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Sample records for surface pressure relaxation

  1. Mechanical properties of fatty acid monolayers on the water surface based on surface pressure relaxation and area creep measurements. Hyomen prime atsu kanwa oyobi menseki creep sokutei ni motozuku suimenjo tanbunshimaku no rikigakuteki seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, T.; Takahara, A.; Kajiyama, T. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-12-20

    The molecule flocculant state and the mechanical properties of myristic acid, stearic acid and behenic acid monolayers on the water surface were studied by surface pressure relaxation and area creep measurements. The initial surface pressures, possessing monolayer structure with little stability of surface pressure relaxation for myristic acid, stearic acid and behenic acid have been 17, 26 and 25mN{center dot}m{sup {minus}1} respectively. These values, are almost equal to the surface pressure with small area creep. Again, for making LB film with less structural defects and large, two criteria, the first is building up of monolayer due to surface pressure with smaller surface pressure and area creep and the second is the ending of building up destruction under high surface pressure, have been proposed. As a result an effective LB film preparation method, with less structural defects in which the surface pressure relaxation has been caused by monolayer build up resulting the formation of single crystal domain due to sintering, has been suggested. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Oscillatory relaxation of the Ag(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, Y.; Feldman, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relaxation of the Ag(110) surface was studied by high-energy ion scattering. We find the first-layer spacing contracted by (7.8 +- 2.5)% and the second-layer spacing increased by (4.3 +- 2.5)%. The sensitivity of these results to assumptions of surface vibrations is explored. It is shown that the nearest-neighbor spacing at the surface (i.e., the spacing between the first and third layers) is contracted by (3.5 +- 0.5)%, and this result is almost independent of the surface Debye temperature. The results are consistent with the body of data indicating large, multilayer relaxation in (110)fcc surfaces

  3. Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.

    2017-03-21

    NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.

  4. Martensite formation by relaxation of hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortner, B.; Kuehlein, W.; Stuewe, H.P.; Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Leoben

    1992-01-01

    According to thermodynamics it should be possible to produce martensite by austenitizing a steel under high hydrostatic pressure and then releasing the pressure at a suitable temperature. Such martensite was produced experimentally as could be demonstrated by observing the resulting heat of reaction. (orig.) [de

  5. Effect of pressure relaxation during the laser heating and electron-ion relaxation stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Hallo, L. [Univ Bordeaux 1, CEA, CNRS, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33 - Talence (France)

    2008-09-15

    The multi-phase equation of state by Bushman et al. (Sov. Tech. Rev. 5:1-44, 2008) is modified to describe states with different electron and ion temperatures and it is applied to the non-equilibrium evolution of an aluminum sample heated by a subpicosecond laser pulse. The sample evolution is described by the two-temperature model for the electron and ion temperatures, while the pressure and density are described by a simplified relaxation equation. The pressure relaxation in the heating stage reduces the binding energy and facilitates the electron-driven ablation. The model is applied to estimate the ablation depth of an Al target irradiated by a subpicosecond laser pulse. It improves the agreement with the experimental data and provides a new explanation of the ablation process. (authors)

  6. Interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin: dynamic surface tension, dilatational elasticity and relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Nikola A; Marinova, Krastanka G; Gurkov, Theodor D; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B J; Arnaudov, Luben N; Pelan, Eddie G; Lips, Alex

    2012-06-15

    The pendant-drop method (with drop-shape analysis) and Langmuir trough are applied to investigate the characteristic relaxation times and elasticity of interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin. Such layers undergo a transition from fluid to elastic solid films. The transition is detected as an increase in the error of the fit of the pendant-drop profile by means of the Laplace equation of capillarity. The relaxation of surface tension after interfacial expansion follows an exponential-decay law, which indicates adsorption kinetics under barrier control. The experimental data for the relaxation time suggest that the adsorption rate is determined by the balance of two opposing factors: (i) the barrier to detachment of protein molecules from bulk aggregates and (ii) the attraction of the detached molecules by the adsorption layer due to the hydrophobic surface force. The hydrophobic attraction can explain why a greater surface coverage leads to a faster adsorption. The relaxation of surface tension after interfacial compression follows a different, square-root law. Such behavior can be attributed to surface diffusion of adsorbed protein molecules that are condensing at the periphery of interfacial protein aggregates. The surface dilatational elasticity, E, is determined in experiments on quick expansion or compression of the interfacial protein layers. At lower surface pressures (<11 mN/m) the experiments on expansion, compression and oscillations give close values of E that are increasing with the rise of surface pressure. At higher surface pressures, E exhibits the opposite tendency and the data are scattered. The latter behavior can be explained with a two-dimensional condensation of adsorbed protein molecules at the higher surface pressures. The results could be important for the understanding and control of dynamic processes in foams and emulsions stabilized by hydrophobins, as well as for the modification of solid surfaces by adsorption of such

  7. Anomalous multilayer relaxation on a Cu{331} surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Lin, K.-W.; Jona, F.

    2000-01-01

    Three independent theoretical studies of the multilayer relaxation on a Cu{331} surface had reported a sequence of layer contractions and expansions different from that expected and found on other stepped surfaces of metals with three atom rows per terrace. A quantitative low-energy electron diffraction analysis of Cu{331} finds a 13.8% contraction of the first interlayer spacing with respect to the bulk value (0.829 A), in fair agreement with the theoretical results, and very small relaxations of the deeper interlayer spacings. The signs of these relaxations do not reproduce exactly the theoretical predictions, but their small magnitudes allow the conclusion that the present experiment agrees with the earlier theories within the experimental error bars

  8. Relaxation between electrons and surface phonons of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The energy relaxation between the hot degenerate electrons of a homoge- neously photoexcited metal film and the surface phonons (phonon wave vectors in two dimensions) is considered under Debye approximation. The state of electrons and phonons is described by equilibrium Fermi and Bose functions with ...

  9. Relaxation between electrons and surface phonons of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The energy relaxation between the hot degenerate electrons of a homogeneously photoexcited metal film and the surface phonons (phonon wave vectors in two dimensions) is considered under Debye approximation. The state of electrons and phonons is described by equilibrium Fermi and Bose functions with different ...

  10. Free Surface Relaxations of Star Shaped Polymer Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynos, Emmanoui; Johnson, Kyle J.; Frieberg, Bradley R.; Chremos, Alexandros; Narayanan, Suresh; Sakellariou, Georgios; Green, Peter F.

    2017-11-28

    The surface relaxation dynamics of supported star-shaped polymer thin films are shown to be slower than the bulk, persisting up to temperatures at least 50 degrees above the bulk glass transition temperature Tgbulk. This behavior, exhibited by star-shaped polystyrenes (SPSs) with functionality f = 8-arms and molecular weights per arm Marm < Me (Me is the entanglement molecular weight), is shown by molecular dynamics simulations to be associated with a preferential localization of these macromolecules at the free surface. This new phenomenon is in notable contrast to that of linear chain polymer thin film systems where the surface relaxations are enhanced in relation to the bulk; this enhancement persists only for a limited temperature range above the bulk Tgbulk. Evidence of the slow surface dynamics, compared to the bulk, for temperatures well above Tg and at length and time scales not associated with the glass transition has not previously been reported for polymers

  11. Free Surface Relaxations of Star-Shaped Polymer Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynos, Emmanouil; Johnson, Kyle J.; Frieberg, Bradley; Chremos, Alexandros; Narayanan, Suresh; Sakellariou, Georgios; Green, Peter F.

    2017-11-01

    The surface relaxation dynamics of supported star-shaped polymer thin films are shown to be slower than the bulk, persisting up to temperatures at least 50 K above the bulk glass transition temperature Tgbulk. This behavior, exhibited by star-shaped polystyrenes with functionality f=8 arms and molecular weights per arm Marmsurface. This new phenomenon is in notable contrast to that of linear-chain polymer thin film systems, where the surface relaxations are enhanced in relation to the bulk; this enhancement persists only for a limited temperature range above the bulk Tgbulk. Evidence of the slow surface dynamics, compared to the bulk, for temperatures well above Tg and at length and time scales not associated with the glass transition has not previously been reported for polymers.

  12. Effect of high pressure on the relaxation dynamics of glass-forming liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paluch, M; Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A

    2007-01-01

    A glass is usually formed by cooling a liquid at a rate sufficient to avoid crystallization. In the vicinity of the glass transition the structural relaxation time increases with lowering temperature in a non-Arrhenius fashion and the structural relaxation function reveals a non-Debye behaviour. However, liquid can be also vitrified by keeping it at a constant temperature and increasing the pressure. This pressure-induced transition to the glassy state is also accompanied by dramatic changes in the relaxation dynamics. Herein we discuss the behaviour of the structural relaxation times of glass-forming liquids and polymer melts under high pressure

  13. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongling [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Bo, Maolin [Yangtze Normal University, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Chongqing 408100 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Liu, Yonghui [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Sun, Chang Q. [NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O{sup 2−} lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta{sup +} electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta{sup +}; the sp{sup 3}-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent

  14. Relaxation therapy and continuous ambulatory blood pressure in mild hypertension: a controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfrans, G. A.; Karemaker, J. M.; Wieling, W.; Dunning, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the long term effects of relaxation therapy on 24 hour ambulatory intra-arterial blood pressure in patients with mild untreated and uncomplicated hypertension. Four week screening period followed by randomisation to receive either relaxation therapy or non-specific counselling for one

  15. Relaxed MHD equilibria inside 3D shaped conducting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassam, A.; Tenbarge, J.; Dorland, W.; Landreman, M.; Sengupta, W.

    2017-10-01

    A 3D nonlinear dissipative MHD code is developed to allow relaxation to low-beta MHD equilibrium inside a shaped 3D conducting boundary with prescribed conserved axial magnetic flux and no external current. Formation of magnetic islands is allowed. Heat sources would be eventually introduced to allow possible non-stationary convection depending on the MHD stability properties. The initial development is done using UMHD (Guzdar et al., PF, 1993). A primary objective is to minimize numerical boundary noise. In particular, codes which specify the normal magnetic field B.n on bounding surfaces are prone to boundary noise generation. We shape the boundary to conform to the desired field shape so that B.n is zero on the boundary, employing curvilinear coordinates. Significant noise reduction has been achieved by this approach. Boundary noise is strongly suppressed if the boundary is modeled as a sharp ramp-down in resistivity, allowing relaxation to equilibrium but no penetration into the low resistivity region. Initial results have been verified w.r.t. analytic calculation in the weak shaping limit. A rotational transform is observed in helical shaping. Relaxed equilibria inside helically symmetric conducting boundaries will be presented.

  16. Stress relaxation analysis and irradiation creep and swelling in pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.; Burr, T.K.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented of slit width test information on two pressure tubes that had been irradiated in test reactors. The analysis showed that differential swelling stresses and thermal stresses undergo relaxation. The mechanism responsible for the stress relaxation at temperatures less than 700 K was irradiation creep. Irradiation creep in thermal test reactor pressure tubes is evidently greater than it would be at equivalent conditions in fast reactors. The residual stresses observed in the slit width tests varied between 30 and 257 MPa and would act to reduce the operating stresses, thus allowing for increased service life of the tubes as compared with no stress relaxation

  17. Effect of pressure on the α relaxation in glycerol and xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, M.; Casalini, R.; Hensel-Bielowka, S.; Roland, C. M.

    2002-06-01

    The effect of pressure on the dielectric relaxation of two polyhydroxy alcohols is examined by analysis of existing data on glycerol, together with new measurements on xylitol. The fragility, or Tg-normalized temperature dependence, changes with pressure for low pressures, but becomes invariant above 1 GPa. When compared at temperatures for which the α-relaxation times are equal, there is no effect of pressure (xylitol show an excess intensity at higher frequencies. For xylitol, unlike for glycerol, at lower temperatures this wing disjoins to form a separate peak. For both glass formers, elevated pressure causes the excess wing to become more separated from the peak maximum; that is, the properties of the primary and excess intensities are not correlated. This implies that the excess wing in glycerol is also a distinct secondary process, although it cannot be resolved from the primary peak.

  18. Surface Relaxations, Surface Energies and Electronic Structures of BaSnO3 (001) Surfaces: Ab Initio Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slassi, A.; Hammi, M.; El Rhazouani, O.

    2017-07-01

    The surface relaxations, surface energies and electronic structures of BaO- and SnO2-terminated BaSnO3 (001) surfaces have been studied by employing the first-principles density functional theory. For both terminations, we find that the upper-layer Ba and Sn atoms move inward, whereas upper-layer O atoms move outward from the surface. Moreover, the largest relaxations are occurred on the first-layer atoms of both terminations. The surface rumpling of BaO-terminated BaSnO3 (001) is slightly less than that of the SnO2-terminated BaSnO3 (001) surface. The surface energies show that both terminated surfaces are energetically stable and favorable. Finally, the surface band gap is slightly decreased for the BaO termination, while it is dramatically decreased for the SnO2 termination.

  19. Surface Relaxation and Electronic States of Pt(111) Surface with Varying Slab Thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Ashok K.; Mullick, Shanta; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Surface relaxation and electronic DOS's of Pt(111) surface have been studied with varying slab thickness using ab-initio SIESTA method. We found the expansion in the top layer and contraction in the subsurface layers of Pt(111) surface. Our results match with the experimental results. Also observing electronic density of states we found that as we increase the thickness of slab, the PDOS of Pt(111) surface goes towards the bulk density of states and Fermi energy shifts towards the bulk fermi energy.

  20. Stress relaxation of the pressure vessel steel A533B under multiaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottenberg, R.; Sandstroem, R.

    1980-03-01

    In order to predict the stress reduction during stress relief heat treatment in welded joints of the pressure vessel steel A533B, uniaxial stress relaxation as well as creep tests have been performed for base and weld metal. The specimens were isothermally stress relaxed in the temperature interval 600 to 640degC from initial stresses corresponding to specimen slongations of 0.25, 0.5 and 2.0%. The stress relaxation results are excellently described by a constitutive equation based on the Norton relationship. Creep strain data from creep tests in the actual temperature interval were also consistent with the same constitutive equation. Computer experiments on a thick walled tube have demonstrated that the time dependence of the maximum effective stresses can approximately be described by uniaxial stress relaxation data. However, the reduction of the corresponding hydrostatic stress is much slower if the initial hydrostatic stress is large compared to the initial effective stress. (author)

  1. Young surface of Pluto's Sputnik Planitia caused by viscous relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.; Hu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Lin, D. N. C.; Yang, J.; Showman, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The young surface of Pluto's Sputnik Planitia (SP) is one of the most prominent features observed by the New Horizon mission (Moore et al., 2016; Stern et al., 2015). No crater has been confirmed on the heart-shaped SP basin, in contrast to more than 5000 identified over comparable areas elsewhere (Robbins et al., 2016). The SP basin is filled with mostly N2 ice and small amount of CH4 and CO ice (Protopapa et al., 2017). Previous studies suggested that the SP surface might be renewed through vigorous thermal convection (McKinnon et al., 2016), and that the surface age may be as young as 500,000 years. In this paper, we present numerical simulations demonstrating that craters can be removed by rapid viscous relaxation of N2 ice over much shorter timescales. The crater retention age is less than 1000 years if the N2-ice thickness is several kilometers. McKinnon, W. B., Nimmo, F., Wong, T., Schenk, P. M., White, O. L., Roberts, J., . . . Umurhan, O. (2016). Convection in a volatile nitrogen-ice-rich layer drives Pluto's geological vigour. Nature, 534(7605), 82-85. Moore, J. M., McKinnon, W. B., Spencer, J. R., Howard, A. D., Schenk, P. M., Beyer, R. A., . . . White, O. L. (2016). The geology of Pluto and Charon through the eyes of New Horizons. Science, 351(6279), 1284-1293. Protopapa, S., Grundy, W. M., Reuter, D. C., Hamilton, D. P., Dalle Ore, C. M., Cook, J. C., . . . Young, L. A. (2017). Pluto's global surface composition through pixel-by-pixel Hapke modeling of New Horizons Ralph/LEISA data. Icarus, Volume 287, 218-228. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.11.028Robbins, S. J., Singer, K. N., Bray, V. J., Schenk, P., Lauer, T. R., Weaver, H. A., . . . Porter, S. (2016). Craters of the Pluto-Charon system. Icarus. Stern, S. A., Bagenal, F., Ennico, K., Gladstone, G. R., Grundy, W. M., McKinnon, W. B., . . . Zirnstein, E. (2015). The Pluto system: Initial results from its exploration by New Horizons. Science, 350(6258), aad1815.

  2. The dynamic relaxation method in the structural analysis of concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, I.; Assis Bastos, M.R. de; Camargo, P.B. de.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic relaxation method, applied to 3 dimensional concrete structures, especially pressure vessels, is demonstrated. It utilizes the finite difference method and allows the growth of cracks to be followed up to the point of vessel rupture. A FORTRAN IV program is developed, which can also be utilized, with the necessary modifications, for other structure calculations [pt

  3. Wettability of quartz surface as observed by NMR transverse relaxation time (T2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Katika, Konstantina; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    the wettability property of quartz surface by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) method. The principle of this method is that protons in water relax faster when it comes close to solid surface. We observed that quart is highly water wet. A layer of water (bound water) forms on the quartz surface when...

  4. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital. Cost effectiveness analysis carried out alongside the pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial; a multicentre UK based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six UK NHS trusts. Intention to treat population comprising 1971 participants. Kaplan Meier estimates of restricted mean time to development of pressure ulcers and total costs for treatment in hospital. Alternating pressure mattresses were associated with lower overall costs (283.6 pounds sterling per patient on average, 95% confidence interval--377.59 pounds sterling to 976.79 pounds sterling) mainly due to reduced length of stay in hospital, and greater benefits (a delay in time to ulceration of 10.64 days on average,--24.40 to 3.09). The differences in health benefits and total costs for hospital stay between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays were not statistically significant; however, a cost effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that on average alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays were associated with an 80% probability of being cost saving. Alternating pressure mattresses for the prevention of pressure ulcers are more likely to be cost effective and are more acceptable to patients than alternating pressure overlays.

  5. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  6. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  7. Surface atomic relaxation and magnetism on hydrogen-adsorbed Fe(110) surfaces from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chohan, Urslaan K.; Jimenez-Melero, Enrique [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dalton Cumbrian Facility, The University of Manchester, Moor Row CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); Koehler, Sven P.K., E-mail: sven.koehler@manchester.ac.uk [Dalton Cumbrian Facility, The University of Manchester, Moor Row CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Potential energy surfaces for H diffusion on Fe(110) calculated. • Full vibrational analysis of surface modes performed. • Vibrational analysis establishes lb site as a transition state to the 3f site. • Pronounced buckling observed in the Fe surface layer. - Abstract: We have computed adsorption energies, vibrational frequencies, surface relaxation and buckling for hydrogen adsorbed on a body-centred-cubic Fe(110) surface as a function of the degree of H coverage. This adsorption system is important in a variety of technological processes such as the hydrogen embrittlement in ferritic steels, which motivated this work, and the Haber–Bosch process. We employed spin-polarised density functional theory to optimise geometries of a six-layer Fe slab, followed by frozen mode finite displacement phonon calculations to compute Fe–H vibrational frequencies. We have found that the quasi-threefold (3f) site is the most stable adsorption site, with adsorption energies of ∼3.0 eV/H for all coverages studied. The long-bridge (lb) site, which is close in energy to the 3f site, is actually a transition state leading to the stable 3f site. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies collectively span from 730 to 1220 cm{sup −1}, for a range of coverages. The increased first-to-second layer spacing in the presence of adsorbed hydrogen, and the pronounced buckling observed in the Fe surface layer, may facilitate the diffusion of hydrogen atoms into the bulk, and therefore impact the early stages of hydrogen embrittlement in steels.

  8. Surface atomic relaxation and magnetism on hydrogen-adsorbed Fe(110) surfaces from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Urslaan K.; Jimenez-Melero, Enrique; Koehler, Sven P. K.

    2016-11-01

    We have computed adsorption energies, vibrational frequencies, surface relaxation and buckling for hydrogen adsorbed on a body-centred-cubic Fe(110) surface as a function of the degree of H coverage. This adsorption system is important in a variety of technological processes such as the hydrogen embrittlement in ferritic steels, which motivated this work, and the Haber-Bosch process. We employed spin-polarised density functional theory to optimise geometries of a six-layer Fe slab, followed by frozen mode finite displacement phonon calculations to compute Fe-H vibrational frequencies. We have found that the quasi-threefold (3f) site is the most stable adsorption site, with adsorption energies of ∼3.0 eV/H for all coverages studied. The long-bridge (lb) site, which is close in energy to the 3f site, is actually a transition state leading to the stable 3f site. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies collectively span from 730 to 1220 cm-1, for a range of coverages. The increased first-to-second layer spacing in the presence of adsorbed hydrogen, and the pronounced buckling observed in the Fe surface layer, may facilitate the diffusion of hydrogen atoms into the bulk, and therefore impact the early stages of hydrogen embrittlement in steels.

  9. Pressure morphology of the relaxed lower esophageal sphincter: the formation and collapse of the phrenic ampulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Monika A.; Nicodème, Frédéric; Pandolfino, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to apply novel high-resolution manometry with eight-sector radial pressure resolution (3D-HRM technology) to resolve the deglutitive pressure morphology at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) before, during, and after bolus transit. A hybrid HRM assembly, including a 9-cm-long 3D-HRM array, was used to record EGJ pressure morphology in 15 normal subjects. Concurrent videofluoroscopy was used to relate bolus movement to pressure morphology and EGJ anatomy, aided by an endoclip marking the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). The contractile deceleration point (CDP) marked the time at which luminal clearance slowed to 1.1 cm/s and the location (4 cm proximal to the elevated SCJ) at which peristalsis terminated. The phrenic ampulla spanned from the CDP to the SCJ. The subsequent radial and axial collapse of the ampulla coincided with the reconstitution of the effaced and elongated lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Following ampullary emptying, the stretched LES (maximum length 4.0 cm) progressively collapsed to its baseline length of 1.9 cm (P stomach. During ampullary emptying, the LES circular muscle contracts, and longitudinal muscle shortens while that of the adjacent esophagus reelongates. The likely LES elongation with the formation of the ampulla and shortening to its native length after ampullary emptying suggest that reduction in the resting tone of the longitudinal muscle within the LES segment is a previously unrecognized component of LES relaxation. PMID:22114118

  10. Surface relaxations as a tool to distinguish the dynamic interfacial properties of films formed by normal and diseased meibomian lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi As; Yokoi, Norihiko; Ivanova, Slavyana; Tonchev, Vesselin; Nencheva, Yana; Krastev, Rumen

    2014-08-14

    The surface properties of human meibomian lipids (MGS), the major constituent of the tear film (TF) lipid layer, are of key importance for TF stability. The dynamic interfacial properties of films by MGS from normal eyes (nMGS) and eyes with meibomian gland dysfunction (dMGS) were studied using a Langmuir surface balance. The behavior of the samples during dynamic area changes was evaluated by surface pressure-area isotherms and isocycles. The surface dilatational rheology of the films was examined in the frequency range 10(-5) to 1 Hz by the stress-relaxation method. A significant difference was found, with dMGS showing slow viscosity-dominated relaxation at 10(-4) to 10(-3) Hz, whereas nMGS remained predominantly elastic over the whole range. A Cole-Cole plot revealed two characteristic processes contributing to the relaxation, fast (on the scale of characteristic time τ 100 s), the latter prevailing in dMGS films. Brewster angle microscopy revealed better spreading of nMGS at the air-water interface, whereas dMGS layers were non-uniform and patchy. The distinctions in the interfacial properties of the films in vitro correlated with the accelerated degradation of meibum layer pattern at the air-tear interface and with the decreased stability of TF in vivo. These results, and also recent findings on the modest capability of meibum to suppress the evaporation of the aqueous subphase, suggest the need for a re-evaluation of the role of MGS. The probable key function of meibomian lipids might be to form viscoelastic films capable of opposing dilation of the air-tear interface. The impact of temperature on the meibum surface properties is discussed in terms of its possible effect on the normal structure of the film.

  11. The effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Aalami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are the main cause of maternal and fetal mortality; however, they have no definite effective treatment. The researchers aimed to study the effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure (BP during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This three-group clinical trial was conducted in Mashhad health centers and governmental hospitals. Sixty pregnant (after 20 weeks of gestational age women with systolic BP ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg were assigned to three groups. Progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control exercises were administered to the two experimental groups once a week in person and in the rest of the days by instructions given on a CD for 4 weeks. BP was checked before and after the interventions. BP was measured before and after 15 min subjects' waiting without any especial intervention in the control group. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, the systolic (by a mean of 131.3 to 117.2, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 131.05 to 120.5, P = 0.004, respectively and diastolic (by a mean of 79.2 to 72.3, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 80.1 to 76.5, P = 0.047, respectively BPs were significantly decreased in progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control groups, but they were not statistically significant in the control group. Conclusions: The interventions were effective on decreasing systolic and diastolic BP to normal range after 4 weeks in both the groups. The effects of both the interventions were more obvious on systolic BP compared to diastolic BP.

  12. Coupling of surface relaxation and polarization in PbTiO{sub 3} from atomistic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, R K; Sinnott, S B; Phillpot, S R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hinojosa, B B; Asthagiri, A [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: sphil@mse.ufl.edu

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize ferroelectricity on the (001) surfaces of PbTiO{sub 3} (PT), one of the most widely studied ferroelectric materials. Two different empirical interatomic shell model potentials are used. Both PbO and TiO{sub 2} surface terminations in PT under open circuit electrical boundary conditions are characterized. The results are found to be in good agreement with the results of density functional theory calculations. The atomic relaxations, interlayer spacings and surface rumplings of each of the four possible surface terminations are analyzed. The deviation of the polarization from the bulk value is observed to be larger when the polarization points out of the surface than when it points into the surface. Analysis of the surface energies for free-standing films shows that polarization parallel to the surface is energetically more favorable than the polarization normal to the surfaces.

  13. Relaxation and electronic structure of the V 2O 3(0001) surface: ab initio cluster model studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, I.; Hermann, K.; Witko, M.

    2003-02-01

    The electronic structure and geometric relaxation of the (0001) surface of rhombohedral vanadium sesquioxide, V 2O 3, is studied theoretically with large surface cluster models where ab initio density functional theory is used to characterize charging and bonding. Geometric relaxation in the topmost surface region, up to 5 layers, with its three different bulk terminations is determined by minimizing total energies of the clusters. This yields major relaxation effects depending on the termination. The oxygen layer termination OVV ' exhibits strong relaxation of sub-surface vanadium layers resulting in increased ionic charging at the surface (measured by corresponding atom charges). The metal layer termination VV 'O leads to inwards relaxation of the two topmost vanadium layers by over 40% resulting also in increased surface charging. Ionic charging at the surface is the smallest for the half metal layer V 'OV termination where only the topmost vanadium layer relaxes inwards by 30% in addition to some rearrangement of sub-surface vanadium. This termination is believed to be the most stable of the three relaxed bulk-type terminations based also on analogies with experiments for Cr 2O 3(0001). However, total density-of-states and atom-projected partial densities-of-states curves depend relatively little on surface termination to allow a clear discrimination which could assist an unambiguous experimental identification.

  14. Towards Relaxing the Spherical Solar Radiation Pressure Model for Accurate Orbit Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachut, M.; Bennett, J.

    2016-09-01

    The well-known cannonball model has been used ubiquitously to capture the effects of atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure on satellites and/or space debris for decades. While it lends itself naturally to spherical objects, its validity in the case of non-spherical objects has been debated heavily for years throughout the space situational awareness community. One of the leading motivations to improve orbit predictions by relaxing the spherical assumption, is the ongoing demand for more robust and reliable conjunction assessments. In this study, we explore the orbit propagation of a flat plate in a near-GEO orbit under the influence of solar radiation pressure, using a Lambertian BRDF model. Consequently, this approach will account for the spin rate and orientation of the object, which is typically determined in practice using a light curve analysis. Here, simulations will be performed which systematically reduces the spin rate to demonstrate the point at which the spherical model no longer describes the orbital elements of the spinning plate. Further understanding of this threshold would provide insight into when a higher fidelity model should be used, thus resulting in improved orbit propagations. Therefore, the work presented here is of particular interest to organizations and researchers that maintain their own catalog, and/or perform conjunction analyses.

  15. The E-wave delayed relaxation pattern to LV pressure contour relation: model-based prediction with in vivo validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovács, Sándor J

    2010-03-01

    The transmitral Doppler E-wave "delayed relaxation" (DR) pattern is an established sign of diastolic dysfunction (DD). Furthermore, chambers exhibiting a DR filling pattern are also expected to have a prolonged time-constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau). The simultaneous observation of a DR pattern and normal tau in the same heart is not uncommon, however. The simultaneous hemodynamic equivalent of the DR pattern has not been proposed. To determine the feature of the left ventricular (LV) pressure contour during the E-wave that is causally related to its DR pattern we applied kinematic and fluid mechanics based arguments to derive the pressure recovery ratio (PRR). The PRR is dimensionless and is defined by the left ventricular pressure difference between diastasis and minimum pressure, normalized to the pressure difference between a fiducial diastolic filling pressure and minimum pressure [PRR=(P(Diastasis)-P(Min))/(P(Fiducial)-P(Min))]. We analyzed 354 cardiac cycles from 40 normal sinus rhythm (NSR) subjects and 113 beats from nine atrial fibrillation (AF) subjects from our database of simultaneous transmitral flow-micromanometric LV pressure recordings. The fiducial pressure is defined by the end diastolic pressure in NSR and by the pressure at dP/dt(MIN) in the setting of AF. Consistent with derivation, PRR was linearly related to a DR pattern related, model-based relaxation parameter (R(2) = 0.77, 0.83 in NSR and AF, respectively). Furthermore, the PRR successfully differentiated subjects with a DR pattern from subjects with partial DR or normal E-wave pattern (p waves, even when tau cannot. Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-scale freeform surface texture filtering using a mesh relaxation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Abdul-Rahman, Hussein S; Scott, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Surface filtering algorithms using Fourier, Gaussian, wavelets, etc, are well-established for simple Euclidean geometries. However, these filtration techniques cannot be applied to today's complex freeform surfaces, which have non-Euclidean geometries, without distortion of the results. This paper proposes a new multi-scale filtering algorithm for freeform surfaces that are represented by triangular meshes based on a mesh relaxation scheme. The proposed algorithm is capable of decomposing a freeform surface into different scales and separating surface roughness, waviness and form from each other, as will be demonstrated throughout the paper. Results of applying the proposed algorithm to computer-generated as well as real surfaces are represented and compared with a lifting wavelet filtering algorithm. (paper)

  17. Pressure relieving support surfaces: a randomised evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J; Nelson, E A; Cranny, G; Iglesias, C P; Hawkins, K; Cullum, N A; Phillips, A; Spilsbury, K; Torgerson, D J; Mason, S

    2006-07-01

    To determine differences between alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure replacement mattresses with respect to the development of new pressure ulcers, healing of existing pressure ulcers, patient acceptability and cost-effectiveness of the different pressure-relieving surfaces. Also to investigate the specific additional impact of pressure ulcers on patients' well-being. A multicentre, randomised, controlled, open, fixed sample, parallel-group trial with equal randomisation was undertaken. The trial used remote, concealed allocation and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The main trial design was supplemented with a qualitative study involving a purposive sample of 20-30 patients who developed pressure ulcers, to assess the impact of the pressure ulcers on their well-being. In addition, a focus group interview was carried out with clinical research nurses, who participated in the PRESSURE (Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation) Trial, to explore the experiences of their role and observations of pressure area care. The study took place in 11 hospital-based research centres within six NHS trusts in England. Acute and elective patients aged 55 years or older and admitted to vascular, orthopaedic, medical or care of the elderly wards in the previous 24 hours were investigated. Patients were randomised to either an alternating pressure overlay or an alternating pressure mattress replacement, with mattress specifications clearly defined to enable the inclusion of centres using products from different manufacturers, and to exclude hybrid mattress systems (which either combine foam or constant low pressure with alternating pressure in one mattress, or can be used as either an overlay or a replacement mattress). Development of a new pressure ulcer (grade pressures ulcers, patient acceptability and cost-effectiveness. In total, 6155 patients were assessed for eligibility to the trial and 1972 were randomised: 990 to the alternating

  18. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry

  19. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirigian, Stephen, E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com; Schweizer, Kenneth S., E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com [Departments of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry.

  20. Temperature effects on surface pressure-induced changes in rat skin perfusion: implications in pressure ulcer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Knapp, C F; Donofrio, J C; Salcido, R

    1999-07-01

    The effect of varying local skin temperature on surface pressure-induced changes in skin perfusion and deformation was determined in hairless fuzzy rats (13.5+/-3 mo, 474+/-25 g). Skin surface pressure was applied by a computer-controlled plunger with corresponding skin deformation measured by a linear variable differential transformer while a laser Doppler flowmeter measured skin perfusion. In Protocol I, skin surface perfusion was measured without heating (control, T=28 degrees C), with heating (T=36 degrees C), for control (probe just touching skin, 3.7 mmHg), and at two different skin surface pressures, 18 mmHg and 73 mmHg. Heating caused perfusion to increase at control and 18 mmHg pressure, but not at 73 mmHg. In Protocol II, skin perfusion was measured with and without heating as in Protocol I, but this time skin surface pressure was increased from 3.7 to 62 mmHg in increments of 3.7 mmHg. For unheated skin, perfusion increased as skin surface pressure increased from 3.7 to 18 mmHg. Further increases in surface pressure caused a decrease in perfusion until zero perfusion was reached for pressures over 55 mmHg. Heating increased skin perfusion for surface pressures from 3.7 to 18 mmHg, but not for pressures greater than 18 mmHg. After the release of surface pressure, the reactive hyperemia peak of perfusion increased with heating. In Protocol III, where skin deformation (creep and relaxation) was measured during the application of 3.7 and 18 mmHg, heating caused the tissue to be stiffer, allowing less deformation. It was found that for surface pressures below 18 mmHg, increasing skin temperature significantly increased skin perfusion and tissue stiffness. The clinical significance of these findings may have relevance in evaluating temperature and pressure effects on skin blood flow and deformation as well as the efficacy of using temperature as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  1. Linear instabilities of a planar liquid sheet in a static electric field for intermediate relaxation and convection of surface charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Takao

    2018-04-01

    Linear temporal instabilities of a two-dimensional planar liquid sheet in a static electric field are investigated when the relaxation and convection of surface electric charges are considered. Both viscous sheet liquid and inviscid surrounding liquid are placed between two parallel sheath walls, on which an external electric field is imposed. In particular, effects of the electric Peclet number {Pe} (charge relaxation time/convection time) and the electric Euler number Λ (electric pressure/liquid inertial) on the instabilities are emphasized for the symmetric and antisymmetric deformations of the sheet. It is found that the unstable mode is composed of the aerodynamic and electric modes, which are merged with each other for the symmetric deformation and separated for the antisymmetric deformation. For the symmetric deformation, the combined mode is more destabilized with the decrease of {Pe} and the increase of Λ. On the other hand, for the antisymmetric deformation, the electric mode is more destabilized and the aerodynamic mode is left unchanged with the decrease of {Pe}, while the electric mode is more destabilized but the aerodynamic mode is more stabilized with the increase of Λ. It is also found for both symmetric and antisymmetric deformations that the instabilities are most suppressed when {σ }R≃ 1/{ε }P ({σ }R: conductivity ratio of the surrounding to the sheet liquid, {ε }P: permittivity ratio of the sheet to the surrounding liquid), whose trend of the instabilities is more enhanced with the decrease of {Pe} except for vanishingly small {Pe}.

  2. Effect of pressure on decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in hydrated protic ionic liquid, lidocaine HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Hensel-Bielowka, S.; Pionteck, J.; Paluch, M.

    2013-05-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and pressure-temperature-volume methods are employed to investigate the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the conductivity relaxation time (τσ), both in the supercooled and glassy states of protic ionic liquid lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate. Due to the decoupling between the ion conductivity and structural dynamics, the characteristic change in behavior of τσ(T) dependence, i.e., from Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-like to Arrhenius-like behavior, is observed. This crossover is a manifestation of the liquid-glass transition of lidocaine HCl. The similar pattern of behavior was also found for pressure dependent isothermal measurements. However, in this case the transition from one simple volume activated law to another was noticed. Additionally, by analyzing the changes of conductivity relaxation times during isothermal densification of the sample, it was found that compression enhances the decoupling of electrical conductivity from the structural relaxation. Herein, we propose a new parameter, dlogRτ/dP, to quantify the pressure sensitivity of the decoupling phenomenon. Finally, the temperature and volume dependence of τσ is discussed in terms of thermodynamic scaling concept.

  3. Hearth and Campfire Influences on Arterial Blood Pressure: Defraying the Costs of the Social Brain through Fireside Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dana Lynn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of fire in human evolutionary history is widely acknowledged but the extent not fully explored. Fires involve flickering light, crackling sounds, warmth, and a distinctive smell. For early humans, fire likely extended the day, provided heat, helped with hunting, warded off predators and insects, illuminated dark places, and facilitated cooking. Campfires also may have provided social nexus and relaxation effects that could have enhanced prosocial behavior. According to this hypothesis, calmer, more tolerant people would have benefited in the social milieu via fireside interactions relative to individuals less susceptible to relaxation response. Using a randomized crossover design that disaggregated fire's sensory properties, pre-posttest blood pressure measures were compared among 226 adults across three studies with respect to viewing simulated muted-fire, fire-with-sound, and control conditions, in addition to tests for interactions with hypnotizability, absorption, and prosociality. Results indicated consistent blood pressure decreases in the fire-with-sound condition, particularly with a longer duration of stimulus, and enhancing effects of absorption and prosociality. Findings confirm that hearth and campfires induce relaxation as part of a multisensory, absorptive, and social experience. Enhancements to relaxation capacities in the human social brain likely took place via feedback involving these and other variables.

  4. Hearth and campfire influences on arterial blood pressure: defraying the costs of the social brain through fireside relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Christopher Dana

    2014-11-11

    The importance of fire in human evolutionary history is widely acknowledged but the extent not fully explored. Fires involve flickering light, crackling sounds, warmth, and a distinctive smell. For early humans, fire likely extended the day, provided heat, helped with hunting, warded off predators and insects, illuminated dark places, and facilitated cooking. Campfires also may have provided social nexus and relaxation effects that could have enhanced prosocial behavior. According to this hypothesis, calmer, more tolerant people would have benefited in the social milieu via fireside interactions relative to individuals less susceptible to relaxation response. Using a randomized crossover design that disaggregated fire's sensory properties, pre-posttest blood pressure measures were compared among 226 adults across three studies with respect to viewing simulated muted-fire, fire-with-sound, and control conditions, in addition to tests for interactions with hypnotizability, absorption, and prosociality. Results indicated consistent blood pressure decreases in the fire-with-sound condition, particularly with a longer duration of stimulus, and enhancing effects of absorption and prosociality. Findings confirm that hearth and campfires induce relaxation as part of a multisensory, absorptive, and social experience. Enhancements to relaxation capacities in the human social brain likely took place via feedback involving these and other variables.

  5. Sensitivity of the hand to surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson-Hall, C; Kilbom, A

    1993-06-01

    A new method of measuring pain-pressure threshold (PPT) of the hand has been developed. Externally applied surface pressure (EASP) was exerted at a certain rate of increase and the level where the feeling of pressure turned into pain was recorded. Also, the effects of sustained EASP were elucidated. Sixteen healthy right-handed subjects (eight female, eight male) participated. The distribution of the hand's sensitivity to EASP is presented. The most sensitive areas were the thenar area, the skinfold between thumb and index finger and the area around os pisiforme. When the hand was repeatedly exposed to EASP, the PPT decreased with increasing number of pressure incidents. For sustained EASP, the time of exposure was found to be important also for the quality of the sensation. Our results show that sustained EASP does not hurt at once, but becomes painful after a short time. On average, the female PPT corresponded to two-thirds of the male PPT. Females experienced pain faster than males when exposed to sustained EASP, and chose lower levels when estimating acceptable sustained EASP.

  6. Adsorbate-induced lifting of substrate relaxation is a general mechanism governing titania surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, David; Kowalski, Piotr M; Traeger, Franziska; Buchholz, Maria; Bebensee, Fabian; Meyer, Bernd; Wöll, Christof

    2016-09-30

    Under ambient conditions, almost all metals are coated by an oxide. These coatings, the result of a chemical reaction, are not passive. Many of them bind, activate and modify adsorbed molecules, processes that are exploited, for example, in heterogeneous catalysis and photochemistry. Here we report an effect of general importance that governs the bonding, structure formation and dissociation of molecules on oxidic substrates. For a specific example, methanol adsorbed on the rutile TiO 2 (110) single crystal surface, we demonstrate by using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques that strongly bonding adsorbates can lift surface relaxations beyond their adsorption site, which leads to a significant substrate-mediated interaction between adsorbates. The result is a complex superstructure consisting of pairs of methanol molecules and unoccupied adsorption sites. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the paired methanol molecules remain intact and do not deprotonate on the defect-free terraces of the rutile TiO 2 (110) surface.

  7. Influence of surface relaxation of strained layers on atomic resolution ADF imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Duschek, Lennart; Belz, Jürgen; Oelerich, Jan Oliver; Jandieri, Kakhaber; Volz, Kerstin

    2017-10-01

    Surface relaxation of thin transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens of strained layers results in a severe bending of lattice planes. This bending significantly displaces atoms from their ideal channeling positions which has a strong impact on the measured annular dark field (ADF) intensity. With the example of GaAs quantum wells (QW) embedded in a GaP barrier, we model the resulting displacements by elastic theory using the finite element (FE) formalism. Relaxed and unrelaxed super cells served as input for state of the art frozen phonon simulation of atomic resolution ADF images. We systematically investigate the dependencies on the sample´s geometric parameters, i.e. QW width and TEM sample thickness, by evaluating the simulated intensities at the atomic column´s positions as well as at the background positions in between. Depending on the geometry the ADF intensity can be affected in a range several nm from the actual interface. Moreover, we investigate the influence of the surface relaxation on the angular distribution of the scattered intensity. At high scattering angles we observe an intensity reduction at the interface as well as in the GaP barrier due to de-channeling. The amount of intensity reduction at an atomic column is directly proportional to its mean square displacement. On the contrary we find a clearly increased intensity at low angles caused by additional diffuse scattering. We discuss the implications for quantitative evaluations as well as strategies to compensate for the reduced intensities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen surface exchange kinetics measurement by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation and impedance spectroscopy: Sr(Ti,Fe)O3-x thin film case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H.; Kim, Jae Jin; Tuller, Harry L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We compare approaches to measure oxygen surface exchange kinetics, by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation (OTR) and AC-impedance spectroscopy (AC-IS), on the same mixed conducting SrTi0.65Fe0.35O3-x film. Surface exchange coefficients were evaluated as a function of oxygen activity in the film, controlled by gas partial pressure and/or DC bias applied across the ionically conducting yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. Changes in measured light transmission through the film over time (relaxations) resulted from optical absorption changes in the film corresponding to changes in its oxygen and oxidized Fe (~Fe4+) concentrations; such relaxation profiles were successfully described by the equation for surface exchange-limited kinetics appropriate for the film geometry. The kchem values obtained by OTR were significantly lower than the AC-IS derived kchem values and kq values multiplied by the thermodynamic factor (bulk or thin film), suggesting a possible enhancement in k by the metal current collectors (Pt, Au). Long-term degradation in kchem and kq values obtained by AC-IS was also attributed to deterioration of the porous Pt current collector, while no significant degradation was observed in the optically derived kchem values. The results suggest that, while the current collector might influence measurements by AC-IS, the OTR method offers a continuous, in situ, and contact-free method to measure oxygen exchange kinetics at the native surfaces of thin films. PMID:29511391

  9. Roughening instability and ion-induced viscous relaxation of SiO2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.M.; Chason, E.; Howard, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    We characterize the development of nanometer scale topography (roughness) on SiO 2 surfaces as a result of low energy, off-normal ion bombardment, using in situ energy dispersive x-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy. Surfaces roughen during sputtering by heavy ions (Xe), with roughness increasing approximately linearly with ion fluence up to 10 17 cm -2 . A highly coherent ripple structure with wavelength of 30 nm and oriented with the wave vector parallel to the direction of incidence is observed after Xe sputtering at 1 keV. Lower frequency, random texture is also observed. Subsequent light ion (H, He) bombardment smoothens preroughened surfaces. The smoothing kinetics are first order with ion fluence and strongly dependent on ion energy in the range 0.2--1 eV. We present a linear model to account for the experimental observations which includes roughening both by random stochastic processes and by development of a periodic surface instability due to sputter yield variations with surface curvature which leads to ripple development. Smoothing occurs via ion bombardment induced viscous flow and surface diffusion. From the smoothing kinetics with H and He irradiation we measure the radiation enhanced viscosity of SiO 2 and find values on the order of 1--20x10 12 N s m -2 . The viscous relaxation per ion scales as the square root of the ion induced displacements in the film over the range of the ion penetration, suggesting short-lived defects with a bimolecular annihilation mechanism. The surface instability mechanism accounts for the ripple formation, while inclusion of stochastic roughening produces the random texture and reproduces the observed linear roughening kinetics and the magnitude of the overall roughness

  10. Surface relaxation and surface energy of face –centered Cubic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    only need to evaluate the contribution of a single nonequivalent atom per plane. Moreover, only two to three planes have to be considered in this calculation: atoms in the fourth plane and below find themselves in equilibrium, bulk-like environment. The data by. Bozzolo et al (1993) shows the (100) surface of Fcc metals.

  11. Comparison of pressure profiles of massive relaxed galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and x-ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamente, Massimiliano; Hasler, Nicole; Bulbul, Esra; Landry, David; Carlstrom, John E; Culverhouse, Thomas L; Gralla, Megan; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M; Plagge, Thomas; Pryke, Clem; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W; Muchovej, Stephen; Joy, Marshall; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Marrone, Daniel P; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We present the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations of a sample of 25 massive relaxed galaxy clusters observed with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich array (SZA), an eight-element interferometer that is part of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We performed an analysis of new SZA data and archival Chandra observations of this sample to investigate the integrated pressure—a proxy for cluster mass—determined from x-ray and SZ observations, two independent probes of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). This analysis makes use of a model for the ICM introduced by Bulbul (2010 Astrophys. J. 720 1038) which can be applied simultaneously to the SZ and x-ray data. With this model, we estimated the pressure profile for each cluster using a joint analysis of the SZ and x-ray data, and using the SZ data alone. We found that the integrated pressures measured from the x-ray and SZ data are consistent. This conclusion is in agreement with recent results obtained using WMAP and Planck data, confirming that SZ and x-ray observations of massive clusters detect the same amount of thermal pressure from the ICM. To test for possible biases introduced by our choice of model, we also fitted the SZ data using the universal pressure profile proposed by Arnaud (2010 Astron. Astrophys. 517 A92) and found consistency between the two models out to r 500 in the pressure profiles and integrated pressures. (paper)

  12. Pressure ulcer prevention and pressure-relieving surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Maureen

    Although rarely subject to media attention, political interest or research funding, pressure ulcers, and their almost inevitable increase in incidence, detrimentally affect the quality of life of thousands of patients, both in the hospital and community setting. In addition, the costs to the NHS of pressure-ulcer-related care in hospitals is estimated to be pounds sterling 1.8-pounds sterling 2.5 billion annually. Many pressure ulcers that develop could have been prevented, and there are several up-to-date, easily-accessible sources of evidence to guide decision-making regarding appropriate interventions in pressure care. Consideration and assessment of the patient holistically, followed by appropriate intervention and evaluation, is the key to any prevention strategy.

  13. Beds: practical pressure management for surfaces/mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Linda; Coutts, Patricia; Sibbald, R Gary

    2011-07-01

    The prevention and management of pressure ulcers, including support surface selection, are a primary focus of healthcare providers. This article discusses the forces contributing to pressure ulcer formation and explores choosing therapeutic support surface features based on the patient's clinical needs and on using the evidence-informed support surface algorithm and decision trees.

  14. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Cullum, N; McInnes, E; Bell-Syer, SE; Legood, R

    2004-01-01

    : Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely used as aids to prevention in both institutional and non-institutional settings. : This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: to what extent do press...

  15. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    McInnes, E; Bell-Syer, SE; Dumville, JC; Legood, R; Cullum, NA

    2008-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely used as aids to prevention in both institutional and non-institutional settings. Objectives This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: (1) t...

  16. A statistical correlation investigation for the role of surface spins to the spin relaxation of nitrogen vacancy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xuerui; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Fupan; Wang, Junfeng; Zhang, Wenlong; Lou, Liren; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guanzhong, E-mail: gzwang@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale, and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China)

    2014-04-15

    We investigated the influence of spins on surface of nanodiamonds (NDs) to the longitudinal relaxation time (T{sub 1}) and transverse relaxation time (T{sub 2}) of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in ND. A spherical model of the NDs was suggested to account for the experimental results of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}, and the density of surface spins was roughly estimated based on the statistical analysis of experimental results of 72 NDs containing a single NV center. For NDs studied here, the T{sub 1} of NV center inside is highly dependent to the surface spins of the NDs. However, for the T{sub 2} of NV center, intrinsic contributions must be much pronounced than that by surface spins. In other words, T{sub 1} of an NV center in NDs is more sensitive to the change of the surface spin density than T{sub 2}.

  17. A statistical correlation investigation for the role of surface spins to the spin relaxation of nitrogen vacancy centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerui Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of spins on surface of nanodiamonds (NDs to the longitudinal relaxation time (T1 and transverse relaxation time (T2 of nitrogen vacancy (NV centers in ND. A spherical model of the NDs was suggested to account for the experimental results of T1 and T2, and the density of surface spins was roughly estimated based on the statistical analysis of experimental results of 72 NDs containing a single NV center. For NDs studied here, the T1 of NV center inside is highly dependent to the surface spins of the NDs. However, for the T2 of NV center, intrinsic contributions must be much pronounced than that by surface spins. In other words, T1 of an NV center in NDs is more sensitive to the change of the surface spin density than T2.

  18. Relaxation effects in ionic mobility and cluster formation: negative ions in SF{sub 6} at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A M; De Urquijo, J; Hinojosa, G [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, PO Box 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Hernandez-Avila, J L [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo 180, 02200 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Basurto, E, E-mail: juarez@fis.unam.m [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo 180, 02200 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    The relaxation effects of the ionic mobility and the formation of negative-ion clusters in SF{sub 6} are studied in this work. For this purpose, we have measured the mobility of negative ions in SF{sub 6} over the pressure range 100-800 Torr at a fixed value of density-normalized electric field, E/N, of 20 Td (1 Townsend = 10{sup -17} V cm{sup 2}). The data obtained show a clear dependence of the negative-ion drift velocity on drift distance. It is observed that the drift velocity (mobility) reaches a steady-state value only for drift distances above 2 cm, over the studied pressure range. In addition to this, we have observed that the ionic mobility depends strongly on the gas pressure. An explanation of this dependence of the ionic mobility on gas pressure is given in terms of a negative-ion clustering formation process. It was found that the assumption of a linear dependence of the cluster ion mass on pressure provides a satisfactory explanation for the observed mobilities.

  19. Unaxial stress relaxation and creep behaviour in weldments of the pressure vessel steel A533B between 600 and 640 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterberg, R.

    1979-10-01

    In order to predict the stress reduction during stress relief heat treatment in welded joints of the pressure vessel steel A533B, uniaxial stress relaxation as well as creep tests have been performed. The specimens were isothermally stress relaxed between 600 and 640 degree C from initial stresses corresponding to specimen elongations of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.2 percent. The stress relaxation results are excellently described by a Norton relationship. The magnitude of the initial stress has been found to affect the stress relaxation in the beginning of the tests, but at times longer than one hour the effect is very small. Creep strain data from creep tests in the actual temperature interval was converted to describe stress relaxation behaviour as well. The results will be used in a forthcoming study to predict the multiaxial stress reduction in thick weldments of A533B. (author)

  20. Communication: High pressure specific heat spectroscopy reveals simple relaxation behavior of glass forming molecular liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Lisa Anita; Niss, Kristine; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The frequency dependent specific heat has been measured under pressure for the molecular glass forming liquid 5-polyphenyl-4-ether in the viscous regime close to the glass transition. The temperature and pressure dependences of the characteristic time scale associated with the specific heat...

  1. Interface pressure mapping pilot study to select surfaces that effectively redistribute pediatric occipital pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higer, Samantha; James, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to better inform clinical decisions to prevent pediatric occipital pressure ulcers with quantitative data to choose an appropriate reactive support surface. A commercially available capacitive pressure mapping system (XSENSOR, X3 Medical Seat System, Calgary, Canada) was used to evaluate a standard pediatric mattress and four commercially available pressure-redistributing support surfaces. The pressure mapping system was validated for use in the pediatric population through studies on sensitivity, accuracy, creep, and repeatability. Then, a pilot pressure mapping study on healthy children under 6 years old (n = 22) was performed to determine interface pressure and pressure distribution between the occipital region of the skull and each surface: standard mattress, gel, foam, air and fluidized. The sensor was adequate to measure pressure generated by pediatric occipital loading, with 0.5-9% error in accuracy in the 25-95 mmHg range. The air surface had the lowest mean interface pressure (p pressure index (PPI), defined as the peak pressure averaged over four sensels, (p pressure for mattress, foam, fluidized, gel, and air materials were 24.8 ± 4.42, 24.1 ± 1.89, 19.4 ± 3.25, 17.9 ± 3.10, and 14.2 ± 1.41 mmHg, respectively. The air surface also had the most homogenous pressure distribution, with the highest mean to PPI ratio (p surfaces (p surface was the most effective pressure-redistributing material for pediatric occipital pressure as it had the lowest interface pressure and a homogeneous pressure distribution. This implies effective envelopment of the bony prominence of the occiput and increasing contact area to decrease peak pressure points. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Noise Evaluation Technique Based on Surface Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter the relevant theory for the understanding of TE noise modeling is collected. It contains the acoustic formulations of [31] and [57]. Both give a relation for the far field sound pressure in dependence of the frequency wave number spectral density of the pressure on the airfoil...

  3. Isotopic effects in vibrational relaxation dynamics of H on a Si(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakline, F.; Lorenz, U.; Melani, G.; Paramonov, G. K.; Saalfrank, P.

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper [U. Lorenz and P. Saalfrank, Chem. Phys. 482, 69 (2017)], we proposed a robust scheme to set up a system-bath model Hamiltonian, describing the coupling of adsorbate vibrations (system) to surface phonons (bath), from first principles. The method is based on an embedded cluster approach, using orthogonal coordinates for system and bath modes, and an anharmonic phononic expansion of the system-bath interaction up to second order. In this contribution, we use this model Hamiltonian to calculate vibrational relaxation rates of H-Si and D-Si bending modes, coupled to a fully H(D)-covered Si(100)-( 2 × 1 ) surface, at zero temperature. The D-Si bending mode has an anharmonic frequency lying inside the bath frequency spectrum, whereas the H-Si bending mode frequency is outside the bath Debye band. Therefore, in the present calculations, we only take into account one-phonon system-bath couplings for the D-Si system and both one- and two-phonon interaction terms in the case of H-Si. The computation of vibrational lifetimes is performed with two different approaches, namely, Fermi's golden rule, and a generalized Bixon-Jortner model built in a restricted vibrational space of the adsorbate-surface zeroth-order Hamiltonian. For D-Si, the Bixon-Jortner Hamiltonian can be solved by exact diagonalization, serving as a benchmark, whereas for H-Si, an iterative scheme based on the recursive residue generation method is applied, with excellent convergence properties. We found that the lifetimes obtained with perturbation theory, albeit having almost the same order of magnitude—a few hundred fs for D-Si and a couple of ps for H-Si—, are strongly dependent on the discretized numerical representation of the bath spectral density. On the other hand, the Bixon-Jortner model is free of such numerical deficiencies, therefore providing better estimates of vibrational relaxation rates, at a very low computational cost. The results obtained with this model clearly show

  4. What is the surface specific area of porous cement-based material? A nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberon, F; Korb, J-P; Petit, D; Morin, V; Bermejo, E

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new NMR method to measure and follow the evolution of the surface specific area, Sp, of a porous cement-based material. This method, that does not require any preliminary drying process, uses nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD), the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation rate as a function of magnetic field strength or nuclear Larmor frequency. The method is applied for three different mortars samples prepared by mixing cement, sand, silica fume, water and superplasticizer with a water to cement ratio w/c=0.25, 0.38 and 0.65, respectively. The evolution of Sp grows linearly with the degree of advancement of chemical reactions measured by thermal heating and we evidence two relaxation processes independent of the w/c ratio.

  5. Third sound: the propagation of waves on the surface of superfluid helium with healing and relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of surface waves - that is 'third' sound -on superfluid helium is considered. The fluid is treated as a continuum, using the two-fluid model of Landau, and incorporating the effects of healing, relaxation, thermal conductivity and Newtonian viscosity. A linear theory is developed which includes some discussion of the matching to the outer regions of the vapour. This results in a comprehensive propagation speed for linear waves, although a few properties of the flow are left undetermined at this order. A nonlinear theory is then outlined which leads to the Burgers equation in an appropriate far field, and enables the leading-order theory to be concluded. Some numerical results, for two temperatures, are presented by first recording the Helmholtz free energy as a polynomial in densities, but only the equilibrium state can be satisfactorily reproduced. The propagation speed, as a function of film thickness, is roughly estimated. The looked-for reduction in the predicted speeds is evident, but the magnitude of this reduction is too large for very thin films. However, these analytical results should prove more effective when a complete and accurate description of the Helmholtz free energy is available. (author)

  6. Relaxation-systolic pressure relation. A load-independent assessment of left ventricular contractility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebert, T. C.; Leite-Moreira, A. F.; de Hert, S. G.

    1997-01-01

    This contribution reviews the regulation of left ventricular pressure (LVP) fall by load and relates this regulation to left ventricular contractility. Load regulation of LVP fall has to be distinguished from neurohumoral regulation, from effects induced by arterial reflected waves and from

  7. On the Pressure Distribution in a Porous Media under a Spherical Loading Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyun; Zhu, Zenghao; Nathan, Rungun; Wu, Qianhong

    2017-11-01

    The phenomenon of pressure generation and relaxation inside a porous media is widely observed in biological systems. Herein, we report a biomimetic study to examine the pressure distribution inside a soft porous layer when a spherical loaded surface suddenly impacts on it. A novel experimental setup was developed that includes a fully instrumented spherical piston and a soft fibrous porous layer underneath. Extensive experimental study was performed with different porous materials, different loadings and different sized loading surfaces. The pore pressure generation and the motion of the loading surface were recorded. A novel theoretical model was developed to characterize the pressure field during the process. Excellent agreement was observed between the experimental results and the theoretically predictions. It shows that the pressure generation is governed by the Brinkman parameter, α = h/Kp0.5, where h is the porous layer thickness, and Kp is the undeformed permeability. The study improves our understanding of the dynamic response of soft porous media under rapid compression. It has board impact on the study of transient load bearing in biological systems and industry applications. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF CBET) under Award #1511096.

  8. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Schurtenberger E; Heuberger M

    2011-01-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under am...

  9. Anisotropic relaxation of a CuO/TiO2 surface under an electric field and its impact on visible light absorption: ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Wenshi; Ji, Aimin; Wang, Ziou; Zhu, Canyan; Zhang, Lijun; Yang, Jianfeng; Mao, Ling-Feng

    2015-07-21

    Ab initio calculations on the anisotropic relaxation of a CuO/TiO2 surface under electric fields and the visible light absorption of these relaxed surfaces are reported. We compare the relaxation of the CuO/TiO2 surface under the electric fields in the direction of [001] or [010]. Fewer Cu-O bonds with highly coordinated Cu-ions are found in the CuO/TiO2 relaxed surface under the electric field in the [010] direction. The Cu-O bonds in the interface of the CuO/TiO2 surface led to an improved visible light absorption in the polarization direction of [001]. The CuO/TiO2 relaxed surface under the electric field in the [010] direction exhibits a more effective absorption of visible light. However, the electric field in the [001] direction induces more relaxation on the CuO/TiO2 surface, breaking the Cu-O bonds. This leads to the partial reduction of CuO to Cu2O on the CuO/TiO2 relaxed surface under the electric field in the [001] direction and inefficient absorption of visible light is observed for this surface.

  10. Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    where the time history pressure data are recorded by the surface pressure microphones. After the flow-field is stabilized, the generated noise from the airfoil Trailing Edge (TE) is predicted using the acoustic analogy solver, where the results from LES are the input. It is found that there is a strong......In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...... relation between TE noise and the aerodynamic pressure. The results of power spectrum density show that the fluctuation of aerodynamic pressure is responsible for noise generation....

  11. Support surface interface pressure, microenvironment, and the prevalence of pressure ulcers: an analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Steven I; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Sahgal, Vinod

    2007-10-01

    External pressure is the most frequently considered stress factor in the formation of ulcers. A review and analysis of existing literature addressing the relationship between pressure ulcer prevalence and interface pressures at various anatomic sites was conducted. Results suggest a nearly non-existent or slightly negative correlation between interface pressure and ulcer prevalence in general and spinal cord injured populations, respectively. Despite limitations of the analysis methods used, the observed lack of a direct relationship confirms the results of other studies and suggests that ulcer formation also may involve factors secondary to pressure and mechanical factors (eg, temperature, moisture, duration of the applied load, atrophy, and posture). Based on currently available information, clinicians should include these considerations when selecting a support surface. Studies directly relating primary stress factors and tissue viability with prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers are needed to better understand the benefits of pressure-relieving support surfaces and to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment.

  12. Plastic collapse pressure of cylindrical vessels containing longitudinal surface cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarrabi, K. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sch. of Mech. and Mfg. Eng.; Zhang, H. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sch. of Mech. and Mfg. Eng.; Nhim, K. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sch. of Mech. and Mfg. Eng.

    1997-05-01

    Based on nonlinear finite element analysis, the plastic collapse pressures of cylindrical vessels with longitudinal surface cracks are computed. A general formula of plastic collapse pressure of such structures are given and compared with the literature solutions. The results of the present study could be applied for the integrity assessments, failure analyses, remanent life assessment, and licence extensions of the vessels. (orig.)

  13. Maximum rate of pressure development and maximal relaxation rate of respiratory muscles in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassios, Theodore G; Doudounakis, Stavros; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory muscle function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been studied by measurement of maximal inspiratory pressure (P(Imax)), maximal expiratory pressure (P(Emax)), and the pressure-time index of the respiratory muscles (PTI(mus)). The maximum rate of pressure development (MRPD) during P(Imax) (MRPD-P(Imax)), MRPD during P(Emax) (MRPD-P(Emax)), maximal relaxation rate (MRR) during P(Imax) (MRR-P(imax)), and MRR during P(Emax) (MRR-P(Emax)) have not been studied in CF. Our aim was to study MRPD and MRR and investigate their possible application as accessory indices of respiratory muscle function in patients with CF. FEVY, FVC, and maximal expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity, body mass index (BMI), upper arm muscle area, P(imax), P(Emax), PTI(mus), MRPD-P(Imax), MRPD-P(Emax), MRR-P(imax), and MRR-P(Emax) were assessed in 123 CF patients and in a control group of 123 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. MRR-P(Emax) was significantly increased and MRPD-P(Emax) was significantly decreased in the CF patients, compared to the healthy controls. In the CF patients MRR-P(Imax) was significantly related to PTI(mus) (P = .02), FEV1 (P = .03), FVC (P = .001), BMI (P muscle area (P muscle area (P respiratory effort, compared to controls. The differences in MRR-P(imax) and MRPD-P(Imax) between the controls and the complete group of CF patients were not significant. MRPD and MRR were significantly related to nutritional and pulmonary function impairment in CF patients. MRPD strongly correlated to maximal respiratory muscle pressures, and MRR strongly correlated to PTI(mus) in patients with CF. These findings suggest that CF patients are at increased risk of respiratory muscle fatigue. Regular determination of MRPD and MRR may be clinically useful in CF patients and help to initiate inspiratory muscle training and noninvasive ventilation.

  14. Interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin: Dynamic surface tension, dilatational elasticity and relaxation times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrov, N.A.; Marinova, K.G.; Gurkov, T.D.; Danov, K.D.; Kralchevsky, P.A.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Pelan, E.G.; Lips, A.

    2012-01-01

    The pendant-drop method (with drop-shape analysis) and Langmuir trough are applied to investigate the characteristic relaxation times and elasticity of interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin. Such layers undergo a transition from fluid to elastic solid films. The transition is

  15. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  16. Time scales of relaxation dynamics during transient conditions in two-phase flow: RELAXATION DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlüter, Steffen [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Berg, Steffen [Shell Global Solutions International B.V., Rijswijk Netherlands; Li, Tianyi [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Vogel, Hans-Jörg [Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Institut für Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle Germany; Wildenschild, Dorthe [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA

    2017-06-01

    The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography (X-ray CT) to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample. The relaxation of interfaces triggers internal redistribution of fluids, reduces the surface energy stored in the fluid interfaces, and relaxes the contact angle toward the equilibrium value while the fluid topology remains unchanged. The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: (i) a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and (ii) a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1–4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media. The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.

  17. Measuring oxygen surface exchange kinetics on mixed-conducting composites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Bobing; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Zhuoying; Xia, Changrong; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen release kinetics of mixed-conducting Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 d–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 d (SFM–SDC) dualphase composites has been investigated, at 750 C, as a function of the SDC phase volume fraction using electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) under reducing atmospheres, extending our previous work on

  18. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E; Heuberger, M

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ~3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  19. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E.; Heuberger, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ˜3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  20. Development of Maximum Bubble Pressure Method for Surface Tension Measurement of High Viscosity Molten Silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Iwamoto, Hirone; Sakashita, Ryota; Iseki, Chiaki; Zhu, Hongmin

    2017-07-01

    A surface tension measurement method based on the maximum bubble pressure (MBP) method was developed in order to precisely determine the surface tension of molten silicates in this study. Specifically, the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements was quantified, and the criteria for accurate measurement were investigated. It was found that the MBP apparently increased with an increase in viscosity. This was because extra pressure was required for the flowing liquid inside the capillary due to viscous resistance. It was also expected that the extra pressure would decrease by decreasing the fluid velocity. For silicone oil with a viscosity of 1000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot }\\hbox {s}, the error on the MBP could be decreased to +1.7 % by increasing the bubble detachment time to 300 \\hbox {s}. However, the error was still over 1 % even when the bubble detachment time was increased to 600 \\hbox {s}. Therefore, a true value of the MBP was determined by using a curve-fitting technique with a simple relaxation function, and that was succeeded for silicone oil at 1000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot } \\hbox {s} of viscosity. Furthermore, for silicone oil with a viscosity as high as 10 000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot }\\hbox {s}, the apparent MBP approached a true value by interrupting the gas introduction during the pressure rising period and by re-introducing the gas at a slow flow rate. Based on the fundamental investigation at room temperature, the surface tension of the \\hbox {SiO}2-40 \\hbox {mol}%\\hbox {Na}2\\hbox {O} and \\hbox {SiO}2-50 \\hbox {mol}%\\hbox {Na}2\\hbox {O} melts was determined at a high temperature. The obtained value was slightly lower than the literature values, which might be due to the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements being removed in this study.

  1. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity of high-pressure formed, high-density di-n-butyl phthalate glass and pressure induced departures from equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, G P; Andersson, Ove

    2017-06-21

    We report a study of structural relaxation of high-density glasses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by measuring thermal conductivity, κ, under conditions of pressure and temperature (p,T) designed to modify both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass. Various high-density glassy states of DBP were formed by (i) cooling the liquid under a fixed high p and partially depressurizing the glass, (ii) isothermal annealing of the depressurized glass, and (iii) pressurizing the glass formed by cooling the liquid under low p. At a given low p, κ of the glass formed by cooling under high p is higher than that of the glass formed by cooling under low p, and the difference increases as glass formation p is increased. κ of the glass formed under 1 GPa is ∼20% higher at ambient p than κ of the glass formed at ambient p. On heating at low p, κ decreases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. This is the opposite of the increase in κ observed when a glass formed under a certain p is heated under the same p. At a given high p, κ of the low-density glass formed by cooling at low p is lower than that of the high-density glass formed by cooling at that high p. On heating at high p, κ increases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. The effects observed are due to a thermally assisted approach toward equilibrium at p different from the glass formation p. In all cases, the density, enthalpy, and entropy would change until the glasses become metastable liquids at a fixed p, thus qualitatively relating κ to variation in these properties.

  2. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  3. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  4. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  5. Relaxation dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced temperature modulation on the surfaces of metals and semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levy, Yoann; Derrien, Thibault; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Gurevich, E.L.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 374, Jun (2016), s. 157-164 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LIPSS * modulated temperature relaxation * two-temperature model * nano-melting Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  6. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma treatment......Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... are separated using a polyethylene film. The gliding arc was extended by a high speed air flow into ambient air, directed the polyester surface at an angle of approximately 30o. The ultrasonic waves were introduced vertically to the surface. After the plasma treatment using each plasma source without ultrasonic...

  7. Comparison of the effect of combined relaxation and music therapy on blood biochemical characters and blood pressure on type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. Bakhshipoor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undoubtedly, diabetes and its complications is one of the greatest diseases in worldwide with considerable concern for medical knowledge. There are different kinds of psychological treatments which may reduce the signs and symptoms of diabetic complications. Majority of researches indicated that consulting, music therapy and relaxation play significant and effective role on diabetes. Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study 75 patients with diabetes type 2, according to subjects’ characters, were invited to participate in the study. They were divided into the intervention and control group randomly. The intervention group was stratified into 6 groups with 5 patients in each group. The intervention programs were carried through 10 sessions of music and relaxation therapy (consist of imagery, progressive muscle and breathing relaxation and home practice for three months. Blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HbA1c and fasting blood glucose were measured before and after of study. All patients also filled out the questionnaire related to biography and some diabetes risk factors before and after the study. Results: A total of 73 patients (intervention group=28 and control group=45 completed the 3-month study period. The result showed that there were significant difference between FBS (p=0.03, systolic (p=0.02 and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.0001 in intervention group compared to control group. Conclusion: we suggest that combined relaxation and music therapy is a feasible and effective treatment on diabetes. Therefore, adding relaxation and music therapy to other treatments such as physical activity and diet, in people with type 2 diabetes, may help them to control and mange their diabetes

  8. Are pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices effective for preventing heel pressure ulcers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkin, Joan; Gray, Mikel

    2009-01-01

    Heel pressure ulcers are recognized as second in prevalence only to pressure ulcer (PU) on the heel among hospitalized patients, and recent studies suggest their incidence may be higher than even sacral ulcers. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify and evaluate whether pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices are effective for the prevention of heel ulcers. We searched CINAHL and MEDLINE databases, using the keywords "pressure ulcer" and "heel," which we also searched the Cochrane Library, using the key terms "pressure ulcer," "heel," and "support surface." We hand searched the ancestry of pertinent research reports and review articles in order to identify additional studies. Inclusion criteria were (1) any study that compared one or more pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices designed specifically to prevent heel PU and (2) any study comparing 2 or more pressure redistribution surfaces designed to prevent PU that specifically reported differences in the incidence of heel PU. Exclusion criteria were (1) studies that did not measure heel PU incidence as an outcome, (2) studies without an English language abstract, and (3) studies that reported overall PU incidence but did not analyze heel PU incidence separately. Clinical evidence concerning the efficacy of pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices is sparse. Existing evidence suggests that pressure redistribution surfaces vary in their ability to prevent heel pressure ulcers, but there is insufficient evidence to determine which surfaces are optimal for this purpose. A single study suggests that a wedge-shaped viscoelastic foam cushion is superior to standard foam pillows for preventing heel PU, but further research is needed before a definitive conclusion concerning this issue can be reached. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether heel protection devices are more effective than a standard hospital foam pillow for the prevention

  9. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  10. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... arc at atmospheric pressure to study adhesion improvement. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation with the frequency diapason between 20 and 40 kHz at the SPL of ∼150 dB was investigated. After the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, the wettability was significantly improved....... The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently enhanced the treatment efficiency. The principal effect of ultrasonic irradiation can be attributed to enhancing surface oxidation during plasma treatment. In addition, ultrasonic irradiation can suppress arcing, and the uniformity...

  11. Surface exchange kinetics and chemical diffusivities of BaZr{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.65}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} by electrical conductivity relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dae-Kwang; Jeon, Sang-Yun; Singh, Bhupendra [Ionics Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwang-Ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Young [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sun-Ju, E-mail: song@chonnam.ac.kr [Ionics Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwang-Ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Electrical conductivity relaxation in BaCe{sub 0.65}Zr{sub 0.2}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} was monitored. • Monotonic relaxation behavior was observed during oxidation/reduction. • Nonmonotonic twofold relaxation behavior was observed during hydration/dehydration. • Surface exchange coefficients and diffusivities of O and H were calculated. - Abstract: Perovskite-type oxide BaCe{sub 0.65}Zr{sub 0.2}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} (BCZY2015) was synthesized by a solid state reaction method. BCZY2015 samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The time dependent variation in electrical conductivity of BCZY2015 was monitored during the oxidation/reduction in oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) range of −2.28 ⩽ log (pO{sub 2}/atm) ⩽ −0.68 at a fixed water vapor pressure (pH{sub 2}O), and during the hydration/dehydration in −3.15 ⩽ log (pH{sub 2}O/atm) ⩽ −2.35 range in air. The electrical conductivity showed a monotonic relaxation behavior by the ambipolar diffusion of V{sub o}{sup ··} and OH{sub o}{sup ·} during the oxidation/reduction and the relaxation process was governed by the diffusivity of oxygen (D-tilde{sub vO}). On the other hand, during the hydration/dehydration process, a non-monotonic twofold relaxation behavior was observed due to the decoupled diffusion of H and O components with the mediation of holes, and the conductivity relaxation process was governed by the diffusivities of both H (D-tilde{sub iH}) and O (D-tlde{sub vH}). The values of surface exchange coefficients and diffusivities of oxygen and hydrogen were calculated from Fick’s second law by the nonlinear least squares fitting of the conductivity data, as proposed by Yoo et al. (2008)

  12. Episodic surface intrusions in the Yellow Sea during relaxation of northerly winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zifeng; Wang, Dong-Ping; He, Xianqiang; Li, Mingting; Wei, Jun; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The surface currents over the Yellow and East China Seas are mapped from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). Based on a composite of six intrusion events in January-April, the strong northward surface current in the Yellow Sea is shown to be concentrated along the deep trough, accompanied by a broad northward surface current over the East China Sea. From the corresponding surface winds, the episodic northward surface flow bursts appear to be associated with abrupt changes from the strong northerly winds to weak southerly winds during cold front passages. A three-dimensional model driven with observed surface winds is used to simulate the observed shelf-wide response to northerly winds. There is an outstanding agreement between the simulated and observed surface currents. The surface intrusion in the Yellow Sea is shown to be driven primarily by a barotropic longitudinal surface slope, while the strong northward current in the East China Sea is associated with a coastal trapped wave. Moreover, the surface intrusion is associated with a large volume transport, suggesting that the transient intrusions could be important in the northward heat transport. The unprecedented capability of GOCI satellite in providing a regional circulation pattern, in conjunction with complementary model simulations, could contribute greatly to understanding of the dynamics of the Yellow and East China Seas.

  13. Drop impact on a solid surface at reduced air pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Kenneth; Li, E. Q.; Tian, Y. S.; Hicks, P. D.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2017-11-01

    When a drop approaches a solid surface at atmospheric pressure, the lubrication pressure within the air forms a dimple in the bottom of the drop resulting in the entrainment of an air disc upon impact. Reducing the ambient air pressure below atmospheric has been shown to suppress splashing and the compression of the intervening air could be significant on the air disc formation; however, to date there have been no experimental studies showing how the entrainment of the air disc is affected by reducing the ambient pressure. Using ultra-high-speed interferometry, at up to 5 Mfps, we investigate droplet impacts onto dry solid surfaces in reduced ambient air pressures with particular interest in what happens as rarified gas effects become important, i.e. when the thickness of the air layer is of the same magnitude as the mean free path of the air molecules. Experimental data will be presented showing novel phenomena and comparisons will be drawn with theoretical models from the literature.

  14. Chemical diffusion and oxygen surface transfer of La1-xSrxCoO3-d studied with electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Haar, L.M.; den Otter, M.W.; Morskate, M.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Verweij, H.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical diffusion coefficient and oxygen-transfer coefficients of selected compositions in the series $La_1-xSr_xCoO_3-delta$ were studied using the conductivity relaxation technique. Measurements were performed in the temperature range 600-850°C and oxygen partial pressure $10-4$ to 1 bar.

  15. Atomic configuration of hydrogenated and clean tantalum(111) surfaces: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment and electron polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Maolin; Li, Lei; Guo, Yongling; Yao, Chuang; Peng, Cheng; Sun, Chang Q.

    2018-01-01

    By studying the tantalum (Ta)(111) surface with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, we determined binding energy values for the clean Ta(111) (+3.068 eV) and hydrogenated Ta(111) (+3.421 eV) surfaces with an isolated atom level of 18.977 eV. Using the bond-band barrier and zone-selective electron spectroscopy correlation, we investigated the mechanism of hydrogenation adsorption on the Ta(111) surface. We found the local densities of states of the first layer of Ta atoms in the reconstructed structure, which formed on the adsorbent hydrogen of the surface chemical bond contracts and dipole polarization. Moreover, we showed that on the Ta(111) surface, the hydrogen-induced surface core level shifts are dominated by quantum entrapment and are proportional to the calculated hybridized orbitals of the valence band. The latter is therefore correlated to the local surface chemical reactivity and is useful for other adsorbate systems on transition metals.

  16. Surface dependent structural phase transition in SrTiO 3 observed with spin relaxation of 8Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadella, M.; Salman, Z.; Chow, K. H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I.; Hossain, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mansour, A. I.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M.; Saadaoui, H.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the 105 K structural phase transition in SrTiO 3 using depth controlled measurements of the spin relaxation of 8Li. The measurements were performed in zero external magnetic field and rely on the local electric field gradient (EFG) at the crystalline implantation site of the 8Li ( I=2) to hold the nuclear polarization. The tetragonal distortion accompanying the phase transition modifies the EFG in some 8Li implantation sites, resulting in an observable loss of 8Li polarization. This loss of polarization begins at a temperature T*=150 K, indicating there is some loss of cubic symmetry well above the bulk transition. We find that the value of T* is unaffected by the range of implantation depths available (10-150 nm); however, the temperature dependence of the polarization depends on the surface preparation of the SrTiO 3 sample.

  17. Surface dependent structural phase transition in SrTiO{sub 3} observed with spin relaxation of {sup 8}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smadella, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Salman, Z. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Chow, K.H.; Egilmez, M.; Fan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Hossain, M.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F., E-mail: kiefl@triumf.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (Canada); Kreitzman, S.R.; Levy, C.D.P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); MacFarlane, W.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Mansour, A.I. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Morris, G.D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Parolin, T.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Pearson, M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Saadaoui, H.; Song, Q.; Wang, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    We investigate the 105 K structural phase transition in SrTiO{sub 3} using depth controlled measurements of the spin relaxation of {sup 8}Li. The measurements were performed in zero external magnetic field and rely on the local electric field gradient (EFG) at the crystalline implantation site of the {sup 8}Li (I=2) to hold the nuclear polarization. The tetragonal distortion accompanying the phase transition modifies the EFG in some {sup 8}Li implantation sites, resulting in an observable loss of {sup 8}Li polarization. This loss of polarization begins at a temperature T{sup *}=150K, indicating there is some loss of cubic symmetry well above the bulk transition. We find that the value of T{sup *} is unaffected by the range of implantation depths available (10-150 nm); however, the temperature dependence of the polarization depends on the surface preparation of the SrTiO{sub 3} sample.

  18. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N.

    1997-07-01

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of carbon fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Michelsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibres are continuously treated with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure in various gas conditions for adhesion improvement in mind. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that oxygen is effectively introduced onto the carbon fibre surfaces by He, He....../O2 and Ar plasma treatments, mainly attributed to an increase in the density of the C-O single bond at the carbon fibre surfaces. The O/C ratio increased to 0.182 after 1-s He plasma treatment, and remained approximately constant after longer treatment. After exposure in an ambient air at room...

  20. Pressure-Redistributing Support Surface Use and Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Elderly Hip Fracture Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Shayna E.; Shardell, Michelle; Hawkes, William G.; Margolis, David J.; Amr, Sania; Miller, Ram; Baumgarten, Mona

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the association between pressure-redistributing support surface (PRSS) use and incident pressure ulcers in older adults with hip fracture. DESIGN Secondary analysis of data from prospective cohort with assessments performed as soon as possible after hospital admission and on alternating days for 21 days. SETTING Nine hospitals in the Baltimore Hip Studies network and 105 postacute facilities to which participants were discharged. PARTICIPANTS Six hundred fifty-eight people aged 65 and older who underwent surgery for hip fracture. MEASUREMENTS Full-body examination for pressure ulcers; bedbound status; and PRSS use, recorded as none, powered (alternating pressure mattresses, low-air-loss mattresses, and alternating pressure overlays), or nonpowered (high-density foam, static air, or gel-filled mattresses or pressure-redistributing overlays except for alternating pressure overlays). RESULTS Incident pressure ulcers (IPUs), Stage 2 or higher, were observed at 4.2% (195/4,638) of visits after no PRSS use, 4.5% (28/623) of visits after powered PRSS use, and 3.6% (54/1,496) of visits after nonpowered PRSS use. The rate of IPU per person-day of follow-up did not differ significantly between participants using powered PRSSs and those not using PRSSs. The rate also did not differ significantly between participants using nonpowered PRSSs and those not using PRSSs, except in the subset of bedbound participants (incidence rate ratio = 0.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.1–0.7). CONCLUSION PRSS use was not associated with a lower IPU rate. Clinical guidelines may need revision for the limited effect of PRSS use, and it may be appropriate to target PRSS use to bedbound patients at risk of pressure ulcers. PMID:21649630

  1. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed.

  2. Free volume of an epoxy resin and its relation to structural relaxation: evidence from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubek, Günter; Hassan, E M; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Pionteck, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    The microstructure of the free volume and its temperature dependence in the epoxy resin diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) have been examined using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS, 80-350K, 10(-5) Pa) and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT, 293-470 K, 0.1-200MPa) experiments. Employing the Simha-Somcynsky lattice-hole theory (S-S eos), the excess (hole) free volume fraction h and the specific free and occupied volumes, Vf=hV and Vocc=(1-h)V, were estimated. From the PALS spectra analyzed with the new routine LT9.0 the hole size distribution, its mean, , and mean dispersion, sigma h, were calculated. varies from 35 130 A3. From a comparison of with V and Vf, the specific hole number N'h was estimated to be independent of the temperature [Nh(300 K)=N'h/V=0.65 nm-3]. From comparison with reported dielectric and viscosity measurements, we found that the structural relaxation slows down faster than the shrinkage of the hole free volume Vf would predict on the basis of the free volume theory. Our results indicate that the structural relaxation in DGEBA operates via the free-volume mechanism only when liquidlike clusters of cells of the S-S lattice appear which contain a local free volume of approximately 1.5 or more empty S-S cells. The same conclusion follows from the pressure dependency of the structural relaxation and Vf. It is shown that PALS mirrors thermal volume fluctuations on a subnanometer scale via the dispersion in the ortho-positronium lifetimes. Using a fluctuation approach, the temperature dependency of the characteristic length of dynamic heterogeneity, xi, is estimated to vary from xi=1.9 nm at Tg to 1.0 nm at T/Tg>1.2. A model was proposed which relates the spatial structure of the free volume as concluded from PALS to the known mobility pattern of the dynamic glass transition at low (cooperative alpha-relaxation) and high (alpha-relaxation) temperatures. We discuss possible reasons for the differences between the results of our

  3. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  4. Adsorption of small palladium clusters on the relaxed α-Al2O3(0001) surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, J.R.B.; Lodziana, Zbiegniew; Illas, F.

    2003-01-01

    of supported Pd-3 is largely distorted from the gas-phase equilibrium geometry whereas the structure of supported Pd-4 is less distorted and reminiscent of the most stable gas-phase isomer. Consequently, the adhesion energy of Pd-3 on the relaxed alpha-Al2O3(0001) surface is smaller than that of Pd-4...

  5. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO[sub 2]. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO[sub 2] on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO[sub 2] in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  6. The dependence of lipid monolayer lipolysis on surface pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D G

    1992-01-01

    Brönsted-Bjerrum theory [Brönsted (1922) Z. Phys. Chem. 102, 169-207; (1925) Z. Phys. Chem. 115, 337-364; Bjerrum (1924) Z. Phys. Chem. 108, 82-100] as applied to reactions at interfaces is used to interpret published data on the lipolysis of dinonanoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers by pancreatic phospholipase A2. Reasonable quantitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results occurs when the reported effects of surface pressure on the amount of adsorbed enzyme are used togeth...

  7. Osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid of Rana esculenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) in vivo was measured for investigating whether evaporative water loss (EWL) derives from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by exocrine subepidermal mucous glands. EWL was stimulated by subjecting R. esculenta to 30–34 °C....../Kg, n = 16. Osmolality of lymph was, 239 ± 4 mosmol/Kg, n = 8. Thus the flow of water across the epidermis would be in the direction from CSF to the interstitial fluid driven by the above osmotic gradients and/or coupled to the inward active Na+ flux via the slightly hyperosmotic paracellular...

  8. Relaxing music prevents stress-induced increases in subjective anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate in healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, W E; Rickard PhD, N S

    2001-01-01

    Previous research suggests that while subjective anxiety is reduced by relaxing music, the effect of music on physiological stress indices is less consistent. In the current study, the effect of relaxing music on participants' subjective and physiological response to stress was explored, with attention paid to methodological factors and mediating variables that might have contributed to inconsistencies in previous studies. Undergraduate students (43 females & 44 males) were exposed to a cognitive stressor task involving preparation for an oral presentation either in the presence of Pachelbel's Canon in D major, or in silence. Measures of subjective anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and salivary IgA were obtained during rest and after presentation of the stressor. The stressor caused significant increases in subjective anxiety, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in male and female controls. These stress-induced increases were each prevented by exposure to music, and this effect was independent of gender. Music also enhanced baseline salivary IgA levels in the absence of any stress-induced effects. These findings provide experimental support for claims that music is an effective anxiolytic treatment, the robustness of which is demonstrated by retention of the effect in the presence of a range of potentially mediating variables.

  9. The Effect of 200 MPa Pressure on Specific Surface Area of Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszela-Marek Ewa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory studies of the 200 MPa pressure effect on specific surface area of clay. The original high-pressure investigation stand was used for the pressure tests. Determination of the specific surface area was performed by the methylene blue adsorption method. The results of the specific surface area test were compared for non-pressurized clays and for clays pressured in a high-pressure chamber. It was found that the specific surface area of pressurized soil clearly increased. This shows that some microstructural changes take place in the soil skeleton of clays.

  10. The influence of local volume forces on surface relaxation of pure metals and alloys: Applications to Ni, Al, Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, E.J.; Farkas, D.

    1987-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative influence of the interatomic potential, lattice structure and defect symmetry on the calculated and measured distortion for the free surfaces of alloys and pure metals. In particular, the effect of using local ''volume'' dependent interactions is studied, as opposed to simple pair interatomic forces. The dependence of the relaxation on the lattice structure is examined by comparing pure metals with ordered alloys. A Green function method for surface relaxation is presented and used for the above analysis as well as for studying the influence of different surface symmetries. Examples based on computer simulation of Ni, Al and Ni 3 Al for some surface orientations are presented. (author). 33 refs, 4 figs

  11. Pressurized Rover for Moon and Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Barbara; Ransom, Stephen; Mohanty, Susmita; Özdemir, Kürsad; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Frischauf, Norbert; Hoheneder, Waltraut; Waclavicek, René

    The work described in this paper was done under ESA and Thales Alenia Space contract in the frame of the Analysis of Surface Architecture for European Space Exploration -Element Design. Future manned space missions to the Moon or to Mars will require a vehicle for transporting astronauts in a controlled and protected environment and in relative comfort during surface traverses of these planetary bodies. The vehicle that will be needed is a pressurized rover which serves the astronauts as a habitat, a refuge and a research laboratory/workshop. A number of basic issues influencing the design of such a rover, e.g. habitability, human-machine interfaces, safety, dust mitigation, interplanetary contamination and radiation protection, have been analysed in detail. The results of these analyses were subsequently used in an investigation of various designs for a rover suitable for surface exploration, from which a single concept was developed that satisfied scientific requirements as well as environmental requirements encoun-tered during surface exploration of the Moon and Mars. This concept was named in memory of the late Sir Arthur C. Clark RAMA (Rover for Advanced Mission Applications, Rover for Advanced Moon Applications, Rover for Advanced Mars Applications) The concept design of the pressurized rover meets the scientific and operational requirements defined during the course of the Surface Architecture Study. It is designed for surface missions with a crew of two or three lasting up to approximately 40 days, its source of energy, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuel cell, allowing it to be driven and operated during the day as well as the night. Guidance, navigation and obstacle avoidance systems are foreseen as standard equipment to allow it to travel safely over rough terrain at all times of the day. The rover allows extra-vehicular activity and a remote manipulator is provided to recover surface samples, to deploy surface instruments and equipment and, in general

  12. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecking, N.

    2007-11-05

    In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

  13. Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition of SrTiO3 Studied with Zero-Field β-Detected Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Z.; Kiefl, R. F.; Chow, K. H.; Hossain, M. D.; Keeler, T. A.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Miller, R. I.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Saadaoui, H.; Schultz, J. D.; Smadella, M.; Wang, D.; Macfarlane, W. A.

    2006-04-01

    We demonstrate that zero-field β-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance and spin relaxation of low energy Li8 can be used as a sensitive local probe of structural phase transitions near a surface. We find that the transition near the surface of a SrTiO3 single crystal occurs at Tc˜150K, i.e., ˜45K higher than Tcbulk, and that the tetragonal domains formed below Tc are randomly oriented.

  14. Surface termination dependent atomic relaxation of RT5 ultra-thin slabs (R = Y, Ce, Sm and T = Fe, Co, Ni) and their electronic and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, S. Selva; Murugan, P.; Saravanan, P.

    2017-10-01

    Investigations on two different surface terminated (0001) slabs of RT5 (R = Y, Ce, Sm and T = Fe, Co, Ni) compounds are performed by first principles calculations, in order to compare their structural stability, magnetic, and electronic properties. In bulk RT5 compounds, atomic sub-layers - RT2 (R-rich) and T3 (T-rich) - are alternatively stacked along z-axis. Therefore, two different RT5 (0001) slabs are constructed with terminating R-rich and T-rich sub-layers at both top and bottom of surfaces. Our calculations show that T-rich slabs are having higher structural stability owing to charge smoothing and inward relaxations of atoms at the surface, whereas R-atoms presented in the surface of slabs, particularly 4f elements experience outward relaxation as a consequence of corrugated surface charge density. The reason for inward and outward relaxations of respective atoms is quantitatively understood by the Bader charge analysis. Our results suggest that as the Co and Fe-rich surface slabs possess high structural stability and enhanced spin moment when compared to respective R-rich slabs, they can be potentially used for fabricating the multilayered exchange spring magnet.

  15. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  16. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  17. Unifying ultrafast demagnetization and intrinsic Gilbert damping in Co/Ni bilayers with electronic relaxation near the Fermi surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; He, Wei; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Teng, Jiao; Fähnle, Manfred

    2017-12-01

    The ability to controllably manipulate the laser-induced ultrafast magnetic dynamics is a prerequisite for future high-speed spintronic devices. The optimization of devices requires the controllability of the ultrafast demagnetization time τM and intrinsic Gilbert damping αintr. In previous attempts to establish a relationship between τM and αintr, the rare-earth doping of a permalloy film with two different demagnetization mechanisms was not a suitable candidate. Here, we choose Co/Ni bilayers to investigate the relations between τM and αintr by means of the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) via adjusting the thickness of the Ni layers, and obtain an approximately proportional relation between these two parameters. The remarkable agreement between the TR-MOKE experiment and the prediction of a breathing Fermi-surface model confirms that a large Elliott-Yafet spin-mixing parameter b2 is relevant to the strong spin-orbital coupling at the Co/Ni interface. More importantly, a proportional relation between τM and αintr in such metallic films or heterostructures with electronic relaxation near the Fermi surface suggests the local spin-flip scattering dominates the mechanism of ultrafast demagnetization, otherwise the spin-current mechanism dominates. It is an effective method to distinguish the dominant contributions to ultrafast magnetic quenching in metallic heterostructures by simultaneously investigating both the ultrafast demagnetization time and Gilbert damping. Our work can open an avenue to manipulate the magnitude and efficiency of terahertz emission in metallic heterostructures such as perpendicular magnetic anisotropic Ta/Pt/Co/Ni/Pt/Ta multilayers, and then it has an immediate implication for the design of high-frequency spintronic devices.

  18. Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation 2 (PRESSURE 2): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; Smith, Isabelle L.; Brown, Julia M.; Hulme, Claire; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Stubbs, Nikki; Nelson, E. Andrea; Muir, Delia; Rutherford, Claudia; Walker, Kay; Henderson, Valerie; Wilson, Lyn; Gilberts, Rachael; Collier, Howard; Fernandez, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers represent a major burden to patients, carers and the healthcare system, affecting approximately 1 in 17 hospital and 1 in 20 community patients. They impact greatly on an individual?s functional status and health-related quality of life. The mainstay of pressure ulcer prevention practice is the provision of pressure redistribution support surfaces and patient repositioning. The aim of the PRESSURE 2 study is to compare the two main mattress types utilised within the...

  19. Study of low-defect and strain-relaxed GeSn growth via reduced pressure CVD in H2 and N2 carrier gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetis, J.; Mosleh, A.; Al-Kabi, S.; Ghetmiri, S. A.; Du, W.; Dou, W.; Benamara, M.; Li, B.; Mortazavi, M.; Naseem, H. A.; Yu, S.-Q.; Tolle, J.

    2017-04-01

    High quality, thick (up to 1.1 μm), strain relaxed GeSn alloys were grown on Ge-buffered Si (1 0 0) in an ASM Epsilon® chemical vapor deposition system using SnCl4 and low-cost commercial GeH4 precursors. The significance of surface chemistry in regards to growth rate and Sn-incorporation is discussed by comparing growth kinetics data in H2 and N2 carrier gas. The role of carrier gas is also explored in the suppression of Sn surface segregation and evolution of layer composition and strain profiles via secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the spontaneous compositional splitting and formation of a thin intermediate layer in which dislocations are pinned. This intermediate layer enables the growth of a thick, strain relaxed, and defect-free epitaxial layer on its top. Last, we present photoluminescence results which indicate that both N2 and H2 growth methods produce optoelectronic device quality material.

  20. Measuring Global Surface Pressures on a Circulation Control Concept Using Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Anthony N.; Lipford, William E.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Goad, William K.

    2012-01-01

    This report will present the results obtained from the Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) technique on a circulation control concept model. This test was conducted at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center. PSP was collected on the upper wing surface while the facility was operating in cryogenic mode at 227 K (-50 oF). The test envelope for the PSP portion included Mach numbers from 0.7 to 0.8 with angle of attack varying between 0 and 8 degrees and a total pressure of approximately 168 kPa (24.4 psi), resulting in a chord Reynolds number of approximately 15 million. While the PSP results did exhibit high levels of noise in certain conditions (where the oxygen content of the flow was very small), some conditions provided good correlation between the PSP and pressure taps, showing the ability of the PSP technique. This work also served as a risk reduction opportunity for future testing in cryogenic conditions at the NTF.

  1. Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pencheva, M; Benova, E; Zhelyazkov, I

    2007-01-01

    In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance

  2. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thong, K. L. [Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  3. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  4. Randomised, controlled trial of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers: PRESSURE (pressure relieving support surfaces) trial

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare whether differences exist between alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure mattresses in the development of new pressure ulcers, healing of existing pressure ulcers, and patient acceptability. Design Pragmatic, open, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 11 hospitals in six NHS trusts. Participants 1972 people admitted to hospital as acute or elective patients. Interventions Participants were randomised to an alternating pressure mattress (n = 98...

  5. Surface modification with a remote atmospheric pressure plasma: dc glow discharge and surface streamer regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmerman, Eef; Akishev, Yuri; Trushkin, Nikolay; Leys, Christophe; Verschuren, Jo

    2005-01-01

    A remote atmospheric pressure discharge working with ambient air is used for the near room temperature treatment of polymer foils and textiles of varying thickness. The envisaged plasma effect is an increase in the surface energy of the treated material, leading, e.g., to a better wettability or adhesion. Changes in wettability are examined by measuring the contact angle or the liquid absorptive capacity. Two regimes of the remote atmospheric pressure discharge are investigated: the glow regime and the streamer regime. These regimes differ mainly in power density and in the details of the electrode design. The results show that this kind of discharge makes up a convenient non-thermal plasma source to be integrated into a treatment installation working at atmospheric pressure

  6. Sterilization of Surfaces with a Handheld Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Robert; Habib, Sara; Chan, Wai; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Tijerina, A.; Sloan, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for decontaminating the surfaces of materials and equipment. In this study, an atmospheric pressure, oxygen and argon plasma was investigated for the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and spores. The plasma was operated at an argon flow rate of 30 L/min, an oxygen flow rate of 20 mL/min, a power density of 101.0 W/cm^3 (beam area = 5.1 cm^2), and at a distance from the surface of 7.1 mm. An average 6log10 reduction of viable spores was obtained after only 45 seconds of exposure to the reactive gas. By contrast, it takes more than 35 minutes at 121^oC to sterilize anthrax in an autoclave. The plasma properties were investigated by numerical modeling and chemical titration with nitric oxide. The numerical model included a detailed reaction mechanism for the discharge as well as for the afterglow. It was predicted that at a delivered power density of 29.3 W/cm^3, 30 L/min argon, and 0.01 volume% O2, the plasma generated 1.9 x 10^14 cm-3 O atoms, 1.6 x 10^12 cm-3 ozone, 9.3 x 10^13 cm-3 O2(^1δg), and 2.9 x 10^12 cm-3 O2(^1σ^+g) at 1 cm downstream of the source. The O atom density measured by chemical titration with NO was 6.0 x 10^14 cm-3 at the same conditions. It is believe that the oxygen atoms and the O2(^1δg) metastables were responsible for killing the anthrax and other microorganisms.

  7. Characteristics of meter-scale surface electrical discharge propagating along water surface at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Sugiyama, Y.; Hosseini, S.H.R.; Akiyama, H.; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 41 (2016), č. článku 415202. ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : water surface * spectroscopy * high-speed photography * pulsed plasma discharge * Atmospheric-pressure plasmas * electric discharges * liquids * water Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/49/41/415202

  8. Application of dynamic relaxation and finite elements methods for the structural analysis of a scale model of a prestressed concrete pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaru

    1979-01-01

    A stress and strain analysis was made of a scale model of a Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel for a Boiling Water Reactor. The aim of this work was to obtain an experimental verification of the calculation method actually used at IPEN. The 1/10 scale model was built and tested at the Instituto Sperimentale Modelli e Structture, ISMES, Italy. The dynamic relaxation program PV2-A and the finite element programs , FEAST-1 have been used. A comparative analysis of the final results was made. A preliminary analysis was made for a simplified monocavity model now under development at IPEN with the object of confirming the data and the calculation method used. (author)

  9. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Akash; Meshram, Megha; Gopan, Amrit; Ganjewar, Vaibhav; Kumar, Praveen; Bhatia, Shobna J

    2012-06-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR) and decreased basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure are postulated mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of carbonated drinks on lower esophageal sphincter function. This study was conducted to assess the effect of a carbonated beverage on tLESR and LES pressure. High resolution manometry tracings (16 channel water-perfused, Trace 1.2, Hebbard, Australia) were obtained in 18 healthy volunteers (6 men) for 30 min each at baseline, and after 200 mL of chilled potable water and 200 mL of chilled carbonated cola drink (Pepsi [Pepsico India Ltd]). The sequence of administration of the drinks was determined by random number method generated by a computer. The analysis of tracings was done using TRACE 1.2 software by a physician who was unaware of the sequence of administration of fluids. The mean (SD) age of the participant was 37.3 (12.9) years. The median (range) frequency of tLESr was higher after the carbonated beverage (10.5 [0-26]) as compared to baseline (0 [0-3], p = 0.005) as well as after water (1 [0-14], p = 0.010). The LES pressure decreased after ingestion of the carbonated beverage (18.5 [11-37] mmHg) compared to baseline (40.5 [25-66] mmHg, p = 0.0001) and after water (34 [15-67] mmHg, p = 0.003). Gastric pressure was not different in the three groups. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage increases tLESr and lowers LES pressure in healthy subjects.

  10. Randomised, controlled trial of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers: PRESSURE (pressure relieving support surfaces) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Iglesias, Cynthia; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To compare whether differences exist between alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure mattresses in the development of new pressure ulcers, healing of existing pressure ulcers, and patient acceptability. Pragmatic, open, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six NHS trusts. 1972 people admitted to hospital as acute or elective patients. Participants were randomised to an alternating pressure mattress (n = 982) or an alternating pressure overlay (n = 990). The proportion of participants developing a new pressure ulcer of grade 2 or worse; time to development of new pressure ulcers; proportions of participants developing a new ulcer within 30 days; healing of existing pressure ulcers; and patient acceptability. Intention to treat analysis found no difference in the proportions of participants developing a new pressure ulcer of grade 2 or worse (10.7% overlay patients, 10.3% mattress patients; difference 0.4%, 95% confidence interval--2.3% to 3.1%, P = 0.75). More overlay patients requested change owing to dissatisfaction (23.3%) than mattress patients (18.9%, P = 0.02). No difference was found between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays in the proportion of people who develop a pressure ulcer. ISRCTN 78646179.

  11. Near 7-day response of ocean bottom pressure to atmospheric surface pressure and winds in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Ruixiang

    2018-02-01

    Ocean bottom pressures, observed by five pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs) from October 2012 to July 2014, exhibit strong near 7-day variability in the northern South China Sea (SCS) where long-term in situ bottom pressure observations are quite sparse. This variability was strongest in October 2013 during the near two years observation period. By joint analysis with European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data, it is shown that the near 7-day ocean bottom pressure variability is closely related to the local atmospheric surface pressure and winds. Within a period band near 7 days, there are high coherences, exceeding 95% significance level, of observed ocean bottom pressure with local atmospheric surface pressure and with both zonal and meridional components of the wind. Ekman pumping/suction caused by the meridional component of the wind in particular, is suggested as one driving mechanism. A Kelvin wave response to the near 7-day oscillation would propagate down along the continental slope, observed at the Qui Nhon in the Vietnam. By multiple and partial coherence analyses, we find that local atmospheric surface pressure and Ekman pumping/suction show nearly equal influence on ocean bottom pressure variability at near 7-day periods. A schematic diagram representing an idealized model gives us a possible mechanism to explain the relationship between ocean bottom pressure and local atmospheric forcing at near 7-day periods in the northern SCS.

  12. Feedback Regulation of Intracellular Hydrostatic Pressure in Surface Cells of the Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; White, Thomas W; Delamere, Nicholas A; Mathias, Richard T

    2015-11-03

    In wild-type lenses from various species, an intracellular hydrostatic pressure gradient goes from ∼340 mmHg in central fiber cells to 0 mmHg in surface cells. This gradient drives a center-to-surface flow of intracellular fluid. In lenses in which gap-junction coupling is increased, the central pressure is lower, whereas if gap-junction coupling is reduced, the central pressure is higher but surface pressure is always zero. Recently, we found that surface cell pressure was elevated in PTEN null lenses. This suggested disruption of a feedback control system that normally maintained zero surface cell pressure. Our purpose in this study was to investigate and characterize this feedback control system. We measured intracellular hydrostatic pressures in mouse lenses using a microelectrode/manometer-based system. We found that all feedback went through transport by the Na/K ATPase, which adjusted surface cell osmolarity such that pressure was maintained at zero. We traced the regulation of Na/K ATPase activity back to either TRPV4, which sensed positive pressure and stimulated activity, or TRPV1, which sensed negative pressure and inhibited activity. The inhibitory effect of TRPV1 on Na/K pumps was shown to signal through activation of the PI3K/AKT axis. The stimulatory effect of TRPV4 was shown in previous studies to go through a different signal transduction path. Thus, there is a local two-legged feedback control system for pressure in lens surface cells. The surface pressure provides a pedestal on which the pressure gradient sits, so surface pressure determines the absolute value of pressure at each radial location. We speculate that the absolute value of intracellular pressure may set the radial gradient in the refractive index, which is essential for visual acuity. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pressure exerted by a vesicle on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, A L; Prellberg, T

    2014-01-01

    Several recent works have considered the pressure exerted on a wall by a model polymer. We extend this consideration to vesicles attached to a wall, and hence include osmotic pressure. We do this by considering a two-dimensional directed model, namely that of area-weighted Dyck paths. Not surprisingly, the pressure exerted by the vesicle on the wall depends on the osmotic pressure inside, especially its sign. Here, we discuss the scaling of this pressure in the different regimes, paying particular attention to the crossover between positive and negative osmotic pressure. In our directed model, there exists an underlying Airy function scaling form, from which we extract the dependence of the bulk pressure on small osmotic pressures. (paper)

  14. Indirect measurement of near-surface velocity and pressure fields based on measurement of moving free surface profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Nakamura, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    A non-intrusive technique for measurement of the velocity and pressure fields adjacent to a moving fluid surface is developed. The technique is based on the measurement of fluid surface profile. The velocity and pressure fields are derived with use of the boundary element method (BEM) by seeking for an incompressible flow field that satisfies the kinematic boundary condition imposed by the time-dependent fluid surface profile. The proposed technique is tested by deriving the velocity and pressure fields inversely from the fluid surface profiles obtained by a forward BEM calculation of fluid surface response to externally-imposed pressure. The inverse calculation results show good agreement with the imposed pressure distribution in the forward calculation. (author)

  15. Laboratory measurement of the interface pressures applied by active therapy support surfaces: a consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    A key element in pressure ulcer prevention and management is the selection of appropriate pressure redistributing (PR) patient support surfaces for use while seated and in bed. However little explicit guidance exists allowing standardised quantitative comparison of different PR surfaces based upon their ability to redistribute pressure from anatomical landmarks such as the heels and sacrum. In 2008 a working group was established in Europe through the US National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) support surface standardisation initiative (S3I) and under the aegis of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel with the specific remit of developing test methods for the evaluation of active therapy support surfaces (alternating pressure air mattresses). This report describes a consensus development process to agree test methods appropriate to compare active therapy surfaces based upon their ability to redistribute pressure from the sacrum and the heels. Copyright 2009 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Near-surface structural phase transition of SrTiO3 studied with zero-field beta-detected nuclear spin relaxation and resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Z; Kiefl, R F; Chow, K H; Hossain, M D; Keeler, T A; Kreitzman, S R; Levy, C D P; Miller, R I; Parolin, T J; Pearson, M R; Saadaoui, H; Schultz, J D; Smadella, M; Wang, D; MacFarlane, W A

    2006-04-14

    We demonstrate that zero-field beta-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance and spin relaxation of low energy (8)Li can be used as a sensitive local probe of structural phase transitions near a surface. We find that the transition near the surface of a SrTiO(3) single crystal occurs at T(c) approximately 150K, i.e., approximately 45K higher than T(c)bulk, and that the tetragonal domains formed below T(c) are randomly oriented.

  17. Ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate rather than ferulic acid relaxes arteries and lowers blood pressure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rymenant, Evelien; Van Camp, John; Pauwels, Bart; Boydens, Charlotte; Vanden Daele, Laura; Beerens, Katrijn; Brouckaert, Peter; Smagghe, Guy; Kerimi, Asimina; Williamson, Gary; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van de Voorde, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Consumption of foods rich in ferulic acid (FA) such as wholegrain cereals, or FA precursors such as chlorogenic acids in coffee, is inversely correlated with risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. As a result of digestion and phase II metabolism in the gut and liver, FA is converted predominantly into ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate (FA-sul), an abundant plasma metabolite. Although FA-sul is the main metabolite, very little has been reported regarding its bioactivities. We have compared the ex vivo vasorelaxing effect of FA and FA-sul (10 -7 -3.10 -5 M) on isolated mouse arteries mounted in tissue myographs. FA-sul, but not FA, elicited a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation of saphenous and femoral arteries and aortae. The FA-sul-mediated vasorelaxation was blunted by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. The role of sGC was confirmed in femoral arteries isolated from sGCα 1 (-/-) knockout mice. Furthermore, 4-aminopyridine, a specific inhibitor of voltage-dependent potassium channels, significantly decreased FA-sul-mediated effects. In anesthetized mice, intravenous injection of FA-sul decreased mean arterial pressure, whereas FA had no effect, confirming the results obtained ex vivo. FA-sul is probably one of the major metabolites accounting for the blood pressure-lowering effects associated with FA consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface diagnostics of evaporating droplets of nanosphere suspension: Fano interference and surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwas, Maciej; Kolwas, Krystyna; Derkachov, Gennadiy; Jakubczyk, Daniel

    2015-03-14

    The evaporation of a single, levitating microdroplet of glycols containing SiO2 nanospheres, both of similar refraction indices, was studied by observing changes in the interference pattern and intensities of polarized and depolarized scattered laser light. The evolution of the effective radius of the droplet has been found on the basis of Mie scattering theory supplemented by the "electrical weighting" measurement of droplet mass evolution. During formation of a layer of nanospheres on the droplet surface, the asymmetric Fano profile was observed which was found to be due to the destructive and constructive interference of overlapping processes: (i) the scattering on single nanospheres emerging on the droplet surface and (ii) the scattering on ensembles of closely spaced (comparing to the light wavelength) nanospheres of an evolving surface film. Therefore we report the first observation of the Fano interference in the time domain rather than in the spectral domain. The optical surface diagnostics was complemented with the thermodynamics-like analysis in terms of the effective droplet surface pressure isotherm and with numerical simulations illustrating evaporation driven changes in the distribution of nanospheres. The reported study can serve as the basis for a wide range of novel diagnostic methods for studying configuration changes in complex systems of nano- and microparticles evolving at the sub-wavelength scale.

  19. First measurements of H2O2 and organic peroxide surface fluces by the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valverde-Canossa, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Rappenglück, B.; Steinbrecher, R.; Klemm, O.; Schuster, G.; Moortgat, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    The relaxed eddy-accumulation (REA) technique was specially adapted to a high-performance liquid chromatographer (enzymatic method) and scrubbing coils to measure concentrations and fluxes of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides with a carbon chain C4, of which only methylhydroperoxide

  20. Relaxation of the MCL after an Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy results in decreasing contact pressures of the knee over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, N; Hannink, G; Janssen, D; Vrancken, A C; Verdonschot, N; van Kampen, A

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a medial open-wedge osteotomy (OWO) and the release of the superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL) on the tibiofemoral cartilage pressure, the MCL tension and the valgus laxity of the knee. Seven fresh-frozen, human cadaveric knees were used. Medial and lateral mean contact pressure (CP), peak contact pressure (peakCP), and contact area (CA) were measured using a pressure-sensitive film (I-Scan; Tekscan, Boston, MA). The MCL tension was measured using a custom-made device. These measurements were continuously recorded for 5 min after an OWO of 10°. After the osteotomy, the valgus laxity was measured with a handheld Newtonmeter. For one knee, the measurements were continued for 24 h. At the end, a complete release of the superficial MCL was performed and the measurements were repeated at 10°. There was relaxation of the MCL after the osteotomy; the tension dropped in 5 min with 10.7% (mean difference 20.5 N (95% CI 16.1-24.9)), and in 24 h, the tension decreased by 24.2% (absolute difference 38.8 N) (one knee). After the osteotomy, the mean CP, peakCP and CA increased in the medial compartment (absolute difference 0.17 MPa (95% CI 0.14-0.20), 0.27 MPa (95% CI 0.24-0.30), 132.9mm 2 (95% CI 67.7-198.2), respectively), and decreased in the lateral compartment (absolute difference 0.02 MPa (95% CI 0.03 -0.01), 0.08 MPa (95% CI 0.11 - 0.04), 47.0 mm 2 (95% CI -105.8 to 11.8), respectively). Only after a release of the superficial MCL, the mean CP, peak CP and CA significantly decreased in the medial compartment (absolute difference 0.17, 0.27 MPa, 119.8 mm 2 , respectively), and increased in the lateral compartment (absolute difference 0.02, 0.11 MPa, 52.4 mm 2 , respectively). After the release of the superficial MCL, a mean increase of 7.9° [mean difference - 0.1° (95% CI -1.9 to 1.6)] of the valgus laxity was found. A release of the superficial MCL helps achieve the goal of

  1. Relaxed states of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucinski, M.Y.; Okano, V.

    1993-01-01

    The relaxed states of tokamak plasmas are studied. It is assumed that the plasma relaxes to a quasi-steady state which is characterized by a minimum entropy production rate, compatible with a number of prescribed conditions and pressure balance. A poloidal current arises naturally due to the anisotropic resistivity. The minimum entropy production theory is applied, assuming the pressure equilibrium as fundamental constraint on the final state. (L.C.J.A.)

  2. Preventing pressure ulcers--Are pressure-redistributing support surfaces effective? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally; Dumville, Jo; Cullum, Nicky

    2012-03-01

    To undertake a systematic review of the effectiveness of pressure redistributing support surfaces in the prevention of pressure ulcers. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Wound Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. The reference sections of included trials were searched for further trials. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, which assessed the effects of support surfaces in preventing pressure ulcers (of any grade), in any patient group, in any setting compared to any other support surface, were sought. Two reviewers extracted and summarised details of eligible trials using a standardised form and assessed the methodological quality of each trial using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Fifty-three eligible trials were identified with a total of 16,285 study participants. Overall the risk of bias in the included trials was high. Pooled analysis showed that: (i) foam alternatives to the standard hospital foam mattress reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.74) and Australian standard medical sheepskins prevent pressure ulcers compared to standard care (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.74). Pressure-redistributing overlays on the operating table compared to standard care reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.85). While there is good evidence that higher specification foam mattresses, sheepskins, and that some overlays in the operative setting are effective in preventing pressure ulcers, there is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the value of seat cushions, limb protectors and various constant low pressure devices. The relative merits of higher-tech constant low pressure and alternating pressure for prevention are unclear. More robust trials are required to address these research gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  4. Polymer dynamics near the surface and in the bulk of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) probed by zero-field muon-spin-relaxation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Iain; Salman, Zaher; Giblin, Sean R; Han, Yun Yu; Leach, Gary W; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Prokscha, Thomas; Suter, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The results of many experiments on polymers such as polystyrene indicate that the polymer chains near a free surface exhibit enhanced dynamics when compared with the bulk. We have investigated whether this is the case for poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) by using zero-field muon-spin-relaxation spectroscopy to characterize a local probe, the F-Mu(+)-F state, which forms when spin-polarized positive muons are implanted in PTFE. Low-energy muons (implantation energies from 2.0 to 23.0 keV) were used to study the F-Mu(+)-F state between ∼ 23 and 191 nm from the free surface of PTFE. Measurements were also made with surface muons (4.1 MeV) where the mean implantation depth is on the order of ∼ 0.6 mm. The relaxation rate of the F-Mu(+)-F state up to ∼ 150 K was found to be significantly higher for muons implanted at 2.0 keV than for higher implantation energies, which suggests that the polymer chains in a region on the order of a few tens of nanometers from the free surface are more mobile than those in the bulk.

  5. Perception of surface pressure applied to the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L; Kjellberg, A; Kilbom, A; Hägg, G M

    1999-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the relationship between the physical magnitude and the subjective perception of applied pressure, and to determine discomfort and pain thresholds. Free modulus magnitude estimation of the subjective pressure level was made on three points: on the finger, the palm and the thenar area. The pressure was judged to be higher at the thenar point than at the finger and palm points. The slopes of the linear functions (log magnitude estimates as a function of log pressure) were 0.66, 0.78 and 0.76 for the finger, palm and thenar points respectively. The discomfort threshold was 38% of the pain pressure threshold at the finger point, 40% at the palm and 22% at the thenar point. The results are probably of importance in the performance of hand-intensive work, in particular in the design of hand tools.

  6. Free volume from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments in relation to structural relaxation of van der Waals molecular glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubek, G; Shaikh, M Q; Rätzke, K; Paluch, M; Faupel, F

    2010-06-16

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is employed to characterize the temperature dependence of the free volume in two van der Waals liquids: 1, 1'-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane (BMPC) and 1, 1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC). From the PALS spectra analysed with the routine LifeTime9.0, the size (volume) distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes), its mean, [v(h)], and mean dispersion, σ(h), were calculated. A comparison with the macroscopic volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PV T) experiments delivered the hole density and the specific hole free volume and a complete characterization of the free volume microstructure in that sense. These data are used in correlation with structural (α) relaxation data from broad-band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) in terms of the Cohen-Grest and Cohen-Turnbull free volume models. An extension of the latter model allows us to quantify deviations between experiments and theory and an attempt to systematize these in terms of T(g) or of the fragility. The experimental data for several fragile and less fragile glass formers are involved in the final discussion. It was concluded that, for large differences in the fragility of different glass formers, the positron lifetime mirrors clearly the different character of these materials. For small differences in the fragility, additional properties like the character of bonds and chemical structure of the material may affect size, distribution and thermal behaviour of the free volume.

  7. Pressure-dependent surface viscosity and its surprising consequences in interfacial lubrication flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-02-01

    The surface shear rheology of many insoluble surfactants depends strongly on the surface pressure (or concentration) of that surfactant. Here we highlight the dramatic consequences that surface-pressure-dependent surface viscosities have on interfacially dominant flows, by considering lubrication-style geometries within high Boussinesq (Bo) number flows. As with three-dimensional lubrication, high-Bo surfactant flows through thin gaps give high surface pressures, which in turn increase the local surface viscosity, further amplifying lubrication stresses and surface pressures. Despite their strong nonlinearity, the governing equations are separable, so that results from two-dimensional Newtonian lubrication analyses may be immediately adapted to treat surfactant monolayers with a general functional form of ηs(Π ) . Three paradigmatic systems are analyzed to reveal qualitatively new features: a maximum, self-limiting value for surfactant fluxes and particle migration velocities appears for Π -thickening surfactants, and kinematic reversibility is broken for the journal bearing and for suspensions more generally.

  8. Acoustic propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface in a homogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, Eric; van Borselen, Roald

    2018-03-01

    The Rayleigh integral solution of the acoustic Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous medium can only be applied when the integral surface is a planar surface, while in reality almost all surfaces where pressure waves are measured exhibit some curvature. In this paper we derive a theoretically rigorous way of building propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface. Our theory is still based upon the Rayleigh integral, but it resorts to matrix inversion to overcome the limitations faced by the Rayleigh integral. Three examples are used to demonstrate the correctness of our theory - propagation of pressure waves acquired on an arbitrarily curved surface to a planar surface, on an arbitrarily curved surface to another arbitrarily curved surface, and on a spherical cap to a planar surface, and results agree well with the analytical solutions. The generalization of our method for particle velocities and the calculation cost of our method are also discussed.

  9. Prevention and management of pressure ulcers: support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zena; Stephen Haynes, Jackie; Callaghan, Rosie

    Pressure ulcers are a common and debilitating problem in health care, impacting negatively on health-related quality of life and compounding challenges in achieving patient safety targets. Pressure ulcer prevention is a multidisciplinary team effort, involving a myriad of interventions, such as nutrition, skin care and repositioning. This article discusses the factors influencing pressure ulcer development, and then elaborates on the principles of prevention. This is followed by a focused discussion on the use of redistribution devices and the importance of the cover of such equipment in contributing to achieving good standards in prevention.

  10. $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift study of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$. Evidence for anisotropic Fermi surface

    OpenAIRE

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed study of $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates ($1/T_1$), as well as of $^{27}$Al Knight shift (K) of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$, $0\\leq x\\leq 1$. The obtained ($1/T_1T$) and K vs. x plots are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. This asserts experimentally the prediction that the Fermi surface is highly anisotropic, consisting mainly of hole-type 2-D cylindrical sheets from bonding $2p_{x,y}$ boron orbitals. It is also shown that the density ...

  11. Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion and 31P-NMR studies of the effect of covalent modification of membrane surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilcock, C; Ahkong, Q F; Koenig, S H; Brown, R D; Kabalka, G; Fisher, D

    1992-10-05

    Covalent attachment of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) 5000 to the surface of unilamellar liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) (8:2) containing paramagnetic chelates, either entrapped within the interior volume of the liposomes, or associated with the membrane surface, had no effect upon the measured spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) for water in these systems. 31P-NMR studies indicate no destabilization of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC)/(DOPE) (1:1) vesicles following attachment of MPEG. However, in DOPC/DOPE (1:3) mixtures, covalent modification with MPEG results in a destabilization of multilamellar vesicles into smaller vesicular structures. These results indicate that covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) to liposomal magnetic resonance agents may prove a useful method for increasing their utility as vascular MR agents by extending their lifetime in the circulation, without decreasing the relaxivity of paramagnetic species associated with the liposome, but that the presence of PEG covalently attached to the membrane surface may modify the polymorphic phase behavior of the lipid system to which it is covalently linked.

  12. Pressure loss reduction in hydrogen pipelines by surface restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, Y.; Sagaut, P. [Insitut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, UMR CNRS 7190, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu - case 162, F-75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Charron, Y. [IFP- Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison Cedex, 92852 (France)

    2009-11-15

    This paper concerns the reduction of pressure losses during pipeline hydrogen transportation, as the cost of hydrogen compression is a significant obstacle for efficient hydrogen pumping on a large-scale basis. The use of organized micro-structures on pipeline walls is proposed to obtain lower values of pressure losses with respect to smooth walls. Three-dimensional micro-structures of a sinusoidal shape are investigated as potentially more efficient counterparts to conventional two-dimensional structures (riblets) developed in aerospace industry. Aerodynamic performance of three-dimensional structures is investigated computationally in terms of both skin friction and pressure drag, two constituents of the total drag. Three-dimensional structures are shown to provide larger total drag reduction than two-dimensional structures for some range of geometrical parameters (14.5% versus 11%). Parametric dependence of both pressure and skin friction drag on structure geometry is analyzed, and an optimum configuration maximizing the total drag reduction is proposed. (author)

  13. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chunhu; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult. To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence. We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively). The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was of low or

  14. Surface-initiated phase transition in solid hydrogen under the high-pressure compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Haile; Lin, Wei; Wang, Kai; Li, Xibo

    2018-03-01

    The large-scale molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to understand the microscopic mechanism governing the phase transition of solid hydrogen under the high-pressure compression. These results demonstrate that the face-centered-cubic-to-hexagonal close-packed phase transition is initiated first at the surfaces at a much lower pressure than in the volume and then extends gradually from the surface to volume in the solid hydrogen. The infrared spectra from the surface are revealed to exhibit a different pressure-dependent feature from those of the volume during the high-pressure compression. It is thus deduced that the weakening intramolecular H-H bonds are always accompanied by hardening surface phonons through strengthening the intermolecular H2-H2 coupling at the surfaces with respect to the counterparts in the volume at high pressures. This is just opposite to the conventional atomic crystals, in which the surface phonons are softening. The high-pressure compression has further been predicted to force the atoms or molecules to spray out of surface to degrade the pressure. These results provide a glimpse of structural properties of solid hydrogen at the early stage during the high-pressure compression.

  15. Surface Pressure Dependencies in the GEOS-Chem-Adjoint System and the Impact of the GEOS-5 Surface Pressure on CO2 Model Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In the GEOS-Chem Adjoint (GCA) system, the total (wet) surface pressure of the GEOS meteorology is employed as dry surface pressure, ignoring the presence of water vapor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) research team has been evaluating the impact of the above discrepancy on the CO2 model forecast and the CO2 flux inversion. The JPL CMS research utilizes a multi-mission assimilation framework developed by the Multi-Mission Observation Operator (M2O2) research team at JPL extending the GCA system. The GCA-M2O2 framework facilitates mission-generic 3D and 4D-variational assimilations streamlining the interfaces to the satellite data products and prior emission inventories. The GCA-M2O2 framework currently integrates the GCA system version 35h and provides a dry surface pressure setup to allow the CO2 model forecast to be performed with the GEOS-5 surface pressure directly or after converting it to dry surface pressure.

  16. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  17. Unsteady Surface Pressure Measurements on a Pitching Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-12

    through 8 Dynamics 7512B amplifiers. The pitching motions of the airfoil were generated by 6°jN\\! 920O/_ a PDP 11/03 computer controlling a Control...acquisition system. The pressure data were used to calculate pressure 2 coefficients which were in turn integrated to compute lift coefficients. Both...Airfoils," AIAA J., Vol. 13, No. 1, 17. Gormont, R.E., "A Mathenatical Model pp 71-79, Jan 1975. of Unsteady Aerodynamics and Radial 4. McAlister, K.W

  18. Pressure-redistribution surfaces for prevention of surgery-related pressure ulcers: a meta-analysis .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Yan; Chen, Hong-Lin; Xu, Xu-Juan

    2013-04-01

    Pressure-redistribution surfaces are generally recommended to prevent pressure ulcers (PUs) in high-risk patients, but their use in surgery-related PU prevention remains controversial. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relative preventive impact of pressure-redistribution surfaces versus standard hospital mattresses (usually a hospital-issue, foam-based mattress) on the incidence of surgery-related PUs. Systematic literature searches were performed using the terms pressure ulcer, operation, surgery, mattress, foam, polymer, pad, overlay, surface, and interface. Country, race, language, and publication year of articles was not restricted; randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials were eligible for analysis. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for surgery-related PU incidence in patients using support surfaces versus standard mattress were calculated by random-effects model. Of the 316 studies identified, 10 involving a total of 1,895 patients were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Seven studies were randomized, controlled and three were quasi-randomized controlled trials. Patients who were provided a support surface had a significantly decreased incidence of surgery-related PUs (OR 0.31 [95% CI 0.17-0.59]) compared to patients using a standard mattress. Subgroup analysis showed pressure-redistribution surfaces used intra-operatively did not decrease the incidence of surgery-related PUs (OR 0.59, [95% CI 0.34-1.01]), but PU incidence decreased with postoperative (OR 0.07 [95% CI 0.01-0.49]) as well as with intra-operative and postoperative use (OR 0.20 [95% CI 0.06-0.73]). Funnel plot diagrams suggest a minimal risk of bias. Sensitivity analysis did not materially change the result of the main metaanalysis. Postoperative use of pressure-redistribution surfaces can effectively decrease the incidence of surgery-related PUs, but evidence to substantiate intra-operative use is insufficient. Patients at high risk for surgery

  19. Surface Pressure Measurements of Atmospheric Tides Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Maor, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Similar to the oceans, the atmosphere also has tides that are measured in variations of atmospheric pressure. However, unlike the gravitational tides in the oceans, the atmospheric tides are caused primarily in the troposphere and stratosphere when the atmosphere is periodically heated by the sun, due to tropospheric absorption by water vapor and stratospheric absorption by ozone. Due to the forcing being always on the day side of the globe, the tides migrate around the globe following the sun (migrating tides) with a dominant periodicity of 12 hours (and less so at 24 hours). In recent years smartphones have been equipped with sensitive, cheap and reliable pressure sensors that can easily detect these atmospheric tides. By 2020 it is expected that there will be more than 6 billion smartphones globally, each measuring continuously atmospheric pressure at 1Hz temporal resolution. In this presentation we will present some control experiments we have performed with smartphones to monitor atmospheric tides, while also using random pressure data from more than 50,000 daily users via the WeatherSignal application. We conclude that smartphones are a useful tool for studying atmospheric tides on local and global scales.

  20. Modelling surface pressure fluctuation on medium-rise buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snæbjörnsson, J.T.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of two experiments into the fluctuating characteristics of windinduced pressures on buildings in a built-up environment. The experiments have been carried out independently in Iceland and The Netherlands and can be considered to represent two separate cases of

  1. Surface modification of polylactic acid films by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, V. L.; Zhuravlev, M. V.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach for the modification of polylactic acid (PLA) materials using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is described. PLA films plasma exposure time was 20, 60, 120 s. The surface morphology and wettability of the obtained PLA films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the sitting drop method. The atmospheric pressure plasma increased the roughness and surface energy of PLA film. The wettability of PLA has been improved with the application of an atmospheric plasma surface treatment. It was shown that it is possible to obtain PLA films with various surface relief and tunable wettability. Additionally, we demonstrated that the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for surface activation allows for the immobilization of bioactive compounds like hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of obtained films. It was shown that composite PLA-HA films have an increased long-term hydrophilicity of the films surface.

  2. Epitaxial growth of Ge strain relaxed buffer on Si with low threading dislocation density

    OpenAIRE

    Abedin, Ahmad; Asadollahi, Ali; Garidis, Konstantinos; Hellström, Per-Erik; Östling, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial Ge with low dislocation density is grown on a low temperature grown Ge seed layer on Si substrate by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. The surface topography measured by AFM shows that the strain relaxation occurred through pit formation which resulted in freezing the defects at Ge/Si interface. Moreover a lower threading dislocation density compared to conventional strain relaxed Ge buffers on Si was observed. We show that by growing the first layer at temperatures below ...

  3. Microstructural and hardness gradients in Cu processed by high pressure surface rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Q. Y.; Zhu, X.-M.; Mei, Q. S.

    2017-01-01

    The surface of an annealed Cu plate was processed by a high pressure surface rolling (HPSR) process. It is found that the deformed surface layer in the Cu plate after HPSR can be as thick as 2 mm and is characterized by a gradient microstructure, with grain sizes varying from the nanoscale...

  4. Io meteorology - How atmospheric pressure is controlled locally by volcanos and surface frosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    The present modification of the Ingersoll et al. (1985) hydrodynamic model of the SO2 gas sublimation-driven flow from the day to the night side of Io includes the effects of nonuniform surface properties noted in observational studies. Calculations are conducted for atmospheric pressures, horizontal winds, sublimation rates, and condensation rates for such surface conditions as patchy and continuous frost cover, volcanic venting, surface temperature discontinuities, subsurface cold trapping, and the propagation of insolation into the frost. While pressure is found to follow local vapor pressure away from the plumes, it becomes higher inside them.

  5. A simple chemical view of relaxations at stoichiometric (1 1 0) surfaces of rutile-structure type oxides: A first-principles study of stishovite, SiO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscenti, Thomas M.; Gibbs, G. V.; Cox, David F.

    2005-12-01

    First-principles electronic structure calculations have been used to examine the geometric and electronic structure of the bulk and (1 1 0) surface of stishovite, the rutile-structure polymorph of SiO 2. The primary changes in geometric and electronic structure associated with surface relaxation are similar to those predicted for stoichiometric (1 1 0) surfaces of other rutile-structure oxides: TiO 2, SnO 2, RuO 2. Occupied surface states can be attributed primarily to changes in the local coordination environment (hybridization) of surface oxygen anions, and the relaxations that lead to "rumpling" of the stoichiometric (1 1 0) surface can be viewed as a change in hybridization of 3-coordinated in-plane oxygen from a planar (sp 2) bulk local coordination environment to a lower-energy, non-planar, pyramidal (sp 3) surface geometry, following earlier descriptions by Godin and LaFemina for SnO 2(1 1 0). It is demonstrated that these descriptions follow naturally from a visual examination of the 3D valence charge density distributions and the electron localization function (ELF) which provide a view of the electronic structure in terms of electron bond pairs and lone pairs. Consideration of the surface relaxations in terms of molecular analogs suggests that the simple valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model provides insight into the chemical driving force for surface relaxation and oxygen rehybridization.

  6. [Analysis of statutory health insurance data concerning utilization of support surfaces for pressure ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Falk; Scharnetzky, Elke; Deitermann, Bernhilde; Glaeske, Gerd

    2006-10-01

    Support surfaces are commonly used to prevent and treat pressure ulcers. Up to now little is known about their application in Germany. We conducted a cross-sectional study using claims data of the Gmuender ErsatzKasse (GEK) for the year 2004 to analyse the utilization of support surfaces for pressure ulcers in primary care. Based on age- and sex-specific treatment prevalences for individuals with at least one prescription, prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated. A total of 1999 subjects with a mean age of 63.4 years (SD: 20.7) received support surfaces for pressure ulcers. With respect to the numbers of prescriptions (n = 2421) alternating pressure mattresses (31.6%), air-filled rings (13.5%) and various seat cushions (13.0%) were used frequently, whereas foam mattresses only came to 4.7%. The treatment prevalence increases continuously with age with no sex-specific differences. Using the 50-59 year olds as a reference, men aged 90+ (PR: 43.94; 95% CI: 31.46-61.37) as well as women aged 90+ (PR: 40.61; 95% CI: 30.77-53.60) received approximately 40-times more often support surfaces for pressure ulcers. Support surfaces for pressure ulcers are commonly used in the elderly. Our study suggests that their application does not correspond to the best available evidence. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers as well as the selection of support surfaces should be seen as an interdisciplinary task.

  7. Sound pressure around dipole source above porous surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezelj, Jurij; Steblaj, Peter; Cudina, Mirko

    2014-06-01

    A technique for in situ measurements of acoustic properties of a fibrous porous material is proposed in this paper. Proposed technique exploits a directivity pattern of a dipole source in its very near field. Theoretical analysis for the proposed technique is based on the Rayleigh integral with a complex reflection included. Results are compared with results of FEM analysis and show that flow resistivity of a porous material placed in the very near field of the dipole source has significant influence on the sound pressure at its ring. Results provide an excellent starting point for the design of the sensor for sound absorption.

  8. Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation 2 (PRESSURE 2): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Smith, Isabelle L; Brown, Julia M; Hulme, Claire; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Stubbs, Nikki; Nelson, E Andrea; Muir, Delia; Rutherford, Claudia; Walker, Kay; Henderson, Valerie; Wilson, Lyn; Gilberts, Rachael; Collier, Howard; Fernandez, Catherine; Hartley, Suzanne; Bhogal, Moninder; Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane E

    2016-12-20

    Pressure ulcers represent a major burden to patients, carers and the healthcare system, affecting approximately 1 in 17 hospital and 1 in 20 community patients. They impact greatly on an individual's functional status and health-related quality of life. The mainstay of pressure ulcer prevention practice is the provision of pressure redistribution support surfaces and patient repositioning. The aim of the PRESSURE 2 study is to compare the two main mattress types utilised within the NHS: high-specification foam and alternating pressure mattresses, in the prevention of pressure ulcers. PRESSURE 2 is a multicentre, open-label, randomised, double triangular, group sequential, parallel group trial. A maximum of 2954 'high-risk' patients with evidence of acute illness will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to receive either a high-specification foam mattress or alternating-pressure mattress in conjunction with an electric profiling bed frame. The primary objective of the trial is to compare mattresses in terms of the time to developing a new Category 2 or above pressure ulcer by 30 days post end of treatment phase. Secondary endpoints include time to developing new Category 1 and 3 or above pressure ulcers, time to healing of pre-existing Category 2 pressure ulcers, health-related quality of life, cost-effectiveness, incidence of mattress change and safety. Validation objectives are to determine the responsiveness of the Pressure Ulcer Quality of Life-Prevention instrument and the feasibility of having a blinded endpoint assessment using photography. The trial will have a maximum of three planned analyses with unequally spaced reviews at event-driven coherent cut-points. The futility boundaries are constructed as non-binding to allow a decision for stopping early to be overruled by the Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee. The double triangular, group sequential design of the PRESSURE 2 trial will provide an efficient design through the possibility of early stopping for

  9. High Sensitivity Semiconductor Sensor Skins for Multi-Axis Surface Pressure Characterization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase II SBIR program would fabricate high sensitivity semiconductor nanomembrane 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis surface pressure characterization on...

  10. High Sensitivity Semiconductor Sensor Skins for Multi-Axis Surface Pressure Characterization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I SBIR program would fabricate high sensitivity semiconductor nanomembrane 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis surface pressure characterization on...

  11. Fluorination of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces by low pressure CF4 plasma : physicochemical and antifouling properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordeiro, A.L.; Nitschke, M.; Janke, A.; Helbig, R.; D'Souza, F.; Donnelly, G.T.; Willemsen, P.R.; Werner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorinated surface groups were introduced into poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) coatings by plasma treatment using a low pressure radio frequency discharge operated with tetrafluoromethane. Substrates were placed in a remote position downstream the discharge. Discharge power and treatment time were

  12. Hydrophilic surface modification of coronary stent using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Won; Bae, In-Ho; Park, Dae Sung; Lee, So-Youn; Jang, Eun-Jae; Lim, Kyung-Seob; Park, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Ju Han; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-03-01

    The first two authors contributed equally to this study. Bioactivity and cell adhesion properties are major factors for fabricating medical devices such as coronary stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet in enhancing the biocompatibility and endothelial cell-favorites. The experimental objects were divided into before and after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment with the ratio of nitrogen:argon = 3:1, which is similar to air. The treated surfaces were basically characterized by means of a contact angle analyzer for the activation property on their surfaces. The effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on cellular response was examined by endothelial cell adhesion and XTT analysis. It was difficult to detect any changeable morphology after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment on the surface. The roughness was increased after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment compared to nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment (86.781 and 7.964 nm, respectively). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the surface concentration of the C-O groups increased slightly from 6% to 8% after plasma activation. The contact angle dramatically decreased in the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (22.6 ± 15.26°) compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (72.4 ± 15.26°) ( n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on endothelial cell migration and proliferation was 85.2% ± 12.01% and 34.2% ± 2.68%, respectively, at 7 days, compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (58.2% ± 11.44% in migration, n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet method. Moreover, the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet might affect re-endothelialization after stenting.

  13. Cleaning of niobium surface by plasma of diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ripenko, V. S.

    2017-07-01

    Elements composition of niobium surface before and after plasma treatment by runaway electron preionized diffuse discharge was investigated in atmospheric pressure nitrogen flow by means of an Auger electron spectroscopy. Surface characterizations obtained from Auger spectra show that plasma treatment by diffuse discharge after exposure of 120000 pulses provides ultrafine surface cleaning from carbon contamination. Moreover, the surface free energy of the treated specimens increased up to 3 times, that improve its adhesion property.

  14. Collapse of Langmuir monolayer at lower surface pressure: Effect of hydrophobic chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikdas2089@gmail.com; Kundu, Sarathi [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Long chain fatty acid molecules (e.g., stearic and behenic acids) form a monolayer on water surface in the presence of Ba{sup 2+} ions at low subphase pH (≈ 5.5) and remain as a monolayer before collapse generally occurs at higher surface pressure (π{sub c} > 50 mN/m). Monolayer formation is verified from the surface pressure vs. area per molecule (π-A) isotherms and also from the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the films deposited by single upstroke of hydrophilic Si (001) substrate through the monolayer covered water surface. At high subphase pH (≈ 9.5), barium stearate molecules form multilayer structure at lower surface pressure which is verified from the π-A isotherms and AFM analysis of the film deposited at 25 mN/m. Such monolayer to multilayer structure formation or monolayer collapse at lower surface pressure is unusual as at this surface pressure generally fatty acid salt molecules form a monolayer on the water surface. Formation of bidentate chelate coordination in the metal containing headgroups is the reason for such monolayer to multilayer transition. However, for longer chain barium behenate molecules only monolayer structure is maintained at that high subphase pH (≈ 9.5) due to the presence of relatively more tail-tail hydrophobic interaction.

  15. Surface pressure model for simple delta wings at high angles of attack

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new aerodynamic modelling approach is proposed for the longitudinal static characteristics of a simple delta wing. It captures the static variation of normal force and pitching moment characteristics throughout the angle of attack range. The pressure model is based on parametrizing the surface pressure distribution on a ...

  16. Support surfaces in the prevention of pressure ulcers in surgical patients: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Karoline Faria; Nascimento, Kleiton Gonçalves; Nicolussi, Adriana Cristina; Chavaglia, Suzel Regina Ribeiro; de Araújo, Cleudmar Amaral; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2017-08-01

    To assess the scientific evidence about the types of support surfaces used in intraoperative surgical practice in the prevention of pressure ulcers due to surgical positioning. This is an integrative literature review. The electronic databases Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and CINAHL were used. The descriptors surgical patients, support surfaces, perioperative care, patient positioning, and pressure ulcer were used in the search strategy. Articles that addressed the use of support surfaces intraoperatively, published between 1990 and 2016, were selected. The PRISMA guidelines were used to structure the review. Of 18 evaluated studies, most were in English, followed by Portuguese and Spanish; most were performed by nurses. The most commonly cited support surfaces were viscoelastic polymer, micropulse mattresses, gel based mattresses, and foam devices. There are gaps in knowledge regarding the most efficient support surfaces and the specifications of the products used to prevent pressure ulcers due to surgical positioning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Estimation of methane emission flux at landfill surface using laser methane detector: Influence of gauge pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kyu; Kang, Jong-Yun; Lee, Nam-Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of measuring methane emission fluxes, using surface methane concentration and gauge pressure, by analyzing the influence of gauge pressure on the methane emission flux and the surface methane concentration, as well as the correlation between the methane emission flux and surface methane concentrations. The surface methane concentration was measured using a laser methane detector. Our results show a positive linear relationship between the surface methane concentration and the methane emission flux. Furthermore, the methane emission flux showed a positive linear relationship with the gauge pressure; this implies that when the surface methane concentration and the surface gauge pressure are measured simultaneously, the methane emission flux can be calculated using Darcy's law. A decrease in the vertical permeability was observed when the gauge pressure was increased, because reducing the vertical permeability may lead to a reduced landfill gas emission to the atmosphere, and landfill gas would be accumulated inside the landfill. Finally, this method is simple and can allow for a greater number of measurements during a relatively shorter period. Thus, it provides a better representation of the significant space and time variations in methane emission fluxes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Formation Mechanism of Surface Crack in Low Pressure Casting of A360 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Ying, Tao; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shen, Hong-Xian; Guo, Shu; Sun, Jian-Fei

    2017-12-01

    A surface crack defect is normally found in low pressure castings of Al alloy with a sudden contraction structure. To further understand the formation mechanism of the defect, the mold filling process is simulated by a two-phase flow model. The experimental results indicate that the main reason for the defect deformation is the mismatching between the height of liquid surface in the mold and pressure in the crucible. In the case of filling, a sudden contraction structure with an area ratio smaller than 0.5 is obtained, and the velocity of the liquid front increases dramatically with the influence of inertia. Meanwhile, the pressurizing speed in the crucible remains unchanged, resulting in the pressure not being able to support the height of the liquid level. Then the liquid metal flows back to the crucible and forms a relatively thin layer solidification shell on the mold wall. With the increasing pressure in the crucible, the liquid level rises again, engulfing the shell and leading to a surface crack. As the filling velocity is characterized by the damping oscillations, surface cracks will form at different heights. The results shed light on designing a suitable pressurizing speed for the low pressure casting process.

  19. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhu Shi

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult.To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness.We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence.We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively. The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence.This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was

  20. A variable pressure method for characterizing nanoparticle surface charge using pore sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Robert; Anderson, Will; Eldridge, James; Glossop, Ben; Willmott, Geoff

    2012-04-03

    A novel method using resistive pulse sensors for electrokinetic surface charge measurements of nanoparticles is presented. This method involves recording the particle blockade rate while the pressure applied across a pore sensor is varied. This applied pressure acts in a direction which opposes transport due to the combination of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, and inherent pressure. The blockade rate reaches a minimum when the velocity of nanoparticles in the vicinity of the pore approaches zero, and the forces on typical nanoparticles are in equilibrium. The pressure applied at this minimum rate can be used to calculate the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The efficacy of this variable pressure method was demonstrated for a range of carboxylated 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with different surface charge densities. Results were of the same order as phase analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements. Unlike PALS results, the sequence of increasing zeta potential for different particle types agreed with conductometric titration.

  1. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of titanium for high temperature adhesive bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.; Bhowmik, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation surface treatment of titanium is carried out by plasma ion implantation under atmospheric pressure plasma in order to increase the adhesive bond strength. Prior to the plasma treatment, titanium surfaces were mechanically treated by sand blasting. It is observed that the

  2. Pressure effects on interfacial surface contacts and performance of organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei-Tuffour, B.; Doumon, Nutifafa Y.; Rwenyagila, E. R.; Asare, J.; Oyewole, O. K.; Shen, Z.; Petoukhoff, C. E.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Ocarroll, D. M.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of pressure on the interfacial surface contacts and the performance of organic solar cells. A combination of experimental techniques and analytical/computational models is used to study the evolving surface contacts profiles that occur when compliant, semi-rigid and

  3. Deployment of a Pressure Sensitive Paint System for Measuring Global Surface Pressures on Rotorcraft Blades in Simulated Forward Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley; Lipford, William E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Crafton, Jim; Forlines, Alan; Goss, Larry P.; Gregory, James W.; Juliano, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will present details of a Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) system for measuring global surface pressures on the tips of rotorcraft blades in simulated forward flight at the 14- x 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. The system was designed to use a pulsed laser as an excitation source and PSP data was collected using the lifetime-based approach. With the higher intensity of the laser, this allowed PSP images to be acquired during a single laser pulse, resulting in the collection of crisp images that can be used to determine blade pressure at a specific instant in time. This is extremely important in rotorcraft applications as the blades experience dramatically different flow fields depending on their position in the rotor disk. Testing of the system was performed using the U.S. Army General Rotor Model System equipped with four identical blades. Two of the blades were instrumented with pressure transducers to allow for comparison of the results obtained from the PSP. Preliminary results show that the PSP agrees both qualitatively and quantitatively with both the expected results as well as with the pressure taps. Several areas of improvement have been indentified and are currently being developed.

  4. Natural relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of water on a hydrophilic silica surface at high air pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, H.A.; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    of air in water at different pressures. Using the calibrated force field, we conduct MD simulations to study the interface between a hydrophilic silica substrate and water surrounded by air at different pressures. We find that the static water contact angle is independent of the air pressure imposed......Wepresent a force field forMolecular Dynamics (MD) simulations ofwater and air in contactwith an amorphous silica surface. We calibrate the interactions of each species present in the systemusing dedicated criteria such as the contact angle of a water droplet on a silica surface, and the solubility...... on the system. Our simulations reveal the presence of a nanometer thick layer of gas at the water–silica interface. We believe that this gas layer could promote nucleation and stabilization of surface nanobubbles at amorphous silica surfaces. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Surface PEG Grafting Density Determines Magnetic Relaxation Properties of Gd-Loaded Porous Nanoparticles for MR Imaging Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wuyuan; Martinelli, Jonathan; Peters, Joop A.; Hengst, Van Jacob M.A.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Kramer, Evelien; Bonnet, Célia S.; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Tóth, Éva; Djanashvili, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Surface PEGylation of nanoparticles designed for biomedical applications is a common and straightforward way to stabilize the materials for in vivo administration and to increase their circulation time. This strategy becomes less trivial when MRI active porous nanomaterials are concerned as their

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Tank Sub-Surface Pressurization with Gaseous Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Cartagena, W.

    2015-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of a propellant tank pressurization system with the pressurant diffuser intentionally submerged beneath the surface of the liquid. Propellant tanks and pressurization systems are typically designed with the diffuser positioned to apply pressurant gas directly into the tank ullage space when the liquid propellant is settled. Space vehicles, and potentially propellant depots, may need to conduct tank pressurization operations in micro-gravity environments where the exact location of the liquid relative to the diffuser is not well understood. If the diffuser is positioned to supply pressurant gas directly to the tank ullage space when the propellant is settled, then it may become partially or completely submerged when the liquid becomes unsettled in a microgravity environment. In such case, the pressurization system performance will be adversely affected requiring additional pressurant mass and longer pressurization times. This series of tests compares and evaluates pressurization system performance using the conventional method of supplying pressurant gas directly to the propellant tank ullage, and then supplying pressurant gas beneath the liquid surface. The pressurization tests were conducted on the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) located at Test Stand 300 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). EDU is a ground based Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article supported by Glenn Research Center (GRC) and MSFC. A 150 ft3 propellant tank was filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2). The pressurization system used regulated ambient helium (GHe) as a pressurant, a variable position valve to maintain flow rate, and two identical independent pressurant diffusers. The ullage diffuser was located in the forward end of the tank and was completely exposed to the tank ullage. The submerged diffuser was located in the aft end of the tank and was completely submerged when the tank liquid level was 10% or greater

  8. Surface-nitriding treatment of steels using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigeo; Arai, Yuuki; Yamashita, Noboru; Kojyo, Atsushi; Kodama, Kenji; Ohtsu, Naofumi; Okamoto, Yukio; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    A rapid surface-nitriding system using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure was developed for modifying iron and steel surfaces. Since the conventional plasma nitriding technique requires a low-pressure atmosphere in the treatment chamber, the population of excited nitrogen molecules in the plasma is limited. Accordingly, several hours are required for nitriding treatment. By contrast, the developed nitriding system can use atmospheric-pressure plasma through application of the Okamoto cavity for excitation of nitrogen plasma. The high population of excited nitrogen molecules induced by the atmospheric-pressure plasma allowed the formation of a nitriding layer that was several micrometers thick within 1 min and produced an expanded austenite iron phase with a high nitrogen concentration close to the solubility limit on the iron substrate. In addition, the nitriding treatment on high-chromium steel was performed by introducing a reducing gas such as NH 3 and H 2 into the treatment chamber. While the nitriding reaction did not proceed in a simple N 2 atmosphere due to surface oxidation, the surface reduction induced by the NH 3 or H 2 gas promoted the nitriding reaction at the surface. These nitriding phenomena characteristics of the atmospheric-pressure plasma are discussed in this paper based on the effects of the specimen temperature and plasma atmosphere on the thickness, the chemical states, and the nitride compounds of the nitrided layer as investigated by X-ray diffraction, glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  9. Influence of surface rectangular defect winding layer on burst pressure of CNG-II composite cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, H. X.; Peng, L.; Zhao, C.; Ma, K.; Zhang, S.

    2018-01-01

    To study the influence of composite materials’ surface defect on the burst pressure of CNG-II composite cylinder, the surface defect was simplified as a rectangular slot of certain size on the basis of actually investigating the shape of cylinder’s surface defect. A CNG-II composite cylinder with a rectangular slot defect (2mm in depth) was used for burst test, and the numerical simulation software ANSYS was used to calculate its burst pressure. Through comparison between the burst pressure in the test and the numerical analysis result, the correctness of the numerical analysis method was verified. On this basis, the numerical analysis method was conducted for composite cylinders with surface defect in other depth. The result showed that surface defect in the form of rectangular slot had no significant effect on the liner stress of composite cylinder. Instead, it had a great influence on the stress of fiber-wrapped layer. The burst pressure of the composite cylinder decreased as the defect depth increasing. The hoop stress at the bottom of the defect in the shape of rectangular slot exceeded the maximum of the composite materials’ tensile strength, which could result in the burst pressure of composite cylinders decreasing.

  10. Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using atmospheric pressure cold plasma technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakellis, Panagiotis; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2018-03-29

    Hydrophobic surfaces are often used to reduce wetting of surfaces by water. In particular, superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desired for several applications due to their exceptional properties such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-friction and others. Such surfaces can be prepared via numerous methods including plasma technology, a dry technique with low environmental impact. Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has recently attracted significant attention as lower-cost alternative to low-pressure plasmas, and as a candidate for continuous rather than batch processing. Although there are many reviews on water-repellent surfaces, and a few reviews on APP technology, there are hardly any review works on APP processing for hydrophobic and superhydrohobic surface fabrication, a topic of high importance in nanotechnology and interface science. Herein, we critically review the advances on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surface fabrication using APP technology, trying also to give some perspectives in the field. After a short introduction to superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces and to APPs we focus this review on three different aspects: (1) The atmospheric plasma reactor technology used for fabrication of (super)hydrophobic surfaces. (2) The APP process for hydrophobic surface preparation. The hydrophobic surface preparation processes are categorized methodologically as: a) activation, b) grafting, c) polymerization, d) roughening and hydrophobization. Each category includes subcategories related to different precursors used. (3) One of the most important sections of this review concerns superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using APP. These are methodologically characterized as follows: a) single step processes where micro-nano textured topography and low surface energy coating are created at the same time, or b) multiple step processes, where these steps occur sequentially in or out of the plasma. We end the review with some perspectives in the field. We

  11. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-07

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  12. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... level is often dependent on his or her breathing pattern. Therefore, people with chronic lung conditions may ...

  13. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Surface Tension of Liquid Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Gowda, Vijaya Kumar Malahalli Shankare; Rodriguez, Justin; Matson, Douglas M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been recently upgraded with an oxygen partial pressure controller. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, theoretically in the range from 10-36 to 100 bar. The oxygen control system installed in the ESL laboratory's main chamber consists of an oxygen sensor, oxygen pump, and a control unit. The sensor is a potentiometric device that determines the difference in oxygen activity in two gas compartments (inside the chamber and the air outside of the chamber) separated by an electrolyte, which is yttria-stabilized zirconia. The pump utilizes coulometric titration to either add or remove oxygen. The system is controlled by a desktop control unit, which can also be accessed via a computer. The controller performs temperature control for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop, and a control algorithm. Oxygen partial pressure has been shown to play a significant role in the surface tension of liquid metals. Oxide films or dissolved oxygen may lead to significant changes in surface tension. The effects of oxygen partial pressure on the surface tension of undercooled liquid nickel will be analyzed, and the results will be presented. The surface tension will be measured at several different oxygen partial pressures while the sample is undercooled. Surface tension will be measured using the oscillating drop method. While undercooled, each sample will be oscillated several times consecutively to investigate how the surface tension behaves with time while at a particular oxygen partial pressure.

  14. Surface pressure fluctuations on aircraft flaps and their correlation with far-field noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. P.; Joshi, M. C.; Bent, P. H.; Yamamoto, K. J.

    2000-07-01

    This paper discusses unsteady surface pressures on aircraft flaps and their correlation with far-field noise. Analyses are made of data from a 4.7% DC-10 aircraft model test, conducted in the 40 × 80 feet wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Results for various slat/wing/flap configurations and various flow conditions are discussed in detail to reveal major trends in surface pressure fluctuations. Spectral analysis, including cross-correlation/coherence, both among unsteady surface pressures and between far-field noise and near-field fluctuations, is used to reveal the most coherent motions in the near field and identify potential sources of noise related to flap flows. Dependencies of surface pressure fluctuations on mean flow Mach numbers, flap settings and slat angles are discussed. Dominant flow features in flap side edge regions, such as the formation of double-vortex structures, are shown to manifest themselves in the unsteady surface pressures as a series of spectral humps. The spectral humps are shown to correlate well with the radiated noise, indicating the existence of major noise sources in flap side edge regions. Strouhal number scaling is used to collapse the data with satisfactory results. The effects of flap side edge fences on surface pressures are also discussed. It is shown that the application of fences effectively increases the thickness of the flaps so that the double-vortex structures have more time to evolve. As a result, the characteristic timescale of the unsteady sources increases, which in turn leads to a decrease in the dominant frequency of the source process. Based on this, an explanation is proposed for the noise reduction mechanism of flap side edge fences.

  15. Effect of an end plate on surface pressure distributions of two swept wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SOLTANI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of wind tunnel tests was conducted to examine how an end plate affects the pressure distributions of two wings with leading edge (LE sweep angles of 23° and 40°. All the experiments were carried out at a midchord Reynolds number of 8×105, covering an angle of attack (AOA range from −2° to 14°. Static pressure distribution measurements were acquired over the upper surfaces of the wings along three chordwise rows and one spanwise direction at the wing quarter-chord line. The results of the tests confirm that at a particular AOA, increasing the sweep angle causes a noticeable decrease in the upper-surface suction pressure. Furthermore, as the sweep angle increases, the development of a laminar separation bubble near the LEs of the wings takes place at higher AOAs. On the other hand, spanwise pressure measurements show that increasing the wing sweep angle results in forming a stronger vortex on the quarter-chord line which has lower sensitivity to AOA variation and remains substantially attached to the wing surface for higher AOAs than that can be achieved in the case of a lower sweep angle. In addition, data obtained indicate that installing an end plate further reinforces the spanwise flow over the wing surface, thus affecting the pressure distribution.

  16. Does Pressure Accentuate General Relativistic Gravitational Collapse and Formation of Trapped Surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2013-04-01

    It is widely believed that though pressure resists gravitational collapse in Newtonian gravity, it aids the same in general relativity (GR) so that GR collapse should eventually be similar to the monotonous free fall case. But we show that, even in the context of radiationless adiabatic collapse of a perfect fluid, pressure tends to resist GR collapse in a manner which is more pronounced than the corresponding Newtonian case and formation of trapped surfaces is inhibited. In fact there are many works which show such collapse to rebound or become oscillatory implying a tug of war between attractive gravity and repulsive pressure gradient. Furthermore, for an imperfect fluid, the resistive effect of pressure could be significant due to likely dramatic increase of tangential pressure beyond the "photon sphere." Indeed, with inclusion of tangential pressure, in principle, there can be static objects with surface gravitational redshift z → ∞. Therefore, pressure can certainly oppose gravitational contraction in GR in a significant manner in contradiction to the idea of Roger Penrose that GR continued collapse must be unstoppable.

  17. Use of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet for Polymer Surface Modification: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are playing an increasingly important role in materials processing procedures. Plasma treatment is a useful tool to modify surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Plasma reacts with polymer surfaces in numerous ways thus the type of process gas and plasma conditions must be explored for chosen substrates and materials to maximize desired properties. This report discusses plasma treatments and looks further into atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and the effects of gases and plasma conditions. Following the short literature review, a general overview of the future work and research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is discussed.

  18. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; McCluskey, G.E. Jr.; Gulden, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the x-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling x-ray binaries are discussed

  19. Dynamic modeling method of the bolted joint with uneven distribution of joint surface pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shichao; Gao, Hongli; Liu, Qi; Liu, Bokai

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the bolted joints have a significant influence on the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool. Therefore, establishing a reasonable bolted joint dynamics model is helpful to improve the accuracy of machine tool dynamics model. Because the pressure distribution on the joint surface is uneven under the concentrated force of bolts, a dynamic modeling method based on the uneven pressure distribution of the joint surface is presented in this paper to improve the dynamic modeling accuracy of the machine tool. The analytic formulas between the normal, tangential stiffness per unit area and the surface pressure on the joint surface can be deduced based on the Hertz contact theory, and the pressure distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the finite element software. Futhermore, the normal and tangential stiffness distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the analytic formula and the pressure distribution on the joint surface, and assigning it into the finite element model of the joint. Qualitatively compared the theoretical mode shapes and the experimental mode shapes, as well as quantitatively compared the theoretical modal frequencies and the experimental modal frequencies. The comparison results show that the relative error between the first four-order theoretical modal frequencies and the first four-order experimental modal frequencies is 0.2% to 4.2%. Besides, the first four-order theoretical mode shapes and the first four-order experimental mode shapes are similar and one-to-one correspondence. Therefore, the validity of the theoretical model is verified. The dynamic modeling method proposed in this paper can provide a theoretical basis for the accurate dynamic modeling of the bolted joint in machine tools.

  20. Applications of high order harmonic radiation to UVX-solids interaction: high excitation density in electronic relaxation dynamics and surface damaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grazia, M.

    2007-12-01

    The new sources of radiation in the extreme-UV (X-UV: 10-100 nm), which deliver spatially coherent, ultra-short and intense pulses, allow studying high flux processes and ultra-fast dynamics in various domains. The thesis work presents two applications of the high-order laser harmonics (HH) to solid state physics. In Part I, we describe the optimization of the harmonic for studies of X-UV/solids interaction. In Part II, we investigate effects of high excitation density in the dynamics of electron relaxation in dielectric scintillator crystals - tungstates and fluorides, using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Quenching of luminescence at short time gives evidence of the competition between radiative and non-radiative recombination of self-trapped excitons (STE). The non-radiative channel is identified to mutual interaction of STE at high excitation density. In Part III, we study the X-UV induced damage mechanism in various materials, either conductor (amorphous carbon) or insulators (organic polymers, e.g., PMMA). In PMMA-Plexiglas, in the desorption regime (0.2 mJ/cm 2 , i.e., below damage threshold), the surface modifications reflect X-UV induced photochemical processes that are tentatively identified, as a function of dose: at low dose, polymer chain scission followed by the blow-up of the volatile, low-molecular fragments leads to crater formation; at high dose, cross-linking in the near-surface layer of remaining material leads to surface hardening. These promising results have great perspectives considering the performances already attained and planned in the next future in the development of the harmonic sources. (author)

  1. Parameters of the center of pressure displacement on the saddle during hippotherapy on different surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana M. Flores

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippotherapy uses horseback riding movements for therapeutic purposes. In addition to the horse's movement, the choice of equipment and types of floor are also useful in the intervention. The quantification of dynamic parameters that define the interaction of the surface of contact between horse and rider provides insight into how the type of floor surface variations act upon the subject's postural control. Objective: To test whether different types of surfaces promote changes in the amplitude (ACOP and velocity (VCOP of the center of pressure (COP displacement during the rider's contact with the saddle on the horse's back. Method: Twenty two healthy adult male subjects with experience in riding were evaluated. The penetration resistances of asphalt, sand and grass surfaces were measured. The COP data were collected on the three surfaces using a pressure measurement mat. Results: ACOP values were higher in sand, followed by grass and asphalt, with significant differences between sand and asphalt (anteroposterior, p=0.042; mediolateral, p=0.019. The ACOP and VCOP values were higher in the anteroposterior than in the mediolateral direction on all surfaces (ACOP, p=0.001; VCOP, p=0.006. The VCOP did not differ between the surfaces. Conclusion: Postural control, measured by the COP displacement, undergoes variations in its amplitude as a result of the type of floor surface. Therefore, these results reinforce the importance of the choice of floor surface when defining the strategy to be used during hippotherapy intervention.

  2. Parameters of the center of pressure displacement on the saddle during hippotherapy on different surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Fabiana M; Dagnese, Frederico; Mota, Carlos B; Copetti, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Hippotherapy uses horseback riding movements for therapeutic purposes. In addition to the horse's movement, the choice of equipment and types of floor are also useful in the intervention. The quantification of dynamic parameters that define the interaction of the surface of contact between horse and rider provides insight into how the type of floor surface variations act upon the subject's postural control. To test whether different types of surfaces promote changes in the amplitude (ACOP) and velocity (VCOP) of the center of pressure (COP) displacement during the rider's contact with the saddle on the horse's back. Twenty two healthy adult male subjects with experience in riding were evaluated. The penetration resistances of asphalt, sand and grass surfaces were measured. The COP data were collected on the three surfaces using a pressure measurement mat. ACOP values were higher in sand, followed by grass and asphalt, with significant differences between sand and asphalt (anteroposterior, p=0.042; mediolateral, p=0.019). The ACOP and VCOP values were higher in the anteroposterior than in the mediolateral direction on all surfaces (ACOP, p=0.001; VCOP, p=0.006). The VCOP did not differ between the surfaces. Postural control, measured by the COP displacement, undergoes variations in its amplitude as a result of the type of floor surface. Therefore, these results reinforce the importance of the choice of floor surface when defining the strategy to be used during hippotherapy intervention.

  3. Calculated Fermi surface properties of LaSn3 and YSn3 under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanchana, V.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure, Fermi surface and elastic properties of the iso-structural and iso-electronic LaSn 3 and YSn 3 intermetallic compounds are studied under pressure within the frame work of density functional theory including spin-orbit coupling. The LaSn 3 Fermi surface consists of two sheets, of which the second is very complex. Under pressure a third sheet appears around compression V/V 0 =0.94, while a small topology changes in the second sheet is seen at compression V/V 0 =0.90. This may be in accordance with the anomalous behavior in the superconducting transition temperature observed in LaSn 3 , which has been suggested to reflect a Fermi surface topological transition, along with a non-monotonic pressure dependence of the density of states at the Fermi level. The similar behavior is not observed in YSn 3 for which the Fermi surface includes three sheets already at ambient conditions, and the topology remains unchanged under pressure. The reason for the difference in behavior between LaSn 3 and YSn 3 is the role of spin-orbit coupling and the hybridization of La-4f state with the Sn-p state in the vicinity of the Fermi level, which is well explained using the band structure calculation. The elastic constants and related mechanical properties are calculated at ambient as well as at elevated pressures. The elastic constants increase with pressure for both compounds and satisfy the conditions for mechanical stability under pressure. (author)

  4. Irreversible particle motion in surfactant-laden interfaces due to pressure-dependent surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-09-01

    The surface shear viscosity of an insoluble surfactant monolayer often depends strongly on its surface pressure. Here, we show that a particle moving within a bounded monolayer breaks the kinematic reversibility of low-Reynolds-number flows. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem allows such irreversibilities to be computed without solving the full nonlinear equations, giving the leading-order contribution of surface pressure-dependent surface viscosity. In particular, we show that a disc translating or rotating near an interfacial boundary experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to that boundary. In unbounded monolayers, coupled modes of motion can also lead to non-intuitive trajectories, which we illustrate using an interfacial analogue of the Magnus effect. This perturbative approach can be extended to more complex geometries, and to two-dimensional suspensions more generally.

  5. Surface energy-tunable iso decyl acrylate based molds for low pressure-nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hyowon; Tahk, Dongha; Jeong, Chanho; Lee, Sori; Kim, Tae-il

    2017-10-01

    We presented surface energy-tunable nanoscale molds for unconventional lithography. The mold is highly robust, transparent, has a minimized haze, does not contain additives, and is a non-fluorinated isodecyl acrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate based polymer. By changing the mixing ratio of the polymer components, the cross-linking density, mechanical modulus, and surface energy (crucial factors in low pressure ((1-2) × 105 N m-2) low pressure-nanoimprint lithography (LP-NIL)), can be controlled. To verify these properties of the molds, we also characterized the surface energy by measuring the contact angles and calculating the work of adhesion among the wafer, polymer film, and mold for successful demolding in nanoscale structures. Moreover, the molds showed high optical clarity and precisely tunable mechanical and surface properties, capable of replicating sub-100 nm patterns by thermal LP-NIL and UV-NIL.

  6. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten

    2016-01-01

    for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.......g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed......, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle...

  7. The effect of surface pressure modification on the speed of vortex rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, Matthew; Davis, Frank; Higson, Seamus P J [Centre of Biomedical Imaging, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P, E-mail: f.davis@cranfield.ac.uk [Engineering Photonics, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    A series of experiments investigating the relationship between surface pressure, monolayer elasticity and the speed of vortex rings is presented. A drop of water, when touched to the surface of a larger body of water, will coalesce and form a vortex ring that moves perpendicularly to the surface of the water. The speed of the vortex ring movement away from the surface of the water has been seen to be sensitive to the presence of monolayer materials. Here we explore the influence of four monolayer forming materials, stearic acid, tricosanoic acid, 4-tert butyl calix[4]arene and calix[4]resorcarene (C11), on the properties of vortex rings. For each material, the speed of the vortex rings through the water was measured at a range of surface pressures. The speed was found to increase in a linear fashion until surface pressures greater than 30 mN m{sup −1}, where the ring’s speed decreased towards the value measured in the absence of a monolayer. Analysis of the results suggests a future route toward a better understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  8. Durability of simulated waste glass: effects of pressure and formation of surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Mosley, W.C.; Whitkop, P.G.; Saturday, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    The leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste glass was studied at elevated pressures and anticipated storage temperatures. An integrated approach, which combined leachate solution analyses with both bulk and surface studies, was used to study the corrosion process. Compositions of leachates were evaluated by colorimetry and atomic absorption. Used in the bulk and surface analyses were optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray, diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, infrared reflectance spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results from this study show that there is no significant adverse effect of pressure, up to 1500 psi and 90 0 C, on the chemical durability of simulated SPR waste glass leached for one month in deionized water. In addition, the leached glass surface layer was characterized by an adsorbed film rich in minor constituents from the glass. This film remained on the glass surface even after leaching in relatively alkaline solutions at elevated pressures at 90 0 C for one month. The sample surface area to volume of leachant ratios (SA/V) was 10:1 cm -1 and 1:10 cm -1 . The corrosion mechanisms and surface and subsurface layers produced will be discussed along with the potential importance of these results to repository storage

  9. Surface pressure model for simple delta wings at high angles of attack

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    characteristics. Flight mechanics analysis is primarily concerned with the aerodynamic data composed ... static data are the limiting case of unsteady flow pattern as time tends to infinity (or at least a few times the .... as the qualitative changes in the surface pressure model are independently confirmed by Roos. & Kegelman ...

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Water Nanodroplets on Silica Surfaces at High Air Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    e.g., nanobubbles. In the present work we study the role of air on the wetting of hydrophilic systems. We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a water nanodroplet on an amorphous silica surface at different air pressures. The interaction potentials describing the silica, water, and air...... are obtained from the literature. The silica surface is modeled by a large 32 ⨯ 32 ⨯ 2 nm amorphous SiO2 structure consisting of 180000 atoms. The water consists of 18000 water molecules surrounded by N2 and O2 air molecules corresponding to air pressures of 0 bar (vacuum), 50 bar, 100 bar and 200 bar. We...... the effect of air and find a consistent increase in the water contact angle reaching 53º at 200 bar air pressure. These results are important for the creation and stability of nanobubbles at hydrophilic interfaces....

  11. Bioinspired self-repairing slippery surfaces with pressure-stable omniphobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tak-Sing; Kang, Sung Hoon; Tang, Sindy K Y; Smythe, Elizabeth J; Hatton, Benjamin D; Grinthal, Alison; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2011-09-21

    Creating a robust synthetic surface that repels various liquids would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from biomedical devices and fuel transport to architecture but has proved extremely challenging. Inspirations from natural nonwetting structures, particularly the leaves of the lotus, have led to the development of liquid-repellent microtextured surfaces that rely on the formation of a stable air-liquid interface. Despite over a decade of intense research, these surfaces are, however, still plagued with problems that restrict their practical applications: limited oleophobicity with high contact angle hysteresis, failure under pressure and upon physical damage, inability to self-heal and high production cost. To address these challenges, here we report a strategy to create self-healing, slippery liquid-infused porous surface(s) (SLIPS) with exceptional liquid- and ice-repellency, pressure stability and enhanced optical transparency. Our approach-inspired by Nepenthes pitcher plants-is conceptually different from the lotus effect, because we use nano/microstructured substrates to lock in place the infused lubricating fluid. We define the requirements for which the lubricant forms a stable, defect-free and inert 'slippery' interface. This surface outperforms its natural counterparts and state-of-the-art synthetic liquid-repellent surfaces in its capability to repel various simple and complex liquids (water, hydrocarbons, crude oil and blood), maintain low contact angle hysteresis (<2.5°), quickly restore liquid-repellency after physical damage (within 0.1-1 s), resist ice adhesion, and function at high pressures (up to about 680 atm). We show that these properties are insensitive to the precise geometry of the underlying substrate, making our approach applicable to various inexpensive, low-surface-energy structured materials (such as porous Teflon membrane). We envision that these slippery surfaces will be useful in fluid handling and

  12. Pressurization Risk Assessment of CO2 Reservoirs Utilizing Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Park, E.; Han, K.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring of pressure buildup can provide explicit information on reservoir integrity and is an appealing tool, however pressure variation is dependent on a variety of factors causing high uncertainty in pressure predictions. This work evaluated pressurization of a reservoir system in the presence of leakage pathways as well as exploring the effects of compartmentalization of the reservoir utilizing design of experiments (Definitive Screening, Box Behnken, Central Composite, and Latin Hypercube designs) and response surface methods. Two models were developed, 1) an idealized injection scenario in order to evaluate the performance of multiple designs, and 2) a complex injection scenario implementing the best performing design to investigate pressurization of the reservoir system. A holistic evaluation of scenario 1, determined that the Central Composite design would be used for the complex injection scenario. The complex scenario evaluated 5 risk factors: reservoir, seal, leakage pathway and fault permeabilities, and horizontal position of the pathway. A total of 60 response surface models (RSM) were developed for the complex scenario with an average R2 of 0.95 and a NRMSE of 0.067. Sensitivity to the input factors was dynamic through space and time; at the earliest time (0.05 years) the reservoir permeability was dominant, and for later times (>0.5 years) the fault permeability became dominant for all locations. The RSM's were then used to conduct a Monte Carlo Analysis to further analyze pressurization risks, identifying the P10, P50, P90 values. This identified the in zone (lower) P90 values as 2.16, 1.77, and 1.53 MPa and above zone values of 1.35, 1.23, 1.09 MPa for monitoring locations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In summary, the design of experiments and response surface methods allowed for an efficient sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to be conducted permitting a complete evaluation of the pressurization across the entire parameter space.

  13. Supersonic flow over a pitching delta wing using surface pressure measurements and numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa HADIDOOLABI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical methods were applied to investigating high subsonic and supersonic flows over a 60° swept delta wing in fixed state and pitching oscillation. Static pressure coefficient distributions over the wing leeward surface and the hysteresis loops of pressure coefficient versus angle of attack at the sensor locations were obtained by wind tunnel tests. Similar results were obtained by numerical simulations which agreed well with the experiments. Flow structure around the wing was also demonstrated by the numerical simulation. Effects of Mach number and angle of attack on pressure distribution curves in static tests were investigated. Effects of various oscillation parameters including Mach number, mean angle of attack, pitching amplitude and frequency on hysteresis loops were investigated in dynamic tests and the associated physical mechanisms were discussed. Vortex breakdown phenomenon over the wing was identified at high angles of attack using the pressure coefficient curves and hysteresis loops, and its effects on the flow features were discussed.

  14. Comparative study on two different seal surface structure for reactor pressure vessel sealing behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    The seal surface structure is very important to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) sealing behavior. In this paper, two 3-D RPV sealing analysis finite models have been established with different seal surface structures, in order to study the influence of two structures. The separation of RPV upper and lower flanges, bolt loads and etc. are obtained, which are used to evaluate the sealing behavior of the RPV. Meanwhile, the comparative analysis of safety margin of two seal surface structural had been done, which provides the theoretical basis for RPV seal structure design optimization. (authors)

  15. Surface modification of nanofibrillated cellulose films by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, the water contact angle of NFC films increased and the values were comparable with those of PLA films. On the other hand, surface chemical characterization revealed inhomogeneity of the plasma treatment and limited improvement in adhesion between NFC and PLA films......A dielectric barrier discharge in a gas mixture of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and O2 was used for tailoring the surface properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films. The surface chemical composition of plasma-modified NFC was characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time....... Further research in this direction is required in order to enhance the uniformity of the plasma treatment results....

  16. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet Surface Treatment for Use in Improving Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are a method of plasma treatment that plays an important role in material processing and modifying surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Gas plasmas react with polymer surfaces in numerous ways such as oxidation, radical formation, degradation, and promotion of cross-linking. Because of this, gas and plasma conditions can be explored for chosen processes to maximize desired properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate plasma parameters in order to modify surface properties for improved adhesion between aluminum and epoxy substrates using two types of adhesives. The background, results to date, and future work will be discussed.

  17. Study on hot melt pressure sensitive coil material for removing surface nuclear pollution dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Jiao; Wang, Jianhui; Zheng, Li; Li, Jian; Lv, Linmei

    2018-02-01

    A new method for removing surface nuclear pollution by using hot melt pressure sensitive membrane was presented. The hot melt pressure sensitive membrane was designed and prepared by screening hot melt pressure sensitive adhesive and substrate. The simulated decontamination test of the hot melt pressure sensitive membrane was performed by using 100 mesh and 20 mesh standard sieve dust for simulation of nuclear explosion fall ash and radioactive contaminated particles, respectively. It was found that the single decontamination rate of simulated fall ash and contaminated particles were both above 80% under pressure conditions of 25kPa or more at 140°C. And the maximum single decontamination rate was 92.5%. The influence of heating temperature and pressure on the decontamination rate of the membrane was investigated at the same time. The results showed that higher heating temperature could increase the decontamination rate by increasing the viscosity of the adhesive. When the adhesive amount of the adhesive layer reached saturation, a higher pressure could increase the single decontamination rate also.

  18. High-pressure catalytic reactions over single-crystal metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, JoséA.; Wayne Goodman, D.

    1991-11-01

    Studies dealing with high-pressure catalytic reactions over single-crystal surfaces are reviewed. The coupling of an apparatus for the measurement of reaction kinetics at elevated pressures with an ultrahigh vacuum system for surface analysis allows detailed study of structure sensitivity, the effects of promoters and inhibitors on catalytic activity, and, in certain cases, identification of reaction intermediates by post-reaction surface analysis. Examples are provided which demonstrate the relevance of single-crystal studies for modeling the behaviour of high-surface-area supported catalysts. Studies of CO methanation and CO oxidation over single-crystal surfaces provide convincing evidence that these reactions are structure insensitive. For structure-sensitive reactions (ammonia synthesis, alkane hydrogenolysis, alkane isomerization, water-gas shift reaction, etc.) model single-crystal studies allow correlations to be established between surface structure and catalytic activity. The effects of both electronegative (S and P) and electropositive (alkali metals) impurities upon the catalytic activity of metal single crystals for ammonia synthesis, CO methanation, alkane hydrogenolysis, ethylene epoxidation and water-gas shift are discussed. The roles of "ensemble" and "ligand" effects in bimetallic catalysts are examined in light of data obtained using surfaces prepared by vapor-depositing one metal onto a crystal face of a dissimilar metal.

  19. Adsorbate induced surface alloy formation investigated by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev; Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; McCarthy, David Norman

    2014-01-01

    Formation of meta-stable surface-alloys can be used as a way to tune the binding strength of reaction intermediates and could therefore be used as improved catalyst materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding the role of adsorbates on such alloy surfaces can provide new insights for engi...... and bulk Pt contributions. The study provides direct evidence on how it is possible to monitor the surface structure under near operation conditions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Formation of meta-stable surface-alloys can be used as a way to tune the binding strength of reaction intermediates and could therefore be used as improved catalyst materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding the role of adsorbates on such alloy surfaces can provide new insights...... for engineering of more active or selective catalyst materials. Dynamical surface changes on alloy surfaces due to the adsorption of reactants in high gas pressures are challenging to investigate using standard characterization tools. Here we apply synchrotron illuminated near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron...

  20. Surface modification of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C.W.; Kwong, C.H.; Ng, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment improved surface performance of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane. • XPS and FTIR confirmed the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. • Contact angle increases to 138° after plasma treatment. - Abstract: Much works have been done on synthetic materials but scarcely on synthetic leather owing to its surface structures in terms of porosity and roughness. This paper examines the use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment for improving the surface performance of polyester synthetic leather by use of a precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS). Plasma deposition is regarded as an effective, simple and single-step method with low pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. The results showed that under a particular combination of treatment parameters, a hydrophobic surface was achieved on the APP treated sample with sessile drop static contact angle of 138°. The hydrophobic surface is stable without hydrophilic recovery 30 days after plasma treatment

  1. The elevation of intraocular pressure is associated with apoptosis and increased immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase in rat retina whereas the effectiveness of retina derived relaxing factor is unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takır, Selçuk; Gürel-Gürevin, Ebru; Toprak, Ayça; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan; Uydeş-Doğan, B Sönmez

    2016-04-01

    Glaucoma is a progressive ocular disease that stands in the upper rank for the cause of blindness in worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the possible disturbances occurred in the layers of retina due to an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) and to verify the effectiveness of retina derived relaxing factor, i.e., RRF in this pathologic condition. The increase in IOP was induced by cauterization of the three of episcleral veins simultaneously in rats. After 8 weeks period, the retinas excised from the vein cauterized eyes were evaluated for the possible histopathological and ultrastructural alterations as well as for the relaxing effects on isolated bovine retinal and rat mesenteric arteries, in comparison with the retinas obtained from contralateral sham-operated eyes. In the retinas of IOP-elevated eyes, profound morphological deteriorations were determined in the ganglion and outer nuclear cell layers which were associated with an increased number of TUNEL positive cells in the ganglion and inner nuclear cell layers. Increased immunohistochemical stainings for three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were defined in almost all layers of the retinas of IOP-elevated eyes, in which eNOS was abundant particularly in the inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers. An irregular basal folding of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and an increased inter lamellar space of photoreceptor cell layer furtherly characterized the prominent degeneration of those layers in the retinas of IOP-elevated eyes. On the other hand, the relaxing effects of the retina obtained from IOP-elevated eyes were determined to be unchanged on the retinal and mesenteric arteries precontracted either with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α, 30 μM) or potassium chloride (K(+), 100 mM), when compared with the relaxations of control retina obtained from contralateral sham-operated eyes. Overall, these findings suggested that the elevation of IOP induces prominent structural changes in

  2. Power law rheology of ice and the relaxation style and retention of craters on Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul J.; Schubert, Gerald

    1988-01-01

    A numerical finite element model of viscous relaxation of craters in ice is presented which incorporates rheological data for ice at temperatures and pressures appropriated to the near-surface regions of Ganymede. For temperature gradients in reasonable agreement with those obtained from thermal and structural models of Ganymede, relaxation times greater than 10 to the 7th years were obtained for craters with diameters less than 100 km. For all craters with diameters greater than 10 km, the dependence of viscosity on stress was found to significantly shorten the relaxation time. The rheological laws which dominate crater relaxation are discussed for craters of various sizes. The results are compared with imagery from Voyager.

  3. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomathi, N., E-mail: gomathi@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Department of Space, Trivandrum, 695547 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Rajasekar, R. [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Babu, R. Rajesh [Rubber Technology Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Advanced Tyre Research, Apollo Tyres, Baroda, 391750 (India); Mishra, Debasish [Department of Biotechnolgy, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Neogi, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2012-10-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH{sup 2+} and NH{sup +} was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen plasma surface modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  4. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, N.; Rajasekar, R.; Babu, R. Rajesh; Mishra, Debasish; Neogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH 2+ and NH + was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: ► Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. ► Nitrogen plasma surface modification. ► Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. ► Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  5. Surface treatment of aramid fiber by air dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Caixia; Chen Ping; Liu Wei; Li Bin; Wang Qian

    2011-01-01

    Aramid fiber samples are treated by air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure; the plasma treatment time is investigated as the major parameter. The effects of this treatment on the fiber surface physical and chemical properties are studied by using surface characterization techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is performed to determine the surface morphology changes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is analyzed to reveal the surface chemical composition variations and dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) is used to examine the changes of the fiber surface wettability. In addition, the wetting behavior of a kind of thermoplastic resin, poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK), on aramid fiber surface is also observed by SEM photos. The study shows that there seems to be an optimum treatment condition for surface modification of aramid fiber by the air DBD plasma. In this paper, after the 12 s, 27.6 W/cm 3 plasma treatment the aramid fiber surface roughness is significantly improved, some new oxygen-containing groups such as C-O, C=O and O=C-O are generated on the fiber surface and the fiber surface wettability is greatly enhanced, which results in the better wetting behavior of PPESK resin on the plasma-treated aramid fiber.

  6. Investigation of the surface free energy of the ITO thin films deposited under different working pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özen, Soner; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan; Şenay, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the influence of working pressure on the surface energy of the ITO thin films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. Optical tensiometer (Attension Theta Lite) is used for evaluating wetting behavior of the water droplet on the film surface and Equation of State method was selected to determine surface free energy for this study. Equation of state method does not divide the surface tension into different components such as polar, dispersive, acid-base. It is calculated the surfaces’ free energy measuring the contact angle with a single liquid. The surface free energy value was in the range of 15-31 mN/m. Also, the transmittances were determined in the wavelength range between 200 and 1000 nm using the UNICO 4802 UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer. Transmittances of the produced ITO thin films are greater than %70 in the visible range.

  7. Investigation of the surface free energy of the ITO thin films deposited under different working pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özen, Soner, E-mail: osoner@ogu.edu.tr; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan [Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Physics Department, 26480 (Turkey); Şenay, Volkan [Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Physics Department, 26480 (Turkey); Bayburt University, Primary Science Education Department, 69000 (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    This study discusses the influence of working pressure on the surface energy of the ITO thin films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. Optical tensiometer (Attension Theta Lite) is used for evaluating wetting behavior of the water droplet on the film surface and Equation of State method was selected to determine surface free energy for this study. Equation of state method does not divide the surface tension into different components such as polar, dispersive, acid-base. It is calculated the surfaces’ free energy measuring the contact angle with a single liquid. The surface free energy value was in the range of 15-31 mN/m. Also, the transmittances were determined in the wavelength range between 200 and 1000 nm using the UNICO 4802 UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer. Transmittances of the produced ITO thin films are greater than %70 in the visible range.

  8. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta; Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana; Černák, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Rabbit fibres plasma treatment is an effective method for fibres modification. • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is able to affect fibres properties. • Surface changes on fibres after plasma treatment were analysed via SEM, ATR-FTIR, XPS. • Significant increase of fibres wettability after plasma treatment was observed. • Plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical treatment of fibres. - Abstract: We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  9. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta, E-mail: vstepanova@mail.muni.cz [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Černák, Mirko [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Rabbit fibres plasma treatment is an effective method for fibres modification. • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is able to affect fibres properties. • Surface changes on fibres after plasma treatment were analysed via SEM, ATR-FTIR, XPS. • Significant increase of fibres wettability after plasma treatment was observed. • Plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical treatment of fibres. - Abstract: We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  10. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  11. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, D V; Malykhin, E M; Zyryanov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O 3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature T V was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O 3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O( 3 P), O 2 , O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) and O 3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O 3 and O( 3 P) density profiles and T V calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter-ozone production probability (γ O 3 ) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O 3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O( 3 P) and O 2 . The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse γ O 3 data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models-the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model-was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O 3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up

  12. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene film using the atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z; Qiu, Y; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) is more promising in industrial applications compared with glow discharges in a gas other than air or in low-pressure air, which needs an expensive vacuum system. In this paper, the APGD and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are generated in atmospheric air using a power-frequency voltage source, and the transition from DBD to APGD is achieved by varying the electrode arrangement. The differences between their discharge characteristics are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena. The effects of APGD and DBD on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface modification are studied. The surface properties are characterized by contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the APGD and DBD treatments modify the PTFE surface in both morphology and composition. APGD is more effective in PTFE surface modification than DBD as it can modify the surface more uniformly, implant more oxygen atoms into the surface and make the contact angle decline to a lower level. The experimental results are discussed

  13. Surface treatment of polyethylene terephthalate film using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Qiu Yuchang; Wang Hui

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in polymer surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface for improving hydrophilicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air is conducted. The discharge characteristics of APGD are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena, and the surface properties of PET before and after the APGD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the APGD is homogeneous and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A short time (several seconds) APGD treatment can modify the surface characteristics of PET film markedly and uniformly. After 10 s APGD treatment, the surface oxygen content of PET surface increases to 39%, and the water contact angle decreases to 19 degree, respectively. (authors)

  14. Anomalous carrier life-time relaxation mediated by head group interaction in surface anchored MnSe quantum dots conjugated with albumin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2017-02-01

    We report on the radiative emission decay dynamics of a less known, γ-phase manganese selenide quantum dot system (MnSe QDs) subjected to bio-functionalization. A short-ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA), and a long-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used as surface anchors prior bioconjugation with albumin proteins (BSA). Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra of the QDs have revealed bi-exponential decay trends with the fast (τ{sub 1}) and slow (τ{sub 2}) decay parameters assigned to the core state recombination and surface trapped excitons; respectively. The average lifetime (τ{sub avg}) was found to get shortened from a value of ∼0.87 ns–0.72 ns in unconjugated and BSA conjugated MnSe-TGA QDs; respectively. Conversely, MnSe-SDS QDs with BSA conjugation exhibited nearly four-fold enhancement of τ{sub avg} with respect to its unconjugated counterpart. Moreover, a considerable amount of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was found to occur from the TGA coated MnSe QDs to BSA and with an ensuing efficiency of ∼61%. The origin of anomalous carrier life-time relaxation features has also been encountered through a simplified model as regards head group interaction experienced by the MnSe QDs with different surfactant types. Exploiting luminescence decay characteristics of a magneto-fluorescent candidate could find immense scope in diverse biological applications including assays, labeling and imaging. - Highlights: • Surface anchored manganese selenide quantum dots (MnSe QDs) have been synthesized via a physico-chemical reduction route. • Time resolved luminescence spectra of the QDs have displayed bi-exponential decay trend. • Thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated QDs exhibited shorter lifetime as compared to sodium dodecyl sulfo-succinate (SDS) coated ones. • Upon BSA conjugation, the average life time is four-fold enhanced in MnSe-SDS QDs. • An efficient FRET process has been revealed in BSA conjugated TGA coated MnSe QDs.

  15. The Role of Atmospheric Pressure on Surface Thermal Inertia for Early Mars Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischna, M.; Piqueux, S.

    2017-12-01

    On rocky bodies such as Mars, diurnal surface temperatures are controlled by the surface thermal inertia, which is a measure of the ability of the surface to store heat during the day and re-radiate it at night. Thermal inertia is a compound function of the near-surface regolith thermal conductivity, density and specific heat, with the regolith thermal conductivity being strongly controlled by the atmospheric pressure. For Mars, current best maps of global thermal inertia are derived from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft using bolometric brightness temperatures of the surface. Thermal inertia is widely used in the atmospheric modeling community to determine surface temperatures and to establish lower boundary conditions for the atmosphere. Infrared radiation emitted from the surface is key in regulating lower atmospheric temperatures and driving overall global circulation. An accurate map of surface thermal inertia is thus required to produce reasonable results of the present-day atmosphere using numerical Mars climate models. Not surprisingly, thermal inertia is also a necessary input into climate models of early Mars, which assume a thicker atmosphere, by as much as one to two orders of magnitude above the present-day 6 mb mean value. Early Mars climate models broadly, but incorrectly, assume the present day thermal inertia surface distribution. Here, we demonstrate that, on early Mars, when pressures were larger than today's, the surface layer thermal inertia was globally higher because of the increased thermal conductivity driven by the higher gas pressure in interstitial pore spaces within the soil. Larger thermal inertia reduces the diurnal range of surface temperature and will affect the size and timing of the modeled seasonal polar ice caps. Additionally, it will globally alter the frequency of when surface temperatures are modeled to exceed the liquid water melting point, and so results may

  16. Synchronous Surface Pressure and Velocity Measurements of standard model in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in the Hypersonic Wind tunnel of NUAA(NHW present synchronous measurements of bow shockwave and surface pressure of a standard blunt rotary model (AGARD HB-2, which was carried out in order to measure the Mach-5-flow above a blunt body by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry as well as unsteady pressure around the rotary body. Titanium dioxide (Al2O3 Nano particles were seeded into the flow by a tailor-made container. With meticulous care designed optical path, the laser was guided into the vacuum experimental section. The transient pressure was obtained around model by using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSPsprayed on the model. All the experimental facilities were controlled by Series Pulse Generator to ensure that the data was time related. The PIV measurements of velocities in front of the detached bow shock agreed very well with the calculated value, with less than 3% difference compared to Pitot-pressure recordings. The velocity gradient contour described in accord with the detached bow shock that showed on schlieren. The PSP results presented good agreement with the reference data from previous studies. Our work involving studies of synchronous shock-wave and pressure measurements proved to be encouraging.

  17. Use of Pressure-Redistributing Support Surfaces among Elderly Hip Fracture Patients across the Continuum of Care: Adherence to Pressure Ulcer Prevention Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Mona; Margolis, David; Orwig, Denise; Hawkes, William; Rich, Shayna; Langenberg, Patricia; Shardell, Michelle; Palmer, Mary H.; McArdle, Patrick; Sterling, Robert; Jones, Patricia S.; Magaziner, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the frequency of use of pressure-redistributing support surfaces (PRSS) among hip fracture patients and to determine whether higher pressure ulcer risk is associated with greater PRSS use. Design and Methods: Patients (n = 658) aged [greater than or equal] 65 years who had surgery for hip fracture were examined by research…

  18. Using CFD Surface Solutions to Shape Sonic Boom Signatures Propagated from Off-Body Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual design of a low-boom and low-drag supersonic aircraft remains a challenge despite significant progress in recent years. Inverse design using reversed equivalent area and adjoint methods have been demonstrated to be effective in shaping the ground signature propagated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) off-body pressure distributions. However, there is still a need to reduce the computational cost in the early stages of design to obtain a baseline that is feasible for low-boom shaping, and in the search for a robust low-boom design over the entire sonic boom footprint. The proposed design method addresses the need to reduce the computational cost for robust low-boom design by using surface pressure distributions from CFD solutions to shape sonic boom ground signatures propagated from CFD off-body pressure.

  19. Printing transferable components using microstructured elastomeric surfaces with pressure modulated reversible adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, Etienne; Rogers, John A.; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew

    2016-08-09

    In a method of printing a transferable component, a stamp including an elastomeric post having three-dimensional relief features protruding from a surface thereof is pressed against a component on a donor substrate with a first pressure that is sufficient to mechanically deform the relief features and a region of the post between the relief features to contact the component over a first contact area. The stamp is retracted from the donor substrate such that the component is adhered to the stamp. The stamp including the component adhered thereto is pressed against a receiving substrate with a second pressure that is less than the first pressure to contact the component over a second contact area that is smaller than the first contact area. The stamp is then retracted from the receiving substrate to delaminate the component from the stamp and print the component onto the receiving substrate. Related apparatus and stamps are also discussed.

  20. Application of a novel atmospheric pressure plasma fluidized bed in the powder surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangliang; Chen Shihua; Zhou Mingyan; Feng Wenran; Gu Weichao; Yang Size

    2006-01-01

    A novel atmospheric pressure plasma fluidized bed (APPFB) with one liquid electrode was designed, and its preliminary discharge characteristics were studied. The glow discharge in the APPFB was generated by applying a low power with helium (He) gas, and the plasma gas temperature was no higher than 320 K when the applied power was lower than 11 W. The plasma optical emission spectrum (OES) of the gas mixture consisting of He and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) was recorded by a UV-visible monochromator. The calcium carbonate powders were modified by APPFB using HMDSO in the He plasma. The powder surface energy was decreased greatly by coating an organosilicon polymer onto the powder surface. This surface modification process changed the wettability of the powder from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity, and the contact angle of water on the modified powders surface was greater than 160 0

  1. Simulation of Effective Slip and Drag in Pressure-Driven Flow on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow on superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using finite element modeling (FEM. Surfaces with different textures like grooves, square pillars, and cylinders immersed in liquid forming Cassie state were modeled. Nonslip boundary condition was assumed at solid-liquid interface while slip boundary condition was supposed at gas-liquid interface. It was found that the flow rate can be affected by the shape of the texture, the fraction of the gas-liquid area, the height of the channel, and the driving pressure gradient. By extracting the effective boundary slip from the flow rate based on a model, it was found that the shape of the textures and the fraction of the gas-liquid area affect the effective slip significantly while the height of the channel and the driving pressure gradient have no obvious effect on effective slip.

  2. Quantitative spatial analysis of the mouse brain lipidome by pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Berzina, Zane; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a novel surface sampling technique termed pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis (PLESA), which in combination with a dedicated high-resolution shotgun lipidomics routine enables both quantification and in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species...... extracted directly from tissue sections. PLESA uses a sealed and pressurized sampling probe that enables the use of chloroform-containing extraction solvents for efficient in situ lipid microextraction with a spatial resolution of 400 μm. Quantification of lipid species is achieved by the inclusion...... of internal lipid standards in the extraction solvent. The analysis of lipid microextracts by nanoelectrospray ionization provides long-lasting ion spray which in conjunction with a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer enables identification and quantification of molecular lipid species using a method...

  3. DPPC Monolayers Exhibit an Additional Phase Transition at High Surface Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; de la Serna, Jorge B.; Struth, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant forms a monolayer at the air/aqueous interface within the lung. During the breath process, the surface pressure (Π) periodically varies from ~40mN/m up to ~70mN/m. The film is mechanically stable during this rapid and reversible expansion. Pulmonary surfactant consists of ~90......% of lipid with 10% integrated proteins. Among its lipid compounds, di-palmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) dominates (~45wt%). DPPC is the only known lipid that can be compressed to very high surface pressure (~70mN/m) before its monolayer collapses. Most probably, this feature contributes to the mechanical...... stability of the alveoli monolayer. Still, to the best of our knowledge, some details of the compression isotherm presented here and the related structures of the DPPC monolayer were not studied so far. The liquid-expanded/liquid-condensed phase transition of the DPPC monolayer at ~10mN/m is well known...

  4. Atmospheric pressure surface sampling/ionization techniques for direct coupling of planar separations with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-06-18

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expressions to Rayleigh circumferential phase velocity and dispersion relation for a cylindrical surface under mechanical pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebold, Jean Eduardo; de Lacerda, Luiz Alkimin

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a substantiated mathematical theory for Rayleigh waves propagated on some types of metal cylinders. More specifically, it presents not only a new way to express the dispersion relation of Rayleigh waves propagated on the cylindrical surface, but also how it can be used to construct a mathematical equation showing that the applied static mechanical pressure affects the shear modulus of the metal cylinder. All steps, required to conclude the process, consider the equation of motion as a function of radial and circumferential coordinates only, while the axial component can be overlooked without causing any problems. Some numerical experiments are done to illustrate the changes in the Rayleigh circumferential phase velocity in a metal cylindrical section due to static mechanical pressure around its external surface.

  6. Spreading and atomization of droplets on a vibrating surface in a standing pressure field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, P.; Basu, Saptarshi; Saha, Abhishek; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-10-01

    We report the first observation and analytical model of deformation and spreading of droplets on a vibrating surface under the influence of an ultrasonic standing pressure field. The standing wave allows the droplet to spread, and the spreading rate varies inversely with viscosity. In low viscosity droplets, the synergistic effect of radial acoustic force and the transducer surface acceleration also leads to capillary waves. These unstable capillary modes grow to cause ultimate disintegration into daughter droplets. We find that using nanosuspensions, spreading and disintegration can be prevented by suppressing the development of capillary modes and subsequent break-up.

  7. Influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on surface properties of PBO fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruiyun; Pan Xianlin; Jiang Muwen; Peng Shujing; Qiu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PBO fibers were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas. ► When 1% of oxygen was added to the plasma, IFSS increased 130%. ► Increased moisture regain could enhance plasma treatment effect on improving IFSS with long treatment time. - Abstract: In order to improve the interfacial adhesion property between PBO fiber and epoxy, the surface modification effects of PBO fiber treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in different time, atmosphere and moisture regain (MR) were investigated. The fiber surface morphology, functional groups, surface wettability for control and plasma treated samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Meanwhile, the fiber interfacial shear strength (IFSS), representing adhesion property in epoxy, was tested using micro-bond pull-out test, and single fiber tensile strength was also tested to evaluate the mechanical performance loss of fibers caused by plasma treatment. The results indicated that the fiber surface was etched during the plasma treatments, the fiber surface wettability and the IFSS between fiber and epoxy had much improvement due to the increasing of surface energy after plasma treatment, the contact angle decreased with the treatment time increasing, and the IFSS was improved by about 130%. The processing atmosphere could influence IFSS significantly, and moisture regains (MR) of fibers also played a positive role on improving IFSS but not so markedly. XPS analysis showed that the oxygen content on fiber surface increased after treatment, and C=O, O-C=O groups were introduced on fiber surface. On the other hand, the observed loss of fiber tensile strength caused by plasma treatment was not so remarkable to affect the overall performance of composite materials.

  8. Tactile surface classification for limbed robots using a pressure sensitive robot skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shill, Jacob J; Collins Jr, Emmanuel G; Coyle, Eric; Clark, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to terrain identification based on pressure images generated through direct surface contact using a robot skin constructed around a high-resolution pressure sensing array. Terrain signatures for classification are formulated from the magnitude frequency responses of the pressure images. The initial experimental results for statically obtained images show that the approach yields classification accuracies >98%. The methodology is extended to accommodate the dynamic pressure images anticipated when a robot is walking or running. Experiments with a one-legged hopping robot yield similar identification accuracies ≈99%. In addition, the accuracies are independent with respect to changing robot dynamics (i.e., when using different leg gaits). The paper further shows that the high-resolution capabilities of the sensor enables similarly textured surfaces to be distinguished. A correcting filter is developed to accommodate for failures or faults that inevitably occur within the sensing array with continued use. Experimental results show using the correcting filter can extend the effective operational lifespan of a high-resolution sensing array over 6x in the presence of sensor damage. The results presented suggest this methodology can be extended to autonomous field robots, providing a robot with crucial information about the environment that can be used to aid stable and efficient mobility over rough and varying terrains. (paper)

  9. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  10. A prospective, in vivo evaluation of two pressure-redistribution surfaces in healthy volunteers using pressure mapping as a quality control instrument .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephannie; Parker, Michael; Blasiole, Nicole; Beinlich, Nancy; Fulton, Judith

    2013-02-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) can rapidly evolve into a higher stage pressure ulcer. Use of pressure-redistribution surfaces is a widely accepted practice for the prevention of pressure ulcers in acute care patients, particularly in departments where care processes limit mobility. A 15-year-old patient developed a sacral DTI 24 hours after completion of a lengthy (12- hour) electrophysiology (EP) study and catheter ablation. A root cause analysis (RCA) conducted to investigate the origin of the hospital-acquired suspected DTI prompted a small investigation to evaluate the pressure-distribution properties of the EP lab surface and an OR table pad. Five healthy adult employee volunteers were evaluated in the supine position by placing a sensing mat between the volunteer and the test surface. Interface pressures (on a scale of 0 mm Hg to 100 mm Hg) were captured after a "settling in" time of 4 minutes, and the number of sensors registering very high pressures (above 90 mm Hg) across the surface were recorded. On the OR table pad, zero to six sensors registered >90 mm Hg compared to two to 20 sensors on the EP lab surface. These data, combined with the acquired DTI, initiated a change in EP lab surfaces. Although interface pressure measurements only provide information about one potential support surface characteristic, it can be helpful during an RCA. Studies to compare the effect of support surfaces in all hospital units on patient outcomes are needed.

  11. Surface treatment of a titanium implant using low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Tang, Tianyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2015-09-01

    During the last two decades, atmospheric pressure plasmas(APP) are widely used in diverse fields of biomedical applications, reduction of pollutants, and surface treatment of materials. Applications of APP to titanium surface of dental implants is steadily increasing as it renders surfaces wettability and modifies the oxide layer of titanium that hinders the interaction with cells and proteins. In this study, we have treated the titanium surfaces of screw-shaped implant samples using a plasma jet which is composed of a ceramic coaxial tube of dielectrics, a stainless steel inner electrode, and a coper tube outer electrode. The plasma ignition occurred with Ar gas flow between two coaxial metal electrodes and a sinusoidal bias voltage of 3 kV with a frequency of 20 kHz. Titanium materials used in this study are screw-shaped implants of which diameter and length are 5 mm and 13 mm, respectively. Samples were mounted at a distance of 5 mm below the plasma source, and the plasma treatment time was set to 3 min. The wettability of titanium surface was measured by the moving speed of water on its surface, which is enhanced by plasma treatment. The surface roughness was also measured by atomic force microscopy. The optimal condition for wettability change is discussed.

  12. Stability of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Induced Changes on Polycarbonate Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh; Holcomb, Edward; Trigwell, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Polycarbonate films are subjected to plasma treatment in a number of applications such as improving adhesion between polycarbonate and silicon alloy in protective and optical coatings. The changes in surface chemistry due to plasma treatment have tendency to revert back. Thus stability of the plasma induced changes on polymer surfaces over desired time period is very important. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ageing on atmospheric pressure helium-plasma treated polycarbonate (PC) sample as a function of treatment time. The ageing effects were studied over a period of 10 days. The samples were plasma treated for 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 minutes. Contact angle measurements were made to study surface energy changes. Modification of surface chemical structure was examined using, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Contact angle measurements on untreated and plasma treated surfaces were made immediately, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs after treatment. Contact angle decreased from 93 deg for untreated sample to 30 deg for sample plasma treated for 10 minutes. After 10 days the contact angles for the 10 minute plasma treated sample increased to 67 deg, but it never reverted back to that of untreated surface. Similarly the O/C ratio increased from 0.136 for untreated sample to 0.321 for 10 minute plasma treated sample indication increase in surface energy.

  13. Dynamics and relaxation in confined medium. Application to 129Xe magnetic relaxation in Vycor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, Virginie

    1995-01-01

    Porous media morphology and topology drive the exploration of pore space by fluid. So, analysis of transport process, associated with relaxation mechanism, allows indirect study of pore geometry. The purpose of this work is to understand better the relation between geometry and transport. This study involves two parts: a modelization and prediction step is followed by an experimental application of magnetic relaxation. Numerical simulations and analytical models allow to quantify the influence on the solid interface of the dynamical behavior of confined gas in disordered porous media (granular structure and porous network) or in common geometry (cylindrical and lamellar interfaces). The formalism of diffusion propagator is a powerful tool to quantify the influence of the pore geometry on the diffusion of confined gas. The propagator holds all dynamical information on the system; it also predicts the temporal evolution of the autocorrelation functions of the Hamiltonian describing local coupling. In an intermediate time scale, magnetic relaxation shows complex diffusional regime: the autocorrelation functions decrease in a power law with a exponent smaller than d/2 (where d is the Euclidian dimension of the system). This behavior is analogous to dynamic in low-dimensional space, but here arises from surface correlations of the porous media. The long-time behavior of the autocorrelation functions retrieves the asymptotic decrease t -d/2 . Moreover, atypical behavior is observed for the Knudsen diffusion between infinite planes. It turns out that 129 Xe NMR is a appropriate technique to characterize organization and diffusion of gas confined in Vycor. Systematic studies of temperature and pressure effect on the 129 Xe chemical shift allow to specify the Xe/solid interaction. The analysis of the relaxation measurements, thanks to the numerical development, confirms conclusions arising from the study of diffusion propagator. (author) [fr

  14. Aluminum metal surface cleaning and activation by atmospheric-pressure remote plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, J., E-mail: jmespadero@uco.es; Bravo, J.A.; Calzada, M.D.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric-pressure postdischarges have been applied on aluminium surfaces. • The outer hydrocarbon layer is reduced by the action of the postdischarge. • The treatment promotes the appearance of hydrophilic OH radicals in the surface. • Effectivity for distances up to 5 cm allows for treating irregular surfaces. • Ageing in air due to the disappearance of OH radicals has been reported. - Abstract: The use of the remote plasma (postdischarge) of argon and argon-nitrogen microwave plasmas for cleaning and activating the surface of metallic commercial aluminum samples has been studied. The influence of the nitrogen content and the distance between the treated samples and the end of the discharge on the hydrophilicity and the surface energy has been analyzed by means of the sessile drop technique and the Owens-Wendt method. A significant increase in the hydrophilicity has been noted in the treated samples, together with an increase in the surface energy from values around 37 mJ/m{sup 2} to 77 mJ/m{sup 2}. Such increase weakly depends on the nitrogen content of the discharge, and the effectivity of the treatment extends to distances up to 5 cm from the end of the discharge, much longer than those reported in other plasma-based treatments. The analysis of the treated samples using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that such increase in the surface energy takes place due to a reduction of the carbon content and an increase in the amount of OH radicals in the surface. These radicals tend to disappear within 24–48 h after the treatment when the samples are stored in contact with ambient air, resulting in the ageing of the treated surface and a partial retrieval of the hydrophobicity of the surface.

  15. Relaxation of the MCL after an Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy results in decreasing contact pressures of the knee over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Egmond, N.; Hannink, G.; Janssen, D.; Vrancken, A.C.; Verdonschot, N.; van Kampen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a medial open-wedge osteotomy (OWO) and the release of the superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL) on the tibiofemoral cartilage pressure, the MCL tension and the valgus laxity of the knee. Methods: Seven fresh-frozen, human

  16. Relaxation of the MCL after an Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy results in decreasing contact pressures of the knee over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, N. van; Hannink, G.J.; Janssen, D.W.; Vrancken, A.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Kampen, A. van

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a medial open-wedge osteotomy (OWO) and the release of the superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL) on the tibiofemoral cartilage pressure, the MCL tension and the valgus laxity of the knee. METHODS: Seven fresh-frozen, human

  17. Cytocompatibility evaluation and surface characterization of TiNi deformed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Shri, Dayangku Noorfazidah, E-mail: AWANGSHRI.Dayangku@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koichi [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akiko [Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    Effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) deformation on biocompatibility and surface chemistry of TiNi was systematically investigated. Ti–50 mol% Ni was subjected to HPT straining for different numbers of turns, N = 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 at a rotation speed of 1 rpm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations after 7 days of cell culture revealed the changes in the surface oxide composition, enrichment of Ti and detection of nitrogen derived from organic molecules in the culture medium. Plating efficiency of L929 cells was slightly increased by HPT deformation though no significant difference was observed. Albumin adsorption was higher in HPT-deformed samples, while vitronectin adsorption was peaked at N = 1. HPT deformation was also found to effectively suppress the Ni ion release from the TiNi samples into the cell culture medium even after the low degree of deformation at N = 0.25. - Highlights: • Nanostructured Ti–50 mol%Ni alloy was produced using high-pressure torsion. • HPT deformation improved L929 growth on TiNi samples. • Changes in surface chemistry were observed in HPT deformed samples. • Protein adsorption behavior was influenced by the surface chemistry. • Ni ion release was suppressed in HPT deformed samples.

  18. Shock tunnel measurements of surface pressures in shock induced separated flow field using MEMS sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, R; Jagadeesh, G; Ram, S N; Hegde, G M; Nayak, M M

    2015-01-01

    Characterized not just by high Mach numbers, but also high flow total enthalpies—often accompanied by dissociation and ionization of flowing gas itself—the experimental simulation of hypersonic flows requires impulse facilities like shock tunnels. However, shock tunnel simulation imposes challenges and restrictions on the flow diagnostics, not just because of the possible extreme flow conditions, but also the short run times—typically around 1 ms. The development, calibration and application of fast response MEMS sensors for surface pressure measurements in IISc hypersonic shock tunnel HST-2, with a typical test time of 600 μs, for the complex flow field of strong (impinging) shock boundary layer interaction with separation close to the leading edge, is delineated in this paper. For Mach numbers 5.96 (total enthalpy 1.3 MJ kg −1 ) and 8.67 (total enthalpy 1.6 MJ kg −1 ), surface pressures ranging from around 200 Pa to 50 000 Pa, in various regions of the flow field, are measured using the MEMS sensors. The measurements are found to compare well with the measurements using commercial sensors. It was possible to resolve important regions of the flow field involving significant spatial gradients of pressure, with a resolution of 5 data points within 12 mm in each MEMS array, which cannot be achieved with the other commercial sensors. In particular, MEMS sensors enabled the measurement of separation pressure (at Mach 8.67) near the leading edge and the sharply varying pressure in the reattachment zone. (paper)

  19. Surface pressure and aerodynamic loads determination of a transonic airfoil based on particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragni, D; Ashok, A; Van Oudheusden, B W; Scarano, F

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation assesses a procedure to extract the aerodynamic loads and pressure distribution on an airfoil in the transonic flow regime from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The wind tunnel model is a two-dimensional NACA-0012 airfoil, and the PIV velocity data are used to evaluate pressure fields, whereas lift and drag coefficients are inferred from the evaluation of momentum contour and wake integrals. The PIV-based results are compared to those derived from conventional loads determination procedures involving surface pressure transducers and a wake rake. The method applied in this investigation is an extension to the compressible flow regime of that considered by van Oudheusden et al (2006 Non-intrusive load characterization of an airfoil using PIV Exp. Fluids 40 988–92) at low speed conditions. The application of a high-speed imaging system allows the acquisition in relatively short time of a sufficient ensemble size to compute converged velocity statistics, further translated in turbulent fluctuations included in the pressure and loads calculation, notwithstanding their verified negligible influence in the computation. Measurements are performed at varying spatial resolution to optimize the loads determination in the wake region and around the airfoil, further allowing us to assess the influence of spatial resolution in the proposed procedure. Specific interest is given to the comparisons between the PIV-based method and the conventional procedures for determining the pressure coefficient on the surface, the drag and lift coefficients at different angles of attack. Results are presented for the experiments at a free-stream Mach number M = 0.6, with the angle of attack ranging from 0° to 8°

  20. Absolute local sea surface in the Vanuatu Archipelago from GPS, satellite altimetry and pressure gauge data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K. K.; Ballu, V.; Bouin, M.; Calmant, S.; Shum, C.

    2004-12-01

    Water height measurements provided by seafloor tide gauges are a combination of sea level variation and local ground motion. Both signals are of scientific interest, but they must be separated in order to be useful. A reliable estimation of the vertical ground motion is important in very seismically areas such as the Pacific Ocean rim. One promising method to separate the two contributions is to use satellite altimetry which gives absolute water height that is independent of the local ground motion. However, the altimeter data must be calibrated using ground truth measurements. Once different components of the signal are separated, bottom pressure gauges can be used to detect vertical movements of the seafloor. The Vanuatu Archipelago is part of the Pacific "ring of fire", where plates are quickly converging. In this area, movements are very rapid and the seismic activity is intense, which gives a good opportunity to study deformation and seismic cycle. To get an integrate picture of vertical deformation over one plate and between the two plates, one needs to be able to monitor vertical movements on both underwater and emerged areas. We conducted an experiment in this area to compare measurements from bottom pressure gauges located beneath altimetry satellite tracks with sea surface altitude measurements from GPS. Two bottom pressure gauge are immerged since Nov. 1999 in this region. In order to perform absolute calibration for multiple satellite altimeters that overfly the region, we conducted 2 campaigns of GPS measurements of instantaneous sea surface height onboard the R/V Alis and using a GPS buoy. We present results of GPS computations for the March 2003 and March 2004 campaigns. These sea level GPS measurements are compared with multiple altimeter-measured sea surface heights, and sampling differences and high frequency variations were removed using continuous pressure gauge data. The observed discrepancies are likely to be explained by local geoid

  1. Development of an Organosilicon-Based Superhydrophobic/Icephobic Surface Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Siavash

    During the past few decades, plasma-based surface treatment methods have gained a lot of interest in various applications such as thin film deposition, surface etching, surface activation and/or cleaning, etc. Generally, in plasma-based surface treatment methods, high-energy plasma-generated species are utilized to modify the surface structure or the chemical composition of a substrate. Unique physical and chemical characteristics of the plasma along with the high controllability of the process makes plasma treatment approaches very attractive in several industries. Plasma-based treatment methods are currently being used or investigated for a number of practical applications, such as adhesion promotion in auto industry, wound management and cancer treatment in biomedical industry, and coating development in aerospace industry. In this study, a two-step procedure is proposed for the development of superhydrophobic/icephobic coatings based on atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment of aluminum substrates using air and nitrogen plasma. The effects of plasma parameters on various surface properties are studied in order to identify the optimum conditions for maximum coating efficiency against icing and wetting. In the first step, the interactions between air or nitrogen plasma and the aluminum surface are studied. It is shown that by reducing jet-to-substrate distance, air plasma treatment, unlike nitrogen plasma treatment, is capable of creating micro-porous micro-roughened structures on the surface, some of which bear a significant resemblance to the features observed in laser ablation of metals with short and ultra-short laser pulses. The formation of such structures in plasma treatment is attributed to a transportation of energy from the jet to the surface over a very short period of time, in the range of picoseconds to microseconds. This energy transfer is shown to occur through a streamer discharge from the rotating arc source in the jet body to a close proximity of

  2. A coupled surface/subsurface flow model accounting for air entrapment and air pressure counterflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delfs, Jens Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Kalbacher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    the mass exchange between compartments. A benchmark test, which is based on a classic experimental data set on infiltration excess (Horton) overland flow, identified a feedback mechanism between surface runoff and soil air pressures. Our study suggests that air compression in soils amplifies surface runoff......This work introduces the soil air system into integrated hydrology by simulating the flow processes and interactions of surface runoff, soil moisture and air in the shallow subsurface. The numerical model is formulated as a coupled system of partial differential equations for hydrostatic (diffusive...... wave) shallow flow and two-phase flow in a porous medium. The simultaneous mass transfer between the soil, overland, and atmosphere compartments is achieved by upgrading a fully established leakance concept for overland-soil liquid exchange to an air exchange flux between soil and atmosphere. In a new...

  3. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr,; Jeffrey, W [Livermore, CA

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  4. Surface modification of polyimide (PI) film using water cathode atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Peichao; Liu Keming; Wang Jinmei; Dai Yu; Yu Bin; Zhou Xianju; Hao Honggang; Luo Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Equipment called water cathode atmospheric pressure glow discharge was used to improve the hydrophilicity of polyimide films. ► The data shows good homogeneity and the variation trends of contact angles are different for polar and non-polar testing liquids. ► The thickness of liquid layer plays an important role in plasma processing and directly affects the treatment effect. ► Surface hydrophilicity after plasma treatment is improved partly due to the increase in the roughness. ► The hydrophilicity of polyimide films is still better than untreated ones after long-term storage. - Abstract: The industrial use of polyimide film is limited because of undesirable properties such as poor wettability. In the present paper, a new kind of equipment called water cathode atmospheric pressure glow discharge was used to improve the surface properties of polyimide films and made them useful to technical applications. The changes in hydrophilicity of modified polyimide film surfaces were investigated by contact angle, surface energy and water content measurements as a function of treatment time. The results obtained show good treatment homogeneity and that the variation trends of contact angles are different for polar and non-polar testing liquids, while surface energy and water content are significantly enhanced with the increase of treatment time until they achieve saturated values after 60 s plasma treatment. Also, the thickness of liquid layer plays an important role in plasma processing and directly affects the treatment effect. Changes in morphology of polyimide films were analyzed by atomic force microscope and the results indicate that surface hydrophilicity after plasma treatment are improved partly due to the increase in the roughness. In addition, polyimide films treated by plasma are subjected to an ageing process to determine the durability of plasma treatment. It is found that the hydrophilicity is still better than untreated ones though the

  5. Effect of nanoscale surface texture on the contact-pressure-dependent conduction characteristics of a carbon-nanotube thin-film tactile pressure sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chaehyun; Lee, Kunhak; Choi, Eunsuk; Kim, Ahsung; Kim, Jinoh; Lee, Seungbeck [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    We report on a novel tactile pressure sensor structure that transfers the vertical pressure applied to the sample's surface to lateral strain in the carbon-nanotube thin film embedded in an elastomer by using a 'wavy' structured substrate contact surface. When pressure was applied to the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface, it was transferred to a carbon-nanotube thin film (CNTF) underneath, where it stretched to conform to the wavy substrate surface. This resulted in an elongation, or lateral strain, in the CNTF layer, their reducing its conductance. The measurements showed that with an applied vertical pressure of 30 kPa, a 15% reduction in conductance was achieved with only a 500-nm deflection in the CNTF, and repeatedly applied pressures for 3,600 cycles (12 hours) resulted in only a 2% reduction in sensitivity, demonstrating the their film's high sensitivity and reliability. The mechanical stability and high sensitivity of the CNTF/PDMS hybrid with wavy substrate structures may make possible applications to future tactile pressure sensors.

  6. Study of discharges produced by surface waves under medium and high pressure: application to chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laye epouse Granier, Agnes

    1986-01-01

    This report deals with the study of microwave discharges produced in argon gas by surface waves in the 20-760 Torr pressure range. Application to chemical analysis by emission optical spectroscopy is also investigated. First of all we study the propagation of a surface wave in a bounded plasma in which the effective collision frequency for momentum transfer ν is higher than the excitation one. The axial electron density profile is determined from two diagnostic techniques, i.e., phase variations of the wave field and Stark broadening of H β line. Then we deduce the discharge characteristics ν, θ (maintaining power of an electron-ion pair) and E eff (effective electric field for discharge sustaining) from the electron density profile. Then an energy balance of the discharge is developed. It explains the change of operating conditions in the 20-50 Torr range. At low pressure the discharge is governed by ambipolar diffusion whereas at high pressure, the electrons are mainly lost by volume recombination of Ar 2 + . Finally, we report on chemical analysis experiment of gases (optimum sensibility in found near 100 Torr) and of metallic solutions sprayed by a graphite oven. Performances of such a design and ICP plasma torches are compared. (author) [fr

  7. Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinert, M R; Dathe, A; Parlange, J-Y; Cady, K B

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between capillary pressure and saturation in a porous medium often exhibits a power-law dependence. The physical basis for this relation has been substantiated by assuming that capillary pressure is directly related to the pore radius. When the pore space of a medium exhibits fractal structure this approach results in a power-law relation with an exponent of 3-D(v), where D(v) is the pore volume fractal dimension. However, larger values of the exponent than are realistically allowed by this result have long been known to occur. Using a thermodynamic formulation for equilibrium capillary pressure we show that the standard result is a special case of the more general exponent (3-D(v))(3-D(s)) where D(s) is the surface fractal dimension of the pores. The analysis reduces to the standard result when D(s)=2, indicating a Euclidean relationship between a pore's surface area and the volume it encloses, and allows for a larger value for the exponent than the standard result when D(s)>2 .

  8. Rough-Surface-Enabled Capacitive Pressure Sensors with 3D Touch Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilsoo; Lee, Jaehong; Kim, Gwangmook; Kim, Youngjae; Kang, Subin; Cho, Sungjun; Kim, SeulGee; Kim, Jae-Kang; Lee, Wooyoung; Kim, Dae-Eun; Kang, Shinill; Kim, DaeEun; Lee, Taeyoon; Shim, Wooyoung

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication strategies that pursue "simplicity" for the production process and "functionality" for a device, in general, are mutually exclusive. Therefore, strategies that are less expensive, less equipment-intensive, and consequently, more accessible to researchers for the realization of omnipresent electronics are required. Here, this study presents a conceptually different approach that utilizes the inartificial design of the surface roughness of paper to realize a capacitive pressure sensor with high performance compared with sensors produced using costly microfabrication processes. This study utilizes a writing activity with a pencil and paper, which enables the construction of a fundamental capacitor that can be used as a flexible capacitive pressure sensor with high pressure sensitivity and short response time and that it can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas. Furthermore, the paper-based pressure sensors are integrated into a fully functional 3D touch-pad device, which is a step toward the realization of omnipresent electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fermi Surface, Pressure-Induced Antiferromagnetic Order, and Superconductivity in FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Jun; Yamada, Takemi; Yanagi, Yuki; Ōno, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the structural (Ts), antiferromagnetic (Tm), and superconducting (Tc) transition temperatures in FeSe is investigated on the basis of the 16-band d-p model. At ambient pressure, a shallow hole pocket disappears due to the correlation effect, as observed in the angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and quantum oscillation (QO) experiments, resulting in the suppression of the antiferromagnetic order, in contrast to the other iron pnictides. The orbital-polarization interaction between the Fe d orbital and Se p orbital is found to drive the ferro-orbital order responsible for the structural transition without accompanying the antiferromagnetic order. The pressure dependence of the Fermi surfaces is derived from the first-principles calculation and is found to well account for the opposite pressure dependences of Ts and Tm, around which the enhanced orbital and magnetic fluctuations cause the double-dome structure of the eigenvalue λ in the Eliashberg equation, as consistent with that of Tc in FeSe.

  10. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for surface science and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Salmeron, Miquel; Schlogl, Robert

    2008-03-12

    Progress in science often follows or parallels the development of new techniques. The optical microscope helped convert medicine and biology from a speculative activity in old times to today's sophisticated scientific disciplines. The telescope changed the study and interpretation of heavens from mythology to science. X-ray diffraction enabled the flourishing of solid state physics and materials science. The technique object of this review, Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy or APPES for short, has also the potential of producing dramatic changes in the study of liquid and solid surfaces, particularly in areas such as atmospheric, environment and catalysis sciences. APPES adds an important missing element to the host of techniques that give fundamental information, i.e., spectroscopy and microscopy, about surfaces in the presence of gases and vapors, as encountered in industrial catalysis and atmospheric environments. APPES brings electron spectroscopy into the realm of techniques that can be used in practical environments. Decades of surface science in ultra high vacuum (UHV) has shown the power of electron spectroscopy in its various manifestations. Their unique property is the extremely short elastic mean free path of electrons as they travel through condensed matter, of the order of a few atomic distances in the energy range from a few eV to a few thousand eV. As a consequence of this the information obtained by analyzing electrons emitted or scattered from a surface refers to the top first few atomic layers, which is what surface science is all about. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and other such techniques have been used for decades and provided some of the most fundamental knowledge about surface crystallography, composition and electronic structure available today. Unfortunately the high interaction cross section of

  11. Surface reconstruction of GaAs(001) nitrided under the controlled As partial pressure [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayoshi, Takahiro; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Shigekawa, Hidemi; Tokumoto, Hiroshi

    2003-08-01

    Under the controlled As partial pressure, the nitridation process of GaAs(0 0 1)-(2 × 4) surface was studied using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) combined with an electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy system. With either prolonging the nitridation time or decreasing the As partial pressure, the previously reported (3 × 3) structure with two dimers per surface cell ((3 × 3)-2D) was found to progressively convert into a new (3 × 3) structure characterized by one dimer per surface cell ((3 × 3)-1D). Reversely the exposure to arsenic transformed the structure from (3 × 3)-1D to (3 × 3)-2D, suggesting that the topmost layer is composed of As 2-dimers. Based on these STM images together with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, we propose the new As 2-dimer coverage models to explain both (3 × 3)-1D and -2D structures involving the exchange reaction of arsenic with nitrogen in the subsurface region of GaAs.

  12. FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A U-TUBE WITH SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND PRESSURE DROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYUN-HO GIM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the surface roughness affecting the pressure drop in a pipe used as the steam generator of a PWR was studied. Based on the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics technique using a commercial code named ANSYS-FLUENT, a straight pipe was modeled to obtain the Darcy frictional coefficient, changed with a range of various surface roughness ratios as well as Reynolds numbers. The result is validated by the comparison with a Moody chart to set the appropriate size of grids at the wall for the correct consideration of surface roughness. The pressure drop in a full-scale U-shaped pipe is measured with the same code, correlated with the surface roughness ratio. In the next stage, we studied a reduced scale model of a U-shaped heat pipe with experiment and analysis of the investigation into fluid-structure interaction (FSI. The material of the pipe was cut from the real heat pipe of a material named Inconel 690 alloy, now used in steam generators. The accelerations at the fixed stations on the outer surface of the pipe model are measured in the series of time history, and Fourier transformed to the frequency domain. The natural frequency of three leading modes were traced from the FFT data, and compared with the result of a numerical analysis for unsteady, incompressible flow. The corresponding mode shapes and maximum displacement are obtained numerically from the FSI simulation with the coupling of the commercial codes, ANSYS-FLUENT and TRANSIENT_STRUCTURAL. The primary frequencies for the model system consist of three parts: structural vibration, BPF(blade pass frequency of pump, and fluid-structure interaction.

  13. Static Air Support Surfaces to Prevent Pressure Injuries: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Belgian Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraes, Brecht; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for developing pressure injuries (PIs) in patients placed on a static air support surfaces: mattress overlay, heel wedge, and seat cushion. Multicenter cohort study. The sample comprised 176 residents; their mean age was 87 (SD = 6.76) years; their mean Braden Scale score was 14 (SD = 2.54). The study was performed on a convenience sample of 6 nursing homes in Belgium. Data were collected on 23 care units. The primary outcome measure, cumulative PI incidence (category [stage] II-IV) over a 30-day observation period, was calculated. Pressure injury occurrence was defined according to the 2014 European and US National Pressure Injury Advisory panels, Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance classification system. The PI incidence for category (stage) II-IV was 5.1%. Six residents (3.4%) developed a category II PI, and 3 (1.7%) developed a category III PI; no category IV ulcers occurred. No significant risk factors for category II-IV PIs were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Time of sitting in a chair was found to be a risk factor for development of nonblanchable erythema (category I PI) (odds ratio = 21.608; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.510-22.812; P = .013). The median time to develop a category II-IV PI was 16 days (interquartile range = 2-26). The interrater reliability between the observations of the researcher and nurses on-site was almost perfect (0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91). We found a low incidence of PIs when using a static air overlay mattress for patients at risk in a nursing home population. Static air support surfaces, alongside patient-tailored patient repositioning protocols, should be considered to prevent PIs in this patient population.

  14. Remote Sensing Global Surface Air Pressure Using Differential Absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    Tropical storms and severe weathers are listed as one of core events that need improved observations and predictions in World Meteorological Organization and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) documents and have major impacts on public safety and national security. This effort tries to observe surface air pressure, especially over open seas, from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at the 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 4 millibars (approximately 1 millibar under all weather conditions). With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts of severe weathers such as hurricanes will be significantly improved. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, NASA Langley DiBAR research team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. The feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. The team has developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with the instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on global extreme weather and climate conditions.

  15. Investigation of surface treatment of conductive wire in cylindrical atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Rubin; Kagohashi, Tsutomu; Zheng Wei

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene insulated electric wire was treated in He and Ar dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric pressure plasmas generated in a quartz tube wound with tubular electrodes. The wire was put penetrating through the high voltage and the grounded electrodes, improving the discharge and facilitating uniform surface treatment. In this work, the influences of conductivity of the wire on the effects of surface treatment and discharge behavior were investigated. Surface properties of the wire samples were analyzed by means of surface energy measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In order to reveal the mechanism for treating the conductive wire, I-V discharge waveforms were measured and time-resolved plasma images were taken. It was demonstrated that the conductive wire was involved in the discharge process, reducing the breakdown voltage significantly and enhancing the discharge. It shows that the discharge mode was strongly dependent on the conductivity of a wire. Intensive surface discharges developed along the conductive wire were found to be mainly responsible for noticeable improvement in the treatment effect.

  16. Ambient pressure dried tetrapropoxysilane-based silica aerogels with high specific surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parale, Vinayak G.; Han, Wooje; Jung, Hae-Noo-Ree; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS)-based silica aerogels with high surface area and large pore volume. The silica aerogels were prepared by a two-step sol-gel process followed by surface modification via a simple ambient pressure drying approach. In order to minimize drying shrinkage and obtain hydrophobic aerogels, the surface of the alcogels was modified using trichloromethylsilane as a silylating agent. The effect of the sol-gel compositional parameters on the polymerization of aerogels prepared by TPOS, one of the precursors belonging to the Si(OR)4 family, was reported for the first time. The oxalic acid and NH4OH concentrations were adjusted to achieve good-quality aerogels with high surface area, low density, and high transparency. Controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the TPOS precursor turned out to be the most important factor to determine the pore characteristics of the aerogel. Highly transparent aerogels with high specific surface area (938 m2/g) and low density (0.047 g/cm3) could be obtained using an optimized TPOS/MeOH molar ratio with appropriate concentrations of oxalic acid and NH4OH.

  17. Hydrophilic film polymerized on the inner surface of PMMA tube by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengmeng; Huang, Jun; Yu, Jinsong; Chen, Guangliang; Qu, Shanqing

    2017-07-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) tube is widely used in biomedical and mechanical engineering fields. However, it is hampered for some special applications as the inner surface of PMMA tube exhibts a hydrophobic characteristic. The aim of this work is to explore the hydrophilic modification of the inner surface of the PMMA tubes using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system that incorporates the acylic acid monomer (AA). Polar groups were grafted onto the inner surface of PMMA tube via the reactive radicals (•OH, •H, •O) generated in the Ar/O2/AA plasma, which were observed by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The deposition of the PAA thin layer on the PMMA surface was verified through the ATR-FTIR spectra, which clearly showed the strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (C=O) at 1700 cm-1. The XPS data show that the carbon ratios of C-OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 9.50% and 0.07% to 13.49% and 17.07% respectively when a discharge power of 50 W was used in the APPJ system. As a result, the static water contat angle (WCA) of the modified inner surface of PMMA tube decreased from 100° to 48°. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the APP modified PMMA tubes was illustrated by the study of the adhesion of the cultured MC3T3-E1 osteocyte cells, which exhibted a significantly enhanced adhesion density.

  18. Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces. High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhongwei [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Surface structure, mobility, and composition of transition metal catalysts were studied by high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HP-STM) and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at high gas pressures. HP-STM makes it possible to determine the atomic or molecular rearrangement at catalyst surfaces, particularly at the low-coordinated active surface sites. AP-XPS monitors changes in elemental composition and chemical states of catalysts in response to variations in gas environments. Stepped Pt and Cu single crystals, the hexagonally reconstructed Pt(100) single crystal, and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size, shape and composition, were employed as the model catalysts for experiments in this thesis.

  19. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE]. Summary of research progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under ``Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE`` and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO{sub 2}. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO{sub 2} on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO{sub 2} in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  20. Study on the reforming of alcohols in a surface wave discharge (SWD) at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, M; Yubero, C; Calzada, M D

    2008-01-01

    Surface wave plasma at atmospheric pressure has been used to produce the decomposition of the alcohol molecules introduced into it, in order to obtain hydrogen. Four alcohols, methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, have been used for this purpose. Optical emission spectroscopy was the tool used to analyse the radiation emitted by the plasma. Hydrogen atoms and other species such as C 2 and CH in alcohols have been detected but no CO molecular bands. Also, a mass spectrometer has been used in order to detect molecular hydrogen production in methanol decomposition

  1. Use of Pressure-Redistributing Support Surfaces Among Elderly Hip Fracture Patients Across the Continuum of Care: Adherence to Pressure Ulcer Prevention Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Mona; Margolis, David; Orwig, Denise; Hawkes, William; Rich, Shayna; Langenberg, Patricia; Shardell, Michelle; Palmer, Mary H.; McArdle, Patrick; Sterling, Robert; Jones, Patricia S.; Magaziner, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the frequency of use of pressure-redistributing support surfaces (PRSS) among hip fracture patients and to determine whether higher pressure ulcer risk is associated with greater PRSS use. Design and Methods: Patients (n = 658) aged ≥65 years who had surgery for hip fracture were examined by research nurses at baseline and on alternating days for 21 days. Information on PRSS use and pressure ulcer risk factors was recorded at each assessment visit. Other information was o...

  2. Development of a pressure based room acoustic model using impedance descriptions of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    and acoustic radiosity will account for the diffuse reflections. This paper presents the motivation for the new model in the form of results in literature, which show the importance of retaining the angle dependence and phase information in reflections along with simple examples of angle dependent reflection......If a simulation tool is to be used for the optimization of absorbent ceilings, it is important that the simulation tool includes a good description of the surface. This study therefore aims at developing a model which can describe surfaces by their impedance values and not just by their statistical...... absorption coefficient, thus retaining the phase and the angle dependence. The approach of the proposed model will be to calculate the pressure impulse response using a combination of the image source method and acoustic radiosity. The image source method will account for the specular reflections...

  3. Interfacial effects of surface-active agents under zinc pressure leach conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, George; Dreisinger, David B.; Peters, Ernest

    1995-02-01

    Liquid sulfur-zinc sulfate solution interfacial tensions and liquid sulfur-zinc sulfate solution-zinc sulfide (marmatite) contact angles were measured in the absence and presence of surface-active agents. Interfacial tensions measured varied between 54 ± 1 mN/m in the surfactant-free system and 20 ± 1 mN/m in the presence of a surfactant. The liquid sulfur-zinc sulfide mineral-zinc sulfate solution contact angle varies between 80 ± 5 deg, in the absence of any surfactant, and 148 ± 5 deg, depending on the surfactant used. The surface-active agents were used as dispersants for sulfur in bench-scale zinc pressure-leaching experiments. The observed extent of zinc extraction depends on the surfactant and varies from 40 to 96 pct.

  4. Characteristics of surface sound pressure and absorption of a finite impedance strip for a grazing incident plane wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, K S; Pan, J

    2007-07-01

    Distributions of sound pressure and intensity on the surface of a flat impedance strip flush-mounted on a rigid baffle are studied for a grazing incident plane wave. The distributions are obtained by superimposing the unperturbed wave (the specularly reflected wave as if the strip is rigid plus the incident wave) with the radiated wave from the surface vibration of the strip excited by the unperturbed pressure. The radiated pressure interferes with the unperturbed pressure and distorts the propagating plane wave. When the plane wave propagates in the baffle-strip-baffle direction, it encounters discontinuities in acoustical impedance at the baffle-strip and strip-baffle interfaces. The radiated pressure is highest around the baffle-strip interface, but decreases toward the strip-baffle interface where the plane wave distortion reduces accordingly. As the unperturbed and radiated waves have different magnitudes and superimpose out of phase, the surface pressure and intensity increase across the strip in the plane wave propagation direction. Therefore, the surface absorption of the strip is nonzero and nonuniform. This paper provides an understanding of the surface pressure and intensity behaviors of a finite impedance strip for a grazing incident plane wave, and of how the distributed intensity determines the sound absorption coefficient of the strip.

  5. The effect of ambient pressure on ejecta sheets from free-surface ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2016-04-16

    We present observations from an experimental study of the ablation of a free liquid surface promoted by a focused laser pulse, causing a rapid discharge of liquid in the form of a very thin conical-shaped sheet. In order to capture the dynamics, we employ a state-of-the-art ultra-high-speed video camera capable of capturing events at (Formula presented.) fps with shutter speeds down to 20 ns, whereby we were able to capture not only the ejecta sheet, but also the shock wave, emerging at speeds of up to 1.75 km/s, which is thus found to be hypersonic (Mach 5). Experiments were performed at a range of ambient pressures in order to study the effect of air drag on the evolution of the sheet, which was always observed to dome over, even at pressures as low as 3.8 kPa. At reduced pressures, the extended sheet evolution led to the formation of interference fringe patterns from which, by comparison with the opening speed of rupture, we were able to determine the ejecta thickness. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  7. Role of west Asian surface pressure in summer monsoon onset over central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Agrawal, Shubhi

    2017-07-01

    Using rain-gauge measurements and reanalysis data sets for 1948-2015, we propose a mechanism that controls the interannual variation of summer monsoon onset over central India. In May, about a month before the onset, the low level jet over the Arabian Sea is about 40% stronger and about 2.5 degrees northward during years of early onset as compared to years of late onset. A stronger and northward shifted low level jet carries about 50% more moisture in early onset years, which increases low level moist static energy over central India in the pre-monsoon season. The increase in low level moist static energy decreases the stability of the atmosphere and makes it conducive for convection. The strength and position of the low level jet are determined by surface pressure gradient between western Asia and the west-equatorial Indian Ocean. Thus, an anomalous surface pressure low over western Asia in the pre-monsoon season increases this gradient and strengthens the jet. Moreover, a stronger low level jet increases the meridional shear of zonal wind and supports the formation of an onset vortex in a stronger baroclinic atmosphere. These developments are favourable for an early onset of the monsoon over the central Indian region. Our study postulates a new physical mechanism for the interannual variation of onset over central India, the core of the Indian monsoon region and relevant to Indian agriculture, and could be tested for real-time prediction.

  8. Corroborative evidences of TV γ -scaling of the α-relaxation originating from the primitive relaxation/JG β relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.

  9. Modeling and Analysis of The Pressure Die Casting Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittur, Jayant K.; Herwadkar, T. V.; Parappagoudar, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Pressure die casting is successfully used in the manufacture of Aluminum alloys components for automobile and many other industries. Die casting is a process involving many process parameters having complex relationship with the quality of the cast product. Though various process parameters have influence on the quality of die cast component, major influence is seen by the die casting machine parameters and their proper settings. In the present work, non-linear regression models have been developed for making predictions and analyzing the effect of die casting machine parameters on the performance characteristics of die casting process. Design of Experiments (DOE) with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to analyze the effect of effect of input parameters and their interaction on the response and further used to develop nonlinear input-output relationships. Die casting machine parameters, namely, fast shot velocity, slow shot to fast shot change over point, intensification pressure and holding time have been considered as the input variables. The quality characteristics of the cast product were determined by porosity, hardness and surface rough roughness (output/responses). Design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and analyze the impact of variables on the quality of casting. On the other-hand Response Surface Methodology (Central Composite Design) is utilized to develop non-linear input-output relationships (regression models). The developed regression models have been tested for their statistical adequacy through ANOVA test. The practical usefulness of these models has been tested with some test cases. These models can be used to make the predictions about different quality characteristics, for the known set of die casting machine parameters, without conducting the experiments.

  10. Prevention of pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial of 2 viscoelastic foam support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Pakize; Yavuz, Meryem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare whether differences exist between 2 viscoelastic foam support surfaces in the development of new pressure ulcers. There is evidence to support the use of viscoelastic foam over standard hospital foam to reduce pressure. A comparative effectiveness study was done to compare 2 viscoelastic foam support surfaces. A randomized controlled trial was carried out. The study was performed in 2 intensive care units between October 1, 2008, and January 4, 2010. Patients (n = 105) admitted to intensive care unit were randomly assigned to viscoelastic foam 1 (n = 53) or viscoelastic foam 2 support surface (n = 52). In total, 42.8% of all patients developed a new pressure ulcer of stage 1 or worse. By stages, pressure ulcer incidence was 28.6%, 13.3%, and 1.0% for stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no significant difference in pressure ulcer incidence between the viscoelastic foam 1 and 2 groups (X2 = 0.07, df = 1, P > .05). No difference was found between 2 different viscoelastic foam surfaces in the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients treated in intensive care. Pressure ulcer incidence in critically ill patients remains high. Nurses must compare current products for effectiveness and develop innovative systems, processes, or devices to deliver best practices.

  11. Investigation of working pressure on the surface roughness controlling technology of glow discharge polymer films based on the diagnosed plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Guo; He, Zhibing; Ai, Xing; Huang, Jinglin; Liu, Lei; Tang, Yongjian; He, Xiaoshan

    2017-07-01

    The effects of working pressure on the component, surface morphology, surface roughness, and deposition rate of glow discharge polymer (GDP) films by a trans-2-butene/hydrogen gas mixture were investigated based on plasma characteristics diagnosis. The composition and ion energy distributions of a multi-carbon (C4H8/H2) plasma mixture at different working pressures were diagnosed by an energy-resolved mass spectrometer (MS) during the GDP film deposition process. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white-light interferometer (WLI) results were obtained to investigate the structure, morphology and roughness characterization of the deposited films, respectively. It was found that the degree of ionization of the C4H8/H2 plasma reduces with an increase in the working pressure. At a low working pressure, the C-H fragments exhibited small-mass and high ion energy in plasma. In this case, the film had a low CH3/CH2 ratio, and displayed a smooth surface without any holes, cracks or asperities. While the working pressure increased to 15 Pa, the largest number of large-mass fragments led to the deposition rate reaching a maximum of 2.11 μm h-1, and to hole defects on the film surface. However, continuing to increase the working pressure, the film surface became smooth again, and the interface between clusters became inconspicuous without etching pits.

  12. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  13. Causes of plasma column contraction in surface-wave-driven discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenti, Marco Antonio; de Amorim, Jayr; Dal Pino, Arnaldo; Guerra, Vasco; Petrov, George

    2018-01-01

    In this work we compute the main features of a surface-wave-driven plasma in argon at atmospheric pressure in view of a better understanding of the contraction phenomenon. We include the detailed chemical kinetics dynamics of Ar and solve the mass conservation equations of the relevant neutral excited and charged species. The gas temperature radial profile is calculated by means of the thermal diffusion equation. The electric field radial profile is calculated directly from the numerical solution of the Maxwell equations assuming the surface wave to be propagating in the TM00 mode. The problem is considered to be radially symmetrical, the axial variations are neglected, and the equations are solved in a self-consistent fashion. We probe the model results considering three scenarios: (i) the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is calculated by means of the Boltzmann equation; (ii) the EEDF is considered to be Maxwellian; (iii) the dissociative recombination is excluded from the chemical kinetics dynamics, but the nonequilibrium EEDF is preserved. From this analysis, the dissociative recombination is shown to be the leading mechanism in the constriction of surface-wave plasmas. The results are compared with mass spectrometry measurements of the radial density profile of the ions Ar+ and Ar2+. An explanation is proposed for the trends seen by Thomson scattering diagnostics that shows a substantial increase of electron temperature towards the plasma borders where the electron density is small.

  14. Absolute Height of Sea Surface by Trajectory of GPS Antennae Over Submerged Pressure Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouin, M.; Calmant, S.; Cheng, K.; Ballu, V.; Shum, C. K.; Testut, L.

    2003-12-01

    Water height data provided by seafloor tide gauges is a combination of sea-level variations and ground motion. Both of these signals are of scientific interest, but they must be separated in order to be useful. Estimating ground motion is specially important in very tectonically active areas such as the Pacific Ocean rim. One promising method to separate the two contributions is to use satellite altimetry data which gives absolute water height, but these data must be calibrated using ground truth measurements. Once different components of the signal are separated, bottom pressure gauges can be used to detect vertical movements of the seafloor such as co-seismic or slow inter-seismic motions. The Vanuatu archipelago is part of the Pacific ring of fire, where plates are rapidly converging. In the area, movements are very rapid and the seismic activity is intense, which gives a good opportunity to study deformation and seismic cycle. To get an integrate picture of vertical deformation over one plate and between the two plates, one needs to be able to monitor vertical movements on both underwater and emerged areas. We conducted an experiment in the Vanuatu archipelago, South-West Pacific, to compare measurements from bottom pressure gauges located beneath altimetry satellite tracks with sea surface altitude measurements from GPS. Two bottom pressure gauges are immerged since Nov. 1999 on Sabine bank (15.90° S, 166.14° E) and Wusi Bank (15.34° S, 166.55° E), West of Santo island, Vanuatu. In order to perform absolute calibrations of JASON and ENVISAT altimeters that overfly the Wusi and Sabine banks, respectively, we performed GPS measurements of instantaneous sea surface altitude. The GPS antennae were fixed on top of the 30m long R/V Alis. An inertial unit also recorded the high frequency vessel motions. The height of the antennae over the sea surface was measured using a laser distancemeter in calibration sessions during particularly calm sea states. We present

  15. In Situ Studies of Surface Mobility on Noble Metal Model Catalysts Using STM and XPS at Ambient Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Derek Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (HP-STM) and Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used to study the structural properties and catalytic behavior of noble metal surfaces at high pressure. HP-STM was used to study the structural rearrangement of the top most atomic surface layer of the metal surfaces in response to changes in gas pressure and reactive conditions. AP-XPS was applied to single crystal and nanoparticle systems to monitor changes in the chemical composition of the surface layer in response to changing gas conditions. STM studies on the Pt(100) crystal face showed the lifting of the Pt(100)-hex surface reconstruction in the presence of CO, H2, and Benzene. The gas adsorption and subsequent charge transfer relieves the surface strain caused by the low coordination number of the (100) surface atoms allowing the formation of a (1 x 1) surface structure commensurate with the bulk terminated crystal structure. The surface phase change causes a transformation of the surface layer from hexagonal packing geometry to a four-fold symmetric surface which is rich in atomic defects. Lifting the hex reconstruction at room temperature resulted in a surface structure decorated with 2-3 nm Pt adatom islands with a high density of step edge sites. Annealing the surface at a modest temperature (150 C) in the presence of a high pressure of CO or H2 increased the surface diffusion of the Pt atoms causing the adatom islands to aggregate reducing the surface concentration of low coordination defect sites. Ethylene hydrogenation was studied on the Pt(100) surface using HP-STM. At low pressure, the lifting of the hex reconstruction was observed in the STM images. Increasing the ethylene pressure to 1 Torr, was found to regenerate the hexagonally symmetric reconstructed phase. At room temperature ethylene undergoes a structural rearrangement to form ethylidyne. Ethylidyne preferentially binds at the three-fold hollow sites, which

  16. Low pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, F; Kylian, O; Amato, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can...... be achieved using pure H2O or Ar/H2O mixtures at low temperatures with removal rates comparable to oxygen-based mixtures. Particle fluxes (Ar+ ions, O and H atomic radicals and OH molecular radicals) from water vapour discharge are measured by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe under several...... operating conditions. Analysis of particle fluxes and removal rates measurements illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, governing the removal rates of organic matter. Auxiliary role of hydroxyl radicals is discussed on the basis of experimental data. The advantages of a water...

  17. Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F; Rauscher, H; Hasiwa, M; Gilliland, D; Kylian, O

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of sterilization and decontamination of surfaces are compared in direct and post discharge plasma treatments in two low-pressure reactors, microwave and inductively coupled plasma. It is shown that the removal of various biomolecules, such as proteins, pyrogens or peptides, can be obtained at high rates and low temperatures in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by using Ar/O 2 mixtures. Similar efficiency is obtained for bacterial spores. Analysis of the discharge conditions illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, leading to a fast etching of organic matter. By contrast, the conditions obtained in the post discharge lead to much lower etching rates but also to a chemical modification of pyrogens, leading to their de-activation. The advantages of the two processes are discussed for the application to the practical case of decontamination of medical devices and reduction of hospital infections, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of the two approaches.

  18. Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F; Rauscher, H; Hasiwa, M; Gilliland, D [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Kylian, O [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8, 180 00 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: francois.rossi@jrc.ec.europa.eu

    2009-11-15

    The mechanisms of sterilization and decontamination of surfaces are compared in direct and post discharge plasma treatments in two low-pressure reactors, microwave and inductively coupled plasma. It is shown that the removal of various biomolecules, such as proteins, pyrogens or peptides, can be obtained at high rates and low temperatures in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by using Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures. Similar efficiency is obtained for bacterial spores. Analysis of the discharge conditions illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, leading to a fast etching of organic matter. By contrast, the conditions obtained in the post discharge lead to much lower etching rates but also to a chemical modification of pyrogens, leading to their de-activation. The advantages of the two processes are discussed for the application to the practical case of decontamination of medical devices and reduction of hospital infections, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of the two approaches.

  19. Experimental and numerical investigations of stable crack growth of axial surface flaws in a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocks, W.; Krafka, H.; Mueller, W.; Wobst, K.

    1988-01-01

    In connection with the problem of the transferability of parameters obtained experimentally with the help of fracture-mechanical test specimens and used for the initiation and the stable propagation of cracks in cases of pulsating stress and of the elasto-plastic behaviour of construction components, a pressure vessel with an inside diameter of 1500 mm, a cylindrical length of 3000 mm and a wall thickness of 40 mm was hydraulically loaded with the help of internal pressure in the first stage, to attain an average crack growth of 1 mm at Δ a ≅, the loading taking place at about 21deg C. This stress-free annealed vessel exhibited an axial semielliptical vibration-induced surface crack about 181 mm long and 20 mm deep, as a test defect, in a welded circular blank made of the steel 20MnMoNi 55. The fractographic analysis of the first stable crack revealed that its growth rate of Δa was highest in the area of transition from the weak to the strong bend of the crack front (55deg m /σ v (average principal stress: σ m , Mises' reference stress: σ v v). A comparison of the experimental with the numerical results from the first stable crack shows that the local stable crack growth Δa cannot be calculated solely with reference to J, because Δa appears to depend essentially on the quotient σ m /σ v . (orig./MM) [de

  20. Diagnostics of surface wave driven low pressure plasmas based on indium monoiodide-argon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ögün, C M; Kaiser, C; Kling, R; Heering, W

    2015-01-01

    Indium monoiodide is proposed as a suitable alternative to hazardous mercury, i.e. the emitting component inside the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), with comparable luminous efficacy. Indium monoiodide-argon low pressure lamps are electrodelessly driven with surface waves, which are launched and coupled into the lamp by the ‘surfatron’, a microwave coupler optimized for an efficient operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. A non intrusive diagnostic method based on spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy is employed to characterize the plasma parameters. The line emission coefficients of the plasma are derived by means of Abel’s inversion from the measured spectral radiance data. The characteristic plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density are determined by comparing the experimentally obtained line emission coefficients with simulated ones from a collisional-radiative model. Additionally, a method to determine the absolute plasma efficiency via irradiance measurements without any goniometric setup is presented. In this way, the relationship between the plasma efficiency and the plasma parameters can be investigated systematically for different operating configurations, e.g. electrical input power, buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature. The performance of indium monoiodide-argon plasma is compared with that of conventional CFLs. (paper)

  1. High-pressure coolant effect on the surface integrity of machining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wentao; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2018-03-01

    Machinability improvement of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is a challenging work in academic and industrial applications owing to its low thermal conductivity, low elasticity modulus and high chemical affinity at high temperatures. Surface integrity of titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V is prominent in estimating the quality of machined components. The surface topography (surface defects and surface roughness) and the residual stress induced by machining Ti-6Al-4V occupy pivotal roles for the sustainability of Ti-6Al-4V components. High-pressure coolant (HPC) is a potential choice in meeting the requirements for the manufacture and application of Ti-6Al-4V. This paper reviews the progress towards the improvements of Ti-6Al4V surface integrity under HPC. Various researches of surface integrity characteristics have been reported. In particularly, surface roughness, surface defects, residual stress as well as work hardening are investigated in order to evaluate the machined surface qualities. Several coolant parameters (including coolant type, coolant pressure and the injection position) deserve investigating to provide the guidance for a satisfied machined surface. The review also provides a clear roadmap for applications of HPC in machining Ti-6Al4V. Experimental studies and analysis are reviewed to better understand the surface integrity under HPC machining process. A distinct discussion has been presented regarding the limitations and highlights of the prospective for machining Ti-6Al4V under HPC.

  2. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  3. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhanguo; Li Ying; Cao Peng; Zhao Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet

  4. Cell treatment and surface functionalization using a miniature atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonson, S; Coulombe, S; Leveille, V; Leask, R L

    2006-01-01

    A miniature atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma torch was used to detach cells from a polystyrene Petri dish. The detached cells were successfully transplanted to a second dish and a proliferation assay showed the transplanted cells continued to grow. Propidium iodide diffused into the cells, suggesting that the cell membrane had been permeabilized, yet the cells remained viable 24 h after treatment. In separate experiments, hydrophobic, bacteriological grade polystyrene Petri dishes were functionalized. The plasma treatment reduced the contact angle from 93 0 to 35 0 , and promoted cell adhesion. Two different torch nozzles, 500 μm and 150 μm in internal diameter, were used in the surface functionalization experiments. The width of the tracks functionalized by the torch, as visualized by cell adhesion, was approximately twice the inside diameter of the nozzle. These results indicate that the miniature plasma torch could be used in biological micropatterning, as it does not use chemicals like the present photolithographic techniques. Due to its small size and manouvrability, the torch also has the ability to pattern complex 3D surfaces

  5. Quantitative measurements of ground state atomic oxygen in atmospheric pressure surface micro-discharge array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Kong, M. G.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Leys, C.; Nikiforov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The generation of atomic oxygen in an array of surface micro-discharge, working in atmospheric pressure He/O2 or Ar/O2 mixtures, is investigated. The absolute atomic oxygen density and its temporal and spatial dynamics are studied by means of two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. A high density of atomic oxygen is detected in the He/O2 mixture with up to 10% O2 content in the feed gas, whereas the atomic oxygen concentration in the Ar/O2 mixture stays below the detection limit of 1013 cm-3. The measured O density near the electrode under the optimal conditions in He/1.75% O2 gas is 4.26  ×  1015 cm-3. The existence of the ground state O (2p 4 3 P) species has been proven in the discharge at a distance up to 12 mm away from the electrodes. Dissociative reactions of the singlet O2 with O3 and deep vacuum ultraviolet radiation, including the radiation of excimer \\text{He}2\\ast , are proposed to be responsible for O (2p 4 3 P) production in the far afterglow. A capability of the surface micro-discharge array delivering atomic oxygen to long distances over a large area is considered very interesting for various biomedical applications.

  6. Elimination of diazinon insecticide from cucumber surface by atmospheric pressure air-dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraki, Naghme; Mahdavi, Vahideh; Ghomi, Hamid; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-12-06

    The food industry is in a constant search for new technologies to improve the commercial sterilization process of agricultural commodities. Plasma treatment may offer a novel and efficient method for pesticide removal from agricultural product surfaces. To study the proposed technique of plasma food treatment, the degradation behavior of diazinon insecticide by air-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was investigated. The authors studied the effect of different plasma powers and treatment times on pesticide concentration in liquid form and coated on the surface of cucumbers, where the diazinon residue was analyzed with mass spectroscopy gas chromatography. Our results suggest that atmospheric pressure air-DBD plasma is potentially effective for the degradation of diazinon insecticide, and mainly depends on related operating parameters, including plasma treatment time, discharge power, and pesticide concentrations. Based on the interaction between reactive oxygen species and electrons in the plasma with the diazinon molecule, two degradation pathway of diazinon during plasma treatment are proposed. It was also found that produced organophosphate pesticides are harmless and less hazardous compounds than diazinon.

  7. Comparison of air-fluidized therapy with other support surfaces used to treat pressure ulcers in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Rachel F; Horn, Susan D; van Rijswijk, Lia; Pietsch, Catherine; Smout, Randall J

    2005-02-01

    To provide empirical evidence comparing pressure ulcer healing rates between different support surfaces, data were analyzed from eligible residents with pressure ulcers (N = 664) enrolled in the National Pressure Ulcer Long-Term Care Study, a retrospective pressure ulcer prevention and treatment study. Support surfaces were categorized as: Group 1 (static overlays and replacement mattresses), Group 2 (low-air-loss beds, alternating pressure, and powered/non-powered overlays/mattresses), and Group 3 (air-fluidized beds). Calculation of healing rates, using the largest ulcer from each resident, found mean healing rates greatest for air-fluidized therapy (Group 3) (mean = 5.2 cm(2)/week) versus Group 1 (mean =1.5 cm(2)/week) and Group 2 (mean = 1.8 cm(2)/week) surfaces (P = 0.007). Healing rates also were assessed using 7- to 10-day "episodes"; each ulcer generated separate episode(s) that included all ulcers when residents had multiple ulcers. Mean healing rates were significantly greater for Stage III/IV ulcers on Group 3 surfaces (mean = 3.1 cm(2)/week) versus Group 1 (mean = 0.6 cm(2)/week) and Group 2 (mean = 0.7 cm(2)/week) surfaces (Group 2 versus Group 3: P = 0.0211). This finding persisted for ulcers with comparable initial baseline areas (20 cm(2) to 75 cm(2)) on Group 2 and Group 3 surfaces; healing improved on Group 3 surfaces (+2.3 cm(2)/week) versus Group 2 surfaces (-2.1 cm(2)/week, P = 0.0399). Residents on Group 3 (6 out of 82; 7.3%) and Group 1 (47 out of 461; 10.2%) surfaces had fewer hospitalizations and emergency room visits than those on Group 2 surfaces (23 out of 121; 19.0%, P = 0.01) despite significantly greater illness in residents on Group 2 and 3 versus Group 1 surfaces (P is less than 0.0001). Despite limitations inherent in retrospective studies, ulcers on Group 3 surfaces versus Groups 1 and Group 2 surfaces had statistically significant faster healing rates (particularly for Stage III/IV ulcers) with significantly fewer

  8. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Sabet, Javad, E-mail: j_karimi@alum.sharif.edu [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshariat@ut.ac.ir [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  9. Measurement of temperature and pressure on the surface of a blunt cone using FBG sensor in hypersonic wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru Prasad, A S; Sharath, U; Asokan, S; Nagarjun, V; Hegde, G M

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of temperature and pressure exerted on the leeward surface of a blunt cone specimen has been demonstrated in the present work in a hypersonic wind tunnel using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The experiments were conducted on a 30° apex-angle blunt cone with 51 mm base diameter at wind flow speeds of Mach 6.5 and 8.35 in a 300 mm hypersonic wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A special pressure insensitive temperature sensor probe along with the conventional bare FBG sensors was used for explicit temperature and aerodynamic pressure measurement respectively on the leeward surface of the specimen. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field around the blunt cone specimen has also been carried out to obtain the temperature and pressure at conditions analogous to experiments. The results obtained from FBG sensors and the CFD simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other. (paper)

  10. High temperature and high pressure oxidation behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material – Effect of β phase composition and surface machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouduru, S.K., E-mail: nouduru@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, M. Kiran; Kain, Vivekanand [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khanna, A.S. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Saibaba, N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, ECILPost, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Pressure tube material, Zr-2.5Nb, of pressurized heavy water reactors was given selective heat-treatments. The objective was to generate microstructures with different compositions of the second phase β namely, Νb depleted β{sub Zr} phase and Nb rich β{sub Nb} phase. The material with β{sub Zr} was then subjected to surface machining. The presence of phases after different heat-treatments was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the resultant microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction. The Nb content in the β phase after heat-treatments and residual stresses before and after surface machining were measured using X-ray diffraction. Oxidation was carried out in steam at 400 °C and 10 MPa up to 30 days and the oxides were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of Nb rich β{sub Nb} in the microstructure and faster diffusion of Nb into β phase brought about by surface machining resulted in an enhanced oxidation resistance. - Highlights: • Effect of heat treatments in formation of Nb rich/depleted phases established. • Microstructure with β{sub Nb} and Nb depleted α shown to have high oxidation resistance. • Surface machining resulted in grain refinement, strain and tensile residual stress. • Surface machining improved oxidation resistance and its extent increased with time. • Machined specimen showed higher fraction of tetragonal zirconia.

  11. High temperature and high pressure oxidation behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material – Effect of β phase composition and surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouduru, S.K.; Kumar, M. Kiran; Kain, Vivekanand; Khanna, A.S.; Saibaba, N.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Pressure tube material, Zr-2.5Nb, of pressurized heavy water reactors was given selective heat-treatments. The objective was to generate microstructures with different compositions of the second phase β namely, Νb depleted β Zr phase and Nb rich β Nb phase. The material with β Zr was then subjected to surface machining. The presence of phases after different heat-treatments was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the resultant microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction. The Nb content in the β phase after heat-treatments and residual stresses before and after surface machining were measured using X-ray diffraction. Oxidation was carried out in steam at 400 °C and 10 MPa up to 30 days and the oxides were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of Nb rich β Nb in the microstructure and faster diffusion of Nb into β phase brought about by surface machining resulted in an enhanced oxidation resistance. - Highlights: • Effect of heat treatments in formation of Nb rich/depleted phases established. • Microstructure with β Nb and Nb depleted α shown to have high oxidation resistance. • Surface machining resulted in grain refinement, strain and tensile residual stress. • Surface machining improved oxidation resistance and its extent increased with time. • Machined specimen showed higher fraction of tetragonal zirconia.

  12. Rindler fluid with weak momentum relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimphun, Sunly; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2018-01-01

    We realize the weak momentum relaxation in Rindler fluid, which lives on the time-like cutoff surface in an accelerating frame of flat spacetime. The translational invariance is broken by massless scalar fields with weak strength. Both of the Ward identity and the momentum relaxation rate of Rindler fluid are obtained, with higher order correction in terms of the strength of momentum relaxation. The Rindler fluid with momentum relaxation could also be approached through the near horizon limit of cutoff AdS fluid with momentum relaxation, which lives on a finite time-like cutoff surface in Anti-de Sitter(AdS) spacetime, and further could be connected with the holographic conformal fluid living on AdS boundary at infinity. Thus, in the holographic Wilson renormalization group flow of the fluid/gravity correspondence with momentum relaxation, the Rindler fluid can be considered as the Infrared Radiation(IR) fixed point, and the holographic conformal fluid plays the role of the ultraviolet(UV) fixed point.

  13. Relaxation Techniques for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combined with guided imagery and breathing exercises. Self-Hypnosis In self-hypnosis programs, people are taught to produce the relaxation ... have shown that women who were taught self-hypnosis have a decreased need for pain medicine during ...

  14. Prediction of stress relaxation under multiaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, R.; Malen, K.; Otterberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    Computations have been made of the relaxation of residual stresses in a thick walled tube under conditions corresponding to commercial stress relief heat treatment of the nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel A533B. The distribution of residual stresses which were introduced was peaked around a given radius in the tube. The relax- ation of the equivalent stresses followed almost exactly a uniaxial behavior. The relaxation rate of the hydrostatic stress was of about the same order or slower than that of the equivalent stress. The time dependence of the hydrostatic stress was mainly controlled by the initial magnitude of hydrostatic stress whereas the degree of the constraint and thereby the boundary conditions at the tube walls had only a small influence. The relaxation rate decreased with increasing initial magnitude of the hydrostatic stress. The computed relaxation behaviour under multiaxial stress could be rationalized in terms of a developed model. This model was also suc- cessfully applied to Gott's measurements on stress relaxation during stress relief heat treatment of a welded joint between 130 mm thick plates of A533B where the stress state was highly triaxial. (Authors)

  15. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-10-04

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  16. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, N.; Palomares, J. M.; Iordanova, E. I.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2008-10-01

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, ne, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, Te, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the ne values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 ± 0.5) × 1019 m-3, whereas the ne value (2 ± 0.5) × 1019 m-3 obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high (~1020 m-3). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the Te values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 ± 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  17. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Palomares, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.nl

    2008-10-21

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n{sub e}, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T{sub e}, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n{sub e} values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the n{sub e} value (2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high ({approx}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T{sub e} values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 {+-} 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  18. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  19. Modeling the Mechanics of Cell Division: Influence of Spontaneous Membrane Curvature, Surface Tension, and Osmotic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán-Heredia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cell division processes have been conserved throughout evolution and are being revealed by studies on model organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa. Cellular membrane constriction is one of these processes, observed almost universally during cell division. It happens similarly in all organisms through a mechanical pathway synchronized with the sequence of cytokinetic events in the cell interior. Arguably, such a mechanical process is mastered by the coordinated action of a constriction machinery fueled by biochemical energy in conjunction with the passive mechanics of the cellular membrane. Independently of the details of the constriction engine, the membrane component responds against deformation by minimizing the elastic energy at every constriction state following a pathway still unknown. In this paper, we address a theoretical study of the mechanics of membrane constriction in a simplified model that describes a homogeneous membrane vesicle in the regime where mechanical work due to osmotic pressure, surface tension, and bending energy are comparable. We develop a general method to find approximate analytical expressions for the main descriptors of a symmetrically constricted vesicle. Analytical solutions are obtained by combining a perturbative expansion for small deformations with a variational approach that was previously demonstrated valid at the reference state of an initially spherical vesicle at isotonic conditions. The analytic approximate results are compared with the exact solution obtained from numerical computations, getting a good agreement for all the computed quantities (energy, area, volume, constriction force. We analyze the effects of the spontaneous curvature, the surface tension and the osmotic pressure in these quantities, focusing especially on the constriction force. The more favorable conditions for vesicle constriction are determined, obtaining that smaller constriction forces are required for positive

  20. Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0(sub 2)) and nitrous oxide (N(sub 2)O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in th e global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO(sub 2) and N(sub 2)O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N(sub 2)O. For both of these compounds, the oceans play a major role in their global budgets. In the case of CO(sub 2), roughly half of the anthropogenic production through the combustion of fossil fuels has been absorbed by the world's oceans. In the case of N(sub 2)O, roughly a third of the natural flux to the atmosphere originates in the oceans. As the interpretation of the variability in the oceanic distributions of these compounds improves, measurements such as those supported by this research project are playing an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate and ozone

  1. Effect of skin surface lipid on the skin permeation of lidocaine from pressure sensitive adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y H; Hosoya, O; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    1994-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) tapes containing different concentrations of lidocaine were prepared by a general casting method using styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer, and the in vitro skin permeation of lidocaine from each tape was evaluated using diffusion cell and excised hairless rat skin. The skin permeation was proportionally increased by up to 40% lidocaine in the PSA tape and did not change after this concentration. Although the bending point of the steady-state flux via skin concentration curve was found at 40%, saturated concentration or solubility of lidocaine in the tape was estimated to be about 20% by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement. In addition, the steady-state flux of lidocaine through skin from water or silicone fluid suspension (92 or 120 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively) was very similar to those of 40, 50 and 60% tapes (105, 101 and 112 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively). Decrease in the concentration in tapes during the permeation experiment explained only part of these phenomena. To analyze them further, the drug free PSA tape with or without (control) skin surface lipid was affixed to 50% lidocaine PSA tape for 48 h, and the amount of lidocaine crystal in the layered tapes was measured by DSC. The amount was found to be lower in the lipid-containing tape than in the lipid-free tape, suggesting that skin surface lipid can dissolve lidocaine crystal or solid in PSA tape to decrease its thermodynamic activity. Thus it is important to follow the concentration and thermodynamic activity of lidocaine in PSA tape, skin and the interface between the two layers to exactly assess its skin permeation flux.

  2. Highway-railway at-grade crossing structures : trackbed and surface pressure measurements and assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Techniques are described for installing instrumentation within highway/railway crossings - to measure vertical pressures under moving highway and railway loadings - using earth pressure cells. Also, techniques are described for installing instrumenta...

  3. A nurse-led randomised trial of pressure-relieving support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea; Nixon, Jane; Mason, Su; Barrow, Helen; Phillips, Angela; Cullum, Nicky

    2003-05-01

    A nurse-led trial is currently collecting data comparing interventions for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. The aim is to provide reliable guidance on the relative merits of alternating-pressure mattresses and overlays for people at moderate to high risk of pressure ulceration. This paper outlines the main objectives, methodology and progress of the study.

  4. Development of a commercial Transducer for Measuring Pressure and Friction on the Model Die Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Bo; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Wanheim, Tarras

    2001-01-01

    deflection in the tool causes incorrect shape of the final component. The dinemsions of the die-cavity have to be corrected taking into account die deflection due to the high internal pressure. The modelling material technique is suitable for measuring internal pressure, but so far only a transducer...... to measure normal pressure has been available....

  5. Pressure and surface tension of soild-liquid interface using Tarazona density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tarazona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this resarch we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is plotted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  7. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  8. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Surface Roughness, Oxidation, and Temperature on the Emissivity of Reactor Pressure Vessel Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J. L. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Engineering Physics, Madison, Wisconsin; Jo, H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Engineering Physics, Madison, Wisconsin; Tirawat, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power Group, Golden, Colorado; Blomstrand, K. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Engineering Physics, Madison, Wisconsin; Sridharan, K. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Engineering Physics, Madison, Wisconsin

    2017-08-31

    Thermal radiation will be an important mode of heat transfer in future high-temperature reactors and in off-normal high-temperature scenarios in present reactors. In this work, spectral directional emissivities of two reactor pressure vessel (RPV) candidate materials were measured at room temperature after exposure to high-temperature air. In the case of SA508 steel, significant increases in emissivity were observed due to oxidation. In the case of Grade 91 steel, only very small increases were observed under the tested conditions. Effects of roughness were also investigated. To study the effects of roughening, unexposed samples of SA508 and Grade 91 steel were roughened via one of either grinding or shot-peening before being measured. Significant increases were observed only in samples having roughness exceeding the roughness expected of RPV surfaces. While the emissivity increases for SA508 from oxidation were indeed significant, the measured emissivity coefficients were below that of values commonly used in heat transfer models. Based on the observed experimental data, recommendations for emissivity inputs for heat transfer simulations are provided.

  10. Understanding the Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fault Zone From Transient Surface Tilt and Fluid Pressure Observations at Hourly Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Burbey, Thomas J.; Boudin, Frédérick; Lavenant, Nicolas; Davy, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Flow through reservoirs such as fractured media is powered by head gradients which also generate measurable poroelastic deformation of the rock body. The combined analysis of surface deformation and subsurface pressure provides valuable insights of a reservoir's structure and hydromechanical properties, which are of interest for deep-seated CO2 or nuclear waste storage for instance. Among all surveying tools, surface tiltmeters offer the possibility to grasp hydraulically induced deformations over a broad range of time scales with a remarkable precision. Here we investigate the information content of transient surface tilt generated by the pressurization a kilometer scale subvertical fault zone. Our approach involves the combination of field data and results of a fully coupled poromechanical model. The signature of pressure changes in the fault zone due to pumping cycles is clearly recognizable in field tilt data and we aim to explain the peculiar features that appear in (1) tilt time series alone from a set of four instruments and 2) the ratio of tilt over pressure. We evidence that the shape of tilt measurements on both sides of a fault zone is sensitive to its diffusivity and its elastic modulus. The ratio of tilt over pressure predominantly encompasses information about the system's dynamic behavior and extent of the fault zone and allows separating contributions of flow in the different compartments. Hence, tiltmeters are well suited to characterize hydromechanical processes associated with fault zone hydrogeology at short time scales, where spaceborne surveying methods fail to recognize any deformation signal.

  11. Seasonal Variations of the Earth's Gravitational Field: An Analysis of Atmospheric Pressure, Ocean Tidal, and Surface Water Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D,; Gross, R.S.; Dickey, J.

    1996-01-01

    Monthly mean gravitational field parameters (denoted here as C(sub even)) that represent linear combinations of the primarily even degree zonal spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field have been recovered using LAGEOS I data and are compared with those derived from gridded global surface pressure data of the National meteorological center (NMC) spanning 1983-1992. The effect of equilibrium ocean tides and surface water variations are also considered. Atmospheric pressure and surface water fluctuations are shown to be the dominant cause of observed annual C(sub even) variations. Closure with observations is seen at the 1sigma level when atmospheric pressure, ocean tide and surface water effects are include. Equilibrium ocean tides are shown to be the main source of excitation at the semiannual period with closure at the 1sigma level seen when both atmospheric pressure and ocean tide effects are included. The inverted barometer (IB) case is shown to give the best agreement with the observation series. The potential of the observed C(sub even) variations for monitoring mass variations in the polar regions of the Earth and the effect of the land-ocean mask in the IB calculation are discussed.

  12. FE Calculations of J-Integrals in a Constrained Elastomeric Disk with Crack Surface Pressure and Isothermal Load

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ching, H. K; Liu, C. T; Yen, S. C

    2004-01-01

    .... For the linear analysis, material compressibility was modeled with Poisson's varying form 0.48 to 0.4999. In addition, with the presence of the crack surface pressure, the J-integral was modified by including an additional line integral...

  13. Fermi surface properties of AB3 (A = Y, La; B = Pb, In, Tl) intermetallic compounds under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V; Svane, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structures, densities of states, Fermi surfaces and elastic properties of AB3 (A = La, Y; B = Pb, In, Tl) compounds are studied under pressure using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the local density approximation for the exchange–correlation f...

  14. Operation method for wall surface of pressure suppression chamber of reactor container and floating scaffold used for the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Kounomaru, Toshimi; Saito, Koichi.

    1996-01-01

    A floating scaffold is provisionally disposed in adjacent with the wall surface of pool water of a pressure suppression chamber while being floated on the surface of the pool water before the drainage of the pool water from the pressure vessel. The floating scaffold has guide rollers sandwiching a bent tube of an existent facility so that the horizontal movement is restrained, and is movable only in a vertical direction depending on the change of water level of the pool water. In addition, a handrail for preventing dropping, and a provisional illumination light are disposed. When pool water in the pressure suppression chamber is drained, the water level of the pool water is lowered in accordance with the amount of drained water. The floating scaffold floating on the water surface is lowered while being guided by the bent tube, and the operation position is lowered. An operator riding on the floating scaffold inspects the wall surfaces of the pressure chamber and conducts optional repair and painting. (I.N.)

  15. Correlation of surface pressure and hue of planarizable push–pull chromophores at the air/water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Neuhaus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is currently not possible to directly measure the lateral pressure of a biomembrane. Mechanoresponsive fluorescent probes are an elegant solution to this problem but it requires first the establishment of a direct correlation between the membrane surface pressure and the induced color change of the probe. Here, we analyze planarizable dithienothiophene push–pull probes in a monolayer at the air/water interface using fluorescence microscopy, grazing-incidence angle X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy. An increase of the lateral membrane pressure leads to a well-packed layer of the ‘flipper’ mechanophores and a clear change in hue above 18 mN/m. The fluorescent probes had no influence on the measured isotherm of the natural phospholipid DPPC suggesting that the flippers probe the lateral membrane pressure without physically changing it. This makes the flipper probes a truly useful addition to the membrane probe toolbox.

  16. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  17. Critical heat flux on micro-structured zircaloy surfaces for flow boiling of water at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.; Miassoedov, A.; Schulenberg, T.; Wetzel, T.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of surface structure on critical heat flux for flow boiling of water was investigated for Zircaloy tubes in a vertical annular test section. The objectives were to find suitable surface modification processes for Zircaloy tubes and to test their critical heat flux performance in comparison to the smooth tube. Surface structures with micro-channels, porous layer, oxidized layer, and elevations in micro- and nano-scale were produced on a section of a Zircaloy cladding tube. These modified tubes were tested in an internally heated vertical annulus with a heated length of 326 mm and an inner and outer diameter of 9.5 and 18 mm. The experiments were performed with mass fluxes of 250 and 400 kg/(m 2 s), outlet pressures between 120 and 300 kPa, and constant inlet subcooling enthalpy of 167 kJ/kg. Only a small influence of modified surface structures on critical heat flux was observed for the pressure of 120 kPa in the present test section geometry. However, with increasing pressure the critical heat flux could increase up to 29% using the surface structured tubes with micro-channels, porous and oxidized layers. Capillary effects and increased nucleation site density are assumed to improve the critical heat flux performance. (authors)

  18. A Stabilized Incompressible SPH Method by Relaxing the Density Invariance Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuteru Asai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A stabilized Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH is proposed to simulate free surface flow problems. In the ISPH, pressure is evaluated by solving pressure Poisson equation using a semi-implicit algorithm based on the projection method. Even if the pressure is evaluated implicitly, the unrealistic pressure fluctuations cannot be eliminated. In order to overcome this problem, there are several improvements. One is small compressibility approach, and the other is introduction of two kinds of pressure Poisson equation related to velocity divergence-free and density invariance conditions, respectively. In this paper, a stabilized formulation, which was originally proposed in the framework of Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS method, is applied to ISPH in order to relax the density invariance condition. This formulation leads to a new pressure Poisson equation with a relaxation coefficient, which can be estimated by a preanalysis calculation. The efficiency of the proposed formulation is tested by a couple of numerical examples of dam-breaking problem, and its effects are discussed by using several resolution models with different particle initial distances. Also, the effect of eddy viscosity is briefly discussed in this paper.

  19. Relaxation in magnetic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, M.A.; Folly, W.S.D.; Sinnecker, J.P.; Soriano, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured magnetic materials present a wide range of magnetic relaxation phenomena. One problem in studying nanomagnetic granular materials is the strong dependence of the relaxation with the anisotropy barrier which, even for systems with narrow size distributions, brings difficulties in the analysis of the experimental data. Molecular magnetism, with the chemists' bottom-up approach to build molecular nanostructures, provides this field with some beautiful model systems, well ordered crystals of single molecule magnets, single molecule chains, molecular magnetic multilayers and others novelties to appear. Most of these systems present slow relaxation and the study of these well-characterized nanomaterials may elucidate many features that are difficult to grasp in the non molecular materials

  20. Estimation of Time Dependent Properties from Surface Pressure in Open Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    static pressure of the cavity. The stagnation and static pressures are measured separately with Druck Model DPI 145 pressure transducers (with a quoted...interacting with the ZNMF actuator jets, the 2D shape of the vortical structures transform to a 3D shape with spanwise vortical structures. These...Therefore, the pressure gradient in the d direction is dd ° 3d Substituting Equation (5.3) into Equation (5.5) results in ^l = PJk(e^-Re^)/c^ (5.6

  1. Device for positioning ultrasonic probes and/or television cameras on the outer surface of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipser, R.; Dose, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The device makes possible periodical in-service inspections of welding seams and material of a reactor pressure vessel without local human presence. A 'support ring' encloses the pressure vessel in a horizontal plane with free space. It is vertically moved up and down in the space between pressure vessel and thermal shield by means of tackles. At a control desk placed in a protected area its movement is controlled and its vertical position is indicated. A 'rotating track' with its own drive is rotating remote-controlled on the 'support ring'. By a combination of the vertical with the rotating movement, an ultrasonic probe placed removably on the 'rotating hack', or a television camera will be brought to any position on the cylindrical circumference of the pressure vessel. Special devices extend the radius of action, in upward direction for inspecting the welding seams of the coolant nozzles, and in downward direction for the inspection of welds on the hemispherical bottom of the pressure vessel or on the outlet pipe nozzle placed there. The device remains installed during reactor operation, but is moved down to the lower horizontal surface of the thermal shield. Parts which are sensible to radiation like probes or television cameras and special devices will then be removed respectively mounted before beginning an inspection compaign. This position may be reached by the lower access in the biological shield and through an opening in the horizontal surface of the thermal shield. (HP) [de

  2. Tropical Pacific sea-surface temperatures and preceding sea level pressure anomalies in the subtropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce T.

    2003-12-01

    The correspondence of sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies to changes in antecedent large-scale sea level pressure anomalies is investigated using reanalysis data. By statistically examining linearly coupled precursor sea level pressure fields and subsequent SST fields for different lag periods, it is possible to isolate a precursor mode of sea level pressure (SLP) variability in the central subtropical North Pacific that precedes variations in the January-March El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) by approximately 12-15 months. A sea level pressure index, which captures the important characteristics of this precursor mode of variability, is developed and evaluated. It is shown that both analyzed and observed versions of the index are significantly correlated with the January-March ENSO one year later. The SLP index is then used to examine the evolution of the surface circulation and temperature structures leading up to mature ENSO events. Initially, the January-March subtropical North Pacific SLP anomalies are associated with changes in the intensity of the subtropical trade wind regime over the North Pacific, as well as with SST anomalies over the eastern equatorial Pacific and subtropical central Pacific. In agreement with the correlation statistics associated with the SLP and lagged NINO3.4 indices, both the sea level pressure field and the SST field subsequently develop ENSO-like structures over the course of the following year. Significant discussion of these results and pertinent areas of future research are provided within the broader context of the ENSO system.

  3. Vertical structure of pore pressure under surface gravity waves on a steep, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Tristan B.; Hay, Alex E.

    2017-01-01

    The vertical structure of surface gravity wave-induced pore pressure is investigated within the intertidal zone of a natural, steeply sloping, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach. Results from a coherent vertical array of buried pore pressure sensors are presented in terms of signal phase lag and attenuation as functions of oscillatory forcing frequency and burial depth. Comparison of the observations with the predictions of a theoretical poro-elastic bed response model indicates that the large observed phase lags and attenuation are attributable to interstitial trapped air. In addition to the dependence on entrapped air volume, the pore pressure phase and attenuation are shown to be sensitive to the hydraulic conductivity of the sediment, to the changing mean water depth during the tidal cycle, and to the redistribution/rearrangement of beach face material by energetic wave action during storm events. The latter result indicates that the effects on pore pressure of sediment column disturbance during instrument burial can persist for days to weeks, depending upon wave forcing conditions. Taken together, these results raise serious questions as to the practicality of using pore pressure measurements to estimate the kinematic properties of surface gravity waves on steep, mixed sand-gravel beaches.

  4. The miscibility of milk sphingomyelin and cholesterol is affected by temperature and surface pressure in mixed Langmuir monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ken; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Lopez, Christelle

    2017-06-01

    The miscibility of milk sphingomyelin (milk-SM) and cholesterol was investigated in this study. The effect of different physical states of milk-SM on its interactions with cholesterol was determined by the recording of isotherms of compression of Langmuir films for temperatures above and below the gel to Lα phase transition of milk-SM (T m ∼34°C). For T=15°Ccondensed (LC) phase transition of milk-SM monolayers was observed at surface pressures of 10-15mN/m. For T=43°C>T m , the milk-SM molecules were in a LE phase regardless of the surface pressure applied. A phase diagram pressure - milk-SM/cholesterol composition was established. This study demonstrated that both temperature and surface pressure affected the miscibility between the milk-SM and cholesterol. The strongest attractive forces (i.e. condensing effect) were identified for 30mol% cholesterol when the milk-SM was in the LE phase state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Visualization of Flow in Pressurizer Spray Line Piping and Estimation of Thermal Stress Fluctuation Caused by Swaying of Water Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumaya, Toru; Nakamura, Akira; Onojima, Daisuke; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    The pressurizer spray line of PWR plants cools reactor coolant by injecting water into pressurizer. Since the continuous spray flow rate during commercial operation of the plant is considered insufficient to fill the pipe completely, there is a concern that a water surface exists in the pipe and may periodically sway. In order to identify the flow regimes in spray line piping and assess their impact on pipe structure, a flow visualization experiment was conducted. In the experiment, air was used substituted for steam to simulate the gas phase of the pressurizer, and the flow instability causing swaying without condensation was investigated. With a full-scale mock-up made of acrylic, flow under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions was visualized, and possible flow regimes were identified based on the results of the experiment. Three representative patterns of swaying of water surface were assumed, and the range of thermal stress fluctuation, when the surface swayed instantaneously, was calculated. With the three patterns of swaying assumed based on the visualization experiment, it was confirmed that the thermal stress amplitude would not exceed the fatigue endurance limit prescribed in the Japanese Design and Construction Code.

  6. Process for producing curved surface of membrane rings for large containers, particulary for prestressed concrete pressure vessels of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1977-01-01

    Membrane rings for large pressure vessels, particularly for prestressed-concrete pressure vessels, often have curved surfaces. The invention describes a process of producing these at site, which is particularly advantageous as the forming and installation of the vessel component coincide. According to the invention, the originally flat membrane ring is set in a predetermined position, is then pressed in sections by a forming tool (with a preformed support ring as opposite tool), and shaped. After this, the shaped parts are welded to the ring-shaped wall parts of the large vessel. The manufacture of single and double membrane rings arrangements is described. (HP) [de

  7. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO ROTARY WING UAV DESIGNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.; Ingram, Joanne L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of fixed system pressure coefficient response to changes in configuration attitude and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect the magnitude of the response. Pressure coefficients were measured using both conventional pressure taps and via pressure sensitive paint. Comparisons between the two methods are presented and demonstrate that the pressure sensitive paint is a promising method; however, further work on the technique is required.

  8. Thermochemical micro imprinting of single-crystal diamond surface using a nickel mold under high-pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Yuji; Yan, Jiwang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A Ni mold and thermochemically imprinted microstructures on diamond. - Highlights: • A thermochemical method for micro machining/patterning of diamond is proposed. • Various kinds of microstructures were imprinted on diamond using a Ni mold. • A graphite layer is formed during imprinting which can be removed by acid. • The processing depth depends strongly on pressure and temperature. - Abstract: Single-crystal diamond is an important material for cutting tools, micro electro mechanical systems, optical devices, and semiconductor substrates. However, the techniques for producing microstructures on diamond surface with high efficiency and accuracy have not been established. This paper proposes a thermochemical imprinting method for transferring microstructures from a nickel (Ni) mold onto single-crystal diamond surface. The Ni mold was micro-structured by a nanoindenter and then pressed against the diamond surface under high temperature and pressure in argon atmosphere. Results show that microstructures on the Ni mold were successfully transferred onto the diamond surface, and their depth increased with both pressure and temperature. Laser micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses indicate that a graphite layer was formed over the contact area between diamond and Ni during pressing, and after washing by a mixed acid, the graphite layer could be completely removed. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a cost-efficient fabrication method for large-area microstructures on single-crystal diamond.

  9. Fluorination of poly(dimethylsiloxane surfaces by low pressure CF4 plasma – physicochemical and antifouling properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated surface groups were introduced into poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS coatings by plasma treatment using a low pressure radio frequency discharge operated with tetrafluoromethane. Substrates were placed in a remote position downstream the discharge. Discharge power and treatment time were tuned to alter the chemical composition of the plasma treated PDMS surface. The physicochemical properties and stability of the fluorine containing PDMS were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, atomic force microscopy (AFM and contact angle measurements. Smooth PDMS coatings with a fluorine content up to 47% were attainable. The CF4 plasma treatment generated a harder, non-brittle layer at the top-most surface of the PDMS. No changes of surface morphology were observed upon one week incubation in aqueous media. Surprisingly, the PDMS surface was more hydrophilic after the introduction of fluorine. This may be explained by an increased exposure of oxygen containing moieties towards the surface upon re-orientation of fluorinated groups towards the bulk, and/or be a consequence of oxidation effects associated with the plasma treatment. Experiments with strains of marine bacteria with different surface energies, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, showed a significant decrease of bacteria attachment upon fluorination of the PDMS surface. Altogether, the CF4 plasma treatments successfully introduced fluorinated groups into the PDMS, being a robust and versatile surface modification technology that may find application where a minimization of bacterial adhesion is required.

  10. Wall relaxation rates for an optically pumped NA vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.R.; Anderson, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The wall relaxation rates for an optically pumped Na vapor have been measured for a variety of wall surfaces. We find that fluorocarbon rubber (Fluorel, Viton) and organosilicones (silicone rubber, dry film) at a temperature of 250 C have respectively relaxation rates that correspond on the average to 10 to 15 and 200 to 500 bounces before depolarization occurs. 7 refs., 3 figs

  11. Self-organized pattern on the surface of a metal anode in low-pressure DC discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqi, YANG; Weiguo, LI

    2018-03-01

    Self-organization phenomena on the surface of a metal electrode in low-pressure DC discharge is studied. In this paper, we carry out laboratory investigations of self-organization in a low-pressure test platform for 100-200 mm rod-plane gaps with a needle tip, conical tip and hemispherical tip within 1-10 kPa. The factors influencing the pattern profile are the pressure value, gap length and shape of the electrode, and a variety of pattern structures are observed by changing these factors. With increasing pressure, first the pattern diameter increases and then decreases. With the needle tip, layer structure, single-ring structure and double-ring structure are displayed successively with increasing pressure. With the conical tip, the ring-like structure gradually forms separate spots with increasing pressure. With the hemispherical tip, there are anode spots inside the ring structure. With the increase of gap length, the diameter of the self-organized pattern increases and the profile of the pattern changes. The development process of the pattern contains three key stages: pattern enlargement, pattern stabilization and pattern shrink.

  12. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use ε-expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when t → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when t → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency ...

  13. Nuclear Spin Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In the context of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the term relaxation indicates the process by which the magnetic atomic nuclei reach thermal equilibrium with the chaotic molecular environment. In NMR, this process can be very slow, requiring between a fraction of a second to many minutes, depending on the.

  14. Exploring catalyst passivation with NMR relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Neil; Gladden, Lynn F; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-10-26

    NMR relaxation has recently emerged as a novel and non-invasive tool for probing the surface dynamics of adsorbate molecules within liquid-saturated mesoporous catalysts. The elucidation of such dynamics is of particular relevance to the study and development of solvated green catalytic processes, such as the production of chemicals and fuels from bio-resources. In this paper we develop and implement a protocol using high field 1 H NMR spin-lattice relaxation as a probe of the reorientational dynamics of liquids imbibed within mesoporous oxide materials. The observed relaxation of liquids within mesoporous materials is highly sensitive to the adsorbed surface layer, giving insight into tumbling behaviour of spin-bearing chemical environments at the pore surface. As a prototypical example of relevance to liquid-phase catalytic systems, we examine the mobility of liquid methanol within a range of common catalyst supports. In particular, through the calculation and comparison of a suitable interaction parameter, we assess and quantify changes to these surface dynamics upon replacing surface hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic alkyl chains. Our results indicate that the molecular tumbling of adsorbed methanol is enhanced upon surface passivation due to the suppression of surface-adsorbate hydrogen bonding interactions, and tends towards that of the unrestricted bulk liquid. A complex analysis in which we account for the influence of changing pore structure and surface chemistry upon passivation is discussed. The results presented highlight the use of NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements as a non-invasive probe of molecular dynamics at surfaces of interest to liquid-phase heterogeneous catalysis.

  15. Hydrophilic property of 316L stainless steel after treatment by atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma using surface-sensitive analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim, E-mail: hamarnehibrahim@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan); Pedrow, Patrick [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal [Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface hydrophilic property of surgical-grade 316L stainless steel was enhanced by Ar-O{sub 2} corona streamer plasma treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophilicity, surface morphology, roughness, and chemical composition before and after plasma treatment were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements and surface-sensitive analyses techniques, including XPS and AFM, were carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum plasma treatment conditions of the SS 316L surface were determined. - Abstract: Surgical-grade 316L stainless steel (SS 316L) had its surface hydrophilic property enhanced by processing in a corona streamer plasma reactor using O{sub 2} gas mixed with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Reactor excitation was 60 Hz ac high-voltage (0-10 kV{sub RMS}) applied to a multi-needle-to-grounded screen electrode configuration. The treated surface was characterized with a contact angle tester. Surface free energy (SFE) for the treated stainless steel increased measurably compared to the untreated surface. The Ar-O{sub 2} plasma was more effective in enhancing the SFE than Ar-only plasma. Optimum conditions for the plasma treatment system used in this study were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the chemical composition of the treated surfaces confirms the existence of new oxygen-containing functional groups contributing to the change in the hydrophilic nature of the surface. These new functional groups were generated by surface reactions caused by reactive oxidation of substrate species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were generated to investigate morphological and roughness changes on the plasma treated surfaces. The aging effect in air after treatment was also studied.

  16. Experimental Research on Water Boiling Heat Transfer on Horizontal Copper Rod Surface at Sub-Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water (R718 as a kind of natural refrigerant—which is environmentally-friendly, safe and cheap—has been reconsidered by scholars. The systems of using water as the refrigerant, such as water vapor compression refrigeration and heat pump systems run at sub-atmospheric pressure. So, the research on water boiling heat transfer at sub-atmospheric pressure has been an important issue. There are many research papers on the evaporation of water, but there is a lack of data on the characteristics at sub-atmospheric pressures, especially lower than 3 kPa (the saturation temperature is 24 °C. In this paper, the experimental research on water boiling heat transfer on a horizontal copper rod surface at 1.8–3.3 kPa is presented. Regression equations of the boiling heat transfer coefficient are obtained based on the experimental data, which are convenient for practical application.

  17. Effects of diluents on soot surface temperature and volume fraction in diluted ethylene diffusion flames at pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam

    2014-05-20

    Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both temperature and soot measurements presented are line-of-sight averages. The results aid in understanding the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of the soot formation and oxidation chemistry with changes in diluents, ultimately leading to possible methods of reducing soot emission from practical combustion hardware. The diluted fuel and coflow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear effects. In addition to the velocity-matched flow rates, the mass fluxes were held constant for all pressures. Addition of a diluent has a pronounced effect on both the soot surface temperature and volume fraction, with the helium diluted flame yielding the maximum and carbon dioxide diluted flame yielding minimum soot surface temperature and volume fraction. At low pressures, peak soot volume fraction exists at the tip of the flame, and with an increase in pressure, the location shifts lower to the wings of the flame. Due to the very high diffusivity of helium, significantly higher temperature and volume fraction are measured and explained. Carbon dioxide has the most dramatic soot suppression effect. By comparing the soot yield with previously measured soot precursor concentrations in the same flame, it is clear that the lower soot yield is a result of enhanced oxidation rates rather than a reduction in precursor formation. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Thermal and induced flow characteristics of radio frequency surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuation at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei-long; Li Jun; Song Hui-min; Jin Di; Jia Min; Wu Yun

    2017-01-01

    Thermal and induced flow velocity characteristics of radio frequency (RF) surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuation are experimentally investigated in this paper. The spatial and temporal distributions of the dielectric surface temperature are measured with the infrared thermography at atmospheric pressure. In the spanwise direction, the highest dielectric surface temperature is acquired at the center of the high voltage electrode, while it reduces gradually along the chordwise direction. The maximum temperature of the dielectric surface raises rapidly once discharge begins. After several seconds (typically 100 s), the temperature reaches equilibrium among the actuator’s surface, plasma, and surrounding air. The maximum dielectric surface temperature is higher than that powered by an AC power supply in dozens of kHz. Influences of the duty cycle and the input frequency on the thermal characteristics are analyzed. When the duty cycle increases, the maximum dielectric surface temperature increases linearly. However, the maximum dielectric surface temperature increases nonlinearly when the input frequency varies from 0.47 MHz to 1.61 MHz. The induced flow velocity of the RF SDBD actuator is 0.25 m/s. (paper)

  19. Surface modification of polyester fabrics by atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma for color strength and adhesion enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunming; Zhao, Meihua; Wang, Libing; Qu, Lijun; Men, Yajing

    2017-04-01

    Surface properties of water-based pigmented inks for ink-jet printed polyester fabrics were modified with atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma to improve the color strength and pigment adhesion of the treated surfaces. The influence of various parameters, including the surface morphology, chemical compositions, surface energy and dynamic contact angles of the control and plasma treated samples was studied. Color strength and edge definition were used to evaluate the ink-jet printing performance of fabrics. The change in pigment adhesion to polyester fibers was analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). AFM (Atomic force microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses indicated the increase in surface roughness and the oxygen-containing polar groups(Cdbnd O, Csbnd OH and COOH) reinforced the fixation of pigments on the fiber surface. The result from this study suggested that the improved pigment color yield was clearly affected by alteration of pigment adhesion enhanced by plasma surface modification. Polyester fabrics exhibited better surface property and ink-jet printing performance after the air/He mixture plasma treatment comparing with those after air plasma treatment.

  20. Formation of hydrophobic coating on glass surface using atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z; Qiu, Y; Kuffel, E

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in material surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of a glass surface for improving hydrophobicity using a non-thermal plasma generated by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) with a needle array-to-plane electrode arrangement in atmospheric air is conducted, and the surface properties of the glass before and after the DBCD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, surface resistance measurement and the wet flashover voltage test. The effects of the plasma dose (the product of average discharge power and treatment time) of DBCD on the surface modification are studied, and the mechanism of interaction between the plasma and glass surface is discussed. It is found that a layer of hydrophobic coating is formed on the glass surface through DBCD treatment, and the improvement of hydrophobicity depends on the plasma dose of the DBCD. It seems that there is an optimum plasma dose for the surface treatment. The test results of thermal ageing and chemical ageing show that the hydrophobic layer has quite stable characteristics

  1. Low Pressure DC Glow Discharge Air Plasma Surface Treatment of Polyethylene (PE) Film for Improvement of Adhesive Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyaraj, Krishnasamy Navaneetha; Yoganand, Paramasivam; Selvarajan, Vengatasamy; Deshmukh, Rajendrasing R.; Balasubramanian, Suresh; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the change in surface properties of polyethylene (PE) film using DC low pressure glow discharge air plasma and makes it useful for technical applications. The change in hydrophilicity of the modified PE film surface was investigated by measuring contact angle and surface energy as a function of exposure time. Changes in the morphological and chemical composition of PE films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The improvement in adhesion was studied by measuring T-peel and lap-shear strength. The results show that the wettability and surface energy of the PE film has been improved due to the introduction of oxygen-containing polar groups and an increase in surface roughness. The XPS result clearly shows the increase in concentration of oxygen content and the formation of polar groups on the polymer surface. The AFM observation on PE film shows that the roughness of the surface increased due to plasma treatment. The above morphological and chemical changes enhanced the adhesive properties of the PE film surfaces, which was confirmed by T-peel and lap-shear tests.

  2. Spreading pressures of water and n-propanol on polymer surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, H.J.; Kip, Gerhardus A.M.; van Silfhout, Arend; Arends, J.

    1986-01-01

    Spreading pressures of water and n-propanol on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), and glass are determined from ellipsometrically measured adsorption isotherms by graphical integration, yielding for water 9, 37, 26, 33, and 141

  3. Simultaneous and long-lasting hydrophilization of inner and outer wall surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes by transferring atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Faze; Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Xu, Wenji; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xin; Xu, Sihao; Xia, Guangqing; Yang, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Plasma hydrophilization is a general method to increase the surface free energy of materials. However, only a few works about plasma modification focus on the hydrophilization of tube inner and outer walls. In this paper, we realize simultaneous and long-lasting plasma hydrophilization on the inner and outer walls of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). Specifically, an Ar atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to modify the PTFE tube’s outer wall and meanwhile to induce transferred He APP inside the PTFE tube to modify its inner wall surface. The optical emission spectrum (OES) shows that the plasmas contain many chemically active species, which are known as enablers for various applications. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the plasma hydrophilization. Results demonstrate that the wettability of the tube walls are well improved due to the replacement of the surface fluorine by oxygen and the change of surface roughness. The obtained hydrophilicity decreases slowly during more than 180 d aging, indicating a long-lasting hydrophilization. The results presented here clearly demonstrate the great potential of transferring APPs for surface modification of the tube’s inner and outer walls simultaneously. (paper)

  4. Exploration of surface hydrophilic properties on AISI 304 stainless steel and silicon wafer against aging after atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shang-I.; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to seek the enhanced surface hydrophilic properties on AISI 304 stainless steel and silicon wafer after atmospheric pressure plasma treatment using a specifically designed atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The aging tendency of surface hydrophilic property under air is highlighted. It is concluded that both of the silicon wafer and stainless steel treated with plasma generated from supply gas of argon 15 slm mixed with oxygen 40 sccm shows a better tendency on remaining high water contact angle as compared to that with pure argon and nitrogen addition. Additional peaks of O I (777, 844 nm), O II (408 nm) are detected by optical emission spectroscope indicating the presence of the oxygen radicals and ionic species, which interact with surfaces and thus contribute to low water contact angle (WCA) surfaces. Moreover, the result acquired from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that the increase in the oxygen-related bonding exhibits a better contribution on remaining high surface energy over a period of time.

  5. Prevention of pressure ulcers with a static air support surface: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraes, Brecht; van Leen, Martin; Schols, Jos; Van Hecke, Ann; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2018-03-05

    The aims of this study were to identify, assess, and summarise available evidence about the effectiveness of static air mattress overlays to prevent pressure ulcers. The primary outcome was the incidence of pressure ulcers. Secondary outcomes included costs and patient comfort. This study was a systematic review. Six electronic databases were consulted: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed (Medline), CINAHL (EBSCOhost interface), Science direct, and Web of Science. In addition, a hand search through reviews, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of the included studies was performed to identify additional studies. Potential studies were reviewed and assessed by 2 independent authors based on the title and abstract. Decisions regarding inclusion or exclusion of the studies were based on a consensus between the authors. Studies were included if the following criteria were met: reporting an original study; the outcome was the incidence of pressure ulcer categories I to IV when using a static air mattress overlay and/or in comparison with other pressure-redistribution device(s); and studies published in English, French, and Dutch. No limitation was set on study setting, design, and date of publication. The methodological quality assessment was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program Tool. Results were reported in a descriptive way to reflect the exploratory nature of the review. The searches included 13 studies: randomised controlled trials (n = 11) and cohort studies (n = 2). The mean pressure ulcer incidence figures found in the different settings were, respectively, 7.8% pressure ulcers of categories II to IV in nursing homes, 9.06% pressure ulcers of categories I to IV in intensive care settings, and 12% pressure ulcers of categories I to IV in orthopaedic wards. Seven comparative studies reported a lower incidence in the groups of patients on a static air mattress overlay. Three studies reported a statistical (P < .1) lower

  6. Pressure distribution over tube surfaces of tube bundle subjected to two phase cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Woo Gun

    2013-01-01

    Two phase vapor liquid flows exist in many shell and tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators and nuclear steam generators. To understand the fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to a two phase flow, it is essential to obtain detailed information about the characteristics of a two phase flow. The characteristics of a two phase flow and the flow parameters were introduced, and then, an experiment was performed to evaluate the pressure loss in the tube bundles and the fluid dynamic force acting on the cylinder owing to the pressure distribution. A two phase flow was pre mixed at the entrance of the test section, and the experiments were undertaken using a normal triangular array of cylinders subjected to a two phase cross flow. The pressure loss along the flow direction in the tube bundles was measured to calculate the two phase friction multiplier, and the multiplier was compared with the analytical value. Furthermore, the circular distributions of the pressure on the cylinders were measured. Based on the distribution and the fundamental theory of two phase flow, the effects of the void fraction and mass flux per unit area on the pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure on the tube by a numerical method. It was found that for low mass fluxes, the measured two phase friction multipliers agree well with the analytical results, and good agreement for the effect of the void fraction on the drag coefficients, as calculated by the measured pressure distributions, is shown qualitatively, as compared to the existing experimental results

  7. Numerical study of the influence of surface reaction probabilities on reactive species in an rf atmospheric pressure plasma containing humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Sandra; Gibson, Andrew R.; Kushner, Mark J.; Gans, Timo; O’Connell, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    The quantification and control of reactive species (RS) in atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs) is of great interest for their technological applications, in particular in biomedicine. Of key importance in simulating the densities of these species are fundamental data on their production and destruction. In particular, data concerning particle-surface reaction probabilities in APPs are scarce, with most of these probabilities measured in low-pressure systems. In this work, the role of surface reaction probabilities, γ, of reactive neutral species (H, O and OH) on neutral particle densities in a He–H2O radio-frequency micro APP jet (COST-μ APPJ) are investigated using a global model. It is found that the choice of γ, particularly for low-mass species having large diffusivities, such as H, can change computed species densities significantly. The importance of γ even at elevated pressures offers potential for tailoring the RS composition of atmospheric pressure microplasmas by choosing different wall materials or plasma geometries.

  8. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  9. Subtle lower esophageal sphincter relaxation abnormalities in patients with unexplained esophageal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herregods, T V K; van Hoeij, F B; Bredenoord, A J; Smout, A J P M

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal dysphagia is a relatively common symptom. We aimed to evaluate whether subtle, presently not acknowledged forms of dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) could explain dysphagia in a subset of patients with normal findings at high-resolution manometry (HRM) according to the Chicago classification v3.0. We used HRM to compare LES relaxation characteristics in 97 patients with unexplained dysphagia with those in 44 healthy subjects. In addition, normative values for time to LES relaxation and completeness of LES relaxation were calculated. Patients with delayed or incomplete LES relaxation were compared with patients with normal relaxation. Dysphagia patients had a higher nadir LES pressure (P=.001) and a longer time to LES relaxation (P=.012) than healthy subjects. Based on the findings in healthy subjects, normal values of LES relaxation were defined as: ≥50% of swallows with normal LES relaxation time (relaxation (not reaching a value below 10 mm Hg). Dysphagia patients had significantly more often >50% swallows with delayed and/or incomplete LES relaxation than healthy controls (25% vs 4.5%; P=.004). Dysphagia patients with >50% delayed and/or incomplete LES relaxation had a significantly higher LES resting pressure (Prelaxation abnormalities, such as a delayed relaxation of the LES and/or incomplete LES relaxation, could be a cause of dysphagia in approximately one quarter of the patients with otherwise unexplained esophageal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. THEORY OF RELAXATION PROCESSES IN FERROMAGNETIC INSULATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Simplified description of ferromagnetic relaxation Detailed treatment of magnons Relaxation frequency calculations Summary of relaxation processes in YIG Summary of experimental results for YIG

  11. Surface wind, pressure and temperature fields near tornadic and non-tornadic narrow cold-frontal rainbands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew; Parker, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Narrow cold frontal rainbands (NCFRs) occur frequently in the UK and other parts of northwest Europe. At the surface, the passage of an NCFR is often marked by a sharp wind veer, abrupt pressure increase and a rapid temperature decrease. Tornadoes and other instances of localised wind damage sometimes occur in association with meso-gamma-scale vortices (sometimes called misocyclones) that form along the zone of abrupt horizontal wind veer (and associated vertical vorticity) at the leading edge of the NCFR. Using one-minute-resolution data from a mesoscale network of automatic weather stations, surface pressure, wind and temperature fields in the vicinity of 12 NCFRs (five of which were tornadic) have been investigated. High-resolution surface analyses were obtained by mapping temporal variations in the observed parameters to equivalent spatial variations, using a system velocity determined by analysis of the radar-observed movement of NCFR precipitation segments. Substantial differences were found in the structure of surface wind and pressure fields close to tornadic and non-tornadic NCFRs. Tornadic NCFRs exhibited a large wind veer (near 90°) and strong pre- and post-frontal winds. These attributes were associated with large vertical vorticity and horizontal convergence across the front. Tornadoes typically occurred where vertical vorticity and horizontal convergence were increasing. Here, we present surface analyses from selected cases, and draw comparisons between the tornadic and non-tornadic NCFRs. Some Doppler radar observations will be presented, illustrating the development of misocyclones along parts of the NCFR that exhibit strong, and increasing, vertical vorticity stretching. The influence of the stability of the pre-frontal air on the likelihood of tornadoes will also be discussed.

  12. A Comparison of Relaxation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Doris B.

    Some researchers argue that all relaxation techniques produce a single relaxation response while others support a specific-effects hypothesis which suggests that progressive relaxation affects the musculoskeletal system and that guided imagery affects cognitive changes. Autogenics is considered a technique which is both somatic and cognitive. This…

  13. Relaxation from particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a “Relaxion” solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.

  14. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  15. Surface modification of polyester fabrics by atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma for color strength and adhesion enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunming, E-mail: zcm1229@126.com [College of Textiles and Clothing, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Sunvim Grp Co Ltd, Gaomi 261500 (China); Zhao, Meihua; Wang, Libing; Qu, Lijun [College of Textiles and Clothing, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Men, Yajing [Sunvim Grp Co Ltd, Gaomi 261500 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Air/He plasma gave hydrophilicity on polyester surface and decreased contact angle to 18°. • The roughness of polyester increased and pit-like structures appeared on the surface after plasma treatment. • XPS confirmed the generation of new functional groups on polyester fabric. • The improved pigment color yield and anti-bleeding performance were contributed by the alteration of pigment adhesion. • The air/He plasma was more effective than air plasma at the same treatment time. - Abstract: Surface properties of water-based pigmented inks for ink-jet printed polyester fabrics were modified with atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma to improve the color strength and pigment adhesion of the treated surfaces. The influence of various parameters, including the surface morphology, chemical compositions, surface energy and dynamic contact angles of the control and plasma treated samples was studied. Color strength and edge definition were used to evaluate the ink-jet printing performance of fabrics. The change in pigment adhesion to polyester fibers was analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). AFM (Atomic force microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses indicated the increase in surface roughness and the oxygen-containing polar groups(C=O, C−OH and COOH) reinforced the fixation of pigments on the fiber surface. The result from this study suggested that the improved pigment color yield was clearly affected by alteration of pigment adhesion enhanced by plasma surface modification. Polyester fabrics exhibited better surface property and ink-jet printing performance after the air/He mixture plasma treatment comparing with those after air plasma treatment.

  16. Surface modification of polyester fabrics by atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma for color strength and adhesion enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunming; Zhao, Meihua; Wang, Libing; Qu, Lijun; Men, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Air/He plasma gave hydrophilicity on polyester surface and decreased contact angle to 18°. • The roughness of polyester increased and pit-like structures appeared on the surface after plasma treatment. • XPS confirmed the generation of new functional groups on polyester fabric. • The improved pigment color yield and anti-bleeding performance were contributed by the alteration of pigment adhesion. • The air/He plasma was more effective than air plasma at the same treatment time. - Abstract: Surface properties of water-based pigmented inks for ink-jet printed polyester fabrics were modified with atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma to improve the color strength and pigment adhesion of the treated surfaces. The influence of various parameters, including the surface morphology, chemical compositions, surface energy and dynamic contact angles of the control and plasma treated samples was studied. Color strength and edge definition were used to evaluate the ink-jet printing performance of fabrics. The change in pigment adhesion to polyester fibers was analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). AFM (Atomic force microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses indicated the increase in surface roughness and the oxygen-containing polar groups(C=O, C−OH and COOH) reinforced the fixation of pigments on the fiber surface. The result from this study suggested that the improved pigment color yield was clearly affected by alteration of pigment adhesion enhanced by plasma surface modification. Polyester fabrics exhibited better surface property and ink-jet printing performance after the air/He mixture plasma treatment comparing with those after air plasma treatment.

  17. Distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the current sheet surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrie, N. P., E-mail: kyrie@fpl.gpi.ru; Markov, V. S., E-mail: natalya.kyrie@yandex.ru; Frank, A. G.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the width (the major transverse dimension) of the current sheet have been studied for the first time. The current sheets were formed in discharges in argon and helium in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations. It is found that the temperature of argon ions in both 2D and 3D magnetic configurations is almost uniform over the sheet width and that argon ions are accelerated by the Ampère force. In contrast, the distributions of the electron density and the temperature of helium ions are found to be substantially nonuniform. As a result, in the 2D magnetic configuration, the ion pressure gradient across the sheet width makes a significant contribution (comparable with the Ampère force) to the acceleration of helium ions, whereas in the 3D magnetic configuration, the Ampère force is counterbalanced by the pressure gradient.

  18. Surface Interactions and Confinement of Methane: A High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning NMR and Computational Chemistry Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Salim; Hoyt, David W.; Andersen, Amity; Sheets, Julie; Welch, Susan A.; Cole, David R.; Mueller, Karl T.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2017-01-18

    Characterization and modeling of the molecular-level behavior of simple hydrocarbon gases, such as methane, in the presence of both nonporous and nano-porous mineral matrices allows for predictive understanding of important processes in engineered and natural systems. In this study, changes in local electromagnetic environments of the carbon atoms in methane under conditions of high pressure (up to 130 bar) and moderate temperature (up to 346 K) were observed with 13C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy while the methane gas was mixed with two model solid substrates: a fumed non-porous, 12 nm particle size silica and a mesoporous silica with 200 nm particle size and 4 nm average pore diameter. Examination of the interactions between methane and the silica systems over temperatures and pressures that include the supercritical regime was allowed by a novel high pressure MAS sample containment system, which provided high resolution spectra collected under in situ conditions. For pure methane, no significant thermal effects were found for the observed 13C chemical shifts at all pressures studied here (28.2 bar, 32.6 bar, 56.4 bar, 65.1 bar, 112.7 bar, and 130.3 bar). However, the 13C chemical shifts of resonances arising from confined methane changed slightly with changes in temperature in mixtures with mesoporous silica. The chemical shift values of 13C nuclides in methane change measurably as a function of pressure both in the pure state and in mixtures with both silica matrices, with a more pronounced shift when meso-porous silica is present. Molecular-level simulations utilizing GCMC, MD and DFT confirm qualitatively that the experimentally measured changes are attributed to interactions of methane with the hydroxylated silica surfaces as well as densification of methane within nanopores and on pore surfaces.

  19. Surface Interactions and Confinement of Methane: A High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning NMR and Computational Chemistry Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, Salim; Hoyt, David W.; Andersen, Amity; Sheets, Julie; Welch, Susan A.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and modeling of the molecular-level behavior of simple hydrocarbon gases, such as methane, in the presence of both nonporous and nanoporous mineral matrices allows for predictive understanding of important processes in engineered and natural systems. In this study, we observed changes in local electromagnetic environments of the carbon atoms in methane under conditions of high pressure (up to 130 bar) and moderate temperature (up to 346 K) with 13 C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy while the methane gas was mixed with two model solid substrates: a fumed nonporous, 12 nm particle size silica and a mesoporous silica with 200 nm particle size and 4 nm average pore diameter. Examination of the interactions between methane and the silica systems over temperatures and pressures that include the supercritical regime was allowed by a novel high pressure MAS sample containment system, which provided high resolution spectra collected under in situ conditions. There was no significant thermal effects were found for the observed 13 C chemical shifts at all pressures studied here (28.2, 32.6, 56.4, 65.1, 112.7, and 130.3 bar) for pure methane. However, the 13 C chemical shifts of resonances arising from confined methane changed slightly with changes in temperature in mixtures with mesoporous silica. The chemical shift values of 13 C nuclides in methane change measurably as a function of pressure both in the pure state and in mixtures with both silica matrices, with a more pronounced shift when meso-porous silica is present. Molecular-level simulations utilizing GCMC, MD, and DFT confirm qualitatively that the experimentally measured changes are attributed to interactions of methane with the hydroxylated silica surfaces as well as densification of methane within nanopores and on pore surfaces.

  20. Hypnotizability modulates the cardiovascular correlates of subjective relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Paoletti, Giulia; Balocchi, Rita; Carli, Giancarlo; Morizzo, Carmela; Palombo, Carlo; Varanini, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Mean values and the spectral variability of heart rate (HRV), blood pressure, and skin blood flow were studied in high and low hypnotizable subjects during simple relaxation. Similar subjective relaxation was reported by highs and lows. A parasympathetic prevalence (indicated by a higher High-Frequency component of HRV and a lower High/Low-Frequency ratio) and lower renin-angiotensin activity (indicated by a lower Very-Low-Frequency component of HRV) could be attributed to highs with respect to lows. Hypnotizability did not affect blood pressure and its variability and modulated the skin blood flow across the session only in lows. The findings confirm that relaxation cannot be defined solely on cardiovascular parameters and also indicate that hypnotizability modulates cardiovascular activity during simple relaxation and suggest it may have a protective role against cardiovascular disease.

  1. Surface modification of chromatography adsorbents by low temperature low pressure plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Theodosiou, E.

    2010-01-01

    a purpose-designed rotating reactor, plasmas were employed to either: (i) remove anion exchange ligands at or close to the exterior surface of Q HyperZ, and replace them with polar oxygen containing functions (‘plasma etching and oxidation’); or (ii) bury the same surface exposed ligands beneath thin...

  2. Highly porous micro-roughened structures developed on aluminum surface using the jet of rotating arc discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Siavash; Farzaneh, Masoud; Stafford, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Aluminum 6061 samples were exposed to the jet of an atmospheric pressure rotating arc discharge operated in either nitrogen or air. After multiple passes of treatment with an air-based plasma jet at very short source-to-substrate distances, scanning electron microscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a highly porous micro-roughened alumina-based structure on the surface of aluminum. Based on optical emission spectroscopy and high-speed optical imaging of the jet interacting with aluminum samples, it was found that the process is mainly driven by the energy transfer from the plasma source to the surface through transient plasma-transferred arcs. The occurrence of multiple arc discharges over very short time scales can induce rapid phase transformations of aluminum with characteristics similar to the ones usually observed during laser ablation of materials with femto- to nanosecond laser pulses or during the formation of cathode spots on the surface of metals.

  3. Controls of the surface water partial pressure of CO2 in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Elkalay, K.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Borges, A.V.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) has been investigated in the North Sea, a northwest European shelf sea. Based on a seasonal and high spatial resolution data set the main controlling factors - biological processes and temperature - have been identified and quantified.

  4. Positive Selection Pressure Drives Variation on the Surface-Exposed Variable Proteins of the Pathogenic Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Jenny; Hill, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic species of Neisseria utilize variable outer membrane proteins to facilitate infection and proliferation within the human host. However, the mechanisms behind the evolution of these variable alleles remain largely unknown due to analysis of previously limited datasets. In this study, we have expanded upon the previous analyses to substantially increase the number of analyzed sequences by including multiple diverse strains, from various geographic locations, to determine whether positive selective pressure is exerted on the evolution of these variable genes. Although Neisseria are naturally competent, this analysis indicates that only intrastrain horizontal gene transfer among the pathogenic Neisseria principally account for these genes exhibiting linkage equilibrium which drives the polymorphisms evidenced within these alleles. As the majority of polymorphisms occur across species, the divergence of these variable genes is dependent upon the species and is independent of geographical location, disease severity, or serogroup. Tests of neutrality were able to detect strong selection pressures acting upon both the opa and pil gene families, and were able to locate the majority of these sites within the exposed variable regions of the encoded proteins. Evidence of positive selection acting upon the hypervariable domains of Opa contradicts previous beliefs and provides evidence for selection of receptor binding. As the pathogenic Neisseria reside exclusively within the human host, the strong selection pressures acting upon both the opa and pil gene families provide support for host immune system pressure driving sequence polymorphisms within these variable genes.

  5. Enhancement of cell growth on honeycomb-structured polylactide surface using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuang-Yao; Chang, Chia-Hsing; Yang, Yi-Wei; Liao, Guo-Chun; Liu, Chih-Tung; Wu, Jong-Shinn, E-mail: chongsin@faculty.nctu.edu.tw

    2017-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Atmospheric-pressure plasma enhances cell growth on two different pore sizes of honeycomb pattern on polylactide surface. - Highlights: • Different pore sizes of honeycomb pattern on PLA film are created. • The two-step plasma treatment provided the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups that had a major impact on cell cultivation. • The plasma treatment had a significant effect for cell proliferation. • The surface structures are the main influence on cell cultivation, while plasma treatment can indeed improve the growth environment. - Abstract: In this paper, we compare the cell growth results of NIH-3T3 and Neuro-2A cells over 72 h on flat and honeycomb structured PLA films without and with a two-step atmospheric-pressure nitrogen-based plasma jet treatment. We developed a fabrication system used for forming of a uniform honeycomb structure on PLA surface, which can produce two different pore sizes, 3–4 μm and 7–8 μm, of honeycomb pattern. We applied a previously developed nitrogen-based atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet system to treat the PLA film without and with honeycomb structure. NIH-3T3 and a much smaller Neuro-2A cells were cultivated on the films under various surface conditions. The results show that the two-step plasma treatment in combination with a honeycomb structure can enhance cell growth on PLA film, should the cell size be not too smaller than the pore size of honeycomb structure, e.g., NIH-3T3. Otherwise, cell growth would be better on flat PLA film, e.g., Neuro-2A.

  6. Surface kinetics for catalytic combustion of hydrogen-air mixtures on platinum at atmospheric pressure in stagnation flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, H.; Sato, J.; Williams, F. A.

    1995-03-01

    Experimental studies of the combustion of premixed hydrogen-air mixtures impinging on the surface of a heated platinum plate at normal atmospheric pressure were performed and employed to draw inferences concerning surface reaction mechanisms and rate parameters applicable under practical conditions of catalytic combustion. Plate and gas temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and concentration profiles of major stable species in the gas were measured by gas-chromatographic analyses of samples withdrawn by quartz probes. In addition, ignition and extinction phenomena were recorded and interpreted with the aid of a heat balance at the surface and a previous flow-field analysis of the stagnation-point boundary layer. From the experimental and theoretical results, conclusions were drawn concerning the surface chemical-kinetic mechanisms and values of the elementary rate parameters that are consistent with the observations. In particular, the activation energy for the surface oxidation step H + OH → H 2O is found to be appreciably less at these high surface coverages than in the low-coverage limit.

  7. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  8. Ultra-high pressure water jetting for coating removal and surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Spencer T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper shall examine the basics of water technology with particular attention paid to systems currently in use and some select new applications. By providing an overview of commercially available water jet systems in the context of recent case histories, potential users may evaluate the process for future applications. With the on going introduction of regulations prohibiting the use of chemical paint strippers, manual scrapping and dry abrasive media blasting, the need for an environmentally compliant coating removal process has been mandated. Water jet cleaning has been a traditional part of many industrial processed for year, although it has only been in the last few years that reliable pumping equipment capable of ultra-high pressure operation have become available. With the advent of water jet pumping equipment capable of sustaining pressures in excess of 36,000 psi. there has been shift away from lower pressure, high water volume systems. One of the major factors in driving industry to seek higher pressures is the ability to offer higher productivity rates while lowering the quantity of water used and subsequently reprocessed. Among benefits of the trend toward higher pressure/lower volume systems is the corresponding reduction in water jet reaction forces making hand held water jetting practical and safe. Other unique applications made possible by these new generation pumping systems include the use of alternative fluids including liquid ammonia for specialized and hazardous material removal applications. A review of the equipment used and the required modifications will be presented along with the conclusions reached reached during this test program.

  9. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for In-Situ Mars Surface Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Jerman, G. A.; Harvey, R. P.; Doloboff, I. J.; Neidholdt, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. This project is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), electron gun and optics manufacturer Applied Physics Technologies, and small vacuum system manufacturer Creare. Dr. Ralph Harvery and environmental SEM (ESEM) inventor Dr. Gerry Danilatos serve as advisors to the team. Variable pressure SEMs allow for fine (nm-scale) resolution imaging and micron-scale chemical study of materials without sample preparation (e.g., carbon or gold coating). Charging of a sample is reduced or eliminated by the gas surrounding the sample. It is this property of ESEMs that make them ideal for locations where sample preparation is not yet feasible, such as the surface of Mars. In addition, the lack of sample preparation needed here will simplify the sample acquisition process and allow caching of the samples for future complementary payload use.

  10. Relaxation of crystals with the quasi-Newton method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfrommer, B.G.; Cote, M.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    A quasi-Newton method is used to simultaneously relax the internal coordinates and lattice parameters of crystals under pressure. The symmetry of the crystal structure is preserved during the relaxation. From the inverse of the Hessian matrix, elastic properties, and some optical phonon frequencies at the Brillouin zone center can be estimated. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated for silicon test systems. 26 refs., 2 figs

  11. Breathing and relaxation training for patients with hypertension and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Chicayban, Livia de Matos; Malagris, Lucia Emmanoel Novaes

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the relaxation and breathing training for hypertensive patients on the index, levels and symptoms of stress and blood pressure among hypertensive patients suffering from stress. Nineteen patients from a hypertension and diabetes program in Rio de Janeiro participated in the study that which used, as instruments, Lipp's inventory of stress symptoms for adults, the psychological interview for hypertensive patients, the relaxation and breathing training for hy...

  12. Expressions of the radius and the surface tension of surface of tension in terms of the pressure distribution for nanoscale liquid threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hong; Wei Jiu-An; Cui Shu-Wen; Zhu Ru-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The expressions of the radius and the surface tension of surface of tension R s and γ s in terms of the pressure distribution for nanoscale liquid threads are of great importance for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interfacial phenomena of nanoscale fluids; these two basic expressions are derived in this paper. Although these expressions were derived first in the literature [Kim B G, Lee J S, Han M H, and Park S, 2006 Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, 10, 283] and used widely thereafter, the derivation is wrong both in logical structure and physical thought. In view of the importance of these basic expressions, the logic and physical mistakes appearing in that derivation are pointed out. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  13. Method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeffrey W [Livermore, CA

    2009-09-22

    Reactive atom plasma processing can be used to shape, polish, planarize and clean the surfaces of difficult materials with minimal subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use a plasma torch, such as a conventional ICP torch. The workpiece and plasma torch are moved with respect to each other, whether by translating and/or rotating the workpiece, the plasma, or both. The plasma discharge from the torch can be used to shape, planarize, polish, and/or clean the surface of the workpiece, as well as to thin the workpiece. The processing may cause minimal or no damage to the workpiece underneath the surface, and may involve removing material from the surface of the workpiece.

  14. Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    boundary layer (ABL). It predicts turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and is a Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model. As in Lee et al. (2012...cumulus parameterization (Kain 2004) is employed. For radiation , the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) (Mlawer et al. 1997) is used for...longwave and the Dudhia scheme (Dudhia 1989) for shortwave . The Noah land surface model (Chen and Dudhia 2001) is used to represent land surface processes

  15. PAF: A software tool to estimate free-geometry extended bodies of anomalous pressure from surface deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, A. G.; Fernández, J.; Cannavò, F.

    2018-02-01

    We present a software package to carry out inversions of surface deformation data (any combination of InSAR, GPS, and terrestrial data, e.g., EDM, levelling) as produced by 3D free-geometry extended bodies with anomalous pressure changes. The anomalous structures are described as an aggregation of elementary cells (whose effects are estimated as coming from point sources) in an elastic half space. The linear inverse problem (considering some simple regularization conditions) is solved by means of an exploratory approach. This software represents the open implementation of a previously published methodology (Camacho et al., 2011). It can be freely used with large data sets (e.g. InSAR data sets) or with data coming from small control networks (e.g. GPS monitoring data), mainly in volcanic areas, to estimate the expected pressure bodies representing magmatic intrusions. Here, the software is applied to some real test cases.

  16. A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide; Isomura, Noritake

    2009-01-01

    A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO 2 (110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

  17. Effects of surface orientation on nucleate boiling heat transfer in a pool of water under atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of surface inclination on pool boiling were experimentally examined. • Heat transfer and major bubble parameters were simultaneously measured. • A modified wall boiling model considering bubble merging was developed. • The presented model reasonably predicted pool boiling heat transfer on inclined surfaces. - Abstract: The basic wall boiling model widely used in computation fluid dynamics codes gives no regard to influences of surface orientation upon boiling mechanism. This study aims at examining the effects of surface orientation on wall heat flux and bubble parameters in pool nucleate boiling and incorporating those into the wall boiling model. Boiling experiments on a flat plate heater submerged in a pool of saturated water were conducted under atmospheric pressure. Relevant bubble parameters as well as boiling heat transfer characteristics were simultaneously measured using a unique optical setup integrating shadowgraph, total reflection and infrared thermometry techniques. It was observed that as an upward-facing heater surface with a constant wall superheat of 7.5 °C inclines from horizontal towards vertical, the heat flux significantly increased; nucleation site density increased intensively at the upper part of the heater surface where thermal boundary layer might become thickened; isolated boiling bubbles tend to slide up due to buoyancy and coalesce with each other, thus forming one single large bubble. Such observations on the wall heat flux and bubble parameters according to surface orientation could not be predicted by the present basic wall boiling model only centered with isolated bubbles. A modified wall boiling model incorporating the effects of merging of isolated bubbles on an inclined surface was proposed. The model reasonably predicted the experimental data on various orientation angles.

  18. Effects of surface orientation on nucleate boiling heat transfer in a pool of water under atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae, E-mail: hdkims@khu.ac.kr

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Effects of surface inclination on pool boiling were experimentally examined. • Heat transfer and major bubble parameters were simultaneously measured. • A modified wall boiling model considering bubble merging was developed. • The presented model reasonably predicted pool boiling heat transfer on inclined surfaces. - Abstract: The basic wall boiling model widely used in computation fluid dynamics codes gives no regard to influences of surface orientation upon boiling mechanism. This study aims at examining the effects of surface orientation on wall heat flux and bubble parameters in pool nucleate boiling and incorporating those into the wall boiling model. Boiling experiments on a flat plate heater submerged in a pool of saturated water were conducted under atmospheric pressure. Relevant bubble parameters as well as boiling heat transfer characteristics were simultaneously measured using a unique optical setup integrating shadowgraph, total reflection and infrared thermometry techniques. It was observed that as an upward-facing heater surface with a constant wall superheat of 7.5 °C inclines from horizontal towards vertical, the heat flux significantly increased; nucleation site density increased intensively at the upper part of the heater surface where thermal boundary layer might become thickened; isolated boiling bubbles tend to slide up due to buoyancy and coalesce with each other, thus forming one single large bubble. Such observations on the wall heat flux and bubble parameters according to surface orientation could not be predicted by the present basic wall boiling model only centered with isolated bubbles. A modified wall boiling model incorporating the effects of merging of isolated bubbles on an inclined surface was proposed. The model reasonably predicted the experimental data on various orientation angles.

  19. Computational modeling indicates that surface pressure can be reliably conveyed to tactile receptors even amidst changes in skin mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Gerling, Gregory J

    2016-07-01

    Distinct patterns in neuronal firing are observed between classes of cutaneous afferents. Such differences may be attributed to end-organ morphology, distinct ion-channel complements, and skin microstructure, among other factors. Even for just the slowly adapting type I afferent, the skin's mechanics for a particular specimen might impact the afferent's firing properties, especially given the thickness and elasticity of skin can change dramatically over just days. Here, we show computationally that the skin can reliably convey indentation magnitude, rate, and spatial geometry to the locations of tactile receptors even amid changes in skin's structure. Using finite element analysis and neural dynamics models, we considered the skin properties of six mice that span a representative cohort. Modeling the propagation of the surface stimulus to the interior of the skin demonstrated that there can be large variance in stresses and strains near the locations of tactile receptors, which can lead to large variance in static firing rate. However, variance is significantly reduced when the stimulus tip is controlled by surface pressure and compressive stress is measured near the end organs. This particular transformation affords the least variability in predicted firing rates compared with others derived from displacement, force, strain energy density, or compressive strain. Amid changing skin mechanics, stimulus control by surface pressure may be more naturalistic and optimal and underlie how animals actively explore the tactile environment. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Three-term Asymptotic Stress Field Expansion for Analysis of Surface Cracked Elbows in Nuclear Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Fernando

    2007-04-01

    Elbows with a shallow surface cracks in nuclear pressure pipes have been recognized as a major origin of potential catastrophic failures. Crack assessment is normally performed by using the J-integral approach. Although this one-parameter-based approach is useful to predict the ductile crack onset, it depends strongly on specimen geometry or constraint level. When a shallow crack exists (depth crack-to-thickness wall ratio less than 0.2) and/or a fully plastic condition develops around the crack, the J-integral alone does not describe completely the crack-tip stress field. In this paper, we report on the use of a three-term asymptotic expansion, referred to as the J- A 2 methodology, for modeling the elastic-plastic stress field around a three-dimensional shallow surface crack in an elbow subjected to internal pressure and out-of-plane bending. The material, an A 516 Gr. 70 steel, used in the nuclear industry, was modeled with a Ramberg-Osgood power law and flow theory of plasticity. A finite deformation theory was included to account for the highly nonlinear behavior around the crack tip. Numerical finite element results were used to calculate a second fracture parameter A 2 for the J- A 2 methodology. We found that the used three-term asymptotic expansion accurately describes the stress field around the considered three-dimensional shallow surface crack.

  1. Field-emitting Townsend regime of surface dielectric barrier discharges generated in CO2 emerging at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, David; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in CO2 from atmospheric pressure up to supercritical conditions (Tc = 304.13 K, pc = 7.4 MPa) generated using 10-kHz ac excitation are studied experimentally. Two discharge regimes are obtained: the standard and field-emitting Townsend regimes. The former resembles typical surface DBDs that have streamer-like characteristics, but the latter has not been reported previously. Here we present an analysis of the electrical and optical diagnostics of the field-emitting Townsend discharge regime using current-voltage and charge-voltage measurements, imaging, optical emission spectroscopy, and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Using an electrical model, it is possible to calculate the discharge-induced capacitances of the plasma and the dielectric, as well as the space-averaged values of the surface potential and the potential drop across the discharge. The model also accounts for the space-averaged Laplacian field by including the capacitance due to the fringe electric field from the electrode edge. The electrical characteristics are similar to those of atmospheric-pressure Townsend DBDs, i.e. self-sustained DBDs with minimal space-charge effects. The purely continuum emission spectrum is due to electron-neutral bremsstrahlung, with a corresponding average electron temperature of 2600 K. Raman spectra of CO2 near the critical point demonstrate that the discharge increases the average gas temperature by less than 1 K. This work was supported financially in part by MEXT and JSPS.

  2. Use of automation and mechanization elements in welding and surfacing nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, J.; Elckner, J.

    1986-01-01

    The problems are discussed of automation and mechanization of individual operations in the production cycle of pressure vessels whose manufacture cannot for its great exactingness be automated as a whole. Examples are given of workplaces and single-purpose welding facilities with a high level of automation. The present state of the development and implementation of automation of arc welding is described and further development is indicated of the automation of welding processes in the manufacture of nuclear facilities. (J.C.)

  3. Planar time-resolved PIV for velocity and pressure retrieval in atmospheric boundary layer over surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Bopp, Maximilian; Caulliez, Guillemette

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea coupling in general is important for weather, climate, fluxes. Wind wave source is crucially important for surface waves' modeling. But the wind-wave growth rate is strongly uncertain. Using direct measurements of pressure by wave-following Elliott probe [1] showed, weak and indefinite dependence of wind-wave growth rate on the wave steepness, while Grare et.al. [2] discuss the limitations of direct measurements of pressure associated with the inability to measure the pressure close to the surface by contact methods. Recently non-invasive methods for determining the pressure on the basis of technology of time-resolved PIV are actively developed [3]. Retrieving air flow velocities by 2D PIV techniques was started from Reul et al [4]. The first attempt for retrieving wind pressure field of waves in the laboratory tank from the time-resolved PIV measurements was done in [5]. The experiments were performed at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m). For 18 regimes with wind speed up to 14 m/s including presence of puddle waves, a combination of time resolved PIV technique and optical measurements of water surface form was applied to detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. Ammonium chloride smoke was used for flow visualization illuminated by two 6 Wt blue diode lasers combined into a vertical laser plane. Particle movement was captured with high-speed camera using Scheimpflug technique (up to 20 kHz frame rate with 4-frame bursts, spatial resolution about 190 μm, field of view 314x12 mm). Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave form. The resulting time resolved instantaneous velocity fields on regular grid allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from measured air velocity fluctuations. The average wind velocity patterns were

  4. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Bian, Jie; Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi; Wan, Jinglin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma working under low pressure is easy to realize industrialization. • Enhancing process finished within 75 s. • Plasma treatment leads to the increase in equilibrium contact angle by 330%. • Tinfoil film with simple chemical structure was used to reveal the mechanism. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Si−O−C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  5. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weimin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Zhou, Xiaoyan, E-mail: zhouxiaoyan@njfu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Xiaotao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Bian, Jie [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Wan, Jinglin [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma working under low pressure is easy to realize industrialization. • Enhancing process finished within 75 s. • Plasma treatment leads to the increase in equilibrium contact angle by 330%. • Tinfoil film with simple chemical structure was used to reveal the mechanism. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Si−O−C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  6. Computational model of the interaction of a helium atmospheric-pressure jet with a dielectric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. I.; Bradley, J. W.

    2015-11-01

    Using a time-dependent two-dimensional axisymmetric fluid model the interaction of a plasma jet with a dielectric surface has been studied. The model is solved for two consecutive periods of a positive unipolar pulsed waveform. The study concentrates on determining the fluxes of the main oxygen ion species, \\text{O}2+ , \\text{O}2- and the total accumulated charge on the surface. Approaching the dielectric surface, the streamer head is seen to divert its direction of propagation, spreading out radially approximately 0.2 mm above the dielectric surface. For \\text{O}2+ generated near the streamer head, this leads to a maximum in their flux to the surface which moves radially outwards with the streamer propagation, driven by the applied electric field in pulse on-time. In the off-time, the flux of \\text{O}2+ drops by at least two orders of magnitude. As a result, the total number of \\text{O}2+ ions arriving at the surface over one entire pulse period (fluence) has an annular shape limited by the effective contact area of the streamer on the surface. In contrast \\text{O}2- ions generated in the pulse on-time do not reach the surface due to the direction of the applied electric field. In the off-time, \\text{O}2- ions generated at the edges of the deformed streamer are pushed by the accumulated surface charge outwards. As a result, the \\text{O}2- fluence has an annular structure with its maximum being outside the area of the dielectric surface covered by the plasma channel. Solving for the second pulse period shows small changes in the predicted fluences, with largest difference seen with \\text{O}2- . We see that increasing the flow rate (by a factor of three) shifts the position of the maximum fluence of \\text{O}2+ outwards, and decreasing the \\text{O}2- fluence in the second pulse period.

  7. Variational formulation of relaxed and multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, R. L.; Yoshida, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hudson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    > Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.

  8. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol.

  9. Randomized clinical trial comparing 2 support surfaces: results of the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Linda J; Reynolds, Tim M; Park, Carol; Rithalia, Shyam; Gonsalkorale, M; Birch, Jan; Torgerson, David; Iglesias, Cynthia

    2003-11-01

    To determine whether a viscoelastic polymer (energy absorbing) foam mattress was superior to a standard hospital mattress for pressure ulcer prevention and to analyze the cost-effectiveness in comparison with standard hospital mattresses. Unblinded, randomized, prospective trial. Elderly acute care, rehabilitation, and orthopedic wards at 3 hospitals in the United Kingdom. 1168 patients at risk of developing pressure ulcers (Waterlow score, 15 to 20), with a median age of 83 years (25th to 75th percentile range, 79-87). Participants were allocated to either the experimental equipment (CONFOR-Med mattress/cushion combination) or a standard mattress/cushion combination; all were given standard nursing care. Pressure areas were observed daily. Development of nonblanching erythema. A significant decrease in the incidence of blanching erythema (26.3% to 19.9%; P =.004) and a nonsignificant decrease in the incidence of nonblanching erythema occurred in participants allocated to the experimental equipment. However, when the survival curve plots were analyzed at 7 days, both categories showed statistically significant decreases (P =.0015 and P =.042, respectively). Participants on standard equipment had a relative odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.69) for developing blanching erythema or worse and 1.46 (95% CI, 0.90-1.82) for developing nonblanching erythema or worse. To prevent nonblanching erythema, the number needed to treat (NNT) was 41.9 (95% CI, -82.6-15.3). To prevent any erythema (blanching or nonblanching), the NNT was 11.5 (95% CI, 41.6-9.3). Participants with blanching or nonblanching erythema were significantly less mobile than participants with normal skin and more likely to have worsening mobility (P pressure ulcer status, mattress type was not associated with difference in mobility. Regardless of prevention routine, pressure ulcers occur. In this study, the experimental equipment showed statistical significance to standard equipment

  10. A new approach to surface activation of porous nanomaterials using non-thermal helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriyasart, Farkfun; Ohtani, Masataka; Oh, Jun-Seok; Hatta, Akimitsu; Kobiro, Kazuya

    2017-06-20

    Non-thermal helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment is applied to the surface activation of porous TiO 2 nanoparticle assemblies. Treatment conditions such as the working distance of the plasma discharge, helium gas flow rate, and treatment time are optimized for effective removal of contaminants from the assembly surface. Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) is applied to detect trace amounts of contaminants on assembly surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations confirm that the nanoparticle assemblies retain their original perfect spherical structures as well as their ultra-fine convex-concave nano-surfaces even after the plasma jet treatment. N 2 adsorption/desorption and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show no significant changes in their BET specific surface areas and crystal structures, respectively. The plasma jet-treated TiO 2 nanoparticle assemblies show a 3.8 fold improvement in their reaction rate constants for methylene blue degradation and a 2 fold enhancement of their photocurrents under UV irradiation when compared with untreated TiO 2 .

  11. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Bian, Jie; Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi; Wan, Jinglin

    2017-06-01

    The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Sisbnd Osbnd C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  12. Investigation of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharge and Its Application to Surface Modification of Blood-Filtering Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoliang; Feng, Xianping; Qiu, Gao; Yan, Yonghui; Shi, Yuncheng

    2004-10-01

    Melt-blown polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) nonwoven materials treated by using plasma is regarded as one of the excellent materials to filter white blood cells (WBC) from blood. In this paper, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source at an improved quasi-stable atmospheric pressure is achieved when discharge voltage, discharge current, and gap between the electrodes are carefully controlled. This plasma source has been used to modify the surface of PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials. Experimental results indicate that both the wettability and permeation of treated PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials are greatly improved.

  13. Investigation of atmospheric pressure plasma discharge and its application to surface modification of blood-filtering material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoliang; Qiu Gao; Yan Yonghui; Shi Yuncheng

    2004-01-01

    Melt-blown polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) nonwoven materials treated by using plasma is regarded as one of the excellent materials to filter white blood cells (WBC) from blood. In this paper, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source at an improved quasi-stable atmospheric pressure is achieved when discharge voltage, discharge current, and gap between the electrodes are carefully controlled. This plasma source has been used to modify the surface of PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials. Experimental results indicate that both the wettability and permeation of treated PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials are greatly improved. (authors)

  14. Dynamics of relaxed inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangarife, Walter; Tobioka, Kohsaku; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Volansky, Tomer

    2018-02-01

    The cosmological relaxation of the electroweak scale has been proposed as a mechanism to address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model. A field, the relaxion, rolls down its potential and, in doing so, scans the squared mass parameter of the Higgs, relaxing it to a parametrically small value. In this work, we promote the relaxion to an inflaton. We couple it to Abelian gauge bosons, thereby introducing the necessary dissipation mechanism which slows down the field in the last stages. We describe a novel reheating mechanism, which relies on the gauge-boson production leading to strong electro-magnetic fields, and proceeds via the vacuum production of electron-positron pairs through the Schwinger effect. We refer to this mechanism as Schwinger reheating. We discuss the cosmological dynamics of the model and the phenomenological constraints from CMB and other experiments. We find that a cutoff close to the Planck scale may be achieved. In its minimal form, the model does not generate sufficient curvature perturbations and additional ingredients, such as a curvaton field, are needed.

  15. Oxygen Plasma Treatment of Rubber Surface by the Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Torch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Bong-ju; Kusano, Yukihiro; Kato, Nobuko

    1997-01-01

    adhesive. The adhesion property was improved by treatment of the rubber compound with plasma containing oxygen radicals. Physical and chemical changes of the rubber surface as a result of the plasma treatment were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and fourier transform......A new application of the atmospheric cold plasma torch has been investigated. Namely, the surface treatment of an air-exposed vulcanized rubber compound. The effect of plasma treatment was evaluated by the bondability of the treated rubber compound with another rubber compound using a polyurethane...

  16. Creep fracture mechanics parameters for internal axial surface cracks in pressurized cylinders and creep crack growth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianfeng; Tu Shantung; Gong Jianming; Sun Wei

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a low alloy Cr-Mo steel cylinder subjected to internal pressure at high temperature with a semi-elliptical crack located at the inner surface is considered. The creep crack driving force parameter C*-integrals calculated by finite element (FE) method, are compared with results from previous studies, which indicates that empirical equations may be inaccurate under some conditions. A total of 96 cases for wide practical ranges of geometry and material parameters are performed to obtain systematic FE results of C*-integral, which are tabulated and formulated in this paper. It is observed that the maximum C*-integral may occur neither at the deepest point nor at the surface point when the aspect ratio is large enough and the value of C*-integral is significantly sensitive to the crack depth ratio. Furthermore, based on the proposed equations for estimating C*-integrals and a step-by-step analysis procedure, crack profile development, crack depth, crack length and remaining life prediction are obtained for surface cracks with various initial aspect ratios. It is found that when the crack depth ratio is increased, there is no obvious convergence of crack aspect ratio observed. The magnitude of half crack length increment is always minor compared with the crack depth increment. In addition, the remaining life is much more dependent on the surface crack depth than on the surface crack length. - Highlights: → Existing empirical equations of C*-integral for surface cracks may be inaccurate. → Systematic FE results of C*-integral from 96 cases are tabulated and formulated. → Maximum C*-integral may not occur at deepest/surface point if a/c is large enough. → The value of C*-integral is significantly sensitive to the crack depth ratio. → Crack profile development, crack size and remaining life prediction are obtained.

  17. Spin transport and relaxation in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for

  18. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymer films for improved adhesion using atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma graft-polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Masaaki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)], E-mail: mokubo@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tahara, Mitsuru [Environment and Chemistry Department, Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture, 2-7-1 Ayumino, Izumi, Osaka 594-1157 (Japan); Saeki, Noboru [Laboratory of Technology Development, Pearl Kogyo Co., Ltd., 3-8-13 Minamikagaya, Suminoe-ku, Osaka 559-0015 (Japan); Yamamoto, Toshiaki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Institute of Technology, 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan)

    2008-08-01

    Flexible thin solid films made of fluorocarbon polymers such as PFA (perfluoroalkoxy fluoroplastics), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), and PCTFE (polychlorotrifluoroethylene) have excellent properties in terms of flexibility, gas and moisture barriers, etc. We develop a surface modification technique for improving the adhesion of the films using an atmospheric-pressure NTP (nonthermal plasma) method followed by graft-polymerization of the hydrophilic monomer. The results of the T-type peeling test show that the peeling strength of the film is thirty times larger than that of the untreated film. It is confirmed from XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer) and the SEM (Scanning electron microscope) analyses that a few F atoms exist on the surface and the hydrophilic layer with a thickness is of the order of 1 {mu}m is formed due to the grafting process.

  19. Relaxing music for anxiety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dave; Polman, Remco; McGregor, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of relaxing music for anxiety control. Undergraduate students (N=84) were instructed to imagine themselves in an anxiety producing situation while listening to a selection of 30 music compositions. For each composition, level of relaxation, the factors that either enhanced or detracted from its relaxing potential and the emotional labels attached were assessed. Participants were also asked to state which music components (e.g., tempo, melody) were most conducive to relaxation. Additional information was obtained through the use of a focus group of 6 undergraduate music students. This paper presents details on the characteristics of relaxing-music for anxiety control and emotional labels attached to the relaxing compositions. Furthermore, an importance value has been attached to each of the music components under scrutiny, thus providing an indication of which music components should receive greatest attention when selecting music for anxiety control.

  20. Prediction of Fermi-Surface Pressure Dependence in Rb and Cs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J. P.; MacDonald, A. H.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1980-01-01

    The linear muffin-tin orbitals method of band-structure calculation, combined with a Gaussian integration technique using special directions in the Brillouin zone, has been used to calculate Fermi radii and extremal cross-sectional areas of the Fermi surface in rubidium and cesium. Band shifts we...

  1. Applying horizontal diffusion on pressure surface to mesoscale models on terrain-following coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann-Ming Henry Juang; Ching-Teng Lee; Yongxin Zhang; Yucheng Song; Ming-Chin Wu; Yi-Leng Chen; Kevin Kodama; Shyh-Chin Chen

    2005-01-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction regional spectral model and mesoscale spectral model (NCEP RSM/MSM) use a spectral computation on perturbation. The perturbation is defined as a deviation between RSM/MSM forecast value and their outer model or analysis value on model sigma-coordinate surfaces. The horizontal diffusion used in the models applies...

  2. Modification of glassy carbon surfaces by atmospheric pressure cold plasma torch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Kusano, Yukihiro; Leipold, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The effect of plasma treatment on glassy carbon (GC) surfaces was studied with adhesion improvement in mind. A newly constructed remote plasma source was used to treat GC plates. Pure He and a dilute NH3/He mixture were used as feed gases. Optical emission spectroscopy was performed for plasma...

  3. Low-temperature hydrogenation of diamond nanoparticles using diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Čech, J.; Kozak, Halyna; Artemenko, Anna; Ižák, Tibor; Čermák, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav; Černák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2602-2607 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atmospheric plasma * diamond nanoparticles * diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge * FTIR * XPS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  4. Oxygen Plasma Treatment of Rubber Surface by the Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Torch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Bong-ju; Kusano, Yukihiro; Kato, Nobuko

    1997-01-01

    A new application of the atmospheric cold plasma torch has been investigated. Namely, the surface treatment of an air-exposed vulcanized rubber compound. The effect of plasma treatment was evaluated by the bondability of the treated rubber compound with another rubber compound using a polyurethane...

  5. ABC relaxation theory and the factor structure of relaxation states, recalled relaxation activities, dispositions, and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J C; Wedell, A B; Kolotylo, C J; Lewis, J E; Byers, K Y; Segin, C M

    2000-06-01

    ABC Relaxation Theory proposes 15 psychological relaxation-related states (R-States): Sleepiness, Disengagement, Physical Relaxation, Mental Quiet, Rested/Refreshed, At Ease/At Peace, Energized, Aware, Joy, Thankfulness and Love, Prayerfulness, Childlike Innocence, Awe and Wonder, Mystery, and Timeless/Boundless/Infinite. The present study summarizes the results of 13 separate factor analyses of immediate relaxation-related states, states associated with recalled relaxation activities, relaxation dispositions, and relaxation motivations on a combined sample of 1,904 individuals (group average ages ranged from 28-40 yr.). Four exploratory factor analyses of Smith Relaxation Inventories yielded 15 items that most consistently and exclusively load (generally at least .70) on six replicated factors. These items included happy, joyful, energized, rested, at peace, warm, limp, silent, quiet, dozing, drowsy, prayerful, mystery, distant, and indifferent. Subsequent factor analyses restricted to these items and specifying six factors were performed on 13 different data sets. Each yielded the same six-factor solution: Factor 1: Centered Positive Affect, Factor 2: Sleepiness, Factor 3: Disengagement, Factor 4: Physical Relaxation, Factor 5: Mental Quiet, and Factor 6: Spiritual. Implications for ABC Relaxation Theory are discussed.

  6. Relaxation and Meditation with Music

    OpenAIRE

    ČAPKOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis introduces an importance of a mental hygiene and its chosen methods - relaxation and meditation with music. The theoretical part is focused on a description of the basic relaxation and meditation techniques and curative effects of music. It deals with a music therapy, its meaning, types, methods and history in terms of the importance of music healing relaxation effects on the mental, physical as well as spiritual health. The practical part includes a usage of these methods in pract...

  7. Studies on Impingement Effects of Low Density Jets on Surfaces — Determination of Shear Stress and Normal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith. P.; Kurian, Job

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the Laser Reflection Method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress due to impingement of low-density free jets on flat plate. For thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope is measured using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM over LISF method. From the oil film slope history, direct calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. For the full range of experiment conditions Knudsen numbers varied till the continuum limit of the transition regime. The shear stress values for low-density flows in the transition regime are thus obtained using LRM and the measured values of shear show fair agreement with those obtained by other methods. Results of the normal pressure measurements on a flat plate in low-density jets by using thermistors as pressure sensors are also presented in the paper. The normal pressure profiles obtained show the characteristic features of Newtonian impact theory for hypersonic flows.

  8. A wetting and drying algorithm with a combined pressure/free-surface formulation for non-hydrostatic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, S. W.; Pain, C. C.; Kramer, S. C.; Piggott, M. D.

    2011-11-01

    A wetting and drying method for free-surface problems for the three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. The key idea is to use a horizontally fixed mesh and to apply different boundary conditions on the free-surface in wet and dry zones. In wet areas a combined pressure/free-surface kinematic boundary condition is applied, while in dry areas a positive water level and a no-normal flow boundary condition are enforced. In addition, vertical mesh movement is performed to accurately represent the free-surface motion. Non-physical flow in the remaining thin layer in dry areas is naturally prevented if a Manning-Strickler bottom drag is used. The treatment of the wetting and drying processes applied through the boundary condition yields great flexibility to the discretisation used. Specifically, a fully unstructured mesh with any finite element choice and implicit time discretisation method can be applied. The resulting method is mass conservative, stable and accurate. It is implemented within Fluidity-ICOM [1] and verified against several idealized test cases and a laboratory experiment of the Okushiri tsunami.

  9. Surface Modification of Polypropylene Microporous Membrane by Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Immobilization of N,N-dimethylamino Ethyl Methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene microporous membrane (PPMM) was performed by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma immobilization of N,N-dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Structural and morphological changes on the membrane surface were characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR/ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Water contact angles of the membrane surfaces were also measured by the sessile drop method. Results reveal that both the plasma-treating conditions and the adsorbed DMAEMA amount have remarkable effects on the immobilization degree of DMAEMA. Peroxide determination by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrvlhydrazyl (DPPH) method verifies the exsistence of radicals induced by plasma, which activize the immobilization reaction. Pure water contact angle on the membrane surface decreased with the increase of DMAEMA immobilization degree, which indicates an enhanced hydrophilicity for the modified membranes. The effects of immobilization degrees on pure water fluxes were also measured. It is shown that pure water fluxes first increased with immobilization degree and then decreased. Finally, permeation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme solution were measured to evaluate the antifouling property of the DMAEMA-modified membranes, from which it is shown that both hydrophilicity and electrostatic repulsion are beneficial for membrane antifouling.

  10. Time-related surface modification of denture base acrylic resin treated by atmospheric pressure cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Pan, Hong; Li, Yinglong; Wang, Guomin; Zhang, Jue; Pan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The changes of denture base acrylic resin surface properties under cold plasma and the relationships with time were investigated. Cold plasma treated the specimens for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, and 120 s, respectively. Water contact angles were measured immediately after the treatment, 48 h, 15 days and 30 days later. Surface roughness was measured with 3-D laser scanning microscope. Candida albicans adherence was evaluated by CFU counting. Chemical composition was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Water contact angle reduced after treated for 30 s. No changes were observed with time prolonged, except the durability. There were no differences in roughness among all groups. However, treatment groups showed significantly lower C. albicans adherence. XPS demonstrated a decrease in C/O, and this reduction was affected by treatment time. Cold plasma was an effective means of increasing hydrophilicity of acrylic resin and reducing C. albicans adherence without affecting physical properties.

  11. Characterization of the inside and outside oxide surfaces of irradiated pressure tubes of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoni, Roberto A.; Olmedo, Ana M.

    2004-01-01

    The inside and outside surfaces of two pressure tubes (PT) removed from Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE) after 10 of effective full power years (EFPY) were characterized. The oxide thickness of both faces, in different zones, was also measured. The inside surfaces of both PTs, B-102 (A-14) and B-298 (L-12), were covered with a black oxide that replicates the original PT surface. A network of microcracks perpendicular to the inside surface in contact with the coolant was found. In some cases, near the outlet of the PT, some spalling of the oxide was also found. These small microcracks and spalling do not affect the protective character of the oxide since a thickness about 5 or 6 μm of an undamaged oxide is found at the metal/oxide interface side. The oxide thickness changes between approximately 6 to 12 μm for B-102 tube and around 7 to 15 μm for B-298 tube. The average corrosion rate is 1.16 μm/10 4 HH for B-102 tube and 1.35 μm/10 4 HH for B-298 tube at 5.8 m position for both PTs. These corrosion rates show good corrosion behaviour of CNE PTs. The average corrosion rate of the inside surface of the PTs depends on the coolant temperature but not on fast neutron flux. The outside oxide film is black, shiny, compact and protective, replicating also the original surface. The oxide thickness changes between 2 to 6.5 μm in B-102 tube and between 1.8 to 3.7 μm B-298 tube. These oxide thicknesses are within the values reported for PTs in CANDU Stations. (author) [es

  12. PEO-like Plasma Polymers Prepared by Atmospheric Pressure Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gordeev, I.; Choukourov, A.; Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Biederman, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2012), s. 782-791 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD104/09/H080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fibrinogen * non-fouling properties * PEO * plasma polymerization * surface dielectric barrier discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  13. Relaxation Techniques for Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland-Coogan, Diane; Davis, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Physiological symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) manifest as increased arousal and reactivity seen as anger outburst, irritability, reckless behavior with no concern for consequences, hypervigilance, sleep disturbance, and problems with focus (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). In seeking the most beneficial treatment for PTSD, consideration must be given to the anxiety response. Relaxation techniques are shown to help address the physiological manifestations of prolonged stress. The techniques addressed by the authors in this article include mindfulness, deep breathing, yoga, and meditation. By utilizing these techniques traditional therapies can be complemented. In addition, those who are averse to the traditional evidence-based practices or for those who have tried traditional therapies without success; these alternative interventions may assist in lessening physiological manifestations of PTSD. Future research studies assessing the benefits of these treatment modalities are warranted to provide empirical evidence to support the efficacy of these treatments.

  14. Energy Consumption Analysis of Particle Crushing on Structural Contact Surface under High Pressure Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Junkun; Guo, Jiaqi

    2017-12-01

    The experimental study on the energy relationship between the coarse sand with different water content and the concrete interface with different hardness and roughness is carried out, through the high stress direct shear apparatus. Experimental results show that the growth rate of shear energy dissipation of sand - structure contact surface is slowing down with the increase of roughness, even negative; The shear energy dissipation of concrete with different hardness decreases first and then increases with the increase of water content, The crushing energy consumption is the lowest when water content is 16%; The shear energy dissipation at different moisture content increases with the increase of the contact strength of concrete structure.

  15. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  16. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively....... Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence...

  17. Lipid compositions modulate fluidity and stability of bilayers: characterization by surface pressure and sum frequency generation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhuguang; Fu, Li; Leblanc, Roger M; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2013-12-03

    Cell membranes are crucial to many biological processes. Because of their complexity, however, lipid bilayers are often used as model systems. Lipid structures influence the physical properties of bilayers, but their interplay, especially in multiple-component lipid bilayers, has not been fully explored. Here, we used the Langmuir-Blodgett method to make mono- and bilayers of 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG), and 1-hexadecanoyl-2-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (POPS) as well as their 1:1 binary mixtures. We studied the fluidity, stability, and rigidity of these structures using sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy combined with analyses of surface pressure-area isotherms, compression modulus, and stability. Our results show that single-component bilayers, both saturated and unsaturated, may not be ideal membrane mimics because of their low fluidity and/or stability. However, the binary saturated and unsaturated DPPG/POPG and DPPG/POPS systems show not only high stability and fluidity but also high resistance to changes in surface pressure, especially in the range of 25-35 mN/m, the range typical of cell membranes. Because the ratio of saturated to unsaturated lipids is highly regulated in cells, our results underline the possibility of modulating biological properties using lipid compositions. Also, our use of flat optical windows as solid substrates in SFG experiments should make the SFG method more compatible with other techniques, enabling more comprehensive future surface characterizations of bilayers.

  18. Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

  19. Numerical Investigation of Scattering from a Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuator under Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD, which is widely used to control turbulence in aerodynamics, has a significant effect on the radar cross-section (RCS. A four-way linearly synthesized SDBD air plasma actuator is designed to bolster the plasma effects on electromagnetic waves. The diffraction angle is calculated to predict the RCS because of the periodic structure of staggered electrodes. The simplified plasma modeling is utilized to calculate the inhomogeneous surface plasma distribution. Monostatic RCS shows the diffraction in the plane perpendicular to the electrode array and the notable distortion by plasma. In comparison, the overall pattern is maintained in the parallel plane with minor plasma effects. The trends also appear in the bistatic RCS, which has a significant difference in the observation plane perpendicular to the electrodes. The peaks by Bragg’s diffraction are shown, and the RCS is reduced by 10 dB in a certain range by the plasma effect. The diffraction caused by the actuator and the inhomogeneous air plasma should be considered in designing an SDBD actuator for a wide range of application.

  20. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO2 synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Singh, G.P.; Ram, S.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO 2 (∼18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2–3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr 4+ ions by Ag atoms on the CrO 2 surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO 2 -polymer complex with Ag + ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300–400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO 2 such that it no longer converts to Cr 2 O 3 in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO 2 structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (−) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO 2 powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime ( 2 nanorods. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structural studies of a novel GMR material of Ag coated CrO 2 . • Tailoring useful GMR property in CrO 2 nanorods of controlled shape and anisotropy. • Enhanced GMR is explained in correlation to the surface structure of CrO 2 nanorods

  1. Elimination of Aspergillus parasiticus from nut surface with low pressure cold plasma (LPCP) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Pervin; Basaran-Akgul, Nese; Oksuz, Lutfi

    2008-06-01

    Low pressure cold plasma (LPCP) using air gases and sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) was developed and tested for anti-fungal efficacy against Aspergillus parasiticus on various nut samples. Artificially A. parasiticus contaminated hazelnuts, peanuts, and pistachio nuts were treated with air gases plasma and SF(6) plasma for up to 20 min duration. The sterilizing effect of LPCP on A. parasiticus was higher during the early treatment period than the later treatment period. Air gases plasma treatment for 5 min resulted in 1-log reduction of A. parasiticus and a further 5 min treatment resulted in additional 1-log reduction. SF(6) plasma application was more effective resulting in approximately a 5-log decrease in fungal population for the same duration. When effectiveness of plasma treatment against aflatoxins were tested, 20 min air gases plasma treatment resulted in a 50% reduction in total aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), while only a 20% reduction in total aflatoxin was observed after 20 min SF(6) plasma treatment. In this study, a rapid, functional clean-up method for the elimination of aflatoxin producing fungus from shelled and unshelled nuts was investigated as a suitable fungal decontamination method.

  2. The effect of surface roughness on the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.M.

    1963-02-01

    The effect of various types of roughness on the wall of an axial tube in an annular space of 15-25 mm cooled by an air-flow has been studied in the case of steady turbulence. Roughness of the type 'disrupter of the boundary layer' was set up using triangular threads of 0.2 to 0.4 mm thickness machined in the tube itself, or brass or glass wire wound on a smooth tube. Tests were also carried out using the roughness provided by regularly spaced pyramids 0.4 mm high. The results obtained showed that the heat exchange increased because of the presence of this roughness. A maximum in the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients was observed when the pitch equals about eight times the height of the thread. An analytical method has been developed and experiments have been carried out in which the two walls of the annular space were heated in such a way as to transmit unequal heat flows. The region considered is limited to Reynolds's numbers of between 5 X 10 3 and 5 x 10 4 and wall temperatures of under 250 deg C. (author) [fr

  3. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...

  4. Influence of Wall Porosity and Surfaces Roughness on the Steady Performance of an Externally Pressurized Hydrostatic Conical Bearing Lubricated by a Rabinowitsch Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.; Walicki, E.; Jurczak, P.; Falicki, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper, the influence of both the bearing surfaces roughness as well as porosity of one bearing surface on the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of a curvilinear, externally pressurized, thrust bearing is discussed. The equations of motion of a pseudo-plastic Rabinowitsch fluid are used to derive the Reynolds equation. After general considerations on the flow in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer using the Morgan-Cameron approximation and Christensen theory of hydrodynamic lubrication with rough bearing surfaces the modified Reynolds equation is obtained. The analytical solution is presented; as a result one obtains the formulae expressing the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity. Thrust radial and conical bearings, externally pressurized, are considered as numerical examples.

  5. Influence of Wall Porosity and Surfaces Roughness on the Steady Performance of an Externally Pressurized Hydrostatic Conical Bearing Lubricated by a Rabinowitsch Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the influence of both the bearing surfaces roughness as well as porosity of one bearing surface on the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of a curvilinear, externally pressurized, thrust bearing is discussed. The equations of motion of a pseudo-plastic Rabinowitsch fluid are used to derive the Reynolds equation. After general considerations on the flow in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer using the Morgan-Cameron approximation and Christensen theory of hydrodynamic lubrication with rough bearing surfaces the modified Reynolds equation is obtained. The analytical solution is presented; as a result one obtains the formulae expressing the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity. Thrust radial and conical bearings, externally pressurized, are considered as numerical examples.

  6. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Atmospheric pressure PECVD nanoparticles: mechanism of nanoparticle self-organisation into micron sized fractal clusters on a solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, M V; Zamotin, K Y; Protopopova, V S; Alexandrov, S E

    2015-03-21

    This paper covers the results from a study of the formation mechanism of fractal clusters from nanoparticles synthesised in atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge. Two-dimensional structures with random configuration and self-similarity properties are formed by nanoparticles on a solid substrate surface. The typical linear dimensions of such structures are in the micron range. On the basis of the previously demonstrated experimental results, a physico-mathematical model of the nanoparticle self-organisation was developed. The physical model includes the electrical charge effect of the deposit surface, the spatial distribution of the surface electrical potential and the topography rearrangement phenomenon under the arising electrostatic forces. The threshold character of the agglomeration process initiation was found. The dependence of the formed structure topography on the character of the electrical potential change was demonstrated. The requisite conditions for the classical fractal formation were revealed. The results from the computational simulation, which was conducted with the use of fractal analysis, indicate a high level of coincidence with the experimental results.

  8. Quantitative relationships for the prediction of the vapor pressure of some hydrocarbons from the van der Waals molecular surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olariu Tudor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure - property relationship (QSPR modeling of vapor pressure at 298.15 K, expressed as log (VP / Pa was performed for a series of 84 hydrocarbons (63 alkanes and 21 cycloalkanes using the van der Waals (vdW surface area, SW/Å2, calculated by the Monte Carlo method, as the molecular descriptor. The QSPR model developed from the subset of 63 alkanes (C1-C16, deemed as the training set, was successfully used for the prediction of the log (VP / Pa values of the 21 cycloalkanes, which was the external prediction (test subset. A QSPR model was also developed for a series composed of all 84 hydrocarbons. Both QSPR models were statistically tested for their ability to fit the data and for prediction. The results showed that the vdW molecular surface used as molecular descriptor (MD explains the variance of the majority of the log (VP / Pa values in this series of 84 hydrocarbons. This MD describes very well the intermolecular forces that hold neutral molecules together. The clear physical meaning of the molecular surface values, SW/Å2, could explain the success of the QSPR models obtained with a single structural molecular descriptor.

  9. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirci, Emre; Yagci, Ayse; Palamar, Melis; Basoglu, O K; Veral, Ali

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on the ocular surface. This is a prospective, sectional cohort study of 80 eyes of 40 patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Routine ophthalmologic examination and ocular surface evaluation, including biomicroscopy, Schirmer 1 testing, tear break-up time measurement, ocular surface staining, and conjunctival impression cytology, were performed in both of each patient's eyes before and 4 months after starting CPAP therapy. After CPAP therapy, increases in squamous metaplasia (Nelson classification: t = 0.34, P = 0.014) and Schirmer 1 score (t = 3.20, P = 0.008), and decreases in tear break-up time (t = -1.38, P = 0.008) in the right eyes were statistically significant, as compared with the pretreatment values. Although these parameters changed in a similar fashion in the left eyes, differences between the pre-CPAP and post-CPAP values were not significant. The findings indicate that CPAP therapy increased ocular irritation, tear evaporation, and squamous metaplasia in the conjunctiva of the patients' right and left eyes. Although the parameters measured were similar in both eyes before CPAP therapy, these parameters changed significantly after CPAP therapy only in the right eyes. The observed differences between the right and left eyes require further investigation to determine the possible effects of sleeping position, CPAP mask displacement, and the other factors involved.

  10. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of a pressure vessel with an axial outer surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.

    1988-04-01

    Elastic-plastic finite element analyses of a test vessel (steel 1.6310=20 MnMoNi 55) with a semi-elliptical axial outer surface crack have been performed. The variations of J and CTOD along the crack front and the stresse state in the vicinity of the crack are presented. The applicability of approaches to determine J is examined. The FE results are compared with the experimental data. The results are analyzed with respect to the validity of J-controlled crack growth. It will be shown that the local ductile crack growth and, especially, the 'canoe effect' for a semi-elliptical crack can only be described correctly if local J R -curves are used which account for the varying triaxiality of the stress state along the crack front. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost W van Dam

    Full Text Available Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m, while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v/F(m, interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v/F(m and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.

  12. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Joost W; Negri, Andrew P; Mueller, Jochen F; Altenburger, Rolf; Uthicke, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte) of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m)), while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures) were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)), interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v)/F(m) and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1)). The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA) described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.

  13. Efficient modification of the surface properties of interconnected porous hydroxyapatite by low-pressure low-frequency plasma treatment to promote its biological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Moriguchi, Yu; Myoui, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at low pressure is found to significantly improve the biological performance of artificial bones made of interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). One of the essential parameters associated with their biological performance is hydrophilicity of their exterior surfaces as well as surfaces of inner pores. It is found that plasma treatment at low pressures is highly effective in making the inner pore surfaces more hydrophilic. Preliminary in vivo experiments of plasma-treated IP-CHA artificial bones in rats have shown fast formation of blood vessels in their inner pores, implying the increase in osteoconductivity due to the plasma treatment.

  14. IMPACT OF COMPRESSED AIR PRESSURE ON GEOMETRIC STRUCTURE OF AISI 1045 STEEL SURFACE AFTER TURNING WITH THE USE OF MQCL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Wojciech Maruda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MQL (Minimum Quantity Lubrication and MQCL (Minimum Quantity Cooling Lubrication methods become alternative solutions for dry machining and deluge cooling conditions. Due to a growing interest in MQCL method, this article discusses the impact of compressed air pressure, which is one of the basic parameters of generating emulsion mist used in MQCL method, on the geometric structure of the surface after turning AISI 1045 carbon steel. This paper presents the results of measurements of machined surface roughness parameters Ra, Rz, RSm as well as roughness profiles and Abbot-Firestone curves. It was found that the increase in the compressed air pressure from 1 to 7 MPa causes an increase in the roughness of the machined surface (the lowest values were obtained at a pressure of 1 MPa. An increase of emulsion mass flow rate also causes an increase in the value of selected parameters of roughness of the machined surface.

  15. Hypnosis/Relaxation therapy for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Montoya, Luis; Ebrahim, Shanil; Busse, Jason W; Couban, Rachel; McCabe, Randi E; Bieling, Peter; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of hypnosis/relaxation therapy compared to no/minimal treatment in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Studies reviewed included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where investigators randomized patients with TMD or an equivalent condition to an intervention arm receiving hypnosis, relaxation training, or hyporelaxation therapy, and a control group receiving no/minimal treatment. The systematic search was conducted without language restrictions, in Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and PsycINFO, from inception to June 30, 2014. Studies were pooled using weighted mean differences and pooled risk ratios (RRs) for continuous outcomes and dichotomous outcomes, respectively, and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of 3,098 identified citations, 3 studies including 159 patients proved eligible, although none of these described their method of randomization. The results suggested limited or no benefit of hypnosis/relaxation therapy on pain (risk difference in important pain -0.06; 95% CI: -0.18 to 0.05; P = .28), or on pressure pain thresholds on the skin surface over the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscles. Low-quality evidence suggested some benefit of hypnosis/relaxation therapy on maximal pain (mean difference on 100-mm scale = -28.33; 95% CI: -44.67 to -11.99; P =.007) and active maximal mouth opening (mean difference on 100-mm scale = -2.63 mm; 95% CI: -3.30 mm to -1.96 mm; P hypnosis/relaxation therapy may have a beneficial effect on maximal pain and active maximal mouth opening but not on pain and pressure pain threshold. Larger RCTs with low risk of bias are required to confirm or refute these findings and to inform other important patient outcomes.

  16. Effect of thermodynamic history on secondary relaxation in glassy phenolphthalein-dimethyl-ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.; Lucchesi, M.; Rolla, P. A.; Paluch, M.; Pawlus, S.

    2006-03-01

    We present a study of the intermediate secondary relaxation process of phenolphthalein-dimethyl-ether. Though this process is intramolecular in nature, it reveals pronounced pressure dependence. Moreover, its relaxation frequency and intensity exhibit pronounced dependence on the thermal history followed during vitrification. These results suggest that the nonequilibrium nature of the glassy state influences this secondary relaxation principally through the dependence on the specific volume.

  17. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2015-01-01

    wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush...... in a wind tunnel on a copy of the blade section of the full scale blade. Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations were conducted to investigate the influence of the inflow conditions on the airfoil and blade sections aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. Comparisons between measurement data and model results......The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...

  18. Modification of surface layers of copper under the action of the volumetric discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam in nitrogen and CO2 at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulepov, M. A.; Akhmadeev, Yu. Kh.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Kolubaeva, Yu. A.; Krysina, O. V.; Kostyrya, I. D.

    2011-05-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the action of the volumetric discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the surface of copper specimens are presented. The volumetric (diffuse) discharge in nitrogen and CO2 at atmospheric pressure was initiated by applying high voltage pulses of nanosecond duration to a tubular foil cathode. It has been found that the treatment of a copper surface by this type of discharge increases the hardness of the surface layer due to oxidation.

  19. Biomolecules: Fluctuations and relaxations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parak, F.; Ostermann, A.; Gassmann, A.; Scherk, C.; Chong, S.-H.; Kidera, A.; Go, N.

    1999-10-01

    The normal-mode refinement of X-ray crystallographic data opened a new possibility to analyze the mean-square displacements in a protein molecule. A comparison of the X-ray structure of myoglobin at several temperatures with Mössbauer data is performed. In the low-temperature regime below 180 K the iron mean-square displacements obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy are in good agreement with a normal-mode analysis. The X-ray mean-square displacements at the position of the iron, after the motion originated from the external degrees of freedom are subtracted, have practically the same temperature dependence as those from Mössbauer spectroscopy. The difference between the X-ray mean-square displacements and those predicted by normal-mode analysis measures the distribution of molecules into conformational substates. Above 180 K the Mössbauer effect indicates fluctuations between conformational substates. The relaxation from a Fe(III) conformation to a Fe(II) conformation is shown for superoxide dismutase of Propionibacterium shermanii.

  20. Analysis of High-Density Surface EMG and Finger Pressure in the Left Forearm of Violin Players: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarello, Paolo; Merletti, Roberto; Petracca, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Wrist and finger flexor muscles of the left hand were evaluated using high-density surface EMG (HDsEMG) in 17 violin players. Pressure sensors also were mounted below the second string of the violin to evaluate, simultaneously, finger pressure. Electrode grid size was 110x70 mm (12x8 electrodes with interelectrode distance=10 mm and Ø=3 mm). The study objective was to observe the activation patterns of these muscles while the violinists sequentially played four notes--SI (B), DO# (C#), RE (D), MI (E)--at 2 bows/s (one bow up in 0.5 s and one down in 0.5 s) and 4 bows/s on the second string, while producing a constant (CONST) or ramp (RAMP) sound volume. HDsEMG images obtained while playing the notes were compared with those obtained during isometric radial or ulnar flexion of the wrist or fingers. Two image descriptors provided information on image differences. Results showed that the technique was reliable and provided reliable signals, and that recognizably different sEMG images could be associated with the four notes tested, despite the variability within and between subjects playing the same note. sEMG activity of the left hand muscles and pressure on the string in the RAMP task were strongly affected in some individuals by the sound volume (controlled by the right hand) and much less in other individuals. These findings question whether there is an individual or generally optimal way of pressing violin strings with the left hand. The answer to this question might substantially modify the teaching of string instruments.

  1. The influence of surface roughness and high pressure torsion on the growth of anodic titania nanotubes on pure titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan; Gao, Nong, E-mail: N.Gao@soton.ac.uk; Starink, Marco J.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • HPT has substantially improved the UTS and Hv of pure Ti. • TNT layers was fabricated on UFG Ti made by HPT. • Influence of sample preparation on TNT layers was systematically studied. • Oxide dissolution was accelerated when TNTs formed on the HPT sample. - Abstract: Anodic titanium dioxide nanotube (TNT) arrays have wide applications in photocatalytic, catalysis, electronics, solar cells and biomedical implants. When TNT coatings are combined with severe plastic deformation (SPD), metal processing techniques which efficiently improve the strength of metals, a new generation of biomedical implant is made possible with both improved bulk and surface properties. This work investigated the effect of processing by high pressure torsion (HPT) and different mechanical preparations on the substrate and subsequently on the morphology of TNT layers. HPT processing was applied to refine the grain size of commercially pure titanium samples and substantially improved their strength and hardness. Subsequent anodization at 30 V in 0.25 wt.% NH{sub 4}F for 2 h to form TNT layers on sample surfaces prepared with different mechanical preparation methods was carried out. It appeared that the local roughness of the titanium surface on a microscopic level affected the TNT morphology more than the macroscopic surface roughness. For HPT-processed sample, the substrate has to be pre-treated by a mechanical preparation finer than 4000 grit for HPT to have a significant influence on TNTs. During the formation of TNT layers the oxide dissolution rate was increased for the ultrafine-grained microstructure formed due to HPT processing.

  2. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO2 synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Singh, G. P.; Ram, S.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2013-08-01

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO2 (˜18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2-3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr4+ ions by Ag atoms on the CrO2 surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO2-polymer complex with Ag+ ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300-400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO2 such that it no longer converts to Cr2O3 in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO2 structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d5/2 and 3d3/2 X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (-) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO2 powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime (<100 K) arises not only due to the suppressed spin flipping at low temperature but also from a spin dependent co-tunneling through an interlinked structure of silver and silver coated CrO2 nanorods.

  3. Effect of electrode configuration on the uniformity of atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier air micro-discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Qi, Zhihua; Ji, Longfei; Zhao, Yao; Chang, Xuewei; Wang, Wenchun; Liu, Dongping

    2018-02-01

    The electrode configuration of atmospheric pressure air discharge is one of the key elements that have significant effects on the discharge properties. In this study, double-sided printed circuit boards with square-shaped lattice structure are used to generate surface dielectric barrier air micro-discharge (SDBAMD) at atmospheric pressure. The effects of the lattice width on the discharge properties are reported. The uniformity of the SDBAMD is evaluated by adopting the digital image processing method. Our measurements show that the power and ignition voltage of the SDBAMD significantly depended on the configuration of the grounded electrode. The digital image processing results show that the uniformity of the SDBAMD is severely affected by the lattice width, and the most uniform discharge is achieved at the lattice width of 2.0 mm. The numerical model based on COMSOL demonstrated that increasing the lattice width can lead to an increase in the electric field in the vicinity of the grounded electrode and a decrease in the lattice center. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the different electrode configurations can change the interaction between the space charges during the discharge, which ultimately affects the uniformity of the SDBAMD.

  4. Sizing of near-surface fatigue cracks in cladded pressure vessels by the multiple beam-satellite pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    The stainless steel cladding of the inside surface of a reactor pressure vessel makes ultrasonic inspection for detection and sizing of cracks immediately under the cladding significantly harder. One solution to the inspection difficulty has been found in the multiple beam-satellite pulse technique. (While this technique both detects and sizes, only sizing is addressed in this paper.) The technique employs a multiple-beam transducer, which produces both longitudinal and shear waves. Novel waveform-processing and pattern-recognition methods are used in conjunction with this transducer design. The longitudinal-wave component is diffracted mainly by the upper extremity of the crack at or near the clad-base material interface, and its shear-wave components are diffracted mainly by the lower extremity of the crack in the base material. Proof-of-principle sizing results, based on the observance of a pair of satellite pulses from the diffracted beams, were obtained for three sets of planar flaws. They were (1) six side-milled underclad notches ranging in throughwall dimension from 3.1 to 12.9 mm, (2) fatigue cracks implanted in three cladded pressure vessel blocks and ranging in depth from 3.7 to 27.9 mm, and (3) six underclad fatigue cracks in the 2.7 to 8.5 mm depth range

  5. Simulation of Time-Varying Spatially Uniform Pressure and Near-Surface Wind Flows on Building Components and Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraphy Y. Shen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new full-scale (FS testing apparatus for conducting performance evaluations of FS building envelope systems. The simulator can generate spatially uniform, time-varying pressure conditions associated with Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale Category 5 winds while compensating for large air leakage through the specimen and also operate a high-speed wind tunnel, both with dynamic control. This paper presents system details, operating characteristics, and an early case study on the performance of large sectional door systems under wind pressure loading. Failure mechanisms are discussed, and finite element modeling is validated for two specimens. It demonstrates successful dynamic load control for large component and cladding systems, as well as simulation of flows near the building surface. These capabilities serve to complement other FS wind tunnel facilities by offering tools to generate ultimate load conditions on portions of the building. Further, the paper successfully demonstrates the utility of combining physical testing and computational analysis as a matter of routine, which underscores the potential of evolving FS testing to encompass cyber–physical approaches.

  6. Coupled Finite Volume Methods and Extended Finite Element Methods for the Dynamic Crack Propagation Modelling with the Pressurized Crack Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyan Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the fluid flow within the crack as one-dimensional flow and assume that the flow is laminar; the fluid is incompressible and accounts for the time-dependent rate of crack opening. Here, we discretise the flow equation by finite volume methods. The extended finite element methods are used for solving solid medium with crack under dynamic loads. Having constructed the approximation of dynamic extended finite element methods, the derivation of governing equation for dynamic extended finite element methods is presented. The implicit time algorithm is elaborated for the time descritisation of dominant equation. In addition, the interaction integral method is given for evaluating stress intensity factors. Then, the coupling model for modelling hydraulic fracture can be established by the extended finite element methods and the finite volume methods. We compare our present numerical results with our experimental results for verifying the proposed model. Finally, we investigate the water pressure distribution along crack surface and the effect of water pressure distribution on the fracture property.

  7. Dielectric relaxations of confined water in porous silica ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theseanalyses revealed a great similarity in the ice-like structure for both ceramics. However, the lateral surface state of the samplemight enhance the dielectric strength of the first relaxation when lateral pores are sealed. Furthermore, it might improve thewater–inner surfaces interaction when lateral pores are opened.

  8. Finite element models of non-Newtonian crater relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul J.; Schubert, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a non-Newtonian rheology on the profiles of relaxing craters (such as those seen on the surfaces of the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites) were studied. Two-dimensional finite element simulations of non-Newtonian viscous flow were performed, and the results were compared with those associated with Newtonian rheology. Viscous relaxation of craters in a non-Newtonian medium was significantly different from that in a Newtonian medium. Crater rims are observed to relax at a more rapid rate in a non-Newtonian region as a result of the movement of the low viscosity region to underneath the crater rim after the initial relaxation of the bowl. Significant differences are also found when central depth is plotted as a function of time. For a Newtonian medium, crater relaxation is exponential in form. In contrast, non-Newtonian crater relaxation is initially rapid, in response to the large initial stresses and small viscosities; however, as stresses decrease, this relaxation becomes extremely gradual.

  9. Relaxed states with plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Taylor, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the theory of relaxation, a turbulent plasma reaches a state of minimum energy subject to constant magnetic helicity. In this state the plasma velocity is zero. Attempts have been made by introducing a number of different constraints, to obtain relaxed states with plasma flow. It is shown that these alternative constraints depend on two self-helicities, one for ions, and one for electrons. However, whereas there are strong arguments for the effective invariance of the original magnetic-helicity, these arguments do not apply to the self-helicities. Consequently the existence of relaxed states with flow remains in doubt. (author)

  10. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, S. N.

    2005-03-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  11. Relaxation behaviour of gasketed joints during assembly using finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to high pressure and high temperature applications. In a gasketed pipe flange joint, prob- lem of bolt scatter, bolt bending and joint relaxation is observed; resulting in the dynamic mode-of-load (Abid & Nash 2006; Abid 2000). Dynamic mode here represents a situation where the flange faces move and rotate relative to one ...

  12. Treatment of Dental Anxiety by Cue-Controlled Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Frank M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Women, self-referred for dental anxiety, were given four weeks of cue-controlled relaxation treatment. Nonorthogonal planned comparisons indicated significant decreases on dental anxiety, anxiety differential, and state anxiety scales, and systolic blood pressure. Participants reported that treatment was helpful in controlling anxiety when…

  13. Application of dynamic relaxation and finite elements methods for the structural analysis of a scale model of a prestressed concrete pressure vessel; Aplicacao dos metodos de relaxacao dinamica e elementos finitos na analise estrutural de um modelo reduzido de vaso de pressao de concreto protendido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru

    1979-07-01

    A stress and strain analysis was made of a scale model of a Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel for a Boiling Water Reactor. The aim of this work was to obtain an experimental verification of the calculation method actually used at IPEN. The 1/10 scale model was built and tested at the Instituto Sperimentale Modelli e Structture, ISMES, Italy. The dynamic relaxation program PV2-A and the finite element programs , FEAST-1 have been used. A comparative analysis of the final results was made. A preliminary analysis was made for a simplified monocavity model now under development at IPEN with the object of confirming the data and the calculation method used. (author)

  14. Atmospheric pressure argon surface discharges propagated in long tubes: physical characterization and application to bio-decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalova, Zuzana; Leroy, Magali; Jacobs, Carolyn; Kirkpatrick, Michael J; Odic, Emmanuel; Machala, Zdenko; Lopes, Filipa; Laux, Christophe O; DuBow, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed corona discharges propagated in argon (or in argon with added water vapor) at atmospheric pressure on the interior surface of a 49 cm long quartz tube were investigated for the application of surface bio-decontamination. H 2 O molecule dissociation in the argon plasma generated reactive species (i.e. OH in ground and excited states) and UV emission, which both directly affected bacterial cells. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the contribution of UV radiation, a DNA damage repair defective bacterial strain, Escherichia coli DH-1, was used. Discharge characteristics, including propagation velocity and plasma temperature, were measured. Up to ∼5.5 and ∼5 log 10 reductions were observed for E. coli DH-1 bacteria (from 10 6 initial load) exposed 2 cm and 44 cm away from the charged electrode, respectively, for a 20 min plasma treatment. The factors contributing to the observed bactericidal effect include desiccation, reactive oxygen species (OH) plus H 2 O 2 accumulation in the liquid phase, and UV-B (and possibly VUV) emission in dry argon. The steady state temperature measured on the quartz tube wall did not exceeded 29 °C; the contribution of heating, along with that of H 2 O 2 accumulation, was estimated to be low. The effect of UV-B emission alone or in combination with the other stress factors of the plasma process was examined for different operating conditions. (paper)

  15. Effect of Surface Roughness on Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, B. C.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis on the performance of hydrodynamic oil bearings is made considering surface roughness effect. The hydrodynamic as well as asperity contact load is found. The contact pressure was calculated with the assumption that the surface height distribution was Gaussian. The average Reynolds equation of partially lubricated surface was used to calculate hydrodynamic load. An analytical expression for average gap was found and was introduced to modify the average Reynolds equation. The resulting boundary value problem was then solved numerically by finite difference methods using the method of successive over relaxation. The pressure distribution and hydrodynamic load capacity of plane slider and journal bearings were calculated for various design data. The effects of attitude and roughness of surface on the bearing performance were shown. The results are compared with similar available solution of rough surface bearings. It is shown that: (1) the contribution of contact load is not significant; and (2) the hydrodynamic and contact load increase with surface roughness.

  16. Volume and structural relaxation in compressed sodium borate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Mouritz N; Youngman, Randall E; Yue, Yuanzheng; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Bockowski, Michal; Jensen, Lars R; Smedskjaer, Morten M

    2016-11-21

    The structure and properties of glass can be modified through compression near the glass transition temperature (T g ), and such modified structure and properties can be maintained at ambient temperature and pressure. However, once the compressed glass undergoes annealing near T g at ambient pressure, the modified structure and properties will relax. The challenging question is how the property relaxation is correlated with both the local and the medium-range structural relaxation. In this paper, we answer this question by studying the volume (density) and structural relaxation of a sodium borate glass that has first been pressure-quenched from its T g at 1 GPa, and then annealed at ambient pressure under different temperature-time conditions. Using 11 B MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy, we find that the pressure-induced densification of the glass is accompanied by a conversion of six-membered rings into non-ring trigonal boron (B III ) units, i.e. a structural change in medium-range order, and an increase in the fraction of tetrahedral boron (B IV ), i.e. a structural change in short-range order. These pressure-induced structural conversions are reversible during ambient pressure annealing near T g , but exhibit a dependence on the annealing temperature, e.g. the ring/non-ring B III ratio stabilizes at different values depending on the applied annealing temperature. We find that conversions between structural units cannot account for the pressure-induced densification, and instead we suggest the packing of structural units as the main densification mechanism.

  17. Modeling the outflow of liquid with initial supercritical parameters using the relaxation model for condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhnin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-temperature model of the outflow from a vessel with initial supercritical parameters of medium has been realized. The model uses thermodynamic non-equilibrium relaxation approach to describe phase transitions. Based on a new asymptotic model for computing the relaxation time, the outflow of water with supercritical initial pressure and super- and subcritical temperatures has been calculated.

  18. A molecular dynamics investigation of the surface tension of water nanodroplets and a new technique for local pressure determination through density correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kai-Yang; Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The surface tension of nanoscale droplets of water was studied with molecular dynamics simulations using the BLYPSP-4F water potential. The internal pressure of the droplet was measured using an empirical correlation between the pressure and density, established through a series of bulk simulations performed at pressures from 1 to 1000 bars. Such a procedure allows for reliable determination of internal pressure without the need to calculate the local virial. The surface tension, estimated with the Young-Laplace relation, shows good agreement with the Tolman equation with a Tolman length of -0.48 Å. The interface of a liquid water droplet is shown to be around 1.1-1.3 nm thick depending on radii. The fairly thick interface region puts a lower limit on the size of droplets that still have a bulk-like interior.

  19. In flight measurement of steady and unsteady blade surface pressure of a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan installed on the PTA aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, D.; Boyd, L.; Meissner, W.; Wyrostek, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was performed by Hamilton Standard, Division of United Technologies Corporation, under contract by LeRC, to measure the blade surface pressure of a large scale, 8 blade model prop-fan in flight. The test bed was the Gulfstream 2 Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft. The objective of the test was to measure the steady and periodic blade surface pressure resulting from three different Prop-Fan air inflow angles at various takeoff and cruise conditions. The inflow angles were obtained by varying the nacelle tilt angles, which ranged from -3 to +2 degrees. A range of power loadings, tip speeds, and altitudes were tested at each nacelle tilt angle over the flight Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.80. Unsteady blade pressure data tabulated as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency and the steady (non-varying) pressure component are presented.

  20. Surface-Energetic Heterogeneity of Nanoporous Solids for CO2 and CO Adsorption: The Key to an Adsorption Capacity and Selectivity at Low Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Hyeon; Cho, Il Hum; Choi, Sang Ok; Lee, In Soo

    2016-05-01

    This study has been focused on surface energetic heterogeneity of zeolite (H-mordenite, "HM"), activated carbon ("RB2") and metal-organic framework family ("Z1200") materials and their isotherm features in adsorption of CO2 and CO at 25 degrees C and low pressures ≤ 850 Torr. The nanoporous solids showed not only distinctive shape of adsorption isotherms for CO2 with relatively high polarizability and quadrupole moment but also different capacities in the CO2 adsorption. These differences between the adsorbents could be well correlated with their surface nonuniformity. The most heterogeneous surfaces were found with the HM that gave the highest CO2 uptake at all pressures allowed, while the Z1200 consisted of completely homogeneous surfaces and even CO2 adsorption linearly increased with pressure. An intermediate character was indicated on the surface of RB2 and thus this sorbent possessed isotherm features between the HM and Z1200 in CO2 adsorption. Such different surface energetics was fairly consistent with changes in CO2/CO selectivity on the nanoporous adsorbents up to equilibrated pressures near 850 Torr.

  1. The effect of ammonium partial pressure on residual stresses in surface layer of SW7M HSS steel after vacuum nitriding 'NITROVAC'79'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawronski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the nitriding atmosphere on the residual stresses in the surface layer of the SW7M HSS steel has been investigated in the work. It has been proved that the pressure influences the distribution of those stresses to a great extent. At lower pressures (20 hPa and 40 hPa) at which only one zone is being created - the one of internal nitriding, without that of ε type nitrides on the surface - the highest residual stresses are operating on the HSS steel surface itself or eventually in the subsurface region very close to the surface. In the difference, in case of higher pressure (120 hPa and 240 hPa), the highest stresses are operating at great depth 8-12 μm from the steel surface - depending on the thickness of the ε type nitride layer created on the steel surface at those pressure. All the relevant stresses are compressive one. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Optimization of micropipette fabrication by laser micromachining for application in an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of the laser micromachining process for special tapered micropipettes was investigated using response surface methodology. Three process parameters for the CO 2 laser-based micropipette puller (P-2000, Sutter Instrument) were chosen as variables, namely heat, velocity and pull. The targeted length L TVS of the tapered variant section with a tip diameter of 10 μ m was taken as a response. The optimum process parameters with L TVS of 7.3 mm were determined by analyzing the response surface three-dimension surface plots. The central composite design was selected to optimize the process variables, and the experimental data were fitted into a reduced cubic polynomial model. The high R 2 value (99.66%) and low coefficient of variation (0.73%) indicated the statistical significance of the model and good precision for the experiment. The optimization result showed that the best parameters were with the heat, velocity and pull values of 850, 53 and 170, respectively. The result was verified by a CO 2 laser-based micropipette puller three times with length L TVS at 7.26 mm, 7.35 mm and 7.36 mm with the same optimized parameters. Then, the application to the ultrafine atmospheric pressure He/O 2 plasma jets was carried out and micro-hole etching of the parylene-C film was realized with length L TVS at 6.29 mm, 7.35 mm and 8.02 mm. The results showed that the micro-plasma jet with an L TVS of 7.35 mm had the minimum applied voltage of 12.7 kV and the minimum micro-etching diameter of 45 μ m with the deepest etching depth of 2.8 μ m. (paper)

  3. Modulated solar pressure-based surface shape control of paraboloid space reflectors with an off-axis Sun-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiafu; McInnes, Colin R.

    2018-03-01

    This paper considers utilizing solar radiation pressure (SRP) to actively control the surface shape of a reflector consisting of a rigid hoop and slack membrane with embedded reflectivity control devices. The full nonlinear static partial differential governing equations for a reflector with negligible elastic deformations are established for the circumferential, radial and transverse directions respectively, in which the SRP force with ideal/non-perfect models, the centripetal force caused by the rotation of the reflector and the internal stresses are considered. The inverse problem is then formulated by assuming that the required surface shape is known, and then the governing algebraic-differential equations used to determine the required surface reflectivity, together with the internal stresses where are presented accordingly. The validity of the approach is verified by comparing the results in this paper with corresponding published results as benchmarks. The feasible regions of the angular velocity and Sun angle for a paraboloidal reflector with an invariant radius and focal length (case 1), and the achievable focal lengths with a specific angular velocity and Sun angle (case 2) are presented for two SRP models respectively, both by considering the constraints on the reflectivity and internal stresses. It is then found that the feasible region is toward a larger angular velocity and Sun angle when using the non-perfect SRP model, compared with the ideal one in case 1. The angular velocity of the spinning reflector should be within a certain range to make the required reflectivity profiles within a practical range, i.e., [0, 0.88], as indicated from prior NASA solar sail studies. In case 2, it is found that the smallest achievable focal length of the reflector with the non-perfect SRP model is smaller than that with the ideal SRP model. It is also found that the stress level is extremely low for all cases considered and that the typical real material strength

  4. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO{sub 2} synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S., E-mail: drsomnathbiswas@gmail.com [The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur-302031 (India); Singh, G.P. [Centre for Nanotechnology, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835205 (India); Ram, S. [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Fecht, H.-J. [Insitut für Micro-und Nanomaterialien, Universität Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee-47, Ulm, D-89081, and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO{sub 2} (∼18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2–3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr{sup 4+} ions by Ag atoms on the CrO{sub 2} surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO{sub 2}-polymer complex with Ag{sup +} ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300–400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO{sub 2} such that it no longer converts to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO{sub 2} structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (−) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO{sub 2} powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime (<100 K) arises not only due to the suppressed spin flipping at low temperature but also from a spin dependent co-tunneling through an interlinked structure of silver and silver coated CrO{sub 2} nanorods. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structural studies of a novel GMR material of Ag coated CrO{sub 2}. • Tailoring useful GMR property in CrO{sub 2} nanorods of controlled shape and anisotropy. • Enhanced GMR is explained in correlation to the surface structure of CrO{sub 2} nanorods.

  5. Relaxation Pathways in Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    At temperatures below the glass transition temperature, physical properties of metallic glasses, such as density, viscosity, electrical resistivity or enthalpy, slowly evolve with time. This is the process of physical aging that occurs among all types of glasses and leads to structural changes at the microscopic level. Even though the relaxation pathways are ruled by thermodynamics as the glass attempts to re-attain thermodynamic equilibrium, they are steered by sluggish kinetics at the microscopic level. Understanding the structural and dynamic pathways of the relaxing glassy state is still one of the grand challenges in materials physics. We review some of the recent experimental advances made in understanding the nature of the relaxation phenomenon in metallic glasses and its implications to the macroscopic and microscopic properties changes of the relaxing glass.

  6. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  7. Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Nadine S; Urech, Corinne; Isabel, Fornaro; Meyer, Andrea; Hoesli, Irène; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith

    2011-02-01

    stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on the course of pregnancy and on fetal development. There are few studies investigating the outcome of stress reduction interventions on maternal well-being and obstetric outcome. this study aims (1) to obtain fetal behavioral states (quiet/active sleep, quiet/active wakefulness), (2) to investigate the effects of maternal relaxation on fetal behavior as well as on uterine activity, and (3) to investigate maternal physiological and endocrine parameters as potential underlying mechanisms for maternal-fetal relaxation-transferral. the behavior of 33 fetuses was analyzed during laboratory relaxation/quiet rest (control group, CG) and controlled for baseline fetal behavior. Potential associations between relaxation/quiet rest and fetal behavior (fetal heart rate (FHR), FHR variation, FHR acceleration, and body movements) and uterine activity were studied, using a computerized cardiotocogram (CTG) system. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and norepinephrine were measured. intervention (progressive muscle relaxation, PMR, and guided imagery, GI) showed changes in fetal behavior. The intervention groups had higher long-term variation during and after relaxation compared to the CG (p=.039). CG fetuses had more FHR acceleration, especially during and after quiet rest (p=.027). Women in the PMR group had significantly more uterine activity than women in the GI group (p=.011) and than CG women. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormones were not associated with fetal behavior. this study indicates that the fetus might participate in maternal relaxation and suggests that GI is superior to PMR. This could especially be true for women who tend to direct their attention to body sensations such as abdominal activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relaxation processes in Aeolian transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmani Houssem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate experimentally the relaxation process toward the equilibrium regime of saltation transport in the context of spatial inhomogeneous conditions. The relaxation length associated to this process is an important length in aeolian transport. This length stands for the distance needed for the particle flux to adapt to a change in flow conditions or in the boundary conditions at the bed. Predicting the value of this length under given conditions of transport remains an open and important issue. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to document the influence of the upstream particle flux and wind speed on the relaxation process toward the saturated transport state. In the absence of upstream particle flux, data show that the relaxation length is independent of the wind strength (except close to the threshold of transport. In contrast, in the case of a finite upstream flux, the relaxation length exhibits a clear increase with increasing air flow velocity. Moreover, in the latter the relaxation is clearly non-monotonic and presents an overshoot.

  9. [Areas of contact in human humero-ulnar joints as a function of pressure, their connection through subchondral mineralization and joint surface morphology of the incisura trochlearis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, F; Löhe, F; Steinlechner, M; Müller-Gerbl, M; Putz, R

    1993-12-01

    Evaluation of the stress distribution in joints can be obtained directly from contact areas and pressure forces, and also indirectly from the functional adaptation of the connective tissues. Therefore 8 human humero-ulnar joints, fixed in formalin, were examined for size and position of contact areas (polyether casting/Vidas image analyser) and their dependence upon the joint forces (Zwick material testing machine). The distribution of subchondral mineralisation was assessed, using CT osteoabsorptiometry. Depending on the joint force, the contact areas increase from about 10% of the total surface (20 N) to approximately 60% (1280 N). With weak forces they are localised ventrally and dorsally in the joint, with more powerful forces they run together centrally. With a divided articular surface they join at about 160-640 N, with a continuous surface, at about 40-80 N. Divided joint surfaces show a bicentric mineralisation pattern of the subchondral bone with ventral and dorsal maxima. Continuous surfaces, on the other hand, usually show central maxima. Both the mineralisation pattern and the position of the contact areas suggest a physiological incongruity of the humero-ulnar joint surfaces, which vanishes with increasing pressure due to viscoelastic deformation of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. More marked incongruity is postulated for the divided surfaces than for the others. The consequent peripheral transmission of pressure seems to involve a functional principle, which, present in several human joints, leads to both optimal distribution of the stress and better nutrition of the articular cartilage.

  10. A New Vogel-Like Law: Ionic Conductivity, Dielectric Relaxation and Viscosity Near the Glass Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bendler, John

    2001-01-01

    A model, based on defect diffusion, is developed that describes temperature and pressure dependence of dielectric relaxation, ionic conductivity and viscosity of glass-forming liquids near the glass...

  11. Influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechereau, François; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of an atmospheric pressure air discharge in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric layer parallel to the cathode plane. Experimentally, a discharge reignition in the air gap below the dielectrics has been observed. With a 2D fluid model, it is shown that due to the fast rise of the high voltage applied and the sharp point used, a first positive spherical discharge forms around the point. Then this discharge propagates axially and impacts the dielectrics. As the first discharge starts spreading on the upper dielectric surface, in the second air gap with a low preionization density of {{10}4}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , the 2D fluid model predicts a rapid reignition of a positive discharge. As in experiments, the discharge reignition is much slower, a discussion on physical processes to be considered in the model to increase the reignition delay is presented. The limit case with no initial seed charges in the second air gap has been studied. First, we have calculated the time to release an electron from the cathode surface by thermionic and field emission processes for a work function φ \\in ≤ft[3,4\\right] eV and an amplification factor β \\in ≤ft[100,220\\right] . Then a 3D Monte Carlo model has been used to follow the dynamics of formation of an avalanche starting from a single electron emitted at the cathode. Due to the high electric field in the second air gap, we have shown that in a few nanoseconds, a Gaussian cloud of seed charges is formed at a small distance from the cathode plane. This Gaussian cloud has been used as the initial condition of the 2D fluid model in the second air gap. In this case, the propagation of a double headed discharge in the second air gap has been observed and the reignition delay is in rather good agreement with experiments.

  12. Relaxation schem