measurements of laser penetration depth and heat affected zone (HAZ), the width of a single track as well as width of a clad. The diode laser installed on the industrial robot carried out the laser treatment. This solution made possible the continuous supply of powder to the substrate during the process. The aim of an investigation is find out the possibility of improving the tribological characteristics of the surface due to the rhenium alloying. The verification of the surface properties (tribological) concluded geometry measurements, microstructure observation, hardness tests and evaluation of wear resistance.

  14. A post-processing study on aluminum surface by fiber laser: Removing face milling patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayahan, Ersin

    2018-05-01

    The face milling process of the metal surface is a well-known machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece. Flat metal surfaces can be produced by a face milling process. However, in practice, visible, traced marks following the motion of points on the cutter's face are usually apparent. In this study, it was shown that milled patterns can be removed by means of 20 W fiber laser on the aluminum surface (AA7075). Experimental results also showed that roughened and hydrophobic surface can be produced with optimized laser parameters. It is a new approach to remove the patterns from the metal surface and can be explained through roughening by re-melting instead of ablation. The new method is a strong candidate to replace sandblasting the metal surface. It is also cheap and environmentally friendly.

  15. Team Orientations, Interpersonal Relations, and Team Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Howard L.

    1976-01-01

    Contradictions in post research on the concepts of "cohesiveness" and team success seem to arise from the ways in which cohesiveness is measured and the nature of the teams investigated in each study. (MB)

  16. Team cohesion and team success in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Albert V; Bray, Steven R; Eys, Mark A

    2002-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between task cohesiveness and team success in elite teams using composite team estimates of cohesion. A secondary aim was to determine statistically the consistency (i.e. 'groupness') present in team members' perceptions of cohesion. Elite university basketball teams (n = 18) and club soccer teams (n = 9) were assessed for cohesiveness and winning percentages. Measures were recorded towards the end of each team's competitive season. Our results indicate that cohesiveness is a shared perception, thereby providing statistical support for the use of composite team scores. Further analyses indicated a strong relationship between cohesion and success (r = 0.55-0.67). Further research using multi-level statistical techniques is recommended.

  17. The theory of development of surface morphology by sputter erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    When a surface is bombarded by an energetic ion flux a rich variety of surface structures are observed to develop at the atomic, microscopic and macroscopic scales. Such structures include elevated, with respect to the surrounding surface, features such as mesas or plateaux, ridges, cones and pyramids and depressed features such as etch pits and cavities. These elementary features may be isolated or in profusion and frequently repetitive patterns of coordinated pyramidal structures, etch pits, surface ledges or facets and ripple or wave-like structures occur. The majority of the features arise rather directly from the erosion action of the sputtering process, particularly from differential erosion processes at different surface localities. The authors outline a general approach to sputter erosion induced surface morphology development based on the concept of the surface as an advancing wave. (Auth.)

  18. An interdisciplinary team communication framework and its application to healthcare 'e-teams' systems design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, Craig E; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Purkis, Mary Ellen; Black, Fraser; Boyle, Michael; Cloutier-Fisher, Denise; Fox, Lee Ann; MacKenzie, Patricia; Syme, Ann; Tschanz, Coby; Wainwright, Wendy; Wong, Helen

    2009-09-15

    There are few studies that examine the processes that interdisciplinary teams engage in and how we can design health information systems (HIS) to support those team processes. This was an exploratory study with two purposes: (1) To develop a framework for interdisciplinary team communication based on structures, processes and outcomes that were identified as having occurred during weekly team meetings. (2) To use the framework to guide 'e-teams' HIS design to support interdisciplinary team meeting communication. An ethnographic approach was used to collect data on two interdisciplinary teams. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data according to structures, processes and outcomes. We present details for team meta-concepts of structures, processes and outcomes and the concepts and sub concepts within each meta-concept. We also provide an exploratory framework for interdisciplinary team communication and describe how the framework can guide HIS design to support 'e-teams'. The structures, processes and outcomes that describe interdisciplinary teams are complex and often occur in a non-linear fashion. Electronic data support, process facilitation and team video conferencing are three HIS tools that can enhance team function.

  19. An interdisciplinary team communication framework and its application to healthcare 'e-teams' systems design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKenzie Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies that examine the processes that interdisciplinary teams engage in and how we can design health information systems (HIS to support those team processes. This was an exploratory study with two purposes: (1 To develop a framework for interdisciplinary team communication based on structures, processes and outcomes that were identified as having occurred during weekly team meetings. (2 To use the framework to guide 'e-teams' HIS design to support interdisciplinary team meeting communication. Methods An ethnographic approach was used to collect data on two interdisciplinary teams. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data according to structures, processes and outcomes. Results We present details for team meta-concepts of structures, processes and outcomes and the concepts and sub concepts within each meta-concept. We also provide an exploratory framework for interdisciplinary team communication and describe how the framework can guide HIS design to support 'e-teams'. Conclusion The structures, processes and outcomes that describe interdisciplinary teams are complex and often occur in a non-linear fashion. Electronic data support, process facilitation and team video conferencing are three HIS tools that can enhance team function.

  20. Improving supervision: a team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" outlines an interactive team supervision strategy as a means of improving family planning service quality and enabling staff to perform to their maximum potential. Such an approach to supervision requires a shift from a monitoring to a facilitative role. Because supervisory visits to the field are infrequent, the regional supervisor, clinic manager, and staff should form a team to share ongoing supervisory responsibilities. The team approach removes individual blame and builds consensus. An effective team is characterized by shared leadership roles, concrete work problems, mutual accountability, an emphasis on achieving team objectives, and problem resolution within the group. The team supervision process includes the following steps: prepare a visit plan and schedule; meet with the clinic manager and staff to explain how the visit will be conducted; supervise key activity areas (clinical, management, and personnel); conduct a problem-solving team meeting; conduct a debriefing meeting with the clinic manager; and prepare a report on the visit, including recommendations and follow-up plans. In Guatemala's Family Planning Unit, teams identify problem areas on the basis of agreement that a problem exists, belief that the problem can be solved with available resources, and individual willingness to accept responsibility for the specific actions identified to correct the problem.

  1. Surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing for high Nb-TiAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wanyuan; Hao, Guojian; Liang, Yongfeng; Li, Feng; Liu, Xiao; Lin, Junpin

    2016-12-01

    Metal surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) is an innovative treatment widely commonly applied to material processing and pretreatment process of coating and galvanization. EPP involves complex processes and a great deal of parameters, such as preset voltage, current, solution temperature and processing time. Several characterization methods are presented in this paper for evaluating the micro-structure surfaces of Ti45Al8Nb alloys: SEM, EDS, XRD and 3D topography. The results showed that the oxide scale and other contaminants on the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys can be effectively removed via EPP. The typical micro-crater structure of the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys were observed by 3D topography after EPP to find that the mean diameter of the surface structure and roughness value can be effectively controlled by altering the processing parameters. The mechanical properties of the surface according to nanomechanical probe testing exhibited slight decrease in microhardness and elastic modulus after EPP, but a dramatic increase in surface roughness, which is beneficial for further processing or coating.

  2. Team learning: building shared mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, van den P.; Gijselaers, W.; Segers, M.; Woltjer, G.B.; Kirschner, P.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning

  3. Fabricating Super-hydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces by a Simple Filler-Dissolved Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Tsan; Chou, Jung-Hua

    2010-12-01

    The self-cleaning effect of super-hydrophobic surfaces has attracted the attention of researchers. Typical ways of manufacturing super-hydrophobic surfaces include the use of either dedicated equipment or a complex chemical process. In this study, a simple innovative filler-dissolved method is developed using mainly powder salt and rinsing to form hydrophobic surfaces. This method can produce large super-hydrophobic surfaces with porous and micro rib surface structures. It can also be applied to curved surfaces, including flexible membranes. The contact angle of the manufactured artificial hydrophobic surface is about 160°. Furthermore, water droplets roll off the surface readily at a sliding angle of less than 5°, resembling the nonwetting lotus like effect.

  4. Imagery Integration Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  5. Your cancer care team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000929.htm Your cancer care team To use the sharing features on this page, ... help your body heal. Working with Your Care Team Each member of your care team plays an ...

  6. Food-safe modification of stainless steel food processing surfaces to reduce bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Tarek Samir; Asker, Dalal; Hatton, Benjamin D

    2018-06-11

    Biofilm formation on stainless steel (SS) surfaces of food processing plants, leading to foodborne illness outbreaks, is enabled by the attachment and confinement within microscale cavities of surface roughness (grooves, scratches). We report Foodsafe Oil-based Slippery Coatings (FOSCs) for food processing surfaces that suppress bacterial adherence and biofilm formation by trapping residual oil lubricant within these surface cavities to block microbial growth. SS surfaces were chemically functionalized with alkylphosphonic acid to preferentially wet a layer of food grade oil. FOSCs reduced the effective surface roughness, the adhesion of organic food residue, and bacteria. FOSCs significantly reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on standard roughness SS-316 by 5 log CFU cm-2, and by 3 log CFU cm-2 for mirror-finished SS. FOSCs also enhanced surface cleanability, which we measured by bacterial counts after conventional detergent cleaning. Importantly, both SS grades maintained their anti-biofilm activity after erosion of the oil layer by surface wear with glass beads, which suggests there is a residual volume of oil that remains to block surface cavity defects. These results indicate the potential of such low-cost, scalable approaches to enhance the cleanability of SS food processing surfaces and improve food safety by reducing biofilm growth.

  7. The nuclear detectives. The international atomic energy agency IAEA is supposed to trace countries that produce or disseminate nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. A team from Juelich is supporting the process; Die Nukleardetektive. Die internationale Atomenergie-Organisation IAEO soll Staaten aufspueren, die heimlich nukleares Material fuer Atomwaffen herstellen oder verbreiten. Ein Juelicher Team unterstuetzt sie dabei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Frank

    2015-07-01

    The Juelich Team is part of the International Standing Advisory Group on Safeguard Implementation that is supposed to find violations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Using wipe cloth in nuclear facilities it is possible to find uranium or plutonium containing particles. The study of the isotopic composition of uranium particles allows the identification of the uranium enrichment in the facility. In Juelich reference uranium particles with defined isotopic composition are produced for calibration purposes. The Juelich team supporting IAEA is also developing computer programs for the automatic processing of satellite data with respect to nuclear facilities.

  8. Characterization of surface processes on mineral surfaces in aqueous solutions. Annual report for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1993-11-01

    Performance assessments by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are being done investigating the environmental risk related to long-term disposal of hazardous wastes resulting from the use of radioactive materials that must subsequently be isolated from the environment. The YMP site, located in southwestern Nevada, is intended for the storage of high-level wastes generated by nuclear energy-related activities, including spent fuel and waste from reprocessed fuel rods. The work covered by this contract is necessary for producing a defensible model and dataset, and may be critical for evaluation of repository compliance. This work, performed by the Environmental Engineering and Science research group at Stanford University, will quantify the adsorption of uranyl on various minerals. The project's principle objective is to provide sorption coefficients for uranyl and other ions of interest to predict radionuclide movements form the repository to accessible environments. This adsorption data is essential for the unambiguous interpretation of field experiments and observations. In this report, details of the activity and progress made with respect to the study of uranyl adsorption on mineral surfaces is presented and discussed

  9. Process, practice and priorities — key lessons learnt undertaking sensitive social reconnaissance research as part of an (UNESCO-IOC) International Tsunami Survey Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijll de Jong, Shona L.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Roman, Carolina E.; Calgaro, Emma; Gero, Anna; Veland, Siri; Bird, Deanne K.; Muliaina, Tolu; Tuiloma-Sua, Dawn; Afioga, Taulagi Latu

    2011-07-01

    The 29 September 2009 South Pacific tsunami has had a lasting impact upon local coastal villages and global collaborative research efforts. Locally, the impact of the tsunami is one of the most severe disasters Samoa has experienced in the last several decades. Within one week of the event, 143 people died. Approximately 6000 traumatized men, women and children - terrified of the sea - refused to return to live or work in their rural, coastal villages, which in turn has had broad consequences for humanitarian emergency relief distribution networks and early recovery planning efforts. Researchers came from all over the world to participate in the UNESCO International Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Samoa International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST). Focusing on the need for interdisciplinary research, for the first time, a social impact assessment team (SIT) was expressly invited to participate. Within days of the tsunami, a group of Australian, New Zealand, American, Fijian, and Japanese disaster researchers began to discuss how they might develop a social science reconnaissance research plan using innovative approaches and best practice. This paper presents an overview of challenges faced by the social impact assessment team with a focus on lessons to be learnt from this experience. We discuss the need to clarify project boundaries, develop a core research agenda and project milestones, and develop day-to-day fieldwork work plans and at the same time be sensitive to the emotional needs of the interviewees as well as the researchers. We also make several practical suggestions for future social reconnaissance research with a set of recommendations to support disaster researchers as they plan their own research projects. The inclusion of a social impacts assessment group within a UNESCO-IOC ITST was a valuable response to the increasing need for responsible social research in sensitive topics of post-disaster analysis. Social scientists are aware that disaster social

  10. Non destructive evaluation of residual stresses in welding and hard-surfacing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Cruz, C.; Aragon, B.; Merino, F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper transversal and longitudinal stress profiles in welding and hard-surfacing by welding processes are presented. The stresses were measured by RMS of Barkhausen signal. In this work it is shown that in each case the level of stresses is strongly dependent on the number of weld beads of surfacing layers deposited. The subsequent deposition of new weld beads or surfacing layers produces a stress-relieving effect

  11. Reduction of Surface Roughness by Means of Laser Processing over Additive Manufacturing Metal Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Vittorio; Argenio, Paolo; Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2016-12-31

    Optimization of processing parameters and exposure strategies is usually performed in additive manufacturing to set up the process; nevertheless, standards for roughness may not be evenly matched on a single complex part, since surface features depend on the building direction of the part. This paper aims to evaluate post processing treating via laser surface modification by means of scanning optics and beam wobbling to process metal parts resulting from selective laser melting of stainless steel in order to improve surface topography. The results are discussed in terms of roughness, geometry of the fusion zone in the cross-section, microstructural modification, and microhardness so as to assess the effects of laser post processing. The benefits of beam wobbling over linear scanning processing are shown, as heat effects in the base metal are proven to be lower.

  12. Team Learning in Teacher Teams: Team Entitativity as a Bridge between Teams-in-Theory and Teams-in-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate team learning in the context of teacher teams in higher vocational education. As teacher teams often do not meet all criteria included in theoretical team definitions, the construct "team entitativity" was introduced. Defined as the degree to which a group of individuals possesses the quality of being a…

  13. An Experimental Study of the Dropwise Condensation on Physically Processed Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Chang, Soonheung; Watanabe, N.; Sambuichi, T.; Shiota, D.; Aritomi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research by Kawakubo et al. derived empirical condensation heat transfer correlation suitable for wider range of operating condition in presence of non-condensable gas. However, their proposals of PCCS are focused on plane tube surface. To design better PCCS heat exchanger with high heat transfer coefficient new treatment on condensation surface can be considered in order to maintain dropwise condensation, the heat transfer coefficient of which has an order of magnitude larger than those of film condensation. Advanced research measure dropwise condensation heat transfer coefficient of Au and Cr coated surface based on number of droplet and droplet growth rate. However, coated surface is not desirable in power plant due to its duration of few years. On the other hand, physical processing (micro holes and patterns) on stainless steel and titanium surface is expected to perform better heat transfer, also is durable for the whole reactor lifetime. Since there is no published research about dropwise condensation for physically processed surface on SUS and Ti, the purposes of this research are to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient and analyze its mechanism of enhanced heat transfer of treated SUS and Ti commonly used to nuclear plant. In the comparison of theoretical equation and experiment, it shows same result that heat transfer coefficient is proportional to maximum droplet diameter power to -0.321. Moreover, in the comparison of bare and processed surface, heat transfer coefficient decreases in processed surface

  14. Numerical study on formation process of helical nonneutral plasmas using electron injection from outside magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazutaka; Himura, Haruhiko; Masamune, Sadao; Sanpei, Akio; Isobe, Mitsutaka

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the formation process of helical nonneutral plasmas, we calculate the orbits of electron injected in the stochastic magnetic field when the closed helical magnetic surfaces is correspond with the equipotential surfaces. Contrary to the experimental observation, there are no electrons inward penetrating. (author)

  15. Development of a MODIS-Derived Surface Albedo Data Set: An Improved Model Input for Processing the NSRDB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclaurin, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gilroy, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A significant source of bias in the transposition of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array (POA) irradiance arises from inaccurate estimations of surface albedo. The current physics-based model used to produce the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) relies on model estimations of surface albedo from a reanalysis climatalogy produced at relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to that of the NSRDB. As an input to spectral decomposition and transposition models, more accurate surface albedo data from remotely sensed imagery at finer spatial resolutions would improve accuracy in the final product. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an improved white-sky (bi-hemispherical reflectance) broadband (0.3-5.0 ..mu..m) surface albedo data set for processing the NSRDB from two existing data sets: a gap-filled albedo product and a daily snow cover product. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided high-quality measurements of surface albedo at 30 arc-second spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution since 2001. The high spatial and temporal resolutions and the temporal coverage of the MODIS sensor will allow for improved modeling of POA irradiance in the NSRDB. However, cloud and snow cover interfere with MODIS observations of ground surface albedo, and thus they require post-processing. The MODIS production team applied a gap-filling methodology to interpolate observations obscured by clouds or ephemeral snow. This approach filled pixels with ephemeral snow cover because the 8-day temporal resolution is too coarse to accurately capture the variability of snow cover and its impact on albedo estimates. However, for this project, accurate representation of daily snow cover change is important in producing the NSRDB. Therefore, NREL also used the Integrated Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System data set, which provides daily snow cover observations of the

  16. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    trying to improve on what they've done before. Second, success in any endeavor stems from people who know how to interpret a composition to sound beautiful when played in a different style. For Knowledge Sharing to work, it must be adapted, reinterpreted, shaped and played with at the centers. In this regard, we've been blessed with another crazy, passionate, inspired artist named Claire Smith. Claire has turned Ames Research Center in California into APPL-west. She is so good and committed to what she does that I just refer people to her whenever they have questions about implementing project management development at the field level. Finally, any great effort requires talented people working behind the scenes, the people who formulate a business approach and know how to manage the money so that the music gets heard. I have known many brilliant and creative people with a ton of ideas that never take off due to an inability to work the business. Again, the Knowledge Sharing team has been fortunate to have competent and passionate people, specifically Tony Maturo and his procurement team at Goddard Space Flight Center, to make sure the process is in place to support the effort. This kind of support is every bit as crucial as the activity itself, and the efforts and creativity that go into successful procurement and contracting is a vital ingredient of this successful team.

  17. Upper Meter Processes: Short Wind Waves, Surface Flow, and Micro-Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    .... Since ground truth of the sea surface is still widely missing, a better understanding of the physics of these upper meter processes is of very important for the study of air-sea gas and momentum...

  18. Evaluation of optical functional surfaces on the injection moulding insert by micro milling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Davoudinejad, Ali; Zhang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of micro milling process for manufacturing injection moulding inserts with an optical functionalsurface. The objective is the optimal surface functionality. Micro ridges were used as the microstructures to realize the function to generate contrast between...

  19. Cold pressure welding of aluminium-steel blanks: Manufacturing process and electrochemical surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Homberg, Werner; Orive, Alejandro Gonzalez; Grundmeier, Guido; Hordych, Illia; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    In this study the manufacture of aluminium-steel blanks by cold pressure welding and their preparation for a welding process through electrochemical surface treatment are investigated and discussed. The cold pressure welding process was done with an incremental rolling tool that allows for the partial pressure welding of two blanks along a prepared path. The influence of the surface preparation by electrochemical deposition of bond promoting organosilane-based agents and roughening on a nano-scale is investigated and compared to conventional surface treatments. Coating the surfaces with a thin organosilane-based film incorporating specific functional groups should promote additional bonding between the mating oxide layers; its influence on the total weld strength is studied. Pressure welding requires suitable process strategies, and the current advances in the proposed incremental rolling process for the combination of mild steel and aluminium are presented.

  20. Simulation of dynamic processes when machining transition surfaces of stepped shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksarov, V. V.; Krasnyy, V. A.; Viushin, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper addresses the characteristics of stepped surfaces of parts categorized as "solids of revolution". It is noted that in the conditions of transition modes during the switch to end surface machining, there is cutting with varied load intensity in the section of the cut layer, which leads to change in cutting force, onset of vibrations, an increase in surface layer roughness, a decrease of size precision, and increased wear of a tool's cutting edge. This work proposes a method that consists in developing a CNC program output code that allows one to process complex forms of stepped shafts with only one machine setup. The authors developed and justified a mathematical model of a technological system for mechanical processing with consideration for the resolution of tool movement at the stages of transition processes to assess the dynamical stability of a system in the process of manufacturing stepped surfaces of parts of “solid of revolution” type.

  1. Fabrication of superhydrophobic wood surfaces via a solution-immersion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyu; Wang, Shuliang; Shi, Junyou; Wang, Chengyu

    2011-11-01

    Superhydrophobic wood surfaces were fabricated from potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) through a convenient solution-immersion method. The reaction involves a hydrogen bond assembly and a polycondensation process. The silanol was formed by reacting PMS aqueous solution with CO2, which was assembled on the wood surface via hydrogen bonds with the wood surface -OH groups. The polymethylsilsesquioxane coating was obtained through the polycondensation reaction of the hydroxyl between wood and silanol. The morphology of products were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the surface chemical composition was determined using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry (TGA) and contact angle measurement. Analytical results revealed that rough protuberances uniformly covered the wood surface, thus transforming the wood surface from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The water contact angle of the superhydrophobic wood surface was about 153° and a sliding angle was 4.6°.

  2. The role of original surface roughness in laser-induced periodic surface structure formation process on poly-carbonate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csete, M.; Hild, S.; Plettl, A.; Ziemann, P.; Bor, Zs.; Marti, O.

    2004-01-01

    Poly-carbonate films containing different types of original surface roughness were illuminated by a polarized ArF excimer laser beam having a fluence of 4 mJ/cm 2 . Atomic force microscopy was applied to study the laser-induced periodic surface structure formation process at 0 deg. , 30 deg. and 45 deg. angles of incidence. The effect of initial surface structures on the intensity distribution was investigated in cases of: (a) grains on oriented and amorphous thick films; (b) holes on thin spin-coated films; and (c) nanoparticles arranged along micrometer long sides of hexagons below the spin-coated films. The presence of the scattering objects caused symmetry breaking, if the samples were illuminated by oblique incident 's' polarized beam. The Fourier analysis of the AFM pictures has shown the competition of structures having different periods. The characteristic of the permanent surface patterns proved that the interference of the incoming beam and the beams scattered on previously existing structures is the LIPSS generating feedback process. Ring-shaped structures having 228 nm diameter were produced

  3. Effect of Surface Densification on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgical Gears by Using a Surface Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingguang Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy (PM components are widely used in the auto industry due to the advantage of net-shape forming, low cost, and high efficiency. Still, usage of PM components is limited in the auto industry when encountering rigorous situations, like heavy load, due to lower strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties compared to wrought components due to the existence of massive pores in the PM components. In this study, through combining the powder metallurgy process and rolling process, the pores in the PM components were decreased and a homogenous densified layer was formed on the surface, which resulted in the enhancement of the strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties, which can expand its range of application. In this paper, we study the impact of different rolling feeds on the performance of the components’ surfaces. We found that with the increase of the rolling feed, the depth of the densified layer increased.

  4. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  5. The role of the California Base Closure Environmental Committee's (CBCEC) Radioactive and Mixed Waste Process Action Team (RMWPAT) in expediting site restoration and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudon, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC) mandated the closing and transfer of Department of Defense (DoD) properties within specific timeframes. Due to requirements of federal and state laws, closing bases must be environmentally remediated to alleviate threats to human health and the environment upon transfer. Certain barriers such as legislative, regulatory, administrative, and technical issues, have been identified which threaten the timely restoration and transfer of these BRAC properties. The state of California, faced with the scheduled closure or realignment of 26 military bases, recognized the need to establish a base closure environmental committee to address issues affecting the timely cleanup and reuse of DoD properties and promote accelerated restoration. Accordingly, the California Base Closure Environmental Committee (CBCEC) was formed by executive order of Governor Pete Wilson. One of the barriers identified by the CBCEC is the potential contamination of DoD facilities with radioactive materials. As a result of the difficulties encountered in assessing the nature and extent of radioactive contamination at DoD sites in California, the CBCEC formed the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Process Action Team (RMWPAT). The RMWPAT was tasked with ''demystifying'' and working to address issues associated with radioactive contamination

  6. Effect of electropulsing on surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during ultrasonic surface rolling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Guoyi, E-mail: tanggy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-26

    The present work integrates 3D digital optical microscopy (OM), nano-indentation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to systematically investigate the effect of electropulsing on the surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during the ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP). Compared with the original USRP, the introduction of electropulsing with optimal parameters can effectively facilitate surface crack healing and improve surface hardness and wear resistance dramatically, and the residual compressive stress is further enhanced. Meanwhile, more martensite phase and fewer deformation twins can be found in the strengthened layer. Rapid improvement of the surface mechanical properties should be attributed to the ultra-refined grains, accelerated martensitic phase transformation and suppressed deformation twining induced by the coupling effect of USRP and electropulsing. The high strain rate given by USRP, increased stacking fault energy and accelerated dislocation mobility caused by electropulsing are likely the primary intrinsic reasons for the observed phenomena.

  7. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  8. The surfacing of past assessment strategies within interdisciplinary teams when encountering an open-ended assignment in an undergraduate sustainability course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, K.; Dzulkifli, D. D. B.; Moynihan, M. A.; Salman, R.; Goodkin, N.

    2017-12-01

    267 undergraduate students in an interdisciplinary environmental sustainability course were divided into 66 groups for the duration of the semester. The formation of the groups proceeded by first assigning all of the science majors to groups in a random order. This was followed by assigning the engineering majors, the liberal arts majors, and finally the business majors in turn. After all of the students had been assigned to a group, every group had at least one engineering student and one science student. 11 groups had a liberal arts student but no business student. 26 groups had a business student but no liberal arts student. 29 groups were composed of students from all four majors. During the semester, the groups created an environmental action plan to address one of Singapore's major sustainability concerns: food. In service of the course's emphasis on interdisciplinary communication, the groups were required to create a video to support their environmental action plan. The evaluation method for the videos built on our prior work with rubrics (Hartman & Goodkin, 2016). While we provided a number of examples of videos communicating environmental action plans, students were not prescribed a particular format for their video. To the consternation of some students, the instructor deliberately left the video assessment open-ended. After the semester ended, a researcher coded all 66 videos for the food sustainability issues they identified, their proposed solutions, and their video approach. Approaches included animations, virtual handwriting/drawing, role-playing, PowerPoint presentations, and picture slideshows. Given the open-ended nature of the video project, we hypothesized that groups would converge on approaches that at least one team member was familiar with. We knew from prior work with the business school, that its students engage in role-play activities fairly frequently. Teams with a business major and without a liberal arts major adopted the role

  9. Genetic Algorithm-Based Optimization for Surface Roughness in Cylindrically Grinding Process Using Helically Grooved Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaydaş, Ulaş; Çelik, Mahmut

    The present work is focused on the optimization of process parameters in cylindrical surface grinding of AISI 1050 steel with grooved wheels. Response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) techniques were merged to optimize the input variable parameters of grinding. The revolution speed of workpiece, depth of cut and number of grooves on the wheel were changed to explore their experimental effects on the surface roughness of machined bars. The mathematical models were established between the input parameters and response by using RSM. Then, the developed RSM model was used as objective functions on GA to optimize the process parameters.

  10. A modified prebind engagement process reduces biomechanical loading on front row players during scrummaging: a cross-sectional study of 11 elite teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Dario; Preatoni, Ezio; Stokes, Keith A; England, Michael E; Trewartha, Grant

    2015-04-01

    Biomechanical studies of the rugby union scrum have typically been conducted using instrumented scrum machines, but a large-scale biomechanical analysis of live contested scrummaging is lacking. We investigated whether the biomechanical loading experienced by professional front row players during the engagement phase of live contested rugby scrums could be reduced using a modified engagement procedure. Eleven professional teams (22 forward packs) performed repeated scrum trials for each of the three engagement techniques, outdoors, on natural turf. The engagement processes were the 2011/2012 (referee calls crouch-touch-pause-engage), 2012/2013 (referee calls crouch-touch-set) and 2013/2014 (props prebind with the opposition prior to the 'Set' command; PreBind) variants. Forces were estimated by pressure sensors on the shoulders of the front row players of one forward pack. Inertial Measurement Units were placed on an upper spine cervical landmark (C7) of the six front row players to record accelerations. Players' motion was captured by multiple video cameras from three viewing perspectives and analysed in transverse and sagittal planes of motion. The PreBind technique reduced biomechanical loading in comparison with the other engagement techniques, with engagement speed, peak forces and peak accelerations of upper spine landmarks reduced by approximately 20%. There were no significant differences between techniques in terms of body kinematics and average force during the sustained push phase. Using a scrum engagement process which involves binding with the opposition prior to the engagement reduces the stresses acting on players and therefore may represent a possible improvement for players' safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Consequences of team charter quality: Teamwork mental model similarity and team viability in engineering design student teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway Hughston, Veronica

    relationship. Foci for future research opportunities include using: a) online data collection methods to improve participant adherence to similarity rating instructions; b) story or narratives during pre- and posttest similarity rating data collection to create common levels of contextual perception; and c) support to ensure charters are integrated into the full project life cycle, not just a pre-project one time isolated activity. Twenty five sections, on average, of EDSGN 100 are taught each spring and fall semester. Consistent instructor expectations are set for the technical aspects of the course. However, ideas to foster team effectiveness are often left to the discretion of the individual instructor. Implementing empirically tested team effectiveness instructional activities would bring consistency to EDGSN 100 curriculum. Other instructional activities that would be of benefit to engineering educators include qualitative inquiry---asking intrateam process questions (at the mid-point of the project) and in-class reflection---dedicated time, post project, to discuss what went well/not well within the team.

  12. Poorly processed reusable surface disinfection tissue dispensers may be a source of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Degenhardt, Stina; Lackner, Sibylle; Jesse, Katrin; von Baum, Heike; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-21

    Reusable surface disinfectant tissue dispensers are used in hospitals in many countries because they allow immediate access to pre-soaked tissues for targeted surface decontamination. On the other hand disinfectant solutions with some active ingredients may get contaminated and cause outbreaks. We determined the frequency of contaminated surface disinfectant solutions in reusable dispensers and the ability of isolates to multiply in different formulations. Reusable tissue dispensers with different surface disinfectants were randomly collected from healthcare facilities. Solutions were investigated for bacterial contamination. The efficacy of two surface disinfectants was determined in suspension tests against two isolated species directly from a contaminated solution or after 5 passages without selection pressure in triplicate. Freshly prepared use solutions were contaminated to determine survival of isolates. 66 dispensers containing disinfectant solutions with surface-active ingredients were collected in 15 healthcare facilities. 28 dispensers from nine healthcare facilities were contaminated with approximately 107 cells per mL of Achromobacter species 3 (9 hospitals), Achromobacter xylosoxidans or Serratia marcescens (1 hospital each). In none of the hospitals dispenser processing had been adequately performed. Isolates regained susceptibility to the disinfectants after five passages without selection pressure but were still able to multiply in different formulations from different manufacturers at room temperature within 7 days. Neglecting adequate processing of surface disinfectant dispensers has contributed to frequent and heavy contamination of use-solutions based on surface active ingredients. Tissue dispenser processing should be taken seriously in clinical practice.

  13. Assessment of surface contamination level in an operating uranium ore processing facility of Jaduguda, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.S.; Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Sahoo, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Radiological concern of the occupational workers and the area is given priority over other safety issue in confirmation with the stipulated guideline of national regulatory agency (AERB/FEFCF/SG-2, 2007). The key concern from the radiological hazard evaluation point of view is air activity, external gamma level and surface contamination. Present investigations was carried out to ascertain the surface contamination level of uranium ore processing facility at Jaduguda, Jharkhand. For a low grade uranium ore processing industry surface contamination is a major concern in product precipitation and recovery section. In view of this, the ore processing plant can broadly be classified into three areas i.e. ion exchange area, precipitation and product recovery section and other areas. The monitoring results incorporate the level of surface contamination of the plant during the last five years. The geometric mean activity of surface contamination level was 31.1, 34.5 and 9.8 Bq dm -2 in ion exchange, product precipitation and recovery and other areas with GSD of 2, 2.5 and 1.9. In most of the cases the surface contamination level was well within the recommended limit of 100 Bq dm -2 for M class uranium compound. Occasional cases of surface contamination levels exceeding the recommended limit were addressed and areas were decontaminated. Based on the study, modification in the design feature of the surface of the finished product section was also suggested so that the decontamination procedure can be more effectively implemented

  14. Processing method and processing device for liquid waste containing surface active agent and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Baba, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1998-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes containing surface active agents and radioactive materials are sent to a deaerating vessel. Ozone is blown into the deaerating vessel. The washing liquid wastes dissolved with ozone are introduced to a UV ray irradiation vessel. UV rays are irradiated to the washing liquid wastes, and hydroxy radicals generated by photodecomposition of dissolved ozone oxidatively decompose surface active agents contained in the washing liquid wastes. The washing liquid wastes discharged from the UV ray irradiation vessel are sent to an activated carbon mixing vessel and mixed with powdery activated carbon. The surface active agents not decomposed in the UV ray irradiation vessel are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Then, the activated carbon and washing liquid wastes are separated by an activated carbon separating/drying device. Radioactive materials (iron oxide and the like) contained in the washing liquid wastes are mostly granular, and they are separated and removed from the washing liquid wastes in the activated carbon separating/drying device. (I.N.)

  15. Continuous processing of polymers in repetitively pulsed atmospheric pressure discharges with moving surfaces and gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoj, Ananth N [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kushner, Mark J [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-11-21

    Atmospheric pressure corona discharges are industrially employed to treat large areas of commodity polymer sheets by creating new surface functional groups. The most common processes use oxygen containing discharges to affix oxygen to hydrocarbon polymers, thereby increasing their surface energy and wettability. The process is typically continuous and is carried out in a web configuration with film speeds of tens to hundreds of cm s{sup -1}. The densities and relative abundances of functional groups depend on the gas composition, gas flow rate and residence time of the polymer in the discharge zone which ultimately determine the magnitude and mole fractions of reactive fluxes to the surface. In this paper, results are discussed from a two-dimensional computational investigation of the atmospheric pressure plasma functionalization of a moving polypropylene sheet in repetitively pulsed He/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O discharges. O and OH typically initiate surface processing by hydrogen abstraction. These species are regenerated during every plasma pulse but are also largely consumed during the inter-pulse period. Longer-lived species such as O{sub 3} accumulate over many pulses and convect downstream with the gas flow. Optimizing the interplay between local rapid reactions, such as H abstraction which occurs dominantly in the discharge zone, and non-local slower processes, such as surface-surface reactions, may enable the customization of the relative abundance of surface functional groups.

  16. Continuous processing of polymers in repetitively pulsed atmospheric pressure discharges with moving surfaces and gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoj, Ananth N; Kushner, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure corona discharges are industrially employed to treat large areas of commodity polymer sheets by creating new surface functional groups. The most common processes use oxygen containing discharges to affix oxygen to hydrocarbon polymers, thereby increasing their surface energy and wettability. The process is typically continuous and is carried out in a web configuration with film speeds of tens to hundreds of cm s -1 . The densities and relative abundances of functional groups depend on the gas composition, gas flow rate and residence time of the polymer in the discharge zone which ultimately determine the magnitude and mole fractions of reactive fluxes to the surface. In this paper, results are discussed from a two-dimensional computational investigation of the atmospheric pressure plasma functionalization of a moving polypropylene sheet in repetitively pulsed He/O 2 /H 2 O discharges. O and OH typically initiate surface processing by hydrogen abstraction. These species are regenerated during every plasma pulse but are also largely consumed during the inter-pulse period. Longer-lived species such as O 3 accumulate over many pulses and convect downstream with the gas flow. Optimizing the interplay between local rapid reactions, such as H abstraction which occurs dominantly in the discharge zone, and non-local slower processes, such as surface-surface reactions, may enable the customization of the relative abundance of surface functional groups

  17. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  18. Dominant rate process of silicon surface etching by hydrogen chloride gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Sunao; Nakamura, Akio; Takeuchi, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    Silicon surface etching and its dominant rate process are studied using hydrogen chloride gas in a wide concentration range of 1-100% in ambient hydrogen at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range of 1023-1423 K, linked with the numerical calculation accounting for the transport phenomena and the surface chemical reaction in the entire reactor. The etch rate, the gaseous products and the surface morphology are experimentally evaluated. The dominant rate equation accounting for the first-order successive reactions at silicon surface by hydrogen chloride gas is shown to be valid. The activation energy of the dominant surface process is evaluated to be 1.5 x 10 5 J mol - 1 . The silicon deposition by the gaseous by-product, trichlorosilane, is shown to have a negligible influence on the silicon etch rate

  19. Analysis of WEDM Process Parameters on Surface Roughness and Kerf using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfana Banu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In obtaining the best quality of engineering parts, the quality of machined surface plays an essential role. The fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece are some of the aspects of the qualities that can be improved. This paper investigates the effect of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM process parameters on surface roughness and kerf on stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The selected process parameters are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical models using Taguchi method were developed for the estimation of surface roughness and kerf. The analysis revealed that off time has major influence on surface roughness and kerf. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness and kerf were found to be 10 V open voltage, 2.84 µs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  20. Specifics of adsorption and chemical processes on the surface of gamma-irradiated vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurkovskaya, V.N.; Dzyubenko, L.S.; Doroshenko, V.N.; Chujko, A.A.; Shakhov, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of γ-irradiation on electrophysical properties and processes of thermal desorption of water from the surface of vanadium oxides V 2 O 3 -VO 2-δ -VO 2+δ -V 2 O 5 was investigated by derivatography and electric conductivity. Content of adsorbed water at the surface and phase composition of the surface was demonstrated to change under the action of low radiation doses. Surface electric conductivity of the irradiated samples VO 2-δ in the process of chemical reactions of adsorbed following irradiation benzoic acid and ethanol was established to be much above than in irradiated-free ones. It is presumed that metal-semiconductor phase transition at the surface of VO 2-δ during chemical reaction is intensified by irradiation [ru

  1. Trust in Diverse Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    , maintaining team cohesiveness in multicultural teams to collaborate effectively presents a number of challenges. The present study employs the concept of trust to explore influences on team collaboration in high performing teams. The study is based on observation of teams in seven multinational corporations...... and interviews with managers from the US, Europe, China and Japan. The study presents a conceptual framework - a ‘trust buffer’ – which enables analysis and exemplification of the dynamics and challenges of teams as drivers of change. Each team has strategically important tasks, unique capacities and deal...... with change in particular ways: Each team is analyzed in relation to its global (HQ) mandate, local (national) stakeholders and organizational context. It is found that communication energy, resources and team mandate underscore the sense of trust in high performing teams. Diversity is understood...

  2. Effect of conditioner load on the polishing pad surface during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheol Min; Qin, Hong Yi; Hong, Seok Jun; Jeon, Sang Hyuk; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Tae Sun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    During the Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the pad conditioning process can affect the pad surface characteristics. Among many CMP process parameters, the improper applied load on the conditioner arm may have adverse effects on the polyurethane pad. In this work, we evaluated the pad surface properties under the various conditioner arm applied during pad conditioning process. The conditioning pads were evaluated for surface topography, surface roughness parameters such as Rt and Rvk and Material removal rate (MRR) and within-wafer non-uniformity after wafer polishing. We observed that, the pad asperities were collapsed in the direction of conditioner rotation and blocks the pad pores applied conditioner load. The Rvk value and MRR were founded to be in relation with 4 > 1 > 7 kgF conditioner load. Hence, this study shows that, 4 kgF applied load by conditioner is most suitable for the pad conditioning during CMP.

  3. Developing Your Dream Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Kenda

    2005-01-01

    Almost anyone has held various roles on a team, be it a family unit, sports team, or a project-oriented team. As an educator, one must make a conscious decision to build and invest in a team. Gathering the best team possible will help one achieve one's goals. This article explores some of the key reasons why it is important to focus on the team…

  4. The evaluation of GCMs and a new cloud parameterisation using satellite and in-situ data as part of a Climate Process Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, D. P.; Wood, R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of one of the Climate Process Teams (CPTs) we have been testing the implementation of a new cloud parameterization into the CAM5 and AM3 GCMs. The CLUBB parameterization replaces all but the deep convection cloud scheme and uses an innovative PDF based approach to diagnose cloud water content and turbulence. We have evaluated the base models and the CLUBB parameterization in the SE Pacific stratocumulus region using a suite of satellite observation metrics including: Liquid Water Path (LWP) measurements from AMSRE; cloud fractions from CloudSat/CALIPSO; droplet concentrations (Nd) and Cloud Top Temperatures from MODIS; CloudSat precipitation; and relationships between Estimated Inversion Strength (calculated from AMSRE SSTs, Cloud Top Temperatures from MODIS and ECMWF re-analysis fields) and cloud fraction. This region has the advantage of an abundance of in-situ aircraft observations taken during the VOCALS campaign, which is facilitating the diagnosis of the model problems highlighted by the model evaluation. This data has also been recently used to demonstrate the reliability of MODIS Nd estimates. The satellite data needs to be filtered to ensure accurate retrievals and we have been careful to apply the same screenings to the model fields. For example, scenes with high cloud fractions and with output times near to the satellite overpass times can be extracted from the model for a fair comparison with MODIS Nd estimates. To facilitate this we have been supplied with instantaneous model output since screening would not be possible based on time averaged data. We also have COSP satellite simulator output, which allows a fairer comparison between satellite and model. For example, COSP cloud fraction is based upon the detection threshold of the satellite instrument in question. These COSP fields are also used for the model output filtering just described. The results have revealed problems with both the base models and the versions with the CLUBB

  5. Surface preparation process of a uranium titanium alloy, in particular for chemical nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri, A.; Lefevre, D.; Massicot, P.

    1987-01-01

    In this process the uranium alloy surface is attacked with a solution of lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid. Dissolved uranium can be recovered from the solution by an ion exchange resin. Treated alloy can be nickel plated by a chemical process [fr

  6. Surface modification on a glass surface with a combination technique of sol–gel and air brushing processes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Yu; Hsu, Chin-Chi; Chen, Ping-Hei; Lin, Chao-Sung; Chen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This study fabricated the large area and optically transparent superhydrophobic silica based films on glass surface with optimized hardness. A silane coupling agent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), effectively bonds silica particles onto the glass substrate. Desired surface roughness was obtained by adjusting nano silica particles concentration of the precursors prepared by the sol-gel process. Silica suspension was coated onto the glass substrate by the air brushing methods. This method can deposit a uniform, transparent coating on the glass substrate efficiently. Diluting the precursor by adding ethanol or a mixture of D.I. water and ethanol further improved the transmittance and superhydrophobicity efficiency. The results showed that as the silica particle concentration and the thickness of the coating were increased, the surface roughness was enhanced. Rougher surface displayed a higher superhydrophobicity and lower transmittance. Therefore, the concentration of silica particle, volume of coatings, and the ratio of ethanol and D.I. water are of great importance to deposit a transparent, superhydrophobic coating on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface modification on a glass surface with a combination technique of sol–gel and air brushing processes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Yu

    2011-08-01

    This study fabricated the large area and optically transparent superhydrophobic silica based films on glass surface with optimized hardness. A silane coupling agent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), effectively bonds silica particles onto the glass substrate. Desired surface roughness was obtained by adjusting nano silica particles concentration of the precursors prepared by the sol-gel process. Silica suspension was coated onto the glass substrate by the air brushing methods. This method can deposit a uniform, transparent coating on the glass substrate efficiently. Diluting the precursor by adding ethanol or a mixture of D.I. water and ethanol further improved the transmittance and superhydrophobicity efficiency. The results showed that as the silica particle concentration and the thickness of the coating were increased, the surface roughness was enhanced. Rougher surface displayed a higher superhydrophobicity and lower transmittance. Therefore, the concentration of silica particle, volume of coatings, and the ratio of ethanol and D.I. water are of great importance to deposit a transparent, superhydrophobic coating on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Topological characterization of antireflective and hydrophobic rough surfaces: are random process theory and fractal modeling applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Claudia; Paggi, Marco

    2015-02-01

    The random process theory (RPT) has been widely applied to predict the joint probability distribution functions (PDFs) of asperity heights and curvatures of rough surfaces. A check of the predictions of RPT against the actual statistics of numerically generated random fractal surfaces and of real rough surfaces has been only partially undertaken. The present experimental and numerical study provides a deep critical comparison on this matter, providing some insight into the capabilities and limitations in applying RPT and fractal modeling to antireflective and hydrophobic rough surfaces, two important types of textured surfaces. A multi-resolution experimental campaign using a confocal profilometer with different lenses is carried out and a comprehensive software for the statistical description of rough surfaces is developed. It is found that the topology of the analyzed textured surfaces cannot be fully described according to RPT and fractal modeling. The following complexities emerge: (i) the presence of cut-offs or bi-fractality in the power-law power-spectral density (PSD) functions; (ii) a more pronounced shift of the PSD by changing resolution as compared to what was expected from fractal modeling; (iii) inaccuracy of the RPT in describing the joint PDFs of asperity heights and curvatures of textured surfaces; (iv) lack of resolution-invariance of joint PDFs of textured surfaces in case of special surface treatments, not accounted for by fractal modeling.

  9. Laser processing of metallic biomaterials: An approach for surface patterning and wettability control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Sepehr; Mollabashi, Mahmoud; Madanipour, Khosro

    2015-12-01

    Q -switched Nd:YAG laser is used to manipulate the surface morphology and wettability characteristic of 316L stainless steel (SS) and titanium biomaterials. Water and glycerol are selected as wettability testing liquids and the sessile drop method is used for the contact angle measurements. Results indicate that on both of the metals, wettability toward water improves significantly after the laser treatment. Different analyses including the study of the surface morphology, free energy and oxidation are assessed in correlation with wettability. Beside the important role of the laser-induced surface patterns, the increase in the surface roughness, oxygen content and the polar component of the surface energy, are detected as the most important physical and chemical phenomena controlling the improvement in the wettability. However, all the processed hydrophilic surfaces that are exposed to air become hydrophobic over time. The time dependency of the surface wettability is related to the chemical activities on the treated surfaces and the reduction of oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio on them. The behavior is further studied with investigating the effect of the keeping environment and changes of the components of the surface tension. Results show that the pulsed laser treatment is a versatile approach to create either hydrophobic or super hydrophilic surfaces for industrial and medical applications.

  10. Effects of Micromachining Processes on Electro-Osmotic Flow Mobility of Glass Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Miki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica glass is frequently used as a device material for micro/nano fluidic devices due to its excellent properties, such as transparency and chemical resistance. Wet etching by hydrofluoric acid and dry etching by neutral loop discharge (NLD plasma etching are currently used to micromachine glass to form micro/nano fluidic channels. Electro-osmotic flow (EOF is one of the most effective methods to drive liquids into the channels. EOF mobility is affected by a property of the micromachined glass surfaces, which includes surface roughness that is determined by the manufacturing processes. In this paper, we investigate the effect of micromaching processes on the glass surface topography and the EOF mobility. We prepared glass surfaces by either wet etching or by NLD plasma etching, investigated the surface topography using atomic force microscopy, and attempted to correlate it with EOF generated in the micro-channels of the machined glass. Experiments revealed that the EOF mobility strongly depends on the surface roughness, and therefore upon the fabrication process used. A particularly strong dependency was observed when the surface roughness was on the order of the electric double layer thickness or below. We believe that the correlation described in this paper can be of great help in the design of micro/nano fluidic devices.

  11. Effect of processing parameters of rotary ultrasonic machining on surface integrity of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfu Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dihydrogen phosphate is an important optical crystal. However, high-precision processing of large potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal workpieces is difficult. In this article, surface roughness and subsurface damage characteristics of a (001 potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal surface produced by traditional and rotary ultrasonic machining are studied. The influence of process parameters, including spindle speed, feed speed, type and size of sintered diamond wheel, ultrasonic power, and selection of cutting fluid on potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal surface integrity, was analyzed. The surface integrity, especially the subsurface damage depth, was affected significantly by the ultrasonic power. Metal-sintered diamond tools with high granularity were most suitable for machining potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal. Cutting fluid played a key role in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal machining. A more precise surface can be obtained in machining with a higher spindle speed, lower feed speed, and using kerosene as cutting fluid. Based on the provided optimized process parameters for machining potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal, a processed surface quality with Ra value of 33 nm and subsurface damage depth value of 6.38 μm was achieved.

  12. Optimization of CO2 Laser Cutting Process using Taguchi and Dual Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Selection of optimal cutting parameter settings for obtaining high cut quality in CO2 laser cutting process is of great importance. Among various analytical and experimental optimization methods, the application of Taguchi and response surface methodology is one of most commonly used for laser cutting process optimization. Although the concept of dual response surface methodology for process optimization has been used with success, till date, no experimental study has been reported in the field of laser cutting. In this paper an approach for optimization of CO2 laser cutting process using Taguchi and dual response surface methodology is presented. The goal was to determine the near optimal laser cutting parameter values in order to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. To obtain experimental database for development of response surface models, Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 m/min, the laser power (0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 kW, and the assist gas pressure (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 bar, were used in the experiment. To obtain near optimal cutting parameters settings, multi-stage Monte Carlo simulation procedure was performed on the developed response surface models.

  13. MANAGING MULTICULTURAL PROJECT TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar SCARLAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA projects versus information technology (IT projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and differences between the above mentioned types of projects. Distinct focus of the research is on the multiculturalism of the project teams: how the cultural background of the team members influences the team performance and team management. Besides the results of the study are the managerial implications: how the team managers could soften the cultural clash, and avoid inter-cultural misunderstandings and even conflicts – in order to get a better performance. Some practical examples are provided as well.

  14. Process comparison for fracture-induced formation of surface structures on polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yueh-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sanboh, E-mail: sblee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Using three different splitting approaches such as point-load splitting, tension-splitting and peeling–splitting, different surface ripples were produced on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based polymer films. Independent of the splitting approaches, the spatial wavelength of the surface structures is a linear function of the film thickness with the approximately same differential ratio of the spatial wavelength to the film thickness. The apparent surface residual stress was calculated from the thickness dependence of the spatial frequency, and the magnitude of the apparent surface stress increased with the increase of the film thickness. After exposing the aged PMMA-based photoresist at liquid state to gamma-irradiation, the effects of aging and the gamma-irradiation were investigated on the splitting-induced formation of surface structures. For the peeling–splitting process, the differential ratio of the spatial wavelength to the film thickness for the aged samples is larger than that for non-aged samples. The point-load splitting could not produce any surface pattern on the gamma-irradiated films. None of the splitting approaches could form surface structures for polymer films exposed to irradiation of high dose. Both the spatial wavelength and the apparent surface stress increased with the film thickness for the irradiated polymer films. - Highlights: • Using splitting processes, surface ripples were formed on polymer films. • The surface ripples were induced by compressively apparent surface stress. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is a linear function of the film thickness. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is affected by gamma-ray irradiation. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is affected by aging.

  15. Distribution and Characteristics of Boulder Halos at High Latitudes on Mars: Ground Ice and Surface Processes Drive Surface Reworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J. S.; Fassett, C. I.; Rader, L. X.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Russell, A. T.; Dyar, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    Boulder halos are circular arrangements of clasts present at Martian middle to high latitudes. Boulder halos are thought to result from impacts into a boulder-poor surficial unit that is rich in ground ice and/or sediments and that is underlain by a competent substrate. In this model, boulders are excavated by impacts and remain at the surface as the crater degrades. To determine the distribution of boulder halos and to evaluate mechanisms for their formation, we searched for boulder halos over 4,188 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images located between 50-80° north and 50-80° south latitude. We evaluate geological and climatological parameters at halo sites. Boulder halos are about three times more common in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere (19% versus 6% of images) and have size-frequency distributions suggesting recent Amazonian formation (tens to hundreds of millions of years). In the north, boulder halo sites are characterized by abundant shallow subsurface ice and high thermal inertia. Spatial patterns of halo distribution indicate that excavation of boulders from beneath nonboulder-bearing substrates is necessary for the formation of boulder halos, but that alone is not sufficient. Rather, surface processes either promote boulder halo preservation in the north or destroy boulder halos in the south. Notably, boulder halos predate the most recent period of near-surface ice emplacement on Mars and persist at the surface atop mobile regolith. The lifetime of observed boulders at the Martian surface is greater than the lifetime of the craters that excavated them. Finally, larger minimum boulder halo sizes in the north indicate thicker icy soil layers on average throughout climate variations driven by spin/orbit changes during the last tens to hundreds of millions of years.

  16. Healthcare management strategies: interdisciplinary team factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Pamela; Marzano, David

    2012-12-01

    Interdisciplinary team factors are significant contributors to clinical performance and associated patient outcomes. Quality of care and patient safety initiatives identify human factors associated with team performance as a prime improvement area for clinical patient care. The majority of references to interdisciplinary teams in obstetrics and gynecology in the literature recommends the use of multidisciplinary approaches when managing complex medical cases. The reviewed literature suggests that interdisciplinary team development is important for achieving optimally efficient and effective performance; however, few reports provide specific recommendations for how to optimally achieve these objectives in the process of providing interdisciplinary care to patients. The absence of these recommendations presents a significant challenge for those tasked with improving team performance in the workplace. The prescribed team development programs cited in the review are principally built around communication strategies and simulation-based training mechanisms. Few reports provide descriptions of optimal team-based competencies in the various contexts of obstetric and gynecology teams. However, team-based evaluation strategies and empirical data documenting the transfer of team training to applied clinical care are increasing in number and quality. Our findings suggest that research toward determining team factors that promote optimal performance in applied clinical practice requires definition of specific competencies for the variable teams serving obstetrics and gynecology.

  17. Three images of interdisciplinary team meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau, E B

    1994-08-01

    Teams are an essential aspect of health care today, especially in rehabilitation or chronic illness where the course of care is frequently long, complex, and unpredictable. The coordinative function of teams and their interdisciplinary aspects are thought to improve patient care because team members bring their unique professional skills together to address patient problems. This coordination is enacted through the team meeting, which typically results in an integrated care plan. This professional image of team meetings is explicit and addresses the description and provision of care as objective and rational activities. In contrast, the constructed and ritualistic images of health care team meetings are implicit and concern the less objective and rational aspects of planning care. The constructed image pertains to the definitional activity of team members as they try to understand patient troubles and achieve consensus. This process involves the individual clinical reasoning of team members and the collective reasoning of the group. The ritualistic image is that aspect of team meetings in which the team affirms and reaffirms its collective identity. Drawing from field research of geropsychiatric team meetings, this article defines and explicates these images, focusing on the constructed and ritualistic aspects of team meetings and the influence of these images on group function.

  18. Measuring the Impact of the Micronegotiation Technique on Team Member Satisfaction and Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jeffery David

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is not an uncommon element of team interactions and processes; however, if unchecked it can cause issues in the ability of the team to achieve maximum performance. Research on task conflict and relationship conflict by de Wit, Greer, and Jehn (2012) found that while in many cases task conflict and relationship conflict within teams can…

  19. Effect of Space Radiation Processing on Lunar Soil Surface Chemistry: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, C.; Loeffler, M.J.; Baragiola, R.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, J.

    2009-01-01

    Current understanding of the chemistry and microstructure of the surfaces of lunar soil grains is dominated by a reference frame derived mainly from electron microscopy observations [e.g. 1,2]. These studies have shown that the outermost 10-100 nm of grain surfaces in mature lunar soil finest fractions have been modified by the combined effects of solar wind exposure, surface deposition of vapors and accretion of impact melt products [1,2]. These processes produce surface-correlated nanophase Feo, host grain amorphization, formation of surface patinas and other complex changes [1,2]. What is less well understood is how these changes are reflected directly at the surface, defined as the outermost 1-5 atomic monolayers, a region not easily chemically characterized by TEM. We are currently employing X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the surface chemistry of lunar soil samples that have been previously studied by TEM. This work includes modification of the grain surfaces by in situ irradiation with ions at solar wind energies to better understand how irradiated surfaces in lunar grains change their chemistry once exposed to ambient conditions on earth.

  20. Analysis the complex interaction among flexible nanoparticles and materials surface in the mechanical polishing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Xuesong, E-mail: hanxuesongphd@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 (China); Gan, Yong X. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Mechanical polishing (MP), being the important technique of realizing the surface planarization, has already been widely applied in the area of microelectronic manufacturing and computer manufacturing technology. The surface planarization in the MP is mainly realized by mechanical process which depended on the microdynamic behavior of nanoparticle. The complex multibody interaction among nanoparticles and materials surface is different from interaction in the macroscopic multibody system which makes the traditional classical materials machining theory cannot accurately uncover the mystery of the surface generation in the MP. Large-scale classical molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of interaction among nanoparticles and solid surface has been carried out to investigate the physical essence of surface planarization. The particles with small impact angle can generate more uniform global planarization surface but the materials removal rate is lower. The shear interaction between particle and substrate may induce large friction torque and lead to the rotation of particle. The translation plus rotation makes the nanoparticle behaved like micro-milling tool. The results show that the nanoparticles may aggregrate together and form larger cluster thus deteriorate surface the quality. This MD simulation results illuminate that the f inal planarized surface can only be acquired by synergic behavior of all particles using various means such as cutting, impacting, scratching, indentation and so on.

  1. AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guu, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters at a low pulse energy. The surface roughness and the depth of the micro-cracks were proportional to the power input. Furthermore, the AFM application yielded information about the depth of the micro-cracks is particularly important in the post treatment of AISI D2 tool steel machined by EDM

  2. AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guu, Y. H.

    2005-04-01

    The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters at a low pulse energy. The surface roughness and the depth of the micro-cracks were proportional to the power input. Furthermore, the AFM application yielded information about the depth of the micro-cracks is particularly important in the post treatment of AISI D2 tool steel machined by EDM.

  3. Method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeffrey W [Livermore, CA

    2009-09-22

    Reactive atom plasma processing can be used to shape, polish, planarize and clean the surfaces of difficult materials with minimal subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use a plasma torch, such as a conventional ICP torch. The workpiece and plasma torch are moved with respect to each other, whether by translating and/or rotating the workpiece, the plasma, or both. The plasma discharge from the torch can be used to shape, planarize, polish, and/or clean the surface of the workpiece, as well as to thin the workpiece. The processing may cause minimal or no damage to the workpiece underneath the surface, and may involve removing material from the surface of the workpiece.

  4. Manipulating surface wettability and oil absorbency of diatomite depending on processing and ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, İlhan; Şimşek, Süleyman; Okyay, Gamze

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a diatomite sample, which is a natural inorganic mineral with inherently high water and oil absorption capacity, was subjected to grinding before surface modification. Afterwards, the diatomite surface was modified via facile methods using a fluorocarbon (FC) chemical and stearic acid (SA) in addition to the sol-gel fluorosilanization (FS) process. The water and oil wettability, and oil absorbency properties of the unmodified and modified diatomites were investigated in addition to diatomite characterizations such as chemical content, surface area, particle size distribution, morphology, and modification efficiency. It was revealed that the wettability was changed completely depending on the surface modification agent and the media used, while the oil absorbency property surprisingly did not change. On the other hand, the oil absorbency was worsened by the grinding process, whereas the wettability was not affected.

  5. The study of sub-surface damage distributions during grinding process on different abrasion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Yu, Zong-Ru; Shu, Shyu-Cheng; Chang, Keng-Shou; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2017-10-01

    The grinding process is the primary technology for curvature generation (CG) on glass optics. The higher material removal rate (MRR) leads to deeper sub-surface damage (SSD) on lens surface. The SSD must be removed by following lapping and polishing processes to ensure the lens quality. However, these are not an easy and an efficient process to remove the SSD from ground surface directly for aspheric surfaces with tens or hundreds microns departure from bestfit- sphere (BFS). An efficient fabrication procedure for large aspheric departure on glass materials must be considered. We propose 3-step fabrication procedures for aspheric surface with larger departure. 1st step is to generate a specific aspheric surface with depth less than 10 μm of SSD residual. 2nd step is to remove SSD and keep the aspheric form by using Zeeko polisher with higher MRR pad. Final step is to figure and finish the aspheric surface by using QED MRF machine. In this study, we focus on the 1st step to investigate the residual depth of SSD after grinding process on different abrasion materials. The materials of tested part are fused silica, S-NPH2, and S-PHM52. The cross grinding would be configured and depth of SSD/surface roughness would be evaluated in this study. The characteristic of SSD could be observed after etching by confocal microscope. The experimental results show the depth of SSD below 31.1 μm with #400 grinding wheel. And the near 10 μm depth of SSD would be achieved with #1,000 grinding wheel. It means the aspherization polishing on large parts with large departure from best fit sphere would be replaced. The fabrication of large aspheric part would be efficient.

  6. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  7. Effect of Build Angle on Surface Properties of Nickel Superalloys Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Ernesto E.; Eshraghi, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aerospace, automotive, and medical industries use selective laser melting (SLM) to produce complex parts through solidifying successive layers of powder. This additive manufacturing technique has many advantages, but one of the biggest challenges facing this process is the resulting surface quality of the as-built parts. The purpose of this research was to study the surface properties of Inconel 718 alloys fabricated by SLM. The effect of build angle on the surface properties of as-built parts was investigated. Two sets of sample geometries including cube and rectangular artifacts were considered in the study. It was found that, for angles between 15° and 75°, theoretical calculations based on the "stair-step" effect were consistent with the experimental results. Downskin surfaces showed higher average roughness values compared to the upskin surfaces. No significant difference was found between the average roughness values measured from cube and rectangular test artifacts.

  8. Enabling team learning when members are prone to contentious communication: The role of team leader coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Schaubroeck, John; Carmeli, Avraham; Bhatia, Sarena; Paz, Etty

    2016-01-01

    Members of teams are often prone to interpersonal communication patterns that can undermine the team’s capacity to engage in self-learning processes that are critical to team adaptation and performance improvement. We argue that team leader coaching behaviors are critical to ensuring that team discussions that may foster learning new teamwork skills and strategies are unfettered by the tendency of two or more members to exhibit contentious interpersonal communications. We accordingly test a m...

  9. Insights into the Surface Transformation and Electrochemical Dissolution Process of Bornite in Bioleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, density functional theory (DFT calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and electrochemistry analysis were combined to analyze the electrochemical dissolution process of bornite during bioleaching. DFT calculations showed that bornite was a conductor with metallic conductivity. The formula of bornite may be (Cu+5Fe3+(S2−4 and the surface reconstruction of (111-S surface was discussed. Electrochemistry and XPS analysis showed that bornite tended to be directly oxidized with high conductivity when the potential was higher than 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Elemental sulfur (S0, FeOOH and CuS were the main intermediate species on the bornite surface during the oxidation process. The production of S0 and FeOOH on bornite surface can be significantly accelerated with increased redox potential, but no insoluble sulfate (SO42− formed on bornite surface in 0.3–0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The oxidative dissolution of bornite was significantly accelerated with increasing redox potential, which was one important reason why mixed culture was more effective than single strains of A. caldus and L. ferriphilum in bornite bioleaching. The insoluble SO42− was formed mainly through the chemical reactions in solution and then covered the bornite surface in bioleaching. Based on the obtained results, a model for interpreting the dissolution process of bornite in bioleaching was proposed.

  10. Land Surface Process and Air Quality Research and Applications at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of land surface process and air quality research at MSFC including atmospheric modeling and ongoing research whose objective is to undertake a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of accurate land surface characterization on atmospheric modeling results, and public health applications. Land use maps as well as 10 meter air temperature, surface wind, PBL mean difference heights, NOx, ozone, and O3+NO2 plots as well as spatial growth model outputs are included. Emissions and general air quality modeling are also discussed.

  11. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R; Han, InTaek; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-22

    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements.

  12. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ~ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2-2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation.

  13. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ∼ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2–2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation

  14. Selection Criteria and Methods for Testing Different Surface Materials for Contact Frying Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya

    Inner surfaces of industrial process equipment for food are often coated to give the surfaces particular properties with respect to adhesion and cleanability. Existing coating materials (PTFE (Teflon®) or silicone based polymers) suffer from drawbacks when used in contact frying, because these co...... surface materials for contact frying processes. The surfaces selected for this purpose cover a wide spectrum of materials that range from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), aluminium (Al Mg 5754), PTFE......, an experimental rig has been constructed which enabled a controlled fouling of different coatings on steel and aluminium substrates under realistic frying conditions. A subjective rating procedure was employed for screening different surfaces according to their non-stick properties when used for frying of a model...... defects and surface roughness play a significant role. The wear resistance of the coatings was tested by performing abrasive wear experiments. The ceramic coatings: TiAlN and ZrN were found to show the best wear resistance properties. The experiments also revealed the poor wear resistance of stainless...

  15. Planarization of the diamond film surface by using the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Planarization of the free-standing diamond film surface as smooth as possible could be obtained by using the hydrogen plasma etching with the diffusion of the carbon species into the metal alloy (Fe, Cr, Ni). For this process, we placed the free-standing diamond film between the metal alloy and the Mo substrate like a metal-diamond-molybdenum (MDM) sandwich. We set the sandwich-type MDM in a microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. The sandwich-type MDM was heated over ca. 1000 .deg. C by using the hydrogen plasma. We call this process as the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process. After etching the free-standing diamond film surface, we investigated surface roughness, morphologies, and the incorporated impurities on the etched diamond film surface. Finally, we suggest that the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process is an adequate etching technique for the fabrication of the diamond film surface applicable to electronic devices

  16. International virtual teams engineering global success

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, P

    2015-01-01

    As a complete guide to international virtual team communication with practical problem-solving strategies, this book is a must read for managers and engineers in all stages of their professional development This book provides essential information for creating and maintaining successful international virtual teams for those who manage, participate in, or train others in international virtual teaming. Based on new studies in engineering communication, this book presents processes and principles that can help managers and engineers establish global virtual teams that work, assess the virtual team climate, and maintain the effectiveness of virtual teams across cultural boundaries. It provides knowledge and tools necessary to understand the variable contexts of global virtual teams, so that organizations are able to respond to inevitable changes in technology and the global marketplace.

  17. Basic visual perceptual processes in children with typical development and cerebral palsy: The processing of surface, length, orientation, and position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetz, Emilie; Magis, David; Detraux, Jean-Jacques; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Rousselle, Laurence

    2018-03-02

    The present study aims to assess how the processing of basic visual perceptual (VP) components (length, surface, orientation, and position) develops in typically developing (TD) children (n = 215, 4-14 years old) and adults (n = 20, 20-25 years old), and in children with cerebral palsy (CP) (n = 86, 5-14 years old) using the first four subtests of the Battery for the Evaluation of Visual Perceptual and Spatial processing in children. Experiment 1 showed that these four basic VP processes follow distinct developmental trajectories in typical development. Experiment 2 revealed that children with CP present global and persistent deficits for the processing of basic VP components when compared with TD children matched on chronological age and nonverbal reasoning abilities.

  18. Geospatial Information Response Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  19. Microstructure and optical appearance of anodized friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Bordo, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate Ti, Y and Ce oxide powders into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The FSP processed surface composite was subsequently anodized with an aim to develop optical effects in the anodized layer owing to the presence of incorporated...... oxide particles which will influence the scattering of light. This paper presents the investigations on relation between microstructure of the FSP zone and optical appearance of the anodized layer due to incorporation of metal oxide particles and modification of the oxide particles due to the anodizing...

  20. Tiger Team audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will address the purpose, scope, and approach of the Department of Energy Tiger Team Assessments. It will use the Tiger Team Assessment experience of Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico, as illustration

  1. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls

  2. Teaming up for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Fransen, J. (2012). Teaming up for learning: Team effectiveness in collaborative learning in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). November, 16, 2012, Open University in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  3. Your Dialysis Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z Health Guide Your Dialysis Care Team Tweet Share Print Email Good health care is ... dialyzers (artificial kidneys) for reuse. Vascular Access Care Team If you are a hemodialysis patient, another group ...

  4. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon a MGO surface and structures formed with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A process and structure wherein optical quality perovskites, such as BaTiO.sub.3 or SrTiO.sub.3, are grown upon a single crystal MgO substrate involves the epitaxial build up of alternating planes of TiO.sub.2 and metal oxide wherein the first plane grown upon the MgO substrate is a plane of TiO.sub.2. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  5. O trabalho de equipe no programa de saúde da família: reflexões a partir de conceitos do processo grupal e de grupos operativos El trabajo del equipo en el programa de salud de la familia: reflexión a partir de conceptos del proceso grupal y de grupos operativos Team work in a family health care program: the team process concept and operational teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinira Magali Fortuna

    2005-04-01

    theoretical revision of team work in a family Health Care Program. We define team work in the health care field as a relationship network among people, power, knowledge, affection, and wishes, when there is a possibility of identifying group processes. We deal with concepts of Operational Group from the Argentinean School, which might help health professionals to get training in team work. We have visible (spoken and invisible (unspoken tasks within teams, which are modified and need to be combined and known. Communication, learning, the feeling of belonging, the atmosphere, the actions' pertinence for the team's purpose and power relations may help the team to get to know and analyze each other and to build a team. External supervision may help the team to turn itself into an operational team, working towards a life care project.

  6. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP

  7. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo, E-mail: bradywang@hit.edu.cn; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP.

  8. Building multidisciplinary business teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, C.J.; Winte, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a description of an approach to managing Exploration and Production assets through the operation of multidisciplinary business teams. The business team approach can assist in improved asset performance in terms of efficiency, motivation and business results, compared with more traditional matrix style hierarchies. Within this paper certain critical success factors for the long term success of multidiscipline teams are outlined, together with some of the risk of business team operation

  9. Toward Learning Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams......Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...

  10. Formalization of Team Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerman, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    This paper is divided to practical and theoretical part. Theoretical part defines essential background of personality and work psychology which are pillars for using the personality and roles typology in practical part. I also define conceptions such as group, team, procedures of making the team. Practical part is focused at making the repertoary grid which outlines proximity of team roles, anchored in the repertoary grids upon personal atributes basis and picked team positions.

  11. Characterization of boron carbide particulate reinforced in situ copper surface composites synthesized using friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiskumar, R., E-mail: sathiscit2011@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugan, N., E-mail: murugan@cit.edu.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Dinaharan, I., E-mail: dinaweld2009@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, V V College of Engineering, Tisaiyanvilai, 627 657 Tamil Nadu (India); Vijay, S.J., E-mail: vijayjoseph@karunya.edu [Centre for Research in Metallurgy (CRM), School of Mechanical Sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641 114 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-10-15

    Friction stir processing has evolved as a novel solid state technique to fabricate surface composites. The objective of this work is to apply the friction stir processing technique to fabricate boron carbide particulate reinforced copper surface composites and investigate the effect of B{sub 4}C particles and its volume fraction on microstructure and sliding wear behavior of the same. A groove was prepared on 6 mm thick copper plates and packed with B{sub 4}C particles. The dimensions of the groove was varied to result in five different volume fractions of B{sub 4}C particles (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 vol.%). A single pass friction stir processing was done using a tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 40 mm/min and an axial force of 10 kN. Metallurgical characterization of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites was carried out using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The sliding wear behavior was evaluated using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Results indicated that the B{sub 4}C particles significantly influenced the area, dispersion, grain size, microhardness and sliding wear behavior of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites. When the volume fraction of B{sub 4}C was increased, the wear mode changed from microcutting to abrasive wear and wear debris was found to be finer. Highlights: • Fabrication of Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composite by friction stir processing • Analyzing the effect of B{sub 4}C particles on the properties of Cu/B4C surface composite • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles reduced the area of surface composite. • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles enhanced the microhardness and wear rate. • B{sub 4}C particles altered the wear mode from microcutting to abrasive.

  12. Quantification of chemical transport processes from the soil to surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kun; Huang, Chi-Hua; Wang, Guang-Qian; Fu, Xu-Dong; Parker, Gary

    2013-01-01

    There is a good conceptual understanding of the processes that govern chemical transport from the soil to surface runoff, but few studies have actually quantified these processes separately. Thus, we designed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify the chemical transport from soil to runoff water in the following individual processes: (i) convection with a vertical hydraulic gradient, (ii) convection via surface flow or the Bernoulli effect, (iii) diffusion, and (iv) soil loss. We applied different vertical hydraulic gradients by setting the flow cell to generate different seepage or drainage conditions. Our data confirmed the general form of the convection-diffusion equation. However, we now have additional quantitative data that describe the contribution of each individual chemical loading process in different surface runoff and soil hydrological conditions. The results of this study will be useful for enhancing our understanding of different geochemical processes in the surface soil mixing zone. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Dropwise condensation heat transfer process optimisation on superhydrophobic surfaces using a multi-disciplinary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatir, Z.; Kubiak, K.J.; Jimack, P.K.; Mathia, T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Droplets jumping phenomenon can enhance condensate evacuation from the surface. • Droplets jumping velocity depends on droplets radius and surface static contact angle. • Optimum conditions are for droplets with radius 35–40 μm and contact angle near 160°. • Jumping phenomenon occurs only when static contact angle is above 140°. • The optimal functional surface design maximises jumping velocity and heat flux. - Abstract: Dropwise condensation has superior heat transfer efficiency than filmwise condensation; however condensate evacuation from the surface still remains a significant technological challenge. The process of droplets jumping, against adhesive forces, from a solid surface upon coalescence has been studied using both experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) and Volume of Fluid (VOF) methods have been used to evaluate different kinematic conditions of coalescence inducing a jump velocity. In this paper, an optimisation framework for superhydrophobic surface designs is presented which uses experimentally verified high fidelity CFD analyses to identify optimal combinations of design features which maximise desirable characteristics such as the vertical velocity of the merged jumping droplet from the surface and energy efficiency. A Radial Basis Function (RBF)-based surrogate modelling approach using Design of Experiment (DOE) technique was used to establish near-optimal initial process parameters around which to focus the study. This multidisciplinary approach allows us to evaluate the jumping phenomenon for superhydrophobic surfaces for which several input parameters may be varied, so as to improve the heat transfer exchange rate on the surface during condensation. Reliable conditions were found to occur for droplets within initial radius range of r = 20–40 μm and static contact angle θ_s ∼ 160°. Moreover, the jumping phenomenon was observed for droplets with initial

  14. Fostering teachers' team learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Machiel; Runhaar, Piety; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of educational innovations by teachers seems to benefit from a team approach and team learning. The study's goal is to examine to what extent transformational leadership is associated with team learning, and to investigate the mediating roles of participative decision-making,

  15. Leadership for Distributed Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, J.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an

  16. How Primary Teacher Teams Understand the Team Protocol in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Teacher teams can be more effective when protocols are used in their entirety; and because of this, use of and understanding Ohio's five-step process is important (Gallimore, Ermeling, Saunders & Goldenberg, 2009, Saunders, Goldenberg & Gallimore, 2009, and Schwaenberger & Ahearn, 2013). This study explored the understanding of…

  17. Dual brush process for selective surface modification in graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Chan, Boon Teik; Hori, Masafumi; Gronheid, Roel

    2017-07-01

    Graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly is a potential low-cost solution for patterning via layers with pitches beyond the reach of a single optical lithographic exposure. In this process, selective control of the interfacial energy at the bottom and sidewall of the template is an important but challenging exercise. A dual brush process is implemented, in which two brushes with distinct end-groups are consecutively grafted to the prepattern to achieve fully independent modification of the bottom and sidewall surface of the template. A comprehensive study of hole pattern quality shows that using a dual brush process leads to a substantial improvement in terms of positional and dimensional variability across the process window. These findings will be useful to others who wish to manipulate polymer-surface interactions in directed self-assembly flows.

  18. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  19. Advanced measurement and analysis of surface textures produced by micro-machining processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni V; Hafiz, Abdullah M K

    2014-01-01

    Surface texture of a part or a product has significant effects on its functionality, physical-mechanical properties and visual appearance. In particular for miniature products, the implication of surface quality becomes critical owing to the presence of geometrical features with micro/nano-scale dimensions. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of surface texture are carried out predominantly by profile parameters, which are often insufficient to address the contribution of constituent spatial components with varied amplitudes and wavelengths. In this context, this article presents a novel approach for advanced measurement and analysis of profile average roughness (R a ) and its spatial distribution at different wavelength intervals. The applicability of the proposed approach was verified for three different surface topographies prepared by grinding, laser micro-polishing and micro-milling processes. From the measurement and analysis results, R a (λ) spatial distribution was found to be an effective measure of revealing the contributions of various spatial components within specific wavelength intervals towards formation of the entire surface profile. In addition, the approach was extended to the measurement and analysis of areal average roughness S a (λ) spatial distribution within different wavelength intervals. Besides, the proposed method was demonstrated to be a useful technique in developing a functional correlation between a manufacturing process and its corresponding surface profile. (paper)

  20. Making waves: Kinetic processes controlling surface evolution during low energy ion sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W.L.; Chason, Eric

    2007-01-01

    When collimated beams of low energy ions are used to bombard materials, the surface often develops a periodic pattern or ''ripple'' structure. Different types of patterns are observed to develop under different conditions, with characteristic features that depend on the substrate material, the ion beam parameters, and the processing conditions. Because the patterns develop spontaneously, without applying any external mask or template, their formation is the expression of a dynamic balance among fundamental surface kinetic processes, e.g., erosion of material from the surface, ion-induced defect creation, and defect-mediated evolution of the surface morphology. In recent years, a comprehensive picture of the different kinetic mechanisms that control the different types of patterns that form has begun to emerge. In this article, we provide a review of different mechanisms that have been proposed and how they fit together in terms of the kinetic regimes in which they dominate. These are grouped into regions of behavior dominated by the directionality of the ion beam, the crystallinity of the surface, the barriers to surface roughening, and nonlinear effects. In sections devoted to each type of behavior, we relate experimental observations of patterning in these regimes to predictions of continuum models and to computer simulations. A comparison between theory and experiment is used to highlight strengths and weaknesses in our understanding. We also discuss the patterning behavior that falls outside the scope of the current understanding and opportunities for advancement

  1. The process and antecedents of team ethical decision-making:A study in Chinese context%中国情境下团队伦理决策的过程机制及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建锋; 明晓东

    2017-01-01

    Although most business ethical decisions are made by teams rather than individuals,only a few studies have focused on team ethical decision making,which remain on comparing the results of individual and team ethical decision-making directly without much aid of theories.Based on studies of individual ethical decision-making,group decision-making,and Chinese cultural characteristics (reflection,zhongyong,authoritarian leadership,et al.),we intend to explore the mechanism of team ethical decision making process and the effect pattern of its antecedents.Specifically,it will include four sub-studies in two aspects via multiple methods.First,a process mechanism model is developed to look at the mechanism of team ethical decision-making process.Second,based on social decision scheme theory,an opinion integration mechanism is set up to integrate the opinions out of team ethical decision-making when focusing on the core differences between team and individual ethical decision-making.The other two are about member and leadership with regard to the effect pattern of antecedents:to study the mechanism of how member diversity influences team ethical decision-making via information processing and team conflict;to study the mechanism of how leadership features affects team ethical decision-making by information sampling model.%尽管绝大多数商业伦理决策都是由团队而非个人所做出的,但目前对团队伦理决策的研究还很少,尤其缺乏基于理论的深入研究.在前人研究的基础上,借鉴个体伦理决策和团队决策方面的研究成果,结合中国文化强调反省、中庸、威权领导等特点,我们对团队伦理决策的过程机制及影响因素的作用模式展开理论驱动的深入研究.具体来讲,将综合利用多种方法来进行两个方面的4项子研究.在团队伦理决策的过程机制方面,拟开展团队伦理决策的过程机制模型构建研究,然后聚焦于团队伦理决策和个体伦理决策的

  2. The developing human connectome project: A minimal processing pipeline for neonatal cortical surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C; Schuh, Andreas; Wright, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Bozek, Jelena; Counsell, Serena J; Steinweg, Johannes; Vecchiato, Katy; Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Lenz, Gregor; Mortari, Filippo; Tenev, Tencho; Duff, Eugene P; Bastiani, Matteo; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Hughes, Emer; Tusor, Nora; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Hutter, Jana; Price, Anthony N; Teixeira, Rui Pedro A G; Murgasova, Maria; Victor, Suresh; Kelly, Christopher; Rutherford, Mary A; Smith, Stephen M; Edwards, A David; Hajnal, Joseph V; Jenkinson, Mark; Rueckert, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The Developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP) seeks to create the first 4-dimensional connectome of early life. Understanding this connectome in detail may provide insights into normal as well as abnormal patterns of brain development. Following established best practices adopted by the WU-MINN Human Connectome Project (HCP), and pioneered by FreeSurfer, the project utilises cortical surface-based processing pipelines. In this paper, we propose a fully automated processing pipeline for the structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the developing neonatal brain. This proposed pipeline consists of a refined framework for cortical and sub-cortical volume segmentation, cortical surface extraction, and cortical surface inflation, which has been specifically designed to address considerable differences between adult and neonatal brains, as imaged using MRI. Using the proposed pipeline our results demonstrate that images collected from 465 subjects ranging from 28 to 45 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) can be processed fully automatically; generating cortical surface models that are topologically correct, and correspond well with manual evaluations of tissue boundaries in 85% of cases. Results improve on state-of-the-art neonatal tissue segmentation models and significant errors were found in only 2% of cases, where these corresponded to subjects with high motion. Downstream, these surfaces will enhance comparisons of functional and diffusion MRI datasets, supporting the modelling of emerging patterns of brain connectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gaussian process based intelligent sampling for measuring nano-structure surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. J.; Ren, M. J.; Yin, Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is the science and engineering that manipulate matters at nano scale, which can be used to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications. As the nanotech product increasingly enters the commercial marketplace, nanometrology becomes a stringent and enabling technology for the manipulation and the quality control of the nanotechnology. However, many measuring instruments, for instance scanning probe microscopy, are limited to relatively small area of hundreds of micrometers with very low efficiency. Therefore some intelligent sampling strategies should be required to improve the scanning efficiency for measuring large area. This paper presents a Gaussian process based intelligent sampling method to address this problem. The method makes use of Gaussian process based Bayesian regression as a mathematical foundation to represent the surface geometry, and the posterior estimation of Gaussian process is computed by combining the prior probability distribution with the maximum likelihood function. Then each sampling point is adaptively selected by determining the position which is the most likely outside of the required tolerance zone among the candidates and then inserted to update the model iteratively. Both simulationson the nominal surface and manufactured surface have been conducted on nano-structure surfaces to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results imply that the proposed method significantly improves the measurement efficiency in measuring large area structured surfaces.

  4. Understanding road surface pollutant wash-off and underlying physical processes using simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2008-01-01

    Pollutant wash-off is one of the key pollutant processes that detailed knowledge is required in order to develop successful treatment design strategies for urban stormwater. Unfortunately, current knowledge relating to pollutant wash-off is limited. This paper presents the outcomes of a detailed investigation into pollutant wash-off on residential road surfaces. The investigations consisted of research methodologies formulated to overcome the physical constraints due to the heterogeneity of urban paved surfaces and the dependency on naturally occurring rainfall. This entailed the use of small road surface plots and artificially simulated rainfall. Road surfaces were selected due to its critical importance as an urban stormwater pollutant source. The study results showed that the influence of initially available pollutants on the wash-off process was limited. Furthermore, pollutant wash-off from road surfaces can be replicated using an exponential equation. However, the typical version of the exponential wash-off equation needs to be modified by introducing a non dimensional factor referred to as 'capacity factor' CF. Three rainfall intensity ranges were identified where the variation of CF can be defined. Furthermore, it was found that particulate density rather than size is the critical parameter that influences the process of pollutant wash-off. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  5. Identification of soil erosion land surfaces by Landsat data analysis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Curzio, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the typical relationship between the spectral reflectance of aileron's on newly-formed land surfaces and the geo morphological features of the land surfaces at issue. These latter represent the products of superficial erosional processes due to the action of the gravity and/or water; thus, such land surfaces are highly representative of the strong soil degradation occurring in a wide area located on the boundary between Molise and Puglia regions (Southern Italy). The results of this study have been reported on thematic maps; on such maps, the detected erosional land surfaces have been mapped on the basis of their typical spectral signature. The study has been performed using Landsat satellite imagery data which have been then validated by means of field survey data. The satellite data have been processed using remote sensing techniques, such as: false colour composite, contrast stretching, principal component analysis and decorrelation stretching. The study has permitted to produce, in a relatively short time and at low expense, a map of the eroded land surfaces. Such a result represents a first and fundamental step in evaluating and monitoring the erosional processes in the study area [it

  6. Interactive Computing and Processing of NASA Land Surface Observations Using Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Bell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" approach to processing large volumes of NASA and other remote sensing products. h\\ps://earthengine.google.com/ Interfaces include a Javascript or Python-based API, useful for accessing and processing over large periods of record for Landsat and MODIS observations. Other data sets are frequently added, including weather and climate model data sets, etc. Demonstrations here focus on exploratory efforts to perform land surface change detection related to severe weather, and other disaster events.

  7. A Business Process Analysis of the Surface Navys Depot Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    levels of maintenance and the ways in which the Navy employs these types of maintenance to accomplish the objective of sustaining the surface fleet...stripping it of inefficiencies to ensure there is no wasted movement. Toyota , Honda, and their Japanese counterparts championed the lean process and...are another way trust is built, because they cultivate the relationships necessary for process improvement and innovation. JSPs have career

  8. Dynamical interaction of He atoms with metal surfaces: Charge transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, F.; Garcia Vidal, F.J.; Monreal, R.

    1993-01-01

    A self-consistent Kohn-Sham LCAO method is presented to calculate the charge transfer processes between a He * -atom and metal surfaces. Intra-atomic correlation effects are taken into account by considering independently each single He-orbital and by combining the different charge transfer processes into a set of dynamical rate equations for the different ion charge fractions. Our discussion reproduces qualitatively the experimental evidence and gives strong support to the method presented here. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  9. Influence of Si wafer thinning processes on (sub)surface defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Fumihiro, E-mail: fumihiro.inoue@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jourdain, Anne; Peng, Lan; Phommahaxay, Alain; De Vos, Joeri; Rebibis, Kenneth June; Miller, Andy; Sleeckx, Erik; Beyne, Eric [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mono-vacancy free Si-thinning can be accomplished by combining several thinning techniques. • The grinding damage needs to be removed prior to dry etching, otherwise vacancies remain in the Si at a depth around 0.5 to 2 μm after Si wafer thickness below 5 μm. • The surface of grinding + CMP + dry etching is equivalent mono vacancy level as that of grinding + CMP. - Abstract: Wafer-to-wafer three-dimensional (3D) integration with minimal Si thickness can produce interacting multiple devices with significantly scaled vertical interconnections. Realizing such a thin 3D structure, however, depends critically on the surface and subsurface of the remaining backside Si after the thinning processes. The Si (sub)surface after mechanical grinding has already been characterized fruitfully for a range of few dozen of μm. Here, we expand the characterization of Si (sub)surface to 5 μm thickness after thinning process on dielectric bonded wafers. The subsurface defects and damage layer were investigated after grinding, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), wet etching and plasma dry etching. The (sub)surface defects were characterized using transmission microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Although grinding provides the fastest removal rate of Si, the surface roughness was not compatible with subsequent processing. Furthermore, mechanical damage such as dislocations and amorphous Si cannot be reduced regardless of Si thickness and thin wafer handling systems. The CMP after grinding showed excellent performance to remove this grinding damage, even though the removal amount is 1 μm. For the case of Si thinning towards 5 μm using grinding and CMP, the (sub)surface is atomic scale of roughness without vacancy. For the case of grinding + dry etch, vacancy defects were detected in subsurface around 0.5–2 μm. The finished surface after wet etch remains in the nm scale in the strain region. By inserting a CMP step in

  10. The impact of team familiarity and team leader experience on team coordination errors: A panel analysis of professional basketball teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieweke, Jost; Zhao, B.

    2015-01-01

    To explore the dynamics involved in team coordination, we examine the impact of team familiarity and team leader experience on team coordination errors (TCEs). We argue that team familiarity has a U-shaped effect on TCEs. We study the moderating effects of team leader prior experience and team

  11. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  12. The effect of mold surface topography on plastic parat in-process shrinkage in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mold surface roughness on in-process in-flow linear part shrinkage in injection molding has been carried out. The investigation is based on an experimental two-cavity tool, where the cavities have different surface topographies, but are otherwise identical....... The study has been carried out for typical commercial polystyrene and polypropylene grades. The relationship between mold surface topography and linear shrinkage has been investigated with an experimental two-cavity mold producing simple rectangular parts with the nominal dimensions 1 x 25 x 50 mm (see...... figure 1). The cavities have different surface topographies on one side, but are otherwise identical (see discussion of other contribution factors)....

  13. The free radical process for the polymer surface treated by radio frequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuguang; Yang Meiling; Shen Jiacong; Zheng Yingguang

    1992-01-01

    The formation and translation of the free radicals on the polymer surface treated by plasmas were studied and observed by ESR measurement. The results show that C-C bond split was main reaction in the process of the polymer irradiated by plasma, by which a stable alkyl free radical was formed. When alkyl free radical contacted with air, they translate into peroxide radical instantaneously. The peroxide radical was not as stable as radical in vacuum, they can react each other to form some polar-groups on polymer surface. The interaction between the peroxide free radical and polymer chain was correlative not only to the structure of polymer but also to the molecular motion of the polymer chain. The nature of plasma treating polymer surface was that the peroxide radicals were led onto polymer surface

  14. Modelling Periglacial Processes on Low-Relief High-Elevation Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, D.L.

    history in many regions of the world. The glacial buzzsaw concept suggests that intense glacial erosion focused at the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) leads to a concentration in surface area close to the ELA. However, even in predominantly glacial landscapes, such as the Scandinavian Mountains, the high...... as a function of mean annual air temperature and sediment thickness. This allows us to incorporate periglacial processes into a long-term landscape evolution model where surface elevation, sediment thickness, and climate evolve over time. With this model we are able to explore the slow feedbacks between...... evolution model can be used for obtaining more insight into the conditions needed for formation of low-relief surfaces at high elevation. Anderson, R. S. Modeling the tor-dotted crests, bedrock edges, and parabolic profiles of high alpine surfaces of the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Geomorphology, 46, 35...

  15. Evaluating the performance of free-formed surface parts using an analytic network process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueming; Ma, Yanqiao; Liang, Dezhi

    2018-03-01

    To successfully design parts with a free-formed surface, the critical issue of how to evaluate and select a favourable evaluation strategy before design is raised. The evaluation of free-formed surface parts is a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem that requires the consideration of a large number of interdependent factors. The analytic network process (ANP) is a relatively new MCDM method that can systematically deal with all kinds of dependences. In this paper, the factors, which come from the life-cycle and influence the design of free-formed surface parts, are proposed. After analysing the interdependence among these factors, a Hybrid ANP (HANP) structure for evaluating the part’s curved surface is constructed. Then, a HANP evaluation of an impeller is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  16. Controlling electron transfer processes on insulating surfaces with the non-contact atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevethan, Thomas; Shluger, Alexander

    2009-07-01

    We present the results of theoretical modelling that predicts how a process of transfer of single electrons between two defects on an insulating surface can be induced using a scanning force microscope tip. A model but realistic system is employed which consists of a neutral oxygen vacancy and a noble metal (Pt or Pd) adatom on the MgO(001) surface. We show that the ionization potential of the vacancy and the electron affinity of the metal adatom can be significantly modified by the electric field produced by an ionic tip apex at close approach to the surface. The relative energies of the two states are also a function of the separation of the two defects. Therefore the transfer of an electron from the vacancy to the metal adatom can be induced either by the field effect of the tip or by manipulating the position of the metal adatom on the surface.

  17. Plasma processing of large curved surfaces for superconducting rf cavity modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Upadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-based surface modification of niobium is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. We have demonstrated surface layer removal in an asymmetric nonplanar geometry, using a simple cylindrical cavity. The etching rate is highly correlated with the shape of the inner electrode, radio-frequency (rf circuit elements, gas pressure, rf power, chlorine concentration in the Cl_{2}/Ar gas mixtures, residence time of reactive species, and temperature of the cavity. Using variable radius cylindrical electrodes, large-surface ring-shaped samples, and dc bias in the external circuit, we have measured substantial average etching rates and outlined the possibility of optimizing plasma properties with respect to maximum surface processing effect.

  18. The effects of team reflexivity on psychological well-being in manufacturing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingqiu; Bamberger, Peter A; Song, Yifan; Vashdi, Dana R

    2018-04-01

    While the impact of team reflexivity (a.k.a. after-event-reviews, team debriefs) on team performance has been widely examined, we know little about its implications on other team outcomes such as member well-being. Drawing from prior team reflexivity research, we propose that reflexivity-related team processes reduce demands, and enhance control and support. Given the centrality of these factors to work-based strain, we posit that team reflexivity, by affecting these factors, may have beneficial implications on 3 core dimensions of employee burnout, namely exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy (reduced personal accomplishment). Using a sample of 469 unskilled manufacturing workers employed in 73 production teams in a Southern Chinese factory, we implemented a time lagged, quasi-field experiment, with half of the teams trained in and executing an end-of-shift team debriefing, and the other half assigned to a control condition and undergoing periodic postshift team-building exercises. Our findings largely supported our hypotheses, demonstrating that relative to team members assigned to the control condition, those assigned to the reflexivity condition experienced a significant improvement in all 3 burnout dimensions over time. These effects were mediated by control and support (but not demands) and amplified as a function of team longevity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Titanium Surface Modified by PVD/PACVD Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Lee, Min-Joo; Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Kwangmin; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) via crystal violet staining assay on titanium surface modified by physical vapor deposition/plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. Specimens were divided into the following three groups: polished titanium (control group), titanium modified by DC magnetron sputtering (group TiN-Ti), and titanium modified by plasma nitriding (group N-Ti). Surface characteristics of specimens were observed by using nanosurface 3D optical profiler and field emission scanning electron microscope. Group TiN-Ti showed TiN layer of 1.2 microm in thickness. Group N-Ti was identified as plasma nitriding with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Roughness average (Ra) of all specimens had values 0.05). Within the process condition of this study, modified titanium surfaces by DC magnetron sputtering and plasma nitriding did not influence the adhesion of S. mutans.

  20. Collaborative curriculum development in teacher design teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handelzalts, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Teachers’ participation in collaborative curriculum development is considered as having great potential for creating materials which are suitable for their specific context and for their professional development. However, the process in which teacher teams commonly negotiate the process of